WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology yielding high

  1. High-yield pulping effluent treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, W.X.; Hsieh, J.S.

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this report is to examine the high-yield (mechanical) pulp processes with respect to environmental issues affected by the discharge of their waste streams. Various statistics are given that support the view that high-yield pulping processes will have major growth in the US regions where pulp mills are located, and sites for projects in the development phase are indicated. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies applicable to these processes are reviewed. The different types of mechanical pulping or high-yield processes are explained, and the chemical additives are discussed. The important relationship between pulp yield and measure of BOD in the effluent is graphically presented. Effluent contaminants are identified, along with other important characteristics of the streams. Current and proposed environmental limitations specifically related to mechanical pulp production are reviewed. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies are discussed, along with their principle applications, uses, advantages, and disadvantages. Sludge management and disposal techniques become an intimate part of the treatment of waste streams. The conclusion is made that conventional technologies can successfully treat effluent streams under current waste-water discharge limitations, but these systems may not be adequate when stricter standards are imposed. At present, the most important issue in the treatment of pulp-mill waste is the management and disposal of the resultant sludge

  2. Development of High Yield Feedstocks and Biomass Conversion Technology for Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Andrew G. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Crow, Susan [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); DeBeryshe, Barbara [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ha, Richard [Hamakua Springs County Farms, Hilo, HI (United States); Jakeway, Lee [Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company, Puunene, HI (United States); Khanal, Samir [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Nakahata, Mae [Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company, Puunene, HI (United States); Ogoshi, Richard [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Shimizu, Erik [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Stern, Ivette [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Turano, Brian [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Turn, Scott [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Yanagida, John [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2015-04-09

    This project had two main goals. The first goal was to evaluate several high yielding tropical perennial grasses as feedstock for biofuel production, and to characterize the feedstock for compatible biofuel production systems. The second goal was to assess the integration of renewable energy systems for Hawaii. The project focused on high-yield grasses (napiergrass, energycane, sweet sorghum, and sugarcane). Field plots were established to evaluate the effects of elevation (30, 300 and 900 meters above sea level) and irrigation (50%, 75% and 100% of sugarcane plantation practice) on energy crop yields and input. The test plots were extensive monitored including: hydrologic studies to measure crop water use and losses through seepage and evapotranspiration; changes in soil carbon stock; greenhouse gas flux (CO2, CH4, and N2O) from the soil surface; and root morphology, biomass, and turnover. Results showed significant effects of environment on crop yields. In general, crop yields decrease as the elevation increased, being more pronounced for sweet sorghum and energycane than napiergrass. Also energy crop yields were higher with increased irrigation levels, being most pronounced with energycane and less so with sweet sorghum. Daylight length greatly affected sweet sorghum growth and yields. One of the energy crops (napiergrass) was harvested at different ages (2, 4, 6, and 8 months) to assess the changes in feedstock characteristics with age and potential to generate co-products. Although there was greater potential for co-products from younger feedstock, the increased production was not sufficient to offset the additional cost of harvesting multiple times per year. The feedstocks were also characterized to assess their compatibility with biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes. The project objectives are being continued through additional support from the Office of Naval Research, and the Biomass Research and Development

  3. International energy technology collaboration and climate change mitigation. Case study 2. Cooperation in Agriculture. R and D on High-Yielding Crop Varieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon-Lebrun, F. [Global and Structural Policies Division, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD, Paris (France)

    2004-07-01

    international collaboration by describing the globalisation of the economy and current efforts of technology collaboration and transfer. Finally, it considers various ways to strengthen international energy technology collaboration. This paper is one of six case-studies designed in an effort to provide practical insights on the role international technology collaboration could play to achieve the objectives of the UNFCCC. They will all consider the past achievements of international technology collaboration, and the role it could play in helping to develop and disseminate new technologies in the future: what worked, what did not work and why, and what lessons might be drawn from past experiences. Most case studies consider energy technologies that could help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. A few others consider areas not directly related to greenhouse gas emissions but where international technology collaboration has proven particularly successful in the past. This case study's aim is to review experience in international collaboration in the field of agriculture research and development (R and D) in order to identify lessons that may be relevant for climate-friendly technology collaboration. To this end, it traces the role of international collaboration in researching, developing and diffusing seeds of high-yielding varieties (HYV) to the world's farmers. This is done by looking mainly at the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). The main question this paper addresses is: What are the lessons learned from international collaboration in the field of agriculture that could inform collaboration for climate-friendly technology?.

  4. Technological yields of sources for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1993-01-01

    The present report is prepared for planners of radiation processing of any material. Calculations are focused on accelerators of electrons, divided into two groups: versatile linacs of energy up to 13 MeV, and accelerators of lower energy, below 2 MeV, of better energy yield but of limited applications. The calculations are connected with the confrontation of the author's technological expectations during the preparation of the linac project in the late '60s, with the results of 25 years of exploitation of the machine. One has to realize that from the 200 kW input power from the mains, only 5 kW of bent and scanned beam is recovered on the conveyor. That power is only partially used for radiation induced phenomena, because of the demanded homogeneity of the dose, of the mode of packing of the object and its shape, of edges of the scanned area and in the spaces between boxes, and of loses during the idle time due to the tuning of the machine and dosimetric operations. The use of lower energy accelerators may be more economical than that of linacs in case of objects of specific type. At the first stage already, that is of the conversion of electrical power into that of low energy electron beam, the yield is 2-3 times better than in the case of linacs. Attention has been paid to the technological aspects of electron beam conversion into the more penetrating Bremsstrahlung similar to gamma radiation. The advantages of technologies, which make possible a control of the shape of the processed object are stressed. Special attention is focused to the relation between the yield of processing and the ratio between the maximum to the minimum dose in the object under the irradiation. (author). 14 refs, 14 figs

  5. Whey cheese: membrane technology to increase yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Francisco; González, Pablo; Muro, Claudia

    2016-02-01

    Sweet cheese whey has been used to obtain whey cheese without the addition of milk. Pre-treated whey was concentrated by nanofiltration (NF) at different concentration ratios (2, 2.5 and 2.8) or by reverse osmosis (RO) (2-3 times). After the concentration, whey was acidified with lactic acid until a final pH of 4.6-4.8, and heated to temperatures between 85 and 90 °C. The coagulated fraction (supernatant) was collected and freely drained over 4 h. The cheese-whey yield and protein, fat, lactose and ash recoveries in the final product were calculated. The membrane pre-concentration step caused an increase in the whey-cheese yield. The final composition of products was compared with traditional cheese-whey manufacture products (without membrane concentration). Final cheese yields found were to be between 5 and 19.6%, which are higher than those achieved using the traditional 'Requesón' process.

  6. High yield fabrication of fluorescent nanodiamonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudou, Jean-Paul; Curmi, Patrick A [Structure and Activity of Normal and Pathological Biomolecules-INSERM/UEVE U829, Universite d' Evry-Val d' Essonne, Batiment Maupertuis, Rue du pere Andre Jarlan, F-91025 Evry (France); Jelezko, Fedor; Wrachtrup, Joerg; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrischnan; Reuter, Rolf [3.Physikalisches Institut, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Aubert, Pascal [Nanometric Media Laboratory, Universite d' Evry-Val d' Essonne, Batiment Maupertuis, Rue du pere Andre Jarlan, F-91025 Evry (France); Sennour, Mohamed; Thorel, Alain [Centre des Materiaux, Mines Paris, ParisTech, BP 87, F-91000 Evry (France); Gaffet, Eric [Nanomaterials Research Group-UMR 5060, CNRS, UTBM, Site de Sevenans, F-90010 Belfort (France)], E-mail: jpb.cnrs@free.fr, E-mail: pcurmi@univ-evry.fr, E-mail: f.jelezko@physik.uni-stuttgart.de

    2009-06-10

    A new fabrication method to produce homogeneously fluorescent nanodiamonds with high yields is described. The powder obtained by high energy ball milling of fluorescent high pressure, high temperature diamond microcrystals was converted in a pure concentrated aqueous colloidal dispersion of highly crystalline ultrasmall nanoparticles with a mean size less than or equal to 10 nm. The whole fabrication yield of colloidal quasi-spherical nanodiamonds was several orders of magnitude higher than those previously reported starting from microdiamonds. The results open up avenues for the industrial cost-effective production of fluorescent nanodiamonds with well-controlled properties.

  7. High yield fabrication of fluorescent nanodiamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudou, Jean-Paul; Curmi, Patrick A; Jelezko, Fedor; Wrachtrup, Joerg; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrischnan; Reuter, Rolf; Aubert, Pascal; Sennour, Mohamed; Thorel, Alain; Gaffet, Eric

    2009-01-01

    A new fabrication method to produce homogeneously fluorescent nanodiamonds with high yields is described. The powder obtained by high energy ball milling of fluorescent high pressure, high temperature diamond microcrystals was converted in a pure concentrated aqueous colloidal dispersion of highly crystalline ultrasmall nanoparticles with a mean size less than or equal to 10 nm. The whole fabrication yield of colloidal quasi-spherical nanodiamonds was several orders of magnitude higher than those previously reported starting from microdiamonds. The results open up avenues for the industrial cost-effective production of fluorescent nanodiamonds with well-controlled properties.

  8. High Density Linkage Map Construction and Mapping of Yield Trait QTLs in Maize (Zea mays) Using the Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS) Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chengfu; Wang, Wei; Gong, Shunliang; Zuo, Jinghui; Li, Shujiang; Xu, Shizhong

    2017-01-01

    Increasing grain yield is the ultimate goal for maize breeding. High resolution quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping can help us understand the molecular basis of phenotypic variation of yield and thus facilitate marker assisted breeding. The aim of this study is to use genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) for large-scale SNP discovery and simultaneous genotyping of all F2 individuals from a cross between two varieties of maize that are in clear contrast in yield and related traits. A set of 199 F2 progeny derived from the cross of varieties SG-5 and SG-7 were generated and genotyped by GBS. A total of 1,046,524,604 reads with an average of 5,258,918 reads per F2 individual were generated. This number of reads represents an approximately 0.36-fold coverage of the maize reference genome Zea_mays.AGPv3.29 for each F2 individual. A total of 68,882 raw SNPs were discovered in the F2 population, which, after stringent filtering, led to a total of 29,927 high quality SNPs. Comparative analysis using these physically mapped marker loci revealed a higher degree of synteny with the reference genome. The SNP genotype data were utilized to construct an intra-specific genetic linkage map of maize consisting of 3,305 bins on 10 linkage groups spanning 2,236.66 cM at an average distance of 0.68 cM between consecutive markers. From this map, we identified 28 QTLs associated with yield traits (100-kernel weight, ear length, ear diameter, cob diameter, kernel row number, corn grains per row, ear weight, and grain weight per plant) using the composite interval mapping (CIM) method and 29 QTLs using the least absolute shrinkage selection operator (LASSO) method. QTLs identified by the CIM method account for 6.4% to 19.7% of the phenotypic variation. Small intervals of three QTLs (qCGR-1, qKW-2, and qGWP-4) contain several genes, including one gene (GRMZM2G139872) encoding the F-box protein, three genes (GRMZM2G180811, GRMZM5G828139, and GRMZM5G873194) encoding the WD40-repeat protein, and

  9. High Density Linkage Map Construction and Mapping of Yield Trait QTLs in Maize (Zea mays) Using the Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS) Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chengfu; Wang, Wei; Gong, Shunliang; Zuo, Jinghui; Li, Shujiang; Xu, Shizhong

    2017-01-01

    Increasing grain yield is the ultimate goal for maize breeding. High resolution quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping can help us understand the molecular basis of phenotypic variation of yield and thus facilitate marker assisted breeding. The aim of this study is to use genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) for large-scale SNP discovery and simultaneous genotyping of all F 2 individuals from a cross between two varieties of maize that are in clear contrast in yield and related traits. A set of 199 F 2 progeny derived from the cross of varieties SG-5 and SG-7 were generated and genotyped by GBS. A total of 1,046,524,604 reads with an average of 5,258,918 reads per F 2 individual were generated. This number of reads represents an approximately 0.36-fold coverage of the maize reference genome Zea_mays.AGPv3.29 for each F 2 individual. A total of 68,882 raw SNPs were discovered in the F 2 population, which, after stringent filtering, led to a total of 29,927 high quality SNPs. Comparative analysis using these physically mapped marker loci revealed a higher degree of synteny with the reference genome. The SNP genotype data were utilized to construct an intra-specific genetic linkage map of maize consisting of 3,305 bins on 10 linkage groups spanning 2,236.66 cM at an average distance of 0.68 cM between consecutive markers. From this map, we identified 28 QTLs associated with yield traits (100-kernel weight, ear length, ear diameter, cob diameter, kernel row number, corn grains per row, ear weight, and grain weight per plant) using the composite interval mapping (CIM) method and 29 QTLs using the least absolute shrinkage selection operator (LASSO) method. QTLs identified by the CIM method account for 6.4% to 19.7% of the phenotypic variation. Small intervals of three QTLs ( qCGR-1, qKW-2 , and qGWP-4 ) contain several genes, including one gene (GRMZM2G139872) encoding the F-box protein, three genes (GRMZM2G180811, GRMZM5G828139, and GRMZM5G873194) encoding the WD40-repeat

  10. High Density Linkage Map Construction and Mapping of Yield Trait QTLs in Maize (Zea mays Using the Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengfu Su

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing grain yield is the ultimate goal for maize breeding. High resolution quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping can help us understand the molecular basis of phenotypic variation of yield and thus facilitate marker assisted breeding. The aim of this study is to use genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS for large-scale SNP discovery and simultaneous genotyping of all F2 individuals from a cross between two varieties of maize that are in clear contrast in yield and related traits. A set of 199 F2 progeny derived from the cross of varieties SG-5 and SG-7 were generated and genotyped by GBS. A total of 1,046,524,604 reads with an average of 5,258,918 reads per F2 individual were generated. This number of reads represents an approximately 0.36-fold coverage of the maize reference genome Zea_mays.AGPv3.29 for each F2 individual. A total of 68,882 raw SNPs were discovered in the F2 population, which, after stringent filtering, led to a total of 29,927 high quality SNPs. Comparative analysis using these physically mapped marker loci revealed a higher degree of synteny with the reference genome. The SNP genotype data were utilized to construct an intra-specific genetic linkage map of maize consisting of 3,305 bins on 10 linkage groups spanning 2,236.66 cM at an average distance of 0.68 cM between consecutive markers. From this map, we identified 28 QTLs associated with yield traits (100-kernel weight, ear length, ear diameter, cob diameter, kernel row number, corn grains per row, ear weight, and grain weight per plant using the composite interval mapping (CIM method and 29 QTLs using the least absolute shrinkage selection operator (LASSO method. QTLs identified by the CIM method account for 6.4% to 19.7% of the phenotypic variation. Small intervals of three QTLs (qCGR-1, qKW-2, and qGWP-4 contain several genes, including one gene (GRMZM2G139872 encoding the F-box protein, three genes (GRMZM2G180811, GRMZM5G828139, and GRMZM5G873194 encoding the WD40-repeat

  11. Development of high yielding mutants in lentil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, M.A.; Sarwar, G.; Siddiqui, K.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) locally known as Masoor, is the second most important rabi pulse crop, after chickpea, in Pakistan. It is cultivated on an area of over 63,400 ha, which constitutes about 4.83% of the total area under pulses. The annual production of the crop is 28,200 tones with an average yield of 445 kg/ha. Yield at the national level is very low, about one-half of the world's yield, which is mainly due to non-availability of high yield potential genotypes. Keeping in view the importance of mutants in developing a large number of new varieties, an induced mutations programme was initiated at AEARC, Tandojam during 1987-88, to develop high yielding varieties in lentil. For this, seeds of two lentil varieties, 'Masoor-85' and 'ICARDA-8' had been irradiated with gamma-rays ranging from 100-600 Gy in NIAB, Faisalabad during 1990. Selections were made in M2 on the basis of earliness, plant height, branches/plant and 100 grain weight. After confirming these mutants in M3 they were promoted in station yield trials and studied continuously for three consecutive years (1993- 1995). Overall results revealed that these mutants have consistent improvement of earliness in flowering and maturity. Plant height also increased in all mutant lines except AEL 23/40/91 where reduction in this attribute was observed as compared to parent variety. Mutant lines AEL 49/20/91 and AEL 13/30/91 showed improvement in 100 grain weight. The improvement of some agronomic characters enhanced the yield of mutant lines in comparison to parent varieties (Masoor-85 and ICARDA-8). The diversity in yield over the respective parents was computed from 6.94 to 60.12%. From these encouraging results it is hoped that mutant lines like AEL 12/30/91 and AEL 49/20/91 may serve as potential lentil genotypes in future. (author)

  12. Yield trend estimation in the presence of non-constant technological change and weather effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conradt, S.; Bokusheva, R.; Finger, R.; Kussaiynov, T.

    2012-01-01

    The application of yield time series in risk analysis prerequisites the estimation of technological trend which might be present in the data. In this paper, we show that in presence of highly volatile yield time series and non-constant technology, the consideration of the weather effect in the trend

  13. Methods for high yield production of terpenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutchan, Toni; Higashi, Yasuhiro; Feng, Xiaohong

    2017-01-03

    Provided are enhanced high yield production systems for producing terpenes in plants via the expression of fusion proteins comprising various combinations of geranyl diphosphate synthase large and small subunits and limonene synthases. Also provided are engineered oilseed plants that accumulate monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in their seeds, as well as methods for producing such plants, providing a system for rapidly engineering oilseed crop production platforms for terpene-based biofuels.

  14. Physics and high technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Liqin; Ma Junru.

    1992-01-01

    At present, the development of high technology has opened a new chapter in world's history of science and technology. This review describes the great impact of physics on high technology in six different fields (energy technology, new materials, information technology, biotechnology, space technology, and Ocean technology). It is shown that the new concepts and new methods created in physics and the special conditions and measurements established for physics researches not only deepen human's knowledge about nature but also point out new directions for engineering and technology. The achievements in physics have been more and more applied to high technology, while the development of high technology has explored some new research areas and raised many novel, important projects for physics. Therefore, it is important for us to strengthen the research on these major problems in physics

  15. Global Crop Yields, Climatic Trends and Technology Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, E.; Devineni, N.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Kogan, F.

    2016-12-01

    During the last decades the global agricultural production has soared up and technology enhancement is still making positive contribution to yield growth. However, continuing population, water crisis, deforestation and climate change threaten the global food security. Attempts to predict food availability in the future around the world can be partly understood from the impact of changes to date. A new multilevel model for yield prediction at the country scale using climate covariates and technology trend is presented in this paper. The structural relationships between average yield and climate attributes as well as trends are estimated simultaneously. All countries are modeled in a single multilevel model with partial pooling and/or clustering to automatically group and reduce estimation uncertainties. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), Geopotential height (GPH), historical CO2 level and time-trend as a relatively reliable approximation of technology measurement are used as predictors to estimate annual agricultural crop yields for each country from 1961 to 2007. Results show that these indicators can explain the variability in historical crop yields for most of the countries and the model performs well under out-of-sample verifications.

  16. Mapping Crop Yield and Sow Date Using High Resolution Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, K.

    2015-12-01

    Keitasha Royal, Meha Jain, Ph.D., David Lobell, Ph.D Mapping Crop Yield and Sow Date Using High Resolution ImageryThe use of satellite imagery in agriculture is becoming increasingly more significant and valuable. Due to the emergence of new satellites, such as Skybox, these satellites provide higher resolution imagery (e.g 1m) therefore improving the ability to map smallholder agriculture. For the smallholder farm dominated area of northern India, Skybox high-resolution satellite imagery can aid in understanding how to improve farm yields. In particular, we are interested in mapping winter wheat in India, as this region produces approximately 80% of the country's wheat crop, which is important given that wheat is a staple crop that provides approximately 20% of household calories. In northeast India, the combination of increased heat stress, limited irrigation access, and the difficulty for farmers to access advanced farming technologies results in farmers only producing about 50% of their potential crop yield. The use of satellite imagery can aid in understanding wheat yields through time and help identify ways to increase crop yields in the wheat belt of India. To translate Skybox satellite data into meaningful information about wheat fields, we examine vegetation indices, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), to measure the "greenness" of plants to help determine the health of the crops. We test our ability to predict crop characteristics, like sow date and yield, using vegetation indices of 59 fields for which we have field data in Bihar, India.

  17. Nuclear propulsion in high yield vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergara Aimone, Julio

    2000-01-01

    Current developments in advanced ship design brings high-speed maritime transportation closer to reality, aiming to create new markets and to recover a fraction of the high value goods now shipped only by air. High-speed transport is growing at a rate of 15% per year, higher than air transport and at a fraction of air tariffs. Although such growth rate is restricted to passengers and automobiles, there is a potential for high-speed cargo in some routes. A recent proposal is Fast Ship, a 260 m long, 40 m wide concept designed to cruise from Philadelphia to Cherbourg in less that 4 days, for a door-to-door timely cargo delivery of 7 days, thanks to an advanced hull design, and a high power propulsion plant to compensate for weather-related delays. However, almost 40% of the total operation cost would be fuel. This appears to be a natural application for nuclear power, in a similar way to the golden age of this technology. A nuclear Fast Ship would save almost 5000 tons of a fuel per trip, and about half of such spare might be available for additional cargo. Furthermore, operation costs would be smaller and very stable to resource price fluctuation, plus a few other advantages. For other ocean markets, such as the Asia-America route, nuclear power would become a much better choice. This paper discusses the reactor type and layout suitable for such application. The ship designer is aware of the current proposal, although the power pack is not readily available today and its political aspects have not been dealt with. The economy of our nation relies on exports and almost 90% of such flow goes by sea. It is also possible that in the future, Mercosur might have a dependency on such high-speed transport mode and propulsion system (au)

  18. Zero tillage: A potential technology to improve cotton yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Hafiz Ghazanfar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zero tillage technology revealed with no use of any soil inverting technique to grow crops. The crop plant seed is planted in the soil directly after irrigation to make the soil soft without any replenishing in soil layers. A study was conducted to evaluate cotton genotypes FH-114 and FH-142 for the consecutive three years of growing seasons from 2013-15. The seed of both genotypes was sown with two date of sowing, 1 March and 1 May of each three years of sowing under three tillage treatments (zero tillage, minimum tillage and conventional tillage in triplicate completely randomized split-split plot design. It was found from results that significant differences were recorded for tillage treatments, date of sowing, genotypes and their interactions. Multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the yield and it attributed traits for potential of FH-114 and FH-142 cotton genotypes. The genotype FH-142 was found with higher and batter performance as compared to FH-114 under zero tillage, minimum tillage and conventional tillage techniques. The traits bolls per plant, boll weight, fibre fineness, fibre strength, plant height, cotton yield per plant and sympodial branches per plant were found as most contributing traits towards cotton yield and production. It was also found that FH-142 gives higher output in terms of economic gain under zero tillage with 54% increase as compared to conventional tillage technique. It was suggested that zero tillage technology should be adopted to improve cotton yield and quality. It was also recommended that further study to evaluate zero tillage as potential technology should be performed with different regions, climate and timing throughout the world.

  19. A high yielding, better quality chickpea mutant variety 'NIFA-95'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, S.; Javed, M.A.; Khattak, S.U.K.; Iqbal, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Chickpea or gram (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important legume crop of Pakistan, grown on over one million hectares annually. The national average yield of the crop is very low (0.5 t/ha) and thus the country had to spent about 2 billion rupees ($ 50 million) on import of pulses. The main causes of low yield are non-availability of genetic sources for resistance to various diseases especially gram blight Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Lab., insect pest (Pod borer) and non-adoption of proper production technology by the farmers. This calls for earnest efforts of breeders to evolve high yielding and disease resistant varieties of chickpea for provision of quality seeds to the farming community to increase production of this important crop. Seeds of a highly blight susceptible variety '6153' were irradiated at 200 Gy dose of gamma radiation in 1985 and the promising mutant line CMN-446-4 was selected in M3 generation on the basis of disease resistance, greater number of pods and better plant type. After confirmation of its resistance to blight in M 4 and M 5 , the mutant line was evaluated in various trials at different locations. In the advanced and zonal yield trials during 1993-95, the line CMN-446-4 produced the highest grain yield of 2,600 kg/ha as compared to the rest of the mutants and varieties. The line was also evaluated in the chickpea national uniform yield trial, conducted on over 11 locations in the country during 1993-94. In this trial, the mutant line ranked 3rd by producing an average yield of 1,528 kg/ha as compared to the two check varieties 'Punjab-91' (1,316 kg/ha) and 'Paidar-91' (1,391 kg/ha). The mutant line CMN-446-4 is moderately resistant to gram blight, highly resistant to stored pest (pulse beetle), contains 25.3% more protein as compared to the parental variety 6153 and is also better in nitrogen fixing capacity.The proposal for release of the mutant line CMN-446-4 as a new variety under the name 'NIFA-95' for general cultivation in the rainfed

  20. Analysis of yield-attributing traits for high-yielding wheat lines in southwestern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori Okami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Development of wheat cultivars that achieve high yields despite the short growing season is essential for increasing wheat production in southwestern Japan. The objectives of this study were to assess the genetic progress in grain yield and to clarify yield-attributing traits of high-yielding wheat lines in southwestern Japan. We conducted field experiments for two growing seasons (2012–2013 and 2013–2014 using three commercial wheat cultivars (Shiroganekomugi, Chikugoizumi, and Iwainodaichi and four high-yielding wheat lines including Hakei W1380 developed in southwestern Japan. In an ancillary field experiment, we compared a commercial cultivar, Shiroganekomugi, and a high-yielding line, Hakei W1380, in the 2014–2015 season. Across the two seasons, grain yield of high-yielding lines was generally higher than commercial cultivars. Hakei W1380 achieved the highest grain yield across the two seasons, and successfully produced more than 900 g m−2 in the 2013–2014 season. Correlation analysis showed that recent yield progress of wheat lines in southwestern Japan was derived from enhanced biomass production and grain number m−2. Larger numbers of grains m−2 in high-yielding lines than in commercial cultivars were associated with higher crop growth rate at the pre-anthesis stage, and therefore higher spike dry weight m−2 at anthesis. Genotypic differences in crop growth rate from jointing to anthesis resulted mainly from differences in leaf area index. These results indicate that further improvements in grain yield in southwestern Japan could be achieved by increasing the amount of radiation intercepted at the pre-anthesis stage and grain number m−2.

  1. Fission Fragment Yield Data in Support of Advanced Reactor Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, Adam [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-21

    Within the 3 year POP we propose to continue to test and further develop the fission spectrometers, to do development tests and full data acquisition run at the national laboratory neutron beam facilities, to measure correlated fission fragment yields at low neutron energies with 235 U fission targets, and make these data available to the nuclear community. The spectrometer development will be both on the university based r\\prototype and on the National Laboratory Spectrometer, and measurements will be performed with both. Over the longer time frame of the collaboration, we will take data over a range of low energies, and use other fission targets available to the laboratory. We will gather energy specific fragment distributions and reaction cross sections. We will further develop the data acquisition capabilities to take correlated fission fragment'gamma ray/neurton data, all on an event-by-event basis. This really is an enabling technology.

  2. Willow yield is highly dependent on clone and site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugilt Larsen, Søren; Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2014-01-01

    Use of high-yielding genotypes is one of the means to achieve high yield and profitability in willow (Salix spp.) short rotation coppice. This study investigated the performance of eight willow clones (Inger, Klara, Linnea, Resolution, Stina, Terra Nova, Tora, Tordis) on five Danish sites......, differing considerably in soil type, climatic conditions and management. Compared to the best clone, the yield was up to 36 % lower for other clones across sites and up to 51 % lower within sites. Tordis was superior to other clones with dry matter yields between 5.2 and 10.2 Mg ha−1 year−1 during the first...... 3-year harvest rotation, and it consistently ranked as the highest yielding clone on four of the five sites and not significantly lower than the highest yielding clone on the fifth site. The ranking of the other clones was more dependent on site with significant interaction between clone and site...

  3. Automated yield forecasting in a high product mix ASIC facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Duane; Giewont, Mark; Hanson, Jeff; Shen, Jun

    2005-05-01

    Yield forecasting is a key component in running a successful semiconductor fab. It is also a significant challenge for facilities such as ASIC houses, which fabricate a wide range of devices using multiple technologies. Yield forecasting takes on increased significance in these environments, with new products introduced frequently and many products running only in small numbers. An accurate yield prediction system can greatly accelerate the process of identifying design bugs, test program issues and process integration problems. To this end, we have constructed a forecasting model geared for our ASIC manufacturing line. The model will accommodate an arbitrary number of design and/or process elements, each with an associated defectivity term. In addition, we have automated the generation of the yield forecast through passively linking to the already existing EDA design tools and scripts used by LSI Logic. Once the model is constructed, an automated query engine can extract the design and process parameters for any requested device, insert the data into the forecasting model, and deliver the resulting yield prediction. The actual yield for any lot or group of lots may thus be compared to the forecast, greatly assisting yield enhancement activities. This is especially useful for prototype lots and low-volume devices, for which it eliminates a great deal of manual computation and searching of design files. Using the model in conjunction with the query engine, any deviations from expected yield performance are generated automatically, quickly and efficiently highlighting opportunities for improvement.

  4. High yielding mutants of blackgram variety 'PH-25'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, R.C.; Mohapatra, B.D.; Panda, B.S.

    2001-01-01

    Seeds of blackgram (Vigna mungo L.) variety 'PH-5' were treated with chemical mutagens ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), nitrosoguanidine (NG), maleic hydrazide (MH) and sodium azide (NaN 3 ), each at 3 different concentrations. Thirty six mutant lines developed from mutagenic treatments along with parent varieties were tested in M 4 generation. The mutants showed wide variation in most of the traits and multivariante D 2 analysis showed genetic divergence among themselves. Twenty of the thirty mutants showed genetic divergence from parent. Ten selected high yielding mutants were tested in M 5 . Yield and other productive traits of five high yielding mutants in M 4 and M 5 are presented

  5. Nutrient Uptake by High-Yielding Cotton Crop in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luís Vilela Vieira

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Determining nutrient uptake and accumulation rates by cotton crops is important to define management strategies, especially for transgenic varieties, which are cultivated using high-technology approaches that require substantial investment to maximize yield. Currently in Brazil, the states of Bahia and Mato Grosso are responsible for 84.4 % of the total cotton growing area. In the present study, two trials were conducted in 2013, one that involved planting FM 940 GLT, FM 980 GLT, and FM 913 GLT varieties in the state of Bahia and the other which involved FM 940 GLT and FM 980 GLT varieties in the state of Mato Grosso. The aim of the two trials was to represent the two regions that currently encompass the largest areas of cotton cultivation. Tissue samples, consisting of leaves, stems, and reproductive components, were collected eleven times during the crop cycle for determination of nutrient content and shoot dry matter. After weighing, plant tissue samples were dried and ground to determine nutrient contents. Because there were no overall differences in nutrient contents and biomass accumulation of the varieties during the crop cycle, we undertook joint analysis of the data from all varieties at each site. Favorable climatic conditions in Bahia promoted plant biomass production that was twice as much as plants grown in Mato Grosso, with cotton yields of 6.2 and 3.8 t ha−1 of lint and seed, respectively. The maximum nutrient accumulation occurred between 137-150 days after emergence (DAE for N; 143-148 for P; 172-185 for K; 100 for Ca; 144-149 for Mg; and 153-158 for S. Maximum uptake ranged from 218-362 kg ha−1 N; 26-53 kg ha−1 P; 233-506 kg ha−1 K; 91-202 kg ha−1 Ca; 28-44 kg ha−1 Mg; and 19-61 kg ha−1 S. On average, the sites revealed nutrient export of 14, 2, 23, 3, 2, and 2 kg t−1 of lint and seed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S, respectively, with little variation among sites. Extraction of nutrients per area by cotton

  6. [Study on High-yield Cultivation Measures for Arctii Fructus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi-yong; Jiang, Xiao-bo; Wang, Tao; Sun, Ji-ye; Hu, Shang-qin; Zhang, Li

    2015-02-01

    To find out the high yield cultivation measures for Arctii Fructus. Completely randomized block experiment design method was used in the field planting, to analyze the effect of different cultivation way on agronomic characters, phenological phase,quality and quantity of Arctii Fructus. Arctium lappa planted on August 28 had the best results of plant height, thousand seeds weight and yield. The highest yield of Arctii Fructus was got at the density of 1,482 plants/667 m2. Arctiin content was in an increase trend with the planting time delay and planting density increasing. The plant height, thousand seeds weight, yield and arctiin content by split application of fertilizer were significantly higher than that by one-time fertilization. Compared with open field Arctium lappa, plant height, yield, arctiin content and relative water content of plastic film mulching Arctium lappa was higher by 7.74%, 10.87%, 6.38% and 24.20%, respectively. In the topping Arctium lappa, the yield was increased by 11.09%, with 39. 89% less branching number. Early planting time and topping shortened the growth cycle of Arctium lappa plant. The high-yield cultivation measures of Arctii Fructus are: around August 28 to sowing, planting density of 1 482 plants/667 m2, split application of fertilizer for four times, covering film on surface of the soil and topping in bolting.

  7. Mutation breeding of Bacillus subtilis YTB4 with high yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR TONUKARI NYEROVWO

    2012-07-17

    Jul 17, 2012 ... Helium-neon (He-Ne) laser irradiation is a highly efficient mutation breeding technology and is widely applied to various fields of biological science. Using Bacillus subtilis YTB4 with high yield of multienzyme complex as original strain, mutation breeding was carried out by He-Ne laser irradiation in.

  8. Mutation breeding of Bacillus subtilis YTB4 with high yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helium-neon (He-Ne) laser irradiation is a highly efficient mutation breeding technology and is widely applied to various fields of biological science. Using Bacillus subtilis YTB4 with high yield of multienzyme complex as original strain, mutation breeding was carried out by He-Ne laser irradiation in this study. Based on the ...

  9. BRS Pampeira: new irrigated rice cultivar with high yield potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariano Martins de Magalhães Júnior

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BRS Pampeira is a rice cultivar developed by Embrapa, recommended for irrigated cultivation in Brazil. It shows modern architecture, with high tillering and tolerance to lodging. It stands out for its high yield potential, medium cycle and good grain quality.

  10. The Radioactive Waste Management course: 14 High-yield editions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, A.; Gallego, E.; Marco, M. L.; Falcon, S.

    2003-07-01

    The doctorate course on Radioactive Waste Management was initiated in February 1988, by initiative of the Chair of Nuclear Technology, under the sponsoring of the national radioactive waste management company (ENRESA), in a fruitful collaboration between the Institute Artigas of the Technical School of Industrial Engineering and the Institute of Formation on Energy of the research centre CIEMAT. The course is also offered as a post-graduate through both institutes. After completion of fourteen consecutive editions in 2002, the course constituted a landmark in the field of nuclear education in Spain. The last edition offered, along 35 lessons published in two books, the general aspects of generation, treatment and conditioning of radioactive wastes, the basic Safety and Radiological Protection criteria, the detailed technical questions of the management of both low-intermediate.activity and the high-activity level, together with the wastes generated during decommissioning and dismantling of installations, as well as the general and institutional aspects. Experts in each field, belonging either to ENRESA, CIEMAT, the Nuclear Safety Council, the UPM and the industry, present such wide programme. A technical visit to the low and intermediate radioactive waste repository of El Cabril was also offered to the participants as part of the course, as in previous years the visit to the dismantling workers of Vandellos I NPP. More than 500 engineers and graduates in different science branches have participated in the course along 14 years, with both students and professionals belonging to ENRESA, the Nuclear Safety Council, CIEMAT and other research centers, hospitals, civil protection at different levels, service and engineering companies related with the radioactive waste management. Altogether, it is possible to say, as the title is expressed, that the course has given in these 14 years a high-production yield. (Author)

  11. Nonstop Selection for High and Stable Crop Yield by Two Prognostic Equations to Reduce Yield Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionysia A. Fasoula

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Yield losses occurring at the field level, whether due to plant diseases or abiotic stresses, reveal reduced stability of the crop yield potential. The paper argues that the stability of crop yield potential is a trait with a clear genetic component, which can be successfully selected for at the single-plant level and incorporated into high-yielding cultivars. Two novel selection equations with prognostic power are presented, capable to objectively phenotype and evaluate individual plants in real field conditions in the absence of the masking effects of interplant competition and soil heterogeneity. The equations predict performance at the crop stand through the key concept of coefficient of homeostasis and are equally useful for early generation selection and for nonstop selection within finished cultivars in order to continuously incorporate the adaptive (genetic or epigenetic responses of plants. Exploitation of adaptive responses acquires particular importance in view of the climate change effects on crop productivity and the changing biotic or abiotic micro-environments. Cotton is used as a case study to highlight the potential of nonstop selection for increasing crop yield and for the gradual build-up of disease resistance. In addition, the paper envisions and proposes the formation of international networks of researchers focusing on specific diseases as, for example, the cereal root-rot or the cotton Verticillium wilt that will concurrently use the proposed strategy in their respective environments to select for resistant genotypes, while gaining a deeper understanding of the nature of the genetic or epigenetic changes at the phenotypic and genomic levels.

  12. High yielding synthesis of N-ethyl dehydroamino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Luís S; Suárez, Ana S

    2012-10-01

    Recently we reported the use of a sequence of alkylation and dehydration methodologies to obtain N-ethyl-α, β-dehydroamino acid derivatives. The application of this N-alkylation procedure to several methyl esters of β,β-dibromo and β-bromo, β-substituted dehydroamino acids protected with standard amine protecting groups was subsequently reported. The corresponding N-ethyl, β-bromo dehydroamino acid derivatives were obtained in fair to high yields and some were used as substrates in Suzuki cross-coupling reactions to give N-ethyl, β,β-disubstituted dehydroalanine derivatives. Herein, we further explore N-ethylation of β-halo dehydroamino acid derivatives using triethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate as alkylating agent, but substituting N,N-diisopropylethylamine for potassium tert-butoxide as auxiliary base. In these conditions, for all β-halo dehydroamino acid derivatives, reactions were complete and the N-ethylated derivative could be isolated in high yield. This method was also applied for N-ethylation of non-halogenated dehydroamino acids. Again, with all compounds the reactions were complete and the N-ethyl dehydroamino acid derivatives could be isolated in high yields. Some of these N-ethyl dehydroamino acid methyl ester derivatives were converted in high yields to their corresponding acids and coupled to an amino acid methyl ester to give N-ethyl dehydrodipeptide derivatives in good yields. Thus, this method constitutes a general procedure for high yielding synthesis of N-ethylated dehydroamino acids, which can be further applied in peptide synthesis.

  13. Neutron emission and fragment yield in high-energy fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grudzevich, O. T.; Klinov, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    The KRIS special library of spectra and emission probabilities in the decays of 1500 nuclei excited up to energies between 150 and 250 MeV was developed for correctly taking into account the decay of highly excited nuclei appearing as fission fragments. The emission of neutrons, protons, and photons was taken into account. Neutron emission fromprimary fragments was found to have a substantial effect on the formation of yields of postneutron nuclei. The library was tested by comparing the calculated and measured yields of products originating from the fission of nuclei that was induced by high-energy protons. The method for calculating these yields was tested on the basis of experimental data on the thermal-neutroninduced fission of 235 U nuclei

  14. Low cost, high yield IFE reactors: Revisiting Velikhov's vaporizing blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.

    1992-01-01

    The performance (efficiency and cost) of IFE reactors using MHD conversion is explored for target blanket shells of various materials vaporized and ionized by high fusion yields (5 to 500 GJ). A magnetized, prestressed reactor chamber concept is modeled together with previously developed models for the Compact Fusion Advanced Rankine II (CFARII) MHD Balance-of-Plant (BoP). Using conservative 1-D neutronics models, high fusion yields (20 to 80 GJ) are found necessary to heat Flibe, lithium, and lead-lithium blankets to MHD plasma temperatures, at initial solid thicknesses sufficient to capture most of the fusion yield. Advanced drivers/targets would need to be developed to achieve a ''Bang per Buck'' figure-of-merit approx-gt 20 to 40 joules yield per driver $ for this scheme to be competitive with these blanket materials. Alternatively, more realistic neutronics models and better materials such as lithium hydride may lower the minimum required yields substantially. The very low CFARII BoP costs (contributing only 3 mills/kWehr to CoE) allows this type of reactor, given sufficient advances that non-driver costs dominate, to ultimately produce electricity at a much lower cost than any current nuclear plant

  15. High-yield maize with large net energy yield and small global warming intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassini, Patricio; Cassman, Kenneth G

    2012-01-24

    Addressing concerns about future food supply and climate change requires management practices that maximize productivity per unit of arable land while reducing negative environmental impact. On-farm data were evaluated to assess energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of irrigated maize in Nebraska that received large nitrogen (N) fertilizer (183 kg of N · ha(-1)) and irrigation water inputs (272 mm or 2,720 m(3) ha(-1)). Although energy inputs (30 GJ · ha(-1)) were larger than those reported for US maize systems in previous studies, irrigated maize in central Nebraska achieved higher grain and net energy yields (13.2 Mg · ha(-1) and 159 GJ · ha(-1), respectively) and lower GHG-emission intensity (231 kg of CO(2)e · Mg(-1) of grain). Greater input-use efficiencies, especially for N fertilizer, were responsible for better performance of these irrigated systems, compared with much lower-yielding, mostly rainfed maize systems in previous studies. Large variation in energy inputs and GHG emissions across irrigated fields in the present study resulted from differences in applied irrigation water amount and imbalances between applied N inputs and crop N demand, indicating potential to further improve environmental performance through better management of these inputs. Observed variation in N-use efficiency, at any level of applied N inputs, suggests that an N-balance approach may be more appropriate for estimating soil N(2)O emissions than the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approach based on a fixed proportion of applied N. Negative correlation between GHG-emission intensity and net energy yield supports the proposition that achieving high yields, large positive energy balance, and low GHG emissions in intensive cropping systems are not conflicting goals.

  16. Setting the Record Straight on "High-Yield" Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Widely credited with proposing nine "high-yield" instructional strategies, author Robert J. Marzano sets the record straight about the broader number of strategies identified by the research. He provides a list of 41 strategies and suggests more nuanced ways of using, observing, and evaluating them. (Contains 1 figure.)

  17. Cutting-edge technology may yield elephants in Orphan basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, W.

    2006-10-15

    Controlled source electromagnetic survey (CSEM) technology may soon supply vital information to oil companies about Newfoundland's offshore basins. The technology shoots low-frequency electromagnetic signals at the sea-floor to measure resistivity. Natural gas, crude oil and water each have a particular strength to resist the power of an electromagnetic signal, and leave a unique signature. To collect data, the electromagnetic pulse emitter is towed back and forth over an area of seabed potentially holding hydrocarbons. Connected to the ship by a long tether, the emitter hangs approximately 30 to 50 m above the ocean floor, and reaches depths of 2.4 km. The sea floor has 36 receivers anchored to it in a grid of concrete blocks that dissolve within 3 months of installation. The test blocks are first dropped overboard to verify current speed and strength in order to calculate exactly where on the water's surface the concrete blocks will be lowered. The Canada Newfoundland and Labrador Offshore Petroleum Board (CNLOPB) has deemed the technology environmentally safe. Eight land parcels have now been leased for exploration in the Orphan Basin and are expected to receive approval for seismic and electromagnetic surveys. Industry players have shown unusual optimism about the basin's potential, which is estimated to contain 4 oilfields containing a billion barrels of oil each. 2 figs.

  18. Executive Summary High-Yield Scenario Workshop Series Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie Park Ovard; Thomas H. Ulrich; David J. Muth Jr.; J. Richard Hess; Steven Thomas; Bryce Stokes

    2009-12-01

    To get a collective sense of the impact of research and development (R&D) on biomass resource availability, and to determine the feasibility that yields higher than baseline assumptions used for past assessments could be achieved to support U.S. energy independence, an alternate “High-Yield Scenario” (HYS) concept was presented to industry experts at a series of workshops held in December 2009. The workshops explored future production of corn/agricultural crop residues, herbaceous energy crops (HECs), and woody energy crops (WECs). This executive summary reports the findings of that workshop.

  19. PROTECTION OF YIELD AND SOIL: NEW MULCHING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Sorokina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable ecovio® plastic films for mulching is a solution of BASF engineering.It offers the excellent mechanical properties, and it is completely destructedas polymer is to be fully composted. Without recycling this covering plastic filmis entirely digested by soil microorganisms. The only thing is to do after harvestingis to bury scraps of plastics into the soil to start the process of biodigestion. Development of ecovio® solution opens new page for wide use of this technology in agriculture. The usage of biodegradable plastic films has shown the good results in plant nursery gardens, vegetable and grape growing.

  20. Breeding approaches and genomics technologies to increase crop yield under low-temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Uday Chand; Bohra, Abhishek; Jha, Rintu

    2017-01-01

    Improved knowledge about plant cold stress tolerance offered by modern omics technologies will greatly inform future crop improvement strategies that aim to breed cultivars yielding substantially high under low-temperature conditions. Alarmingly rising temperature extremities present a substantial impediment to the projected target of 70% more food production by 2050. Low-temperature (LT) stress severely constrains crop production worldwide, thereby demanding an urgent yet sustainable solution. Considerable research progress has been achieved on this front. Here, we review the crucial cellular and metabolic alterations in plants that follow LT stress along with the signal transduction and the regulatory network describing the plant cold tolerance. The significance of plant genetic resources to expand the genetic base of breeding programmes with regard to cold tolerance is highlighted. Also, the genetic architecture of cold tolerance trait as elucidated by conventional QTL mapping and genome-wide association mapping is described. Further, global expression profiling techniques including RNA-Seq along with diverse omics platforms are briefly discussed to better understand the underlying mechanism and prioritize the candidate gene (s) for downstream applications. These latest additions to breeders' toolbox hold immense potential to support plant breeding schemes that seek development of LT-tolerant cultivars. High-yielding cultivars endowed with greater cold tolerance are urgently required to sustain the crop yield under conditions severely challenged by low-temperature.

  1. High-yield criteria for panoramic radiography. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, S.C.; Forsythe, A.B.

    1982-06-01

    Panoramic radiographs should be obtained when the examination offers the prospect of providing information that will assist in patient care. The purpose of this study was to determine whether high-yield criteria could be developed for the use of panoramic radiographs in the treatment planning of patients seeking dental care. Clinicians were asked what signs or symptoms caused them to order a panoramic radiograph upon patient admission into the UCLA Dental Clinic. At the time the patient was radiographed, a variety of demographic and clinical measures were recorded. The most important high-yield criterion for the panoramic examination is whether the radiograph is ordered for 'general screening examination' (a negative predictor) and whether the radiograph was ordered for any specific examination (a positive predictor). The use of these (or any other) decision rules required clinical judgment of the costs (social and economic) of a missed positive finding relative to that of an unproductive examination

  2. Estimating climate change, CO2 and technology development effects on wheat yield in northeast Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannayan, M; Mansoori, H; Rezaei, E Eyshi

    2014-04-01

    Wheat is the main food for the majority of Iran's population. Precise estimation of wheat yield change in future is essential for any possible revision of management strategies. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of climate change, CO2 concentration, technology development and their integrated effects on wheat production under future climate change. This study was performed under two scenarios of the IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES): regional economic (A2) and global environmental (B1). Crop production was projected for three future time periods (2020, 2050 and 2080) in comparison with a baseline year (2005) for Khorasan province located in the northeast of Iran. Four study locations in the study area included Mashhad, Birjand, Bojnourd and Sabzevar. The effect of technology development was calculated by fitting a regression equation between the observed wheat yields against historical years considering yield potential increase and yield gap reduction as technology development. Yield relative increase per unit change of CO2 concentration (1 ppm(-1)) was considered 0.05 % and was used to implement the effect of elevated CO2. The HadCM3 general circulation model along with the CSM-CERES-Wheat crop model were used to project climate change effects on wheat crop yield. Our results illustrate that, among all the factors considered, technology development provided the highest impact on wheat yield change. Highest wheat yield increase across all locations and time periods was obtained under the A2 scenario. Among study locations, Mashhad showed the highest change in wheat yield. Yield change compared to baseline ranged from -28 % to 56 % when the integration of all factors was considered across all locations. It seems that achieving higher yield of wheat in future may be expected in northeast Iran assuming stable improvements in production technology.

  3. Trade-offs between high yields and greenhouse gas emissions in irrigation wheat cropland in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Z. L.; Wu, L.; Ye, Y. L.; Ma, W. Q.; Chen, X. P.; Zhang, F. S.

    2014-04-01

    Although the concept of producing higher yields with reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is a goal that attracts increasing public and scientific attention, the trade-off between high yields and GHG emissions in intensive agricultural production is not well understood. Here, we hypothesize that there exists a mechanistic relationship between wheat grain yield and GHG emission, and that could be transformed into better agronomic management. A total 33 sites of on-farm experiments were investigated to evaluate the relationship between grain yield and GHG emissions using two systems (conventional practice, CP; high-yielding systems, HY) of intensive winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in China. Furthermore, we discussed the potential to produce higher yields with lower GHG emissions based on a survey of 2938 farmers. Compared to the CP system, grain yield was 39% (2352 kg ha-1) higher in the HY system, while GHG emissions increased by only 10%, and GHG emission intensity was reduced by 21%. The current intensive winter wheat system with farmers' practice had a median yield and maximum GHG emission rate of 6050 kg ha-1 and 4783 kg CO2 eq ha-1, respectively; however, this system can be transformed to maintain yields while reducing GHG emissions by 26% (6077 kg ha-1, and 3555 kg CO2 eq ha-1). Further, the HY system was found to increase grain yield by 39% with a simultaneous reduction in GHG emissions by 18% (8429 kg ha-1, and 3905 kg CO2 eq ha-1, respectively). In the future, we suggest moving the trade-off relationships and calculations from grain yield and GHG emissions to new measures of productivity and environmental protection using innovative management technologies.

  4. Laser heating challenges of high yield MagLIF targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutz, Stephen; Sefkow, Adam; Vesey, Roger

    2014-10-01

    The MagLIF (Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion) concept is predicted by numerical simulation to produce fusion yields of about 100 kJ, when driven by 25 MA from the existing Z accelerator [S. A. Slutz et al. Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)] and much higher yields with future accelerators delivering higher currents [Slutz and Vesey PRL 108, 025003 (2012)]. The fuel must be heated before compression to obtain significant fusion yields due to the relatively slow implosion velocities (~ 100 km/s) of magnetically driven liners. Lasers provide a convenient means to accomplish this pre-compressional heating of the fusion fuel, but there are challenges. The laser must penetrate a foil covering the laser entrance hole and deposit 20-30 kJ within the ~1 cm length of the liner in fuel at 6-12 mg/cc. Such high densities could result in beam scattering due to refraction and laser plasma interactions. Numerical simulations of the laser heating process are presented, which indicate that energies as high as 30 kJ could be deposited in the fuel by using two laser pulses of different wavelengths. Simulations of this process will be presented as well of results for a MagLIF design for a potential new machine delivering 50 MA of current. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. Understanding the Changes in Global Crop Yields Through Changes in Climate and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Ehsan; Devineni, Naresh; Khanbilvardi, Reza M.; Kogan, Felix

    2018-03-01

    During the last few decades, the global agricultural production has risen and technology enhancement is still contributing to yield growth. However, population growth, water crisis, deforestation, and climate change threaten the global food security. An understanding of the variables that caused past changes in crop yields can help improve future crop prediction models. In this article, we present a comprehensive global analysis of the changes in the crop yields and how they relate to different large-scale and regional climate variables, climate change variables and technology in a unified framework. A new multilevel model for yield prediction at the country level is developed and demonstrated. The structural relationships between average yield and climate attributes as well as trends are estimated simultaneously. All countries are modeled in a single multilevel model with partial pooling to automatically group and reduce estimation uncertainties. El Niño-southern oscillation (ENSO), Palmer drought severity index (PDSI), geopotential height anomalies (GPH), historical carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and country-based time series of GDP per capita as an approximation of technology measurement are used as predictors to estimate annual agricultural crop yields for each country from 1961 to 2013. Results indicate that these variables can explain the variability in historical crop yields for most of the countries and the model performs well under out-of-sample verifications. While some countries were not generally affected by climatic factors, PDSI and GPH acted both positively and negatively in different regions for crop yields in many countries.

  6. High-yield synthesis and optical response of gold nanostars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pandian Senthil [Departamento de Quimica Fisica and Unidad Asociada CSIC-Universidade de Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Pastoriza-Santos, Isabel [Departamento de Quimica Fisica and Unidad Asociada CSIC-Universidade de Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain); RodrIguez-Gonzalez, Benito [Departamento de Quimica Fisica and Unidad Asociada CSIC-Universidade de Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Abajo, F Javier GarcIa de [Instituto de Optica-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Liz-Marzan, Luis M [Departamento de Quimica Fisica and Unidad Asociada CSIC-Universidade de Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2008-01-09

    Multipod Au nanoparticles (nanostars) with single crystalline tips were synthesized in extremely high yield through the reduction of HAuCl{sub 4} in a concentrated solution of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), in the presence of preformed Au nanoparticle seeds, but with no need for external energy sources. Nanostar dispersions display a well-defined optical response, which was found (through theoretical modeling) to comprise a main mode confined within the tips and a secondary mode confined in the central body. Calculations of the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) response additionally show that this morphology will be relevant for sensing applications.

  7. High-yield synthesis and optical response of gold nanostars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil Kumar, Pandian; Pastoriza-Santos, Isabel; Rodríguez-González, Benito; García de Abajo, F. Javier; Liz-Marzán, Luis M.

    2008-01-01

    Multipod Au nanoparticles (nanostars) with single crystalline tips were synthesized in extremely high yield through the reduction of HAuCl4 in a concentrated solution of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), in the presence of preformed Au nanoparticle seeds, but with no need for external energy sources. Nanostar dispersions display a well-defined optical response, which was found (through theoretical modeling) to comprise a main mode confined within the tips and a secondary mode confined in the central body. Calculations of the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) response additionally show that this morphology will be relevant for sensing applications.

  8. High-yield synthesis and optical response of gold nanostars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pandian Senthil; Pastoriza-Santos, Isabel; RodrIguez-Gonzalez, Benito; Abajo, F Javier GarcIa de; Liz-Marzan, Luis M

    2008-01-01

    Multipod Au nanoparticles (nanostars) with single crystalline tips were synthesized in extremely high yield through the reduction of HAuCl 4 in a concentrated solution of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), in the presence of preformed Au nanoparticle seeds, but with no need for external energy sources. Nanostar dispersions display a well-defined optical response, which was found (through theoretical modeling) to comprise a main mode confined within the tips and a secondary mode confined in the central body. Calculations of the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) response additionally show that this morphology will be relevant for sensing applications

  9. High-Yield Synthesis and Applications of Anisotropic Gold Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigderman, Leonid

    This work will describe research directed towards the synthesis of anisotropic gold nanoparticles as well as their functionalization and biological applications. The thesis will begin by describing a new technique for the high-yield synthesis of gold nanorods using hydroquinone as a reducing agent. This addresses important limitations of the traditional nanorod synthesis including low yield of gold ions conversion to metallic form and inability to produce rods with longitudinal surface plasmon peak above 850 nm. The use of hydroquinone was also found to improve the synthesis of gold nanowires via the nanorod-seed mediated procedure developed in our lab. The thesis will next present the synthesis of novel starfruitshaped nanorods, mesorods, and nanowires using a modified nanorod-seed mediated procedure. The starfruit particles displayed increased activity as surfaceenhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates as compared to smooth structures. Next, a method for the functionalization of gold nanorods using a cationic thiol, 16-mercaptohexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (MTAB), will be described. By using this thiol, we were able to demonstrate the complete removal of toxic surfactant from the nanorods and were also able to precisely quantify the grafting density of thiol molecules on the nanorod surface through a combination of several analytical techniques. Finally, this thesis will show that MTABfunctionalized nanorods are nontoxic and can be taken up in extremely high numbers into cancer cells. The thesis will conclude by describing the surprising uptake of larger mesorods and nanowires functionalized with MTAB into cells in high quantities.

  10. Development of high-yield influenza B virus vaccine viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Jihui; Lopes, Tiago J S; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-20

    The burden of human infections with influenza A and B viruses is substantial, and the impact of influenza B virus infections can exceed that of influenza A virus infections in some seasons. Over the past few decades, viruses of two influenza B virus lineages (Victoria and Yamagata) have circulated in humans, and both lineages are now represented in influenza vaccines, as recommended by the World Health Organization. Influenza B virus vaccines for humans have been available for more than half a century, yet no systematic efforts have been undertaken to develop high-yield candidates. Therefore, we screened virus libraries possessing random mutations in the six "internal" influenza B viral RNA segments [i.e., those not encoding the major viral antigens, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase NA)] for mutants that confer efficient replication. Candidate viruses that supported high yield in cell culture were tested with the HA and NA genes of eight different viruses of the Victoria and Yamagata lineages. We identified combinations of mutations that increased the titers of candidate vaccine viruses in mammalian cells used for human influenza vaccine virus propagation and in embryonated chicken eggs, the most common propagation system for influenza viruses. These influenza B virus vaccine backbones can be used for improved vaccine virus production.

  11. Development of high-yield influenza B virus vaccine viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Jihui; Lopes, Tiago J. S.; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The burden of human infections with influenza A and B viruses is substantial, and the impact of influenza B virus infections can exceed that of influenza A virus infections in some seasons. Over the past few decades, viruses of two influenza B virus lineages (Victoria and Yamagata) have circulated in humans, and both lineages are now represented in influenza vaccines, as recommended by the World Health Organization. Influenza B virus vaccines for humans have been available for more than half a century, yet no systematic efforts have been undertaken to develop high-yield candidates. Therefore, we screened virus libraries possessing random mutations in the six “internal” influenza B viral RNA segments [i.e., those not encoding the major viral antigens, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase NA)] for mutants that confer efficient replication. Candidate viruses that supported high yield in cell culture were tested with the HA and NA genes of eight different viruses of the Victoria and Yamagata lineages. We identified combinations of mutations that increased the titers of candidate vaccine viruses in mammalian cells used for human influenza vaccine virus propagation and in embryonated chicken eggs, the most common propagation system for influenza viruses. These influenza B virus vaccine backbones can be used for improved vaccine virus production. PMID:27930325

  12. Combining high seed number and weight to improve seed yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the highest positive direct influence on grain yield per plant. Both traits also displayed a positive indirect effect considerably to biological yield per plant and harvest index. Thus, combined selection for seed number and weight would be fruitful to improve yield potential of chickpea. Key Words: Cicer arietinum, heritability, ...

  13. High performance fuel technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koon, Yang Hyun; Kim, Keon Sik; Park, Jeong Yong; Yang, Yong Sik; In, Wang Kee; Kim, Hyung Kyu [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    {omicron} Development of High Plasticity and Annular Pellet - Development of strong candidates of ultra high burn-up fuel pellets for a PCI remedy - Development of fabrication technology of annular fuel pellet {omicron} Development of High Performance Cladding Materials - Irradiation test of HANA claddings in Halden research reactor and the evaluation of the in-pile performance - Development of the final candidates for the next generation cladding materials. - Development of the manufacturing technology for the dual-cooled fuel cladding tubes. {omicron} Irradiated Fuel Performance Evaluation Technology Development - Development of performance analysis code system for the dual-cooled fuel - Development of fuel performance-proving technology {omicron} Feasibility Studies on Dual-Cooled Annular Fuel Core - Analysis on the property of a reactor core with dual-cooled fuel - Feasibility evaluation on the dual-cooled fuel core {omicron} Development of Design Technology for Dual-Cooled Fuel Structure - Definition of technical issues and invention of concept for dual-cooled fuel structure - Basic design and development of main structure components for dual- cooled fuel - Basic design of a dual-cooled fuel rod.

  14. Differential metabolite profiles during fruit development in high-yielding oil palm mesocarp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey Fang Teh

    Full Text Available To better understand lipid biosynthesis in oil palm mesocarp, in particular the differences in gene regulation leading to and including de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, a multi-platform metabolomics technology was used to profile mesocarp metabolites during six critical stages of fruit development in comparatively high- and low-yielding oil palm populations. Significantly higher amino acid levels preceding lipid biosynthesis and nucleosides during lipid biosynthesis were observed in a higher yielding commercial palm population. Levels of metabolites involved in glycolysis revealed interesting divergence of flux towards glycerol-3-phosphate, while carbon utilization differences in the TCA cycle were proven by an increase in malic acid/citric acid ratio. Apart from insights into the regulation of enhanced lipid production in oil palm, these results provide potentially useful metabolite yield markers and genes of interest for use in breeding programmes.

  15. Teacher Training and High Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, G. David

    1984-01-01

    The advent of high technology into the classroom raises the issue of proper computer training of both undergraduate students and the current teacher population. Teachers must learn a new terminology, acquire computer skills, and develop understanding of hardware and software availability and usefulness. (CS)

  16. Weldability of Thermomechanically Treated Steels Having a High Yield Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Górka J.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns the issue of weldability of S700MC steel, treated thermo-mechanically, with high yield point. The weakest area of welded joints of this steel is a high - temperature coarse heat affected zone (HAZ in which due to the nucleation effect of the dissolved phases, strengthening the matrix and their subsequent uncontrolled separation precipitation in the form of finely disperse and rapid decrease impact strength is observed. Performed arc welding tests here have shown that in order to ensure high quality of welded joints, it is necessary to limit the welding linear heat input. During the welding process of S700MC steel, it is not recommended to use pre heating before the welding process and heat treatment after welding, and the number of repairs should be kept to a minimum, because it leads to a reduction of strength and plastic properties in the HAZ area, as a result of aging processes, dissolution of strengthening phases in the matrix and their subsequent uncontrolled precipitation during cooling.

  17. Destiny-yield relationship for channel catfish reared in a biofloc technology production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of stocking density on yield of stocker channel catfish and water quality in a biofloc technology production system was studied in this completely randomized design experiment. Fingerling channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus; 48.0 g/fish, 17.8 cm/fish) were stocked into nine continuously ...

  18. Identifying high-yielding dryland wheat cultivars for the summer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of new, improved dryland wheat cultivars released for the SRA during the recent period from 2003 to 2012 were evaluated for yield over several seasons under the National Wheat Cultivar Evaluation Program. As preliminary work for improving drought tolerance of wheat in the SRA, yield data of this genetic pool ...

  19. Diagnostics of Shiva Nova produced high yield thermonuclear events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstrom, H.G.; Banner, D.L.; Boyle, M.J.; Campbell, E.M.; Coleman, L.W.; Koppel, L.N.; Kornblum, H.N. Jr.; Rienecker, F.; Severyn, J.R.; Slivinsky, V.W.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments with the Shiva Nova laser facility which produce yield levels of scientific breakeven and above will result in neutron, x-ray and particle fluxes which will require specific attention to the survivability of diagnostic instrumentation. These yield levels will also allow the utilization of new diagnotics techniques which can provide detailed information on the state of the imploded fuel and pusher shells

  20. High-Yield Synthesis of Stoichiometric Boron Nitride Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. Nocua

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron nitride (BN nanostructures are structural analogues of carbon nanostructures but have completely different bonding character and structural defects. They are chemically inert, electrically insulating, and potentially important in mechanical applications that include the strengthening of light structural materials. These applications require the reliable production of bulk amounts of pure BN nanostructures in order to be able to reinforce large quantities of structural materials, hence the need for the development of high-yield synthesis methods of pure BN nanostructures. Using borazine (B3N3H6 as chemical precursor and the hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD technique, pure BN nanostructures with cross-sectional sizes ranging between 20 and 50 nm were obtained, including nanoparticles and nanofibers. Their crystalline structure was characterized by (XRD, their morphology and nanostructure was examined by (SEM and (TEM, while their chemical composition was studied by (EDS, (FTIR, (EELS, and (XPS. Taken altogether, the results indicate that all the material obtained is stoichiometric nanostructured BN with hexagonal and rhombohedral crystalline structure.

  1. High Technology Mass Spectrometry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Preparedness for acts of chemical terrorism and warfare require detecti testing will allow...chemical terrorism and warfare require detection and response to such attacks. Appropriate chemical testing will allow for the proper diagnosis and...acrylonitrile and acrolein in human blood, and potentially to devise rapid, high throughput screening technology to enable examination of large groups of

  2. High-yield hydrogen production from starch and water by a synthetic enzymatic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y-H Percival Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The future hydrogen economy offers a compelling energy vision, but there are four main obstacles: hydrogen production, storage, and distribution, as well as fuel cells. Hydrogen production from inexpensive abundant renewable biomass can produce cheaper hydrogen, decrease reliance on fossil fuels, and achieve zero net greenhouse gas emissions, but current chemical and biological means suffer from low hydrogen yields and/or severe reaction conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate a synthetic enzymatic pathway consisting of 13 enzymes for producing hydrogen from starch and water. The stoichiometric reaction is C(6H(10O(5 (l+7 H(2O (l-->12 H(2 (g+6 CO(2 (g. The overall process is spontaneous and unidirectional because of a negative Gibbs free energy and separation of the gaseous products with the aqueous reactants. CONCLUSIONS: Enzymatic hydrogen production from starch and water mediated by 13 enzymes occurred at 30 degrees C as expected, and the hydrogen yields were much higher than the theoretical limit (4 H(2/glucose of anaerobic fermentations. SIGNIFICANCE: The unique features, such as mild reaction conditions (30 degrees C and atmospheric pressure, high hydrogen yields, likely low production costs ($ approximately 2/kg H(2, and a high energy-density carrier starch (14.8 H(2-based mass%, provide great potential for mobile applications. With technology improvements and integration with fuel cells, this technology also solves the challenges associated with hydrogen storage, distribution, and infrastructure in the hydrogen economy.

  3. Development of bioprocess for high density cultivation yield of the probiotic Bacillus coagulans and its spores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita R. Pandey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus coagulans is a spore forming lactic acid bacterium. Spore forming bacteria, have been extensively studied and commercialized as probiotics. Probiotics are produced by fermentation technology. There is a limitation to biomass produced by conventional modes of fermentation. With the great demand generated by range of probiotic products, biomass is becoming very valuable for several pharmaceutical, dairy and probiotic companies. Thus, there is a need to develop high cell density cultivation processes for enhanced biomass accumulation. The bioprocess development was carried out in 6.6 L bench top lab scale fermentor. Four different cultivation strategies were employed to develop a bioprocess for higher growth and sporulation efficiencies of probiotic B. coagulans. Batch fermentation of B. coagulans yielded 18 g L-1 biomass (as against 8.0 g L-1 productivity in shake flask with 60% spore efficiency. Fed-batch cultivation was carried out for glucose, which yielded 25 g L-1 of biomass. C/N ratio was very crucial in achieving higher spore titres. Maximum biomass yield recorded was 30 g L-1, corresponding to 3.8 × 1011 cells mL-1 with 81% of cells in sporulated stage. The yield represents increment of 85 times the productivity and 158 times the spore titres relative to the highest reported values for high density cultivation of B. coagulans.

  4. Lichen symbiosis: nature's high yielding machines for induced hydrogen production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Papazi

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is a promising future energy source. Although the ability of green algae to produce hydrogen has long been recognized (since 1939 and several biotechnological applications have been attempted, the greatest obstacle, being the O2-sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme, has not yet been overcome. In the present contribution, 75 years after the first report on algal hydrogen production, taking advantage of a natural mechanism of oxygen balance, we demonstrate high hydrogen yields by lichens. Lichens have been selected as the ideal organisms in nature for hydrogen production, since they consist of a mycobiont and a photobiont in symbiosis. It has been hypothesized that the mycobiont's and photobiont's consumption of oxygen (increase of COX and AOX proteins of mitochondrial respiratory pathways and PTOX protein of chrolorespiration establishes the required anoxic conditions for the activation of the phycobiont's hydrogenase in a closed system. Our results clearly supported the above hypothesis, showing that lichens have the ability to activate appropriate bioenergetic pathways depending on the specific incubation conditions. Under light conditions, they successfully use the PSII-dependent and the PSII-independent pathways (decrease of D1 protein and parallel increase of PSaA protein to transfer electrons to hydrogenase, while under dark conditions, lichens use the PFOR enzyme and the dark fermentative pathway to supply electrons to hydrogenase. These advantages of lichen symbiosis in combination with their ability to survive in extreme environments (while in a dry state constitute them as unique and valuable hydrogen producing natural factories and pave the way for future biotechnological applications.

  5. Pseudomonas donghuensis sp. nov., exhibiting high-yields of siderophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jingwei; Xie, Guanfang; Peng, Fang; Xie, Zhixiong

    2015-01-01

    A strain giving high-yields of siderophores, designated HYS(T), was isolated from the water of East Lake (also called Donghu Lake) of Wuhan in China. Strain HYS(T) is Gram-stain negative, non-spore-forming and rod-shaped with polar flagella. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene and the other three housekeeping genes (gyrB, rpoD and rpoB) indicated that strain HYS(T) belongs to the genus Pseudomonas. Genomic DNA comparison experiments including DNA-DNA hybridization and whole-genome sequence similarities were performed between HYS(T) and its phylogenetically most closely related type strains, all of the relatedness values are lower than the threshold to ascribe strain HYS(T) to a known species. The major cellular fatty acids of strain HYS(T) are C16:0, C17:0 cyclo, Summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c or/and C16:1 ω6c) and Summed feature 8 (C18:1 ω7c or C18:1 ω6c). Its predominant isoprenoid quinone was identified as Q-9, and the minor isoprenoid quinone was Q-8. Phylogenetic analysis together with genomic DNA comparison, phenotypic metabolic tests and chemotaxonomic analysis justified the proposal of strain HYS(T) as a representative of a novel species, for which the name Pseudomonas donghuensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HYS(T) ( = CCTCC AB 2012141(T) = NRRL B-59108(T)).

  6. Lichen Symbiosis: Nature's High Yielding Machines for Induced Hydrogen Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Kastanaki, Elizabeth; Pirintsos, Stergios; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen is a promising future energy source. Although the ability of green algae to produce hydrogen has long been recognized (since 1939) and several biotechnological applications have been attempted, the greatest obstacle, being the O2-sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme, has not yet been overcome. In the present contribution, 75 years after the first report on algal hydrogen production, taking advantage of a natural mechanism of oxygen balance, we demonstrate high hydrogen yields by lichens. Lichens have been selected as the ideal organisms in nature for hydrogen production, since they consist of a mycobiont and a photobiont in symbiosis. It has been hypothesized that the mycobiont’s and photobiont’s consumption of oxygen (increase of COX and AOX proteins of mitochondrial respiratory pathways and PTOX protein of chrolorespiration) establishes the required anoxic conditions for the activation of the phycobiont’s hydrogenase in a closed system. Our results clearly supported the above hypothesis, showing that lichens have the ability to activate appropriate bioenergetic pathways depending on the specific incubation conditions. Under light conditions, they successfully use the PSII-dependent and the PSII-independent pathways (decrease of D1 protein and parallel increase of PSaA protein) to transfer electrons to hydrogenase, while under dark conditions, lichens use the PFOR enzyme and the dark fermentative pathway to supply electrons to hydrogenase. These advantages of lichen symbiosis in combination with their ability to survive in extreme environments (while in a dry state) constitute them as unique and valuable hydrogen producing natural factories and pave the way for future biotechnological applications. PMID:25826211

  7. Selection of common bean lines with high grain yield and high grain calcium and iron concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of common bean nutritional quality has advantages in marketing and can contribute to society as a food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability for grain yield, calcium and iron concentrations in grains of inbred common bean lines obtained by different breeding methods. For this, 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Pedigree method and 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Single-Seed Descent (SSD method. The lines showed genetic variability for grain yield, and concentrations of calcium and iron independently of the method of advancing segregating populations. The Pedigree method allows obtaining a greater number of lines with high grain yield. Selection using the SSD method allows the identification of a larger number of lines with high concentrations of calcium and iron in grains. Weak negative correlations were found between grain yield and calcium concentration (r = -0.0994 and grain yield and iron concentration (r = -0.3926. Several lines show genetic superiority for grain yield and concentrations of calcium and iron in grains and their selection can result in new common bean cultivars with high nutritional quality.

  8. Export controls on high technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, N.K.

    1987-01-01

    A overview of the Export Administration Act of 1979 and subsequent regulations and amendments focuses on how licensing requirements and restrictions against boycott affect high technology exports. The purpose of these controls is to limit the export of technology with possible military applications, as well as to advance US foreign policy and protect the economy without imposing too great a restriction on the principles of free trade. Thus, the act encompasses political, economic, and security goals. Problems of predictability arise when embargoes or other controls are imposed for political or foreign policy reasons without regard to economic impacts. Amendments have attempted to streamline the exporting process, particularly in the area of computer and software licensing.

  9. CG FARRAPO: a sudangrass cultivar with high biomass and grain yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Ghisleni Arenhardt

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The new sudangrass cultivar [Sorghum sudanense (Piper Stapf.] was developed by the method of selection of individual plants with progeny testing. The most important traits are high biomass yield with high grain yield.

  10. Induction of high yielding and high protein containing chickpea mutant variety through gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, S.; Javed, M.A.; Khan, A.J.; Tariq, M.

    1997-01-01

    Pure seeds of a blight susceptible but high yielding chickpea variety 6153 were irradiated at 20 Kr(0.2 kGy) dose of gamma radiation and the mutant line CMN-446-4 was selected in M3 generation on the basis of high yield and disease resistance. After confirmation of its resistance to blight in M4 and M5, the mutant line CMN-446-4 along with other promising chickpea mutants were evaluated in various yield trials at different locations. The mutant line CMN-446-4 was got evaluated in chickpea national uniform yield trial conducted over two locations in the country during 1993-94. The mutant line, on average, ranked 3rd by producing significantly higher yield of 1528 kg/ha as compared to the two checked varieties Punjab-91 and Paidar-91 which yielded 1316 and 1391 kg/ha respectively. The mutant CMN-446-4 has significantly greater percentage of protein content (25.22%) compared to its parental variety having (20.12%). (author)

  11. Approaches to achieve high grain yield and high resource use efficiency in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchang YANG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses approaches to simultaneously increase grain yield and resource use efficiency in rice. Breeding nitrogen efficient cultivars without sacrificing rice yield potential, improving grain fill in later-flowering inferior spikelets and enhancing harvest index are three important approaches to achieving the dual goal of high grain yield and high resource use efficiency. Deeper root distribution and higher leaf photosynthetic N use efficiency at lower N rates could be used as selection criteria to develop N-efficient cultivars. Enhancing sink activity through increasing sugar-spikelet ratio at the heading time and enhancing the conversion efficiency from sucrose to starch though increasing the ratio of abscisic acid to ethylene in grains during grain fill could effectively improve grain fill in inferior spikelets. Several practices, such as post-anthesis controlled soil drying, an alternate wetting and moderate soil drying regime during the whole growing season, and non-flooded straw mulching cultivation, could substantially increase grain yield and water use efficiency, mainly via enhanced remobilization of stored carbon from vegetative tissues to grains and improved harvest index. Further research is needed to understand synergistic interaction between water and N on crop and soil and the mechanism underlying high resource use efficiency in high-yielding rice.

  12. Stereotypical behaviour at high yielding dairy cows farms - "tongue rolling"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanović Radiša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine if there was a connection between stereotypical behaviour of high yielding dairy cows breeds and values of biochemical blood parameters. The investigation was carried out in august at loose-housing type of farms, in 30 heads of cattle from four groups: drying (15 to 7 days before calving, puerperium (up to 40 days after calving, early lactation (up to 120 days after calving and late lactation (200 to 300 days after calving. Assessment of stereotypical behaviour (tongue rolling was carried out by the method of careful observation of all the tested animals 2 to 4 hours after morning feeding. Blood samples were taken by puncture of jugular vein from 8 cows out of each animal group. In these blood samples there was determined the concentration of glucose, beta hydroxy-butyric acid (BHBA, total protein (TP, albumin, urea, total bilirubin (TBI, Ca, P, and Mg as well as AST and ALT activities. During the period up to 40 days after calving (puerperium, behavioral disorder in the form of „tongue rolling“ was found out in 4 out of 30 observed animals (13.33%. Average concentrations of all the tested blood parameters during the drying period as well as in early and late lactation were within physiological values for cattle. During puerperium there were found significantly lower values of glycaemia, proteinemia, albuminemia, uremia and magnesiemia in regard to antepartal values (p<0.05, where the values of glycaemia and magnesiemia were below the physiological limit. A the same time, in this group of cows the values of TBI and AST activities were higher than physiological values. Frequent appearance of „tongue rolling“ phenomenon only among cows in the group with deviation of biochemical parameters values, points out to a possible connection between the stereotypical behaviour and biochemical composition of blood. It seems that hypomagnesiemia could be a significant etiopathogenetic factor causing the

  13. Evaluation of high yielding soybean germplasm under water limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Silvas J; Murphy, Mackensie; Mutava, Raymond N; Zhang, Zhengzhi; Nguyen, Na; Kim, Yoon Ha; Pathan, Safiullah M; Shannon, Grover J; Valliyodan, Babu; Nguyen, Henry T

    2016-05-01

    Limited information is available for soybean root traits and their plasticity under drought stress. To date, no studies have focused on examining diverse soybean germplasm for regulation of shoot and root response under water limited conditions across varying soil types. In this study, 17 genetically diverse soybean germplasm lines were selected to study root response to water limited conditions in clay (trial 1) and sandy soil (trial 2) in two target environments. Physiological data on shoot traits was measured at multiple crop stages ranging from early vegetative to pod filling. The phenotypic root traits, and biomass accumulation data are collected at pod filling stage. In trial 1, the number of lateral roots and forks were positively correlated with plot yield under water limitation and in trial 2, lateral root thickness was positively correlated with the hill plot yield. Plant Introduction (PI) 578477A and 088444 were found to have higher later root number and forks in clay soil with higher yield under water limitation. In sandy soil, PI458020 was found to have a thicker lateral root system and higher yield under water limitation. The genotypes identified in this study could be used to enhance drought tolerance of elite soybean cultivars through improved root traits specific to target environments. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. Differences in rumen fermentation characteristics between low-yield and high-yield dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofyan, Ahmad; Mitsumori, Makoto; Ohmori, Hideyuki; Uyeno, Yutaka; Hasunuma, Toshiya; Akiyama, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yokokawa, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Tsuneko; Shinkai, Takumi; Hirako, Makoto; Kushibiki, Shiro

    2017-07-01

    Relationship between rumen fermentation parameters, blood biochemical profiles and milk production traits in different yielding dairy cows during early lactation was investigated. Twelve dairy cows were divided into two groups based on their milk yield, that is low-yield (LY) and high-yield (HY) groups. Rumen fluid and blood were collected at 3 weeks prepartum and 4, 8 and 12 weeks postpartum. Results showed that proportions of acetate, propionate to total short chain fatty acids and acetate : propionate ratio were changed (P cholesterol, beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase in the HY group were higher (P milk yield and milk compositions were differently clustered between groups. These parameters showed similar direction with dry matter intake in the HY group and adverse direction in the LY group. Linear regression analysis indicated that butyrate was positively correlated with BHBA (P cows in the HY group seem to accommodate appropriately to negative energy balance in early lactation through rumen fermentation. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Breeding high yielding varieties of pigeon pea, mungbean and black gram using induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, S.E.; Wanjari, K.B.

    1994-01-01

    The present communication emphasis the developing of high yielding varieties of pigeon pea, mungbean and black gram using induced mutation with disease resistance in these crops. This would help in stabilisation of the higher yield potential

  16. Yield strength of molybdenum, tantalum and tungsten at high strain rates and very high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Škoro, G.P.; Bennett, J.R.J.; Edgecock, T.R.; Booth, C.N.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► New experimental data on the yield strength of molybdenum, tantalum and tungsten. ► High strain rate effects at record high temperatures (up to 2700 K). ► Test of the consistency of the Zerilli–Armstrong model at very high temperatures. - Abstract: Recently reported results of the high strain rate, high temperature measurements of the yield strength of tantalum and tungsten have been analyzed along with new experimental results on the yield strength of molybdenum. Thin wires are subjected to high stress by passing a short, fast, high current pulse through a thin wire; the amplitude of the current governs the stress and the repetition rate of the pulses determines the temperature of the wire. The highest temperatures reached in the experiments were 2100 °C (for molybdenum), 2250 °C (for tantalum) and 2450 °C (for tungsten). The strain-rates in the tests were in the range from 500 to 1500 s −1 . The parameters for the constitutive equation developed by Zerilli and Armstrong have been determined from the experimental data and the results have been compared with the data obtained at lower temperatures. An exceptionally good fit is obtained for the deformation of tungsten.

  17. Harvester development for new high yielding SRC crops and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    Details are given of a project to develop a harvesting system that can produce fuel economically in a single pass to a required specification at a cost that is profitable for the grower while minimising the cost of the product. The project objectives listed include the development of a harvester drive chain and feeding systems to allow harvesting of the higher yielding crops now produced in the UK, determination of the most economic harvesting cycle for SRC crops, and production of fuels suitable for co-firing with coal in pulverised fuel systems or for gasification. The work programme and project conclusions are discussed

  18. Biosecurity and Yield Improvement Technologies Are Strategic Complements in the Fight against Food Insecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David C.; Fraser, Rob W.; Paini, Dean R.; Warden, Andrew C.; Lonsdale, W. Mark; De Barro, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    The delivery of food security via continued crop yield improvement alone is not an effective food security strategy, and must be supported by pre- and post-border biosecurity policies to guard against perverse outcomes. In the wake of the green revolution, yield gains have been in steady decline, while post-harvest crop losses have increased as a result of insufficiently resourced and uncoordinated efforts to control spoilage throughout global transport and storage networks. This paper focuses on the role that biosecurity is set to play in future food security by preventing both pre- and post-harvest losses, thereby protecting crop yield. We model biosecurity as a food security technology that may complement conventional yield improvement policies if the gains in global farm profits are sufficient to offset the costs of implementation and maintenance. Using phytosanitary measures that slow global spread of the Ug99 strain of wheat stem rust as an example of pre-border biosecurity risk mitigation and combining it with post-border surveillance and invasive alien species control efforts, we estimate global farm profitability may be improved by over US$4.5 billion per annum. PMID:22022517

  19. Use of precision agriculture technology to investigate spatial variability in nitrogen yields in cut grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J S; Wang, K; Jordan, C; Higgins, A

    2001-01-01

    Spatial variability in N uptake and utilisation by swards within uniformly managed field units could be responsible for a significant proportion of the NH3, N2O, NO3- and NOx (NO and NO2) 'pollutants' generated by agriculture and released to the environment. An investigation was commenced, therefore, to quantify, map and explain the spatial variability in sward N yield in a 'large' silage field and to assess the potential for managing this variability using some of the latest precision agriculture technology. Sward dry matter (DM) and N yields were predicted from the results of plant tissue analyses using mathematical models. Sward N yields were found to vary greatly across the field seemingly because of differences in net soil N mineralisation, but the pattern of variability appeared to remain constant with time. Conventional soil analysis of a range of soil chemical and physical properties, however, failed to explain this variability. It was concluded that the N-yield distribution map might be used in place of soil analysis as the basis for varying the rates of N application to different parts of the field with the twin objectives of maximising fertiliser use efficiency and minimising N emissions to air and water.

  20. Biosecurity and yield improvement technologies are strategic complements in the fight against food insecurity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Cook

    Full Text Available The delivery of food security via continued crop yield improvement alone is not an effective food security strategy, and must be supported by pre- and post-border biosecurity policies to guard against perverse outcomes. In the wake of the green revolution, yield gains have been in steady decline, while post-harvest crop losses have increased as a result of insufficiently resourced and uncoordinated efforts to control spoilage throughout global transport and storage networks. This paper focuses on the role that biosecurity is set to play in future food security by preventing both pre- and post-harvest losses, thereby protecting crop yield. We model biosecurity as a food security technology that may complement conventional yield improvement policies if the gains in global farm profits are sufficient to offset the costs of implementation and maintenance. Using phytosanitary measures that slow global spread of the Ug99 strain of wheat stem rust as an example of pre-border biosecurity risk mitigation and combining it with post-border surveillance and invasive alien species control efforts, we estimate global farm profitability may be improved by over US$4.5 billion per annum.

  1. Breeding high yielding, high protein spring wheats: Problems, progress and approaches to further advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konzak, C.F.; Rubenthaler, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary data offer promise that advances have been made in breeding hard red spring wheat selections with a yielding capacity about equal to current cultivars and with an increased capacity for producing high protein grain. The most promising new selections are derivatives of Magnif 41M1, CI17689, a semi-dwarf mutant of an Argentinian high protein cultivar. Rapid changes in disease and pest problems also required immediate attention and a reorientation of breeding materials and goals. Selection procedures suggested as promising include early generation (F 2 and F 3 ) screening for disease resistance and agronomic type, with screening for protein content delayed until F 4 or F 5 . Cultural conditions conducive for expressing the highest yield capacity are proposed as optimum for identifying those selections also able to produce high protein grain. A goal of routine production of 14.5% (or higher) protein grain is considered necessary and achievable under fertility management conditions required for maximum yield expression of agronomically competitive cultivars. Agronomically improved sources of high protein genes, an increasing number of induced high protein mutants, and numerous high protein crossbred derivatives of T. dicoccoides and Aegilops species have recently become available. These new or improved germplasm sources as well as a considerable reserve of yet untapped germplasm variability in other accessions of wild T. dicoccoides offer increased optimism that further, rapid advances in the breeding of adapted high yielding, high protein wheats are achievable. Improved breeding schemes, using induced male sterility mutants either to aid in crossing or to develop male sterile facilitated recurrent selection (MSFRS) populations, should contribute towards an earlier achievement of the desired goal while providing the basis for buffering against rapid changes in disease and pest problems

  2. Harvester development for new high yielding SRC crops and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulson, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the development of harvesting equipment for short rotation cultivation (SRC) crops produced in the UK that can produce fuel to a required specification in a single pass at a cost that is profitable for the grower while minimising the cost of the product. Details are given of the manufacture and installation of new components for large crop harvesting, and production of fuel suitable for co-firing in a coal combustion system using pulverised fuel and fuel suitable for gasification. The development of the drive chain to cope with the higher yielding crops, field tests on SRC crops, and determination of the most economic harvesting system are discussed along with the remanufacture of the chipping drum, and production of market chip samples. Harvesting guidance and an economic analysis of harvesting systems are presented

  3. Frequency of cardiac arrhythmias in high and low- yielding dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Jafari Dehkordi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrocardiography (ECG may be used to recognize cardiac disorders. Levels of milk production may change the serum electrolytes which its imbalance has a role in cardiac arrhythmia. Fifty high yielding and fifty low yielding Holstein dairy cows were used in this study. Electrocardiography was recorded by base-apex lead and blood samples were collected from jugular vein for measurement of serum elements such as sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorous, iron and magnesium. Cardiac dysrhythmias were detected more frequent in low yielding Holstein cows (62.00% compared to high yielding Holstein cows (46.00%. The cardiac dysrhythmias that were observed in low yielding Holstein cows included sinus arrhythmia (34.70%, wandering pacemaker (22.45 %, bradycardia (18.37%, tachycardia (10.20%, atrial premature beat (2.04%, sinoatrial block (2.04%, atrial fibrillation (8.16% and atrial tachycardia (2.04%. The cardiac dysrhythmias were observed in high yielding Holstein cows including, sinus arrhythmia (86.95% and wandering pacemaker (13.05%. Also, notched P wave was observed to be 30% and 14% in high- and low- yielding Holstein cows respectively. The serum calcium concentration of low yielding Holstein cows was significantly lower than that of high yielding Holstein cows. There was not any detectable significant difference in other serum elements between high- and low- yielding Holstein cows. Based on the result of present study, could be concluded that low serum concentration of calcium results to more frequent dysrhythmias in low yielding Holstein cows.

  4. High yield fusion in a staged Z-pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, H. U.; Wessel, F. J.; Rostoker, N.; Ney, P. H.

    2009-12-01

    We simulate fusion in a Z-pinch, where the load is a xenon-plasma liner imploding onto a deuterium-tritium (DT) plasma target and the driver is a 2 MJ, 17 MA, 95 ns risetime pulser. The implosion system is modeled using the dynamic, 2D, radiation-magnetohydrodynamic code, MACH2. During implosion a shock forms in the Xe liner, transporting current and energy radially inward. After collision with the DT, a secondary shock forms pre-heating the DT to several hundred electronvolts. Adiabatic compression leads subsequently to a fusion burn, as the target is surrounded by a flux-compressed, intense, azimuthal-magnetic field. The intense-magnetic field confines fusion α-particles, providing an additional source of ion heating that leads to target ignition. The target remains stable up to the time of ignition. Predictions are for a neutron yield of 3.0 × 1019 and a thermonuclear energy of 84 MJ, that is, 42 times greater than the initial, capacitor-stored energy.

  5. Simulating future wheat yield under climate change, carbon dioxide enrichment and technology improvement in Iran. Case study: Azarbaijan region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansouri, H.; Raei, Y.; Zaeim, A.N.

    2015-07-01

    Climate change and technology development can affect crop productivity in future conditions. Precise estimation of crops yield change as affected by climate and technology in the future is an effective approach for management strategies. The aim of this study was to estimate the impacts of climate change, technology improvement, CO2 enrichment, and overall impacts on wheat yield under future conditions. Wheat yield was projected for three future time periods (2020, 2050 and 2080) compared to baseline year (2011) under two scenarios of IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) including SRES-A2 as regional economic scenario and SRES-B1 as global environmental scenario in Azarbaijan region (NW of Iran). A linear regression model, describing the relationship between wheat yield and historical year, was developed to investigate technology development effect. The decision support system for agro-technology transfer (DSSAT4.5) was used to evaluate the influence of climate change on wheat yield. The most positive effects were found for wheat yield as affected by technology in all studied regions. Under future climate change, the SRES projected a decrease in yield, especially in West Azarbaijan region. When the effects of elevated CO2 were considered, all regions resulted to increase in wheat yield. Considering all components effect in comparison with baseline (2011), yield increase would range from 5% to 38% across all times, scenarios and regions. According to our findings, it seems that we may expect a higher yield of wheat in NW Iran in the future if technology development continues as well as past years. (Author)

  6. Simulating future wheat yield under climate change, carbon dioxide enrichment and technology improvement in Iran. Case study: Azarbaijan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Mansouri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and technology development can affect crop productivity in future conditions. Precise estimation of crops yield change as affected by climate and technology in the future is an effective approach for management strategies. The aim of this study was to estimate the impacts of climate change, technology improvement, CO2 enrichment, and overall impacts on wheat yield under future conditions. Wheat yield was projected for three future time periods (2020, 2050 and 2080 compared to baseline year (2011 under two scenarios of IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES including SRES-A2 as regional economic scenario and SRES-B1 as global environmental scenario in Azarbaijan region (NW of Iran. A linear regression model, describing the relationship between wheat yield and historical year, was developed to investigate technology development effect. The decision support system for agro-technology transfer (DSSAT4.5 was used to evaluate the influence of climate change on wheat yield. The most positive effects were found for wheat yield as affected by technology in all studied regions. Under future climate change, the SRES projected a decrease in yield, especially in West Azarbaijan region. When the effects of elevated CO2 were considered, all regions resulted to increase in wheat yield. Considering all components effect in comparison with baseline (2011, yield increase would range from 5% to 38% across all times, scenarios and regions. According to our findings, it seems that we may expect a higher yield of wheat in NW Iran in the future if technology development continues as well as past years.

  7. Separating heat stress from moisture stress: analyzing yield response to high temperature in irrigated maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Elizabeth K.; Melkonian, Jeff; Riha, Susan J.; Shaw, Stephen B.

    2016-09-01

    Several recent studies have indicated that high air temperatures are limiting maize (Zea mays L.) yields in the US Corn Belt and project significant yield losses with expected increases in growing season temperatures. Further work has suggested that high air temperatures are indicative of high evaporative demand, and that decreases in maize yields which correlate to high temperatures and vapor pressure deficits (VPD) likely reflect underlying soil moisture limitations. It remains unclear whether direct high temperature impacts on yields, independent of moisture stress, can be observed under current temperature regimes. Given that projected high temperature and moisture may not co-vary the same way as they have historically, quantitative analyzes of direct temperature impacts are critical for accurate yield projections and targeted mitigation strategies under shifting temperature regimes. To evaluate yield response to above optimum temperatures independent of soil moisture stress, we analyzed climate impacts on irrigated maize yields obtained from the National Corn Growers Association (NCGA) corn yield contests for Nebraska, Kansas and Missouri. In irrigated maize, we found no evidence of a direct negative impact on yield by daytime air temperature, calculated canopy temperature, or VPD when analyzed seasonally. Solar radiation was the primary yield-limiting climate variable. Our analyses suggested that elevated night temperature impacted yield by increasing rates of phenological development. High temperatures during grain-fill significantly interacted with yields, but this effect was often beneficial and included evidence of acquired thermo-tolerance. Furthermore, genetics and management—information uniquely available in the NCGA contest data—explained more yield variability than climate, and significantly modified crop response to climate. Thermo-acclimation, improved genetics and changes to management practices have the potential to partially or completely

  8. Yield and technological quality of ecological and low-input production of potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILAN MACÁK

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The yield and other quantitative (number of plants, number of tubers, weight of tubers per 1 m2 and qualitative parameters (content of vitamin C, starch, nitrogen and dry matter of the Solanum tuberosum L. early variety “Collete” have been studied in ecological and low-input farming systems with two levels of organic fertilization during 2003-2005. The experiment was situated in water-protected zone of western Slovakia on Luvi-Haplic Chernozem. After harvest of forecrop in higher level of organic fertilization treatment catch crop – phacelia and mustard was grown. Highly significant differences in each studied parameters of potato tubers between certain years were ascertained, thus great influence of weather conditions on quality and quantity of potatoes was confirmed. Yields was highly significantly influenced also by farming systems, when in low-input system the average yield was 21.38 t ha-1 and in ecological system 20.02 t ha-1. Green manure management did not influence yield significantly. In treatment without green manure the average yield 20.47 t ha-1 was reached with comparison to green manure application treatments 20.93 t ha-1. In low-input system significantly higher C vitamin content (4.23 mg 100g-1 was ascertained compared to ecological one 3.53 mg 100g-1. Other qualitative parameters were more or less on the same level. We recommended both farming system for growing potatoes in water vulnerable zones and for better fulfil the Good Agricultural Practices in Slovak conditions.

  9. Carbon isotope discrimination as a selection tool for high water use efficiency and high crop yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumarasinghe, K.S.; Kirda, C.; Bowen, G.D.; Zapata, F.; Awonaike, K.O.; Holmgren, E.; Arslan, A.; De Bisbal, E.C.; Mohamed, A.R.A.G.; Montenegro, A.

    1996-01-01

    Results of back-up research conducted at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory in support of the FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Use of Isotope Studies on Increasing and Stabilizing Plant Productivity in Low Phosphate and Semi-arid and Sub-humid Soils of the Tropics and Sub-tropics, are presented here. Neutron probe measurements confirmed the earlier reports of a strong correlation of Δ with grain yield and water use efficiency of wheat. High soil gypsum content and soil salinity, a wide spread problem in soils of arid and semi-arid climatic zones, do not interfere with the association of Δ with crop yields, provided plants are grown in similar soil water status and soil fertility level. Results of a glasshouse experiment using selected cowpea genotypes showed that Δ values measured at flowering stage positively correlated with total dry matter production and percent N 2 derived from atmosphere (%Ndfa), contributing to an earlier report from the laboratory that it may be possible to use Δ values for screening of leguminous crops for high N 2 fixation potential. 13 C isotope discrimination in the leaves of Gliricidia sepium was measured to examine if the technique could be extended to studies with trees. Results of a glasshouse experiment with 18 provenances of Gliricidia sepium showed highly significant correlations of Δ with total dry matter production, water use efficiency and total N accumulated through biological nitrogen fixation. Although the correlation of Δ with water use efficiency and dry matter yield are relatively clear and better understood, the correlation with nitrogen fixation still needs a closer examination under different environmental conditions and with different species. While 13 C isotope discrimination may be a valuable tool for identifying annual crops with high water use efficiency and high yield potential, it may be more attractive for tree species considering the long growth periods taken for trees

  10. High Frequency Electronic Packaging Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, M.; Lowry, L.; Lee, K.; Kolawa, E.; Tulintseff, A.; Shalkhauser, K.; Whitaker, J.; Piket-May, M.

    1994-01-01

    Commercial and government communication, radar, and information systems face the challenge of cost and mass reduction via the application of advanced packaging technology. A majority of both government and industry support has been focused on low frequency digital electronics.

  11. High School Student Physics Research Experience Yields Positive Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolak, K. R.; Walters, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    All high school students that wish to continue onto college are seeking opportunities to be competitive in the college market. They participate in extra-curricular activities which are seen to foster creativity and the skills necessary to do well in the college environment. In the case of students with an interest in physics, participating in a…

  12. Gamma rays induced bold seeded high yielding mutant in chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wani, A.A.; Anis, M.

    2001-01-01

    variety (12.64±0.14g). This ultimately resulted in an increase in the overall yield of the mutant plant (38.86±1.69g) as compared to Pusa-212 (30.05±0.59g). Gamma ray induced bold seeded mutants have been reported earlier by different workers. The decrease in the number of seeds per pod and pods/plant and increase in seed weight is evidence of the fact that each trait is affected independently by the mutagenic treatment. Although the mutant was morphologically distinct, cytologically it was normal. There were 8 perfect bivalents at metaphase and the anaphase segregation was normal. It is concluded that bold seeded mutant may be utilized in various breeding programs as a donor parent for boldness character of the mutant. On the other hand the mutant may also itself be improved through crosses with other parents to accommodate more seeds in its large sized pod, which remained almost 50% empty

  13. High school student physics research experience yields positive results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolak, K. R.; Walters, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    All high school students that wish to continue onto college are seeking opportunities to be competitive in the college market. They participate in extra-curricular activities which are seen to foster creativity and the skills necessary to do well in the college environment. In the case of students with an interest in physics, participating in a small scale research project while in high school gives them the hands on experience and ultimately prepares them more for the college experience. SUNY Plattsburgh’s Physics department started a five-week summer program for high school students in 2012. This program has proved not only beneficial for students while in the program, but also as they continue on in their development as scientists/engineers. Independent research, such as that offered by SUNY Plattsburgh’s five-week summer program, offers students a feel and taste of the culture of doing research, and life as a scientist. It is a short-term, risk free way to investigate whether a career in research or a particular scientific field is a good fit.

  14. Embracing the emerging precision agriculture technologies for site-specific management of yield-limiting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melakeberhan, H

    2002-09-01

    Precision agriculture (PA) is providing an information revolution using Global Positioning (GPS) and Geographic Information (GIS) systems and Remote Sensing (RS). These technologies allow better decision making in the management of crop yield-limiting biotic and abiotic factors and their interactions on a site-specific (SSM) basis in a wide range of production systems. Characterizing the nature of the problem(s) and public education are among the challenges that scientists, producers, and industry face when adapting PA technologies. To apply SSM, spatio-temporal characteristics of the problem(s) need to be determined and variations within a field demonstrated. Spatio-temporal characteristics of a given pathogen or pest problem may be known but may not be the only or primary cause of the problem. Hence, exact cause-and-effect relationships need to be established by incorporating GIS, GPS, and RS-generated data as well as possible interactions. Exploiting the potential of PA technologies in sustainable ways depends on whether or not we first ask ''Are we doing the right thing?'' (strategic) as opposed to ''Are we doing it right?'' (tactical).

  15. Clickstream data yields high-resolution maps of science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollen, Johan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Van De Sompel, Herbert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagberg, Aric [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bettencourt, Luis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chute, Ryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez, Marko A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Balakireva, Lyudmila [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Intricate maps of science have been created from citation data to visualize the structure of scientific activity. However, most scientific publications are now accessed online. Scholarly web portals record detailed log data at a scale that exceeds the number of all existing citations combined. Such log data is recorded immediately upon publication and keeps track of the sequences of user requests (clickstreams) that are issued by a variety of users across many different domains. Given these advantagees of log datasets over citation data, we investigate whether they can produce high-resolution, more current maps of science.

  16. High lysine and high yielding mutants in wheat (Triticum aestivum) L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, T.; Mahmood, F.; Ahmad, A.; Sattar, A.; Khan, I.

    1988-01-01

    The dry seeds of the variety Lu-26 were irradiated with 20 krad of gamma rays. In M 2 about 300 mutant plants were selected for short stature, rust resistance and other desirable traits. As a result of further selection, in M 6 , eight superior lines were finally identified. The agronomic characteristics of these mutants, the parent variety (Lu-26) and a standard check variety (Pak-81) are shown. The selected mutants and commercially grown cultivars (Lu-26 and Pak-81) were studied for total protein content and amino acid pattern. The mutants WM-89-1, WM-6-17 and WM-81-2 showing high yield also contained comparatively high amounts of methionine and lysine. The lysine contents were 565, 410, and 370 mg/100g in the mutants WM-89-1, WM-6-17 and WM-81-2, respectively against a range value of 210-370 mg/100g in other mutants and 250-320 in the commercial cultivars. The mutant WM-81-2 was comparable to WM-56-1-5 in lysine content. The results of these experiments show a possibility of developing varieties having high yield and high amounts of essential amino acids such as lysine and methionine

  17. High-yield secretion of recombinant proteins expressed in tobacco cell culture with a designer glycopeptide tag: Process development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ningning; Gonzalez, Maria; Savary, Brett; Xu, Jianfeng

    2016-03-01

    Low-yield protein production remains the most significant economic hurdle with plant cell culture technology. Fusions of recombinant proteins with hydroxyproline-O-glycosylated designer glycopeptide tags have consistently boosted secreted protein yields. This prompted us to study the process development of this technology aiming to achieve productivity levels necessary for commercial viability. We used a tobacco BY-2 cell culture expressing EGFP as fusion with a glycopeptide tag comprised of 32 repeat of "Ser-Pro" dipeptide, or (SP)32 , to study cell growth and protein secretion, culture scale-up, and establishment of perfusion cultures for continuous production. The BY-2 cells accumulated low levels of cell biomass (~7.5 g DW/L) in Schenk & Hildebrandt medium, but secreted high yields of (SP)32 -tagged EGFP (125 mg/L). Protein productivity of the cell culture has been stable for 6.0 years. The BY-2 cells cultured in a 5-L bioreactor similarly produced high secreted protein yield at 131 mg/L. Successful operation of a cell perfusion culture for 30 days was achieved under the perfusion rate of 0.25 and 0.5 day(-1) , generating a protein volumetric productivity of 17.6 and 28.9 mg/day/L, respectively. This research demonstrates the great potential of the designer glycopeptide technology for use in commercial production of valuable proteins with plant cell cultures. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. High Impact Technology Compact Combustion (HITCC) Compact Core Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    were combusted in a vitiated stream. The molecular weight and hydrogen -to-carbon ratios of these fuels were measured by Princeton University [17...AFRL-RQ-WP-TR-2016-0010 HIGH IMPACT TECHNOLOGY COMPACT COMBUSTION (HITCC) COMPACT CORE TECHNOLOGIES Andrew W. Caswell Combustion ...ANDREW W. CASWELL CHARLES J. CROSS, Branch Chief Program Engineer Combustion Branch Combustion Branch Turbine Engine Division Turbine

  19. Clickstream data yields high-resolution maps of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Johan; Van de Sompel, Herbert; Hagberg, Aric; Bettencourt, Luis; Chute, Ryan; Rodriguez, Marko A; Balakireva, Lyudmila

    2009-01-01

    Intricate maps of science have been created from citation data to visualize the structure of scientific activity. However, most scientific publications are now accessed online. Scholarly web portals record detailed log data at a scale that exceeds the number of all existing citations combined. Such log data is recorded immediately upon publication and keeps track of the sequences of user requests (clickstreams) that are issued by a variety of users across many different domains. Given these advantages of log datasets over citation data, we investigate whether they can produce high-resolution, more current maps of science. Over the course of 2007 and 2008, we collected nearly 1 billion user interactions recorded by the scholarly web portals of some of the most significant publishers, aggregators and institutional consortia. The resulting reference data set covers a significant part of world-wide use of scholarly web portals in 2006, and provides a balanced coverage of the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences. A journal clickstream model, i.e. a first-order Markov chain, was extracted from the sequences of user interactions in the logs. The clickstream model was validated by comparing it to the Getty Research Institute's Architecture and Art Thesaurus. The resulting model was visualized as a journal network that outlines the relationships between various scientific domains and clarifies the connection of the social sciences and humanities to the natural sciences. Maps of science resulting from large-scale clickstream data provide a detailed, contemporary view of scientific activity and correct the underrepresentation of the social sciences and humanities that is commonly found in citation data.

  20. Microbial Species and Functional Diversity in Rice Rhizosphere of High-yield Special Ecological Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAN Li-yuan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Taoyuan, Yunnan Province is a special eco-site which keeps the highest yield records of rice cultivation in small planting areas. Soil microbial species and functional diversity were evaluated using cultivation method and BIOLOG ecoplates. The results showed that the microbial community of the high yield region was more abundant, and the total microbial population was 2 times of the control, furthermore, the areas belonged to the healthy "bacteria" soil, which was showed as bacteria > actinomycetes > fungi. Bacteria were the dominant populations in the rhizosphere of high yielding rice field, and the yield formation of rice was not correlated with the depth of soil layers. In order to obtain more species diversity information, Shannon diversity index H, Shannon evenness index E and Simpson index D were analyzed, and the results showed that microbial community diversity and evenness were not the main differences between the high and general yield areas. Then, the functional diversity of soil microbial community was investigated through the average well color development(AWCD and diversity index analyses. The results of AWCD analysis indicated that the metabolic activity of soil microbial community in high yield paddy soils were stronger than the control. Moreover, the difference range from large to small showed as tillering stage > harvest period > seedling period > rotation period, the stronger the rice growth, the greater the difference between the high yield region and the control. At tillering stage and harvest stage, due to the vigorous plant growth, the root exudates were rich, and the microbial communities of high yield paddy soils showed a strong metabolic activity and strong ability to use carbon sources. The results of Shannon, Simpson and McIntosh indices analysis indicated that common microbial species was not a key factor affecting the yield of rice. Tillering stage was a key period for the growth of high yield rice, and many

  1. High yield polyol synthesis of round- and sharp-end silver nanowires with high aspect ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekahi, A.; Marashi, S.P.H., E-mail: pmarashi@aut.ac.ir; Fatmesari, D. Haghshenas

    2016-12-01

    Long silver nanowires (average length of 28 μm, average aspect ratio of 130) with uniform diameter along their length were produced by polyol synthesis of AgNO{sub 3} in ethylene glycol in the presence of PVP as preferential growth agent. Nanowires were produced with no addition of chloride salts such as NaCl or CuCl{sub 2} (or other additives such as Na{sub 2}S) which are usually used for lowering reduction rate of Ag ions by additional etchant of O{sub 2}/Cl{sup −}. Lower reduction rate was obtained by increasing the injection time of PVP and AgNO{sub 3} solutions, which was the significant factor in the formation of nanowires. Therefore, there was enough time for reduced Ag atoms to be deposited preferentially in the direction of PVP chains, resulting in high yield (the fraction of nanowires in the products) of nanowires (more than 95%) with high aspect ratio. The produced nanowires had both round- and sharp-ends with pentagonal cross section. Higher energy level of Ag atoms in borders of MTPs, which increases the dissolution rate of precipitated atoms, in addition to partial melting of MTPs at high synthesis temperatures, leads to the curving of the surfaces of exposed (111) crystalline planes in some MTPs and the formation of round-end silver nanowires. - Highlights: • Long silver nanowires with high aspect ratio of 130 were produced. • More than 95% nanowires were produced in products. • The produced nanowires had round- and sharp-ends with pentagonal cross section. • Additives were needed neither for high yield synthesis nor for round-end nanowires. • Melting and etching of MTPs in high energy borders resulted to round-end nanowires.

  2. Development of high burnup nuclear fuel technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, Ho Chun; Kang, Young Hwan; Jung, Jin Gone; Hwang, Won; Park, Zoo Hwan; Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, Bong Goo; Kim, Il Gone

    1987-04-01

    The objectives of the project are mainly to develope both design and manufacturing technologies for 600 MWe-CANDU-PHWR-type high burnup nuclear fuel, and secondly to build up the foundation of PWR high burnup nuclear fuel technology on the basis of KAERI technology localized upon the standard 600 MWe-CANDU- PHWR nuclear fuel. So, as in the first stage, the goal of the program in the last one year was set up mainly to establish the concept of the nuclear fuel pellet design and manufacturing. The economic incentives for high burnup nuclear fuel technology development are improvement of fuel utilization, backend costs plant operation, etc. Forming the most important incentives of fuel cycle costs reduction and improvement of power operation, etc., the development of high burnup nuclear fuel technology and also the research on the incore fuel management and safety and technologies are necessary in this country

  3. High-yield production of a stable Vero cell-based vaccine candidate against the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Fangye; Zhou, Jian; Ma, Lei; Song, Shaohui; Zhang, Xinwen; Li, Weidong; Jiang, Shude [No. 5, Department of Bioproducts, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Pecking Union Medical College, Jiaoling Avenue 935, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650102, People' s Republic of China (China); Wang, Yue, E-mail: euy-tokyo@umin.ac.jp [National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Yingxin Lane 100, Xicheng District, Beijing 100052, People' s Republic of China (China); Liao, Guoyang, E-mail: liaogy@21cn.com [No. 5, Department of Bioproducts, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Pecking Union Medical College, Jiaoling Avenue 935, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650102, People' s Republic of China (China)

    2012-05-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vero cell-based HPAI H5N1 vaccine with stable high yield. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stable high yield derived from the YNVa H3N2 backbone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H5N1/YNVa has a similar safety and immunogenicity to H5N1delta. -- Abstract: Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses pose a global pandemic threat, for which rapid large-scale vaccine production technology is critical for prevention and control. Because chickens are highly susceptible to HPAI viruses, the supply of chicken embryos for vaccine production might be depleted during a virus outbreak. Therefore, developing HPAI virus vaccines using other technologies is critical. Meeting vaccine demand using the Vero cell-based fermentation process has been hindered by low stability and yield. In this study, a Vero cell-based HPAI H5N1 vaccine candidate (H5N1/YNVa) with stable high yield was achieved by reassortment of the Vero-adapted (Va) high growth A/Yunnan/1/2005(H3N2) (YNVa) virus with the A/Anhui/1/2005(H5N1) attenuated influenza vaccine strain (H5N1delta) using the 6/2 method. The reassorted H5N1/YNVa vaccine maintained a high hemagglutination (HA) titer of 1024. Furthermore, H5N1/YNVa displayed low pathogenicity and uniform immunogenicity compared to that of the parent virus.

  4. High-yield production of a stable Vero cell-based vaccine candidate against the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Fangye; Zhou, Jian; Ma, Lei; Song, Shaohui; Zhang, Xinwen; Li, Weidong; Jiang, Shude; Wang, Yue; Liao, Guoyang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Vero cell-based HPAI H5N1 vaccine with stable high yield. ► Stable high yield derived from the YNVa H3N2 backbone. ► H5N1/YNVa has a similar safety and immunogenicity to H5N1delta. -- Abstract: Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses pose a global pandemic threat, for which rapid large-scale vaccine production technology is critical for prevention and control. Because chickens are highly susceptible to HPAI viruses, the supply of chicken embryos for vaccine production might be depleted during a virus outbreak. Therefore, developing HPAI virus vaccines using other technologies is critical. Meeting vaccine demand using the Vero cell-based fermentation process has been hindered by low stability and yield. In this study, a Vero cell-based HPAI H5N1 vaccine candidate (H5N1/YNVa) with stable high yield was achieved by reassortment of the Vero-adapted (Va) high growth A/Yunnan/1/2005(H3N2) (YNVa) virus with the A/Anhui/1/2005(H5N1) attenuated influenza vaccine strain (H5N1delta) using the 6/2 method. The reassorted H5N1/YNVa vaccine maintained a high hemagglutination (HA) titer of 1024. Furthermore, H5N1/YNVa displayed low pathogenicity and uniform immunogenicity compared to that of the parent virus.

  5. High technology revisited: definition and position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to defining high technology by distinguishing two different aspects. First, complexity, which is a more or less a `static' view on high technology and is applied to both the final product as well as the production process. Second, the newness, relates to a

  6. 31 CFR 356.21 - How are awards at the high yield or discount rate calculated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... discount rate calculated? 356.21 Section 356.21 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... high yield or discount rate calculated? (a) Awards to submitters. We generally prorate bids at the highest accepted yield or discount rate under § 356.20(a)(2) of this part. For example, if 80.15% is the...

  7. SELECTION RESPONSE FOR INCREASED GRAIN YIELD IN TWO HIGH OIL MAIZE SYNTHETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made J. Mejaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Selection for increased oil level in maize showed the increase was associated with decrease in starch concentration, kernel weight, and grain yield. The study was conducted with the objectives: (1 to evaluate response to six cycles for increased grain yield in the high oil maize Alexho Elite (AE: 60-90 g kg-1 oil concentration and Ultra High Oil (UHO: 100-140 g kg-1 oil concentration using inbred tester B73; (2 to measure responses to selection for increased grain yield with changes in yield components; and (3 to determine a suitable tester. Previously the two synthetics had been selected for oil concentration. After six cycles, the six genotypes i.e. AE C0, AE C3, AE C6, UHO C0, UHO C3, and UHO C6 were testcrossed to B73, LH185, and LH202 inbreds (40 g kg-1 oil concentration to a total of 18 testcrosses. Two field experiments were used to evaluate selection in AE and UHO testcrosses. The study showed selection using inbred tester B73 in AE and UHO was effective in increasing grain yield of AE testcrosses without changing (i.e. decreasing oil and protein concentrations. AE testcrosses produced higher grain yield and greater selection response for grain yield than UHO testcrosses. LH185 was best for grain yield in AE and UHO testcrosses. Increase in grain yield in most of the testcrosses was associated with increases in starch concentration, kernel weight, kernel number, and grain weight.

  8. Added-values of high spatiotemporal remote sensing data in crop yield estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, F.; Anderson, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Timely and accurate estimation of crop yield before harvest is critical for food market and administrative planning. Remote sensing derived parameters have been used for estimating crop yield by using either empirical or crop growth models. The uses of remote sensing vegetation index (VI) in crop yield modeling have been typically evaluated at regional and country scales using coarse spatial resolution (a few hundred to kilo-meters) data or assessed over a small region at field level using moderate resolution spatial resolution data (10-100m). Both data sources have shown great potential in capturing spatial and temporal variability in crop yield. However, the added value of data with both high spatial and temporal resolution data has not been evaluated due to the lack of such data source with routine, global coverage. In recent years, more moderate resolution data have become freely available and data fusion approaches that combine data acquired from different spatial and temporal resolutions have been developed. These make the monitoring crop condition and estimating crop yield at field scale become possible. Here we investigate the added value of the high spatial and temporal VI for describing variability of crop yield. The explanatory ability of crop yield based on high spatial and temporal resolution remote sensing data was evaluated in a rain-fed agricultural area in the U.S. Corn Belt. Results show that the fused Landsat-MODIS (high spatial and temporal) VI explains yield variability better than single data source (Landsat or MODIS alone), with EVI2 performing slightly better than NDVI. The maximum VI describes yield variability better than cumulative VI. Even though VI is effective in explaining yield variability within season, the inter-annual variability is more complex and need additional information (e.g. weather, water use and management). Our findings augment the importance of high spatiotemporal remote sensing data and supports new moderate

  9. Quartz crystal microbalance-based system for high-sensitivity differential sputter yield measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, B.; Topper, J. L.; Farnell, C. C.; Yalin, A. P.

    2009-01-01

    We present a quartz crystal microbalance-based system for high sensitivity differential sputter yield measurements of different target materials due to ion bombardment. The differential sputter yields can be integrated to find total yields. Possible ion beam conditions include ion energies in the range of 30-350 eV and incidence angles of 0 deg. - 70 deg. from normal. A four-grid ion optics system is used to achieve a collimated ion beam at low energy (<100 eV) and a two-grid ion optics is used for higher energies (up to 750 eV). A complementary weight loss approach is also used to measure total sputter yields. Validation experiments are presented that confirm high sensitivity and accuracy of sputter yield measurements.

  10. High field MRI in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: high field-high yield?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wattjes, Mike P.; Barkhof, Frederik [VU University Medical Center, MS Center Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-05-15

    Following the approval of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been increasingly incorporated into the clinical setting. Especially in the field of neuroimaging, the number of high field MRI applications has been increased dramatically. Taking advantage on increased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and chemical shift, higher magnetic field strengths offer new perspectives particularly in brain imaging and also challenges in terms of several technical and physical consequences. Over the past few years, many applications of high field MRI in patients with suspected and definite multiple sclerosis (MS) have been reported including conventional and quantitative MRI methods. Conventional pulse sequences at 3 T offers higher lesion detection rates when compared to 1.5 T, particularly in anatomic regions which are important for the diagnosis of patients with MS. MR spectroscopy at 3 T is characterized by an improved spectral resolution due to increased chemical shift allowing a better quantification of metabolites. It detects significant axonal damage already in patients presenting with clinically isolated syndromes and can quantify metabolites of special interest such as glutamate which is technically difficult to quantify at lower field strengths. Furthermore, the higher susceptibility and SNR offer advantages in the field of functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. The recently introduced new generation of ultra-high field systems beyond 3 T allows scanning in submillimeter resolution and gives new insights into in vivo MS pathology on MRI. The objectives of this article are to review the current knowledge and level of evidence concerning the application of high field MRI in MS and to give some ideas of research perspectives in the future. (orig.)

  11. Optimal yield-related attributes of irrigated rice for high yield potential based on path analysis and stability analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganghua Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of yield in rice (Oryza sativa L. is vital for ensuring food security in China. Both rice breeders and growers need an improved understanding of the relationship between yield and yield-related traits. New indica cultivars (53 in 2007 and 48 in 2008 were grown in Taoyuan, Yunnan province, to identify important components contributing to yield. Additionally, two standard indica rice cultivars with similar yield potentials, II You 107 (a large-panicle type and Xieyou 107 (a heavy-panicle type, were planted in Taoyuan, Yunnan province and Nanjing, Jiangsu province, from 2006 to 2008 to evaluate the stability of yield and yield-related attributes. Growth duration (GD, leaf area index (LAI, panicles per m2 (PN, and spikelets per m2 (SM were significantly and positively correlated with grain yield (GY over all years. Sequential path analysis identified PN and panicle weight (PW as important first-order traits that influenced grain yield. All direct effects were significant, as indicated by bootstrap analysis. Yield potential varied greatly across locations but not across years. Plant height (PH, days from heading to maturity (HM, and grain weight (GW were stable traits that showed little variation across sites or years, whereas GD (mainly the pre-heading period, PHP and PN varied significantly across locations. To achieve a yield of 15 t ha− 1, a cultivar should have a PH of 110–125 cm, a long GD with HM of approximately 40 days, a PN of 300–400 m− 2, and a GW of 29–31 mg.

  12. Breeding high-yielding drought-tolerant rice: genetic variations and conventional and molecular approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Dixit, Shalabh; Ram, T; Yadaw, R B; Mishra, K K; Mandal, N P

    2014-11-01

    The increased occurrence and severity of drought stress have led to a high yield decline in rice in recent years in drought-affected areas. Drought research at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) over the past decade has concentrated on direct selection for grain yield under drought. This approach has led to the successful development and release of 17 high-yielding drought-tolerant rice varieties in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Africa. In addition to this, 14 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) showing a large effect against high-yielding drought-susceptible popular varieties were identified using grain yield as a selection criterion. Six of these (qDTY 1.1 , qDTY 2.2 , qDTY 3.1 , qDTY 3.2 , qDTY 6.1 , and qDTY 12.1 ) showed an effect against two or more high-yielding genetic backgrounds in both the lowland and upland ecosystem, indicating their usefulness in increasing the grain yield of rice under drought. The yield of popular rice varieties IR64 and Vandana has been successfully improved through a well-planned marker-assisted backcross breeding approach, and QTL introgression in several other popular varieties is in progress. The identification of large-effect QTLs for grain yield under drought and the higher yield increase under drought obtained through the use of these QTLs (which has not been reported in other cereals) indicate that rice, because of its continuous cultivation in two diverse ecosystems (upland, drought tolerant, and lowland, drought susceptible), has benefited from the existence of larger genetic variability than in other cereals. This can be successfully exploited using marker-assisted breeding. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  13. High temperature vapors science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hastie, John

    2012-01-01

    High Temperature Vapors: Science and Technology focuses on the relationship of the basic science of high-temperature vapors to some areas of discernible practical importance in modern science and technology. The major high-temperature problem areas selected for discussion include chemical vapor transport and deposition; the vapor phase aspects of corrosion, combustion, and energy systems; and extraterrestrial high-temperature species. This book is comprised of seven chapters and begins with an introduction to the nature of the high-temperature vapor state, the scope and literature of high-temp

  14. FLEXIBLE, HIGH CHAR YIELD HYBRIDSIL ADHESIVE MATERIALS FOR NEXT GENERATION ABLATIVE THERMAL PROTECTION SYSTEMS, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NanoSonic will create and empirically validate flexible, high char yield HybridSil adhesive nanocomposites for use within current and next generation polymer based...

  15. Improved Yield, Performance and Reliability of High-Actuator-Count Deformable Mirrors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project team will conduct processing and design research aimed at improving yield, performance, and reliability of high-actuator-count micro-electro-mechanical...

  16. Creating a High-Touch Recruitment Event: Utilizing Faculty to Recruit and Yield Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Lindsey R.; Howell, Leanne L.

    2018-01-01

    The following article describes the planning and implementation of a university student recruitment event that produced a high (new) student yield. Detailed descriptions of how staff and faculty worked together to plan and implement this event are described.

  17. High-throughput and high-yield fabrication of uniaxially-aligned chitosan-based nanofibers by centrifugal electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Ariane E; Edmondson, Dennis; Chang, Fei-Chien; Wood, Dave; Gong, Alex; Levengood, Sheeny Lan; Zhang, Miqin

    2015-12-10

    The inability to produce large quantities of nanofibers has been a primary obstacle in advancement and commercialization of electrospinning technologies, especially when aligned nanofibers are desired. Here, we present a high-throughput centrifugal electrospinning (HTP-CES) system capable of producing a large number of highly-aligned nanofiber samples with high-yield and tunable diameters. The versatility of the design was revealed when bead-less nanofibers were produced from copolymer chitosan/polycaprolactone (C-PCL) solutions despite variations in polymer blend composition or spinneret needle gauge. Compared to conventional electrospinning techniques, fibers spun with the HTP-CES not only exhibited superior alignment, but also better diameter uniformity. Nanofiber alignment was quantified using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis. In addition, a concave correlation between the needle diameter and resultant fiber diameter was identified. This system can be easily scaled up for industrial production of highly-aligned nanofibers with tunable diameters that can potentially meet the requirements for various engineering and biomedical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mid-Season High-Resolution Satellite Imagery for Forecasting Site-Specific Corn Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahuel R. Peralta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A timely and accurate crop yield forecast is crucial to make better decisions on crop management, marketing, and storage by assessing ahead and implementing based on expected crop performance. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of high-resolution satellite imagery data collected at mid-growing season for identification of within-field variability and to forecast corn yield at different sites within a field. A test was conducted on yield monitor data and RapidEye satellite imagery obtained for 22 cornfields located in five different counties (Clay, Dickinson, Rice, Saline, and Washington of Kansas (total of 457 ha. Three basic tests were conducted on the data: (1 spatial dependence on each of the yield and vegetation indices (VIs using Moran’s I test; (2 model selection for the relationship between imagery data and actual yield using ordinary least square regression (OLS and spatial econometric (SPL models; and (3 model validation for yield forecasting purposes. Spatial autocorrelation analysis (Moran’s I test for both yield and VIs (red edge NDVI = NDVIre, normalized difference vegetation index = NDVIr, SRre = red-edge simple ratio, near infrared = NIR and green-NDVI = NDVIG was tested positive and statistically significant for most of the fields (p < 0.05, except for one. Inclusion of spatial adjustment to model improved the model fit on most fields as compared to OLS models, with the spatial adjustment coefficient significant for half of the fields studied. When selected models were used for prediction to validate dataset, a striking similarity (RMSE = 0.02 was obtained between predicted and observed yield within a field. Yield maps could assist implementing more effective site-specific management tools and could be utilized as a proxy of yield monitor data. In summary, high-resolution satellite imagery data can be reasonably used to forecast yield via utilization of models that include spatial adjustment to

  19. Comparison of biomolecule desorption yields for low and high energy primary ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamensky, I.; Hakansson, P.; Sundqvist, B.; McNeal, C.J.; MacFarlane, R.

    1982-01-01

    Ion induced desorption yields of molecular ions from samples of cesium iodide, glycylglycine, ergosterol, bleomycin and a trinucleoside diphosphate have been studied using primary beams of 54 MeV 63 Cu 9+ and 3 keV 133 Cs + . Mass analysis was performed with a time-of-flight technique. Each sample was studied with the same spectrometer for both low and high energy primary ions and without opening of the vacuum chamber in between the measurements. The results show that fast heavy ions give larger yields for all samples studied and that the yield ratios for high to low energy desorption increase with the mass of the sample molecule. (orig.)

  20. Practical protocols for production of very high yields of recombinant proteins using Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Sivashanmugam, Arun; Murray, Victoria; Cui, Chunxian; Zhang, Yonghong; Wang, Jianjun; Li, Qianqian

    2009-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli offers a mean for rapid, high yield, and economical production of recombinant proteins. However, high-level production of functional eukaryotic proteins in E. coli may not be a routine matter, sometimes it is quite challenging. Techniques to optimize heterologous protein overproduction in E. coli have been explored for host strain selection, plasmid copy numbers, promoter selection, mRNA stability, and codon usage, significantly enhancing the yield...

  1. High-Temperature Test Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    F33615-84-C-3213 Sc. ADDRESS (City. State and ZIP Code) 10. SOURCE OF: FUNDING NOBI . AFWVAL/FIBT PROGRAM PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT Wright-Patterson AFB OH...fly at speeds in excess of Mach 20. Aerodynamic heating "rom these hypersonic speeds will pro - duce vehicle surface temperatures as high as 3000*F. In...We believe that two former suppliers, Pyro-Metrics and lunar Infrared, are no longer in business. In addition, the Hi-Shear product line is now

  2. MOOCs, High Technology, and Higher Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    In "MOOCs, High Technology, and Higher Learning," Robert A. Rhoads places the OpenCourseWare (OCW) movement into the larger context of a revolution in educational technology. In doing so, he seeks to bring greater balance to increasingly polarized discussions of massively open online courses (MOOCs) and show their ongoing relevance to…

  3. Silicates materials of high vacuum technology

    CERN Document Server

    Espe, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Materials of High Vacuum Technology, Volume 2: Silicates covers silicate insulators of special importance to vacuum technology. The book discusses the manufacture, composition, and physical and chemical properties of technical glasses, quartz glass, quartzware, vycor glass, ceramic materials, mica, and asbestos.

  4. Technology Leadership in Malaysia's High Performance School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yieng, Wong Ai; Daud, Khadijah Binti

    2017-01-01

    Headmaster as leader of the school also plays a role as a technology leader. This applies to the high performance schools (HPS) headmaster as well. The HPS excel in all aspects of education. In this study, researcher is interested in examining the role of the headmaster as a technology leader through interviews with three headmasters of high…

  5. Microbial Carbon Substrate Utilization Differences among High- and Average-Yield Soybean Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor C. Adams

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Since soybean (Glycine max L. (Merr. yields greater than 6719 kg ha−1 have only recently and infrequently been achieved, little is known about the soil microbiological environment related to high-yield soybean production. Soil microbiological properties are often overlooked when assessing agronomic practices for optimal production. Therefore, a greater understanding is needed regarding how soil biological properties may differ between high- and average-yielding areas within fields. The objectives of this study were to (i evaluate the effects of region on soil microbial carbon substrate utilization differences between high- (HY and average-yield (AY areas and (ii assess the effect of yield area on selected microbiological property differences. Replicate soil samples were collected from the 0–10 cm depth from yield-contest-entered fields in close proximity that had both a HY and an AY area. Samples were collected immediately prior to or just after soybean harvest in 2014 and 2015 from each of seven geographic regions within Arkansas. Averaged across yield area, community-level carbon substrate utilization and Shannon’s and Simpson’s functional diversity and evenness were greater (p < 0.05 in Region 7 than all other regions. Averaged across regions, Shannon’s functional diversity and evenness were greater (p < 0.05 in HY than in AY areas. Principal component analysis demonstrated that a greater variety of carbon substrates were used in HY than AY areas. These results may help producers understand the soil microbiological environment in their own fields that contribute to or hinder achieving high-yielding soybeans; however, additional parameters may need to be assessed for a more comprehensive understanding of the soil environment that is associated with high-yielding soybean.

  6. High velocity pulse biopsy device enables controllable and precise needle insertion and high yield tissue acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schässburger, Kai-Uwe; Paepke, Stefan; Saracco, Ariel; Azavedo, Edward; Ekström, Christina; Wiksell, Hans

    2018-02-01

    Minimally invasive biopsies are a cornerstone of breast cancer management with ultrasound being the preferred guidance modality. New developments in breast cancer management and advances in imaging technologies bring new challenges to current biopsy methodologies. A new biopsy device (NeoNavia® biopsy system, 14 G) was developed. It incorporates a pneumatic needle insertion mechanism that is intended to provide better control of needle progression and enable stepwise insertion without noticeable deformation or displacement of surrounding tissue as visualized under ultrasound. A new method of tissue acquisition was designed to achieve a sampling yield higher than standard methodologies. Needle dynamics was assessed on a specifically designed test bed and sampling performance was compared to a Magnum® biopsy instrument (Bard, Covington, GA, USA) in representative tissue models. The histological quality of samples obtained ex-vivo was evaluated. A pneumatic pulse was measured to accelerate the needle to a maximum velocity of 21.2 ± 2.5 m/s on a stroke length of 2.5 mm, achieving significantly higher acceleration, maximum velocity and power than current biopsy devices. Mean weight of samples obtained by the NeoNavia device were 3.5, 4.6, and 4.3 times higher when sampling was performed in turkey breast, calf thymus and swine pancreas, respectively, as compared to samples obtained with the Magnum instrument. Ex-vivo analysis indicates that the method of tissue acquisition has no apparent negative impact on the histopathologic quality of obtained samples. Copyright © 2018 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High-Speed Sealift Technology Development Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... The purpose of the project was to define the technology investments required to enable development of the high-speed commercial and military ships needed to provide realistic future mission capabilities...

  8. Neglecting rice milling yield and quality underestimates economic losses from high-temperature stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel B Lyman

    Full Text Available Future increases in global surface temperature threaten those worldwide who depend on rice production for their livelihoods and food security. Past analyses of high-temperature stress on rice production have focused on paddy yield and have failed to account for the detrimental impact of high temperatures on milling quality outcomes, which ultimately determine edible (marketable rice yield and market value. Using genotype specific rice yield and milling quality data on six common rice varieties from Arkansas, USA, combined with on-site, half-hourly and daily temperature observations, we show a nonlinear effect of high-temperature stress exposure on yield and milling quality. A 1 °C increase in average growing season temperature reduces paddy yield by 6.2%, total milled rice yield by 7.1% to 8.0%, head rice yield by 9.0% to 13.8%, and total milling revenue by 8.1% to 11.0%, across genotypes. Our results indicate that failure to account for changes in milling quality leads to understatement of the impacts of high temperatures on rice production outcomes. These dramatic losses result from reduced paddy yield and increased percentages of chalky and broken kernels, which together decrease the quantity and market value of milled rice. Recently published estimates show paddy yield reductions of up to 10% across the major rice-producing regions of South and Southeast Asia due to rising temperatures. The results of our study suggest that the often-cited 10% figure underestimates the economic implications of climate change for rice producers, thus potentially threatening future food security for global rice producers and consumers.

  9. Marketing mix for consumer high technology products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovleac, L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes an analysis upon the variables of marketing mix for high technology products used for individual consumption. There are exposed the essential aspects related to marketing policies and strategies used by high technology companies for providing consumers the best solutions tailored to their needs. A special attention is given to the necessity for inclusion in the marketing mix of the fifth element – the assistance and informational support for customers.

  10. High-biomass C4 grasses-Filling the yield gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullet, John E

    2017-08-01

    A significant increase in agricultural productivity will be required by 2050 to meet the needs of an expanding and rapidly developing world population, without allocating more land and water resources to agriculture, and despite slowing rates of grain yield improvement. This review examines the proposition that high-biomass C 4 grasses could help fill the yield gap. High-biomass C 4 grasses exhibit high yield due to C 4 photosynthesis, long growth duration, and efficient capture and utilization of light, water, and nutrients. These C 4 grasses exhibit high levels of drought tolerance during their long vegetative growth phase ideal for crops grown in water-limited regions of agricultural production. The stems of some high-biomass C 4 grasses can accumulate high levels of non-structural carbohydrates that could be engineered to enhance biomass yield and utility as feedstocks for animals and biofuels production. The regulatory pathway that delays flowering of high-biomass C 4 grasses in long days has been elucidated enabling production and deployment of hybrids. Crop and landscape-scale modeling predict that utilization of high-biomass C 4 grass crops on land and in regions where water resources limit grain crop yield could increase agricultural productivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of high oleic acid soybean on seed oil, protein concentration, and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybeans with high oleic acid content are desired by oil processors because of their improved oxidative stability for broader use in food, fuel and other products. However, non-GMO high-oleic soybeans have tended to have low seed yield. The objective of this study was to test non-GMO, high-oleic s...

  12. Annual energy yield of different photovoltaic technologies at different climatic conditions; Jahresenergieertraege unterschiedlicher Photovoltaik-Technologien bei verschiedenen klimatischen Bedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinsser, Bastian

    2010-10-04

    It is very important for engineers as well as for investors to know which amount of energy E [kWh] a photovoltaic (PV) system produces under real operating conditions. In most cases the costs [Euroct/kWh] for the solar electricity are the main question. Most data sheets contain the efficiency of the PV modules only for standard test conditions (STC) in the laboratory. In reality higher module temperatures, lower irradiation G and a modified spectrum of the irradiation G change the standard test conditions efficiency. However, standard test conditions never appear at real live in Germany. In southern countries, which have more sun, the operation conditions differ much more from standard test conditions. Therefore, the effects on the annual energy yield are even bigger. To answer the question which PV technology gives the highest energy yield at specific climate conditions, this thesis set up thirteen PV systems using different technologies in Stuttgart, Nicosia, and Cairo. An extensive data acquisition is added to monitor weather and system data. Mono- and multicrystalline silicon (Si) as well as several thin film technologies like amorphous silicon, Cu(InGa)Se{sub 2} (CIGS), and CdTe are investigated. First the thesis extracts the temperature and low light behavior from the measured field data. At the end it models the PV systems to forecast the annual energy yield EJahr and compares with the measured values. The analysis of the field data reconfirms the better temperature behavior of the thin film technologies reported in literature. The HIT technology exhibits a better low light behavior, than the crystalline Si technologies, which all show a similar low light behavior. In the field the CIGS technology shows a contrary low light behavior compared to the laboratory. Field data show, that amorphous Si and CdTe technologies have a much better low light behavior than the crystalline Si technologies. The tolerances of the nominal power PSTC have the biggest influence

  13. Reticle decision center: a novel applications platform for enhancing reticle yield and productivity at 10nm technology and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, George; Bugata, Raj; Chiang, Kaiming; Lakkapragada, Suresh; Tolani, Vikram; Gopalakrishnan, Sandhya; Chen, Chun-Jen; Yang, Chin-Ting; Hsu, Sheng-Chang; Tuo, Laurent

    2016-10-01

    In the semiconductor IC manufacturing industry, challenges associated with producing defect-free photomasks have been dramatically increasing. At the 10nm technology node, since the 193nm immersion scanner numerical aperture has remained the same 1.35 as in previous nodes, more multi-patterning and aggressive SMO illumination sources are being used to effectively print smaller feature CDs and pitches. To accommodate such specialized sources, more model-based mask OPC and ILT have been used making mask designs very complicated. This in turn makes mask manufacturing very challenging especially for the defect inspection, repair, and metrology processes that need to guarantee defect-free masks. Over the past few years, considerable innovation have been made in the areas of defect inspection and disposition that has ensured continued predictability of mask quality to wafer and final chip yields. The accurate disposition of each mask defect before and after repair has been facilitated by a suite of automated applications such as ADC, LPR, RPG, AIA, etc. that work together with the inspection, repair, and metrology tools and effectively also provide the best possible utilization of the tool capability, capacity and operator resources. In this paper we introduce a new consolidated applications platform called the Reticle Decision Center (RDC) which hosts all these supporting software applications on a centralized server with direct connectivity to mask inspection, repair, metrology tools and more. The paper details how the RDC server is architected to host any application in its native operating system environment and provides for high availability with automatic failover and redundancy. The server along with its host of applications has been tightly integrated with KLA-Tencor's Teron mask inspectors. The paper concludes with showing benefits realized in mask cycle-time and yield as a result of implementing RDC into a high-volume 10nm mask-shop production line.

  14. [Construction and high-density fermentation of alkaline pectate lyase high-yield yeast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaowen; Xiang, La; Xu, Ting; Lu, Zhenghui; Zhang, Guimin

    2017-12-25

    Pectate lyase is widely applied in ramie degumming and fabric bioscouring in the textile industry. Compared to conventional processes that involve high alkaline and high temperature treatment, enzyme based treatments have significant advantages in fibers protectiveness, improved efficiency of refining, reduced energy consumption and pollution. Hence, it would be highly desirable to construct high-yield alkaline pectate lyase engineered strains and reduce the pectate lyase production cost. In the previous study, pectate lyase gene pel from Bacillus subtilis168 was expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115 after codon usage optimization based on the vector pHBM905A. To improve the expression level, the vector pHBM905BDM with optimized promoter and signal peptide was used to express the optimized gene pels in GS115. The transformant had increased activity from 68 U/mL to 100 U/mL with the improvement in the transcription level by 27% measured by qPCR. The transformants were further screened on pectin plates, where higher halo forming strains were picked for shake-flask fermentation and strain GS115-pHBM905BDM-pels4 showed the highest activity of 536 U/mL. Then plasmid pPIC9K-pels was constructed and electroporated into the GS115-pHBM905BDM-pels4 cells. Subsequently, high-copy transformant was screened by using the medium containing antibiotics G418, strain GS115-pHBM905BDMpPIC9K- pels1 was identified with increased activity of 770 U/mL and the copy number of pels was 7 confirmed by qPCR. Finally, the activity of pectate lyase produced by GS115-pHBM905BDM-pPIC9K-pels1reached to 2 271 U/mL in a 5-L fermentor. The activity of pectate lyase in our study reached the highest level of expression in P. pastoris, showing good application potential in the textile industry.

  15. High Purity Smelting Technology for Ultra-high Strength Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIANG Zhouhua

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-high strength steel with high tensile strength, good toughness, high specific strength, modulus and other characteristics are widely used in aviation, aerospace and national defense and other fields. Ultra-high strength steel is preferred material for aircraft and aero-engines and other aviation equipments. The application of ultra-high strength steel represents a country's highest level of steel research and production, and it is also an important symbol of the development of national science and technology and national defense industry. The development and application of high purity smelting technology for manufacture of ultra-high strength steels at domestic and overseas is briefly reviewed in the paper, and then the control ability about the impurity elements such as S, P, O and N in typical ultra-high strength steels, and the research status and development trend of non-metallic inclusions control are discussed. The progress in research work of high purity smelting technology for ultra-high strength steels carried out by the authors in recent years has been introduced, it shows that the control level of impurity elements and non-metallic inclusion has been greatly improved, and it also creates a new route for China to manufacture the ultra-high strength steel with high alloy, especially with high purity for ultra-high strength stainless steel, bearing steel and gear steel. Finally, the development direction of high purity smelting technology of ultra-high strength steel in China is pointed out.

  16. High Yield Synthesis of Aspect Ratio Controlled Graphenic Materials from Anthracite Coal in Supercritical Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikala, Suchithra Padmajan; Henry, Lucile; Yesilbag Tonga, Gulen; Huang, Kai; Das, Riddha; Giroire, Baptiste; Marre, Samuel; Rotello, Vincent M; Penicaud, Alain; Poulin, Philippe; Aymonier, Cyril

    2016-05-24

    This paper rationalizes the green and scalable synthesis of graphenic materials of different aspect ratios using anthracite coal as a single source material under different supercritical environments. Single layer, monodisperse graphene oxide quantum dots (GQDs) are obtained at high yield (55 wt %) from anthracite coal in supercritical water. The obtained GQDs are ∼3 nm in lateral size and display a high fluorescence quantum yield of 28%. They show high cell viability and are readily used for imaging cancer cells. In an analogous experiment, high aspect ratio graphenic materials with ribbon-like morphology (GRs) are synthesized from the same source material in supercritical ethanol at a yield of 6.4 wt %. A thin film of GRs with 68% transparency shows a surface resistance of 9.3 kΩ/sq. This is apparently the demonstration of anthracite coal as a source for electrically conductive graphenic materials.

  17. Current high-level waste solidification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    Technology has been developed in the U.S. and abroad for solidification of high-level waste from nuclear power production. Several processes have been demonstrated with actual radioactive waste and are now being prepared for use in the commercial nuclear industry. Conversion of the waste to a glass form is favored because of its high degree of nondispersibility and safety

  18. Grain yield and quality responses of tropical hybrid rice to high night-time temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, W.; Yin, X.; Struik, P.C.; Xie, F.; Schmidt, R.C.; Jagadish, K.S.V.

    2016-01-01

    High temperature has a pronounced effect on grain yield and quality in rice. Climate change has increased night temperature more than day temperature in many parts of the world. How rice responds to high night-time temperature (HNT) is largely unknown. This study presents the first effort to assess

  19. Metabolic characterization of high- and low-yielding strains of Penicillium chrysogenum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bjarke; Thykær, Jette; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    A recently developed method for analyzing metabolic networks using C-13-labels was employed for investigating the metabolism of a high- and a low-yielding strain of Penicillium chrysogenum. Under penicillin-producing conditions, the flux through the pentose phosphate (PP) pathway in the high- and...

  20. Engineering of High Yield Production of L-serine in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mundhada, Hemanshu; Schneider, Konstantin; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre

    2016-01-01

    high serine production yield (0.45 g/g glucose) during small-scale batch fermentation in minimal medium. Serine, however, was found to be highly toxic even at low concentrations to this strain, which lead to slow growth and production during fed batch fermentation, resulting in a serine production of 8...

  1. Highly Luminescent Carbon-​Nanoparticle-​Based Materials: Factors Influencing Photoluminescence Quantum Yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, S.; Shen, D.; Liu, X.; Jing, P.; Zhang, L.; Ji, W.; Zhao, H.; Fan, X.; Zhang, H.

    2014-01-01

    Unravelling the factors influencing photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield of the carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) is the prerequisite for prepg. highly luminescent CNP-​based materials. In this work, an easy and effective method is reported for prepg. highly luminescent CNP-​based materials. Water-​sol.

  2. Extracting DNA from 'jaws': High yield and quality from archived tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) skeletal material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg Nielsen, Einar; Morgan, J. A T; Maher, S. L.

    2017-01-01

    archived skeletal material from sharks as a source of DNA for temporal genomic studies. Six different methods for DNA extraction, encompassing two different commercial kits and three different protocols, were applied to material, so-called bio-swarf, from contemporary and archived jaws and vertebrae...... of tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier). Protocols were compared for DNA yield and quality using a qPCR approach. For jaw swarf, all methods provided relatively high DNA yield and quality, while large differences in yield between protocols were observed for vertebrae. Similar results were obtained from samples...... of white shark (Carcharodon carcharias). Application of the optimized methods to 38 museum and private angler trophy specimens dating back to 1912 yielded sufficient DNA for downstream genomic analysis for 68% of the samples. No clear relationships between age of samples, DNA quality and quantity were...

  3. Sputtering yields of carbon based materials under high particle flux with low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, K.; Nagase, A.; Dairaku, M.; Akiba, M.; Araki, M.; Okumura, Y.

    1995-01-01

    A new ion source which can produce high particle flux beams at low energies has been developed. This paper presents preliminary results on the sputtering yield of the carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFCs) measured with the new ion source. The sputtering yields of 1D and 2D CFCs, which are candidate materials for the divertor armour tiles, have been measured by the weight loss method under the hydrogen and deuterium particle fluxes of 2 similar 7x10 20 /m 2 s at 50 similar 150 eV. Preferential sputtering of the matrix was observed on CFCs which included the matrix of 40 similar 60 w%. The energy dependence of the sputtering yields was weak. The sputtering yields of CFCs normally irradiated with deuterium beam were from 0.073 to 0.095, and were around three times larger than those with hydrogen beam. ((orig.))

  4. Sputtering yields of carbon based materials under high particle flux with low energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K.; Nagase, A.; Dairaku, M.; Akiba, M.; Araki, M.; Okumura, Y.

    1995-04-01

    A new ion source which can produce high particle flux beams at low energies has been developed. This paper presents preliminary results on the sputtering yield of the carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFCs) measured with the new ion source. The sputtering yields of 1D and 2D CFCs, which are candidate materials for the divertor armour tiles, have been measured by the weight loss method under the hydrogen and deuterium particle fluxes of 2 ˜ 7 × 10 20/m 2 s at 50 ˜ 150 eV. Preferential sputtering of the matrix was observed on CFCs which included the matrix of 40 ˜ 60 w%. The energy dependence of the sputtering yields was weak. The sputtering yields of CFCs normally irradiated with deuterium beam were from 0.073 to 0.095, and were around three times larger than those with hydrogen beam.

  5. Room Temperature, High-yield Synthesis of Block Copolymer-mediated Gold Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Debes; Aswal, V. K.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2010-12-01

    We report the high-yield synthesis of gold nanoparticles in block copolymer-mediated synthesis where the nanoparticles have been synthesized from hydrogen tetrachloroaureate (III) hydrate (HAuCl4ṡ3H2O) using P85 (EO26PO39EO26) block copolymers in aqueous solution at room temperature. The formation of gold nanoparticles in these systems has been confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy. The yield of nanoparticles simply does not increase with the increase in the gold salt concentration, which is limited by the gold ions reduction. Therefore, we have used the presence of additional reductant (tri-sodium citrate) to enhance the yield by manifold. The size distribution of the nanoparticles has been obtained by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and the average size is found to increase with the yield.

  6. Field-based high throughput phenotyping rapidly identifies genomic regions controlling yield components in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanger, Paul; Klassen, Stephen; Mojica, Julius P; Lovell, John T; Moyers, Brook T; Baraoidan, Marietta; Naredo, Maria Elizabeth B; McNally, Kenneth L; Poland, Jesse; Bush, Daniel R; Leung, Hei; Leach, Jan E; McKay, John K

    2017-02-21

    To ensure food security in the face of population growth, decreasing water and land for agriculture, and increasing climate variability, crop yields must increase faster than the current rates. Increased yields will require implementing novel approaches in genetic discovery and breeding. Here we demonstrate the potential of field-based high throughput phenotyping (HTP) on a large recombinant population of rice to identify genetic variation underlying important traits. We find that detecting quantitative trait loci (QTL) with HTP phenotyping is as accurate and effective as traditional labor-intensive measures of flowering time, height, biomass, grain yield, and harvest index. Genetic mapping in this population, derived from a cross of an modern cultivar (IR64) with a landrace (Aswina), identified four alleles with negative effect on grain yield that are fixed in IR64, demonstrating the potential for HTP of large populations as a strategy for the second green revolution.

  7. A Low-cost, High-yield Process for the Direct Productin of High Energy Density Liquid Fuel from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Rakesh [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Delgass, W. N. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Ribeiro, F. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2013-08-31

    The primary objective and outcome of this project was the development and validation of a novel, low-cost, high-pressure fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process (H2Bioil) using supplementary hydrogen (H2) to produce liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. The research efforts under the various tasks of the project have culminated in the first experimental demonstration of the H2Bioil process, producing 100% deoxygenated >C4+ hydrocarbons containing 36-40% of the carbon in the feed of pyrolysis products from biomass. The demonstrated H{sub 2}Bioil process technology (i.e. reactor, catalyst, and downstream product recovery) is scalable to a commercial level and is estimated to be economically competitive for the cases when supplementary H2 is sourced from coal, natural gas, or nuclear. Additionally, energy systems modeling has revealed several process integration options based on the H2Bioilprocess for energy and carbon efficient liquid fuel production. All project tasks and milestones were completed or exceeded. Novel, commercially-scalable, high-pressure reactors for both fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation were constructed, completing Task A. These reactors were capable of operation under a wide-range of conditions; enabling process studies that lead to identification of optimum process conditions. Model compounds representing biomass pyrolysis products were studied, completing Task B. These studies were critical in identifying and developing HDO catalysts to target specific oxygen functional groups. These process and model compound catalyst studies enabled identification of catalysts that achieved 100% deoxygenation of the real biomass feedstock, sorghum, to form hydrocarbons in high yields as part of Task C. The work completed during this grant has identified and validated the novel and commercially scalable H2Bioil process for production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Studies on

  8. Italian competitiveness in high technology industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, S.; Palma, D.; Amendola, G.

    1993-01-01

    A sectoral analysis of 1978-1991 trends in the invention, manufacturing and marketing, in Italy, of high technology goods suggests the need for greater R ampersand D investment by government and private industry and a broadening of the number and type of industries now contributing to the strengthening of this nation's overall high technology industrial base. This is especially the case with regard to the electronics sector in view of the strategic importance of this vital industry and the strong competition being given by the newly industrialized countries located on the Pacific Rim. With reference to the European Communities common market strategies, intended as a buffer against future unified efforts by North American and Pacific Rim countries to consolidate global market share in high technology goods, recent investment trends reveal that Italy's response thus far has been slow and asymmetric

  9. Yield behaviour associated with stacking faults in a high-temperature annealed ultra-low carbon high manganese steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Liming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Fan, Likun [Shanghai Research Institute of Materials, 99 Handan Road, Shanghai, 200437 (China); Li, Zhigang; Sun, Nairong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Wang, Huanrong; Wang, Wei [Baosteel Research Institute, 889 Fujin Road, Shanghai, 201900 (China); Shan, Aidang, E-mail: adshan@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 (China)

    2013-10-10

    This paper investigated the tensile behaviour of high-temperature annealed ultra-low carbon high manganese steel with 42 vol% delta-ferrite. The results show that the tensile stress-strain curve of plastic deformation exhibits three distinct stages of deformation: a yielding stage with a remarkably large elongation and a positive strain-hardening rate, a second stage in which the strain-hardening rate rapidly increases, and a third stage in which the strain-hardening rate slowly increase. The yield plateau is intrinsically associated with the increasing formation of strain-induced stacking faults. The stacking faults quickly form during yield deformation, and the yield elongation monotonically increases with the extent of the stacking faults. The localised strain concentration of delta-ferrite and the heterogeneous strain partitioning between harder delta-ferrite and softer austenite play important roles in the rapid formation of stacking faults during strain at the yield plateau, which is an important prerequisite for this yielding phenomenon. The results and analysis demonstrate that the rapid and then slow hardening deformation after the yield plateau result from strain-induced transformation and deformation twinning, respectively.

  10. Genome-based establishment of a high-yielding heterotic pattern for hybrid wheat breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yusheng; Li, Zuo; Liu, Guozheng; Jiang, Yong; Maurer, Hans Peter; Würschum, Tobias; Mock, Hans-Peter; Matros, Andrea; Ebmeyer, Erhard; Schachschneider, Ralf; Kazman, Ebrahim; Schacht, Johannes; Gowda, Manje; Longin, C Friedrich H; Reif, Jochen C

    2015-12-22

    Hybrid breeding promises to boost yield and stability. The single most important element in implementing hybrid breeding is the recognition of a high-yielding heterotic pattern. We have developed a three-step strategy for identifying heterotic patterns for hybrid breeding comprising the following elements. First, the full hybrid performance matrix is compiled using genomic prediction. Second, a high-yielding heterotic pattern is searched based on a developed simulated annealing algorithm. Third, the long-term success of the identified heterotic pattern is assessed by estimating the usefulness, selection limit, and representativeness of the heterotic pattern with respect to a defined base population. This three-step approach was successfully implemented and evaluated using a phenotypic and genomic wheat dataset comprising 1,604 hybrids and their 135 parents. Integration of metabolomic-based prediction was not as powerful as genomic prediction. We show that hybrid wheat breeding based on the identified heterotic pattern can boost grain yield through the exploitation of heterosis and enhance recurrent selection gain. Our strategy represents a key step forward in hybrid breeding and is relevant for self-pollinating crops, which are currently shifting from pure-line to high-yielding and resilient hybrid varieties.

  11. Strain sensing technology for high temperature applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, W. Dan

    1993-01-01

    This review discusses the status of strain sensing technology for high temperature applications. Technologies covered are those supported by NASA such as required for applications in hypersonic vehicles and engines, advanced subsonic engines, as well as material and structure development. The applications may be at temperatures of 540 C (1000 F) to temperatures in excess of 1400 C (2500 F). The most promising technologies at present are the resistance strain gage and remote sensing schemes. Resistance strain gages discussed include the BCL gage, the LaRC compensated gage, and the PdCr gage. Remote sensing schemes such as laser based speckle strain measurement, phase-shifling interferometry, and x-ray extensometry are discussed. Present status and limitations of these technologies are presented.

  12. Inspection technology for high pressure pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae H.; Lee, Jae C.; Eum, Heung S.; Choi, Yu R.; Moon, Soon S.; Jang, Jong H.

    2000-02-01

    Various kinds of defects are likely to be occurred in the welds of high pressure pipes in nuclear power plants. Considering the recent accident of Zuruga nuclear power plant in Japan, reasonable policy is strongly requested for the high pressure pipe integrity. In this study, we developed the technologies to inspect pipe welds automatically. After development of scanning robot prototype in the first research year, we developed and implemented the algorithm of automatic tracking of the scanning robot along the weld line of the pipes. We use laser slit beam on weld area and capture the image using digital camera. Through processing of the captures image, we finally determine the weld line automatically. In addition, we investigated a new technology on micro systems for developing micro scanning robotic inspection of the pipe welds. The technology developed in this study is being transferred to the industry. (author)

  13. High yield and high quality DNA from vegetative and sexual tissues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pines are considered to be difficult for DNA extraction. However, from one species to the other there is variation in phenolic profiles and seed size that might affect final DNA yields and quality. Two DNA extraction protocols (CTAB and SDS based) were compared for their ability to produce DNA on leaves, gametophyte and ...

  14. High-resolution, regional-scale crop yield simulations for the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, D. H.; Kafatos, M.; Medvigy, D.; El-Askary, H. M.; Hatzopoulos, N.; Kim, J.; Kim, S.; Prasad, A. K.; Tremback, C.; Walko, R. L.; Asrar, G. R.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past few decades, there have been many process-based crop models developed with the goal of better understanding the impacts of climate, soils, and management decisions on crop yields. These models simulate the growth and development of crops in response to environmental drivers. Traditionally, process-based crop models have been run at the individual farm level for yield optimization and management scenario testing. Few previous studies have used these models over broader geographic regions, largely due to the lack of gridded high-resolution meteorological and soil datasets required as inputs for these data intensive process-based models. In particular, assessment of regional-scale yield variability due to climate change requires high-resolution, regional-scale, climate projections, and such projections have been unavailable until recently. The goal of this study was to create a framework for extending the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) crop model for use at regional scales and analyze spatial and temporal yield changes in the Southwestern United States (CA, AZ, and NV). Using the scripting language Python, an automated pipeline was developed to link Regional Climate Model (RCM) output with the APSIM crop model, thus creating a one-way nested modeling framework. This framework was used to combine climate, soil, land use, and agricultural management datasets in order to better understand the relationship between climate variability and crop yield at the regional-scale. Three different RCMs were used to drive APSIM: OLAM, RAMS, and WRF. Preliminary results suggest that, depending on the model inputs, there is some variability between simulated RCM driven maize yields and historical yields obtained from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Furthermore, these simulations showed strong non-linear correlations between yield and meteorological drivers, with critical threshold values for some of the inputs (e.g. minimum and

  15. High-yield growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on a continuously moving substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman de Villoria, R; Hart, A J; Steiner, S A III; Wardle, B L [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Figueredo, S L; Slocum, A H, E-mail: rguzman@mit.ed [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2009-10-07

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays are grown on a moving substrate, demonstrating continuous growth of nanoscale materials with long-range order. A cold-wall chamber with an oscillating moving platform is used to locally heat a silicon growth substrate coated with an Fe/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst film for CNT growth via chemical vapor deposition. The reactant gases are introduced over the substrate through a directed nozzle to attain high-yield CNT growth. Aligned multi-wall carbon nanotube arrays (or 'forests') with heights of {approx}1 mm are achieved at substrate speeds up to 2.4 mm s{sup -1}. Arrays grown on moving substrates at different velocities are studied in order to identify potential physical limitations of repeatable and fast growth on a continuous basis. No significant differences are noted between static and moving growth as characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, although overall growth height is marginally reduced at the highest substrate velocity. CNT arrays produced on moving substrates are also found to be comparable to those produced through well-characterized batch processes consistent with a base-growth mechanism. Growth parameters required for the moving furnace are found to differ only slightly from those used in a comparable batch process; thermal uniformity appears to be the critical parameter for achieving large-area uniform array growth. If the continuous-growth technology is combined with a reaction zone isolation scheme common in other types of processing (e.g., in the manufacture of carbon fibers), large-scale dense and aligned CNT arrays may be efficiently grown and harvested for numerous applications including providing interlayers for advanced composite reinforcement and improved electrical and thermal transport.

  16. Extractive Fermentation of Sugarcane Juice to Produce High Yield and Productivity of Bioethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofiqah, U.; Widjaja, T.; Altway, A.; Bramantyo, A.

    2017-04-01

    Ethanol production by batch fermentation requires a simple process and it is widely used. Batch fermentation produces ethanol with low yield and productivity due to the accumulation of ethanol in which poisons microorganisms in the fermenter. Extractive fermentation technique is applied to solve the microorganism inhibition problem by ethanol. Extractive fermentation technique can produce ethanol with high yield and productivity. In this process raffinate still, contains much sugar because conversion in the fermentation process is not perfect. Thus, to enhance ethanol yield and productivity, recycle system is applied by returning the raffinate from the extraction process to the fermentation process. This raffinate also contains ethanol which would inhibit the performance of microorganisms in producing ethanol during the fermentation process. Therefore, this study aims to find the optimum condition for the amount of solvent to broth ratio (S: B) and recycle to fresh feed ratio (R: F) which enter the fermenter to produce high yield and productivity. This research was carried out by experiment. In the experiment, sugarcane juice was fermented using Zymomonasmobilis mutant. The fermentation broth was extracted using amyl alcohol. The process was integrated with the recycle system by varying the recycle ratio. The highest yield and productivity is 22.3901% and 103.115 g / L.h respectively, obtained in a process that uses recycle to fresh feed ratio (R: F) of 50:50 and solvents to both ratio of 1.

  17. Climate Change Impacts on Sediment Yield in Headwaters of a High-latitude Region in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Xu, Y. J.; Wang, J., , Dr; Weihua, X.; Huang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change is expected to have strongest effects in higher latitude regions. Despite intensive research on possible hydrological responses to global warming in these regions, our knowledge of climate change on surface erosion and sediment yield in high-latitude headwaters is limited. In this study, we used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to predict future runoff and sediment yield from the headwaters of a high-latitude river basin in China's far northeast. The SWAT model was first calibrated with historical discharge records and the model parameterization achieved satisfactory validation. The calibrated model was then applied to two greenhouse gas concentration trajectories, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, for the period from 2020 to 2050 to estimate future runoff. Sediment yields for this period were predicted using a discharge-sediment load rating curve developed from field measurements in the past nine years. Our preliminary results show an increasing trend of sediment yield under both climate change scenarios, and that the increase is more pronounced in the summer and autumn months. Changes in precipitation and temperature seem to exert variable impacts on runoff and sediment yield at interannual and seasonal scales in these headwaters. These findings imply that the current river basin management in the region needs to be reviewed and improved in order to be effective under a changing climate.

  18. Effect of acid additives on sugarcane bagasse pyrolysis: Production of high yields of sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Geraldo Ferreira; Perez, Victor Haber; Rodriguez Justo, Oselys; Garcia-Perez, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to improve sugarcane bagasse thermochemical conversion to pyrolytic sugars production, particularly to levoglucosan. The experiments were carried out evaluating the effect of acid washing with HNO 3 (0.1wt.%) followed by H 2 SO 4 addition (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3wt.%) at pyrolysis temperatures of 350, 400, 450, 500, 550 and 600°C was studied by Py-GC/MS. The experimental results showed that HNO 3 washing, followed by H 2 SO 4 concentration of 0.2wt.% at 350°C resulted in an increase in levoglucosan yield between 5 and 7 times the yield obtained when the raw bagasse was processed. Thus, these results are very attractive to improve pyrolytic sugars production in sugarcane bagasse by previously acid treatment to pyrolysis technology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Barbarasul: a high-yielding and lodging-resistant white oat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Irajá Félix de Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The white-oat cultivar Barbarasul was developed by the Universidade Federal de Pelotas. It resulted from across between UPF18 and CTC5. It is adapted to the southern region of Brazil, with excellent grain yield potential, shortstature and high lodging tolerance.

  20. CULTIVAR RELEASE - FAEM Carlasul: new white oat cultivar with high grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Costa de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The white oat cultivar FAEM Carlasul was developed at the Plant Genomics and Breeding Center, Faculty of Agronomy Eliseu Maciel, Federal University of Pelotas, as a result of the cross between UFRGS 10 and 90SAT-28 (Coronado2/Cortez3/Pendek/ME 1563. It is characterized by high yield and grain quality.

  1. Surrogate models for identifying robust, high yield regions of parameter space for ICF implosion simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbird, Kelli; Peterson, J. Luc; Brandon, Scott; Field, John; Nora, Ryan; Spears, Brian

    2016-10-01

    Next-generation supercomputer architecture and in-transit data analysis have been used to create a large collection of 2-D ICF capsule implosion simulations. The database includes metrics for approximately 60,000 implosions, with x-ray images and detailed physics parameters available for over 20,000 simulations. To map and explore this large database, surrogate models for numerous quantities of interest are built using supervised machine learning algorithms. Response surfaces constructed using the predictive capabilities of the surrogates allow for continuous exploration of parameter space without requiring additional simulations. High performing regions of the input space are identified to guide the design of future experiments. In particular, a model for the yield built using a random forest regression algorithm has a cross validation score of 94.3% and is consistently conservative for high yield predictions. The model is used to search for robust volumes of parameter space where high yields are expected, even given variations in other input parameters. Surrogates for additional quantities of interest relevant to ignition are used to further characterize the high yield regions. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC. LLNL-ABS-697277.

  2. Microbial Electrolysis Cells for High Yield Hydrogen Gas Production from Organic Matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logan, B.E.; Call, D.; Cheng, S.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Sleutels, T.H.J.A.; Jeremiasse, A.W.; Rozendal, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of electrochemically active bacteria to break down organic matter, combined with the addition of a small voltage (>0.2 V in practice) in specially designed microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), can result in a high yield of hydrogen gas. While microbial electrolysis was invented only a few

  3. Response of high yielding rice varieties to NaCl salinity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to find resistant varieties and study the reaction of some newly released high yielding varieties to different levels of salinity of irrigation water an experiment was conducted at the Rice Research Institute of Iran-Amol station in a greenhouse. Eight varieties, cultivated in pots, were tested with three levels of salinity (2, ...

  4. Accelerator Technology: Ultra-High Vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Baglin, V

    2013-01-01

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Accelerators and Colliders' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the the Section '8.5 Ultra-High Vacuum' of the Chapter '8 Accelerator Technology' with the content: 8.5 Ultra-High Vacuum 8.5.1 Introduction 8.5.2 Vacuum Fundamentals 8.5.3 Vacuum Dynamics 8.5.4 Vacuum Engineering

  5. Fast growing high-yield wheat and canola for efficient nutrient recycling systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Among a suite of synthetic biology methods, Afingen's APFL technology offers a robust path to produce high-value biochemicals from inedible biomass-derived...

  6. Geospatial analysis of the energy yield and environmental footprint of different photovoltaic module technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, A.; Schropp, R.E.I.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2017-01-01

    The majority of currently installed photovoltaic (PV) systems are based on mono- and polycrystalline silicon PV modules. Manufacturers of competing technologies often argue that due to the characteristics of their PV technologies, PV systems based on their modules are able to achieve higher annual

  7. Robust high-yield ~1 TBq production of cyclotron based sodium [99mTc]pertechnetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, J D; Thomas, B; Selivanova, S V; Berthelette, E; Wilson, J S; McEwan, A J B; Gagnon, K

    2018-03-02

    This paper presents the irradiation and processing of high-current 100 Mo targets at the University of Alberta (UofA) in a GMP compliant setting. For purpose of comparison with a second production facility, additional studies at Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke (CHUS) are also described. More than 70% of today's diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals are based on 99m Tc, however the conventional supply chain for obtaining 99m Tc is fragile. The aim of this work was to demonstrate reliable high yield production and processing of 99m Tc with medium-energy, high-current, cyclotrons. We used two cyclotrons (TR-24, Advanced Cyclotron Systems, Inc) for irradiations with 22 MeV or 24 MeV incident energy and 400 μA current up to a maximum of 6 h. The irradiated 100 Mo was dissolved using peroxide, basified using ammonium carbonate, and purified using a PEG-based solid phase extraction technique. High-yield productions with 22 MeV (400 μA, 6 h) yielded an average isolated [ 99m Tc]TcO 4 - yield of 878 GBq ± 99 GBq (23.7 Ci ± 2.7 Ci) decay corrected to EOB, n = 8 (isolated saturation yield: 4.36 ± 0.49 GBq/μA). Irradiations with 24 MeV (400 μA, 6 h) resulted in an average isolated [ 99m Tc]TcO 4 - yield of 993 GBq ± 100 GBq (26.8 Ci ± 2.7 Ci) decay corrected to EOB, n = 7 (isolated saturation yield: 4.97 ± 0.50 GBq/μA). These yields corresponds to 600-700 GBq (16-19 Ci) of [ 99m Tc]TcO 4 - at release (i.e. 3 hour post-EOB). For all tested batches, the QC results were within the recently published specifications in the European Pharmacopoeia. Reliable near-TBq production yields for 99m Tc can be obtained using medium-energy cyclotrons. This work presents evidence that medium-energy high-current cyclotrons can provide high yields of [ 99m Tc]TcO 4 - with radionuclidic impurities levels within the specifications of the existing European Pharmacopoeia monograph, indicating that this

  8. Target design for high fusion yield with the double Z-pinch-driven hohlraum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesey, R. A.; Herrmann, M. C.; Lemke, R. W.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Cuneo, M. E.; Stygar, W. A.; Bennett, G. R.; Campbell, R. B.; Christenson, P. J.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Porter, J. L.; Slutz, S. A.

    2007-01-01

    A key demonstration on the path to inertial fusion energy is the achievement of high fusion yield (hundreds of MJ) and high target gain. Toward this goal, an indirect-drive high-yield inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target involving two Z-pinch x-ray sources heating a central secondary hohlraum is described by Hammer et al. [Phys. Plasmas 6, 2129 (1999)]. In subsequent research at Sandia National Laboratories, theoretical/computational models have been developed and an extensive series of validation experiments have been performed to study hohlraum energetics, capsule coupling, and capsule implosion symmetry for this system. These models have been used to design a high-yield Z-pinch-driven ICF target that incorporates the latest experience in capsule design, hohlraum symmetry control, and x-ray production by Z pinches. An x-ray energy output of 9 MJ per pinch, suitably pulse-shaped, is sufficient for this concept to drive 0.3-0.5 GJ capsules. For the first time, integrated two-dimensional (2D) hohlraum/capsule radiation-hydrodynamics simulations have demonstrated adequate hohlraum coupling, time-dependent radiation symmetry control, and the successful implosion, ignition, and burn of a high-yield capsule in the double Z-pinch hohlraum. An important new feature of this target design is mode-selective symmetry control: the use of burn-through shields offset from the capsule that selectively tune certain low-order asymmetry modes (P 2 ,P 4 ) without significantly perturbing higher-order modes and without a significant energy penalty. This paper will describe the capsule and hohlraum design that have produced 0.4-0.5 GJ yields in 2D simulations, provide a preliminary estimate of the Z-pinch load and accelerator requirements necessary to drive the system, and suggest future directions for target design work

  9. High-yield electrochemical production of formaldehyde from CO2 and seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Kazuya; Ozaki, Takuya; Terashima, Chiaki; Fujishima, Akira; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2014-01-13

    The catalytic, electrocatalytic, or photocatalytic conversion of CO2 into useful chemicals in high yield for industrial applications has so far proven difficult. Herein, we present our work on the electrochemical reduction of CO2 in seawater using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode under ambient conditions to produce formaldehyde. This method overcomes the usual limitation of the low yield of higher-order products, and also reduces the generation of H2 . In comparison with other electrode materials, BDD electrodes have a wide potential window and high electrochemical stability, and, moreover, exhibit very high Faradaic efficiency (74%) for the production of formaldehyde, using either methanol, aqueous NaCl, or seawater as the electrolyte. The high Faradaic efficiency is attributed to the sp(3)-bonded carbon of the BDD. Our results have wide ranging implications for the efficient and cost-effective conversion of CO2. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Microbial Electrolysis Cells for High Yield Hydrogen Gas Production from Organic Matter

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, Bruce E.

    2008-12-01

    The use of electrochemically active bacteria to break down organic matter, combined with the addition of a small voltage (>0.2 V in practice) in specially designed microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), can result in a high yield of hydrogen gas. While microbial electrolysis was invented only a few years ago, rapid developments have led to hydrogen yields approaching 100%, energy yields based on electrical energy input many times greater than that possible by water electrolysis, and increased gas production rates. MECs used to make hydrogen gas are similar in design to microbial fuel cells (MFCs) that produce electricity, but there are important differences in architecture and analytical methods used to evaluate performance. We review here the materials, architectures, performance, and energy efficiencies of these MEC systems that show promise as a method for renewable and sustainable energy production, and wastewater treatment. © 2008 American Chemical Society.

  11. High-Yield Production of Levulinic Acid from Pretreated Cow Dung in Dilute Acid Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialei Su

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural waste cow dung was used as feedstock for the production of a high value–added chemical levulinic acid (LA in dilute acid aqueous solutions. A high LA yield of 338.9 g/kg was obtained from the pretreated cow dung, which was much higher than that obtained from the crude cow dung (135 g/kg, mainly attributed to the breakage of the lignin fraction in the lignocellulose structure of the cow dung by potassium hydroxide (KOH pretreatment, and thus enhanced the accessibility of cow dung to the acid sites in the catalytic reaction. Meanwhile, another value-added chemical formic acid could be obtained with a yield of ca. 160 g/kg in the process, implying a total production of ca. 500 g/kg yield for LA and formic acid from the pretreated cow dung with the proposed process. The developed process was shown to be tolerant to high initial substrate loading with a satisfied LA yield. This work provides a promising strategy for the value-increment utilization of liglocellulosic agricultural residues.

  12. High-Yield Production of Levulinic Acid from Pretreated Cow Dung in Dilute Acid Aqueous Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jialei; Shen, Feng; Qiu, Mo; Qi, Xinhua

    2017-02-14

    Agricultural waste cow dung was used as feedstock for the production of a high value-added chemical levulinic acid (LA) in dilute acid aqueous solutions. A high LA yield of 338.9 g/kg was obtained from the pretreated cow dung, which was much higher than that obtained from the crude cow dung (135 g/kg), mainly attributed to the breakage of the lignin fraction in the lignocellulose structure of the cow dung by potassium hydroxide (KOH) pretreatment, and thus enhanced the accessibility of cow dung to the acid sites in the catalytic reaction. Meanwhile, another value-added chemical formic acid could be obtained with a yield of ca. 160 g/kg in the process, implying a total production of ca. 500 g/kg yield for LA and formic acid from the pretreated cow dung with the proposed process. The developed process was shown to be tolerant to high initial substrate loading with a satisfied LA yield. This work provides a promising strategy for the value-increment utilization of liglocellulosic agricultural residues.

  13. Technology Development for High Efficiency Optical Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Deep space optical communications is a significantly more challenging operational domain than near Earth space optical communications, primarily due to effects resulting from the vastly increased range between transmitter and receiver. The NASA Game Changing Development Program Deep Space Optical Communications Project is developing four key technologies for the implementation of a high efficiency telecommunications system that will enable greater than 10X the data rate of a state-of-the-art deep space RF system (Ka-band) for similar transceiver mass and power burden on the spacecraft. These technologies are a low mass spacecraft disturbance isolation assembly, a flight qualified photon counting detector array, a high efficiency flight laser amplifier and a high efficiency photon counting detector array for the ground-based receiver.

  14. Advanced high-bandwidth optical fuzing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jony J.; von der Lippe, Christian M.

    2005-10-01

    A robust and compact photonic proximity sensor is developed for optical fuze in munitions applications. The design of the optical fuze employed advanced optoelectronic technologies including high-power vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), the p-i-n or metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors, SiGe ASIC driver, and miniature optics. The development combines pioneering work and unique expertise at ARDEC, ARL, and Sandia National Laboratories and synergizes the key optoelectronic technologies in components and system designs. This compact sensor will replace conventional costly assemblies based on discrete lasers, photodetectors, and bulky optics and provide a new capability for direct fire applications. It will be mass manufacturable in low cost and simplicity. In addition to the specific applications for gun-fired munitions, numerous civilian uses can be realized by this proximity sensor in automotive, robotics, and aerospace applications. This technology is also applicable to robotic ladar and short-range 3-D imaging.

  15. High precision and high yield fabrication of dense nanoparticle arrays onto DNA origami at statistically independent binding sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabayashi, Sadao; Klein, William P.; Onodera, Craig; Rapp, Blake; Flores-Estrada, Juan; Lindau, Elias; Snowball, Lejmarc; Sam, Joseph T.; Padilla, Jennifer E.; Lee, Jeunghoon; Knowlton, William B.; Graugnard, Elton; Yurke, Bernard; Kuang, Wan; Hughes, William L.

    2014-10-01

    High precision, high yield, and high density self-assembly of nanoparticles into arrays is essential for nanophotonics. Spatial deviations as small as a few nanometers can alter the properties of near-field coupled optical nanostructures. Several studies have reported assemblies of few nanoparticle structures with controlled spacing using DNA nanostructures with variable yield. Here, we report multi-tether design strategies and attachment yields for homo- and hetero-nanoparticle arrays templated by DNA origami nanotubes. Nanoparticle attachment yield via DNA hybridization is comparable with streptavidin-biotin binding. Independent of the number of binding sites, >97% site-occupation was achieved with four tethers and 99.2% site-occupation is theoretically possible with five tethers. The interparticle distance was within 2 nm of all design specifications and the nanoparticle spatial deviations decreased with interparticle spacing. Modified geometric, binomial, and trinomial distributions indicate that site-bridging, steric hindrance, and electrostatic repulsion were not dominant barriers to self-assembly and both tethers and binding sites were statistically independent at high particle densities.High precision, high yield, and high density self-assembly of nanoparticles into arrays is essential for nanophotonics. Spatial deviations as small as a few nanometers can alter the properties of near-field coupled optical nanostructures. Several studies have reported assemblies of few nanoparticle structures with controlled spacing using DNA nanostructures with variable yield. Here, we report multi-tether design strategies and attachment yields for homo- and hetero-nanoparticle arrays templated by DNA origami nanotubes. Nanoparticle attachment yield via DNA hybridization is comparable with streptavidin-biotin binding. Independent of the number of binding sites, >97% site-occupation was achieved with four tethers and 99.2% site-occupation is theoretically possible with five

  16. China’s High-yield Pulp Sector and Its Carbon Dioxide Emission: Considering the Saved Standing Wood as an Increase of Carbon Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Yanhong Gao; Jing Shen; Qun Li

    2014-01-01

    The production of high-yield pulp in China has increased significantly in recent years. The well-known advantages of this type of pulp include low production cost, high opacity, and good paper formation. In the context of state-of-the-art technologies, China’s high-yield pulping, which is dominated by the PRC-APMP (preconditioning refiner chemical treatment-alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping) process, has a much higher energy input but a significantly lower wood consumption in comparison wi...

  17. Synthesis and characterization of poly (dihydroxybiphenyl borate) with high char yield for high-performance thermosetting resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujuan; Xing, Xiaolong; Li, Jian; Jing, Xinli

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the current work is to synthesize novel boron-containing polymers with excellent thermal resistance, and reveal the structure and the reason for the high char yield. Thus, poly (dihydroxybiphenyl borate) (PDDB) with a more rigid molecular chain, was successfully synthesized using 4,4‧-dihydroxybiphenyl and boric acid. Structural characterizations of the prepared PDDB were performed via NMR, FTIR, XPS, and XRD analyses. The results reveal that PDDB consists of aromatic, Phsbnd Osbnd B and Bsbnd Osbnd B structures as well as a small number of boron hydroxyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups. PDDB shows good solubility in strong polar solvents, which is of great importance for the modification of thermosetting resins. TGA combined with DSC were employed to evaluate the thermal properties of PDDB, and increases in the glass transition temperature (Tg) and char yield were observed with increased boron content. Tg and char yield of PDDB (800 °C, nitrogen atmosphere) reached up to 219 °C and 66.5%, respectively. PDDB was extensively characterized during pyrolysis to reveal the high char yield of PDDB. As briefly discussed, the boron oxide and boron carbide that formed during pyrolysis play a crucial role in the high char yield of PDDB, which reduces the release of volatile carbon dioxide and carbon. This research suggests that PDDB has great potential as a novel modified agent for the improvement of the comprehensive performance of thermosetting resins to broaden their applicability in the field of advanced composites.

  18. Fast and inexpensive synthesis of pentacene with high yield using 6,13-pentacenequinone as precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, María L.; Rodriguez, Bibiana; Carrillo, Amanda; Ambrosio, Roberto C.; Luque, Priscy A.; Mireles, Marcela; Vivaldo, Israel; Quevedo, Manuel A.

    2018-02-01

    Pentacene is an important semiconductor in the field of organic electronics. In this work is presented an alternative synthesis procedure to obtain pentacene from 6,13-pentacenequinone as a precursor. Synthesis of pentacene was performed in two reactions, Diels-Adler cycloaddition of 6,13-pentacenequinone followed by 6,13-pentacenequinone reduction to pentacene, employing LiAlH4 as reducing agent. The products were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H-NMR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy (UV-VIS). In this work, 6,13-pentacenequinone was synthetized with a high yield (55%) using an alternative method. The optimization process resulted in an overall reduction of reaction time while exhibiting high yield. The method presented here provides an affordable pentacene synthesis route with high purity, which can be further applied for research and development of organic electronic applications.

  19. Plant growth analysis used as secondary traits in selection for high yield on groundnut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manshuri, A.G.; Nugrahaeni

    1996-01-01

    Groundnut growth and yield can be expressed as the product to solar radiation interception (Qi), conversion efficiency of radiation to total dry matter (Ek) and partitioning efficiency to economic yield (Ep) or harvest index. Groundnut genotypes differ in characters related to Qi, Ek and Ep, and the characters have the possibility to be used as secondary traits in selection for high yield. Extinction coefficient (k) and leaf area index (LAI) are the influential factors in increasing Qi. Variability in leaf size lead to the description of the existence of variability in k value within the genotypes under study. LAI three is the level necessary to attain 90 percent total radiation absorption in groundnut. An increased of LAI exceeding four would be inefficient for increasing the fraction of radiation absorption. Convertion efficiency of radiation to total dry matter (Ek) related to the rate of plant photosynthesis and respiration, inspite of the need study the field, however, the study was still limited. Harvest index can be used as a secondary trait to identify high yield genotypes. There was a positive correlation between pod yield and harvest index. An increased of harvest index by 1 percent caused an increased of dry pod as high as 0.365 g/plant. ICG 1697, ICGV 86844 and ICGV 87161 gave yield more than 3.5 t/ha, and their total dry matter (TDM) were 49.2, 52.5 and 40.7 g/plant, whereas their harvest indexes (HI) were 0.47, 0.46 and 0.55, respectively. Theoretically, improvement of the groundnut pod yield can be attained by using variety which has TDM 52.5 g/plant and HI 0.55. Using HI as secondary selection criteria, five genotypes were selected, i.e., G/C/LM-88-B-25 (HI 0.59), local Irian and local Lombok (HI 0.57), ICGV 87161 and LM/ICGV 87165-B-2-1 (HI 0.55). Two genotypes were selected for their high TDM, namely ICGV 86844 and LM/ICGV 87165-88-B-82 [in

  20. Surface studies and implanted helium measurements following NOVA high-yield DT experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyer, M.A.; Hudson, G.B.

    1997-02-18

    This paper presents the results of three March 6, 1996 direct-drive high-yield DT NOVA experiments and provides `proof-of-principal` results for the quantitative measurement of energetic He ions. Semiconductor quality Si wafers and an amorphous carbon wafer were exposed to NOVA high-yield implosions. Surface damage was sub-micron in general, although the surface ablation was slightly greater for the carbon wafer than for the Si wafers. Melting of a thin ({approx} 0.1{mu}) layer of Si was evident from microscopic investigation. Electron microscopy indicated melted blobs of many different metals (e.g. Al, Au, Ta, Fe alloys, Cu and even Cd) on the surfaces. The yield measured by determining the numbers of atoms of implanted {sup 4}He and {sup 3}He indicate the number of DT fusions to be 9.1({plus_minus}2.3) X 10{sup 12} and DD fusions to be 4.8({plus_minus}1.0) x 10{sup 10}, respectively. The helium DT fusion yield is slightly lower than that of the Cu activation measurement, which was 1.3({plus_minus}0.l) x 10{sup 13} DT fusions.

  1. Morality and ethics in high technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeter, K.U.

    2003-01-01

    The ethical debate about what is feasible culminates, for one side, in the indignant moral question whether man is allowed to do all he is able to do and, for the other side, in the very obligation to keep redefining the limits of creation, and to act accordingly. Consequently, the Young Generation, at their meeting in Gronau, Westphalia (about which we reported), discussed about ''High Technology - Responsible on Ethical and Moral Grounds?'' The paper presented to the participants by pastor Kai Uwe Schroeter reflects this dichotomy, but also takes a clear position in favor of the expansion of nuclear power. This issue of atw contains a revised version of the paper. It is published in the hope that it will furnish arguments for the philosophical and ethical debates about high technology. (orig.) [de

  2. Employment Trends in High-Technology Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    22 22 22 105 32 Computer professionals Programmers 300 302 300 299 NA NA Systems analysts 221 223 221 221 NA NA Other 28 29 28 21 NA NA Total 349 553...HIGH-TECHNOLOGY 00 OCCUPATIONS APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; PDISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED mpg NAVY PERSONNEL RESEARCH I AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER San Diego...mathematics, physical or life sciences, and computer science will be in greatest demand. Such competition may have adverse effects on the Navy’s ability to

  3. Metabolic engineering of biomass for high energy density: oilseed-like triacylglycerol yields from plant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhercke, Thomas; El Tahchy, Anna; Liu, Qing; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Shrestha, Pushkar; Divi, Uday K; Ral, Jean-Philippe; Mansour, Maged P; Nichols, Peter D; James, Christopher N; Horn, Patrick J; Chapman, Kent D; Beaudoin, Frederic; Ruiz-López, Noemi; Larkin, Philip J; de Feyter, Robert C; Singh, Surinder P; Petrie, James R

    2014-02-01

    High biomass crops have recently attracted significant attention as an alternative platform for the renewable production of high energy storage lipids such as triacylglycerol (TAG). While TAG typically accumulates in seeds as storage compounds fuelling subsequent germination, levels in vegetative tissues are generally low. Here, we report the accumulation of more than 15% TAG (17.7% total lipids) by dry weight in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) leaves by the co-expression of three genes involved in different aspects of TAG production without severely impacting plant development. These yields far exceed the levels found in wild-type leaf tissue as well as previously reported engineered TAG yields in vegetative tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana and N. tabacum. When translated to a high biomass crop, the current levels would translate to an oil yield per hectare that exceeds those of most cultivated oilseed crops. Confocal fluorescence microscopy and mass spectrometry imaging confirmed the accumulation of TAG within leaf mesophyll cells. In addition, we explored the applicability of several existing oil-processing methods using fresh leaf tissue. Our results demonstrate the technical feasibility of a vegetative plant oil production platform and provide for a step change in the bioenergy landscape, opening new prospects for sustainable food, high energy forage, biofuel and biomaterial applications. © 2013 CSIRO. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Low LET radiolysis escape yields for reducing radicals and H2 in pressurized high temperature water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterniczuk, Marcin; Yakabuskie, Pamela A.; Wren, J. Clara; Jacob, Jasmine A.; Bartels, David M.

    2016-04-01

    Low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiolysis escape yields (G values) are reported for the sum (G(radH)+G(e-)aq) and for G(H2) in subcritical water up to 350 °C. The scavenger system 1-10 mM acetate/0.001 M hydroxide/0.00048 M N2O was used with simultaneous mass spectroscopic detection of H2 and N2 product. Temperature-dependent measurements were carried out with 2.5 MeV electrons from a van de Graaff accelerator, while room temperature calibration measurements were done with a 60Co gamma source. The concentrations and dose range were carefully chosen so that initial spur chemistry is not perturbed and the N2 product yield corresponds to those reducing radicals that escape recombination in pure water. In comparison with a recent review recommendation of Elliot and Bartels (AECL report 153-127160-450-001, 2009), the measured reducing radical yield is seven percent smaller at room temperature but in fairly good agreement above 150 °C. The H2 escape yield is in good agreement throughout the temperature range with several previous studies that used much larger radical scavenging rates. Previous analysis of earlier high temperature measurements of Gesc(radOH) is shown to be flawed, although the actual G values may be nearly correct. The methodology used in the present report greatly reduces the range of possible error and puts the high temperature escape yields for low-LET radiation on a much firmer quantitative foundation than was previously available.

  5. Nuclear Engineering of Microalgae for High Yield Secretion of Recombinant Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos Martinez, Erick Miguel

    Photosynthetic microorganism like microalgae and cyanobacteria are considered as emerging biotechnology platforms for production of recombinant proteins and other high-value biomolecules with a wide range of applications. Moreover, microalgae offer significant advantages compared with other...... optimization of metabolic facilities towards enhanced product yields. We have shown that by permeabilizing cyanobacteria cells with a commercially available B-PER reagent, cells can be directly used for measurement of intracellular enzymes in an easy, efficient and scalable manner....... biotechnology hosts including safety, metabolic diversity, scalability, sustainability and low production cost. Over the past decades, considerable improvement has been made to express and secrete recombinant proteins in high levels: however current yields are still low. The first research project presented...

  6. Technology development for high temperature logging tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veneruso, A.F.; Coquat, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    A set of prototype, high temperature logging tools (temperature, pressure and flow) were tested successfully to temperatures up to 275/sup 0/C in a Union geothermal well during November 1978 as part of the Geothermal Logging Instrumentation Development Program. This program is being conducted by Sandia Laboratories for the Department of Energy's Division of Geothermal Energy. The progress and plans of this industry based program to develop and apply the high temperature instrumentation technology needed to make reliable geothermal borehole measurements are described. Specifically, this program is upgrading existing sondes for improved high temperature performance, as well as applying new materials (elastomers, polymers, metals and ceramics) and developing component technology such as high temperature cables, cableheads and electronics to make borehole measurements such as formation temperature, flow rate, high resolution pressure and fracture mapping. In order to satisfy critical existing needs, the near term goal is for operation up to 275/sup 0/C and 7000 psi by the end of FY80. The long term goal is for operation up to 350/sup 0/C and 20,000 psi by the end of FY84.

  7. RNA isolation from loquat and other recalcitrant woody plants with high quality and yield

    OpenAIRE

    Morante Carriel, Jaime; Sellés Marchart, Susana; Martínez Márquez, Ascensión; Martínez Esteso, María José; Luque Romero, Ignacio; Bru, Roque

    2014-01-01

    RNA isolation is difficult in plants that contain large amounts of polysaccharides and polyphenol compounds. To date, no commercial kit has been developed for the isolation of high-quality RNA from tissues with these characteristics, especially for fruit. The common protocols for RNA isolation are tedious and usually result in poor yields when applied to recalcitrant plant tissues. Here an efficient RNA isolation protocol based on cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and two successive preci...

  8. Remote systems requirements of the high-yield lithium injection fusion energy converter concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, P.E.

    1978-01-01

    Remote systems will be required in the high-yield lithium injection fusion energy converter power plant proposed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. During inspection operations, viewing of the chamber interior and certain pumps, valve fittings, and welds must be done remotely. Ideas for remote maintenance of laser-beam blast baffles, optics, and target material traps are described. Radioisotope sources, their distributions, and exposure rates at various points in the reactor vicinity are presented

  9. Potential forcing of CO{sub 2}, technology and climate changes in maize (Zea mays) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) yield in southeast Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, L C; Justino, F; Oliveira, L J C; Sediyama, G C; Lemos, C F [Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Vicosa, PH Rolfs S/N, Vicosa, MG, 36570 000 (Brazil); Ferreira, W P M [Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, Rodovia MG 424, km 45, Caixa Postal 285, CEP 35701-970 Sete Lagoas, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: fjustino@ufv.br

    2009-01-15

    Based upon sensitivity experiments, this study aims to investigate the impact of increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, climate changes, and ongoing technological advancements on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and maize (Zea mays) yield. This investigation assumes that the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration evolves according to the A2 scenario. For these analyses we have used climate data as projected by climate simulations conducted with the HadCM3 climate model for both present day and greenhouse warming conditions. The results demonstrated that warming conditions associated with increased greenhouse gases as delivered by the HadCM3 model lead to reductions in the potential productivity of maize and beans for the years 2050 and 2080 by up to 30%. This thermal response is, however, damped by the highly efficient CO{sub 2} fertilization effect which is expected to increase bean productivity as compared to present day conditions. A similar investigation for maize yield revealed a different picture. It has been found that the CO{sub 2} fertilization feedback is much weaker and cannot cancel out the thermal effect. We have found, therefore, that climate changes as simulated to occur in the future are not favorable for increasing the maize yield in southeast Brazil. By the inclusion of the third forcing evaluated, representing technological advancements, it is demonstrated that improvements in the crop system reduce the negative effect associated with warmer climate conditions for both crops. We conclude that appropriate soil and technological management as well as genetic improvements may very likely induce an increase in bean and maize yield despite the unfavorable future climate conditions.

  10. Potential forcing of CO2, technology and climate changes in maize (Zea mays) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) yield in southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, L. C.; Justino, F.; Oliveira, L. J. C.; Sediyama, G. C.; Ferreira, W. P. M.; Lemos, C. F.

    2009-01-01

    Based upon sensitivity experiments, this study aims to investigate the impact of increased atmospheric CO2 concentration, climate changes, and ongoing technological advancements on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and maize (Zea mays) yield. This investigation assumes that the atmospheric CO2 concentration evolves according to the A2 scenario. For these analyses we have used climate data as projected by climate simulations conducted with the HadCM3 climate model for both present day and greenhouse warming conditions. The results demonstrated that warming conditions associated with increased greenhouse gases as delivered by the HadCM3 model lead to reductions in the potential productivity of maize and beans for the years 2050 and 2080 by up to 30%. This thermal response is, however, damped by the highly efficient CO2 fertilization effect which is expected to increase bean productivity as compared to present day conditions. A similar investigation for maize yield revealed a different picture. It has been found that the CO2 fertilization feedback is much weaker and cannot cancel out the thermal effect. We have found, therefore, that climate changes as simulated to occur in the future are not favorable for increasing the maize yield in southeast Brazil. By the inclusion of the third forcing evaluated, representing technological advancements, it is demonstrated that improvements in the crop system reduce the negative effect associated with warmer climate conditions for both crops. We conclude that appropriate soil and technological management as well as genetic improvements may very likely induce an increase in bean and maize yield despite the unfavorable future climate conditions.

  11. Neutron yield from thick lead target by the action of high-energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noga, V.I.; Ranyuk, Yu.N.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Sorokin, P.V.

    1978-01-01

    The results are presented of studying the complete neutron yield from a lead target bombarded by high-energy electrons. Neutrons were recorded by the method of radio-active indicators. The dependence of the neutron yield on the target thickness varying from 0.2 to 8 cm was obtained at the energies of electrons of 230 and 1200 MeV. The neutron yield for the given energies with the target of 6 cm in thickness is in the range of saturation and is 0.1 +-0.03 and 0.65+-0.22 (neutr./MeV.el.), respectively. The neutron angular distributions were measured for different thicknesses of targets at the 201, 230 and 1200 MeV electrons. Within the error limits the angular distributions are isotropic. The dependence of neutron yield on the electron energy was examined for a 3 cm thick target. In the energy range of 100-1200 MeV these values are related by a linear dependence with the proportionality coefficient C=3x10 -4 (neutr./MeV.el.)

  12. Epidemiology and impact of Fasciola hepatica exposure in high-yielding dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Alison; Baylis, Matthew; Smith, Rob; Pinchbeck, Gina; Williams, Diana

    2015-09-01

    The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a trematode parasite with a worldwide distribution and is the cause of important production losses in the dairy industry. The aim of this observational study was to assess the prevalence of exposure to F. hepatica in a group of high yielding dairy herds, to determine the risk factors and investigate their associations with production and fertility parameters. Bulk milk tank samples from 606 herds that supply a single retailer with liquid milk were tested with an antibody ELISA for F. hepatica. Multivariable linear regression was used to investigate the effect of farm management and environmental risk factors on F. hepatica exposure. Higher rainfall, grazing boggy pasture, presence of beef cattle on farm, access to a stream or pond and smaller herd size were associated with an increased risk of exposure. Univariable regression was used to look for associations between fluke exposure and production-related variables including milk yield, composition, somatic cell count and calving index. Although causation cannot be assumed, a significant (phepatica exposure and estimated milk yield at the herd level, representing a 15% decrease in yield for an increase in F. hepatica exposure from the 25th to the 75th percentile. This remained significant when fertility, farm management and environmental factors were controlled for. No associations were found between F. hepatica exposure and any of the other production, disease or fertility variables. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis of Luminescent Graphene Quantum Dots with High Quantum Yield and Their Toxicity Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Jiang

    Full Text Available High fluorescence quantum yield graphene quantum dots (GQDs have showed up as a new generation for bioimaging. In this work, luminescent GQDs were prepared by an ameliorative photo-Fenton reaction and a subsequent hydrothermal process using graphene oxide sheets as the precursor. The as-prepared GQDs were nanomaterials with size ranging from 2.3 to 6.4 nm and emitted intense green luminescence in water. The fluorescence quantum yield was as high as 24.6% (excited at 340 nm and the fluorescence was strongest at pH 7. Moreover, the influences of low-concentration (12.5, 25 μg/mL GQDs on the morphology, viability, membrane integrity, internal cellular reactive oxygen species level and mortality of HeLa cells were relatively weak, and the in vitro imaging demonstrated GQDs were mainly in the cytoplasm region. More strikingly, zebrafish embryos were co-cultured with GQDs for in vivo imaging, and the results of heart rate test showed the intake of small amounts of GQDs brought little harm to the cardiovascular of zebrafish. GQDs with high quantum yield and strong photoluminescence show good biocompatibility, thus they show good promising for cell imaging, biolabeling and other biomedical applications.

  14. High-energy laser weapons: technology overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perram, Glen P.; Marciniak, Michael A.; Goda, Matthew

    2004-09-01

    High energy laser (HEL) weapons are ready for some of today"s most challenging military applications. For example, the Airborne Laser (ABL) program is designed to defend against Theater Ballistic Missiles in a tactical war scenario. Similarly, the Tactical High Energy Laser (THEL) program is currently testing a laser to defend against rockets and other tactical weapons. The Space Based Laser (SBL), Advanced Tactical Laser (ATL) and Large Aircraft Infrared Countermeasures (LAIRCM) programs promise even greater applications for laser weapons. This technology overview addresses both strategic and tactical roles for HEL weapons on the modern battlefield and examines current technology limited performance of weapon systems components, including various laser device types, beam control systems, atmospheric propagation, and target lethality issues. The characteristics, history, basic hardware, and fundamental performance of chemical lasers, solid state lasers and free electron lasers are summarized and compared. The elements of beam control, including the primary aperture, fast steering mirror, deformable mirrors, wavefront sensors, beacons and illuminators will be discussed with an emphasis on typical and required performance parameters. The effects of diffraction, atmospheric absorption, scattering, turbulence and thermal blooming phenomenon on irradiance at the target are described. Finally, lethality criteria and measures of weapon effectiveness are addressed. The primary purpose of the presentation is to define terminology, establish key performance parameters, and summarize technology capabilities.

  15. Emerging technologies for high performance infrared detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Chee Leong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrared photodetectors (IRPDs have become important devices in various applications such as night vision, military missile tracking, medical imaging, industry defect imaging, environmental sensing, and exoplanet exploration. Mature semiconductor technologies such as mercury cadmium telluride and III–V material-based photodetectors have been dominating the industry. However, in the last few decades, significant funding and research has been focused to improve the performance of IRPDs such as lowering the fabrication cost, simplifying the fabrication processes, increasing the production yield, and increasing the operating temperature by making use of advances in nanofabrication and nanotechnology. We will first review the nanomaterial with suitable electronic and mechanical properties, such as two-dimensional material, graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and metal oxides. We compare these with more traditional low-dimensional material such as quantum well, quantum dot, quantum dot in well, semiconductor superlattice, nanowires, nanotube, and colloid quantum dot. We will also review the nanostructures used for enhanced light-matter interaction to boost the IRPD sensitivity. These include nanostructured antireflection coatings, optical antennas, plasmonic, and metamaterials.

  16. Emerging technologies for high performance infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chee Leong; Mohseni, Hooman

    2018-01-01

    Infrared photodetectors (IRPDs) have become important devices in various applications such as night vision, military missile tracking, medical imaging, industry defect imaging, environmental sensing, and exoplanet exploration. Mature semiconductor technologies such as mercury cadmium telluride and III-V material-based photodetectors have been dominating the industry. However, in the last few decades, significant funding and research has been focused to improve the performance of IRPDs such as lowering the fabrication cost, simplifying the fabrication processes, increasing the production yield, and increasing the operating temperature by making use of advances in nanofabrication and nanotechnology. We will first review the nanomaterial with suitable electronic and mechanical properties, such as two-dimensional material, graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and metal oxides. We compare these with more traditional low-dimensional material such as quantum well, quantum dot, quantum dot in well, semiconductor superlattice, nanowires, nanotube, and colloid quantum dot. We will also review the nanostructures used for enhanced light-matter interaction to boost the IRPD sensitivity. These include nanostructured antireflection coatings, optical antennas, plasmonic, and metamaterials.

  17. Catalytic subcritical water liquefaction of flax straw for high yield of furfural

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harry, Inibehe; Ibrahim, Hussameldin; Thring, Ron; Idem, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    There is substantial interest in the application of biomass as a renewable fuel or for production of chemicals. Flax straw can be converted into valuable chemicals and biofuels via liquefaction in sub-critical water. In this study, the yield of furfural and the kinetics of flax straw liquefaction under sub-critical water conditions were investigated using a high-pressure autoclave reactor. The liquefaction was conducted in the temperature range of 175–325 °C, pressure of 0.1 MPa–8 MPa, retention time in the range of 0 min–120 min, and flax straw mass fraction (w F ) of 5–20 %. Also, the effect of acid catalysts on furfural yield was studied. The kinetic parameters of flax straw liquefaction were determined using nonlinear regression of the experimental data, assuming second-order kinetics. The apparent activation energy was found to be 27.97 kJ mol −1 while the reaction order was 2.0. The optimum condition for furfural yield was at 250 °C, 6.0 MPa, w F of 5% and 0 retention time after reaching set conditions. An acid catalyst was found to selectively favour furfural yield with 40% flax straw conversion. - Highlights: • Flax straw liquefaction in subcritical water. • Creation of a reaction pathway that can be used to optimized furfural production. • Acid catalyst selectively favoured furfural yield with respect to other liquid products. • At the highest process temperature of 325 °C, a carbon conversion of 40% was achieved. • Activation energy and reaction order was 28 kJ/mol and 2.0 respectively

  18. High Titer and Yields Achieved with Novel, Low-Severity Pretreatment Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    NREL researchers obtained high concentration sugar syrups in enzymatic hydrolysis that are fermentable to ethanol and other advanced biofuels and intermediate products at high yields. The novel DMR process is simpler and bypasses all severe pretreatment methods, thus reducing the environmental impact. The results are unprecedented. Researchers achieved a high concentration of sugars (230g/L of monomeric sugar and 270 g/L total sugar) and this low toxicity, highly fermentable syrup yielded 86 g/L ethanol (> 90 percent conversion). In addition, the lignin streams from this process can readily be converted to jet or renewable diesel blendstocks through a hydrodeoxygenation step. The NREL-developed, low severity DMR process may potentially replace higher severity chemical pretreatments and associated expensive reactors constructed of exotic alloys with a simpler process, using commercial-scale equipment commonly associated with the pulp and paper industry, to produce high concentration, low toxicity sugar streams and highly reactive lignin streams from non-food renewable biomass for biological and catalytic upgrading to advanced biofuels and chemicals. The simpler DMR process with black liquor recycling could reduce environmental and life-cycle impacts, and repurpose shuttered pulp and paper mills to help revitalize rural economies.

  19. ENDF/B-VII.1 Nuclear Data for Science and Technology: Cross Sections, Covariances, Fission Product Yields and Decay Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, M.B.; Herman, M.; Author(s): Chadwick,M.B.; Herman,M.; Oblozinsky,P.; Dunn,M.E.; Danon,Y.; Kahler,A.C.; Smith,D.L.; Pritychenko,B.; Arbanas,G.; Arcilla,R.; Brewer,R.; Brown,D.A.; Capote,R.; Carlson,A.D.; Cho,Y.S.; Derrien,H.; Guber,K.; Hale,G.M.; Hoblit,S.; Holloway,S.: Johnson,T.D.; Kawano,T.; Kiedrowski,B.C.; Kim,H.; Kunieda,S.; Larson,N.M.; Leal,L.; Lestone,J.P.; Little,R.C.; McCutchan,E.A.; MacFarlane,R.E.; MacInnes,M.; Mattoon,C.M.; McKnight,R.D.; Mughabghab,S.F.; Nobre,G.P.A.; Palmiotti,G.; Palumbo,A.; Pigni,M.T.; Pronyaev,V.G.; Sayer,R.O.; Sonzogni,A.A.; Summers,N.C.; Talou,P.; Thompson,I.J.; Trkov,A.; Vogt,R.L.; van der Marck,S.C.; Wallner,A.; White,M.C.; Wiarda,D.; Young,P.G.

    2011-12-01

    The ENDF/B-VII.1 library is our latest recommended evaluated nuclear data file for use in nuclear science and technology applications, and incorporates advances made in the five years since the release of ENDF/B-VII.0. These advances focus on neutron cross sections, covariances, fission product yields and decay data, and represent work by the US Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) in nuclear data evaluation that utilizes developments in nuclear theory, modeling, simulation, and experiment. The principal advances in the new library are: (1) An increase in the breadth of neutron reaction cross section coverage, extending from 393 nuclides to 423 nuclides; (2) Covariance uncertainty data for 190 of the most important nuclides, as documented in companion papers in this edition; (3) R-matrix analyses of neutron reactions on light nuclei, including isotopes of He, Li, and Be; (4) Resonance parameter analyses at lower energies and statistical high energy reactions for isotopes of Cl, K, Ti, V, Mn, Cr, Ni, Zr and W; (5) Modifications to thermal neutron reactions on fission products (isotopes of Mo, Tc, Rh, Ag, Cs, Nd, Sm, Eu) and neutron absorber materials (Cd, Gd); (6) Improved minor actinide evaluations for isotopes of U, Np, Pu, and Am (we are not making changes to the major actinides {sup 235,238}U and {sup 239}Pu at this point, except for delayed neutron data and covariances, and instead we intend to update them after a further period of research in experiment and theory), and our adoption of JENDL-4.0 evaluations for isotopes of Cm, Bk, Cf, Es, Fm, and some other minor actinides; (7) Fission energy release evaluations; (8) Fission product yield advances for fission-spectrum neutrons and 14 MeV neutrons incident on {sup 239}Pu; and (9) A new decay data sublibrary. Integral validation testing of the ENDF/B-VII.1 library is provided for a variety of quantities: For nuclear criticality, the VII.1 library maintains the generally-good performance seen for VII.0

  20. HIGH YIELD AND RAPID SYNTHESES METHODS FOR PRODUCING METALLO-ORGANIC SALTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    A new method for preparing salts of metal cations and organic acids, especially divalent salts of alkaline earth metal ions from group II of the periodic system and carboxylic acids. The method comprising the use of a high temperature (about 90° or more) and, optionally. high pressure, in order t...... to obtain a higher yield, purity and faster reaction speed than obtained with known synthesis methods. In particular, the present invention relates to the production of strontium salts of carboxylic acids. Novel strontium salts are also provided by the present method....

  1. Research Advances in High-Yielding Cultivation and Physiology of Super Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing FU

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1996, China launched a program to breed super rice or super hybrid rice by combining intersubspecific heterosis with ideal plant types. Today, approximately 80 super rice varieties have been released and some of them show high grain yields of 12–21 t/hm2 in field experiments. The main reasons for the high yields of super rice varieties, compared with those of conventional varieties, can be summarized as follows: more spikelets per panicle and larger sink size (number of spikelets per square meter; larger leaf area index, longer duration of green leaf, greater photosynthetic rate, higher lodging resistance, greater dry matter accumulation before the heading stage, greater remobilization of pre-stored carbohydrates from stems and leaves to grains during the grain-filling period; and larger root system and greater root activity. However, there are two main problems in super rice production: poor grain-filling of the later-flowering inferior spikelets (in contrast to earlier-flowering superior spikelets, and low and unstable seed-setting rate. Here, we review recent research advances in the crop physiology of super rice, focusing on biological features, formation of yield components, and population quality. Finally, we suggest further research on crop physiology of super rice.

  2. High yield production and purification of few layer graphene by gum arabic assisted physical sonication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, Victor; Kim, Brian; Sloper, Brent; Tzoganakis, Costas; Yu, Aiping

    2013-01-01

    Exploiting the emulsification properties of low cost, environmentally safe Gum Arabic we demonstrate a high yield process to produce a few layer graphene with a low defect ratio, maintaining the pristine graphite structure. In addition, we demonstrate the need for and efficacy of an acid hydrolysis treatment to remove the polymer residues to produce 100% pure graphene. The scalable process gives yield of up to 5 wt% graphene based on 10 g starting graphite. The graphene product is compared with reduced graphene oxide produced through Hummer's method using UV-visible spectroscopy, SEM, TEM, and Raman spectroscopy. The two graphene materials show significant difference in these characterizations. Further, the film fabricated from this graphene exhibits 20 times higher electrical conductivity than that of the reduced graphene oxide. Sonication processing of graphite with environmentally approved biopolymers such as Gum Arabic opens up a scalable avenue for production of cheap graphene.

  3. Responses of Yield Characteristics to High Temperature During Flowering Stage in Hybrid Rice Guodao 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-fu FU

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available By sowing at different dates during 2005 and 2006 both in paddy fields and greenhouse, a super hybrid rice combination Guodao 6 and a conventional hybrid rice combination Xieyou 46 (as control were used to analyze the differences in heat injury index, seed setting rate, grain yield and its components. Guodao 6 showed more stable yield and spikelet fertility, and lower heat injury index than Xieyou 46. Further studies indicated that the spikelet sterility is positively correlated with the average daily temperature and the maximum daily temperature, with the coefficients of 0.8604 and 0.9850 (P<0.05 respectively in Guodao 6. The effect of high temperature injury on seed setting caused by maximum daily temperature was lower than that by average daily temperature during the grain filling stage.

  4. Modulating fluorescence quantum yield of highly concentrated fluorescein using differently shaped green synthesized gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Jisha; Thomas, Lincy; Kurian, Achamma; George, Sajan D.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of dye molecules with differently shaped nanoparticles is of great interest owing to the potential applications in areas of bioimaging, sensing and photodynamic therapy (biology) as well as solar cells (photonics) applications. For such applications, noble metallic nanoparticles are commonly employed to either enhance or quench the luminescence of a nearby fluorophore. However, in most of the studies, the dye concentration is limited to avoid self-quenching. This paper reports the influence of differently shaped gold nanoparticles (spherical, bean and star), prepared via green synthesis, on the emission behavior as well as on the fluorescence quantum yield of fluorescein dye at concentrations for which self-quenching occurs. The emission behavior is probed via laser based steady state fluorescence whereas quantum yield is measured using a dual beam laser based thermal lens technique. The experimentally observed fluorescence quenching with a concomitant increase in thermal lens signal in the vicinity of nanoparticles are explained in terms of nonradiative energy transfer between the donor and the acceptor. Further, the influence of pH of the prepared gold nanofluid on the absorption, emission as well as quantum yield are also accounted. These studies elucidate that even at high concentrations of dye, the gold nanoparticle and its shape clearly influences the optical properties of nearby dye molecules and thus can be exploited for future applications. - Highlights: • Green synthesis of differently shaped gold nanoparticles. • Tailoring emission properties of fluorescein with respect to nanoparticle concentration and shape. • Tailoring the quantum yield of highly concentrated fluorescein with nanoparticles.

  5. High magnetic fields science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Miura, Noboru

    2003-01-01

    This three-volume book provides a comprehensive review of experiments in very strong magnetic fields that can only be generated with very special magnets. The first volume is entirely devoted to the technology of laboratory magnets: permanent, superconducting, high-power water-cooled and hybrid; pulsed magnets, both nondestructive and destructive (megagauss fields). Volumes 2 and 3 contain reviews of the different areas of research where strong magnetic fields are an essential research tool. These volumes deal primarily with solid-state physics; other research areas covered are biological syst

  6. High Yield Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of High Quality Large-Area AB Stacked Bilayer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixin; Zhou, Hailong; Cheng, Rui; Yu, Woo Jong; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Yu; Shaw, Jonathan; Zhong, Xing; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2012-01-01

    Bernal stacked (AB stacked) bilayer graphene is of significant interest for functional electronic and photonic devices due to the feasibility to continuously tune its band gap with a vertical electrical field. Mechanical exfoliation can be used to produce AB stacked bilayer graphene flakes but typically with the sizes limited to a few micrometers. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been recently explored for the synthesis of bilayer graphene but usually with limited coverage and a mixture of AB and randomly stacked structures. Herein we report a rational approach to produce large-area high quality AB stacked bilayer graphene. We show that the self-limiting effect of graphene growth on Cu foil can be broken by using a high H2/CH4 ratio in a low pressure CVD process to enable the continued growth of bilayer graphene. A high temperature and low pressure nucleation step is found to be critical for the formation of bilayer graphene nuclei with high AB stacking ratio. A rational design of a two-step CVD process is developed for the growth of bilayer graphene with high AB stacking ratio (up to 90 %) and high coverage (up to 99 %). The electrical transport studies demonstrated that devices made of the as-grown bilayer graphene exhibit typical characteristics of AB stacked bilayer graphene with the highest carrier mobility exceeding 4,000 cm2/V·s at room temperature, comparable to that of the exfoliated bilayer graphene. PMID:22906199

  7. Minimally Invasive Spine Metastatic Tumor Resection and Stabilization: New Technology Yield Improved Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Harel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal metastases compressing the spinal cord are a medical emergency and should be operated on if possible; however, patients’ medical condition is often poor and surgical complications are common. Minimizing surgical extant, operative time, and blood loss can potentially reduce postoperative complications. This is a retrospective study describing the patients operated on in our department utilizing a minimally invasive surgery (MIS approach to decompress and instrument the spine from November 2013 to November 2014. Five patients were operated on for thoracic or lumbar metastases. In all cases a unilateral decompression with expandable tubular retractor was followed by instrumentation of one level above and below the index level and additional screw at the index level contralateral to the decompression side. Cannulated fenestrated screws were used (Longitude FNS and cement was injected to increase pullout resistance. Mean operative time was 134 minutes and estimated blood loss was minimal in all cases. Improvement was noticeable in neurological status, function, and pain scores. No complications were observed. Technological improvements in spinal instruments facilitate shorter and safer surgeries in oncologic patient population and thus reduce the complication rate. These technologies improve patients’ quality of life and enable the treatment of patients with comorbidities.

  8. Isolation of hardy and high-yielding mutants in citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kole, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Citronella bears an essential oil of medicinal and aromatic importance. But little has been done for its genetic improvement. It is a clonally propagated crop and the genetic variability is too low for effective selection. Besides, various reproductive anomalies limit the scope for cross-breeding. With this in view, a mutation induction experiment was conducted. This crop is mostly grown in marginal lands and hardy genotypes are required. Exposure of vegetative slips of an improved strain (KS-CW-S-I) to x-rays at 3,6 and 9kR paved the way for selection of 53 elite M 1 V 2 clumps on the basis of the yield component characters. Mass screening under minimal cultural practices in a drought-prone zone in Western Orissa (India) led to identification of 16 potentially hardy clones (OJC-12 from 3kR, OJC-1, 3, 11, 18 and 20 from 6kR and OJC-4, 5, 6, 15, 21, 22, 24, 26, 30 and 31 from 9kR). The clones were planted with 3 replications in mid-monsoon, established during the remaining months of monsoon and grown thereafter under minimal cultural practices, i.e. no manure, fertiliser, irrigation, weeding or plant protection. Data on yield of fresh leaf and oil extracted from fresh leaves were recorded at harvest 6 months after planting at 5 to 6 leaf stage. The results revealed a highly significant variation with regard to yield of both leaf and oil. Six clones out-yielded the mother line for leaf as well as oil, and two clones surpassed the mother line in leaf yield only. The performance of clone OJC-3 was particularly encouraging. With 1.25 kg/plant leaf, 9.63cc/plant oil it superseded the yield of the mother line and other cultivars of this species (all around 0.6 kg/plant leaf, 5cc/plant oil) even when grown with irrigation. (author)

  9. The investigation for attaining the optimal yield of oil shale by integrating high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, A.T.

    1984-03-01

    This work presents a systemanalytical investigation and shows how far a high temperature reactor can be integrated for achieving the optimal yield of kerogen from oil shale. About 1/3 of the produced components must be burnt out in order to have the required high temperature process heat. The works of IGT show that the hydrogen gasification of oil shale enables not only to reach oil shale of higher quality but also allows to achieve a higher extraction quantity. For this reason a hydro-gasification process has been calculated in this work in which not only hydrogen is used as the gasification medium but also two high temperature reactors are integrated as the source of high temperature heat. (orig.) [de

  10. High-yield oil palm expansion spares land at the expense of forests in the Peruvian Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutiérrez-Vélez, Víctor H; DeFries, Ruth; Uriarte, María; Lim, Yili; Pinedo-Vásquez, Miguel; Padoch, Christine; Baethgen, Walter; Fernandes, Katia

    2011-01-01

    High-yield agriculture potentially reduces pressure on forests by requiring less land to increase production. Using satellite and field data, we assessed the area deforested by industrial-scale high-yield oil palm expansion in the Peruvian Amazon from 2000 to 2010, finding that 72% of new plantations expanded into forested areas. In a focus area in the Ucayali region, we assessed deforestation for high- and smallholder low-yield oil palm plantations. Low-yield plantations accounted for most expansion overall (80%), but only 30% of their expansion involved forest conversion, contrasting with 75% for high-yield expansion. High-yield expansion minimized the total area required to achieve production but counter-intuitively at higher expense to forests than low-yield plantations. The results show that high-yield agriculture is an important but insufficient strategy to reduce pressure on forests. We suggest that high-yield agriculture can be effective in sparing forests only if coupled with incentives for agricultural expansion into already cleared lands.

  11. High yielding tropical energy crops for bioenergy production: Effects of plant components, harvest years and locations on biomass composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendra, K C; Ogoshi, Richard; Zaleski, Halina M; Hashimoto, Andrew G; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2018-03-01

    The composition of lignocellulosic feedstock, which depends on crop type, crop management, locations and plant parts, significantly affects the conversion efficiency of biomass into biofuels and biobased products. Thus, this study examined the composition of different parts of two high yielding tropical energy crops, Energycane and Napier grass, collected across three locations and years. Significantly higher fiber content was found in the leaves of Energycane than stems, while fiber content was significantly higher in the stems than the leaves of Napier grass. Similarly, fiber content was higher in Napier grass than Energycane. Due to significant differences in biomass composition between the plant parts within a crop type, neither biological conversion, including anaerobic digestion, nor thermochemical pretreatment alone is likely to efficiently convert biomass components into biofuels and biobased products. However, combination of anaerobic digestion with thermochemical conversion technologies could efficiently utilize biomass components in generating biofuels and biobased products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficiency of radical yield in alkylthymine and alkyluracil by high-LET irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Seiko; Ohta, Nobuaki; Murakami, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Penthylthymines and hexyl-, nonyl-, and decyl- uracils were irradiated by C-ion (3.5 GeV) and γ-ray at 77 K. ESR spectra were measured to study radiation induced radicals in the temperature range from 108 to 273 K. A dihydro-5-yl (5-yl) radical formed by H addition to C6 carbon and a secondary alkyl radical by C-H bond fission at the second carbon from the end of the alkyl group were produced at 108 K. A dihydrouracil-6-yl (6-yl) radical formed by H addition to C5 carbon increased with increasing temperature for alkyluracils. The spectral feature obtained by C-ion irradiation was coincident with that by γ-irradiation. Total radical yields increased by alkylation and with increasing the length of alkyl chain. Yields of both 5-yl and secondary alkyl radicals irradiated by C-ion were less than those by γ-ray for penthylthymines and hexyluracil. On the contrary, radical yields were almost the same between ion and γ-ray irradiation for nonyl- and decyl-uracil. Mechanism of radical formation and effect of high-LET irradiation were discussed.

  13. Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes with tunable structure and high yield produced by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Zhang, Yong; Ionescu, Mihnea Ioan; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang

    2011-06-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (CN x) were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis from mixtures of imidazole and acetonitrile. Imidazole, as an additive, was used to control the structure and nitrogen doping in CN x by adjusting its concentration in the mixtures. Scanning electron microscopy observation showed that the addition of imidazole increased the nanotube growth rate and yield, while decreased the nanotube diameter. Transmission electron microscopy study indicated that the addition of imidazole promoted the formation of a dense bamboo-like structure in CN x. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis demonstrated that the nitrogen content varied from 3.2 to 5.2 at.% in CN x obtained with different imidazole concentrations. Raman spectra study showed that the intensity ratio of D to G bands gradually increased, while that of 2D to G bands decreased, due to increasing imidazole concentration. The yield of CN x made from mixtures of imidazole and acetonitrile can reach 192 mg in 24 min, which is 15 times that of CN x prepared from only acetonitrile. The aligned CN x, with controlled nitrogen doping, tunable structure and high yield, may find applications in developing non-noble catalysts and novel catalyst supports for fuel cells.

  14. High diagnostic yield of clinical exome sequencing in Middle Eastern patients with Mendelian disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavarna, Tarunashree; Al-Dewik, Nader; Al-Mureikhi, Mariam; Ali, Rehab; Al-Mesaifri, Fatma; Mahmoud, Laila; Shahbeck, Noora; Lakhani, Shenela; AlMulla, Mariam; Nawaz, Zafar; Vitazka, Patrik; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg

    2015-09-01

    Clinical exome sequencing (CES) has become an increasingly popular diagnostic tool in patients with heterogeneous genetic disorders, especially in those with neurocognitive phenotypes. Utility of CES in consanguineous populations has not yet been determined on a large scale. A clinical cohort of 149 probands from Qatar with suspected Mendelian, mainly neurocognitive phenotypes, underwent CES from July 2012 to June 2014. Intellectual disability and global developmental delay were the most common clinical presentations but our cohort displayed other phenotypes, such as epilepsy, dysmorphism, microcephaly and other structural brain anomalies and autism. A pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutation, including pathogenic CNVs, was identified in 89 probands for a diagnostic yield of 60%. Consanguinity and positive family history predicted a higher diagnostic yield. In 5% (7/149) of cases, CES implicated novel candidate disease genes (MANF, GJA9, GLG1, COL15A1, SLC35F5, MAGE4, NEUROG1). CES uncovered two coexisting genetic disorders in 4% (6/149) and actionable incidental findings in 2% (3/149) of cases. Average time to diagnosis was reduced from 27 to 5 months. CES, which already has the highest diagnostic yield among all available diagnostic tools in the setting of Mendelian disorders, appears to be particularly helpful diagnostically in the highly consanguineous Middle Eastern population.

  15. Studies of fission fragment yields via high-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson J.N.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise spectroscopic information on the fast neutron induced fission of the 238U(n,f reaction was recently gained using a new technique which involved coupling of the Miniball high resolution y-ray spectrometer and the LICORNE directional neutron source. The experiment allowed measurement of the isotopic fission yields for around 40 even-even nuclei at an incident neutron energy of around 2 MeV where yield data are very sparse. In addition spectroscopic information on very neutron-rich fission products was obtained. Results were compared to models, both the JEFF-3.1.1 data base and the GEF code, and large discrepancies for the S1 fission mode in the Sn/Mo isotope pair were discovered. This suggests that current models are overestimating the role played by spherical shell effects in fast neutron induced fission. In late 2017 and 2018 the nu-ball hybrid spectrometer will be constructed at the IPN Orsay to perform further experimental investigations with directional neutrons coupled to a powerful hybrid Ge/LaBr3 detector array. This will open up new possibilities for measurements of fission yields for fast-neutron-induced fission using the spectroscopic technique and will be complimentary to other methods being developed.

  16. Designing a high-yielding maize ideotype for a changing climate in Lombardy plain (northern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perego, Alessia; Sanna, Mattia; Giussani, Andrea; Chiodini, Marcello Ermido; Fumagalli, Mattia; Pilu, Salvatore Roberto; Bindi, Marco; Moriondo, Marco; Acutis, Marco

    2014-11-15

    The expected climate change will affect the maize yields in view of air temperature increase and scarce water availability. The application of biophysical models offers the chance to design a drought-resistant ideotype and to assist plant breeders and agronomists in the assessment of its suitability in future scenarios. The aim of the present work was to perform a model-based estimation of the yields of two hybrids, current vs ideotype, under future climate scenarios (2030-2060 and 2070-2100) in Lombardy (northern Italy), testing two options of irrigation (small amount at fixed dates vs optimal water supply), nitrogen (N) fertilization (300 vs 400 kg N ha(-1)), and crop cycle durations (current vs extended). For the designing of the ideotype we set several parameters of the ARMOSA process-based crop model: the root elongation rate and maximum depth, stomatal resistance, four stage-specific crop coefficients for the actual transpiration estimation, and drought tolerance factor. The work findings indicated that the current hybrid ensures good production only with high irrigation amount (245-565 mm y(-1)). With respect to the current hybrid, the ideotype will require less irrigation water (-13%, pinvolve significant increasing of grain yield, and it is expected to involve a higher rate of SOC sequestration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cacao Cultivation under Diverse Shade Tree Cover Allows High Carbon Storage and Sequestration without Yield Losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Rajab, Yasmin; Leuschner, Christoph; Barus, Henry; Tjoa, Aiyen; Hertel, Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    One of the main drivers of tropical forest loss is their conversion to oil palm, soy or cacao plantations with low biodiversity and greatly reduced carbon storage. Southeast Asian cacao plantations are often established under shade tree cover, but are later converted to non-shaded monocultures to avoid resource competition. We compared three co-occurring cacao cultivation systems (3 replicate stands each) with different shade intensity (non-shaded monoculture, cacao with the legume Gliricidia sepium shade trees, and cacao with several shade tree species) in Sulawesi (Indonesia) with respect to above- and belowground biomass and productivity, and cacao bean yield. Total biomass C stocks (above- and belowground) increased fivefold from the monoculture to the multi-shade tree system (from 11 to 57 Mg ha-1), total net primary production rose twofold (from 9 to 18 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). This increase was associated with a 6fold increase in aboveground biomass, but only a 3.5fold increase in root biomass, indicating a clear shift in C allocation to aboveground tree organs with increasing shade for both cacao and shade trees. Despite a canopy cover increase from 50 to 93%, cacao bean yield remained invariant across the systems (variation: 1.1-1.2 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). The monocultures had a twice as rapid leaf turnover suggesting that shading reduces the exposure of cacao to atmospheric drought, probably resulting in greater leaf longevity. Thus, contrary to general belief, cacao bean yield does not necessarily decrease under shading which seems to reduce physical stress. If planned properly, cacao plantations under a shade tree cover allow combining high yield with benefits for carbon sequestration and storage, production system stability under stress, and higher levels of animal and plant diversity.

  18. Development of High Temperature Capacitor Technology and Manufacturing Capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2011-05-15

    The goal of the Development of High Temperature Capacitor Technology and Manufacturing Capability program was to mature a production-ready supply chain for reliable 250°C FPE (fluorinated polyester) film capacitors by 2011. These high-temperature film capacitors enable both the down hole drilling and aerospace industries by enabling a variety of benefits including: - Deeper oil exploration in higher temperature and pressure environments - Enabling power electronic and control equipment to operate in higher temperature environments - Enabling reduced cooling requirements of electronics - Increasing reliability and life of capacitors operating below rated temperature - Enabling capacitors to handle higher electrical losses without overheating. The key challenges to bringing the FPE film capacitors to market have been manufacturing challenges including: - FPE Film is difficult to handle and wind, resulting in poor yields - Voltage breakdown strength decreases when the film is wound into capacitors (~70% decrease) - Encapsulation technologies must be improved to enable higher perature operation - Manufacturing and test cycle time is very long As a direct result of this program most of the manufacturing challenges have been met. The FPE film production metalization and winding yield has increased to over 82% from 70%, and the voltage breakdown strength of the wound capacitors has increased 270% to 189 V/μm. The high temperature packaging concepts are showing significant progress including promising results for lead attachments and hermetic packages at 200°C and non-hermetic packages at 250°C. Manufacturing and test cycle time will decrease as the market for FPE capacitors develops.

  19. Study of optimal extraction conditions for achieving high yield and antioxidant activity of tomato seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Dongyan; Atungulu, Griffiths G; Pan, Zhongli; Yue, Tianli; Zhang, Ang; Li, Xuan

    2012-08-01

    Value of tomato seed has not been fully recognized. The objectives of this research were to establish suitable processing conditions for extracting oil from tomato seed by using solvent, determine the impact of processing conditions on yield and antioxidant activity of extracted oil, and elucidate kinetics of the oil extraction process. Four processing parameters, including time, temperature, solvent-to-solid ratio and particle size were studied. A second order model was established to describe the oil extraction process. Based on the results, increasing temperature, solvent-to-solid ratio, and extraction time increased oil yield. In contrast, larger particle size reduced the oil yield. The recommended oil extraction conditions were 8 min of extraction time at temperature of 25 °C, solvent-to-solids ratio of 5/1 (v/w) and particle size of 0.38 mm, which gave oil yield of 20.32% with recovery rate of 78.56%. The DPPH scavenging activity of extracted oil was not significantly affected by the extraction parameters. The inhibitory concentration (IC(50) ) of tomato seed oil was 8.67 mg/mL which was notably low compared to most vegetable oils. A 2nd order model successfully described the kinetics of tomato oil extraction process and parameters of extraction kinetics including initial extraction rate (h), equilibrium concentration of oil (C(s) ), and the extraction rate constant (k) could be precisely predicted with R(2) of at least 0.957. The study revealed that tomato seed which is typically treated as a low value byproduct of tomato processing has great potential in producing oil with high antioxidant capability. The impact of processing conditions including time, temperature, solvent-to-solid ratio and particle size on yield, and antioxidant activity of extracted tomato seed oil are reported. Optimal conditions and models which describe the extraction process are recommended. The information is vital for determining the extraction processing conditions for industrial

  20. Development of high yield reassortants for influenza type B viruses and analysis of their gene compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Jianhua; Orff, Edward J; Fulvini, Andrew A; Huang, Liling; Onodera, Shiroh; Pokorny, Barbara A; Malewicz, Andrew; Primakov, Patricia; Bucher, Doris J

    2015-02-11

    A critical step in producing the annual inactivated influenza vaccine is the development of high yield (hy) seed viruses by reassortment for improved growth in ovo. Although hy reassortants for type A influenza viruses have been developed for many years, hy B influenza reassortant virus development for vaccine production has proven difficult. In this study, we have developed fourteen hy influenza type B reassortants as vaccine candidate strains with B/Lee/40 as the donor virus. Upon characterization by the Influenza Division at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the verification of HA by sequencing, all B reassortants were found to be antigenically indistinguishable from the wild type (wt) parents and suitable for vaccine production. However, only one hy reassortant seed virus from this group was used by a manufacturer for vaccine production. In general, hy reassortants showed an increase in hemagglutination (HA) titers over their wt parents by approximately 8 fold (range 1-32 fold). Gene compositions of the hy B reassortants were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and the wt origin of the HA and neuraminidase (NA) were confirmed. However, in contrast to hy A reassortants which require the M gene (hy donor A/PR/8/34) for high yield, all fourteen hy B reassortants obtained the NP gene from the hy donor strain (B/Lee/40). The parental source for the remaining genes varied among the hy B reassortants. The results indicate that the B/Lee/40 NP and PB1 gene segments are important contributors to high yield growth in influenza B reassortant viruses for both Yamagata and Victoria lineages. The B/Lee/40 PB2 gene along with wt NS gene also contributed to the improved growth for hy reassortants of Yamagata lineage. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. High night temperatures during grain number determination reduce wheat and barley grain yield: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Guillermo A; Dreccer, M Fernanda; Miralles, Daniel J; Serrago, Román A

    2015-11-01

    Warm nights are a widespread predicted feature of climate change. This study investigated the impact of high night temperatures during the critical period for grain yield determination in wheat and barley crops under field conditions, assessing the effects on development, growth and partitioning crop-level processes driving grain number per unit area (GN). Experiments combined: (i) two contrasting radiation and temperature environments: late sowing in 2011 and early sowing in 2013, (ii) two well-adapted crops with similar phenology: bread wheat and two-row malting barley and (iii) two temperature regimes: ambient and high night temperatures. The night temperature increase (ca. 3.9 °C in both crops and growing seasons) was achieved using purpose-built heating chambers placed on the crop at 19:000 hours and removed at 7:00 hours every day from the third detectable stem node to 10 days post-flowering. Across growing seasons and crops, the average minimum temperature during the critical period ranged from 11.2 to 17.2 °C. Wheat and barley grain yield were similarly reduced under warm nights (ca. 7% °C(-1) ), due to GN reductions (ca. 6% °C(-1) ) linked to a lower number of spikes per m(2) . An accelerated development under high night temperatures led to a shorter critical period duration, reducing solar radiation capture with negative consequences for biomass production, GN and therefore, grain yield. The information generated could be used as a starting point to design management and/or breeding strategies to improve crop adaptation facing climate change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Potential design modifications for the High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) reaction chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, J.H.; Hovingh, J.; Meier, W.R.; Monsler, M.J.; Powell, E.G.; Walker, P.E.

    1979-01-01

    Generation of electric power from inertial confinement fusion requires a reaction chamber. One promising type, the High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) chamber, includes a falling array of liquid lithium jets. These jets act as: (1) a renewable first wall and blanket to shield metal components from x-ray and neutron exposure, (2) a tritium breeder to replace tritium burned during the fusion process, and (3) an absorber and transfer medium for fusion energy. Over 90% of the energy produced in the reaction chamber is absorbed in the lithium jet fall. Design aspects are included

  3. THE ADAPTATION TEST ON YARDLONG BEAN LINES TOLERANT TO APHIDS AND HIGH YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuswanto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation trial was applied to determine the benefits of genotype-environmental inter-action, adaptability and stability of lines. The previous research successfully obtained 8 UB lines which had high yield and tolerant to aphids. These lines belong to plant breeding laboratory of Brawijaya University, which had stability and a high potential can be immediately released to the public. Research was conducted in 2010, dry and rainy season, on 3 locations of yardlong bean, namely Malang, Kediri and Jombang. Randomized Block Design was applied in these locations.Genotype-environment interaction was analyzed with combined analysis of nested design.The adaptability and stability were known from regression analysis based on the stability of Eberhart and Russel. There were 6 stabile lines, namely UB7070P1, UB24089X1, UB606572, UB61318, UB7023J44, and UB715, respectively. They were recommended to be released as new varieties which had pest tolerance and high yield. The UBPU was suitable to be developed in marginal land. The 6 new varieties had registered to Agriculture Department Republic of Indonesia, namely, Brawijaya 1, Brawijaya 3, Brawijaya 4, Bagong 2, Bagong 3 dan Bagong Ungu, respectively.

  4. Genome shuffling and ribosome engineering of Streptomyces actuosus for high-yield nosiheptide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingling; Zhang, Dong; Li, Yudong; Zhang, Fuming; Wang, Cao; Liang, Xinle

    2014-07-01

    Nosiheptide is one of the EU-approved sulfur-containing peptides in feed industry to inhibit the growth of the majority of Gram-positive bacteria. The main purpose of this study is directed to breed the high nosiheptide-producers by genome shuffling and ribosome engineering in Streptomyces actuosus AW7. The starting population for shuffling was generated by combining (60)Coγ-irradiation with LiCl mutagenesis treatments on the spores. After four rounds of protoplast fusion exposed to streptomycin as adaptive pressure, a high-yield recombinant strain D92 was obtained. In a 10-L fermenter, nosiheptide production reached 1.54 g/L which was 9.20-fold compared to that of the parental strain. Hyphae development, metabolic process, and ribosomal protein S12 sequence were investigated to characterize the differentiation among the recombinants. Several mutations in S12 were believed to be responsible to streptomycin resistance in the tested strain. The results demonstrated that the combination of genome shuffling and ribosome engineering is an efficient approach to breed high-yield industrial strains.

  5. Algorithm for evaluating the effectiveness of a high-rise development project based on current yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboleva, Elena

    2018-03-01

    The article is aimed at the issues of operational evaluation of development project efficiency in high-rise construction under the current economic conditions in Russia. The author touches the following issues: problems of implementing development projects, the influence of the operational evaluation quality of high-rise construction projects on general efficiency, assessing the influence of the project's external environment on the effectiveness of project activities under crisis conditions and the quality of project management. The article proposes the algorithm and the methodological approach to the quality management of the developer project efficiency based on operational evaluation of the current yield efficiency. The methodology for calculating the current efficiency of a development project for high-rise construction has been updated.

  6. Mid-Pliocene warm-period deposits in the High Arctic yield insight into camel evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybczynski, Natalia; Gosse, John C; Harington, C Richard; Wogelius, Roy A; Hidy, Alan J; Buckley, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The mid-Pliocene was a global warm period, preceding the onset of Quaternary glaciations. Here we use cosmogenic nuclide dating to show that a fossiliferous terrestrial deposit that includes subfossil trees and the northern-most evidence of Pliocene ice wedge casts in Canada's High Arctic (Ellesmere Island, Nunavut) was deposited during the mid-Pliocene warm period. The age estimates correspond to a general maximum in high latitude mean winter season insolation, consistent with the presence of a rich, boreal-type forest. Moreover, we report that these deposits have yielded the first evidence of a High Arctic camel, identified using collagen fingerprinting of a fragmentary fossil limb bone. Camels originated in North America and dispersed to Eurasia via the Bering Isthmus, an ephemeral land bridge linking Alaska and Russia. The results suggest that the evolutionary history of modern camels can be traced back to a lineage of giant camels that was well established in a forested Arctic.

  7. ENDF/B-VII.1 Nuclear Data for Science and Technology: Cross Sections, Covariances, Fission Product Yields and Decay Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, M. B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Herman, Micheal W [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Oblozinsky, Pavel [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Dunn, Michael E [ORNL; Danon, Y. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); Kahler, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Smith, Donald L. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Pritychenko, B [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Arbanas, Goran [ORNL; Arcilla, r [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Brewer, R [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Brown, D A [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Capote, R. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Carlson, A. D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Cho, Y S [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute; Derrien, Herve [ORNL; Guber, Klaus H [ORNL; Hale, G. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hoblit, S [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Holloway, Shannon T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Johnson, T D [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Kawano, T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Kiedrowski, B C [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Kim, H [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute; Kunieda, S [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Larson, Nancy M [ORNL; Leal, Luiz C [ORNL; Lestone, J P [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Little, R C [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Mccutchan, E A [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Macfarlane, R E [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); MacInnes, M [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Matton, C M [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Mcknight, R D [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Mughabghab, S F [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Nobre, G P [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Palmiotti, G [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Palumbo, A [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Pigni, Marco T [ORNL; Pronyaev, V. G. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk, Russia; Sayer, Royce O [ORNL; Sonzogni, A A [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Summers, N C [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Talou, P [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Thompson, I J [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Trkov, A. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Slovenia; Vogt, R L [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Van der Marck, S S [Nucl Res & Consultancy Grp, Petten, Netherlands; Wallner, A [University of Vienna, Austria; White, M C [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wiarda, Dorothea [ORNL; Young, P C [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

    2011-01-01

    The ENDF/B-VII.1 library is our latest recommended evaluated nuclear data file for use in nuclear science and technology applications, and incorporates advances made in the five years since the release of ENDF/B-VII.0. These advances focus on neutron cross sections, covariances, fission product yields and decay data, and represent work by the US Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) in nuclear data evaluation that utilizes developments in nuclear theory, modeling, simulation, and experiment. The principal advances in the new library are: (1) An increase in the breadth of neutron reaction cross section coverage, extending from 393 nuclides to 423 nuclides; (2) Covariance uncertainty data for 190 of the most important nuclides, as documented in companion papers in this edition; (3) R-matrix analyses of neutron reactions on light nuclei, including isotopes of He; Li, and Be; (4) Resonance parameter analyses at lower energies and statistical high energy reactions for isotopes of Cl; K; Ti, V, Mn, Cr, Ni, Zr and W; (5) Modifications to thermal neutron reactions on fission products (isotopes of Mo, Tc, Rh, Ag, Cs, Nd, Sm, Eu) and neutron absorber materials (Cd, Gd); (6) Improved minor actinide evaluations for isotopes of U, Np, Pu, and Am (we are not making changes to the major actinides (235,238)U and (239)Pu at this point, except for delayed neutron data and covariances, and instead we intend to update them after a further period of research in experiment and theory), and our adoption of JENDL-4.0 evaluations for isotopes of Cm, Bk, Cf, Es; Fm; and some other minor actinides; (7) Fission energy release evaluations; (8) Fission product yield advances for fission-spectrum neutrons and 14 MeV neutrons incident on (239)Pu; and (9) A new decay data sublibrary. Integral validation testing of the ENDF/B-VII.1 library is provided for a variety of quantities: For nuclear criticality, the VII.1 library maintains the generally-good performance seen for VII.0 for a wide

  8. Global modeling of secondary organic aerosol formation from aromatic hydrocarbons: high- vs. low-yield pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Henze

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Formation of SOA from the aromatic species toluene, xylene, and, for the first time, benzene, is added to a global chemical transport model. A simple mechanism is presented that accounts for competition between low and high-yield pathways of SOA formation, wherein secondary gas-phase products react further with either nitric oxide (NO or hydroperoxy radical (HO2 to yield semi- or non-volatile products, respectively. Aromatic species yield more SOA when they react with OH in regions where the [NO]/[HO2] ratios are lower. The SOA yield thus depends upon the distribution of aromatic emissions, with biomass burning emissions being in areas with lower [NO]/[HO2] ratios, and the reactivity of the aromatic with respect to OH, as a lower initial reactivity allows transport away from industrial source regions, where [NO]/[HO2] ratios are higher, to more remote regions, where this ratio is lower and, hence, the ultimate yield of SOA is higher. As a result, benzene is estimated to be the most important aromatic species with regards to global formation of SOA, with a total production nearly equal that of toluene and xylene combined. Global production of SOA from aromatic sources via the mechanisms identified here is estimated at 3.5 Tg/yr, resulting in a global burden of 0.08 Tg, twice as large as previous estimates. The contribution of these largely anthropogenic sources to global SOA is still small relative to biogenic sources, which are estimated to comprise 90% of the global SOA burden, about half of which comes from isoprene. Uncertainty in these estimates owing to factors ranging from the atmospheric relevance of chamber conditions to model deficiencies result in an estimated range of SOA production from aromatics of 2–12 Tg/yr. Though this uncertainty range affords a significant anthropogenic contribution to global SOA, it is evident from comparisons to recent observations that additional pathways for

  9. Global modeling of secondary organic aerosol formation from aromatic hydrocarbons: high- vs. low-yield pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, D. K.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Ng, N. L.; Kroll, J. H.; Fu, T.-M.; Jacob, D. J.; Heald, C. L.

    2008-05-01

    Formation of SOA from the aromatic species toluene, xylene, and, for the first time, benzene, is added to a global chemical transport model. A simple mechanism is presented that accounts for competition between low and high-yield pathways of SOA formation, wherein secondary gas-phase products react further with either nitric oxide (NO) or hydroperoxy radical (HO2) to yield semi- or non-volatile products, respectively. Aromatic species yield more SOA when they react with OH in regions where the [NO]/[HO2] ratios are lower. The SOA yield thus depends upon the distribution of aromatic emissions, with biomass burning emissions being in areas with lower [NO]/[HO2] ratios, and the reactivity of the aromatic with respect to OH, as a lower initial reactivity allows transport away from industrial source regions, where [NO]/[HO2] ratios are higher, to more remote regions, where this ratio is lower and, hence, the ultimate yield of SOA is higher. As a result, benzene is estimated to be the most important aromatic species with regards to global formation of SOA, with a total production nearly equal that of toluene and xylene combined. Global production of SOA from aromatic sources via the mechanisms identified here is estimated at 3.5 Tg/yr, resulting in a global burden of 0.08 Tg, twice as large as previous estimates. The contribution of these largely anthropogenic sources to global SOA is still small relative to biogenic sources, which are estimated to comprise 90% of the global SOA burden, about half of which comes from isoprene. Uncertainty in these estimates owing to factors ranging from the atmospheric relevance of chamber conditions to model deficiencies result in an estimated range of SOA production from aromatics of 2-12 Tg/yr. Though this uncertainty range affords a significant anthropogenic contribution to global SOA, it is evident from comparisons to recent observations that additional pathways for production of anthropogenic SOA still exist beyond those accounted

  10. The effect of dha omega-3 feeding in the high yielding holstein herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Karcol

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of supplementary feeding of DHA (Docosahexaenoic Acid rich algae product (Algae STM Alltech Inc. on production of milk, fat and protein as well as on reproduction of high yielding Holstein dairy herd. Field trial was set up on Top 10 dairy farm in western part of Slovakia, under commercial conditions. The data of high yielding dairy cows, separated in two groups of 30 (control and 29 (trial animals, were recorded for period of 3 subsequent months from October to December 2015. Animals were fed once a day Total Mixed Ration based diet with different feed mixture composition in trial group (+100 g Algae STM Alltech Inc. per cow and day. Performance data were collected in accordance with official milk recording system of Breeding Services of Slovak Republic s. e. and milk samples were collected once per month according to the A4 standard methodology. The control group showed higher level of milk production compared to trial. Our study indicated that the feeding of algae caused milk fat depression and generally lower protein content in milk. Significant impact of algae feeding was found also for the level of urea in milk. In addition, the supplementary feeding of DHA may represent effective strategy to increase the percentage of pregnancies per inseminations in lactating dairy cows.

  11. Random knock-in expression system for high yield production of heterologous protein in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Da-Eun; So, Younju; Park, Soo-Young; Park, Seung-Hwan; Choi, Soo-Keun

    2018-01-20

    Chromosome-integrated recombinant protein expression in bacteria has advantages for the stable maintenance of genes without any use of antibiotics during large-scale fermentation. Even though different levels of gene expression were reported, depending upon their chromosomal position in bacterial species, only a limited number of integration sites have been used in B. subtilis. In this study, we randomly integrated the GFP and AprE expression cassettes into the B. subtilis genome to determine integration sites that can produce a high yield of heterologous protein expression. Our mariner transposon-based expression cassette integration system was able to find integration sites, which can produce up to 2.9-fold and 1.5-fold increased expression of intracellular GFP and extracellular AprE, respectively, compared to the common integration site amyE. By analyzing the location of integration sites, we observed an adjacent promoter effect, gene dosage effect, and gene knock-out effect all complexly contributing to the increased level of integrated gene expression. Besides obtaining a high yield of heterologous protein expression, our system can also provide a wide-range of expression to expand the systematic application for steady-state metabolic protein production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Yield gains of coffee plants from phosphorus fertilization may not be generalized for high density planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Vasconcelos Valadares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Inconclusive responses of the adult coffee plant to phosphorus fertilization have been reported in the literature, especially when dealing with application of this nutrient in high density planting systems. Thus, this study was carried out for the purpose of assessing the response of adult coffee plants at high planting density in full production (in regard to yield and their biennial cycle/stability to the addition of different sources and application rates of P in the Zona da Mata region of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The experiment with coffee plants of the Catucaí Amarelo 6/30 variety was carried out over four growing seasons. Treatments were arranged in a full factorial design [(4 × 3 + 1] consisting of four P sources (monoammonium phosphate, simple superphosphate, natural reactive rock phosphate from Algeria (Djebel-Onk, and FH 550®, three P rates (100, 200, and 400 kg ha-1 year-1 of P2O5, and an additional treatment without application of the nutrient (0 kg ha-¹ year-¹. A randomized block experimental design was used with three replicates. The four seasons were evaluated as subplots in a split plot experiment. The P contents in soil and leaves increased with increased rates of P application. However, there was no effect from P application on the yield and its biennial cycle/stability regardless of the source used over the four seasons assessed.

  13. High yield ICF target design for a Z-pinch driven hohlraum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, D.S.; Hammer, J.H.; Lindl, J.D.; Rambo, P.W.; Tabak, M.; Toor, A.; Wilks, S.C.; Zimmerman, G.B

    1998-01-01

    We describe calculations for a high yield inertial fusion design, employing indirect drive with a double-ended z-pinch-driven hohlraum radiation source. A high current (∼60 MA) accelerator implodes z-pinches within an enclosing hohlraum. Radial spoke arrays and shine shields isolate the capsule from the pinch plasma, magnetic field and direct x-ray shine. Our approach places minimal requirements on z-pinch uniformity and stability, usually problematic due to magneto-Rayleigh Taylor (MRT) instability. Large inhomogeneities of the pinch and spoke array may be present, but the hohlraum adequately smooths the radiation field at the capsule. Simultaneity and reproducibility of the pinch x-ray output to better than 7% are required, however, for good symmetry. Recent experiments suggest a pulse shaping technique, through implosion of a multishell z-pinch. X-ray bursts are calculated and observed to occur at each shell collision. A capsule absorbing 1 MJ of x-rays at a peak drive temperature of 210 eV is found to have adequate stability and to produce 400 MJ of yield

  14. High-Yield Lithium-Injection Fusion-Energy (HYLIFE) reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blink, J.A.; Hogam, W.J.; Hovingh, J.; Meier, E.R.; Pitts, J.H. (comps.)

    1985-12-23

    The High-Yield Lithium-Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) concept to convent inertial confinement fusion energy into electric power has undergone intensive research and refinement at LLNL since 1978. This paper reports on the final HYLIFE design, focusing on five major areas: the HYLIFE reaction chamber (which includes neutronics, liquid-metal jet-array hydrocynamics, and structural design), supporting systems, primary steam system and balance of plant, safety and environmental protection, and costs. An annotated bibliography of reports applicable to HYLIFE is also provided. We conclude that HYLIFE is a particularly viable concept for the safe, clean production of electrical energy. The liquid-metal jet array, HYLIFE's key design feature, protects the surrounding structural components from x-rays, fusion fuel-pellet debris, neutron damage and activation, and high temperatures and stresses, allowing the structure to last for the plant's entire 30-year lifetime without being replaced. 127 refs., 18 figs.

  15. Radiation Hard and High Light Yield Scintillator Search for CMS Phase II Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Tiras, Emrah

    2015-01-01

    The CMS detector at the LHC requires a major upgrade to cope with the higher instantaneous luminosity and the elevated radiation levels. The active media of the forward backing hadron calorimeters is projected to be radiation-hard, high light yield scintillation materials or similar alternatives. In this context, we have studied various radiation-hard scintillating materials such as Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), Polyethylene Naphthalate (PEN), High Efficiency Mirror (HEM) and quartz plates with various coatings. The quartz plates are pure Cerenkov radiators and their radiation hardness has been confirmed. In order to increase the light output, we considered organic and inorganic coating materials such as p-Terphenyl (pTp), Anthracene and Gallium-doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO Ga) that are applied as thin layers on the surface of the quartz plates. Here, we present the results of the related test beam activities, laboratory measurements and recent developments.

  16. High yield recombinant production of a self-assembling polycationic peptide for silica biomineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerfaß, Christian; Braukmann, Sandra; Nietzsche, Sandor; Hobe, Stephan; Paulsen, Harald

    2015-04-01

    We report the recombinant bacterial expression and purification at high yields of a polycationic oligopeptide, P5S3. The sequence of P5S3 was inspired by a diatom silaffin, a silica precipitating peptide. Like its native model, P5S3 exhibits silica biomineralizing activity, but furthermore has unusual self-assembling properties. P5S3 is efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli as fusion with ketosteroid isomerase (KSI), which causes deposition in inclusion bodies. After breaking the fusion by cyanogen bromide reaction, P5S3 was purified by cation exchange chromatography, taking advantage of the exceptionally high content of basic amino acids. The numerous cationic charges do not prevent, but may even promote counterion-independent self-assembly which in turn leads to silica precipitation. Enzymatic phosphorylation, a common modification in native silica biomineralizing peptides, can be used to modify the precipitation activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Catalytic oxidative conversion of cellulosic biomass to formic acid and acetic acid with exceptionally high yields

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jizhe

    2014-09-01

    Direct conversion of raw biomass materials to fine chemicals is of great significance from both economic and ecological perspectives. In this paper, we report that a Keggin-type vanadium-substituted phosphomolybdic acid catalyst, namely H4PVMo11O40, is capable of converting various biomass-derived substrates to formic acid and acetic acid with high selectivity in a water medium and oxygen atmosphere. Under optimized reaction conditions, H4PVMo11O40 gave an exceptionally high yield of formic acid (67.8%) from cellulose, far exceeding the values achieved in previous catalytic systems. Our study demonstrates that heteropoly acids are generally effective catalysts for biomass conversion due to their strong acidities, whereas the composition of metal addenda atoms in the catalysts has crucial influence on the reaction pathway and the product selectivity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  18. High-Yield Lithium-Injection Fusion-Energy (HYLIFE) reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blink, J.A.; Hogam, W.J.; Hovingh, J.; Meier, E.R.; Pitts, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The High-Yield Lithium-Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) concept to convent inertial confinement fusion energy into electric power has undergone intensive research and refinement at LLNL since 1978. This paper reports on the final HYLIFE design, focusing on five major areas: the HYLIFE reaction chamber (which includes neutronics, liquid-metal jet-array hydrocynamics, and structural design), supporting systems, primary steam system and balance of plant, safety and environmental protection, and costs. An annotated bibliography of reports applicable to HYLIFE is also provided. We conclude that HYLIFE is a particularly viable concept for the safe, clean production of electrical energy. The liquid-metal jet array, HYLIFE's key design feature, protects the surrounding structural components from x-rays, fusion fuel-pellet debris, neutron damage and activation, and high temperatures and stresses, allowing the structure to last for the plant's entire 30-year lifetime without being replaced. 127 refs., 18 figs

  19. Lecture note on circuit technology for high energy physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Hirokazu.

    1992-07-01

    This lecture gives basic ideas and practice of the circuit technology for high energy physics experiment. The program of this lecture gives access to the integrated circuit technology to be applied for a high luminosity hadron collider experiment. (author)

  20. Use of 15N dilution method for screening soybean lines with high yield and high nitrogen fixation ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Haixian; Li Xinmin; Danso, S.K.A.

    1998-01-01

    15 N dilution method was used for screening soybean lines with high nitrogen fixation ability. Screened lines 1005, 8502, 2096, 943, 1454 and Dongnong-42 have high nitrogen fixation ability with their % Ndfa of about 70%. 1454 and 1555 are both high yield and high nitrogen fixation lines. The ability of nitrogen fixation was not related to the yield, but related to maturing time. The cultivars with different maturing time have different levels of nitrogen fixation ability. The longer the maturing period is, the greater the ability of nitrogen fixation it has. There were ten cultivars or lines used in the test of 1992 and 1994. Although the weather condition were greatly different between the two years the results of seven cultivars or lines were the same, indicating that nitrogen fixation ability of the soybean is stable with years. Using 15 N dilution method to estimate nitrogen fixation ability of soybean is reliable, however, the % Ndfa of lines 8502 and 2096 increased by 19% in 1994, a rainy year, indicating that a change in % Ndfa with a few varieties maybe caused by weather

  1. Study of the Relationships between Technological and Productivity Elements that Determine Seed Yield in Birdsfoot Trefoil (Lotus Corniculatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neculai Dragomir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available During an experience performed to elaborate an efficient technology of seed production in birdsfoot trefoil, we observed a series of correlations between yield and the elements of productivity, which exert a strong influence on seed quantity. In this viewpoint, the matrix of correlations between the elements of fructification, in the case of the influence exerted by birdsfoot trefoil cultivation method, made evident the following correlation coefficients: r = 0.81**, between the number of pods/plant; r = 0.82**, between the number of generative sprigs and the number of pods/inflorescence; r = 0.98**, between the number of generative sprigs and the number of pods/plant.

  2. LHC collars - 12 million high technology gems

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Some 12 million steel collars will keep the LHC dipole magnet structures rigid. Their production has just begun. A huge job began last week: the high speed manufacturing of twelve million steel collars for the 1250 dipole magnets of the future Large Hadron Collider, LHC. The challenge is not only a matter of quantity: these collars are very high technology components because of the important role they play in the way the collider works. One of the main difficulties with the accelerator is that the magnetic field that keeps particles in orbit must have the same configuration and intensity in all the dipoles. But when the 8.33 tesla magnetic field is on -100.000 times the earth magnetic field - it produces a very strong force that can deform the 'soft' parts of the magnets, such as superconducting coils. The force loading one metre of dipole is almost comparable with the weight of a Boeing 747 - about 400 tonnes - so a huge deformation would occur without a mechanical component to keep the whole structure rigid...

  3. Development of Very High Temperature Reactor Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Jae; Noh, J. M.; Kim, Y. H.

    2009-04-01

    For an efficient production of nuclear hydrogen, the VHTR (Very High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor) of 950 .deg. C outlet temperature and the interfacing system for the hydrogen production are required. We have developed various evaluation technologies for the performance and safety of VHTR through the accomplishment of this project. First, to evaluate the performance of VHTR, a series of analyses has been performed such as core characteristics at 950 .deg. C, applicability of cooled-vessel, intermediate loop system and high temperature structural integrity. Through the analyses of major accidents such as HPCC and LPCC and the analysis of the risk/performance-informed method, VHTR safety evaluation has been also performed. In addition, various design analysis codes have been developed for a nuclear design, system loop design, system performance analysis, air-ingress accident analysis, fission product/tritium transport analysis, graphite structure seismic analysis and hydrogen explosion analysis, and they are being verified and validated through a lot of international collaborations

  4. Future consequences of decreasing marginal production efficiency in the high-yielding dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moallem, U

    2016-04-01

    The objectives were to examine the gross and marginal production efficiencies in high-yielding dairy cows and the future consequences on dairy industry profitability. Data from 2 experiments were used in across-treatments analysis (n=82 mid-lactation multiparous Israeli-Holstein dairy cows). Milk yields, body weights (BW), and dry matter intakes (DMI) were recorded daily. In both experiments, cows were fed a diet containing 16.5 to 16.6% crude protein and net energy for lactation (NEL) at 1.61 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM). The means of milk yield, BW, DMI, NEL intake, and energy required for maintenance were calculated individually over the whole study, and used to calculate gross and marginal efficiencies. Data were analyzed in 2 ways: (1) simple correlation between variables; and (2) cows were divided into 3 subgroups, designated low, moderate, and high DMI (LDMI, MDMI, and HDMI), according to actual DMI per day: ≤ 26 kg (n=27); >26 through 28.2 kg (n=28); and >28.2 kg (n=27). The phenotypic Pearson correlations among variables were analyzed, and the GLM procedure was used to test differences between subgroups. The relationships between milk and fat-corrected milk yields and the corresponding gross efficiencies were positive, whereas BW and gross production efficiency were negatively correlated. The marginal production efficiency from DM and energy consumed decreased with increasing DMI. The difference between BW gain as predicted by the National Research Council model (2001) and the present measurements increased with increasing DMI (r=0.68). The average calculated energy balances were 1.38, 2.28, and 4.20 Mcal/d (standard error of the mean=0.64) in the LDMI, MDMI, and HDMI groups, respectively. The marginal efficiency for milk yields from DMI or energy consumed was highest in LDMI, intermediate in MDMI, and lowest in HDMI. The predicted BW gains for the whole study period were 22.9, 37.9, and 75.8 kg for the LDMI, MDMI, and HDMI groups, respectively. The

  5. Vermicomposting grape marc yields high quality organic biofertiliser and bioactive polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Jorge; Martínez-Cordeiro, Hugo; Álvarez-Casas, Marta; Lores, Marta

    2014-12-01

    Grape is the largest fruit crop in the world, and most (80%) of the harvested fruit is used to make wine. The main by-product of the wine industry is called grape marc, which consists of the stalks, skin, pulp and seeds that remain after pressing the grapes. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether grape marc could be processed by vermicomposting on an industrial scale to yield both a high-quality organic, polyphenol-free fertiliser and grape seeds (as a source of bioactive polyphenols). Vermicomposting reduced the biomass of grape marc substantially (by 58%), mainly as a result of the loss of volatile solids. After 2 weeks, the process yielded a nutrient-rich, microbiologically active and stabilised peat-like material that was easily separated from the seeds by sieving. Although the polyphenol content of the seeds was considerably reduced, this disadvantage was outweighed by the ease of separation of the seeds. Separation of the seeds also eliminated the polyphenol-associated phytotoxicity from the vermicompost. The seeds still contained useful amounts of polyphenols, which could be directly extracted for use in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. The procedure described is effective, simple and economical, and could easily be scaled up for industrial application. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. High relative humidity increases yield, harvest index, flowering, and gynophore growth of hydroponically grown peanut plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortley, D. G.; Bonsi, C. K.; Loretan, P. A.; Hill, W. A.; Morris, C. E.

    2000-01-01

    Growth chamber experiments were conducted to study the physiological and growth response of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to 50% and 85% relative humidity (RH). The objective was to determine the effects of RH on pod and seed yield, harvest index, and flowering of peanut grown by the nutrient film technique (NFT). 'Georgia Red' peanut plants (14 days old) were planted into growth channels (0.15 x 0.15 x 1.2 m). Plants were spaced 25 cm apart with 15 cm between channels. A modified half-Hoagland solution with an additional 2 mM Ca was used. Solution pH was maintained between 6.4 and 6.7, and electrical conductivity (EC) ranged between 1100 and 1200 microS cm-1. Temperature regimes of 28/22 degrees C were maintained during the light/dark periods (12 hours each) with photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) at canopy level of 500 micromoles-m-2s-1. Foliage and pod fresh and dry weights, total seed yield, harvest index (HI), and seed maturity were greater at high than at low RH. Plants grown at 85% RH had greater total and individual leaflet area and stomatal conductance, flowered 3 days earlier and had a greater number of flowers reaching anthesis. Gynophores grew more rapidly at 85% than at 50% RH.

  7. Accelerated high-yield generation of limb-innervating motor neurons from human stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Mackenzie W.; Croft, Gist F.; Williams, Damian J.; O’Keeffe, Sean; Carrasco, Monica A.; Davis, Anne R.; Roybon, Laurent; Oakley, Derek H.; Maniatis, Tom; Henderson, Christopher E.; Wichterle, Hynek

    2013-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells are a promising source of differentiated cells for developmental studies, cell transplantation, disease modeling, and drug testing. However, their widespread use even for intensely studied cell types like spinal motor neurons is hindered by the long duration and low yields of existing protocols for in vitro differentiation and by the molecular heterogeneity of the populations generated. We report a combination of small molecules that within 3 weeks induce motor neurons at up to 50% abundance and with defined subtype identities of relevance to neurodegenerative disease. Despite their accelerated differentiation, motor neurons expressed combinations of HB9, ISL1 and column-specific markers that mirror those observed in vivo in human fetal spinal cord. They also exhibited spontaneous and induced activity, and projected axons towards muscles when grafted into developing chick spinal cord. Strikingly, this novel protocol preferentially generates motor neurons expressing markers of limb-innervating lateral motor column motor neurons (FOXP1+/LHX3−). Access to high-yield cultures of human limb-innervating motor neuron subtypes will facilitate in-depth study of motor neuron subtype-specific properties, disease modeling, and development of large-scale cell-based screening assays. PMID:23303937

  8. Simple, high-yield purification of xanthine oxidase from bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, N; Müftüoglu, M; Ataman, D; Ercan, A; Ogüs, I H

    1999-05-13

    Xanthine oxidase, a commercially important enzyme with a wide area of application, was extracted from fresh milk, without added preservatives, using toluene and heat. The short purification procedure, with high yield, consisted of extraction, ammonium sulfate fractionation, and DEAE-Sepharose (fast flow) column chromatography. Xanthine oxidase was eluted as a single activity peak from the column using a buffer gradient. The purification fold, specific activity and yield for the purified xanthine oxidase were 328, 10.161 U/mg and 69%, respectively. The enzyme was concentrated by ultrafiltration, although 31% of the activity was lost during concentration, no change in specific activity was observed. Activity and protein gave coincident staining bands on native polyacrylamide gels. The intensity and the number of bands were dependent on the oxidative state(s) of the enzyme; reduction by 2-mercaptoethanol decreased the intensity of the slow-moving bands and increased the intensity of the fastest-moving band. Following sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), two major bands (molecular masses of 152 and 131 kDa) were observed, accounting for > or = 95% of xanthine oxidase. Native- and SDS-PAGE showed that the purified xanthine oxidase becomes a heterodimer due to endogenous proteases.

  9. Mixed models for selection of Jatropha progenies with high adaptability and yield stability in Brazilian regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, P E; Bhering, L L; Costa, R D; Rocha, R B; Laviola, B G

    2016-08-19

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters via mixed models and simultaneously to select Jatropha progenies grown in three regions of Brazil that meet high adaptability and stability. From a previous phenotypic selection, three progeny tests were installed in 2008 in the municipalities of Planaltina-DF (Midwest), Nova Porteirinha-MG (Southeast), and Pelotas-RS (South). We evaluated 18 families of half-sib in a randomized block design with three replications. Genetic parameters were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction. Selection was based on the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetic values method in three strategies considering: 1) performance in each environment (with interaction effect); 2) performance in each environment (with interaction effect); and 3) simultaneous selection for grain yield, stability and adaptability. Accuracy obtained (91%) reveals excellent experimental quality and consequently safety and credibility in the selection of superior progenies for grain yield. The gain with the selection of the best five progenies was more than 20%, regardless of the selection strategy. Thus, based on the three selection strategies used in this study, the progenies 4, 11, and 3 (selected in all environments and the mean environment and by adaptability and phenotypic stability methods) are the most suitable for growing in the three regions evaluated.

  10. Mass production of multi-wall carbon nanotubes by metal dusting process with high yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorbani, H.; Rashidi, A.M.; Rastegari, S.; Mirdamadi, S.; Alaei, M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Synthesis of carbon nanotubes over Fe-Ni nanoparticles supported alloy 304L. → Production of carbon nanotubes with high yield (700-1000%) and low cost catalyst. → Optimum growth condition is CO/H 2 = 1/1, 100 cm 3 /min, at 620 o C under long term repetitive thermal cycling. → Possibility of the mass production by metal dusting process with low cost. -- Abstract: Carbon nanotube materials were synthesized over Fe-Ni nanoparticles generated during disintegration of the surface of alloy 304L under metal dusting environment. The metal dusting condition was simulated and optimized through exposing stainless steel samples during long term repetitive thermal cycling in CO/H 2 = 1/1, total gas flow rate 100 cm 3 /min, at 620 o C for 300 h. After reaction, surface morphology of the samples and also carbonaceous deposition which had grown on sample surfaces were examined by stereoscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results revealed that multi-wall carbon nanotubes could be formed over nanocatalyst generated on the alloy surface by exploiting metal dusting process. By optimization of reaction parameters the yields of carbon nanotube materials obtained were 700-1000%. Also it has been shown herein that the amount of carbon nanotube materials remarkably increases when the reaction time is extended up to 300 h, indicating a possibility of the mass production by this easy method.

  11. Improvement on the light yield of a high-Z inorganic scintillator GSO(Ce)

    CERN Document Server

    Kamae, T; Isobe, N; Kokubun, M; Kubota, A; Osone, S; Takahashi, T; Tsuchida, N; Ishibashi, H

    2002-01-01

    Cerium-doped gadolinium silicic dioxide crystal, GSO(Ce), is a high-Z non-hydroscopic scintillator that gives higher light yield than BGO, and can potentially replace NaI(Tl), CsI(Tl) and BGO in many applications. Its production cost, however, has been substantially higher than any of them, while its energy resolution has been worse than that of NaI(Tl) or CsI(Tl). The merit did not overcome these deficiencies except in limited applications. We developed a low background phoswich counter (the well-type phoswich counter) for the Hard X-ray Detector of the Astro-E project based on GSO scintillator. In the developmental work, we have succeeded in improving the light yield of GSO(Ce) by 40-50%. For energies above 500 keV, a large GSO(Ce) crystal (4.5 cmx4.5phi cm) now gives energy resolution comparable to or better than the best NaI(Tl) when read out with a phototube. With a small GSO(Ce) crystal (5x5x5 mm sup 3) and a photodiode, an energy resolution comparable to or better than the best CsI(Tl) has been obtaine...

  12. The yield of high-detail radiographic skeletal surveys in suspected infant abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Ignasi [Hospital Vall d' Hebron, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Pediatric Radiology Department, Barcelona (Spain); Perez-Rossello, Jeannette M.; Kleinman, Paul K. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Radiology Department, Boston, MA (United States); Wilson, Celeste R. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Division of General Pediatrics, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-07-06

    Skeletal surveys are routinely performed in cases of suspected child abuse, but there are limited data regarding the yield of high-detail skeletal surveys in infants. To determine the diagnostic yield of high-detail radiographic skeletal surveys in suspected infant abuse. We reviewed the high-detail American College of Radiology standardized skeletal surveys performed for suspected abuse in 567 infants (median: 4.4 months, SD 3.47; range: 4 days-12 months) at a large urban children's hospital between 2005 and 2013. Skeletal survey images, radiology reports and medical records were reviewed. A skeletal survey was considered positive when it showed at least one unsuspected fracture. In 313 of 567 infants (55%), 1,029 definite fractures were found. Twenty-one percent (119/567) of the patients had a positive skeletal survey with a total of 789 (77%) unsuspected fractures. Long-bone fractures were the most common injuries, present in 145 children (26%). The skull was the site of fracture in 138 infants (24%); rib cage in 77 (14%), clavicle in 24 (4.2%) and uncommon fractures (including spine, scapula, hands and feet and pelvis) were noted in 26 infants (4.6%). Of the 425 infants with neuroimaging, 154 (36%) had intracranial injury. No significant correlation between positive skeletal survey and associated intracranial injury was found. Scapular fractures and complex skull fractures showed a statistically significant correlation with intracranial injury (P = 0.029, P = 0.007, respectively). Previously unsuspected fractures are noted on skeletal surveys in 20% of cases of suspected infant abuse. These data may be helpful in the design and optimization of global skeletal imaging in this vulnerable population. (orig.)

  13. The yield of high-detail radiographic skeletal surveys in suspected infant abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, Ignasi; Perez-Rossello, Jeannette M.; Kleinman, Paul K.; Wilson, Celeste R.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal surveys are routinely performed in cases of suspected child abuse, but there are limited data regarding the yield of high-detail skeletal surveys in infants. To determine the diagnostic yield of high-detail radiographic skeletal surveys in suspected infant abuse. We reviewed the high-detail American College of Radiology standardized skeletal surveys performed for suspected abuse in 567 infants (median: 4.4 months, SD 3.47; range: 4 days-12 months) at a large urban children's hospital between 2005 and 2013. Skeletal survey images, radiology reports and medical records were reviewed. A skeletal survey was considered positive when it showed at least one unsuspected fracture. In 313 of 567 infants (55%), 1,029 definite fractures were found. Twenty-one percent (119/567) of the patients had a positive skeletal survey with a total of 789 (77%) unsuspected fractures. Long-bone fractures were the most common injuries, present in 145 children (26%). The skull was the site of fracture in 138 infants (24%); rib cage in 77 (14%), clavicle in 24 (4.2%) and uncommon fractures (including spine, scapula, hands and feet and pelvis) were noted in 26 infants (4.6%). Of the 425 infants with neuroimaging, 154 (36%) had intracranial injury. No significant correlation between positive skeletal survey and associated intracranial injury was found. Scapular fractures and complex skull fractures showed a statistically significant correlation with intracranial injury (P = 0.029, P = 0.007, respectively). Previously unsuspected fractures are noted on skeletal surveys in 20% of cases of suspected infant abuse. These data may be helpful in the design and optimization of global skeletal imaging in this vulnerable population. (orig.)

  14. Manthar-03: a high-yielding cultivar of wheat released for general cultivation in Southern Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.; Akhtar, L.H.; Nasim, M.

    2010-01-01

    We report the release of a new wheat variety Manthar-03. 'Manthar-03' is a high yielding and rust resistant variety of bread wheat with erect growth habit. It was released in the year 2003 as a general purpose variety. Manthar-03 is a selection from CIMMYT material (Entry No. 42 of 29 International Bread Wheat Screening Nursery) made at Regional Agricultural Research Institute (RARI), Bahawalpur during 1996-97. This strain has the famous CIMMYT line 'Kauz' in its parentage (KAUZ//ALTAR 84/AOS). Its pedigree is CM11163-6M-20Y-10M- 0M-0B. It is a more adapted and a high yielder. Genetically, this strain differs from existing commercial cultivars of Punjab. Resistance against leaf rust (5MRMS to 10MR), RRI value of 6.7 and 7.6 for leaf rust and ACI values of 3.4 and 0.7 for leaf rust) and high yield potential (6300 kg ha-1 ) are the major attributes of Manthar-03 that make it a superior variety for its target regions. Manthar-03 is tolerant to wheat aphid and Helicoverpa armigera. The thousand seed weight of this variety is 40-44 g. Seed is amber in color and contains 12.97% protein, 8.2% dry gluten and 1.55% ash. It has good chapati making quality. Plant type of Manthar-03 is erect with plant height 94 cm and droopy flag leaves. It is lodging resistant. It completes heading in 98 days and matures in 142 days. Manthar-03 performs better when planted from 15, November to 1, December, keeping 125 kg ha/sup -1/ seed rate and 125-85-50 kg NPK ha/sup -1/ are applied. (author)

  15. High yield growth of uniform ZnS nanospheres with strong photoluminescence properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuan; Li, Qing; Wu, Huijie; Zhang, Jin; Lin, Hua; Nie, Ming; Zhang, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: High-yield ZnS nanospheres with an average diameter of 80 nm were fabricated successfully in aqueous solution at 100 °C by the assistance of surfactant PVP. It was found that PVP plays a crucial role in the formation of uniform ZnS nanospheres. A possible self-assembling growth mechanism was proposed. The UV–vis spectrum indicates that the as-prepared ZnS nanospheres exhibit a dramatic blue-shift. PL spectrum reveals that the ZnS nanospheres have a strong visible emission peak centered at 516 nm with excitation light of 400 nm. Highlights: ► High-yield ZnS nanospheres were generated conveniently in aqueous solution. ► The amount of surfactant PVP plays a crucial role on the morphology and size of the products. ► A tentative explanation for the growth mechanism of ZnS nanospheres was proposed. ► The UV–vis spectrum indicated that the sample exhibits a dramatic blue-shift. ► PL spectrum reveals that ZnS nanospheres have a strong visible emission peak centered at 516 nm with excitation light of 400 nm. - Abstract: High yield ZnS nanospheres were generated conveniently in aqueous solution with the assistance of surfactant polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). The products were characterized by XRD, EDX, XPS, FESEM, TEM and HRTEM. The as-prepared ZnS nanospheres were uniform with an average diameter of 80 nm. The role of PVP in the forming of ZnS nanospheres was investigated. The results indicated that surfactant PVP plays a crucial role on the morphology and size of the products. Moreover, a tentative explanation for the growth mechanism of ZnS nanospheres was proposed. UV–vis and PL absorption spectrum were used to investigate the optical properties of ZnS nanospheres. The UV–vis spectrum indicated that the sample exhibits a dramatic blue-shift. PL spectrum reveals that ZnS nanospheres have a strong visible emission peak centered at 516 nm with excitation light of 400 nm.

  16. High-Yield Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Precipitation in a High-Aqueous Phase Content Reverse Microemulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. D. Sosa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles were precipitated at 70°C in a reverse microemulsion containing a high concentration of 0.5 M silver nitrate aqueous solution, toluene as organic phase, and a mixture of surfactants sodium bis (2-ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate/sodium dodecyl sulfate (2/1, w/w. Nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic absorption spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. In spite of the high-water/surfactant molar ratio and concentration of silver nitrate solution used in this study, characterizations demonstrated that nanoparticles were silver crystals (purity >99% with 8.6–8.8 nm in average diameter and 2.9–4.7 nm in standard deviation. It is proposed that slow dosing rate of aqueous solution of precipitating agent and the small molecular volume of toluene attenuated both particle aggregation and polydispersity widening. Experimental yield of silver nanoparticles obtained in this study was much higher than theoretical yields calculated from available data in the literature on preparation of silver nanoparticles in reverse microemulsions.

  17. BRS 369RF and BRS 370RF: Glyphosate tolerant, high-yielding upland cotton cultivars for central Brazilian savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo de Lelis Morello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BRS 369RF and BRS 370RF were developed by the EMBRAPA as a part of efforts to create high-yielding germplasm with combinations of transgenic traits. BRS 369RF and BRS 370RF are midseason cultivars and have yield stability, adaptation to the central Brazilian savanna, good fiber quality and tolerance to glyphosate herbicide.

  18. Differential gene expression at different stages of mesocarp development in high- and low-yielding oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yick Ching; Teh, Huey Fang; Mebus, Katharina; Ooi, Tony Eng Keong; Kwong, Qi Bin; Koo, Ka Loo; Ong, Chuang Kee; Mayes, Sean; Chew, Fook Tim; Appleton, David R; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna

    2017-06-21

    The oil yield trait of oil palm is expected to involve multiple genes, environmental influences and interactions. Many of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to oil yield are still poorly understood. In this study, we used a microarray approach to study the gene expression profiles of mesocarp tissue at different developmental stages, comparing genetically related high- and low- oil yielding palms to identify genes that contributed to the higher oil-yielding palm and might contribute to the wider genetic improvement of oil palm breeding populations. A total of 3412 (2001 annotated) gene candidates were found to be significantly differentially expressed between high- and low-yielding palms at at least one of the different stages of mesocarp development evaluated. Gene Ontologies (GO) enrichment analysis identified 28 significantly enriched GO terms, including regulation of transcription, fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolic processes. These differentially expressed genes comprise several transcription factors, such as, bHLH, Dof zinc finger proteins and MADS box proteins. Several genes involved in glycolysis, TCA, and fatty acid biosynthesis pathways were also found up-regulated in high-yielding oil palm, among them; pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component Subunit Beta (PDH), ATP-citrate lyase, β- ketoacyl-ACP synthases I (KAS I), β- ketoacyl-ACP synthases III (KAS III) and ketoacyl-ACP reductase (KAR). Sucrose metabolism-related genes such as Invertase, Sucrose Synthase 2 and Sucrose Phosphatase 2 were found to be down-regulated in high-yielding oil palms, compared to the lower yield palms. Our findings indicate that a higher carbon flux (channeled through down-regulation of the Sucrose Synthase 2 pathway) was being utilized by up-regulated genes involved in glycolysis, TCA and fatty acid biosynthesis leading to enhanced oil production in the high-yielding oil palm. These findings are an important stepping stone to understand the processes that lead to

  19. Maximising high solid loading enzymatic saccharification yield from acid-catalysed hydrothermally-pretreated brewers spent grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Wilkinson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Enzyme saccharification of pretreated brewers spent grains (BSG was investigated, aiming at maximising glucose production. Factors investigated were; variation of the solids loadings at different cellulolytic enzyme doses, reaction time, higher energy mixing methods, supplementation of the cellulolytic enzymes with additional enzymes (and cofactors and use of fed-batch methods. Improved slurry agitation through aerated high-torque mixing offered small but significant enhancements in glucose yields (to 53 ± 2.9 g/L and 45% of theoretical yield compared to only 41 ± 4.0 g/L and 39% of theoretical yield for standard shaking methods (at 15% w/v solids loading. Supplementation of the cellulolytic enzymes with additional enzymes (acetyl xylan esterases, ferulic acid esterases and α-L- arabinofuranosidases also boosted achieved glucose yields to 58 – 69 ± 0.8 - 6.2 g/L which equated to 52 - 58% of theoretical yield. Fed-batch methods also enhanced glucose yields (to 58 ± 2.2 g/L and 35% of theoretical yield at 25% w/v solids loading compared to non-fed-batch methods. From these investigations a novel enzymatic saccharification method was developed (using enhanced mixing, a fed-batch approach and additional carbohydrate degrading enzymes which further increased glucose yields to 78 ± 4.1 g/L and 43% of theoretical yield when operating at high solids loading (25% w/v.

  20. High-yield synthesis and optical properties of g-C3N4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yanwen; Zhang, Lulu; Xing, Jun; Utama, M Iqbal Bakti; Lu, Xin; Du, Kezhao; Li, Yongmei; Hu, Xiao; Wang, Shijie; Genç, Aziz; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal; Arbiol, Jordi; Xiong, Qihua

    2015-08-07

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4), a metal-free semiconductor with a band gap of 2.7 eV, has received considerable attention owing to its fascinating photocatalytic performances under visible-light. g-C3N4 exhibits high thermal and chemical stability and non-toxicity such that it has been considered as the most promising photocatalyst for environmental improvement and energy conservation. Hence, it is of great importance to obtain high-quality g-C3N4 and gain a clear understanding of its optical properties. Herein, we report a high-yield synthesis of g-C3N4 products via heating of high vacuum-sealed melamine powder in an ampoule at temperatures between 450 and 650 °C. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the chemical composition and crystallization of the as-produced g-C3N4 are demonstrated. A systematic optical study of g-C3N4 is carried out with several approaches. The optical phonon behavior of g-C3N4 is revealed by infrared and Raman spectroscopy, and the emission properties of g-C3N4 are investigated using photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, while the photocatalytic properties are explored by the photodegradation experiment.

  1. Garnet Yield Strength at High Pressures and Implications for Upper Mantle and Transition Zone Rheology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavner, A.

    2008-01-01

    Garnet helps control the mechanical behavior of the Earth's crust, mantle, and transition zone. Here, measurements are presented suggesting that garnet, long considered to be a high-viscosity phase, is actually weaker than the other dominant components in the transition zone. The mechanical behavior of garnet at high pressures was examined using radial diffraction techniques in the diamond anvil cell. The yield strength of grossular garnet was inferred from synchrotron X-ray measurements of differential lattice strains. The differential stress was found to increase from 1.3 (±0.6) GPa at a hydrostatic pressure 5.8 (±1.1) GPa to 4.1 (±0.4) GPa at 15.7 (±1.0) GPa, where it was level to 19 GPa. The strength results are consistent with inferred strength values for majorite garnet from measurements in the diamond cell normal geometry, bolstering the idea that garnet-structured materials may all have similar strengths. In this low-temperature, high differential stress regime, garnet is shown to be significantly weaker than anhydrous ringwoodite and to have a strength similar to hydrous ringwoodite. This result suggests that the presence of water in the transition zone may not be required to explain a weak rheology, and therefore models of transition zone behavior built assuming that garnet is the high-strength phase may need to be revised.

  2. Synthesis of uniform CdS nanowires in high yield and its single nanowire electrical property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Shancheng; Sun Litao; Qu Peng; Huang Ninping; Song Yinchen; Xiao Zhongdang

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale high quality CdS nanowires with uniform diameter were synthesized by using a rapid and simple solvothermal route. Field emission scan electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that the CdS nanowires have diameter of about 26 nm and length up to several micrometres. High resolution TEM (HRTEM) study indicates the single-crystalline nature of CdS nanowires with an oriented growth along the c-axis direction. The optical properties of the products were characterized by UV-vis absorption spectra, photoluminescence spectra and Raman spectra. The resistivity, electron concentration and electron mobility of single NW are calculated by fitting the symmetric I-V curves measured on single NW by the metal-semiconductor-metal model based on thermionic field emission theory. - Graphical abstract: Large-scale high quality CdS nanowires (NWs) with uniform diameter were synthesized by using a rapid and simple solvothermal route. The reaction time is reduced to 2 h, comparing to other synthesis which needed long reaction time up to 12 h. In addition, the as-prepared CdS nanowires have more uniform diameter and high yield. More importantly, the I-V curve of present single CdS nanowire has a good symmetric characteristic as expected by the theory.

  3. A Scalable and High-Yield Strategy for the Synthesis of Sequence-Defined Macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solleder, Susanne C; Zengel, Deniz; Wetzel, Katharina S; Meier, Michael A R

    2016-01-18

    The efficient synthesis of a sequence-defined decamer, its characterization, and its straightforward dimerization through self-metathesis are described. For this purpose, a monoprotected AB monomer was designed and used to synthesize a decamer bearing ten different and selectable side chains by iterative Passerini three-component reaction (P-3CR) and subsequent deprotection. The highly efficient procedure provided excellent yields and allows for the multigram-scale synthesis of such perfectly defined macromolecules. An olefin was introduced at the end of the synthesis, allowing the self-metathesis reaction of the resulting decamer to provide a sequence-defined 20-mer with a molecular weight of 7046.40 g mol(-1). The obtained oligomers were carefully characterized by NMR and IR spectroscopy, GPC and GPC coupled to ESI-MS, and mass spectrometry (FAB and orbitrap ESI-MS). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. High yield silicon carbide from alkylated or arylated pre-ceramic polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baney, R.H.; Gaul, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    Alkylated or arylated methylpolysilanes which exhibit ease of handling and are used to obtain silicon carbide ceramic materials in high yields contain 0 to 60 mole percent (CH 3 ) 2 Si double bond units and 40 to 100 mole percent CH 3 Si triple bond units, wherein there is also bonded to the silicon atoms other silicon atoms and additional alkyl radicals of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or phenyl. They may be prepared by reaction of a Grignard reagent RMgX, where X is halogen and R is Csub(1-4)-alkyl or phenyl, with a starting material which is a solid at 25 0 C, and is identical to the product except that the remaining bonds on the silicon atoms are attached to another silicon atom, or a chlorine or a bromine atom. Ceramics result from heating the polysilane products to 1200 0 C, optionally with fillers. (author)

  5. The addition of submergence-tolerant Sub1 gene into high yielding MR219 rice variety and analysis of its BC2F3 population in terms of yield and yield contributing characters to select advance lines as a variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahim Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A cross was made between MR219 (high yielding but submergence intolerant and Swarna-Sub1 (submergence tolerant to produce submergence-tolerant rice variety using the marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC method to protect the farmers of low-lying land from flash floods during rain. Knowledge of yield and yield contributing factors plays a vital role in the selection process of a variety. This experim ent was designed to determine the genetic diversity among recently produced different lines of BC2F3 population and also to compare all the lines with MR219 to find the best one. Agronomical, yield and yield contributing data were taken, while genotypic and phenotypic coefficients, variance components and heritability were estimated. Introgression of the target gene, Sub1, was done using tightly linked marker, and also background recovery was measured using simple sequence repeat (SSR markers in different generations. The observed recurrent parent genome (RPG recovery of BC2F2 generation was 95.37%, which indicates high-level similarity between the recurrent parent (MR219 and the resulting lines. Thirty newly developed lines of BC2F3 population, resulting backcross of MR219 and Swarna-Sub1, were planted with four replications following randomised complete block design (RCBD. Newly developed lines were grouped into four clusters based on traits with UPGMA dendrogram and cluster analysis to select the 10 best plants. This study will help the future researchers to select the best plants of a breeding programme after introgression of a gene considering phenotype performances to develop new varieties.

  6. High technology in developing countries: Analysis of technology strategy, technology transfer, and success factors in the aircraft industry

    OpenAIRE

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Economical development is highly related to technological development. It is therefore not surprising that many of the industrially developing nations follow explicit strategies to increase their technological competence level. Industrially developing countries may even pursue a strategy of developing high technology competencies. This paper analysis the strategies of some developing countries in a particular high technology industry: the aircraft manufacturing industry. The focus is on Brazi...

  7. High-yield Synthesis of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube by Mechanothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manafi SA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study reports on the mechanothermal synthesis of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs from elemental graphite powder. Initially, high ultra-active graphite powder can be obtained by mechanical milling under argon atmosphere. Finally, the mechanical activation product is heat-treated at 1350°C for 2–4 h under argon gas flow. After heat-treatment, active graphite powders were successfully changed into MWCNTs with high purity. The XRD analyses showed that in the duration 150 h of milling, all the raw materials were changed to the desired materials. From the broadening of the diffraction lines in the XRD patterns, it was concluded that the graphite crystallites were nanosized, and raising the milling duration resulted in the fineness of the particles and the increase of the strain. The structure and morphology of MWCNTs were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. The yield of MWCNTs was estimated through SEM and TEM observations of the as-prepared samples was to be about 90%. Indeed, mechanothermal method is of interest for fundamental understanding and improvement of commercial synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs. As a matter of fact, the method of mechanothermal guarantees the production of MWCNTs suitable for different applications.

  8. Improved yield of high resolution mercuric iodide gamma-ray spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerrish, V.; van den Berg, L.

    1990-01-01

    Mercuric iodide (HgI 2 ) exhibits properties which make it attractive for use as a solid state nuclear radiation detector. The wide bandgap (E g = 2.1 eV) and low dark current allow room temperature operation, while the high atomic number provides a large gamma-ray cross section. However, poor hole transport has been a major limitation in the routine fabrication of high-resolution spectrometers using this material. This paper presents the results of gamma-ray response and charge transport parameter measurements conducted during the past year at EG ampersand G/EM on 96 HgI 2 spectrometers. The gamma-ray response measurements reveal that detector quality is correlated with the starting material used in the crystal growth. In particular, an increased yield of high-resolution spectrometers was obtained from HgI 2 which was synthesized by precipitation from an aqueous solution, as opposed to using material from commercial vendors. Data are also presented which suggest that better spectrometer performance is tied to improved hole transport. Finally, some initial results on a study of detector uniformity reveal spatial variations which may explain why the correlation between hole transport parameters and spectrometer performance is sometimes violated. 6 refs., 3 figs

  9. Does high yield spread dampen economic growth? : the case of US-Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Kurihara

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the relationship between the United States' and Japan's yield spread of interest rates and economic growth in Japan. The yield spread is defined in this article as the difference between the Japanese government bond yield minus the US government bond yield. Some studies have tackled this issue and found a negative relationship between the yield spread and economic growth; however, recent studies have shown no or a weak relationship. This problem has not yet consensus in spite of its importance. As the Japanese interest rate has been quite low since the adoption of the zero interest rate policy at the end of 1990s, the situation may change the results. The empirical results show that reliability of yield spread as a leading indicator of output growth exists in Japan; however, term structure of interest rate is not related to economic growth.

  10. Embedded pitch adapters: A high-yield interconnection solution for strip sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullán, M., E-mail: miguel.ullan@imb-cnm.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica (IMB-CNM, CSIC), Campus UAB-Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Allport, P.P.; Baca, M.; Broughton, J.; Chisholm, A.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Pyatt, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Wilson, J.A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Kierstead, J.; Kuczewski, P.; Lynn, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Physics Department and Instrumentation Division, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Hommels, L.B.A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Fleta, C.; Fernandez-Tejero, J.; Quirion, D. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica (IMB-CNM, CSIC), Campus UAB-Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Bloch, I.; Díez, S.; Gregor, I.M.; Lohwasser, K. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); and others

    2016-09-21

    A proposal to fabricate large area strip sensors with integrated, or embedded, pitch adapters is presented for the End-cap part of the Inner Tracker in the ATLAS experiment. To implement the embedded pitch adapters, a second metal layer is used in the sensor fabrication, for signal routing to the ASICs. Sensors with different embedded pitch adapters have been fabricated in order to optimize the design and technology. Inter-strip capacitance, noise, pick-up, cross-talk, signal efficiency, and fabrication yield have been taken into account in their design and fabrication. Inter-strip capacitance tests taking into account all channel neighbors reveal the important differences between the various designs considered. These tests have been correlated with noise figures obtained in full assembled modules, showing that the tests performed on the bare sensors are a valid tool to estimate the final noise in the full module. The full modules have been subjected to test beam experiments in order to evaluate the incidence of cross-talk, pick-up, and signal loss. The detailed analysis shows no indication of cross-talk or pick-up as no additional hits can be observed in any channel not being hit by the beam above 170 mV threshold, and the signal in those channels is always below 1% of the signal recorded in the channel being hit, above 100 mV threshold. First results on irradiated mini-sensors with embedded pitch adapters do not show any change in the interstrip capacitance measurements with only the first neighbors connected.

  11. Polymer-based composite material yield point identification in the conditions of high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Артем Сергійович Арустамян

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and practical research of temperature influence on mechanical characteristics of the composite material «Multimetal Stahl 1018» («MM Stahl 1018» have been conducted. Both the laboratory equipment used to measure the mechanical properties, the technique of material preparation and the experimental procedure were described. The compressive tests were carried out on Zwick Roell Amsler HB 100, that can approximate the experiment to real conditions, as it has a special heat chamber in which the samples were heated up to 20°C, 40°C, 60°C and 80°C. The samples were subjected to the load of 15kN, 30KN to complete failure. The experimental values of conventional yield limit of «MM Stahl 1018» samples of various thicknesses for high temperatures have been got. On the strength of this experiment when repairing machinery and parts operating at high temperatures, it is recommended to use the material layer of no more than two millimeters and apply a little loaded nodes. The analysis of the results of the experiments showed that temperature increasing, the yield strength of the material decreases. The «MM Stahl 1018» basing on the best polymers that almost do not shrink at hardening, has good chemical resistance. The powders - fillers include high quality stainless steel, ceramics and additives for improving the surface tension and chemical resistance. Due to its perfect viscous consistency «MM Stahl 1018» can be easily applied with a spatula on wedges breechblocks or bridge supports and is evenly distributed in all directions at assembling. Thanks to «MM Stahl 1018» good forming properties the units may be fitted on the spot with the accuracy of 1/100 mm that is of 100% accuracy, no additional fitting is required, i.e., traditional fitting of wedges breechblocks and piers to the lower zone of the bridge. At assembling a bridge support must be adjusted in the final position with 100% accuracy. This material can work in real

  12. Novel High Pressure Pump-on-a-Chip Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — HJ Science & Technology, Inc proposes to develop a novel high pressure "pump-on-a-chip" and "valve-on-a-chip" microfluidic technology for NASA planetary science...

  13. High-yield synthesis and optical properties of g-C3N4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yanwen; Zhang, Lulu; Xing, Jun; Utama, M. Iqbal Bakti; Lu, Xin; Du, Kezhao; Li, Yongmei; Hu, Xiao; Wang, Shijie; Genç, Aziz; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal; Arbiol, Jordi; Xiong, Qihua

    2015-07-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4), a metal-free semiconductor with a band gap of 2.7 eV, has received considerable attention owing to its fascinating photocatalytic performances under visible-light. g-C3N4 exhibits high thermal and chemical stability and non-toxicity such that it has been considered as the most promising photocatalyst for environmental improvement and energy conservation. Hence, it is of great importance to obtain high-quality g-C3N4 and gain a clear understanding of its optical properties. Herein, we report a high-yield synthesis of g-C3N4 products via heating of high vacuum-sealed melamine powder in an ampoule at temperatures between 450 and 650 °C. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the chemical composition and crystallization of the as-produced g-C3N4 are demonstrated. A systematic optical study of g-C3N4 is carried out with several approaches. The optical phonon behavior of g-C3N4 is revealed by infrared and Raman spectroscopy, and the emission properties of g-C3N4 are investigated using photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, while the photocatalytic properties are explored by the photodegradation experiment.Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4), a metal-free semiconductor with a band gap of 2.7 eV, has received considerable attention owing to its fascinating photocatalytic performances under visible-light. g-C3N4 exhibits high thermal and chemical stability and non-toxicity such that it has been considered as the most promising photocatalyst for environmental improvement and energy conservation. Hence, it is of great importance to obtain high-quality g-C3N4 and gain a clear understanding of its optical properties. Herein, we report a high-yield synthesis of g-C3N4 products via heating of high vacuum-sealed melamine powder in an ampoule at

  14. Crop Yield Predictions - High Resolution Statistical Model for Intra-season Forecasts Applied to Corn in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Accurately forecasting crop yields has broad implications for economic trading, food production monitoring, and global food security. However, the variation of environmental variables presents challenges to model yields accurately, especially when the lack of highly accurate measurements creates difficulties in creating models that can succeed across space and time. In 2016, we developed a sequence of machine-learning based models forecasting end-of-season corn yields for the US at both the county and national levels. We combined machine learning algorithms in a hierarchical way, and used an understanding of physiological processes in temporal feature selection, to achieve high precision in our intra-season forecasts, including in very anomalous seasons. During the live run, we predicted the national corn yield within 1.40% of the final USDA number as early as August. In the backtesting of the 2000-2015 period, our model predicts national yield within 2.69% of the actual yield on average already by mid-August. At the county level, our model predicts 77% of the variation in final yield using data through the beginning of August and improves to 80% by the beginning of October, with the percentage of counties predicted within 10% of the average yield increasing from 68% to 73%. Further, the lowest errors are in the most significant producing regions, resulting in very high precision national-level forecasts. In addition, we identify the changes of important variables throughout the season, specifically early-season land surface temperature, and mid-season land surface temperature and vegetation index. For the 2017 season, we feed 2016 data to the training set, together with additional geospatial data sources, aiming to make the current model even more precise. We will show how our 2017 US corn yield forecasts converges in time, which factors affect the yield the most, as well as present our plans for 2018 model adjustments.

  15. High Yield Synthesis of Mesoscopic Conductive and Dispersible Carbon Nanostructures via Ultrasonication of Commercial Precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Vikram K [ORNL; Quinlan, Ronald [ORNL; Agapov, Alexander L [ORNL; Kisliuk, Alexander [ORNL; Bhat, Gajanan [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2014-01-01

    The need to produce large quantities of graphenic materials displaying excellent conductivity, thermal resistance, and tunable properties for industrial applications has spurred interest in new techniques for exfoliating graphite. In this paper, sonication-assisted exfoliation of graphitic precursors in the presence of chloroform is shown to produce chemically and structurally unique exfoliated graphitic materials in high yields. These exfoliated graphites, referred to as mesographite and mesographene, respectively, exhibit unique properties which depend on the number of layers and exfoliation conditions. Structural characterization of mesographene reveals the presence of nanoscale two-dimensional graphene layers, and threedimensional carbon nanostructures sandwiched between layers, similar to those found in ball-milled and intercalated graphites. The conductivities of mesographite and mesographene are 2700 and 2000 S/m, respectively, indicating high conductivity despite flake damage. Optical absorption measurements of mesographite sonicated in various solvents showed significant changes in dispersion characteristics, and also indicated significant changes to mesoscopic colloidal behavior. A mechanism for functionalization and formation of capped carbon nanostructures is proposed by integrating the chemical and structural characterization in relation to the various carbon structures observed by electron microscopy. Composites based on common polymers were prepared by solution processing, and changes in thermal properties indicate improved dispersion of mesographite in polar polymers.

  16. High-Yield Methods for Accurate Two-Alternative Visual Psychophysics in Head-Fixed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Burgess

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Research in neuroscience increasingly relies on the mouse, a mammalian species that affords unparalleled genetic tractability and brain atlases. Here, we introduce high-yield methods for probing mouse visual decisions. Mice are head-fixed, facilitating repeatable visual stimulation, eye tracking, and brain access. They turn a steering wheel to make two alternative choices, forced or unforced. Learning is rapid thanks to intuitive coupling of stimuli to wheel position. The mouse decisions deliver high-quality psychometric curves for detection and discrimination and conform to the predictions of a simple probabilistic observer model. The task is readily paired with two-photon imaging of cortical activity. Optogenetic inactivation reveals that the task requires mice to use their visual cortex. Mice are motivated to perform the task by fluid reward or optogenetic stimulation of dopamine neurons. This stimulation elicits a larger number of trials and faster learning. These methods provide a platform to accurately probe mouse vision and its neural basis.

  17. Development of Amorphous/Microcrystalline Silicon Tandem Thin-Film Solar Modules with Low Output Voltage, High Energy Yield, Low Light-Induced Degradation, and High Damp-Heat Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Yi Tsai; Chin-Yao Tsai

    2014-01-01

    In this work, tandem amorphous/microcrystalline silicon thin-film solar modules with low output voltage, high energy yield, low light-induced degradation, and high damp-heat reliability were successfully designed and developed. Several key technologies of passivation, transparent-conducting-oxide films, and cell and segment laser scribing were researched, developed, and introduced into the production line to enhance the performance of these low-voltage modules. A 900 kWp photovoltaic system w...

  18. Fast co-pyrolysis of waste newspaper with high-density polyethylene for high yields of alcohols and hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weimin; Shi, Shukai; Chen, Minzhi; Zhou, Xiaoyan

    2017-09-01

    Waste newspaper (WP) was first co-pyrolyzed with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) to enhance the yields of alcohols and hydrocarbons. The effects of WP: HDPE feed ratio (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, 0:100) and temperature (500-800°C) on products distribution were investigated and the interaction mechanism during co-pyrolysis was also proposed. Maximum yields of alcohols and hydrocarbons reached 85.88% (feed ratio 50:50wt.%, 600°C). Hydrogen supplements and deoxidation by HDPE and subsequently fragments recombination result in the conversion of aldehydes and ketones into branched hydrocarbons. Radicals from WP degradation favor the secondary crack for HDPE products resulting in the formation of linear hydrocarbons with low carbon number. Hydrocarbons with activated radical site from HDPE degradation were interacted with hydroxyl from WP degradation promoting the formation of linear long chain alcohols. Moreover, co-pyrolysis significantly enhanced condensable oil qualities, which were close to commercial diesel No. 0. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High technology in developing countries: Analysis of technology strategy, technology transfer, and success factors in the aircraft industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Economical development is highly related to technological development. It is therefore not surprising that many of the industrially developing nations follow explicit strategies to increase their technological competence level. Industrially developing countries may even pursue a strategy of

  20. Induction of embryogenic callus and plantlet regeneration from young leaves of high yielding mature oil palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeedum, I.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Callus induction and plantlet regeneration from young leaves of high-yielding mature oil palm were carried out using 10-year and 20-year-old trees from Thepa Research Station, Faculty of Natural Resources,Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, and Trang Agricultural College, respectively. Culture media used in this experiment were Murashige and Skoog (1962 and Oil Palm supplemented with various concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA or 2,4- dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D or dicamba (Di and antioxidants.Young leaves from 6th to 11st frond were excised, sterilized, cut into 5x5 mm pieces and cultured in the dark at 26±4ºC or 28±0.5ºC for 3 months. The results revealed that MS medium with 200 mg/l ascorbic acid (As and 1 mg/l Di (MS-AsDi gave the highest callus induction percentage (7.93 after culture for 3 months at 28±0.5ºC. Leaf segments from 6th - 8th frond yielded callus forming percentage at 10% (averaged from 1, 2.5 and 5 mg/l Di containing MS medium. Ascorbic acid as an antioxidant at concentration of 200 mg/l supplemented in MS medium in the presence of 2.5 mg/l Di produced the highest callus induction percentage (11.2 and number of nodules (7.06. A high percentage of embryogenic callus formation (66.67 was obtained when the calli were transferred to the same medium component supplemented with 0.5 mg/l Di and 1,000 mg/l casein hydrolysate (CH (MS-AsDiCH. Haustorial-staged embryos were observed to be isolated as an individual embryo and germinated on MS medium without plant growth regulator (MS-free. Development of root could be classified into two distinct types, fibrous and tap root.

  1. Semi-dwarf tef lines for high seed yield and lodging tolerance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The grain of tef is not only nutritious but also gluten-free, the cause for celiac disease, which affects humans world wide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the morpho-agronomic performance of newly developed semi-dwarf tef genotypes for grain yield and yield related agronomic traits under diverse environmental ...

  2. Identified particle yield associated with a high-$p_T$ trigger particle at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Veldhoen, Misha; van Leeuwen, Marco

    Identified particle production ratios are important observables, used to constrain models of particle production in heavy-ion collisions. Measurements of the inclusive particle ratio in central heavy-ion collisions showed an increase of the baryon-to-meson ratio compared to proton-proton collisions at intermediate pT, the so-called baryon anomaly. One possible explanation of the baryon anomaly is that partons from the thermalized deconfined QCD matter hadronize in a different way compared to hadrons produced in a vacuum jet. In this work we extend on previous measurements by measuring particle ratios in the yield associated with a high-pT trigger particle. These measurements can potentially further constrain the models of particle production since they are sensitive to the difference between particles from a jet and particles that are produced in the bulk. We start by developing a particle identification method that uses both the specific energy loss of a particle and the time of flight. From there, we presen...

  3. High-yield water-based synthesis of truncated silver nanocubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yun-Min; Lu, I-Te; Chen, Chih-Yuan; Hsieh, Yu-Chi; Wu, Pu-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of a water-based formula to fabricate truncated Ag nanocubes. • The sample exhibits (1 0 0), (1 1 0), and (1 1 1) on the facets, edges, and corners. • The sample shows three characteristic absorption peaks due to plasma resonance. -- Abstract: A high-yield water-based hydrothermal synthesis was developed using silver nitrate, ammonia, glucose, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as precursors to synthesize truncated silver nanocubes with uniform sizes and in large quantities. With a fixed CTAB concentration, truncated silver nanocubes with sizes of 49.3 ± 4.1 nm were produced when the molar ratio of glucose/silver cation was maintained at 0.1. The sample exhibited (1 0 0), (1 1 0), and (1 1 1) planes on the facets, edges, and corners, respectively. In contrast, with a slightly larger glucose/silver cation ratio of 0.35, well-defined nanocubes with sizes of 70.9 ± 3.8 nm sizes were observed with the (1 0 0) plane on six facets. When the ratio was further increased to 1.5, excess reduction of silver cations facilitated the simultaneous formation of nanoparticles with cubic, spherical, and irregular shapes. Consistent results were obtained from transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV–visible absorption measurements

  4. High-yield water-based synthesis of truncated silver nanocubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yun-Min; Lu, I-Te; Chen, Chih-Yuan; Hsieh, Yu-Chi; Wu, Pu-Wei, E-mail: ppwu@mail.nctu.edu.tw

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Development of a water-based formula to fabricate truncated Ag nanocubes. • The sample exhibits (1 0 0), (1 1 0), and (1 1 1) on the facets, edges, and corners. • The sample shows three characteristic absorption peaks due to plasma resonance. -- Abstract: A high-yield water-based hydrothermal synthesis was developed using silver nitrate, ammonia, glucose, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as precursors to synthesize truncated silver nanocubes with uniform sizes and in large quantities. With a fixed CTAB concentration, truncated silver nanocubes with sizes of 49.3 ± 4.1 nm were produced when the molar ratio of glucose/silver cation was maintained at 0.1. The sample exhibited (1 0 0), (1 1 0), and (1 1 1) planes on the facets, edges, and corners, respectively. In contrast, with a slightly larger glucose/silver cation ratio of 0.35, well-defined nanocubes with sizes of 70.9 ± 3.8 nm sizes were observed with the (1 0 0) plane on six facets. When the ratio was further increased to 1.5, excess reduction of silver cations facilitated the simultaneous formation of nanoparticles with cubic, spherical, and irregular shapes. Consistent results were obtained from transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV–visible absorption measurements.

  5. High Yield of Adult Oligodendrocyte Lineage Cells Obtained from Meningeal Biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sissi Dolci

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Oligodendrocyte loss can lead to cognitive and motor deficits. Current remyelinating therapeutic strategies imply either modulation of endogenous oligodendrocyte precursors or transplantation of in vitro expanded oligodendrocytes. Cell therapy, however, still lacks identification of an adequate source of oligodendrocyte present in adulthood and able to efficiently produce transplantable cells. Recently, a neural stem cell-like population has been identified in meninges. We developed a protocol to obtain high yield of oligodendrocyte lineage cells from one single biopsy of adult rat meningeal tissue. From 1 cm2 of adult rat spinal cord meninges, we efficiently expanded a homogenous culture of 10 millions of meningeal-derived oligodendrocyte lineage cells in a short period of time (approximately 4 weeks. Meningeal-derived oligodendrocyte lineage cells show typical mature oligodendrocyte morphology and express specific oligodendrocyte markers, such as galactosylceramidase and myelin basic protein. Moreover, when transplanted in a chemically demyelinated spinal cord model, meningeal-derived oligodendrocyte lineage cells display in vivo-remyelinating potential. This oligodendrocyte lineage cell population derives from an accessible and adult source, being therefore a promising candidate for autologous cell therapy of demyelinating diseases. In addition, the described method to differentiate meningeal-derived neural stem cells into oligodendrocyte lineage cells may represent a valid in vitro model to dissect oligodendrocyte differentiation and to screen for drugs capable to promote oligodendrocyte regeneration.

  6. Rapid and high-yield synthesis of carrier-free 18F-labelled alkyl fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Murano, Y.; Izawa, G.

    1982-01-01

    A convenient method for the rapid and high-yield synthesis of carrier-free 18 F-labelled alkyl fluorides was developed. The method involves (1) preparation of carrier-free 18 F-labelled silver fluoride on surface-oxidized silver wool as a fluorinating source for 18 F-labelling: and (2) synthesis of carrier-free 18 F-labelled alkyl fluoride by connecting the above source to a radio-gas chromatography, followed by ordinary gas chromatographic procedure. In the present method, the carrier-free 18 F-labelled alkyl fluorides are synthesized by means of nucleophilic substitution reaction in the heterogeneous gas-phase system. In order to examine the usefulness of the present method, syntheses of 12 carrier-free 18 F-labelled alkyl fluorides were tested using the corresponding bromo- and iodo-compounds as the reactants. Synthesis and isolation of the labelled product in each case were sufficiently rapid and efficient to allow production of usable amounts of the desired compound. (author)

  7. High yield synthesis of Au25 nanoclusters by controlling the reduction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shenshen; Meng, Xiangming; Jin, Shan; Zhu, Manzhou

    2013-02-01

    The syntheses of gold nanoclusters, namely, the 25-gold-atom nanocluster (Au25(SR)18) and 38-gold-atom nanocluster (Au38(SR)24), with SR representing the thiol ligand, were described in previously reported studies. The synthesis was via a fast reduction process using sodium borohydride. The ratio of Au:HSR:NaBH4 was 1:3:10. Herein we report that the Au25 nanocluster can also be synthesized via a slow reduction process through a dropwise addition of an aqueous solution of sodium borohydride. The ratio of Au:S:NaBH4 is also changed to 1:3:5. This method synthesized Au25 nanoclusters at a high yield (47%). Pure Au25 nanoclusters were obtained after extraction, and the product was fully characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. The possible formation mechanism is discussed in this paper. This work contributes to a better understanding of the mechanism of Au25 formation and provides a basis for further study of gold nanoclusters.

  8. MULTI-KEV X-Ray Yields From High-Z Gas Targets Fielded At Omega

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, J.O.; Fournier, K.B.; May, M.J.; Colvin, J.D.; Thomas, C.A.; Marrs, R.E.; Compton, S.M.; Moody, J.D.; Bond, E.J.; Davis, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    The authors report on modeling of x-ray yield from gas-filled targets shot at the OMEGA laser facility. The OMEGA targets were 1.8 mm long, 1.95 mm in diameter Be cans filled with either a 50:50 Ar:Xe mixture, pure Ar, pure Kr or pure Xe at ∼ 1 atm. The OMEGA experiments heated the gas with 20 kJ of 3ω (∼ 350 nm) laser energy delivered in a 1 ns square pulse. the emitted x-ray flux was monitored with the x-ray diode based DANTE instruments in the sub-keV range. Two-dimensional x-ray images (for energies 3-5 keV) of the targets were recorded with gated x-ray detectors. The x-ray spectra were recorded with the HENWAY crystal spectrometer at OMEGA. Predictions are 2D r-z cylindrical with DCA NLTE atomic physics. Models generally: (1) underpredict the Xe L-shell yields; (2) overpredict the Ar K-shell yields; (3) correctly predict the Xe thermal yields; and (4) greatly underpredict the Ar thermal yields. However, there are spreads within the data, e.g. the DMX Ar K-shell yields are correctly predicted. The predicted thermal yields show strong angular dependence.

  9. Higher yields of hybrid rice do not depend on nitrogen fertilization under moderate to high soil fertility conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min; Jiang, Peng; Shan, Shuanglü; Gao, Wei; Ma, Guohui; Zou, Yingbin; Uphoff, Norman; Yuan, Longping

    2017-09-21

    Increasing rice yield with fewer external inputs is critical to ensuring food security, reducing environmental costs, and improving returns. Use of hybrid rice has expanded greatly in China due to its higher yield potential. Meanwhile, large and increasing amounts of nitrogen (N) fertilizers have been used for expanding rice production in China. It is not clear to what extent the success of hybrid rice in China is associated with N fertilizer inputs. We observed that the higher grain yield with N fertilizer in hybrid rice was driven more by a higher yield without N fertilizer than by increases in grain yield with N fertilizer under moderate to high soil fertility conditions. Our results suggest that greater application of N fertilizers is not needed to benefit from hybrid rice production under moderate to high soil fertility conditions, and that improving and maintaining soil fertility should be a focus for sustaining hybrid rice production. Moreover, our study also indicates that zero-N testing may be a potentially useful tool to develop hybrid rice with high yield and without requirement of greater external N inputs under moderate to high soil fertility conditions.

  10. EXTREME METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS AND METABOLIC PROFILE IN HIGH YIELDING HOLSTEINFRIESIAN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. GERGÁCZ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of two years (2002 and 2003 with different summer temperature extremes on variation in metabolic profile was analyzed in blood and urine samples taken from healthy, primiparous (n = 371 and multiparous (n = 795 high yielding Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. In this study main focus was lead on three most critical physiological phases, thus cows were assigned into three groups as follows: (1 dry cows for 10 days prior to calving; (2 cows 1-30 days after delivery, and (3 cows with more than 31 days post partum. Findings reveal clear response of the cows to heat in selected blood (hemoglobin, plasma aceto-acetic-acid, FFA, AST, glucose, urea and urine (pH, NABE and urea parameters. In the majority of cows, glucose and hemoglobin level, one of the most significant blood parameters, indicated symptoms of insufficient energy supply. Further metabolic indicators differed more or less from reference values depending on actual condition. Due to heat load dry matter intake has been decreased even by 10-15 per cent in primiparous cows. They were expected to increase body weight and size and simultaneously produce attain at large milk yields. In doing so that cows would have require large amount of nutrients. Out of parameters such as hemoglobin, glucose, FFA, AST and blood-urea differed from the reference values in most cases; however, this phenomenon seemed to be present in almost every case for hemoglobin and glucose. The lack of energy caused by heat stress can be contributed to the decrease of dry matter intake which has been indicated by the urea levels and pH both in blood and urine prevailing unfavorable and insufficient feeding practice. The results reconfirm the need to reconsider both the actual feeding practice (e.g. to increase of nutrient content in rations, reduce the intake of soluble proteins in rumen, pay attention of crude fiber in Total Mixed Rations (TMR, NDF and ADF, avoid overfeeding of inorganic buffers, to control moisture

  11. Clinical genomics expands the morbid genome of intellectual disability and offers a high diagnostic yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anazi, S; Maddirevula, S; Faqeih, E; Alsedairy, H; Alzahrani, F; Shamseldin, H E; Patel, N; Hashem, M; Ibrahim, N; Abdulwahab, F; Ewida, N; Alsaif, H S; Al Sharif, H; Alamoudi, W; Kentab, A; Bashiri, F A; Alnaser, M; AlWadei, A H; Alfadhel, M; Eyaid, W; Hashem, A; Al Asmari, A; Saleh, M M; AlSaman, A; Alhasan, K A; Alsughayir, M; Al Shammari, M; Mahmoud, A; Al-Hassnan, Z N; Al-Husain, M; Osama Khalil, R; Abd El Meguid, N; Masri, A; Ali, R; Ben-Omran, T; El Fishway, P; Hashish, A; Ercan Sencicek, A; State, M; Alazami, A M; Salih, M A; Altassan, N; Arold, S T; Abouelhoda, M; Wakil, S M; Monies, D; Shaheen, R; Alkuraya, F S

    2017-04-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a measurable phenotypic consequence of genetic and environmental factors. In this study, we prospectively assessed the diagnostic yield of genomic tools (molecular karyotyping, multi-gene panel and exome sequencing) in a cohort of 337 ID subjects as a first-tier test and compared it with a standard clinical evaluation performed in parallel. Standard clinical evaluation suggested a diagnosis in 16% of cases (54/337) but only 70% of these (38/54) were subsequently confirmed. On the other hand, the genomic approach revealed a likely diagnosis in 58% (n=196). These included copy number variants in 14% (n=54, 15% are novel), and point mutations revealed by multi-gene panel and exome sequencing in the remaining 43% (1% were found to have Fragile-X). The identified point mutations were mostly recessive (n=117, 81%), consistent with the high consanguinity of the study cohort, but also X-linked (n=8, 6%) and de novo dominant (n=19, 13%). When applied directly on all cases with negative molecular karyotyping, the diagnostic yield of exome sequencing was 60% (77/129). Exome sequencing also identified likely pathogenic variants in three novel candidate genes (DENND5A, NEMF and DNHD1) each of which harbored independent homozygous mutations in patients with overlapping phenotypes. In addition, exome sequencing revealed de novo and recessive variants in 32 genes (MAMDC2, TUBAL3, CPNE6, KLHL24, USP2, PIP5K1A, UBE4A, TP53TG5, ATOH1, C16ORF90, SLC39A14, TRERF1, RGL1, CDH11, SYDE2, HIRA, FEZF2, PROCA1, PIANP, PLK2, QRFPR, AP3B2, NUDT2, UFC1, BTN3A2, TADA1, ARFGEF3, FAM160B1, ZMYM5, SLC45A1, ARHGAP33 and CAPS2), which we highlight as potential candidates on the basis of several lines of evidence, and one of these genes (SLC39A14) was biallelically inactivated in a potentially treatable form of hypermanganesemia and neurodegeneration. Finally, likely causal variants in previously published candidate genes were identified (ASTN1, HELZ, THOC6, WDR45B, ADRA

  12. Mutation and screening of high-alcoholic-yield yeast by HEPE and optimization of the fermentation condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jingjing; Lu Jiangtao; Zhang Qin; Wang Yan; Fu Yujie; Wang Shilong; Fu Haiying

    2011-01-01

    The Saccharomyces Cerevisiae YE0 was mutated using high-energy-pulse-electron (HEPE) beam. After ethanol stress and determination of the alcohol yield by gas chromatograph, the mutant YF1 with high alcoholic yield was obtained. The results showed that under the optimized fermentation conditions (34 degree C as the fermentation temperature, 72 h as the fermentation time and 30% as the glucose concentration), the alcoholic yield of YF1 was 15.57% which was 58.23% higher than that of the original strain YE0 (9.84%) under the same conditions. The growth rate and lethal temperature of the mutant YF1 were obviously enhanced to the original strain YE0. The mutant YF1 has a great potential application in industrial production of alcohol. And it can also be used as the original strain for further mutagenesis to get the strain of higher alcoholic yield. (authors)

  13. Breeding sesame for diseases and shatter resistant high yielding varieties with induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, C.W.

    2001-01-01

    ''Suwon 144'', derived from the cross between ''Danbaeckkae'' and mutant MY-74-2 and in spite of its higher yield and quality compared to the check variety, did not pass the nomination to the Committee of Main Crops New Varieties under the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, due to the decision of the committee to limit the number of new varieties in sesame as a minor crop in Korea. ''Suwon 144'' will be released again for a fifth year to RYT in 1998. 5,282 cross combinations and 4,341 lines including 1,388 crossings of F 1 were crossed and released to the experimental field of NCES in 1997. Mutants and their cross combinations were released and constituted more than half among them. Seeds of ''Suwon 152'' were treated with NaN 3 and tested for germinability. The other seeds were released and harvested in the experimental field and 419 mutant lines were selected among all the mutant lines. Mutants or materials from cross breeding with mutants occupied 71% (675) among a total of 952 promising lines in yield trials of OYT, PYT, AYT and RYT. For variability of NaN 3 induced genetic male sterile (GMS) mutants and development of restorer/s of GMS, GMS lines were planted, and male sterility (MS) expression evaluated on each line. The selected 4 MS lines with 50% MS were crossed in 22 combinations with 7 recommended varieties. For development of genic-cytoplasmic MS (GCMS) using NaN 3 induced GMS mutants, 40 recommended local Korean and introduced cultivars were crossed in 57 combinations with 4 selected GMS lines expressing 50% male sterility. Various and many sources of unique characteristics have been continuously created through induced mutations, such as determinate; dwarf, lodging,- Phytophthora blight- and shatter- resistant; indehiscent, seamless, taller, stronger thick stems, dense capsule bearing type, semi-dwarf, better maturity, male sterility, smaller seeds, pure white seed coat color and high yields. Lines with these induced desirable characteristics were

  14. High Photoluminescence Quantum Yields in Organic Semiconductor-Perovskite Composite Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Giulia; La-Placa, Maria-Grazia; Sessolo, Michele; Bolink, Henk J

    2017-10-09

    One of the obstacles towards efficient radiative recombination in hybrid perovskites is a low exciton binding energy, typically in the orders of tens of meV. It has been shown that the use of electron-donor additives can lead to a substantial reduction of the non-radiative recombination in perovskite films. Herein, the approach using small molecules with semiconducting properties, which are candidates to be implemented in future optoelectronic devices, is presented. In particular, highly luminescent perovskite-organic semiconductor composite thin films have been developed, which can be processed from solution in a simple coating step. By tuning the relative concentration of methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr 3 ) and 9,9spirobifluoren-2-yl-diphenyl-phosphine oxide (SPPO1), it is possible to achieve photoluminescent quantum yields (PLQYs) as high as 85 %. This is attributed to the dual functions of SPPO1 that limit the grain growth while passivating the perovskite surface. The electroluminescence of these materials was investigated by fabricating multilayer LEDs, where charge injection and transport was found to be severely hindered for the perovskite/SPPO1 material. This was alleviated by partially substituting SPPO1 with a hole-transporting material, 1,3-bis(N-carbazolyl)benzene (mCP), leading to bright electroluminescence. The potential of combining perovskite and organic semiconductors to prepare materials with improved properties opens new avenues for the preparation of simple lightemitting devices using perovskites as the emitter. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Beyond High-Fidelity Simulation: Emerging Technologies in Leadership Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Michael R; Jackson, Christina; Werner, Stacy H; Hines, Diana; Stuart, Nancy; Nelson, Alison

    2018-03-01

    Technology offers educators active learning and new teaching strategies. Five lower cost and scalable technology applications are presented as alternative or complement to high-fidelity simulation. Professional nurse educators should adopt technology when teaching and interact with vendors to generate real-world applications that advance development. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2018;49(3):105-108. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Modern energy efficient technologies of high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukmanova, Inessa; Golov, Roman

    2018-03-01

    The paper analyzes modern energy-efficient technologies, both being applied, and only introduced into the application in the construction of high-rise residential buildings. All technologies are systematized by the authors as part of a unified model of "Arrows of Energy-Efficient Technologies", which imply performing energy-saving measures in the design, construction and operation of buildings.

  17. Performance of High-Yielding Cassava Varieties in Terms of Quantity of Gari per Unit of Labor in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshiunza, M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the quantifies of gari produced per unit of labor from high-yielding and local varieties of cassava in Nigeria. Gari is a cassava-based granule obtained by roasting fermented cassava paste. It is widely consumed in Nigeria and many other West African countries. The results of the study show that, although high-yielding cassava varieties are superior to local varieties in terms of fresh roots per unit area, the difference in terms of gari (kg per unit labor (person-day between the two is not significant. This is due to high labor requirements for transportation and processing activities incurred by high-yielding varieties. The study further indicates a negative relationship between the adoption of high-yielding cassava varieties and distance to fields, the use of headload/backload as transportation means, and lack of processing machines in the village. This means that farmers are less likely to adopt high-yielding varieties of cassava where transportation and processing activities of cassava are carried out manually.

  18. HIGH LATEX YIELDING AND DISEASE RESISTANCE OF RUBBER CLONES IRR 200 SERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidi- Daslin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rubber clones of Indonesian Rubber Research (IRR 200 series have been produced from intensive breeding program started in 1985. Some clones showed superior characteristics such as high latex yielding, vigorous, and disease resistant. This study aimed to test their performances in a field trial conducted since 1999 at Sungei Putih Experimental Garden, North Sumatra. The experiment was designed in a randomized block, using twelve IRR clones as treatment and PB 260 clone as control, three replications. Planting distance was 5 m x 4 m and plot size was 10 rows x 50 trees. Observations were made on girth size of the 2, 3 and 4 year-old trees, dry rubber yield following the 1/2S d/2 and 1/2S d/3.ET2.5% tapping systems, bark thickness, rings number and diameter of latex vessels, as well as leaf fall diseases intensities of 3-5 year-old trees. The results showed four IRR 200 clones, i.e. IRR 207, IRR 208, IRR 211 and IRR 220 produced high latex. Using the 1/2S d/2 tapping system, three clones with highest dry rubber yield were obtained, namely IRR 208 (49.8 g tree-1 tapping-1 or g t-1 t-1, IRR 211 (48.8 g t-1 t-1 and IRR 220 (52.0 g t-1 t-1, whereas that using the 1/2S d/3. ET2.5% tapping system, their yields were 63.2 g, 64.3 g, and 66.2 g t-1 t-1, respectively. At four year-old, these clones had girth size of 41.4-51.0 cm, girth increment 9.7-11.6 cm year-1, bark thickness 6.3-7.2 mm, latex vessel rings number 6.8-7.0, and diameter of latex vessels 23.75-26.57 mm. All of the clones were moderately resistant to Colletotrichum, Oidium and Corynespora leaf fall diseases. This study suggests that IRR 207, IRR 208, IRR 211 and IRR 220 rubber clones are suitable for commercial stake holders and the recommended tapping system is 1/2S d/3.ET2.5%.Bahasa IndonesiaKaret klon IRR (Indonesian Rubber Research seri 200 dihasilkan melalui program pemuliaan yang intensif mulai tahun 1985. Beberapa klon menunjukkan karakteristik unggul sebagai penghasil lateks tinggi

  19. A novel method of identification of high-yield crop cultivars using correlation between delayed fluorescence and photosynthesis capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junsheng; Xu, Wenhai; Li, Ying; Zhang, Lingrui

    2008-12-01

    Crop breeding and variety analysis play the important role in the national economy. A lot of sample data and typical probability distribution are needed in the conventional methods to evaluate the high-yield crop cultivars such as correlation analysis, regression analysis and grey relational grade analysis etc, which are difficult to be realized. Delayed fluorescence (DF) can be used to evaluate plant photosynthesis. The current investigation has revealed that there is a good linear correlation between DF and photosynthesis capacity. More importantly, the slopes of linear fit of the correlationship for different yield varieties are different. Four known yield crop cultivars from each of the two different species (Maize and Soybean) are selected as samples to be analyzed. The statistical results show that the slope of high-yield variety is smaller than that of low-yield. We thus conclude that the slope of linear fit of correlation between DF and photosynthesis capacity is an excellent marker for high-yield crop cultivars identification. Compared with the conventional methods, the presented method needs less samples and it's fast and easy to be measured.

  20. Enhancement of Biogas Yield of Poplar Leaf by High-Solid Codigestion with Swine Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangliang, Li; Zhikai, Zhang; Guangwen, Xu

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the improvement of anaerobic biodegradability of organic fractions of poplar leaf from codigestion with swine manure (SM), thus biogas yield and energy recovery. When poplar leaf was used as a sole substrate, the cumulative biogas yield was low, about 163 mL (g volatile solid (VS))(-1) after 45 days of digestion with a substrate/inoculum ratio of 2.5 and a total solid (TS) of 22 %. Under the same condition, the cumulative biogas yield of poplar leaf reached 321 mL (g VS)(-1) when SM/poplar leaf ratio was 2:5 (based on VS). The SM/poplar leaf ratio can determine C/N ratio of the cosubstrate and thus has significant influence on biogas yield. When the SM/poplar leaf ratio was 2:5, C/N ratio was calculated to be 27.02, and the biogas yield in 45 days of digestion was the highest. The semi-continuous digestion of poplar leaf was carried out with the organic loading rate of 1.25 and 1.88 g VS day(-1). The average daily biogas yield was 230.2 mL (g VS)(-1) and 208.4 mL (g VS)(-1). The composition analysis revealed that cellulose and hemicellulose contributed to the biogas production.

  1. Green technology foresight of high technology: a social shaping of technology approach to the analysis of hopes and hypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2009-01-01

    High tech visions play an important part in public technology policy and are often promoted through technology foresights. The article presents and analyses results from a green technology foresight of nano-, bio- and information- and communication technologies initiated by the Danish Environmental...... Protection Agency with the purpose of acquiring knowledge about the environmental potentials and risks related to the three areas of technology. The foresight was organized with a social shaping of technology (SST) approach to the field in order to cater for the complex relationship between societal demands......, technology options, innovation dynamics and environmental impacts. The approach involved studying actor-networks, laboratory programs and technology trajectories as well as deconstructing different stakeholders’ high tech visions. The identified environmental potentials and risks related to the three areas...

  2. Innovative and basic researches for high temperature technologies at HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiozawa, Shusaku

    1995-01-01

    The HTTR is the first HTGR which is under construction at JAERI. The objectives of the HTTR are to establish basic technologies for HTGRs, to upgrade technologies for HTGRs and to conduct innovative and basic researches for high temperature technologies. The first two are concerned with HTGR developments. The last one is not necessarily for HTGR developments, but for future innovative researches which are expected to be applied to various technologies. (author)

  3. Air-insufflated high-definition dacryoendoscopy yields significantly better image quality than conventional dacryoendoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki T

    2017-08-01

    -insufflated HDD is safe, and yields significantly better image quality than CD and saline-irrigated HDD. Keywords: pressure-controlled air-insufflated, high-definition dacryoendoscopy, saline-irrigated dacryoendoscopy, emphysema

  4. Analysis of a large dataset of mycorrhiza inoculation field trials on potato shows highly significant increases in yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    An increasing human population requires more food production in nutrient-efficient systems in order to simultaneously meet global food needs while reducing the environmental footprint of agriculture. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have the potential to enhance crop yield, but their efficiency has yet to be demonstrated in large-scale crop production systems. This study reports an analysis of a dataset consisting of 231 field trials in which the same AMF inoculant (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198) was applied to potato over a 4-year period in North America and Europe under authentic field conditions. The inoculation was performed using a liquid suspension of AMF spores that was sprayed onto potato seed pieces, yielding a calculated 71 spores per seed piece. Statistical analysis showed a highly significant increase in marketable potato yield (ANOVA, P < 0.0001) for inoculated fields (42.2 tons/ha) compared with non-inoculated controls (38.3 tons/ha), irrespective of trial year. The average yield increase was 3.9 tons/ha, representing 9.5 % of total crop yield. Inoculation was profitable with a 0.67-tons/ha increase in yield, a threshold reached in almost 79 % of all trials. This finding clearly demonstrates the benefits of mycorrhizal-based inoculation on crop yield, using potato as a case study. Further improvements of these beneficial inoculants will help compensate for crop production deficits, both now and in the future.

  5. A multi-region assessment of population rates of cardiac catheterization and yield of high-risk coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Fiona M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is variation in cardiac catheterization utilization across jurisdictions. Previous work from Alberta, Canada, showed no evidence of a plateau in the yield of high-risk disease at cardiac catheterization rates as high as 600 per 100,000 population suggesting that the optimal rate is higher. This work aims 1 To determine if a previously demonstrated linear relationship between the yield of high-risk coronary disease and cardiac catheterization rates persists with contemporary data and 2 to explore whether the linear relationship exists in other jurisdictions. Methods Detailed clinical information on all patients undergoing cardiac catheterization in 3 Canadian provinces was available through the Alberta Provincial Project for Outcomes Assessment in Coronary Heart (APPROACH disease and partner initiatives in British Columbia and Nova Scotia. Population rates of catheterization and high-risk coronary disease detection for each health region in these three provinces, and age-adjusted rates produced using direct standardization. A mixed effects regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between catheterization rate and high-risk coronary disease detection. Results In the contemporary Alberta data, we found a linear relationship between the population catheterization rate and the high-risk yield. Although the yield was slightly less in time period 2 (2002-2006 than in time period 1(1995-2001, there was no statistical evidence of a plateau. The linear relationship between catheterization rate and high-risk yield was similarly demonstrated in British Columbia and Nova Scotia and appears to extend, without a plateau in yield, to rates over 800 procedures per 100,000 population. Conclusions Our study demonstrates a consistent finding, over time and across jurisdictions, of linearly increasing detection of high-risk CAD as population rates of cardiac catheterization increase. This internationally-relevant finding

  6. Photosynthesis enhanced oxidative stress tolerance in high-yield rice varieties (Oryza sativa var. japonica L.) in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, X D

    2016-07-29

    The objective of this study was to understand varietal differences in photosynthetic characteristics, chlorophyll fluorescence, antioxidant capability, and yield of japonica rice varieties. Nanjing 44, Oryza sativa var. japonica (average yield of 12.7 t/ha), Nanjing 46, and Nanjing 5055 (average yields of 11.3 and 11.5 t/ha) were included as "super" and high-yield varieties, respectively, whereas Wuyunjing 7 (average yield of 10.2 t/ha) was included as a control variety. These varieties were grown under field conditions in Jiangsu Province, China, in 2010-2012. Different organs (panicle, grain, etc.) were measured, before and after flowering, to identify differences of dry matter accumulation and transformation properties. Photosynthesis, the chlorophyll content, and antioxidant enzyme activities of the flag leaf in the days after flowering (DAF) were also investigated. The results showed that, compared with the other three rice varieties, Nanjing 44 had the highest plant dry weight and number of grains per panicle. It also had a relatively high net flag leaf photosynthetic rate and showed the least inhibition of photosynthesis at noon in DAF, which probably explains the higher yield in this variety. Furthermore, Nanjing 44 also had the highest stem export and conversion rate from stem to grain, exhibiting a strong ability to convert and distribute photosynthetic products. After DAF 42, Nanjing 44 still maintained a high-soluble protein content and a high antioxidant ability in the leaves to clear peroxidation products, which could protect the photosynthetic apparatus of the flag leaves, and maintain the grain-filling activity for longer. The high-yield capability of Nanjing 44 was attributed to its photosynthetic advantages in the leaves during the late developmental stage.

  7. Microfluidic device for high-yield pairing and fusion of stem cells with somatic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gel, Murat; Hirano, Kunio; Oana, Hidehiro; Kotera, Hidetoshi; Tada, Takashi; Washizu, Masao

    2011-12-01

    Electro cell fusion has significant potential as a biotechnology tool with applications ranging from antibody production to cellular reprogramming. However due to low fusion efficiency of the conventional electro fusion methodology the true potential of the technique has not been reached. In this paper, we report a new method which takes cell fusion efficiency two orders magnitude higher than the conventional electro fusion method. The new method, based on one-toone pairing, fusion and selection of fused cells was developed using a microfabricated device. The device was composed of two microfluidic channels, a micro slit array and a petri dish integrated with electrodes. The electrodes positioned in each channel were used to generate electric field lines concentrating in the micro slits. Cells were introduced into channels and brought in to contact through the micro slit array using dielectrophoresis. The cells in contact were fused by applying a DC pulse to electrodes. As the electric field lines were concentrated at the micro slits the membrane potential was induced only at the vicinity of the micro slits, namely only at the cell-cell contact point. This mechanism assured the minimum damage to cells in the fusion as well as the ability to control the strength and location of induced membrane potential. We introduced mouse embryonic stem cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts to the microfluidic channels and demonstrated high-yield fusion (> 80%). Post-fusion study showed the method can generate viable hybrids of stem cells and embryonic fibroblasts. Multinucleated hybrid cells adhering on the chip surface were routinely obtained by using this method and on-chip culturing.

  8. High diagnostic yield of syndromic intellectual disability by targeted next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Francisco; Caro-Llopis, Alfonso; Roselló, Mónica; Oltra, Silvestre; Mayo, Sonia; Monfort, Sandra; Orellana, Carmen

    2017-02-01

    Intellectual disability is a very complex condition where more than 600 genes have been reported. Due to this extraordinary heterogeneity, a large proportion of patients remain without a specific diagnosis and genetic counselling. The need for new methodological strategies in order to detect a greater number of mutations in multiple genes is therefore crucial. In this work, we screened a large panel of 1256 genes (646 pathogenic, 610 candidate) by next-generation sequencing to determine the molecular aetiology of syndromic intellectual disability. A total of 92 patients, negative for previous genetic analyses, were studied together with their parents. Clinically relevant variants were validated by conventional sequencing. A definitive diagnosis was achieved in 29 families by testing the 646 known pathogenic genes. Mutations were found in 25 different genes, where only the genes KMT2D, KMT2A and MED13L were found mutated in more than one patient. A preponderance of de novo mutations was noted even among the X linked conditions. Additionally, seven de novo probably pathogenic mutations were found in the candidate genes AGO1, JARID2, SIN3B, FBXO11, MAP3K7, HDAC2 and SMARCC2. Altogether, this means a diagnostic yield of 39% of the cases (95% CI 30% to 49%). The developed panel proved to be efficient and suitable for the genetic diagnosis of syndromic intellectual disability in a clinical setting. Next-generation sequencing has the potential for high-throughput identification of genetic variations, although the challenges of an adequate clinical interpretation of these variants and the knowledge on further unknown genes causing intellectual disability remain to be solved. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. State investments in high-technology job growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht, Kevin T; Jenkins, J Craig

    2017-07-01

    Since the early 1970's state and local governments have launched an array of economic development programs designed to promote high-technology development. The question our analysis addresses is whether these programs promote long-term high-technology employment growth net of state location and agglomeration advantages. Proponents talk about an infrastructure strategy that promotes investment in public research and specialized infrastructure to attract and grow new high technology industries in specific locations, and a more decentralized entrepreneurial strategy that reinforces local agglomeration capacities by investing in new enterprises and products, promoting the development of local networks and partnerships. Our results support the entrepreneurial strategy, suggesting that state governments can accelerate high technology development by adopting market-supportive programs that complement private sector initiatives. In addition to positive direct benefits of technology deployment/transfer programs and SBIR programs, entrepreneurial programs affect change in high-technology employment in concert with existing locational and agglomeration advantages. Rural (i.e. low population density) states tend to benefit by technology development programs. Infrastructure strategy programs also facilitate high technology job growth in places where local advantages already exist. Our results suggest that critics of industrial policy are correct that high technology growth is organic and endogenous, yet state governments are able to "pick winners and losers" in ways that grow their local economy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. High-yield production of mannitol by Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides CTCC G123 from chicory-derived inulin hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Gu, Lei; Cheng, Chao; Zhu, Junru; Wu, Hao; Ma, Jiangfeng; Dong, Weiliang; Kong, Xiangping; Jiang, Min; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2017-08-01

    Chicory is an agricultural plant with considerable potential as a carbohydrate substrate for low-cost production of biochemicals. In this work, the production of mannitol by Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides CTCC G123 from chicory-derived inulin hydrolysate was investigated. The bioconversion process initially suffered from the leakage of fructose to the phosphoketolase pathway, resulting in a low mannitol yield. When inulin hydrolysate was supplemented with glucose as a substrate for mannitol production in combination with aeration induction and nicotinic acid induced redox modulation strategies, the mannitol yield greatly improved. Under these conditions, significant improvement in the glucose consumption rate, intracellular NADH levels and mannitol dehydrogenase specific activity were observed, with mannitol production increasing from 64.6 to 88.1 g/L and overall yield increase from 0.69 to 0.94 g/g. This work demonstrated an efficient method for the production of mannitol from inulin hydrolysate with a high overall yield.

  11. Biosolar cells: global artificial photosynthesis needs responsive matrices with quantum coherent kinetic control for high yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, R L; de Groot, H J M

    2015-06-06

    propose that synergy gains by such processes form a basis for further progress towards high efficiency and yield for a global project on artificial photosynthesis. Finally, we look at artificial photosynthesis research in The Netherlands and use this as an example of how an interdisciplinary approach is beneficial to artificial photosynthesis research. We conclude with some of the potential societal consequences of a large-scale roll out of artificial photosynthesis.

  12. Artificial Intelligence Applications to High-Technology Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dede, Christopher

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of artificial intelligence to improve occupational instruction in complex subjects with high performance goals, such as those required for high-technology jobs. Highlights include intelligent computer assisted instruction, examples in space technology training, intelligent simulation environments, and the need for adult training…

  13. High efficiency low cost GaAs/Ge cell technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Frank

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on high efficiency low cost GaAs/Ge cell technology are presented. Topics covered include: high efficiency, low cost GaAs/Ge solar cells; advantages of Ge; comparison of typical production cells for space applications; panel level comparisons; and solar cell technology trends.

  14. Selection of High Oil Yielding Trees of Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi, Vegetative Propagation and Growth in the Field

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Luh Arpiwi; I Made Sutha Negara; I Nengah Simpen

    2017-01-01

    Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi is a potential legume tree that produces seed oil for biodiesel feedstock. The initial step for raising a large-scale plantation of the species is selection of high oil yielding trees from the natural habitat. This is followed by vegetative propagation of the selected trees and then testing the growth of the clone in the field. The aim of the present study was to select high-oil yielding trees of M. pinnata, to propagate the selected trees by budding and to e...

  15. Innovations in papermaking: an LCA of printing and writing paper from conventional and high yield pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, B M Krishna; Blok, Kornelis; Patel, Martin K

    2012-11-15

    Pulp and paper industry is facing challenges such as resource scarcity and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objective of this research is to investigate whether the use of new coatings (micro or nano TiO(2)) and different pulp types could bring savings in wood, energy, GHG emissions and other environmental impacts in comparison with conventional printing and writing paper. We studied three types of pulp, namely i) unbleached virgin kraft pulp, ii) recovered fiber, and iii) high yield virgin chemithermo-mechanical pulp (CTMP). A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted from cradle to grave. Applying attributional modeling, we found that wood savings amount to 60% for the nanoparticle coated recovered fiber paper and 35% for the micro TiO(2) coated CTMP paper. According to the ReCiPe single score impact assessment method, the new product configurations allow the reduction of the environmental impacts by 10-35% compared to conventional kraft paper. Applying consequential modeling, we found larger energy and GHG emission savings compared to attributional modeling because the saved wood is used for producing energy, thereby replacing fossil fuels. The nanoparticle coated recovered fiber paper offered savings of non-renewable energy use (NREU) by 100% (13GJ/ton paper) and GHG emission reduction by 75% (0.6 tonCO(2)eq./ton paper). Micro TiO(2) coated CTMP paper offered NREU savings by 25% (3GJ/ton paper) and savings of GHG emissions by 10% (0.1 tonCO(2)eq./ton paper). The taking into account of all environmental impacts with the ReCiPe single score method leads to comparable results as that of attributional modeling. We conclude that the nanoparticle coated recovered fiber paper offered the highest savings and lowest environmental impacts. However, human toxicity and ecotoxicity impacts of the nanoparticles were not included in this analysis and need further research. If this leads to the conclusion that the toxicity impacts of the nanoparticles are serious, then the

  16. Factors affecting the size of ovulatory follicles and conception rate in high-yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, A; Kafi, M; Zamiri, M J; Akbari, R

    2016-03-01

    Two studies were designed to determine (1) the effects of Heatsynch and Ovsynch protocols versus spontaneous ovulation and (2) the effects of calving problems, clinical uterine infections, and clinical mastitis on the size of the ovulatory follicle, conception rate, and embryonic/fetal (E/F) death in high-yielding dairy cows. In study 1, cows without the history of calving problems, clinical uterine infections, and clinical mastitis were randomly allocated to either an Ovsynch (n = 45) or Heatsynch (n = 39) ovulation synchronization protocol or spontaneous ovulation (n = 43) groups. Blood samples were collected on the day of artificial insemination (AI) to measure progesterone (P4), estradiol-17β, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and 7 days later to measure P4. Study 2 consisted of cows (n = 351) with or without the history of calving problems, clinical uterine infections, and clinical mastitis which were artificially inseminated after a 55-day voluntary waiting period. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed at the time of AI to measure the ovulatory follicle size and on Days 30 and 68 after AI to diagnose pregnancy in both studies. In study 1, the mean (±standard error of the mean) diameter of the ovulatory follicle was greater (P = 0.0005) and E/F mortality was lower (P = 0.007) for the spontaneous ovulation group compared with Ovsynch and Heatsynch groups. Serum concentration of P4 on Day 7 after AI was correlated with the size of the ovulatory follicle (P = 0.007). Conception rate at Days 30 and 68 was not significantly different between the three experimental groups in study 1. Cows with serum IGF-1 concentrations greater than 55 ng/mL at AI had significantly higher Day 68 conception rate (50% vs. 24%) and lower E/F death (16.6% vs. 40%) compared to cows with serum IGF-1 concentrations lower than 56 ng/mL at AI. The conception rate on Days 30 and 68 for follicles of 10 to 14 mm in diameter (34% and 21.8%) was significantly lower than follicles of

  17. Innovations in papermaking: An LCA of printing and writing paper from conventional and high yield pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manda, B.M. Krishna; Blok, Kornelis; Patel, Martin K.

    2012-01-01

    Pulp and paper industry is facing challenges such as resource scarcity and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objective of this research is to investigate whether the use of new coatings (micro or nano TiO 2 ) and different pulp types could bring savings in wood, energy, GHG emissions and other environmental impacts in comparison with conventional printing and writing paper. We studied three types of pulp, namely i) unbleached virgin kraft pulp, ii) recovered fiber, and iii) high yield virgin chemithermo-mechanical pulp (CTMP). A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted from cradle to grave. Applying attributional modeling, we found that wood savings amount to 60% for the nanoparticle coated recovered fiber paper and 35% for the micro TiO 2 coated CTMP paper. According to the ReCiPe single score impact assessment method, the new product configurations allow the reduction of the environmental impacts by 10–35% compared to conventional kraft paper. Applying consequential modeling, we found larger energy and GHG emission savings compared to attributional modeling because the saved wood is used for producing energy, thereby replacing fossil fuels. The nanoparticle coated recovered fiber paper offered savings of non-renewable energy use (NREU) by 100% (13 GJ/ton paper) and GHG emission reduction by 75% (0.6 ton CO 2 eq./ton paper). Micro TiO 2 coated CTMP paper offered NREU savings by 25% (3 GJ/ton paper) and savings of GHG emissions by 10% (0.1 ton CO 2 eq./ton paper). The taking into account of all environmental impacts with the ReCiPe single score method leads to comparable results as that of attributional modeling. We conclude that the nanoparticle coated recovered fiber paper offered the highest savings and lowest environmental impacts. However, human toxicity and ecotoxicity impacts of the nanoparticles were not included in this analysis and need further research. If this leads to the conclusion that the toxicity impacts of the nanoparticles are serious, then

  18. Predicting yields of high priced trimmed beef cuts by means of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The linear models included carcass weight and visual assessment of fatness and conformation by means of seven fat and five conformation classes. Amount of variation accounted for (R2) was the most favourable for total yield (87.3%) and the least favourable for the rib-eye cut (43.5%). Carcass weight contributed to most ...

  19. High-yield production of Streptavidin with native C-terminal in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To increase the production yield of functional recombinant streptavidin in Escherichia coli, the effects of host strains and culture conditions on expression of streptavidin with native C terminal (CNSA, amino acid residues 13 to 159) were investigated. Results show that the CNSA, encoded by the CNSA gene, was produced ...

  20. Highly productive forage legume stands show no positive biodiversity effect on yield and N2-fixation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhamala, Nawa Raj; Eriksen, Jørgen; Carlsson, Georg

    2017-01-01

    . Methodology N fixation, dry matter (DM) and nitrogen (N) yields were quantified in a field experiment for red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) pure stands and mixtures using the isotope dilution method. Results All three forage legume species...

  1. High Power Betavoltaic Technology, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation will dramatically improve the performance of tritium-powered betavoltaic batteries through the development of a high-aspect ratio, expanded...

  2. Educational discourse: Information technology in high school

    OpenAIRE

    Penkov Boris Victorovich

    2015-01-01

    Educational discourse demonstrates a number of characteristics, which can be analyzed and grouped according to various parameters. The Theme of Online and Blended Learning occupies a critical domain within the educational discourse, including the language of high school. The discourse of senior high school provides sets of stylistic and genre markers for the discourse, such as terminological and professional vocabulary that defines and clarifies concepts and categories within t...

  3. High-pressure homogenization of raw and pasteurized milk modifies the yield, composition, and texture of queso fresco cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, D; Clark, S; Ganesan, V; Repiso, L; Waller, J; Harte, F

    2011-03-01

    High-pressure homogenization (HPH) of milk was studied as an alternative processing operation in the manufacturing of queso fresco cheese. Raw and pasteurized (65°C for 30 min) milks were subjected to HPH at 0, 100, 200, and 300 MPa and then used to manufacture queso fresco. The cheeses were evaluated for yield, moisture content, titratable acidity, nitrogen content, whey protein content, yield force, yield strain, and tactile texture by instrumental or trained panel analyses. The combination of HPH and thermal processing of milk resulted in cheeses with increased yield and moisture content. The net amount of protein transferred to the cheese per kilogram of milk remained constant for all treatments except raw milk processed at 300 MPa. The highest cheese yield, moisture content, and crumbliness were obtained for thermally processed milk subjected to HPH at 300 MPa. The principal component analysis of all measured variables showed that the variables yield, moisture content, and crumbliness were strongly correlated to each other and negatively correlated to the variables yield strain, protein content (wet basis), and sensory cohesiveness. It is suggested that the combination of thermal processing and HPH promotes thermally induced denaturation of whey protein, together with homogenization-induced dissociation of casein micelles. The combined effect results in queso fresco containing a thin casein-whey matrix that is able to better retain sweet whey. These results indicate that HPH has a strong potential for the manufacture of queso fresco with excellent yield and textural properties. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Exogenously Applied Plant Growth Regulators Enhance the Morpho-Physiological Growth and Yield of Rice under High Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Saud, Shah; Hassan, Shah; Ihsan, Zahid; Shah, Adnan N.; Wu, Chao; Yousaf, Muhammad; Nasim, Wajid; Alharby, Hesham; Alghabari, Fahad; Huang, Jianliang

    2016-01-01

    A two-year experiment was conducted to ascertain the effects of exogenously applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on rice growth and yield attributes under high day (HDT) and high night temperature (HNT). Two rice cultivars (IR-64 and Huanghuazhan) were subjected to temperature treatments in controlled growth chambers and four different combinations of ascorbic acid (Vc), alpha-tocopherol (Ve), brassinosteroids (Br), methyl jasmonates (MeJA) and triazoles (Tr) were applied. High temperature s...

  5. High-yield membrane protein expression from E. coli using an engineered outer membrane protein F fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Pin-Chuan; Si, William; Baker, Deidre L; Berger, Bryan W

    2013-04-01

    Obtaining high yields of membrane proteins necessary to perform detailed structural study is difficult due to poor solubility and variability in yields from heterologous expression systems. To address this issue, an Escherichia coli-based membrane protein overexpression system utilizing an engineered bacterial outer membrane protein F (pOmpF) fusion has been developed. Full-length human receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1) was expressed using pOmpF, solubilized in FC15 and purified to homogeneity. Using circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy, purified full-length RAMP1 is composed of approximately 90% α-helix, and retains its solubility and structure in FC15 over a wide range of temperatures (20-60°C). Thus, our approach provides a useful, complementary approach to achieve high-yield, full-length membrane protein overexpression for biophysical studies. Copyright © 2013 The Protein Society.

  6. Development of a New Class of Scintillating Fibres with Very Short Decay Time and High Light Yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borshchev, O.; Ponomarenko, S.; Surin, N.; Cavalcante, A.B.R.; Gavardi, L.; Gruber, L.; Joram, C.; Shinji, O.

    2017-01-01

    We present first studies of a new class of scintillating fibres which are characterised by very short decay times and high light yield. The fibres are based on a novel type of luminophores admixed to a polystyrene core matrix. These so-called Nanostructured Organosilicon Luminophores (NOL) have high photoluminescense quantum yield and decay times just above 1 ns. A blue and a green emitting prototype fibre with 250 μm diameter were produced and characterised in terms of attenuation length, ionisation light yield, decay time and tolerance to x-ray irradiation. The well-established Kuraray SCSF-78 and SCSF-3HF fibres were taken as references. Even though the two prototype fibres mark just an intermediate step in an ongoing development, their performance is already on a competitive level. In particular, their decay time constants are about a factor of two shorter than the fastest known fibres, which makes them promising candidates for time critical applications.

  7. High-yield exfoliation of tungsten disulphide nanosheets by rational mixing of low-boiling-point solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajedi-Moghaddam, Ali; Saievar-Iranizad, Esmaiel

    2018-01-01

    Developing high-throughput, reliable, and facile approaches for producing atomically thin sheets of transition metal dichalcogenides is of great importance to pave the way for their use in real applications. Here, we report a highly promising route for exfoliating two-dimensional tungsten disulphide sheets by using binary combination of low-boiling-point solvents. Experimental results show significant dependence of exfoliation yield on the type of solvents as well as relative volume fraction of each solvent. The highest yield was found for appropriate combination of isopropanol/water (20 vol% isopropanol and 80 vol% water) which is approximately 7 times higher than that in pure isopropanol and 4 times higher than that in pure water. The dramatic increase in exfoliation yield can be attributed to perfect match between the surface tension of tungsten disulphide and binary solvent system. Furthermore, solvent molecular size also has a profound impact on the exfoliation efficiency, due to the steric repulsion.

  8. Driving Down HB-LED Costs. Implementation of Process Simulation Tools and Temperature Control Methods of High Yield MOCVD Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, William [Veeco Process Equipment, Inc., Plainview, NY (United States)

    2012-04-30

    The overall objective of this multi-faceted program is to develop epitaxial growth systems that meet a goal of 75% (4X) cost reduction in the epitaxy phase of HB-LED manufacture. A 75% reduction in yielded epitaxy cost is necessary in order to achieve the cost goals for widespread penetration of HB-LED's into back-lighting units (BLU) for LCD panels and ultimately for solid-state lighting (SSL). To do this, the program will address significant improvements in overall equipment Cost of Ownership, or CoO. CoO is a model that includes all costs associated with the epitaxy portion of production. These aspects include cost of yield, capital cost, operational costs, and maintenance costs. We divide the program into three phases where later phases will incorporate the gains of prior phases. Phase one activities are enabling technologies. In collaboration with Sandia National Laboratories we develop a Fluent-compatible chemistry predictive model and a set of mid-infrared and near-ultraviolet pyrometer monitoring tools. Where previously the modeling of the reactor dynamics were studied within FLUENT alone, here, FLUENT and Chemkin are integrated into a comprehensive model of fluid dynamics and the most advanced transport equations developed for Chemkin. Specifically, the Chemkin model offered the key reaction terms for gas-phase nucleation, a key consideration in the optimization of the MOCVD process. This new predictive model is used to design new MOCVD reactors with optimized growth conditions and the newly developed pyrometers are used monitor and control the MOCVD process temperature to within 0.5°C run-to-run and within each wafer. This portion of the grant is in collaboration with partners at Sandia National Laboratories. Phase two activities are continuous improvement projects which extend the current reactor platform along the lines of improved operational efficiency, improved systems control for throughput, and carrier modifications for increased yield

  9. Expression of barley SUSIBA2 transcription factor yields high-starch low-methane rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, J; Hu, C; Yan, X; Jin, Y; Chen, Z; Guan, Q; Wang, Y; Zhong, D; Jansson, C; Wang, F; Schnürer, A; Sun, C

    2015-07-30

    Atmospheric methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide, and is responsible for about 20% of the global warming effect since pre-industrial times. Rice paddies are the largest anthropogenic methane source and produce 7-17% of atmospheric methane. Warm waterlogged soil and exuded nutrients from rice roots provide ideal conditions for methanogenesis in paddies with annual methane emissions of 25-100-million tonnes. This scenario will be exacerbated by an expansion in rice cultivation needed to meet the escalating demand for food in the coming decades. There is an urgent need to establish sustainable technologies for increasing rice production while reducing methane fluxes from rice paddies. However, ongoing efforts for methane mitigation in rice paddies are mainly based on farming practices and measures that are difficult to implement. Despite proposed strategies to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions, no high-starch low-methane-emission rice has been developed. Here we show that the addition of a single transcription factor gene, barley SUSIBA2 (refs 7, 8), conferred a shift of carbon flux to SUSIBA2 rice, favouring the allocation of photosynthates to aboveground biomass over allocation to roots. The altered allocation resulted in an increased biomass and starch content in the seeds and stems, and suppressed methanogenesis, possibly through a reduction in root exudates. Three-year field trials in China demonstrated that the cultivation of SUSIBA2 rice was associated with a significant reduction in methane emissions and a decrease in rhizospheric methanogen levels. SUSIBA2 rice offers a sustainable means of providing increased starch content for food production while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from rice cultivation. Approaches to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions as seen in SUSIBA2 rice may be particularly beneficial in a future climate with rising temperatures resulting in increased

  10. Expression of barley SUSIBA2 transcription factor yields high-starch low-methane rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, J.; Hu, C.; Yan, X.; Jin, Y.; Chen, Z.; Guan, Q.; Wang, Y.; Zhong, D.; Jansson, Georg C.; Wang, F.; Schnrer, Anna; Sun, Chuanxin

    2015-07-22

    Atmospheric methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide, and is responsible for about 20% of the global warming effect since pre-industrial times. Rice paddies are the largest anthropogenic methane source and produce 7–17% of atmospheric methane. Warm waterlogged soil and exuded nutrients from rice roots provide ideal conditions for methanogenesis in paddies with annual methane emissions of 25–100-million tonnes. This scenario will be exacerbated by an expansion in rice cultivation needed to meet the escalating demand for food in the coming decades4. There is an urgent need to establish sustainable technologies for increasing rice production while reducing methane fluxes from rice paddies. However, ongoing efforts for methane mitigation in rice paddies are mainly based on farming practices and measures that are difficult to implement5. Despite proposed strategies to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions4,6, no high-starch low-methane-emission rice has been developed. Here we show that the addition of a single transcription factor gene, barley SUSIBA2, conferred a shift of carbon flux to SUSIBA2 rice, favouring the allocation of photosynthates to aboveground biomass over allocation to roots. The altered allocation resulted in an increased biomass and starch content in the seeds and stems, and suppressed methanogenesis, possibly through a reduction in root exudates. Three-year field trials in China demonstrated that the cultivation of SUSIBA2 rice was associated with a significant reduction in methane emissions and a decrease in rhizospheric methanogen levels. SUSIBA2 rice offers a sustainable means of providing increased starch content for food production while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from rice cultivation. Approaches to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions as seen in SUSIBA2 rice may be particularly beneficial in a future climate with rising temperatures resulting in increased methane

  11. Flexible, High Char Yield Hybridsil Adhesive Materials for Next Generation Ablative Thermal Protecti, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Phase II SBIR transition of NanoSonic's HybridSil poly(imide siloxane) ablative adhesive technology will provide a pivotal funding bridge toward its Phase III...

  12. Submicron CMOS technologies for high energy physics and space applications

    CERN Document Server

    Anelli, G; Faccio, F; Heijne, Erik H M; Jarron, Pierre; Kloukinas, Kostas C; Marchioro, A; Moreira, P; Snoeys, W

    2001-01-01

    The radiation environment present in some of today's High-Energy Physics (HEP) experiments and in space has a detrimental influence on the integrated circuits working in these environments. Special technologies, called radiation hardened, have been used in the past to prevent the radiation-induced degradation. In the last decades, the market of these special technologies has undergone a considerable shrinkage, rendering them less reliably available and far more expensive than today's mainstream technologies. An alternative approach is to use a deep submicron CMOS technology. The most sensitive part to radiation effects in a MOS transistor is the gate oxide. One way to reduce the effects of ionizing radiation in the gate oxide is to reduce its thickness, which is a natural trend in modern technologies. Submicron CMOS technologies seem therefore a good candidate for implementing radiation-hardened integrated circuits using a commercial, inexpensive technology. Nevertheless, a certain number of radiation-induced...

  13. Reliability achievement in high technology space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The production of failure-free hardware is discussed. The elements required to achieve such hardware are: technical expertise to design, analyze, and fully understand the design; use of high reliability parts and materials control in the manufacturing process; and testing to understand the system and weed out defects. The durability of the Hughes family of satellites is highlighted.

  14. Gamma ray induced high yielding dwarf mutant in Vigna radiata L. Wilczek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, Kalpana; Raghuvanshi, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    Single and combined treatments with gamma rays and EMS were tried on V. radiata (L. Wilczek) variety K 851. Seeds were exposed to 10, 20 and 30 krad gamma rays. One set of each dose was treated with 0.25% EMS solution (pH 7 at 30 deg. C) for 6 hours. The M 2 generation was screened for mutants. A dwarf mutant with signs of higher yield was observed in the 20 krad plot. The mutant exceeded the parent variety in several agronomic traits and was true breeding in M 3 . Crossing with the control confirmed its monogenic and recessive character. Significant increase was found in number of pods/plant and number of seeds/pod leading to higher seed yield. The mutant took only 54 days to mature. This early mutant is very interesting for double/triple cropping and may help to bridge the widening gap between pulse production and consumption in India

  15. Gallium loading of gold seed for high yield of patterned GaAs nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulanger, J. P.; Chia, A. C. E.; LaPierre, R. R., E-mail: lapierr@mcmaster.ca [Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2014-08-25

    A method is presented for maximizing the yield and crystal phase purity of vertically aligned Au-assisted GaAs nanowires grown with an SiO{sub x} selective area epitaxy mask on GaAs (111)B substrates. The nanowires were grown by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method in a gas source molecular beam epitaxy system. During annealing, Au VLS seeds will alloy with the underlying GaAs substrate and collect beneath the SiO{sub x} mask layer. This behavior is detrimental to obtaining vertically aligned, epitaxial nanowire growth. To circumvent this issue, Au droplets were pre-filled with Ga assuring vertical yields in excess of 99%.

  16. Effect Of High Free Fatty Acid Feedstock On Methyl Esters Yield Using Bulk Calcium Oxide Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Haruna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Presence of free fatty acids in biodiesel feedstock has been source of concern to biodiesel producers hence this investigation was carried out to determine its effect on methyl esters yield by transesterification using solid base catalyst. Jatropha curcas oil of different free fatty acid compositions and methanol were transesterified with bulk calcium oxide catalyst in a stoichiometric ratio. The feedstock with 0.22 free fatty acid had 99.99 methyl ester that with 1.00 FFA had 99.11 methyl esters the one with 3.92 FFA had 94.76 methyl esters the ome with 7.8 FFA had 87.49 methyl esters and that with 8.16 FFA had 84.42 methyl esters. This indicates that methyl esters yield decrease with increase FFA of feedstocks. The presence of acid in the feedstock reduces the quantity of biodiesel produced when solid base catalyst is used.

  17. Metabolic engineering for high yielding L(-)-carnitine production in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Arense, Paula; Bernal, Vicente; Charlier, Dani?l; Iborra, Jos? Luis; Foulqui?-Moreno, Maria Remedios; C?novas, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Background L(-)-carnitine production has been widely studied because of its beneficial properties on various diseases and dysfunctions. Enterobacteria possess a specific biotransformation pathway which can be used for the enantioselective production of L(-)-carnitine. Although bioprocesses catalyzed by enzymes or whole cells can overcome the lack of enantioselectivity of chemical methods, current processes for L(?)-carnitine production still have severe disadvantages, such as the low yields, ...

  18. High-yield secretion of recombinant proteins from the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Martinez, Erick Miguel; Fimognari, Lorenzo; Sakuragi, Yumiko

    2017-09-01

    Microalga-based biomanufacturing of recombinant proteins is attracting growing attention due to its advantages in safety, metabolic diversity, scalability and sustainability. Secretion of recombinant proteins can accelerate the use of microalgal platforms by allowing post-translational modifications and easy recovery of products from the culture media. However, currently, the yields of secreted recombinant proteins are low, which hampers the commercial application of this strategy. This study aimed at expanding the genetic tools for enhancing secretion of recombinant proteins in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a widely used green microalga as a model organism and a potential industrial biotechnology platform. We demonstrated that the putative signal sequence from C. reinhardtii gametolysin can assist the secretion of the yellow fluorescent protein Venus into the culture media. To increase the secretion yields, Venus was C-terminally fused with synthetic glycomodules comprised of tandem serine (Ser) and proline (Pro) repeats of 10 and 20 units [hereafter (SP) n , wherein n = 10 or 20]. The yields of the (SP) n -fused Venus were higher than Venus without the glycomodule by up to 12-fold, with the maximum yield of 15 mg/L. Moreover, the presence of the glycomodules conferred an enhanced proteolytic protein stability. The Venus-(SP) n proteins were shown to be glycosylated, and a treatment of the cells with brefeldin A led to a suggestion that glycosylation of the (SP) n glycomodules starts in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Taken together, the results demonstrate the utility of the gametolysin signal sequence and (SP) n glycomodule to promote a more efficient biomanufacturing of microalgae-based recombinant proteins. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. High-yielding Wheat Varieties Harbour Superior Plant Growth Promoting-Bacterial Endophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehwish Yousaf

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the endophytic microbial flora of different wheat varieties to check whether a better yielding variety also harbours superior plant growth promoting bacteria. Such bacteria are helpful in food biotechnology as their application can enhance the yield of the crop.Material and Methods: Three wheat varieties (Seher, Faisalabad and Lasani were selected, Seher being the most superior variety. endophytic bacteria were isolated from the histosphere of the leaves and roots at different growth phases of the plants. The isolates were analyzed for plant growth promoting activities. Isolates giving best results were identified through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel 2013. All the experiments were conducted in triplicates.Results and Conclusion: The endophytes of Seher variety showed maximum plant growth promoting abilities. Among the shoot endophytes, the highest auxin production was shown by Seher isolate SHHP1-3 up to 51.9μg ml-1, whereas in the case of root endophytes, the highest auxin was produced by SHHR1-5 up to 36 μg ml-1. The bacteria showing significant plant growth promoting abilities were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. Bacillus, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria species were the dominant bacteria showing all the traits of plant growth promotion. It can be concluded that Seher variety harbours superior plant growth promoting endophytes that must be one of the reasons for its better growth and yield as compared to the other two varieties. The investigated results support possible utilization of the selected isolates in wheat growth promotion with respect to increase in agro-productivity. The application of such bacteria could be useful to enhance wheat yield and can help in food biotechnology.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  20. Harnessing the respiration machinery for high-yield production of chemicals in metabolically engineered Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianming; Wang, Zhihao; Kandasamy, Vijayalakshmi

    2017-01-01

    When modifying the metabolism of living organisms with the aim of achieving biosynthesis of useful compounds, it is essential to ensure that it is possible to achieve overall redox balance. We propose a generalized strategy for this, based on fine-tuning of respiration. The strategy was applied o...... of 81% or 365 mM (33 g/L) with a yield of 82%, respectively. These results demonstrate the great potential in using finely-tuned respiration machineries for bio-production....

  1. Tailoring Wet Explosion Process Parameters for the Pretreatment of Cocksfoot Grass for High Sugar Yields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2013-01-01

    The pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is crucial for efficient subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. In this study, wet explosion (WEx) pretreatment was applied to cocksfoot grass and pretreatment conditions were tailored for maximizing the sugar yields using response su...... when applying less severe pretreatment conditions C (160 °C, 5 min, 0.2 % dilute sulfuric acid). Therefore, the choice of the most suitable pretreatment conditions is depending on the main target product, i.e., hexose or pentose sugars....

  2. Multitrait, random regression, or simple repeatability model in high-throughput phenotyping data improve genomic prediction for wheat grain yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-throughput phenotyping (HTP) platforms can be used to measure traits that are genetically correlated with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain yield across time. Incorporating such secondary traits in the multivariate pedigree and genomic prediction models would be desirable to improve indirect s...

  3. The effect of high-sugar grass on predicted nitrogen excretion and milk yield simulated using a dynamic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, J.L.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.; Parsons, A.J.; Rasmussen, S.; Edwards, G.R.; Kebreab, E.; France, J.

    2011-01-01

    High-sugar grass varieties have received considerable attention for their potential to reduce nitrogen (N) excretion and increase milk yield in cattle. However, considerable variation exists in the magnitude of response in published results. The purpose of this study is to explain the variation in

  4. Ultrafiltration with size-exclusion liquid chromatography for high yield isolation of extracellular vesicles preserving intact biophysical and functional properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordin, Joel Z.; Lee, Yi; Vader, Pieter; Mäger, Imre; Johansson, Henrik J.; Heusermann, Wolf; Wiklander, Oscar P B; Hällbrink, Mattias; Seow, Yiqi; Bultema, Jarred J.; Gilthorpe, Jonathan; Davies, Tim; Fairchild, Paul J.; Gbrielsson, Susanne; Meisner-Kober, Nicole C.; Lehtiö, Janne; Smith, C. I Edvard; Wood, Matthew J A; Andaloussi, Samir E L

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are natural nanoparticles that mediate intercellular transfer of RNA and proteins and are of great medical interest; serving as novel biomarkers and potential therapeutic agents. However, there is little consensus on the most appropriate method to isolate high-yield and

  5. DAC Measurement of High-Pressure Yield Strength of Vanadium using In-Situ Thickness Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepeis, J P; Cynn, H; Evans, W J; Rudd, R E; Yang, L H; Liermann, H P; Yang, W

    2009-07-16

    The pressure-dependence of the quasi-static yield strength of vanadium in polycrystalline foils and powders has been measured up to 80 GPa at room temperature using an implementation of a non-hydrostatic diamond anvil cell technique [C. Meade and R. Jeanloz, J. Geophys. Res. 93, 3261 (1988)]. A new feature of this work is the use of an in-situ determination of the sample thickness. Following an initial increase in the strength with pressure, a decrease in the strength of vanadium was observed beginning at 40-50 GPa. We have measured the yield strength of vanadium up to 80 GPa under nonhydrostatic conditions. In this study, we used x-ray diffraction and absorption techniques to make in-situ measurements of the pressure gradient and the sample thickness. These measurements were used to evaluate the pressure-dependence of the material strength. We observed a decease in the yield strength of vanadium over the pressure range of 40-50 GPa. We propose that this change in the yieldstrength pressure-dependence is an indicator of the phase transition from bcc to rhombohedral.

  6. High quantum yield ZnO quantum dots synthesizing via an ultrasonication microreactor method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weimin; Yang, Huafang; Ding, Wenhao; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Le; Wang, Lixi; Yu, Mingxun; Zhang, Qitu

    2016-11-01

    Green emission ZnO quantum dots were synthesized by an ultrasonic microreactor. Ultrasonic radiation brought bubbles through ultrasonic cavitation. These bubbles built microreactor inside the microreactor. The photoluminescence properties of ZnO quantum dots synthesized with different flow rate, ultrasonic power and temperature were discussed. Flow rate, ultrasonic power and temperature would influence the type and quantity of defects in ZnO quantum dots. The sizes of ZnO quantum dots would be controlled by those conditions as well. Flow rate affected the reaction time. With the increasing of flow rate, the sizes of ZnO quantum dots decreased and the quantum yields first increased then decreased. Ultrasonic power changed the ultrasonic cavitation intensity, which affected the reaction energy and the separation of the solution. With the increasing of ultrasonic power, sizes of ZnO quantum dots first decreased then increased, while the quantum yields kept increasing. The effect of ultrasonic temperature on the photoluminescence properties of ZnO quantum dots was influenced by the flow rate. Different flow rate related to opposite changing trend. Moreover, the quantum yields of ZnO QDs synthesized by ultrasonic microreactor could reach 64.7%, which is higher than those synthesized only under ultrasonic radiation or only by microreactor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Progress in advanced high temperature materials technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freche, J. C.; Ault, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    Materials for intermediate temperature applications are considered, taking into account possibilities regarding the use of prealloyed powder processing to obtain superalloys with increased strength for turbine disk applications. Materials for high temperature application are also discussed. Attention is given to oxide dispersion strengthened alloys (ODS), ceramics, directionally solidified eutectics, ODS + gamma prime alloys, and composites. A description is presented of various approaches for providing environmental protection.

  8. Trend on High-speed Power Line Communication Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Osamu

    High-speed power line communication (PLC) is useful technology to easily build the communication networks, because construction of new infrastructure is not necessary. In Europe and America, PLC has been used for broadband networks since the beginning of 21th century. In Japan, high-speed PLC was deregulated only indoor usage in 2006. Afterward it has been widely used for home area network, LAN in hotels and school buildings and so on. And recently, PLC is greatly concerned as communication technology for smart grid network. In this paper, the author surveys the high-speed PLC technology and its current status.

  9. Exogenously Applied Plant Growth Regulators Enhance the Morpho-Physiological Growth and Yield of Rice under High Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Saud, Shah; Hassan, Shah; Ihsan, Zahid; Shah, Adnan N; Wu, Chao; Yousaf, Muhammad; Nasim, Wajid; Alharby, Hesham; Alghabari, Fahad; Huang, Jianliang

    2016-01-01

    A 2-year experiment was conducted to ascertain the effects of exogenously applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on rice growth and yield attributes under high day (HDT) and high night temperature (HNT). Two rice cultivars (IR-64 and Huanghuazhan) were subjected to temperature treatments in controlled growth chambers and four different combinations of ascorbic acid (Vc), alpha-tocopherol (Ve), brassinosteroids (Br), methyl jasmonates (MeJA), and triazoles (Tr) were applied. High temperature severely affected rice morphology, and also reduced leaf area, above-, and below-ground biomass, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency, while increased the leaf water potential of both rice cultivars. Grain yield and its related attributes except number of panicles, were reduced under high temperature. The HDT posed more negative effects on rice physiological attributes, while HNT was more detrimental for grain formation and yield. The Huanghuazhan performed better than IR-64 under high temperature stress with better growth and higher grain yield. Exogenous application of PGRs was helpful in alleviating the adverse effects of high temperature. Among PGR combinations, the Vc+Ve+MejA+Br was the most effective treatment for both cultivars under high temperature stress. The highest grain production by Vc+Ve+MejA+Br treated plants was due to enhanced photosynthesis, spikelet fertility and grain filling, which compensated the adversities of high temperature stress. Taken together, these results will be of worth for further understanding the adaptation and survival mechanisms of rice to high temperature and will assist in developing heat-resistant rice germplasm in future.

  10. Exogenously applied plant growth regulators enhance the morpho-physiological growth and yield of rice under high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Fahad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A two-year experiment was conducted to ascertain the effects of exogenously applied plant growth regulators (PGR on rice growth and yield attributes under high day (HDT and high night temperature (HNT. Two rice cultivars (IR-64 and Huanghuazhan were subjected to temperature treatments in controlled growth chambers and four different combinations of ascorbic acid (Vc, alpha-tocopherol (Ve, brassinosteroids (Br, methyl jasmonates (MeJA and triazoles (Tr were applied. High temperature severely affected rice morphology, and also reduced leaf area, above- and below-ground biomass, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency, while increased the leaf water potential of both rice cultivars. Grain yield and its related attributes except number of panicles, were reduced under high temperature. The HDT posed more negative effects on rice physiological attributes, while HNT was more detrimental for grain formation and yield. The Huanghuazhan performed better than IR-64 under high temperature stress with better growth and higher grain yield. Exogenous application of PGRs was helpful in alleviating the adverse effects of high temperature. Among PGR combinations, the Vc+Ve+MejA+Br was the most effective treatment for both cultivars under high temperature stress. The highest grain production by Vc+Ve+MejA+Br treated plants was due to enhanced photosynthesis, spikelet fertility and grain filling, which compensated the adversities of high temperature stress. Taken together, these results will be of worth for further understanding the adaptation and survival mechanisms of rice to high temperature and will assist in developing heat-resistant rice germplasm in future.

  11. Ultra-high vacuum technology for accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Hilleret, Noël; Strubin, Pierre M

    2002-01-01

    The lectures will start with a review of the basics of vacuum physics required to build Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) systems, such as static and dynamic outgassing. Before reviewing the various pumping and measurement devices, including the most modern one like Non Evaporable Getter (NEG) coatings, an overview of adequate materials to be used in UHV systems will be given together with their treatment (e.g. cleaning procedures and bake out). Practical examples based on existing or future accelerators will be used to illustrate the topics. Finally, a short overview of modern vacuum controls and interlocks will be given.

  12. A natural variant of NAL1, selected in high-yield rice breeding programs, pleiotropically increases photosynthesis rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Toshiyuki; Adachi, Shunsuke; Taguchi-Shiobara, Fumio; Sanoh-Arai, Yumiko; Iwasawa, Norio; Yoshinaga, Satoshi; Hirose, Sakiko; Taniguchi, Yojiro; Yamanouchi, Utako; Wu, Jianzhong; Matsumoto, Takashi; Sugimoto, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Katsuhiko; Ikka, Takashi; Ando, Tsuyu; Kono, Izumi; Ito, Sachie; Shomura, Ayahiko; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Hirasawa, Tadashi; Yano, Masahiro; Kondo, Motohiko; Yamamoto, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Improvement of leaf photosynthesis is an important strategy for greater crop productivity. Here we show that the quantitative trait locus GPS (GREEN FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) controls photosynthesis rate by regulating carboxylation efficiency. Map-based cloning revealed that GPS is identical to NAL1 (NARROW LEAF1), a gene previously reported to control lateral leaf growth. The high-photosynthesis allele of GPS was found to be a partial loss-of-function allele of NAL1. This allele increased mesophyll cell number between vascular bundles, which led to thickened leaves, and it pleiotropically enhanced photosynthesis rate without the detrimental side effects observed in previously identified nal1 mutants, such as dwarf plant stature. Furthermore, pedigree analysis suggested that rice breeders have repeatedly selected the high-photosynthesis allele in high-yield breeding programs. The identification and utilization of NAL1 (GPS) can enhance future high-yield breeding and provides a new strategy for increasing rice productivity.

  13. Technology use among Ghanaian Senior High School mathematics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings revealed that the extent to which SHS mathematics teachers use technology in teaching was very low. The Independent samples t-test revealed that the male mathematics teachers use more technology (Mean = 2.65, SD = 1.12) than the female teachers (Mean = 1.51, SD =0.47) and teachers with high ...

  14. Hybrid orientation technology and strain engineering for ultra-high ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hybrid orientation technology and strain engineering for ultra-high speed MOSFETs. T K MAITI and C K MAITI. ∗. Department of Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology,. Kharagpur 721 302, India. MS received 27 March 2012. Abstract. We report here RF MOSFET performance ...

  15. A new, simple, high-yield synthesis of 'no-carrier-added' 11C-labelled DMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diksic, M.; McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a fast (20 min), convenient and high yield synthesis of ''no-carrier-added'' 11 C-labelled 5,5-dimethyloxazoladine-2,4-dione (DMO). During the synthesis [ 11 C]phosgene is reacted in situ with 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropionamide in the presence of KOH for 20 min in a -5 0 C bath and then for 5 min at room temperature. Filtration through a reverse-phase (C 18 ) Sep-Pack column purifies the final product. This synthesis yields about 40 mCi of 11 C-labelled DMO (radiochemical yield 40-60%) with a chemical purity exceeding 98% and a radiochemical purity exceeding 99%. The specific activity at the end of the synthesis is 80 Ci/mmol. (author)

  16. Vineyard Yield Estimation Based on the Analysis of High Resolution Images Obtained with Artificial Illumination at Night

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davinia Font

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for vineyard yield estimation based on the analysis of high-resolution images obtained with artificial illumination at night. First, this paper assesses different pixel-based segmentation methods in order to detect reddish grapes: threshold based, Mahalanobis distance, Bayesian classifier, linear color model segmentation and histogram segmentation, in order to obtain the best estimation of the area of the clusters of grapes in this illumination conditions. The color spaces tested were the original RGB and the Hue-Saturation-Value (HSV. The best segmentation method in the case of a non-occluded reddish table-grape variety was the threshold segmentation applied to the H layer, with an estimation error in the area of 13.55%, improved up to 10.01% by morphological filtering. Secondly, after segmentation, two procedures for yield estimation based on a previous calibration procedure have been proposed: (1 the number of pixels corresponding to a cluster of grapes is computed and converted directly into a yield estimate; and (2 the area of a cluster of grapes is converted into a volume by means of a solid of revolution, and this volume is converted into a yield estimate; the yield errors obtained were 16% and −17%, respectively.

  17. Vineyard Yield Estimation Based on the Analysis of High Resolution Images Obtained with Artificial Illumination at Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Davinia; Tresanchez, Marcel; Martínez, Dani; Moreno, Javier; Clotet, Eduard; Palacín, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method for vineyard yield estimation based on the analysis of high-resolution images obtained with artificial illumination at night. First, this paper assesses different pixel-based segmentation methods in order to detect reddish grapes: threshold based, Mahalanobis distance, Bayesian classifier, linear color model segmentation and histogram segmentation, in order to obtain the best estimation of the area of the clusters of grapes in this illumination conditions. The color spaces tested were the original RGB and the Hue-Saturation-Value (HSV). The best segmentation method in the case of a non-occluded reddish table-grape variety was the threshold segmentation applied to the H layer, with an estimation error in the area of 13.55%, improved up to 10.01% by morphological filtering. Secondly, after segmentation, two procedures for yield estimation based on a previous calibration procedure have been proposed: (1) the number of pixels corresponding to a cluster of grapes is computed and converted directly into a yield estimate; and (2) the area of a cluster of grapes is converted into a volume by means of a solid of revolution, and this volume is converted into a yield estimate; the yield errors obtained were 16% and −17%, respectively. PMID:25860071

  18. High Temperature Particle Filtration Technology; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besmann, T.M.

    2001-01-01

    High temperature filtration can serve to improve the economic, environmental, and energy performance of chemical processes. This project was designed to evaluate the stability of filtration materials in the environments of the production of dimethyldichlorosilane (DDS). In cooperation with Dow Corning, chemical environments for the fluidized bed reactor where silicon is converted to DDS and the incinerator where vents are cornbusted were characterized. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) an exposure system was developed that could simulate these two environments. Filter samples obtained from third parties were exposed to the environments for periods up to 1000 hours. Mechanical properties before and after exposure were determined by burst-testing rings of filter material. The results indicated that several types of filter materials would likely perform well in the fluid bed environment, and two materials would be good candidates for the incinerator environment

  19. High performance nano-composite technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Whung Whoe; Rhee, C. K.; Kim, S. J.; Park, S. D. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, E. K.; Jung, S. Y.; Ryu, H. J. [KRICT, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, S. S.; Kim, J. K.; Hong, S. M. [KIST, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chea, Y. B. [KIGAM, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, C. H.; Kim, S. D. [ATS, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, B. G.; Lee, S. H. [HGREC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-15

    The trend of new material development are being to carried out not only high performance but also environmental attraction. Especially nano composite material which enhances the functional properties of components, extending the component life resulting to reduced the wastes and environmental contamination, has a great effect on various industrial area. The application of nano composite, depends on the polymer matrix and filler materials, has various application from semiconductor to medical field. In spite of nano composite merits, nano composite study are confined to a few special materials as a lab, scale because a few technical difficulties are still on hold. Therefore, the purpose of this study establishes the systematical planning to carried out the next generation projects on order to compete with other countries and overcome the protective policy of advanced countries with grasping over sea's development trends and our present status. (author).

  20. Materials for high vacuum technology, an overview

    CERN Document Server

    Sgobba, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    In modern accelerators stringent requirements are placed on materials of vacuum systems. Their physical and mechanical properties, machinability, weldability or brazeability are key parameters. Adequate strength, ductility, magnetic properties at room as well as low temperatures are important factors for vacuum systems of accelerators working at cryogenic temperatures, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under construction at CERN. In addition, baking or activation of Non-Evaporable Getters (NEG) at high temperatures impose specific choices of material grades of suitable tensile and creep properties in a large temperature range. Today, stainless steels are the dominant materials of vacuum constructions. Their metallurgy is extensively treated. The reasons for specific requirements in terms of metallurgical processes are detailed, in view of obtaining adequate purity, inclusion cleanliness, and fineness of the microstructure. In many cases these requirements are crucial to guarantee the final leak tightnes...

  1. High performance nano-composite technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Whung Whoe; Rhee, C. K.; Kim, S. J.; Park, S. D.; Kim, E. K.; Jung, S. Y.; Ryu, H. J.; Hwang, S. S.; Kim, J. K.; Hong, S. M.; Chea, Y. B.; Choi, C. H.; Kim, S. D.; Cho, B. G.; Lee, S. H.

    1999-06-01

    The trend of new material development are being to carried out not only high performance but also environmental attraction. Especially nano composite material which enhances the functional properties of components, extending the component life resulting to reduced the wastes and environmental contamination, has a great effect on various industrial area. The application of nano composite, depends on the polymer matrix and filler materials, has various application from semiconductor to medical field. In spite of nano composite merits, nano composite study are confined to a few special materials as a lab, scale because a few technical difficulties are still on hold. Therefore, the purpose of this study establishes the systematical planning to carried out the next generation projects on order to compete with other countries and overcome the protective policy of advanced countries with grasping over sea's development trends and our present status. (author).

  2. High-yield production of biodiesel by non-catalytic supercritical methanol transesterification of crude castor oil (Ricinus communis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Román-Figueroa, Celián; Olivares-Carrillo, Pilar; Paneque, Manuel; Palacios-Nereo, Francisco Javier; Quesada-Medina, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of biodiesel from crude castor oil in a catalyst-free process using supercritical methanol in a batch reactor was investigated, studying the evolution of intermediate products as well as the conversion of triglycerides and the yield of FAMEs (fatty acid methyl esters) (biodiesel). Experiments were carried out in a temperature range of 250–350 °C (10–43 MPa) at reaction times of 15–90 min for a methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 43:1. Maintaining thermal stability of biodiesel is one of the most important concerns in high-yield supercritical biodiesel production. Hence, thermal decomposition degree of FAMEs was also investigated in different reaction conditions. The maximum yield of FAMEs (96.5%) was obtained at 300 °C (21 MPa) and 90 min. Under these conditions, the conversion of triglycerides was complete, the yield of intermediate products was low (3.29 and 1.41% for monoglycerides and diglycerides, respectively), and thermal decomposition of FAMEs did not occur. The maximum degree of thermal decomposition (80.9%) was produced at 350 °C (43 MPa) and 90 min. Methyl ricinoleate, whose fatty acid chain was the most abundant (88.09 mol%) in castor oil, was very unstable above 300 °C and 60 min, leading to low yields of FAMEs under these conditions. - Highlights: • Supercritical synthesis of biodiesel from crude castor oil was investigated. • Supercritical methanolysis of crude castor oil reached a high yield of FAMEs. • Ricinoleic acid methyl ester was very unstable above 300 °C and 60 min reaction.

  3. Mature Hybrid Poplar Riparian Buffers along Farm Streams Produce High Yields in Response to Soil Fertility Assessed Using Three Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    France Lambert

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study had three main objectives: (1 to evaluate the aboveground biomass and volume yield of three unrelated hybrid poplar clones in 9 year-old riparian buffer strips located on four farms of southern Québec, Canada; (2 to compare yield data at 9 years with previous data (at 6 years; (3 to evaluate how soil fertility, measured using three different soil testing methods (soil nutrient stocks, soil nutrient concentrations, soil nutrient supply rates, is related to yield. Across the four sites, hybrid poplar productivity after 9 years ranged from 116 to 450 m3ha−1, for stem wood volume, and from 51 to 193 megagrams per hectare (Mg ha−1, for woody dry biomass. High volume and woody dry biomass yields (26.3 to 49.9 m3ha−1yr-1, and 11.4 to 21.4 Mg ha−1yr-1 were observed at the three most productive sites. From year 6 to 9, relatively high yield increases (8.9−15.1 m3ha−1yr−1 were observed at all sites, but the productivity gap between the less fertile site and the three other sites was widened. Clone MxB-915311 was the most productive across the four sites, while clone DxN-3570 was the least productive. However, at the most productive site, clone MxB-915311 experienced severe stem and branch breakages. Independently of the soil testing method used, available soil P was always the first soil factor explaining volume yield.

  4. Evolution of high yielding chickpea varieties, having improved plant type and disease resistance, through induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq, M.; Hussan, M.; Haq, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The breeding programme on the use of induced mutations, in chickpea for genetic variability for better plant type, grain yield and disease resistance has been started. The chickpea mutant variety is one of the leading varieties being extensively grown throughout Pakistan and has played its role in stabilizing the chickpea production in the country. Four chickpea varieties were treated, each with two dosed of gamma rays. The main purpose of the mutagenic treatment of these varieties/cultivars, was induce multiple resistance. (A.B.)

  5. Sliver Solar Cells: High-Efficiency, Low-Cost PV Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Franklin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sliver cells are thin, single-crystal silicon solar cells fabricated using standard fabrication technology. Sliver modules, composed of several thousand individual Sliver cells, can be efficient, low-cost, bifacial, transparent, flexible, shadow tolerant, and lightweight. Compared with current PV technology, mature Sliver technology will need 10% of the pure silicon and fewer than 5% of the wafer starts per MW of factory output. This paper deals with two distinct challenges related to Sliver cell and Sliver module production: providing a mature and robust Sliver cell fabrication method which produces a high yield of highly efficient Sliver cells, and which is suitable for transfer to industry; and, handling, electrically interconnecting, and encapsulating billions of sliver cells at low cost. Sliver cells with efficiencies of 20% have been fabricated at ANU using a reliable, optimised processing sequence, while low-cost encapsulation methods have been demonstrated using a submodule technique.

  6. Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology 1985: High Efficiency, Space Environment, and Array Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The seventh NASA Conference on Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology was held at NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, from 30 April until 2 May 1985. Its purpose was to assess the progress made, the problems remaining, and future strategy for space photovoltaic research. Particular emphasis was placed on high efficiency, space environment, and array technology.

  7. The High Technology Industry and Education in Canada. New Technologies in Canadian Education Series. Paper 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Judith

    This paper reports the results of a survey of a number of high technology companies in Canada who were asked to provide information about their relationship with the educational system, the application of their products in education, and their views on the implications for education in general of the new technology in information and…

  8. Technology Knowledge: High School Science Teachers' Conceptions of the Nature of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waight, Noemi

    2014-01-01

    In-depth interviews guided by video elicitations examined 30 high school science teachers' conceptions of technology and by extension how these conceptions reflected dimensions of nature of technology. Altogether, 64% of the teachers characterized their schools and departments as aggressive-moderate adopters with generous access and support…

  9. Physiological characteristics of high yield under cluster planting: photosynthesis and canopy microclimate of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-ting Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton produces more biomass and economic yield when cluster planting pattern (three plants per hole than in a traditional planting pattern (one plant per hole, even at similar plant densities, indicating that individual plant growth is promoted by cluster planting. The causal factors for this improved growth induced by cluster planting pattern, the light interception, canopy microclimate and photosynthetic rate of cotton were investigated in an arid region of China. The results indicated that the leaf area index and light interception were higher in cluster planting, and significantly different from those in traditional planting during the middle and late growth stages. Cotton canopy humidity at different growth stages was increased but canopy temperatures were reduced by cluster planting. In the later growth stage of cluster planting, the leaf chlorophyll content was higher and the leaf net photosynthetic rate and canopy photosynthetic rate were significantly increased in comparing with traditional planting pattern. We concluded that differences in canopy light interception and photosynthetic rate were the primary factors responsible for increased biomass production and economic yield in cluster planting compared with the traditional planting of cotton.

  10. Crop rotation in the Valle Calido del Alto Magdalena a sustainable focus of high yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro Rodriguez, Ricardo; Maria Caicedo, Antonio; Amezquita Collazos, Edgar; Castro Franco, Hugo Eduardo

    1996-01-01

    Experiments were carried out during five years at the Nataima Research Center, located at 431 m.a.s.l, with average temperature of 28 Celsius degrades and annual rainfall of 1274 Boyaca mm, on a soil classified as Arenic Haplustalf, to evaluate different crops rotation based on rice and sorghum; the combinations used were as follows; rice-rice (R-R), rice-- soybean (R-SY), rice-crotalaria-sorghum (R-C-S), sorghum-sorghum (S-S), sorghum-soybean (S-SY) and cotton-sorghum (Al-S). Simultaneously it was evaluated the response to four nitrogen levels, which allowed to find out yield functions and optimum economical. The rotations S-SY, R-SY and AI-S have been the best qualified from an environmental perspective. Sorghum-soybean rotation presents increases in yield compared with expected values, which allows thinking that it is a truly sustainable rotation. This rotation also had an excellent profitability and for that reason is considered the best option within the goals of this work

  11. High-yield recombinant expression and purification of marginally soluble, short elastin-like polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahniuk, Markian S; Alshememry, Abdullah K; Unsworth, Larry D

    2016-12-01

    The protocol described here is designed as an extension of existing techniques for creating elastin-like polypeptides. It allows for the expression and purification of elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) constructs that are poorly expressed or have very low transition temperatures. DNA concatemerization has been modified to reduce issues caused by methylation sensitivity and inefficient cloning. Linearization of the modified expression vector has been altered to greatly increase cleavage efficiency. The purification regimen is based upon using denaturing metal affinity chromatography to fully solubilize and, if necessary, pre-concentrate the target peptide before purification by inverse temperature cycling (ITC). This protocol has been used to express multiple leucine-containing elastin-like polypeptides, with final yields of 250-660 mg per liter of cells, depending on the specific construct. This was considerably greater than previously reported yields for similar ELPs. Due to the relative hydrophobicity of the tested constructs, even compared with commonly employed ELPs, conventional methods would not have been able to be purify these peptides.

  12. Progress in advanced high temperature turbine materials, coatings, and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freche, J. C.; Ault, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    Advanced materials, coatings, and cooling technology is assessed in terms of improved aircraft turbine engine performance. High cycle operating temperatures, lighter structural components, and adequate resistance to the various environmental factors associated with aircraft gas turbine engines are among the factors considered. Emphasis is placed on progress in development of high temperature materials for coating protection against oxidation, hot corrosion and erosion, and in turbine cooling technology. Specific topics discussed include metal matrix composites, superalloys, directionally solidified eutectics, and ceramics.

  13. Managing quality inside a high-technology project organization

    OpenAIRE

    Jokinen, T. (Tauno)

    2004-01-01

    Abstract This action research addresses the deployment of Total Quality Management (TQM) principles in a high-technology new product development organisation. During the period of study, the organisation grew fast. High-technology product development and hypergrowth provided a unique combination of extreme conditions for the study. The existing concepts of TQM are presented as an organised map enabling strategic analysis for an implementation plan. The history of TQM dates back to the ...

  14. Microbial fuel cell coupled to biohydrogen reactor: a feasible technology to increase energy yield from cheese whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, J; Fuentes, L; Cabezas, A; Etchebehere, C

    2017-06-01

    An important pollutant produced during the cheese making process is cheese whey which is a liquid by-product with high content of organic matter, composed mainly by lactose and proteins. Hydrogen can be produced from cheese whey by dark fermentation but, organic matter is not completely removed producing an effluent rich in volatile fatty acids. Here we demonstrate that this effluent can be further used to produce energy in microbial fuel cells. Moreover, current production was not feasible when using raw cheese whey directly to feed the microbial fuel cell. A maximal power density of 439 mW/m 2 was obtained from the reactor effluent which was 1000 times more than when using raw cheese whey as substrate. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing showed that potential electroactive populations (Geobacter, Pseudomonas and Thauera) were enriched on anodes of MFCs fed with reactor effluent while fermentative populations (Clostridium and Lactobacillus) were predominant on the MFC anode fed directly with raw cheese whey. This result was further demonstrated using culture techniques. A total of 45 strains were isolated belonging to 10 different genera including known electrogenic populations like Geobacter (in MFC with reactor effluent) and known fermentative populations like Lactobacillus (in MFC with cheese whey). Our results show that microbial fuel cells are an attractive technology to gain extra energy from cheese whey as a second stage process during raw cheese whey treatment by dark fermentation process.

  15. Transcriptome Analysis Suggests That Starch Synthesis May Proceed via Multiple Metabolic Routes in High Yielding Potato Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Kacper Piotr; Petersen, Annabeth Høgh; Sønderkær, Mads; Pedersen, Lars Haastrup; Pedersen, Henrik; Feder, Christian; Nielsen, Kåre L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Glucose-6-phosphate is imported into the amyloplast of potato tubers and thought to constitute the precursor for starch synthesis in potato tubers. However, recently it was shown that glucose-1-phosphate can also be imported into the amyloplast and incorporated into starch via an ATP independent mechanism under special conditions. Nonetheless, glucose-6-phosphate is believed to be the quantitatively important precursor for starch synthesis in potato. Principal Finding Potato tubers of the high yielding cv Kuras had low gene expression of plastidial phophoglucomutase (PGM) and normal levels of transcripts for other enzymes involved in starch metabolism in comparison with medium and low yielding cultivars as determined by DeepSAGE transcriptome profiling. The decrease in PGM activity in Kuras was confirmed by measuring the enzyme activity from potato tuber extracts. Contrary to expectations, this combination lead to a higher level of intracellular glucose-1-phosphate (G1P) in Kuras suggesting that G1P is directly imported into plastids and can be quantitatively important for starch synthesis under normal conditions in high yielding cultivars. Significance This could open entirely new possibilities for metabolic engineering of the starch metabolism in potato via the so far uncharacterized G1P transporter. The perspectives are to increase yield and space efficiency of this important crop. In the light of the increasing demands imposed on agriculture to support a growing global population this presents an exciting new possibility. PMID:23284672

  16. An intrinsically safe facility for forefront research and training on nuclear technologies —Neutron yield from Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipenko, M.; Ripani, M.; Ricco, G.; Celentano, A.; Viberti, C. M.; Alba, R.; Schillaci, M.; Cosentino, G.; Del Zoppo, A.; Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; Finocchiaro, P.; Maiolino, C.; Santonocito, D.; Barbagallo, M.; Colonna, N.; Boccaccio, P.; Esposito, J.; Kostyukov, A.

    2014-04-01

    We describe a dedicated experiment to measure the neutron yield produced by a 62MeV proton beam impinging on a beryllium thick target. The energy was chosen as close as possible to the 70MeV considered for the ADS layout described in this Focus Point. The neutron yield and energy spectra were measured at several angles with respect to the beam direction. The experiment was performed at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud in Catania, Italy, using the proton beam delivered by the Superconducting Cyclotron (CS).

  17. Optimizing hill seeding density for high-yielding hybrid rice in a single rice cropping system in South China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danying Wang

    Full Text Available Mechanical hill direct seeding of hybrid rice could be the way to solve the problems of high seeding rates and uneven plant establishment now faced in direct seeded rice; however, it is not clear what the optimum hill seeding density should be for high-yielding hybrid rice in the single-season rice production system. Experiments were conducted in 2010 and 2011 to determine the effects of hill seeding density (25 cm×15 cm, 25 cm×17 cm, 25 cm×19 cm, 25 cm×21 cm, and 25 cm×23 cm; three to five seeds per hill on plant growth and grain yield of a hybrid variety, Nei2you6, in two fields with different fertility (soil fertility 1 and 2. In addition, in 2012 and 2013, comparisons among mechanical hill seeding, broadcasting, and transplanting were conducted with three hybrid varieties to evaluate the optimum seeding density. With increases in seeding spacing from 25 cm×15 cm to 25 cm×23 cm, productive tillers per hill increased by 34.2% and 50.0% in soil fertility 1 and 2. Panicles per m2 declined with increases in seeding spacing in soil fertility 1. In soil fertility 2, no difference in panicles per m2 was found at spacing ranging from 25 cm×17 cm to 25 cm×23 cm, while decreases in the area of the top three leaves and aboveground dry weight per shoot at flowering were observed. Grain yield was the maximum at 25 cm×17 cm spacing in both soil fertility fields. Our results suggest that a seeding density of 25 cm×17 cm was suitable for high-yielding hybrid rice. These results were verified through on-farm demonstration experiments, in which mechanical hill-seeded rice at this density had equal or higher grain yield than transplanted rice.

  18. High-yield hydrogen production from biomass by in vitro metabolic engineering: Mixed sugars coutilization and kinetic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Joseph A.; Martin del Campo, Julia; Myung, Suwan; Sun, Fangfang; You, Chun; Bakovic, Allison; Castro, Roberto; Chandrayan, Sanjeev K.; Wu, Chang-Hao; Adams, Michael W. W.; Senger, Ryan S.; Zhang, Y.-H. Percival

    2015-01-01

    The use of hydrogen (H2) as a fuel offers enhanced energy conversion efficiency and tremendous potential to decrease greenhouse gas emissions, but producing it in a distributed, carbon-neutral, low-cost manner requires new technologies. Herein we demonstrate the complete conversion of glucose and xylose from plant biomass to H2 and CO2 based on an in vitro synthetic enzymatic pathway. Glucose and xylose were simultaneously converted to H2 with a yield of two H2 per carbon, the maximum possible yield. Parameters of a nonlinear kinetic model were fitted with experimental data using a genetic algorithm, and a global sensitivity analysis was used to identify the enzymes that have the greatest impact on reaction rate and yield. After optimizing enzyme loadings using this model, volumetric H2 productivity was increased 3-fold to 32 mmol H2⋅L−1⋅h−1. The productivity was further enhanced to 54 mmol H2⋅L−1⋅h−1 by increasing reaction temperature, substrate, and enzyme concentrations—an increase of 67-fold compared with the initial studies using this method. The production of hydrogen from locally produced biomass is a promising means to achieve global green energy production. PMID:25848015

  19. Strategic alliances and product development in high technology new firms: The moderating effect of technological capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haeussler, C.; Patzelt, H.; Zahra, Shaker

    2012-01-01

    High technology new firms have extensively used strategic alliances to gain access to knowledge, resources and capabilities. However, given their inexperience and limited resources, these firms are vulnerable to their more established partners' potential opportunism. This raises the question: How

  20. Use of Nonspecific, Glutamic Acid-Free, Media and High Glycerol or High Amylase as Inducing Parameters for Screening Bacillus Isolates Having High Yield of Polyglutamic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxi, Nandita N

    2014-01-01

    Out of fifty-five Bacillus isolates obtained from ten different regional locations and sources, seven showed the ability to consistently produce specific extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) on rich as well as synthetic but nonspecific media which did not contain glutamic acid. The isolates were identified as either Bacillus licheniformis or Bacillus subtilis. The EPS from all isolates was resistant to alpha protease, proteinase K, and was thus of high molecular weight. Further it was detected after SDS-PAGE by methylene blue but not by coomassie blue R staining as in case of proteins with high proportion of acidic amino acids. Cell-free EPS, after acid hydrolysis, showed absence of carbohydrates and presence of only glutamic acid. Thus the native the EPS from all seven isolates was confirmed to be gamma polyglutamic acid (PGA) and not exopolysaccharide. The Bacillus isolate T which produced maximum polymer on all media tested had higher amylase: protease activity as compared to other strains. If inoculum was developed in rich medium as compared to synthetic medium, the PGA produced increased by twofold in the subsequent synthetic production medium. Similarly, use of inoculum consisting of young and vegetative cells also increased the PGA production by twofold though amount of inoculum did not affect yield of PGA. Though PGA was produced in even in the absence of glutamic acid supplementation in the production medium by all isolates, the yield of PGA increased by fourfold in the presence glutamic acid and the maximum yield was 30 g/l for isolate K. The supplementation of glutamine instead of glutamic acid into the medium caused an increase in the viscosity of the non-Newtonian solution of PGA.

  1. Highly productive forage legume stands show no positive biodiversity effect on yield and N2-fixation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhamala, Nawa Raj; Eriksen, Jørgen; Carlsson, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims While N fixation in diversified grasslands including forage legumes and non-legumes has been widely studied, N fixation in swards containing only forage legumes remains unclear. In this study, we investigated N fixation in pure stands and mixtures of three forage legumes....... Methodology N fixation, dry matter (DM) and nitrogen (N) yields were quantified in a field experiment for red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) pure stands and mixtures using the isotope dilution method. Results All three forage legume species...... derived most (around 85%) of their N from atmospheric N fixation (%Ndfa). However, no positive effect of species diversity was found in any of the mixtures. Species composition of the forage legume mixtures affected the amount of N from N fixation by affecting DM production and N accumulation...

  2. High-yielding cascade enzymatic synthesis of 5-methyluridine using a novel combination of nucleoside phosphorylases

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Visser, Daniel F

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available -O-acetyl-D- ribofuranosyl chloride in toluene, and subsequent deactylation using methanolic hydrogen chloride gave low product yields (5 - 25%), while an alternative coupling protocol using tri-O-benzoyl-D-ribosyl halide (chloride or bromide) and dithyminylmercury... ml scale using defined growth media (K2HPO4, 14.6 g.l-1; (NH4)2SO4 2 g.l-1; Na2HPO4, 3.6 g.l-1; Citric Acid, 2.5 g.l-1; MgSO4, 0.25 g.l-1; NH4NO3, 5 g.l-1; yeast extract, 10 g.l-1; glucose 30 g.l-1 and ampicillin, 100 µg.ml- 1). An overnight...

  3. EMS induced dwarf and high yielding mutant in yam bean (Pachyrrhizus erosus Linn.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, G.; Abraham, Susan

    1990-01-01

    The species Pachyrrhizus erosus Linn., commonly known as yam bean, is cultivated in many countries for its edible underground tubers. The young tubers can be eaten raw, cooked, or can be sliced and made into chips. As genetic variability is limited in this species, a mutation breeding programme, using physical and chemical mutagens, was initiated to induce variability in a locally adapted cultivar. Genetically pure seeds were treated with concentrations of EMS ranging from 0.25 to 2%. Evaluation of M 2 raised from 1.25% treatment revealed a dwarf mutant showing a higher yield than the control. This mutant attained a height of 20 cm only in M 3 as against 82 cm in the controls. Though the starch content of the tuber and rotenone content in the seeds were the same as that in the control, protein content was slightly higher and the sugar content slightly less

  4. Induced mutagenesis for the development of high yielding varieties in mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, M.L.; Rahman, A.

    1988-01-01

    Variation for resistance to Alternaria brassicae (Berk.) Sacc. was induced in the oleiferous Brassica campestris cultivar yellow sarson, 'YS 52' using gamma rays. Variations were identified and isolated from the M 2 population. Screening in the subsequent generations (M 3 -M 4 ) confirmed the varying degrees of field resistance of the mutants. A total of 8 mutants of mustard developed by gamma irradiation was compared with the parental line and a released variety 'Sampad' as a check. Maximum plant height, highest number of pods and primary branches/plant were recorded in mutant '17-5-83'. The mutants '17-5-83' and '70-7-82' gave 45 and 21 per cent more grain yield respectively than the parent cultivar 'YS 52'. The mutant '17-5-83' appeared resistant while the mutants '70-7-82' and '53-11-82' were found to be moderately resistant against the disease. (author). 6 refs., 2 tables

  5. A Capping Step During Automated Glycan Assembly Enables Access to Complex Glycans in High Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Kononov, Andrew; Delbianco, Martina; Seeberger, Peter H

    2018-04-20

    The products of multi-step automated solid phase syntheses are purified after release from the resin. Capping of unreacted nucleophiles is commonplace in automated oligonucleotide synthesis to minimize accumulation of deletion sequences. To date, capping was not used routinely during automated glycan assembly (AGA) since previous capping protocols suffered from long reaction times and conditions incompatible with some protective groups. Here, a method using methanesulfonic acid and acetic anhydride for the fast and quantitative capping of hydroxyl groups that failed to be glycosylated is reported. Commonly used protective groups in AGA are stable under these capping conditions. The introduction of a capping step into the coupling cycle drastically improved overall yields by decreasing side-products and simplifying purification, while reducing building block consumption. To illustrate the method, the biologically important tetrasaccharide Lc4, as well as a 50-mer polymannoside were prepared. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. High-Yielding Green Hydrothermal Synthesis of Ruthenium Nanoparticles and Their Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikhtiarenko, Alla; Khainakov, Sergei A; Khaynakova, Olena; García, José R; Gimeno, José

    2016-06-01

    Using hydrothermal techniques, a novel synthetic approach to prepare ruthenium nanoparticles has been developed. At 180 degrees C and under autogenous pressure, starting from an aqueous solution of ruthenium trichloride, the method yielded nanoparticles whose form and size both depended on the reducing agent: sodium citrate (hexagonal shaped nanocrystals, 1-20 nm), ascorbic acid (spherical nanoparticles, 3-5 nm) and succinic acid (spherical nanoparticles, 1-120 nm). Depending on the reaction variables, the nature and concentration of partially reduced species determines the characteristics of the final products. HRTEM image analysis along with the simulation techniques were stabilized preferential growth of nanoparticles on specific directions. Ruthenium samples have been investigated by Temperature-Programmed Reduction (TPR) showing that the reduction temperature of nanoparticles is correlated to their nanocrystalline size.

  7. Use of Niobium High Strength Steels with 450 MPA Yield Strength for Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Leonardo; Langenberg, Peter; Amaral, Thiago; Carboni, Marcelo; Meira, Marcos; Jordão, Alexandre

    This paper presents an actual case of a new industrial building at CBMM's plant in Araxá, Brazil as an example of lean design using microalloyed steels. The structure consists mostly of microalloyed ASTM A572 steel grades 65 and 50 instead of the conventional carbon manganese ASTM A36 steel. The application of grade 65 with more than 450 MPa of yield strength is an innovative solution for this type of construction in South America. A complete welding evaluation performed on the low carbon, niobium microalloyed grade 65 steel showed the welding properties and benefits. Niobium's effect of increasing strength and toughness simultaneously resulted in relevant savings in total steel consumption for the project. The paper also quantifies the expected savings in costs, energy and carbon dioxide emissions.

  8. New Pulsed Power Technology for High Current Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporaso, G J

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in solid-state modulators now permit the design of a new class of high current accelerators. These new accelerators will be able to operate in burst mode at frequencies of several MHz with unprecedented flexibility and precision in pulse format. These new modulators can drive accelerators to high average powers that far exceed those of any other technology and can be used to enable precision beam manipulations. New insulator technology combined with novel pulse forming lines and switching may enable the construction of a new type of high gradient, high current accelerator. Recent developments in these areas will be reviewed

  9. Development of high-level radioactive waste treatment and conversion technologies 'Dry decontamination technology development for highly radioactive contaminants'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Lee, K. W.; Won, H. J.; Jung, C. J.; Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. N.; Moon, J. K.

    2001-04-01

    The followings were studied through the project entitled 'Dry Decontamination Technology Development for Highly Radioactive Contaminants'. 1.Contaminant Characteristics Analysis of Domestic Nuclear Fuel Cycle Projects(NFCP) and Applicability Study of the Unit Dry-Decontamination Techniques A. Classification of contaminated equipments and characteristics analysis of contaminants B. Applicability study of the unit dry-decontamination techniques 2.Performance Evaluation of Unit Dry Decontamination Technique A. PFC decontamination technique B. CO2 decontamination technique C. Plasma decontamination technique 3.Development of Residual Radiation Assessment Methodology for High Radioactive Facility Decontamination A. Development of radioactive nuclide diffusion model on highly radioactive facility structure B. Obtainment of the procedure for assessment of residual radiation dose 4.Establishment of the Design Concept of Dry Decontamination Process Equipment Applicable to Highly Radioactive Contaminants 5.TRIGA soil unit decontamination technology development A. Development of soil washing and flushing technologies B. Development of electrokinetic soil decontamination technology

  10. Supportability of a High-Yield-Stress Slurry in a New Stereolithography-Based Ceramic Fabrication Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li; Song, Xuan

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, ceramic fabrication using stereolithography (SLA) has gained in popularity because of its high accuracy and density that can be achieved in the final part of production. One of the key challenges in ceramic SLA is that support structures are required for building overhanging features, whereas removing these support structures without damaging the components is difficult. In this research, a suspension-enclosing projection-stereolithography process is developed to overcome this challenge. This process uses a high-yield-stress ceramic slurry as the feedstock material and exploits the elastic force of the material to support overhanging features without the need for building additional support structures. Ceramic slurries with different solid loadings are studied to identify the rheological properties most suitable for supporting overhanging features. An analytical model of a double doctor-blade module is established to obtain uniform and thin recoating layers from a high-yield-stress slurry. Several test cases highlight the feasibility of using a high-yield-stress slurry to support overhanging features in SLA.

  11. Development and characterization of a high yield transportable pulsed neutron source with efficient and compact pulsed power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rishi; Mishra, Ekansh; Dhang, Prosenjit; Sagar, Karuna; Meena, Manraj; Shyam, Anurag

    2016-09-01

    The results of characterization experiments carried out on a newly developed dense plasma focus device based intense pulsed neutron source with efficient and compact pulsed power system are reported. Its high current sealed pseudospark switch based low inductance capacitor bank with maximum stored energy of ˜10 kJ is segregated into four modules of ˜2.5 kJ each and it cumulatively delivers peak current in the range of 400 kA-600 kA (corresponding to charging voltage range of 14 kV-18 kV) in a quarter time period of ˜2 μs. The neutron yield performance of this device has been optimized by discretely varying deuterium filling gas pressure in the range of 6 mbar-11 mbar at ˜17 kV/550 kA discharge. At ˜7 kJ/8.5 mbar operation, the average neutron yield has been measured to be in the order of ˜4 × 109 neutrons/pulse which is the highest ever reported neutron yield from a plasma focus device with the same stored energy. The average forward to radial anisotropy in neutron yield is found to be ˜2. The entire system is contained on a moveable trolley having dimensions 1.5 m × 1 m × 0.7 m and its operation and control (up to the distance of 25 m) are facilitated through optically isolated handheld remote console. The overall compactness of this system provides minimum proximity to small as well as large samples for irradiation. The major intended application objective of this high neutron yield dense plasma focus device development is to explore the feasibility of active neutron interrogation experiments by utilization of intense pulsed neutron sources.

  12. Development and characterization of a high yield transportable pulsed neutron source with efficient and compact pulsed power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Rishi, E-mail: rishiv9@gmail.com, E-mail: rishiv@barc.gov.in; Mishra, Ekansh; Dhang, Prosenjit; Sagar, Karuna; Meena, Manraj; Shyam, Anurag [Energetics and Electromagnetics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Autonagar, Vishakapatnam 530012 (India)

    2016-09-15

    The results of characterization experiments carried out on a newly developed dense plasma focus device based intense pulsed neutron source with efficient and compact pulsed power system are reported. Its high current sealed pseudospark switch based low inductance capacitor bank with maximum stored energy of ∼10 kJ is segregated into four modules of ∼2.5 kJ each and it cumulatively delivers peak current in the range of 400 kA–600 kA (corresponding to charging voltage range of 14 kV–18 kV) in a quarter time period of ∼2 μs. The neutron yield performance of this device has been optimized by discretely varying deuterium filling gas pressure in the range of 6 mbar–11 mbar at ∼17 kV/550 kA discharge. At ∼7 kJ/8.5 mbar operation, the average neutron yield has been measured to be in the order of ∼4 × 10{sup 9} neutrons/pulse which is the highest ever reported neutron yield from a plasma focus device with the same stored energy. The average forward to radial anisotropy in neutron yield is found to be ∼2. The entire system is contained on a moveable trolley having dimensions 1.5 m × 1 m × 0.7 m and its operation and control (up to the distance of 25 m) are facilitated through optically isolated handheld remote console. The overall compactness of this system provides minimum proximity to small as well as large samples for irradiation. The major intended application objective of this high neutron yield dense plasma focus device development is to explore the feasibility of active neutron interrogation experiments by utilization of intense pulsed neutron sources.

  13. Ultrastable green fluorescence carbon dots with a high quantum yield for bioimaging and use as theranostic carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Chuanxu; Thomsen, Rasmus Peter; Ogaki, Ryosuke

    2015-01-01

    to widely used semiconductor quantum dots. However, it remains a great challenge to prepare highly stable, water-soluble green luminescent Cdots with a high quantum yield. Herein we report a new synthesis route for green luminescent Cdots imbuing these desirable properties and demonstrate their potential......Carbon dots (Cdots) have recently emerged as a novel platform of fluorescent nanomaterials. These carbon nanoparticles have great potential in biomedical applications such as bioimaging as they exhibit excellent photoluminescence properties, chemical inertness and low cytotoxicity in comparison...... in biomedical applications. Oligoethylenimine (OEI)–β-cyclodextrin (βCD) Cdots were synthesised using a simple and fast heating method in phosphoric acid. The synthesised Cdots showed strong green fluorescence under UV excitation with a 30% quantum yield and exhibited superior stability over a wide pH range. We...

  14. High Yield Derivation of Enriched Glutamatergic Neurons from Suspension-Cultured Mouse ESCs for Neurotoxicology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    Technology Office, Medical S&T Division [CBM.THRTOX.01.10. RC.021] and the NIH National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (IAA number...Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO) and 10% glycerol. Activated toxin was diluted 1:1 with soybean tryp- sin inhibitor and stored at −30°C until use. α...Transient transfection rates exceeded 40%, as estimated from basal fluorescence levels at 2d. Media was subsequently changed every 4 d until G418- resistant

  15. Selection of High Oil Yielding Trees of Millettia pinnata (L. Panigrahi, Vegetative Propagation and Growth in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Arpiwi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Millettia pinnata (L. Panigrahi is a potential legume tree that produces seed oil for biodiesel feedstock. The initial step for raising a large-scale plantation of the species is selection of high oil yielding trees from the natural habitat. This is followed by vegetative propagation of the selected trees and then testing the growth of the clone in the field.  The aim of the present study was to select high-oil yielding trees of M. pinnata, to propagate the selected trees by budding and to evaluate the survival and growth of budded plants in the field. Pods were collected from 30 trees in Lovina Beach, Buleleng Regency, Bali. Oil was extracted from seeds using soxhlet with hexane as a solvent.  The high oil yielding trees were propagated by budding using root stocks grown from M. pinnata seeds.  Scions were taken from young branches of selected trees. Incision was made on rootstock and the same size of cut was made on a scion containing a single bud.  The scion was inserted to the incision of rootstock then closed tightly using plastic strips.   The plastic was removed when the scion grew into a little green shoot. One month after plastic removal, the scion union grew into a single shoot and then the budded plants were removed to polybags. Budded plants were planted in the field of Bukit Jimbaran, Badung Regency, Bali with 4 × 4 spacing. Results showed all budded plants successfully grow new shoots. Two months after planting the survival of budded plants was 100%. Plant height increased by 22.13 cm, stem diameter increased by 2.43 mm and the number of compound leaf increased by 2.08.  It can be concluded that four high oil yielding trees were selected from Lovina Beach and successfully propagated by budding. Survival of budded plants was 100% with vigorous growth.

  16. A high-yielding, generic fed-batch process for recombinant antibody production of GS-engineered cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Li; Zhao, Liang; Sun, Yating

    2009-01-01

    An animal component-free and chemically defined fed-batch process for GS-engineered cell lines producing recombinant antibodies has been developed. The fed-batch process relied on supplying sufficient nutrients to match their consumption, simultaneously minimizing the accumulation of byproducts....... This generic and high-yielding fed-batch process would shorten development time, and ensure process stability, thereby facilitating the manufacture of therapeutic antibodies by GS-engineered cell lines....

  17. Synthesis of Substituted 2,2′-Dinitrobiphenyls by a Novel Solvent-Free High Yielding Ullmann Coupling Biarylation

    OpenAIRE

    Epps, Ayunna; Barbas, John; Mandouma, Ghislain

    2014-01-01

    Solvent-free reaction using a high-speed ball milling technique has been applied to the classical Ullmann coupling reaction for the first time. Biarylation of 2-iodonitrobenzene was achieved in quantitative yield when performed in a custom-made copper vial through continuous shaking without additional copper or solvent. The product was solid, NMR ready and required no lengthy extraction for purification. This reaction was cleaner, and faster than solution phase coupling which requires longer ...

  18. A cDNA Clone-Launched Platform for High-Yield Production of Inactivated Zika Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujiao Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A purified inactivated vaccine (PIV using the Zika virus (ZIKV Puerto Rico strain PRVABC59 showed efficacy in monkeys, and is currently in a phase I clinical trial. High-yield manufacture of this PIV is essential for its development and vaccine access. Here we report an infectious cDNA clone-launched platform to maximize its yield. A single NS1 protein substitution (K265E was identified to increase ZIKV replication on Vero cells (a cell line approved for vaccine production for both Cambodian FSS13025 and Puerto Rico PRVABC59 strains. The NS1 mutation did not affect viral RNA synthesis, but significantly increased virion assembly through an increased interaction between NS1 and NS2A (a known regulator of flavivirus assembly. The NS1 mutant virus retained wild-type virulence in the A129 mouse model, but decreased its competence to infect Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. To further increase virus yield, we constructed an infectious cDNA clone of the clinical trial PIV strain PRVABC59 containing three viral replication-enhancing mutations (NS1 K265E, prM H83R, and NS3 S356F. The mutant cDNA clone produced >25-fold more ZIKV than the wild-type parent on Vero cells. This cDNA clone-launched manufacture platform has the advantages of higher virus yield, shortened manufacture time, and minimized chance of contamination.

  19. High liquid fuel yielding biofuel processes and a roadmap for the future transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navneet R.

    In a fossil-fuel deprived world when crude oil will be scarce and transportation need cannot be met with electricity and transportation liquid fuel must be produced, biomass derived liquid fuels can be a natural replacement. However, the carbon efficiency of the currently known biomass to liquid fuel conversion processes ranges from 35-40%, yielding 90 ethanol gallon equivalents (ege) per ton of biomass. This coupled with the fact that the efficiency at which solar energy is captured by biomass (syngas derived from coal gasification (H2Bioil-C) or a natural gas reformer (H 2Bioil-NG) is used to supply the hydrogen and process heat for the biomass fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation. Another off-shoot of the H2Bioil process is the H2Bioil-B process, where hydrogen required for the hydropyrolysis is obtained from gasification of a fraction of the biomass. H2Bioil-B achieves the highest liquid fuel yield (126-146 ege/ton of biomass) reported in the literature for any self-contained conversion of biomass to biofuel. Finally, an integration of the H2Bioil process with the H2CAR process is suggested which can achieve 100% carbon efficiency (330 ege/ton of biomass) at the expense of 0.24 kg hydrogen/liter of oil. A sun-to-fuel efficiency analysis shows that extracting CO2 from air and converting it to liquid fuel is at least two times more efficient than growing dedicated fuel crops and converting them to liquid fuel even for the highest biomass growth rates feasible by algae. This implies that liquid fuel should preferably be produced from sustainably available waste (SAW) biomass first and if the SAW biomass is unable to meet the demand for liquid fuel, then, CO2 should be extracted from air and converted to liquid fuel, rather than growing biomass. Furthermore, based on the Sun-to-Wheels recovery for different transportation pathways, synergistic and complementary use of electricity, hydrogen and biomass, all derived from solar energy, is presented in an energy

  20. U.S. Army High Energy Laser (HEL) technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavan, Michael J.; Wachs, John J.

    2011-11-01

    The US Army is investing in Solid State Laser (SSL) technology to assess counter rocket, artillery, and mortar (C-RAM) and counter unmanned aerial vehicle (C-UAV) capabilities of solid state based HEL systems, as well as other potential applications for HELs of interest to the Army. The Army HEL program thrust areas are systematically moving the technology forward toward weaponization, including solid state laser technologies, advances in beam control technology, and conducting major demonstrations. The High Energy Laser Mobile Demonstrator (HELMD) will be a major step toward demonstrating HEL weapon capability to the soldier. The US Army will continue to pursue technologies that enable more compact systems compatible with, for example, a Stryker tactical vehicle as a crucial part of our strategy to provide a capability to the warfighter that can maneuver with the force.

  1. High quality, high efficiency welding technology for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigeyuki; Nagura, Yasumi

    1996-01-01

    For nuclear power plants, it is required to ensure the safety under the high reliability and to attain the high rate of operation. In the manufacture and installation of the machinery and equipment, the welding techniques which become the basis exert large influence to them. For the purpose of improving joint performance and excluding human errors, welding heat input and the number of passes have been reduced, the automation of welding has been advanced, and at present, narrow gap arc welding and high energy density welding such as electron beam welding and laser welding have been put to practical use. Also in the welding of pipings, automatic gas metal arc welding is employed. As for the welding of main machinery and equipment, there are the welding of the joints that constitute pressure boundaries, the build-up welding on the internal surfaces of pressure vessels for separating primary water from them, and the sealing welding of heating tubes and tube plates in steam generators. These weldings are explained. The welding of pipings and the state of development and application of new welding methods are reported. (K.I.)

  2. High-yield secretion of recombinant proteins from the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos Martinez, Erick Miguel; Fimognari, Lorenzo; Sakuragi, Yumiko

    2017-01-01

    Microalga-based biomanufacturing of recombinant proteins is attracting growing attention due to its advantages in safety, metabolic diversity, scalability and sustainability. Secretion of recombinant proteins can accelerate the use of microalgal platforms by allowing post-translational modificati......Microalga-based biomanufacturing of recombinant proteins is attracting growing attention due to its advantages in safety, metabolic diversity, scalability and sustainability. Secretion of recombinant proteins can accelerate the use of microalgal platforms by allowing post......-translational modifications and easy recovery of products from the culture media. However, currently, the yields of secreted recombinant proteins are low, which hampers the commercial application of this strategy. This study aimed at expanding the genetic tools for enhancing secretion of recombinant proteins in Chlamydomonas...... reinhardtii, a widely used green microalga as a model organism and a potential industrial biotechnology platform. We demonstrated that the putative signal sequence from C. reinhardtii gametolysin can assist the secretion of the yellow fluorescent protein Venus into the culture media. To increase the secretion...

  3. Advances in high pressure science and technology: proceedings of the fourth national conference on high pressure science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousuf, Mohammad; Subramanian, N.; Govinda Rajan, K.

    1997-09-01

    The proceedings of the fourth National Conference on High Pressure Science and Technology covers a wide area of research and development activities in the field of high pressure science and technology, broadly classified into the following themes: mechanical behaviour of materials; instrumentation and methods in high pressure research; pressure calibration, standards and safety aspects; phase transitions; shock induced reactions; mineral science, geophysics, geochemistry and planetary sciences; optical, electronic and transport properties; synthesis of materials; soft condensed matter physics and liquid crystals; computational methods in high pressure research. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  4. Technology's Covert Socialization of Children: High-Tech Toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritt, David W.

    2001-01-01

    Child's play may be at risk in today's technologically-oriented society. The limited interactive capacities of high-tech toys constrain the possibilities for cognitive development, interpersonal learning, and the quality of relationships that can be formed. Current high-tech toys change the nature of play, so that the object, rather than the…

  5. Microdomain Yield Behaviour in an Ultra-High Strength Low Alloy Steel for Marine Use with Low Sensitivity of SCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiang; Tao, Anxiang; Xu, Pingguang; Ping, Dehai

    The present paper involves a fundamental research on microdomain yield behavior of an ultrahigh strength low alloy steel with high temperature tempered bainite. The smooth cylinder specimen was took from deep water mooring chain links from the steel with the chemical composition of 0.23C-0.25Si -0.70Mn-3.55 (Cr+Ni+Mo) -0.13 (V+Nb+Ti) (mass %) ,which was quenched from 1253K and then tempered at 873K Its macroscopic yield strength is 1120MPa and the tensile strength is 1250MPa In-situ neutron diffraction measurements of loading tension have suggested that a good linear elastic deformation can be kept up to 500MPa stress, and then (200) priority non-linear elastic strain, that is the yield of crystal lattice occur at 700MPa and the (110) non-linear elastic strain was found at 800MPa. The (200) and (110) nonlinear elastic strain increases gradually when the stress was further increased, however, the (211) kept its linear elastic deformation stage as before. The sub-microstructural analysis carried out using TEM and additional determine the nature and quantitative analysis has revealed that there are three kinds of alloy carbides: (1) θ-M3C cementites with an average particle size of less than 50 nm which inside laths and lath boundaries; (2) ɛ-M2C formed uniformly within the ferrites with a length of less than 200 nm and width of less than 20 nm; (3) ultra-fine high density MC cohered with matrix α-Fe and its particle size is about 2 nm. The whole microdomain yield behaviour of the material was possibly influenced by the fcc-MC with high density. The results of CLT (constant load), SSRT (slow strain rate) and KIscc test of the present chain in seawater solution indicate, that threshold value of SCC (stress corrosion cracking) stress exceed 0.8 tensile strength and the chain's KIscc value is double of KIscc value of 4340 steel type parts. MC not only form strong hydrogen trap, but also slow down microdomain yield likely by means of increasing yield strength of

  6. Overview on the high power excimer laser technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingru

    2013-05-01

    High power excimer laser has essential applications in the fields of high energy density physics, inertial fusion energy and industry owing to its advantages such as short wavelength, high gain, wide bandwidth, energy scalable and repetition operating ability. This overview is aimed at an introduction and evaluation of enormous endeavor of the international high power excimer laser community in the last 30 years. The main technologies of high power excimer laser are reviewed, which include the pumping source technology, angular multiplexing and pulse compressing, beam-smoothing and homogenous irradiation, high efficiency and repetitive operation et al. A high power XeCl laser system developed in NINT of China is described in detail.

  7. The use of high technology in STEM education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan; McBride, Annette C.

    2015-10-01

    There has been a huge increase in the use of high technology in education. In this paper we discuss some aspects of technology that have major applications in STEM education, namely, (a) virtual reality systems, (b) personal electronic response systems aka "clickers", (c) flipped classrooms, (d) mobile learning "m-Learning", (e) massive open online courses "MOOCS", (f) internet-of-things and (g) cloud computing.

  8. Low apparent quantum yield in Arctic plants suggests that terrestrial biosphere models will over estimate carbon assimilation at high latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A.; Serbin, S.; Ely, K.; Wullschleger, S.

    2017-12-01

    Estimates of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) by terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) rely on accurate model representation of photosynthesis. In the Arctic, TBM uncertainty over GPP is the dominant driver of an uncertain Arctic carbon cycle. Previously we have shown that TBMs underestimate light saturated photosynthesis due to poor model representation of maximum carboxylation capacity and maximum electron transport. Here we extend this work to investigate model representation of the response of photosynthesis to irradiance. TBMs use an empirical relationship, typically a non-rectangular hyperbola, to estimate potential electron transport rate from incident irradiance. The key model inputs used to parameterize this formulation are; absorptance, quantum yield, and a curvature factor. TBMs show a high divergence in the response of photosynthesis to irradiance driven in part by variation in these parameters. In addition, most existing measurements used to parameterize TBMs have been made within a narrow temperature range (20-30°C) and the scarcity of data collected at low temperature has been highlighted as an important driver of model uncertainty at high latitudes. To address this issue we measured photosynthetic light response curves at 5 and 15°C and the leaf optical properties of six species growing on the Barrow Environmental Observatory, Barrow, Alaska. We determined leaf absorbtance, the convexity term, and apparent quantum yield. Our key finding was that measured apparent quantum yield was lower than model estimates, particularly at 5°C. Our results show that TBMs that rely on relatively high theoretical estimates of apparent quantum yield will likely overestimate carbon assimilation at low temperature and low irradiance.

  9. Effects of field high temperature on grain yield and quality of a subtropical type japonica rice—Pon-Lai rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chien Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Typical japonica type rice is sensitive to high temperature. Pon-Lai rice is a special japonica type with adaptation to the subtropical climate in Taiwan. Facing climate change, rising temperatures would damage the yield and quality of rice production. This research was conducted using Pon-Lai rice in the field of a subtropical climate. We conducted 2 experiments, including a year-round experiment and collection of samples from different districts for building different temperature conditions. We analyzed the correlation between rising temperature and rice yield or quality. In our results, the critical period of temperature effect is 0–15 days after heading (H15. The threshold of high temperature damage in yield and appearance quality was 25–27 °C. Grain weight decreased about 2–6%, while the temperature of H15 was raised 1 °C above the thresholds. Perfect grain ratio and chalky grain ratio decreased and increased, respectively, while the temperature of H15 was raised above the thresholds. However, the high temperature in H15 affected the physicochemical characteristics. In addition, we found positive correlation between grain length to width ratio and perfect grain ratio. Grain length to width ratio could be an index of temperature effects for grain quality. In our study, when the temperature was below 30 °C, a rising temperature of H15 could damage rice yield and appearance quality, and change grain shape. Our results could provide reference for dealing with the warming future in other temperate rice-cultivated countries.

  10. Estimation of genetic parameters and selection of high-yielding, upright common bean lines with slow seed-coat darkening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvares, R C; Silva, F C; Melo, L C; Melo, P G S; Pereira, H S

    2016-11-21

    Slow seed coat darkening is desirable in common bean cultivars and genetic parameters are important to define breeding strategies. The aims of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for plant architecture, grain yield, grain size, and seed-coat darkening in common bean; identify any genetic association among these traits; and select lines that associate desirable phenotypes for these traits. Three experiments were set up in the winter 2012 growing season, in Santo Antônio de Goiás and Brasília, Brazil, including 220 lines obtained from four segregating populations and five parents. A triple lattice 15 x 15 experimental design was used. The traits evaluated were plant architecture, grain yield, grain size, and seed-coat darkening. Analyses of variance were carried out and genetic parameters such as heritability, gain expected from selection, and correlations, were estimated. For selection of superior lines, a "weight-free and parameter-free" index was used. The estimates of genetic variance, heritability, and gain expected from selection were high, indicating good possibility for success in selection of the four traits. The genotype x environment interaction was proportionally more important for yield than for the other traits. There was no strong genetic correlation observed among the four traits, which indicates the possibility of selection of superior lines with many traits. Considering simultaneous selection, it was not possible to join high genetic gains for the four traits. Forty-four lines that combined high yield, more upright plant architecture, slow darkening grains, and commercial grade size were selected.

  11. Freezing point of milk in a herd of high yielding dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica Golc Teger

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Factors affecting the freezing point of milk in a herd of 200 Black and White cows with the average milk yield of 8 386 kg in the lactation and 8 328 kg in the standard lactation were examinated. Over the period of one year (2002 and based upon 1 773 individual monthly collected milk samples with the average contents of 3.91% fat, 3.26% protein, 4.54% lactose, 33.4 mg/100 ml urea and 331000 somatic cells per ml in milk were determined. The average freezing point of milk (n = 1 680 was estimated to be –0.527 ºC, with a range from -0.562 ºC to -0.423 ºC. In 210 (12.5% samples was higher than -0.515 ºC. The lowest freezing point (-0.532 ºC was found in the samples collected in the first month after calving and highest (-0.522 ºC in the samples of 12th month of lactation. The differences between the freezing point of milk after the first and the second calving (-0.530 ºC; P < 0.05 and those after the fifth calving (-0.523 ºC; P < 0.05 were also significant. The samples collected in month from January to April (-0.538 ºC to -0.532 ºC were significantly lower in comparison to samples collected in May and June (-0.517 ºC and -0.519 ºC. The following statistically significant correlation coefficients between cows' properties, milk composition and the freezing point of milk were found: month of lactation r = 0.233 (P < 0.001; lactation number r = 0.196 (P < 0.001; age of cows (years r = 0.231 (P < 0.001; month of the year r = 0.0253 (P < 0.001; milk yield per milking day r = -0.106 (P < 0.001; fat corrected milk content (FCM per milking day r = -0.234 (P < 0.001; lactose % r = -0.530 (P < 0.001; fat % r = -0.351 (P < 0.001; protein % r = 0.058 (P < 0.05; urea mg/100 mL r = 0.091 (P < 0.001 and somatic cell count r = 0.154 (P < 0.001. The sum of effects (month of the year, lactation lenght and fat, protein and lactose content of milk was found to account for about 70% variability of the total depression of milk freezing point (R2 = 0.698.

  12. Acetic acid and pepsin result in high yield, high purity and low macrophage response collagen for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Luis M; Shologu, Naledi; Fuller, Kieran; Zeugolis, Dimitrios I

    2017-10-25

    Collagen based devices are frequently associated with foreign body response. Although several pre- (e.g. species, state of animal, tissue) and post- (e.g. cross-linking, scaffold architecture) extraction method factors have a profound effect on foreign body response, little is known about which and how during the extraction process factors mediate foreign body response. In this study, we assessed the influence of acetic acid and hydrochloric acid and the utilisation or not of pepsin or salt precipitation during collagen extraction on the yield, purity, free amines, denaturation temperature, resistance to collagenase degradation and macrophage response. Acetic acid/pepsin extracted collagen exhibited the highest yield, purity and free amine content and the lowest denaturation temperature. No differences in resistance to collagenase digestion were detected between the groups. Although all treatments exhibited similar macrophage morphology comprised of round cells (M1 phenotype), elongated cells (M2 phenotype) and cell aggregates (foreign body response), significantly more elongated cells were observed on HC films. Although no differences in metabolic activity were observed between the groups, the DNA concentration was significantly lower for the hydrochloric acid treatments. Further, cytokine analysis revealed that hydrochloric acid treatments induced significantly higher IL-1β and TNF-α release with respect to acetic acid treatments. Salt precipitation did not influence the parameters assessed. Collectively, these data suggest that during the collagen extraction process variables should also be monitored as, evidently, they affect the physicochemical and biological properties of collagen preparations.

  13. Effect of Admixtures on the Yield Stresses of Cement Pastes under High Hydrostatic Pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Hong Jae; Kim, Jae Hong; Kwon, Seung Hee

    2016-03-02

    When cement-based materials are transported at a construction site, they undergo high pressures during the pumping process. The rheological properties of the materials under such high pressures are unknown, and estimating the workability of the materials after pumping is a complex problem. Among various influential factors on the rheology of concrete, this study investigated the effect of mineral and chemical admixtures on the high-pressure rheology. A rheometer was fabricated that could measure the rheological properties while maintaining a high pressure to simulate the pumping process. The effects of superplasticizer, silica fume, nanoclay, fly ash, or ground granulated blast furnace slag were investigated when mixed with two control cement pastes. The water-to-cement ratios were 0.35 and 0.50.

  14. Ultrahigh Yield Strength Rhenium for High-Performance Combustion Chambers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The state-of-the-art material system for high-performance radiation-cooled liquid rocket engines is iridium/rhenium manufactured by chemical vapor deposition (CVD)....

  15. Effect of Admixtures on the Yield Stresses of Cement Pastes under High Hydrostatic Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Jae Yim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available When cement-based materials are transported at a construction site, they undergo high pressures during the pumping process. The rheological properties of the materials under such high pressures are unknown, and estimating the workability of the materials after pumping is a complex problem. Among various influential factors on the rheology of concrete, this study investigated the effect of mineral and chemical admixtures on the high-pressure rheology. A rheometer was fabricated that could measure the rheological properties while maintaining a high pressure to simulate the pumping process. The effects of superplasticizer, silica fume, nanoclay, fly ash, or ground granulated blast furnace slag were investigated when mixed with two control cement pastes. The water-to-cement ratios were 0.35 and 0.50.

  16. Effects of Fluctuating Environments on the Selection of High Yielding Microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J. R.; Tillett, D. M.

    1987-02-27

    Microalgae have the potential of producing biomass with a high content of lipids at high productivities using seawater or saline ground water resources. Microalgal lipids are similar to vegetable oils and suitable for processing to liquid fuels. Engineering cost analysis studies have concluded that, at a favorable site, microalgae cultivation for fuel production could be economically viable. The major uncertainties involve the microalgae themselves: biomass and lipid productivity and culture stability.

  17. Preparation of carbon quantum dots with a high quantum yield and the application in labeling bovine serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Pengpeng; Zhang, Changchang; Liu, Xiang, E-mail: liuxiang@ahut.edu.cn; Cui, Ping, E-mail: cokecp@sohu.com

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Cheap carbon quantum dots (CQDs) with a high quantum yield were prepared. • The preparation process and surface functionalization on CQDs are rather facile. • Such functionalized CQDs can be attached to BSA covalently. • This predicts that some biomolecules can be labeled by the fluorescent CQDs. - Abstract: An economic and green approach of manufacturing carbon quantum dots (CQDs) with a high quantum yield (denoted with HQY-CQDs) and the application in labeling bovine serum albumin (BSA) were described in detail in this work. Firstly, the cheap resources of citric acid and glycine were pyrolysed in drying oven for preparing the CQDs. Then the product was immersed in tetrahydrofuran for 8 h. HQY-CQDs were obtained by removing tetrahydrofuran from the supernate and were evaluated that they possessed a much higher quantum yield compared with that without dealing with tetrahydrofuran and a wonderful photo-bleaching resistance. Such HQY-CQDs could be functionalized by N-hydroxysuccinimide and successively combined with BSA covalently. Thus fluorescent labeling on BSA was realized. The HQY-CQDs were demonstrated with transmission electron microscopy and the chemical modification with N-hydroxysuccinimide was proved by infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectra. Labeling BSA with the HQY-CQDs was confirmed by gel electrophoresis and fluorescence imaging.

  18. High-yield production of authentic human growth hormone using a plant virus-based expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gils, Mario; Kandzia, Romy; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Klimyuk, Victor; Gleba, Yuri

    2005-11-01

    We describe here a high-yield transient expression system for the production of human growth hormone (hGH, or somatotropin) in transfected Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. The system is based on a recently described plant virus-based modular expression vector [Gleba, Y., Marillonnet, S. and Klimyuk, V. (2004) Engineering viral expression vectors for plants: the 'full virus' and the 'deconstructed virus' strategies. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 7, 182-188; Marillonnet, S., Giritch, A., Gils, M., Kandzia, R., Klimyuk, V. and Gleba, Y. (2004) In planta engineering of viral RNA replicons: efficient assembly by recombination of DNA modules delivered by Agrobacterium. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 101, 6852-6857], and represents a simple and fast alternative to stable transformation. By using various combinations of provector modules, hGH was produced in three compartments of the cell: the apoplast, the chloroplast and the cytosol. We found that targeting to the apoplast provided the highest amount of correctly processed and biologically active hGH, with a yield of up to 10% of total soluble protein or 1 mg per gram of fresh weight leaf biomass. These results indicate that the use of viral vectors for high-yield production of human therapeutic proteins in plants by transient expression provides an attractive alternative to production protocols using standard expression vectors in transgenic or transplastomic plants.

  19. Homogeneity analysis of high yield manufacturing process of mems-based pzt thick film vibrational energy harvesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Xu, Ruichao; Pedersen, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a high yield wafer scale fabrication of MEMS-based unimorph silicon/PZT thick film vibrational energy harvesters aimed towards vibration sources with peak frequencies in the range of a few hundred Hz. By combining KOH etching with mechanical front side protection, SOI wafer...... to accurately define the thickness of the silicon part of the harvester and a silicon compatible PZT thick film screen-printing technique, we are able to fabricate energy harvesters on wafer scale with a yield higher than 90%. The characterization of the fabricated harvesters is focused towards the full wafer....../mass-production aspect; hence the analysis of uniformity in harvested power and resonant frequency....

  20. Development and characterization of a Z-pinch-driven hohlraum high-yield inertial confinement fusion target concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuneo, Michael E.; Vesey, Roger A.; Porter, John L. Jr.; Chandler, Gordon A.; Fehl, David L.; Gilliland, Terrance L.; Hanson, David L.; McGurn, John S.; Reynolds, Paul G.; Ruggles, Laurence E.; Seamen, Hans; Spielman, Rick B.; Struve, Ken W.; Stygar, William A.; Simpson, Walter W.; Torres, Jose A.; Wenger, David F.; Hammer, James H.; Rambo, Peter W.; Peterson, Darrell L.

    2001-01-01

    Initial experiments to study the Z-pinch-driven hohlraum high-yield inertial confinement fusion (ICF) concept of Hammer, Tabak, and Porter [Hammer et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 2129 (1999)] are described. The relationship between measured pinch power, hohlraum temperature, and secondary hohlraum coupling ('hohlraum energetics') is well understood from zero-dimensional semianalytic, and two-dimensional view factor and radiation magnetohydrodynamics models. These experiments have shown the highest x-ray powers coupled to any Z-pinch-driven secondary hohlraum (26±5 TW), indicating the concept could scale to fusion yields of >200 MJ. A novel, single-sided power feed, double-pinch driven secondary that meets the pinch simultaneity requirements for polar radiation symmetry has also been developed. This source will permit investigation of the pinch power balance and hohlraum geometry requirements for ICF relevant secondary radiation symmetry, leading to a capsule implosion capability on the Z accelerator [Spielman et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105 (1998)

  1. Transcriptome Analysis Suggests That Starch Synthesis May Proceed via Multiple Metabolic Routes in High Yielding Potato Cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaminski, Kacper Piotr; Petersen, Annabeth Høgh; Sønderkær, Mads

    2012-01-01

    levels of transcripts for other enzymes involved in starch metabolism in comparison with medium and low yielding cultivars as determined by DeepSAGE transcriptome profiling. The decrease in PGM activity in Kuras was confirmed by measuring the enzyme activity from potato tuber extracts. Contrary......Background: Glucose-6-phosphate is imported into the amyloplast of potato tubers and thought to constitute the precursor for starch synthesis in potato tubers. However, recently it was shown that glucose-1-phosphate can also be imported into the amyloplast and incorporated into starch via an ATP...... independent mechanism under special conditions. Nonetheless, glucose-6-phosphate is believed to be the quantitatively important precursor for starch synthesis in potato. Principical finding: potato tubers of the high yielding cv Kuras had low gene expression of plastidial phophoglucomutase (PGM) and normal...

  2. Utilizing HPC Network Technologies in High Energy Physics Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2088631; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Because of their performance characteristics high-performance fabrics like Infiniband or OmniPath are interesting technologies for many local area network applications, including data acquisition systems for high-energy physics experiments like the ATLAS experiment at CERN. This paper analyzes existing APIs for high-performance fabrics and evaluates their suitability for data acquisition systems in terms of performance and domain applicability. The study finds that existing software APIs for high-performance interconnects are focused on applications in high-performance computing with specific workloads and are not compatible with the requirements of data acquisition systems. To evaluate the use of high-performance interconnects in data acquisition systems a custom library, NetIO, is presented and compared against existing technologies. NetIO has a message queue-like interface which matches the ATLAS use case better than traditional HPC APIs like MPI. The architecture of NetIO is based on a interchangeable bac...

  3. Development of an FPW Biosensor with Low Insertion Loss and High Fabrication Yield for Detection of Carcinoembryonic Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Je-Wei; Huang, I-Yu; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Lin, Chang-Yu; Chen, Jian-Lin; Hsieh, Chia-Hsu

    2016-11-08

    In the last two decades, various flexural plate-wave (FPW)-based biosensors with low phase velocity, low operation frequency, high sensitivity, and short response time, have been developed. However, conventional FPW transducers have low fabrication yield because controlling the thickness of silicon/isolation/metal/piezoelectric multilayer floating thin-plate is difficult. Additionally, conventional FPW devices usually have high insertion loss because of wave energy dissipation to the silicon substrate or outside area of the output interdigital transducers (IDTs). These two disadvantages hinder the application of FPW devices. To reduce the high insertion loss of FPW devices, we designed two focus-type IDTs (fan-shaped and circular, respectively) that can effectively confine the launched wave energy, and adopted a focus-type silicon-grooved reflective grating structure (RGS) that can reduce the wave propagation loss. To accurately control the thickness of the silicon thin-plate and substantially improve the fabrication yield of FPW transducers, a 60 °C/27 °C two-step anisotropic wet etching process was developed. Compared with conventional FPW devices (with parallel-type IDTs and without RGS), the proposed FPW devices have lower insertion loss (36.04 dB) and higher fabrication yield (63.88%). Furthermore, by using cystamine-based self-assembled monolayer (SAM) nanotechnology, we used the improved FPW device to develop a novel FPW-based carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) biosensor for detection of colorectal cancer, and this FPW-CEA biosensor has a low detection limit (5 ng/mL), short response time (<10 min), high sensitivity (60.16-70.06 cm²/g), and high sensing linearity (R-square = 0.859-0.980).

  4. Complementary Product Integration by High-Technology New Ventures: The Role of Initial Technology Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Satish Nambisan

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relationship between complementary product integration and the initial technology strategy of a high-technology new venture. With customers placing considerable emphasis on cross-product integration, the success of a new venture is dependent as much on its ability to integrate its product with relevant complementary products as on the core product functionality itself. We identify three types of complementary product integration: value-added internal, add-on ...

  5. High-Yield Endoglucanase Production by Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 Cultivated in Pretreated Sugarcane Mill Byproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Machado de Castro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The low-cost production of cellulolytic complexes presenting high action at mild conditions and well-balanced cellulase activities is one of the major bottlenecks for the economical viability of the production of cellulosic ethanol. In the present paper, the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 was used for the production of cellulases from a pretreated sugarcane bagasse (namely, cellulignin, by submerged fermentation. This fungal strain produced high contents of endoglucanase activity (6,358 U·L−1 after 72 hours of process, and further relevant β-glucosidase and FPase activities (742 and 445 U·L−1, resp.. The crude enzyme extract demonstrated appropriate characteristics for its application in cellulose hydrolysis, such as high thermal stability at up to 50∘C, accessory xylanase activity, and absence of proteolytic activity towards azocasein. This strain showed, therefore, potential for the production of complete cellulolytic complexes aiming at the saccharification of lignocellulosic materials.

  6. Electropolymerized Star-Shaped Benzotrithiophenes Yield π-Conjugated Hierarchical Networks with High Areal Capacitance

    KAUST Repository

    Ringk, Andreas

    2016-03-30

    High-surface-area π-conjugated polymeric networks have the potential to lend outstanding capacitance to supercapacitors because of the pronounced faradaic processes that take place across the dense intimate interface between active material and electrolytes. In this report, we describe how benzo[1,2-b:3,4-b’:5,6-b’’]trithiophene (BTT) and tris-EDOT-benzo[1,2-b:3,4-b’:5,6-b’’]trithiophene (TEBTT) can serve as 2D (trivalent) building blocks in the development of electropolymerized hierarchical π-conjugated frameworks with particularly high areal capacitance. In comparing electropolymerized networks of BTT, TEBTT, and their copolymers with EDOT, we show that P(TEBTT/EDOT)-based frameworks can achieve higher areal capacitance (e.g., as high as 443.8 mF cm-2 at 1 mA cm-2) than those achieved by their respective homopolymers (PTEBTT and PEDOT) in the same experimental conditions of electrodeposition (PTEBTT: 271.1 mF cm-2 (at 1 mA cm-2) and PEDOT: 12.1 mF cm-2 (at 1 mA cm-2)). For example, P(TEBTT/EDOT)-based frameworks synthesized in a 1:1 monomer-to-comonomer ratio show a ca. 35x capacitance improvement over PEDOT. The high areal capacitance measured for P(TEBTT/EDOT) copolymers can be explained by the open, highly porous hierarchical morphologies formed during the electropolymerization step. With >70% capacitance retention over 1,000 cycles (up to 89% achieved), both PTEBTT- and P(TEBTT/EDOT)-based frameworks are resilient to repeated electrochemical cycling and can be considered promising systems for high life cycle capacitive electrode applications.

  7. Electropolymerized Star-Shaped Benzotrithiophenes Yield π-Conjugated Hierarchical Networks with High Areal Capacitance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringk, Andreas; Lignie, Adrien; Hou, Yuanfang; Alshareef, Husam N; Beaujuge, Pierre M

    2016-05-18

    High-surface-area π-conjugated polymeric networks have the potential to lend outstanding capacitance to supercapacitors because of the pronounced faradaic processes that take place across the dense intimate interface between active material and electrolytes. In this report, we describe how benzo[1,2-b:3,4-b':5,6-b″]trithiophene (BTT) and tris(ethylenedioxythiophene)benzo[1,2-b:3,4-b':5,6-b″]trithiophene (TEBTT) can serve as 2D (trivalent) building blocks in the development of electropolymerized hierarchical π-conjugated frameworks with particularly high areal capacitance. In comparing electropolymerized networks of BTT, TEBTT, and their copolymers with EDOT, we show that TEBTT/EDOT-based copolymers, i.e., P(TEBTT/EDOT), can achieve higher areal capacitance (e.g., as high as 443.8 mF cm(-2) at 1 mA cm(-2)) than those achieved by their respective homopolymers (PTEBTT and PEDOT) in the same experimental conditions of electrodeposition (PTEBTT: 271.1 mF cm(-2) (at 1 mA cm(-2)) and 12.1 mF cm(-2) (at 1 mA cm(-2))). For example, P(TEBTT/EDOT)-based frameworks synthesized in a 1:1 monomer-to-comonomer ratio show a ca. 35× capacitance improvement over PEDOT. The high areal capacitance measured for P(TEBTT/EDOT)-based frameworks can be explained by the open, highly porous hierarchical morphologies formed during the electropolymerization step. With >70% capacitance retention over 1000 cycles (up to 89% achieved), both PTEBTT- and P(TEBTT/EDOT)-based frameworks are resilient to repeated electrochemical cycling and can be considered promising systems for high life cycle capacitive electrode applications.

  8. Do High Technology Policies Work?: High Technology Industry Employment Growth in U.S. Metropolitan Areas, 1988-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J. Craig; Leicht, Kevin T.; Jaynes, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    Since the 1970s, federal, state and local governments have launched an array of new high technology development programs. Researchers and policy-makers disagree about the relative merits of these policies. We address the effects of seven of these policies on high tech industry employment growth in metropolitan statistical areas in the United…

  9. Secondary-electron yield from Au induced by highly charged Ta ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krása, Josef; Láska, Leoš; Stöckli, M. P.; Fry, D.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 173, - (2001), s. 281-286 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010819 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : highly charged ion-surface interaction * ion-induced electron emission * angle impact effect Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.041, year: 2001

  10. Critical parameters in cost-effective alkaline extraction for high protein yield from leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, C.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Bruins, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Leaves are potential resources for feed or food, but their applications are limited due to a high proportion of insoluble protein and inefficient processing. To overcome these problems, parameters of alkaline extraction were evaluated using green tea residue (GTR). Protein extraction could be

  11. Bar Code Medication Administration Technology: Characterization of High-Alert Medication Triggers and Clinician Workarounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel F; Fortier, Christopher R; Garrison, Kelli L

    2011-02-01

    Bar code medication administration (BCMA) technology is gaining acceptance for its ability to prevent medication administration errors. However, studies suggest that improper use of BCMA technology can yield unsatisfactory error prevention and introduction of new potential medication errors. To evaluate the incidence of high-alert medication BCMA triggers and alert types and discuss the type of nursing and pharmacy workarounds occurring with the use of BCMA technology and the electronic medication administration record (eMAR). Medication scanning and override reports from January 1, 2008, through November 30, 2008, for all adult medical/surgical units were retrospectively evaluated for high-alert medication system triggers, alert types, and override reason documentation. An observational study of nursing workarounds on an adult medicine step-down unit was performed and an analysis of potential pharmacy workarounds affecting BCMA and the eMAR was also conducted. Seventeen percent of scanned medications triggered an error alert of which 55% were for high-alert medications. Insulin aspart, NPH insulin, hydromorphone, potassium chloride, and morphine were the top 5 high-alert medications that generated alert messages. Clinician override reasons for alerts were documented in only 23% of administrations. Observational studies assessing for nursing workarounds revealed a median of 3 clinician workarounds per administration. Specific nursing workarounds included a failure to scan medications/patient armband and scanning the bar code once the dosage has been removed from the unit-dose packaging. Analysis of pharmacy order entry process workarounds revealed the potential for missed doses, duplicate doses, and doses being scheduled at the wrong time. BCMA has the potential to prevent high-alert medication errors by alerting clinicians through alert messages. Nursing and pharmacy workarounds can limit the recognition of optimal safety outcomes and therefore workflow processes

  12. Advanced Decontamination Technologies: High Hydrostatic Pressure on Meat Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garriga, Margarita; Aymerich, Teresa

    The increasing demand for “natural” foodstuffs, free from chemical additives, and preservatives has triggered novel approaches in food technology developments. In the last decade, practical use of high-pressure processing (HPP) made this emerging non-thermal technology very attractive from a commercial point of view. Despite the fact that the investment is still high, the resulting value-added products, with an extended and safe shelf-life, will fulfil the wishes of consumers who prefer preservative-free minimally processed foods, retaining sensorial characteristics of freshness. Moreover, unlike thermal treatment, pressure treatment is not time/mass dependant, thus reducing the time of processing.

  13. High power LEDs - technology status and market applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steranka, F.M.; Bhat, J.; Collins, D.; Cook, L.; Craford, M.G.; Fletcher, R.; Gardner, N.; Grillot, P.; Goetz, W.; Keuper, M.; Khare, R.; Kim, A.; Krames, M.; Harbers, G.; Ludowise, M.; Martin, P.S.; Misra, M.; Mueller, G.; Mueller-Mach, R.; Rudaz, S.; Shen, Y.C.; Steigerwald, D.; Subramanya, S.; Trottier, T.; Wierer, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    High power light emitting diodes (LEDs) continue to increase in output flux with the best III-nitride based devices today emitting over 150 lm of white, cyan, or green light. The key design features of such products will be covered with special emphasis on power packaging, flip-chip device design, and phosphor coating technology. The high-flux performance of these devices is enabling many new applications for LEDs. Two of the most interesting of these applications are LCD display backlighting and vehicle forward lighting. The advantages of LEDs over competing lighting technologies will be covered in detail. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. A model of a successful utilization of a high genetic potential of maize yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlov Milovan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle of a system, defined as a ZP system, implying corresponding relationship among research, seed production and seed marketing, is that each segment within the system has its tasks and responsibilities, as well as, a clear interest. This system was established at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, almost half a century ago. The crucial characteristic is that this system encompasses obtained results of scientific accomplishments (patent - a released hybrid, optimal utilisation of the environmental conditions, facilities for seed drying, processing and packing, staff and transport capacities. The ZP system provides the economic interest of all participants in studies and the maize seed production. The fundamental base of the quality seed production within the ZP system is a multidisciplinary programme on maize breeding, as well as, 535 released hybrids with standard and specific traits. According to regulations in foreign countries, approximately 100 ZP maize hybrids have been released abroad. Agroecological conditions in Serbia are favorable for the development of the best genotypes and the production of basic and certified maize seed. There 10 processing plants that apply recent technologies in the maize seed processing procedure. Several generations of experts have been trained and gained experience within the maize seed production. Three seed testing laboratories have been accredited by the International Seed Testing Association. According to regulations in Serbia, monitoring of seed production under field conditions, and further on, during the processing practice is done only by designate authorities. This study presents one of successful systems of the seed production organization applicable in countries with similar conditions.

  15. High Speed and Slow Motion: The Technology of Modern High Speed Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Michael; Mollmann, Klaus-Peter

    2011-01-01

    The enormous progress in the fields of microsystem technology, microelectronics and computer science has led to the development of powerful high speed cameras. Recently a number of such cameras became available as low cost consumer products which can also be used for the teaching of physics. The technology of high speed cameras is discussed,…

  16. Enhancement of yield point at high pressure high temperature wells by using polymer nanocomposites based on ZnO & CaCO3 nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Z. Noah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs and modified calcium carbonate (nano-CaCO3 nanoparticles were successfully prepared and added to polystyrene-butadiene rubber copolymer (PSBR matrix to prepare PSBR nanocomposites. The prepared nanomaterials (ZnO-NPs & nano-CaCO3 were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Furthermore, the prepared polymer nanocomposites and oil base mud were used for drilling in high pressure high temperature (HPHT wells. The consequence of using polymer nanocomposites based on different loading of ZnO-NPs and nano-CaCO3 on the rheological properties of oil base mud was evaluated and enhanced the yield point at high pressure high temperature wells (HPHT. The using of the polymer with different percentage from (0.5 in all percent the obtained results is very promising; this means that the increase of polymer is reasonable for the increase of apparent viscosity, plastic viscosity and yield point at high temperature. Correspondingly, polymer nanocomposites displayed rise of apparent viscosity, plastic viscosity, and yield point, decreased in fluid loss and increased in electrical stability at high pressure high temperature wells.

  17. Development of high-yield autofluorescent protein microarrays using hybrid cell-free expression with combined Escherichia coli S30 and wheat germ extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lake April D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-based microarray platforms offer considerable promise as high-throughput technologies in proteomics. Particular advantages are provided by self-assembling protein microarrays and much interest centers around analysis of eukaryotic proteins and their molecular interactions. Efficient cell-free protein synthesis is paramount for the production of self-assembling protein microarrays, requiring optimal transcription, translation, and protein folding. The Escherichia coli S30 extract demonstrates high translation rates but lacks the protein-folding efficiency of its eukaryotic counterparts derived from rabbit reticulocyte and wheat germ extract. In comparison to E. coli, eukaryotic extracts, on the other hand, exhibit slower translation rates and poor overall protein yields. A cell-free expression system that synthesizes folded eukaryotic proteins in considerable yields would optimize in vitro translation for protein microarray assembly. Results Self-assembling autofluorescent protein microarrays were produced by in situ transcription and translation of chimeric proteins containing a C-terminal Green Fluorescent Protein tag. Proteins were immobilized as array elements using an anti-GFP monoclonal antibody. The amounts of correctly-folded chimeric proteins were quantified by measuring the fluorescence intensity from each array element. During cell-free expression, very little or no fluorescence was observed from GFP-tagged multidomain eukaryotic plant proteins when in vitro translation was performed with E. coli S30 extract. Improvement was seen using wheat germ extract, but fluorescence intensities were still low because of poor protein yields. A hybrid in vitro translation system, combining S30 and wheat germ extracts, produced high levels of correctly-folded proteins for most of the constructs that were tested. Conclusion The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the wheat germ extract enhances the protein

  18. Identification of Potential Metabolic Markers for the Selection of a High-Yield Clone of Quercus acutissima in Clonal Seed Orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Won Kang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Quercus acutissima Carruth. is one of the most economically important deciduous tree species in Korea. The acorns of Q. acutissima are used for both food and medicinal purposes in Korea and China. In this study, we analyzed plant hormones and metabolite profiles to identify their correlation with the yield production of Q. acutissima. The contents of sucrose and inositol in the leaves of high-yield clones were significantly higher (p < 0.05 than those of low-yield clones. In addition, high-yield clones have a higher content of phosphoric acid, succinic acid, malic acid, and butane-1,3-diol in stems compared with low-yield clones. Among the identified metabolites, zeatin-9-glucoside showed highly significant negative correlations with tree height, crown volume, and acorn production. It is considered that these metabolites could be useful metabolic markers for the selection of a high yield clone of Q. acutissima.

  19. Genomics approaches to unlock the high yield potential of cassava, a tropical model plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengkui ZHANG,Ping'an MA,Haiyan WANG,Cheng LU,Xin CHEN,Zhiqiang XIA,Meiling ZOU,Xinchen ZHOU,Wenquan WANG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cassava, a tropical food, feed and biofuel crop, has great capacity for biomass accumulation and an extraordinary efficiency in water use and mineral nutrition, which makes it highly suitable as a model plant for tropical crops. However, the understanding of the metabolism and genomics of this important crop is limited. The recent breakthroughs in the genomics of cassava, including whole-genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis, as well as advances in the biology of photosynthesis, starch biosynthesis, adaptation to drought and high temperature, and resistance to virus and bacterial diseases, are reviewed here. Many of the new developments have come from comparative analyses between a wild ancestor and existing cultivars. Finally, the current challenges and future potential of cassava as a model plant are discussed.

  20. Electron yield from Be-Cu induced by highly charged Xe q+ ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krása, Josef; Láska, Leoš; Stöckli, M. P.; Fehrenbach, C. W.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 196, - (2002), s. 61-67 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010105; GA MŠk LN00A100 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : highly charged ion-induced electron emission * angle impact effect * Be-Cu Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.158, year: 2002

  1. Investigation of Ozone Yield of Air Fed Ozonizer by High Pressure Homogeneous Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    around 2 ms and 12 ms in this figure, and during the discharge period, the current was continuous without any pulse . Once a discharge generated in...electron avalanches [10]. Fig. 1. High pressure ozone generator. (a) Top view (b) Side view Fig. 2. Barrier discharge device. Table 1... discharge N. Osawa P1 P, UY. Yoshioka UP2 P, R. Hanaoka P1 P 1 Center for Electric, Optic and Energy applications, Department of Electric and

  2. Computationally optimized deimmunization libraries yield highly mutated enzymes with low immunogenicity and enhanced activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvat, Regina S.; Parker, Andrew S.; Kirsch, Jack R.; Brooks, Seth A.

    2017-01-01

    Therapeutic proteins of wide-ranging function hold great promise for treating disease, but immune surveillance of these macromolecules can drive an antidrug immune response that compromises efficacy and even undermines safety. To eliminate widespread T-cell epitopes in any biotherapeutic and thereby mitigate this key source of detrimental immune recognition, we developed a Pareto optimal deimmunization library design algorithm that optimizes protein libraries to account for the simultaneous effects of combinations of mutations on both molecular function and epitope content. Active variants identified by high-throughput screening are thus inherently likely to be deimmunized. Functional screening of an optimized 10-site library (1,536 variants) of P99 β-lactamase (P99βL), a component of ADEPT cancer therapies, revealed that the population possessed high overall fitness, and comprehensive analysis of peptide–MHC II immunoreactivity showed the population possessed lower average immunogenic potential than the wild-type enzyme. Although similar functional screening of an optimized 30-site library (2.15 × 109 variants) revealed reduced population-wide fitness, numerous individual variants were found to have activity and stability better than the wild type despite bearing 13 or more deimmunizing mutations per enzyme. The immunogenic potential of one highly active and stable 14-mutation variant was assessed further using ex vivo cellular immunoassays, and the variant was found to silence T-cell activation in seven of the eight blood donors who responded strongly to wild-type P99βL. In summary, our multiobjective library-design process readily identified large and mutually compatible sets of epitope-deleting mutations and produced highly active but aggressively deimmunized constructs in only one round of library screening. PMID:28607051

  3. Computationally optimized deimmunization libraries yield highly mutated enzymes with low immunogenicity and enhanced activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvat, Regina S; Verma, Deeptak; Parker, Andrew S; Kirsch, Jack R; Brooks, Seth A; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris; Griswold, Karl E

    2017-06-27

    Therapeutic proteins of wide-ranging function hold great promise for treating disease, but immune surveillance of these macromolecules can drive an antidrug immune response that compromises efficacy and even undermines safety. To eliminate widespread T-cell epitopes in any biotherapeutic and thereby mitigate this key source of detrimental immune recognition, we developed a Pareto optimal deimmunization library design algorithm that optimizes protein libraries to account for the simultaneous effects of combinations of mutations on both molecular function and epitope content. Active variants identified by high-throughput screening are thus inherently likely to be deimmunized. Functional screening of an optimized 10-site library (1,536 variants) of P99 β-lactamase (P99βL), a component of ADEPT cancer therapies, revealed that the population possessed high overall fitness, and comprehensive analysis of peptide-MHC II immunoreactivity showed the population possessed lower average immunogenic potential than the wild-type enzyme. Although similar functional screening of an optimized 30-site library (2.15 × 10 9 variants) revealed reduced population-wide fitness, numerous individual variants were found to have activity and stability better than the wild type despite bearing 13 or more deimmunizing mutations per enzyme. The immunogenic potential of one highly active and stable 14-mutation variant was assessed further using ex vivo cellular immunoassays, and the variant was found to silence T-cell activation in seven of the eight blood donors who responded strongly to wild-type P99βL. In summary, our multiobjective library-design process readily identified large and mutually compatible sets of epitope-deleting mutations and produced highly active but aggressively deimmunized constructs in only one round of library screening.

  4. Registration of a high yielding malt barley variety HB1454 for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HB1454 (Reg. No. EH 1847/F4.2P.5.2) is a two - rowed, hulled, malting barley developed at Holetta Research Center (HRC). HB 1454 was tested in a multi location variety trial as EH 1847/F4.2P.5.2 from 2005- 2007 along with twelve genotypes advanced from the local crossing program. It was released in 2011 for its high ...

  5. A systematic experimental study of thick-target neutron yield for high-energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T.; Kurosawa, T.; Shibata, T.; Uwamino, Y.; Fukumura, A.

    1999-01-01

    Angular and energy distributions of neutrons produced by 100 and 180 MeV/nucleon He, 100, 180 and 400 MeV/nucleon C, 100, 180 and 400 MeV/nucleon Ne ions stopping in thick carbon, aluminium, copper and lead targets have been measured using the heavy ion medical accelerator of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The neutron spectra in the forward direction have broad peaks located at about 60-70% of the incident particle energy per nucleon due to break-up process and spreading up to almost twice as much as the projectile energy per nucleon. The neutron spectra at all angles consists of two components of cascade neutrons and evaporation neutrons. The experimental results are also compared with the calculations using the HIC and LCS codes, and the calculated results generally agree with the measured ones within a factor of 2 margin of accuracy, except around the high energy end in the forward direction. This systematic study on neutron production from thick targets by high-energy heavy ions is a first experimental work and will be useful in the shielding design of high-energy heavy ion accelerator facilities. (author)

  6. Tuning of ZIF-Derived Carbon with High Activity, Nitrogen Functionality, and Yield - A Case for Superior CO2 Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadipelli, Srinivas; Guo, Zheng Xiao

    2015-06-22

    A highly effective and facile synthesis route is developed to create and tailor metal-decorated and nitrogen-functionalized active microporous carbon materials from ZIF-8. Clear metal- and pyrrolic-N-induced enhancements of the cyclic CO2 uptake capacities and binding energies are achieved, particularly at a much lower carbonization temperature of 700 °C than those often reported (1000 °C). The high-temperature carbonization can enhance the porosity but only at the expense of considerable losses of sample yield and metal and N functional sites. The findings are comparatively discussed with carbons derived from metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) reported previously. Furthermore, the porosity of the MOF-derived carbon is critically dependent on the structure of the precursor MOF and the crystal growth. The current strategy offers a new and effective route for the creation and tuning of highly active and functionalized carbon structures in high yields and with low energy consumption. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  7. Biocontrol potential of Halotolerant bacterial chitinase from high yielding novel Bacillus Pumilus MCB-7 autochthonous to mangrove ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishad, K S; Rebello, Sharrel; Shabanamol, P S; Jisha, M S

    2017-04-01

    The multifaceted role of chitinase in medicine, agriculture, environmental remediation and various other industries greatly demands the isolation of high yielding chitinase producing microorganisms with improved properties. The current study aimed to investigate the isolation, characterization and biocontrol prospective of chitinase producing bacterial strains autochthonous to the extreme conditions of mangrove ecosystems. Among the 51 bacterial isolates screened, Bacillus pumilus MCB-7 with highest chitinase production potential was identified and confirmed by 16S rDNA typing. Chitinase enzyme of MCB-7 was purified; the chitin degradation was evaluated by SEM and LC-MS. Unlike previously reported B.pumilus isolates, MCB-7 exhibited highest chitinase activity of 3.36U/mL, active even at high salt concentrations and temperature up to 60°C. The crude as well as purified enzyme showed significant antimycotic activity against agricultural pathogens such as Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Ceratorhiza hydrophila and Fusarium oxysporum. The enzyme also exhibited biopesticidal role against larvae of Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker). [Lep.: Pyralidae], a serious agricultural pest of rice. The high chitinolytic and antimycotic potential of MCB-7 increases the prospects of the isolate as an excellent biocontrol agent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of high chitinase yielding Bacillus pumilus strain from mangrove ecosystem with a biocontrol role against phytopathogenic fungi and insect larval pests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A natural variant of NAL1, selected in high-yield rice breeding programs, pleiotropically increases photosynthesis rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Toshiyuki; Adachi, Shunsuke; Taguchi-Shiobara, Fumio; Sanoh-Arai, Yumiko; Iwasawa, Norio; Yoshinaga, Satoshi; Hirose, Sakiko; Taniguchi, Yojiro; Yamanouchi, Utako; Wu, Jianzhong; Matsumoto, Takashi; Sugimoto, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Katsuhiko; Ikka, Takashi; Ando, Tsuyu; Kono, Izumi; Ito, Sachie; Shomura, Ayahiko; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Hirasawa, Tadashi; Yano, Masahiro; Kondo, Motohiko; Yamamoto, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Improvement of leaf photosynthesis is an important strategy for greater crop productivity. Here we show that the quantitative trait locus GPS (GREEN FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) controls photosynthesis rate by regulating carboxylation efficiency. Map-based cloning revealed that GPS is identical to NAL1 (NARROW LEAF1), a gene previously reported to control lateral leaf growth. The high-photosynthesis allele of GPS was found to be a partial loss-of-function allele of NAL1. This allele increased mesophyll cell number between vascular bundles, which led to thickened leaves, and it pleiotropically enhanced photosynthesis rate without the detrimental side effects observed in previously identified nal1 mutants, such as dwarf plant stature. Furthermore, pedigree analysis suggested that rice breeders have repeatedly selected the high-photosynthesis allele in high-yield breeding programs. The identification and utilization of NAL1 (GPS) can enhance future high-yield breeding and provides a new strategy for increasing rice productivity. PMID:23985993

  9. Selectable high-yield recombinant protein production in human cells using a GFP/YFP nanobody affinity support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Matthew J; Petrovich, Robert M; Malone, Christine C; Williams, R Scott

    2018-03-25

    Recombinant protein expression systems that produce high yields of pure proteins and multi-protein complexes are essential to meet the needs of biologists, biochemists, and structural biologists using X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy. An ideal expression system for recombinant human proteins is cultured human cells where the correct translation and chaperone machinery are present. However, compared to bacterial expression systems, human cell cultures present several technical challenges to their use as an expression system. We developed a method that utilizes a YFP fusion-tag to generate recombinant proteins using suspension-cultured HEK293F cells. YFP is a dual-function tag that enables direct visualization and fluorescence-based selection of high expressing clones for and rapid purification using a high-stringency, high-affinity anti-GFP/YFP nanobody support. We demonstrate the utility of this system by expressing two large human proteins, TOP2α (340 KDa dimer) and a TOP2β catalytic core (260 KDa dimer). This robustly and reproducibly yields >10 mg/L liter of cell culture using transient expression or 2.5 mg/L using stable expression. Published 2018. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. High-performance holographic technologies for fluid-dynamics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Sergei S.; Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Oh, Se Baek; Barbastathis, George; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2010-01-01

    Modern technologies offer new opportunities for experimentalists in a variety of research areas of fluid dynamics. Improvements are now possible in the state-of-the-art in precision, dynamic range, reproducibility, motion-control accuracy, data-acquisition rate and information capacity. These improvements are required for understanding complex turbulent flows under realistic conditions, and for allowing unambiguous comparisons to be made with new theoretical approaches and large-scale numerical simulations. One of the new technologies is high-performance digital holography. State-of-the-art motion control, electronics and optical imaging allow for the realization of turbulent flows with very high Reynolds number (more than 107) on a relatively small laboratory scale, and quantification of their properties with high space–time resolutions and bandwidth. In-line digital holographic technology can provide complete three-dimensional mapping of the flow velocity and density fields at high data rates (over 1000 frames per second) over a relatively large spatial area with high spatial (1–10 μm) and temporal (better than a few nanoseconds) resolution, and can give accurate quantitative description of the fluid flows, including those of multi-phase and unsteady conditions. This technology can be applied in a variety of problems to study fundamental properties of flow–particle interactions, rotating flows, non-canonical boundary layers and Rayleigh–Taylor mixing. Some of these examples are discussed briefly. PMID:20211881

  11. Runoff and sediment variation in the areas with high and coarse sediment yield of the middle Yellow River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pan; Yao, Wenyi; Xiao, Peiqing; Sun, Weiying

    2018-02-01

    Massive water and soil conservation works (WSCW) have been conducted in the areas with high and coarse sediment yield of the middle Yellow River since 1982. With the impending effects of climate change, it is necessary to reconsider the effects of WSCW on runoff and sediment variation at decadal and regional scales. Using long-term official and synthesized data, the WSCW impacts on reducing water and soil loss were studied in Sanchuanhe River watershed. Results showed that the sediment and runoff generated from this area showed a decreasing trend in the past 50 years. A great progress has been achieved in erosion control since the 1970s. After the 4 soil and water conservation harnessing stages during the period from 1970 to 2006, the sediment and runoff yield showed decreases with the extension of harnessing. The results revealed that human activities exerted the largest effects on the sediment reduction and explained 66.6% of the variation in the specific sediment yield. The contribution of rainfall variation to runoff reduction was as large as human activities. A great benefit have been obtained in water and soil loss control in this area.

  12. High yield of synchronous lesions in referred patients with large lateral spreading colorectal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Benjamin L; Ponugoti, Prasanna L; Rex, Douglas K

    2017-01-01

    There are few data on the prevalence of synchronous colorectal lesions in patients who have large lateral spreading tumors (LLSTs). We sought to describe the rate of synchronous lesions found in patients who underwent endoscopic resection of large sessile adenomas and serrated lesions. This is a retrospective assessment of a prospectively created database of 728 consecutive patients with resected LLSTs who underwent complete clearing of the colon during 2 colonoscopies by a single expert endoscopist. The 728 patients with resected LLSTs and complete clearing had 4578 synchronous lesions, including 584 patients (80.2%) with at least 1 synchronous conventional adenoma, 132 (18.1%) with at least 1 synchronous conventional adenoma ≥ 20 mm in size, 294 (40.4%) with at least 1 synchronous advanced conventional adenoma, and 6 patients with a synchronous lesion with cancer. Patients with an index large sessile conventional adenoma compared with those with an index large serrated lesion had on average more synchronous conventional adenomas (4.8 vs 2.9, P = .001) and fewer synchronous serrated lesions (1.4 vs 4.5, P < .001). Of the 97 patients with a serrated class index lesion, 28 (28.9%) met criteria for serrated polyposis. There is a very high prevalence of synchronous lesions, including other large and advanced synchronous lesions, in patients with flat or sessile conventional adenomas and serrated colorectal polyps. Patients with LLSTs in the colon need detailed clearing of the rest of the colon. Patients referred for endoscopic resection of serrated lesions ≥ 20 mm have a very high prevalence of serrated polyposis. This study has potential implications for further stratification of high-risk patient groups in postpolypectomy surveillance guidelines. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. High-yield synthesis of brookite TiO.sub.2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Dale L [Albuquerque, NM; Monson, Todd C [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-05-17

    A method for forming non-agglomerated brookite TiO.sub.2 nanoparticles without the use of expensive organic surfactants or high temperature processing. Embodiments of this invention use titanium isopropoxide as the titanium precursor and isopropanol as both the solvent and ligand for ligand-stabilized brookite-phase titania. Isopropanol molecules serve as the ligands interacting with the titania surfaces that stabilize the titania nanoparticles. The isopropanol ligands can be exchanged with other alcohols and other ligands during or after the nanoparticle formation reaction.

  14. High Photoluminescence Quantum Yield in Band Gap Tunable Bromide Containing Mixed Halide Perovskites

    OpenAIRE

    Carolin M. Sutter-Fella Yanbo Li Matin Amani Joel W. Ager III Francesca M. Toma; Eli Yablonovitch Ian D. Sharp and Ali Javey

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid organic–inorganic halide perovskite based semiconductor materials are attractive for use in a wide range of optoelectronic devices because they combine the advantages of suitable optoelectronic attributes and simultaneously low cost solution processability. Here we present a two step low pressure vapor assisted solution process to grow high quality homogeneous CH3NH3PbI3–xBrx perovskite films over the full band gap range of 1.6–2.3 eV. Photoluminescence light in versus light out charac...

  15. High yields of hydrogen production from methanol steam reforming with a cross-U type reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shubin; Zhang, Yufeng; Chen, Junyu; Zhang, Xuelin; Liu, Xiaowei

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical and experimental study on the performance of a methanol steam reformer integrated with a hydrogen/air combustion reactor for hydrogen production. A CFD-based 3D model with mass and momentum transport and temperature characteristics is established. The simulation results show that better performance is achieved in the cross-U type reactor compared to either a tubular reactor or a parallel-U type reactor because of more effective heat transfer characteristics. Furthermore, Cu-based micro reformers of both cross-U and parallel-U type reactors are designed, fabricated and tested for experimental validation. Under the same condition for reforming and combustion, the results demonstrate that higher methanol conversion is achievable in cross-U type reactor. However, it is also found in cross-U type reactor that methanol reforming selectivity is the lowest due to the decreased water gas shift reaction under high temperature, thereby carbon monoxide concentration is increased. Furthermore, the reformed gas generated from the reactors is fed into a high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). In the test of discharging for 4 h, the fuel cell fed by cross-U type reactor exhibits the most stable performance.

  16. High yield hydrolysis of seaweed-waste biomass using peracetic acid and ionic liquid treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uju, Wijayanta, Agung Tri; Goto, Masahiro; Kamiya, Noriho

    2018-02-01

    Seaweed is one of the most promising bioethanol feedstocks. This water plant has high carbohydrate content but low lignin content, as a result it will be easier to be hydrolysed. This paper described hydrolysis of seaweed-waste biomass from the carrageenan (SWBC) industry using enzymatic saccharification or ionic liquids-HCl hydrolysis. In the first work, SWBC pretreated by peracetic acid (PAA) followed by ionic liquid (IL) caused enhance the cellulose conversion of enzymatic saccharification. At 48h saccharification, the value conversion almost reached 100%. In addition, the untreated SWBC also produced the cellulose conversion 77%. In the second work, SWBC or Bagasse with or without pretreated by PAA was hydrolyzed using ILs-HCl hydrolysis. The ILs used were 1-buthyl-3-methylpyridium chloride, [Bmpy][Cl] and 1-butyl-3-metyl imidazolium chloride ([Bmim][Cl]). [Bmpy][Cl]-HCl hydrolysis produced higher cellulose conversion than [Bmim][Cl]-HCl hydrolysis. The phenomenon was clearly observed on the Bagasse, which without pretreated by PAA. Furthermore, SWBC hydrolyzed by both ILs in the presence low concentration of HCl produced cellulose conversion 70-98% at 60-90 min of hydrolysis time. High cellulose conversion of SWBC on the both hydrolysis was caused by SWBC had the low lignin (4%). Moreover, IL treatments caused lowering of cellulose hydrogen bonds or even changed the cellulose characteristics from cellulose I to cellulose II which easily to be hydrolyzed. In the case of [Bmpy][Cl], this IL may reduce the degree polymerization of celluloses.

  17. High yields of hydrogen production from methanol steam reforming with a cross-U type reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shubin; Chen, Junyu; Zhang, Xuelin; Liu, Xiaowei

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical and experimental study on the performance of a methanol steam reformer integrated with a hydrogen/air combustion reactor for hydrogen production. A CFD-based 3D model with mass and momentum transport and temperature characteristics is established. The simulation results show that better performance is achieved in the cross-U type reactor compared to either a tubular reactor or a parallel-U type reactor because of more effective heat transfer characteristics. Furthermore, Cu-based micro reformers of both cross-U and parallel-U type reactors are designed, fabricated and tested for experimental validation. Under the same condition for reforming and combustion, the results demonstrate that higher methanol conversion is achievable in cross-U type reactor. However, it is also found in cross-U type reactor that methanol reforming selectivity is the lowest due to the decreased water gas shift reaction under high temperature, thereby carbon monoxide concentration is increased. Furthermore, the reformed gas generated from the reactors is fed into a high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). In the test of discharging for 4 h, the fuel cell fed by cross-U type reactor exhibits the most stable performance. PMID:29121067

  18. Characteristics and Composition of a High Oil Yielding Castor Variety from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panhwar, Tarique; Mahesar, Sarfaraz Ahmed; Mahesar, Abdul Waheed; Kandhro, Aftab Ahmed; Talpur, Farah Naz; Laghari, Zahid Hussain; Chang, Abdul Sattar; Hussain Sherazi, Syed Tufail

    2016-01-01

    Keeping in view the versatile applications of castor oil in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and recently as renewable source, the present work is a step towards the commercialization of castor on large scale in Pakistan. The current study introduces a castor variety with high oil content. Initially seeds were physically examined for some physical parameters. Seed moisture, ash content and linear dimensions such as length, width and thickness were found to be 4.53%, 6.44%, 12.24 mm, 8.31 mm and 5.67 mm, respectively. For oil extraction, Soxhlet method was used which resulted in the high oil content 54.0%. For quality assessment of oil, physicochemical parameters were checked according to official standard AOCS methods and compared with ASTM specifications. The determined parameters were as follows; specific gravity 0.953 g/cm(-3), refractive index 1.431, viscosity 672.0 mPas.s, moisture content 0.32%, FFA 0.14%, IV 83.61 gI2/100 g, PV 2.25 meq/Kg and SV 186.0 mgKOH/g. Furthermore, fatty acid analysis of oil showed that, most abundant fatty acid was ricinoleic acid 94.59%, followed by palmitic 0.31%, linoleic 1.84%, oleic (n-9) 2.05%, oleic (n-10) 0.22%, stearic 0.45% and eicosenoic acid 0.53%. The detected fatty acids were compared with registered variety and varieties of other regions.

  19. Tethering of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide inside hollow nanofibers for high-yield synthesis of methanol from carbon dioxide catalyzed by coencapsulated multienzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoyuan; Su, Zhiguo; Wang, Ping; Ma, Guanghui; Zhang, Songping

    2015-01-01

    Enzymatic conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to fuel or chemicals is appealing, but is limited by lack of efficient technology for regeneration and reuse of expensive cofactors. Here we show that cationic polyelectrolyte-doped hollow nanofibers, which can be fabricated via a facile coaxial electrospinning technology, provide an ideal scaffold for assembly of cofactor and multienzymes capable of synthesizing methanol from CO2 through a cascade multistep reaction involving cofactor regeneration. Cofactor and four enzymes including formate, formaldehyde, alcohol, and glutamate dehydrogenases were in situ coencapsulated inside the lumen of hollow nanofibers by involving them in the core-phase solution for coaxial electrospinning, in which cationic polyelectrolyte was predissolved. The polyelectrolyte penetrating across the shell of the hollow nanofibers enabled efficient tethering and retention of cofactor inside the lumen via ion-exchange interactions between oppositely charged polyelectrolytes and cofactor. With carbonic anhydrase assembled on the outer surface of the hollow nanofibers for accelerating hydration of CO2, these five-enzymes-cofactor catalyst system exhibited high activity for methanol synthesis. Compared with methanol yield of only 36.17% using free enzymes and cofactor, the hollow nanofiber-supported system afforded a high value up to 103.2%, the highest reported value so far. It was believed that the linear polyelectrolytes acted as spacers to enhance the shuttling of cofactor between enzymes that were coencapsulated within near vicinity, thus improving the efficiency of the system. The immobilized system showed good stability in reusing. About 80% of its original productivity was retained after 10 reusing cycles, with a cofactor-based cumulative methanol yield reached 940.5%.

  20. Systematic high-yield production of human secreted proteins in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Xueyu; Chen Qiang; Lian Min; Zhou Yanfeng; Zhou Mo; Lu Shanyun; Chen Yunjia; Luo Jingchu; Gu Xiaocheng; Jiang Ying; Luo Ming; Zheng Xiaofeng

    2005-01-01

    Human secreted proteins play a very important role in signal transduction. In order to study all potential secreted proteins identified from the human genome sequence, systematic production of large amounts of biologically active secreted proteins is a prerequisite. We selected 25 novel genes as a trial case for establishing a reliable expression system to produce active human secreted proteins in Escherichia coli. Expression of proteins with or without signal peptides was examined and compared in E. coli strains. The results indicated that deletion of signal peptides, to a certain extent, can improve the expression of these proteins and their solubilities. More importantly, under expression conditions such as induction temperature, N-terminus fusion peptides need to be optimized in order to express adequate amounts of soluble proteins. These recombinant proteins were characterized as well-folded proteins. This system enables us to rapidly obtain soluble and highly purified human secreted proteins for further functional studies

  1. Gene stacking of multiple traits for high yield of fermentable sugars in plant biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Aude; Chalvin, Camille; Shih, Patrick M.

    2018-01-01

    the ratio of C6 to C5 sugars in the cell wall and decreasing the lignin content are two important targets in engineering of plants that are more suitable for downstream processing for second-generation biofuel production.Results: We have studied the basic mechanisms of cell wall biosynthesis and identified...... genes involved in biosynthesis of pectic galactan, including the GALS1 galactan synthase and the UDP-galactose/UDP-rhamnose transporter URGT1. We have engineered plants with a more suitable biomass composition by applying these findings, in conjunction with synthetic biology and gene stacking tools...... to vessels where this polysaccharide is essential. Finally, the high galactan and low xylan traits were stacked with the low lignin trait obtained by expressing the QsuB gene encoding dehydroshikimate dehydratase in lignifying cells.Conclusion: The results show that approaches to increasing C6 sugar content...

  2. Spray Drying of High Sugar Content Foods: Improving of Product Yield and Powder Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Koç

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying is the most preferred drying method to produce powdered food in the food industry and it is also widely used to convert sugar-rich liquid foods to a powder form. During and/or after spray drying process of sugar-rich products, undesirable situation was appeared such as stickiness, high moisture affinity (hygroscopicity and low solubility due to low molecular weight monosaccharides that found naturally in the structure. The basis of these problems was formed by low glass transition temperature of sugar-rich products. This review gives information about the difficulties in drying of sugar-rich products via spray dryer, actions need to be taken against these difficulties and drying of sugar-rich honey and fruit juices with spray drying method.

  3. High biohydrogen yielding Clostridium sp. DMHC-10 isolated from sludge of distillery waste treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamalaskar, Leena B.; Dhakephalkar, P.K.; Meher, K.K.; Ranade, D.R. [Microbial Sciences Division, Agharkar Research Institute, G.G. Agarkar Road, Pune 411004 (India)

    2010-10-15

    A mesophilic high hydrogen producing strain DMHC-10 was isolated from a lab scale anaerobic reactor being operated on distillery wastewater for hydrogen production. DMHC-10 was identified as Clostridium sp. on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Various medium components (carbon and nitrogen sources) and environmental factors (initial pH, temperature of incubation) were optimized for hydrogen production by Clostridium sp. DMHC-10. The strain, in late exponential growth phase, showed maximum hydrogen production (3.35 mol-H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose utilized) at 37 C, pH 5.0 in a medium supplemented with organic nitrogen source. Butyric acid to acetic acid ratio was ca. 2.3. Hydrogen production declined when organic nitrogen was replaced with inorganic nitrogen. (author)

  4. Effects of Biomass Feedstock on the Yield and Reactivity of Soot from Fast Pyrolysis at High Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Peter A.; Glarborg, Peter

    microscopy techniques, X-ray diffraction and N2-adsorption. The reactivity of soot was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that the reactivity of soot, generated at 1400°C was higher than that at 1250°C for all biomass types. Wood and wheat straw soot demonstrated differences......This study investigated the effect of feedstock on the yield, nanostructure and reactivity of soot. Woody and herbaceous biomass were pyrolyzed at high heating rates and temperatures of 1250 and 1400°C in a drop tube furnace. The collected solid residues were structurally characterized by electron...

  5. Learning Technologies: Tweeting in a High School Social Studies Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Prince Hycy; Adams, Shayla

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the perceptions of 46 high school students on the integration of Twitter as a learning technology. Twitter was introduced and used to supplement instruction in the course for the first six weeks of the 2010/2011 academic year. The integration included designing twitter pages, communication, reflections, use of twitpics…

  6. Rapid single flux quantum logic in high temperature superconductor technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shunmugavel, K.

    2006-01-01

    A Josephson junction is the basic element of rapid single flux quantum logic (RSFQ) circuits. A high operating speed and low power consumption are the main advantages of RSFQ logic over semiconductor electronic circuits. To realize complex RSFQ circuits in HTS technology one needs a reproducible

  7. SAFT Li-ion Technology for High Rate Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nechev, Kamen; Deveney, Bridget; Guseynov, Teymur; Erbacher, John; Vukson, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    SAFT will present an update of its state-of-the art Very High Power (VHP) Lithium-ion (Li-ion) technology. The VHP cells are currently being qualified for use in military aircraft applications as well as in future military hybrid vehicles...

  8. Photonic Technologies for Ultra-High-Speed Information Highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchoule, S; Lèfevre, R.; Legros, E.

    1999-01-01

    The ACTS project HIGHWAY (AC067) addresses promising ultra-high speed optoelectronic components and system technologies for 40 Gbit/s time-division-multiplexed (TDM) transport systems. Advanced 40 Gbit/s TDM system lab demonstrators are to be realized and tested over installed field fiber testbed...

  9. The principles of ultra high pressure technology and its application ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... Key words: Ultra-high pressure (UHP), food processing/preservation and new food-processing technologies. INTRODUCTION. Increasing .... solutions, silicone oil, sodium benzoate solutions, ethanol solutions, inert gases and .... The residual enzyme activity and dissolved oxygen results in enzymatic and ...

  10. Internationalization of high-technology ventures from emerging economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    This paper aims to contribute towards filling in the gap in the international entrepreneurhsip literature by exploring how and why new high-technology ventures internationalize from an emerging economy, namely Moldova. To address the above research questions, a multiple-case study strategy...

  11. You and Technology, A High School Case Study Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaskos, Nickander J., Ed.; Smyth, Michael P., Ed.

    This second draft of a manuscript for a high school engineering and technology course uses case studies as its format. The principles associated with various engineering problems are presented along with their effects on daily life. Topics include the computer, the automotive power system, satellite communications, the petroleum industry, water…

  12. High frequency MOSFET gate drivers technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhiliang

    2017-01-01

    This book describes high frequency power MOSFET gate driver technologies, including gate drivers for GaN HEMTs, which have great potential in the next generation of switching power converters. Gate drivers serve as a critical role between control and power devices.

  13. Identifying and Researching Market Opportunities for New High Technology Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, Peter

    Using a product called the synchro-pulse welder as a case study example, this paper discusses the activities of CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) in identifying and marketing new high-technology products. A general discussion of CSIRO's market research plans includes two goals to be attained within the next 5…

  14. Characteristics Contributing to High-Technology Start-Up Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goslin, L.; Brown, W.; Palm, T.

    1993-01-01

    The factors contributing to the success of high technology start-up firms have received much discussion in current business literature. The discussion of the characteristics of success has been based on increasing substantiation by empirical research. The available information suggests that the p...

  15. Fabrication of fluorographene nanosheets with high yield and good quality based on supercritical fluid-phase exfoliation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qi; Ji, Yan; Zhang, Danying; Shi, Jia [Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials, College of Chemical Engineering (China); Xiao, Yinghong, E-mail: yhxiao@njnu.edu.cn [Nanjing Normal University, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Biomedical Functional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science (China); Che, Jianfei, E-mail: xiaoche@mail.njust.edu.cn [Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials, College of Chemical Engineering (China)

    2016-07-15

    This article presents a novel and simple method of supercritical fluid-phase exfoliation to fabricate fluorographene (FG) nanosheets with high yield and good quality. After soaking with supercritical CO{sub 2} and glycol at 10 MPa and 50 °C for 24 h, fluoride graphite powder was exfoliated by the intercalated CO{sub 2} and glycol molecules during an abrupt depressurization step. Here, supercritical CO{sub 2} acted as a penetrant and glycol acted as a “molecular wedge” to exfoliate fluoride graphite very well. The properties of FG nanosheets were detected by TEM, AFM, UV spectra, FTIR, XPS, Raman spectra, and XRD, which show the possibility of producing thickness-controlled FG nanosheets by varying numbers of supercritical CO{sub 2} process and the high yield of pure FG nanosheets of 32 wt%, four times higher than that of the sample treated only by the traditional method of sonication. Its simplicity, high productivity, low cost, and short processing time make this technique suitable for large-scale manufacturing of FG nanosheets.

  16. Rapid single flux quantum logic in high temperature superconductor technology

    OpenAIRE

    Shunmugavel, K.

    2006-01-01

    A Josephson junction is the basic element of rapid single flux quantum logic (RSFQ) circuits. A high operating speed and low power consumption are the main advantages of RSFQ logic over semiconductor electronic circuits. To realize complex RSFQ circuits in HTS technology one needs a reproducible fabrication of Josephson junctions with low parameter spread. High quality HTS junctions require a fully epitaxial multilayer structure with clean interfaces and a smooth surface morphology. Neodymium...

  17. High-Yield Purification, Preservation, and Serial Transplantation of Human Satellite Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Garcia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Investigation of human muscle regeneration requires robust methods to purify and transplant muscle stem and progenitor cells that collectively constitute the human satellite cell (HuSC pool. Existing approaches have yet to make HuSCs widely accessible for researchers, and as a result human muscle stem cell research has advanced slowly. Here, we describe a robust and predictable HuSC purification process that is effective for each human skeletal muscle tested and the development of storage protocols and transplantation models in dystrophin-deficient and wild-type recipients. Enzymatic digestion, magnetic column depletion, and 6-marker flow-cytometric purification enable separation of 104 highly enriched HuSCs per gram of muscle. Cryostorage of HuSCs preserves viability, phenotype, and transplantation potential. Development of enhanced and species-specific transplantation protocols enabled serial HuSC xenotransplantation and recovery. These protocols and models provide an accessible system for basic and translational investigation and clinical development of HuSCs. : Garcia and colleagues report methods for efficient purification of satellite cells from human skeletal muscle. They use their approaches to demonstrate stem cell functions of endogenous satellite cells and to make human satellite cells accessible for sharing among researchers. Keywords: human satellite cell purification, serial transplantation, satellite cell cryopreservation

  18. Simple and high yielding method for preparing tissue specific extracellular matrix coatings for cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeQuach, Jessica A; Mezzano, Valeria; Miglani, Amar; Lange, Stephan; Keller, Gordon M; Sheikh, Farah; Christman, Karen L

    2010-09-27

    The native extracellular matrix (ECM) consists of a highly complex, tissue-specific network of proteins and polysaccharides, which help regulate many cellular functions. Despite the complex nature of the ECM, in vitro cell-based studies traditionally assess cell behavior on single ECM component substrates, which do not adequately mimic the in vivo extracellular milieu. We present a simple approach for developing naturally derived ECM coatings for cell culture that provide important tissue-specific cues unlike traditional cell culture coatings, thereby enabling the maturation of committed C2C12 skeletal myoblast progenitors and human embryonic stem cells differentiated into cardiomyocytes. Here we show that natural muscle-specific coatings can (i) be derived from decellularized, solubilized adult porcine muscle, (ii) contain a complex mixture of ECM components including polysaccharides, (iii) adsorb onto tissue culture plastic and (iv) promote cell maturation of committed muscle progenitor and stem cells. This versatile method can create tissue-specific ECM coatings, which offer a promising platform for cell culture to more closely mimic the mature in vivo ECM microenvironment.

  19. Production of a high proton yield beam in a semi-cylindrical plasma generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Araki, Masanori; Dairaku, Masayuki; Horiike, Hiroshi; Ohara, Yoshihiro; Okumura, Yoshikazu; Tanaka, Shigeru; Yokoyama, Kenji; Pamela, J.

    1990-12-01

    A semi-cylindrical plasma generator whose dimensions are 34 cm in inner diameter and 129 cm in length has been developed for use in JAPAN-FRANCE collaborative experiment on the energy recovery. The 3D computer code for the magnetic field distribution and the electron orbits was utilized to obtain a high proton ratio and a good uniformity of plasma. Plasma spatial uniformities were measured with Langmuir probes. The plasma uniformity of +/- 5% was obtained in the measured region of 8 cm x 100 cm at the arc current of 900 A. Hydrogen beams were extracted from a central area of 7 cm x 27 cm and ion species were measured by the Doppler shifted spectroscopy. The results show that the proton ratio became higher 1) at higher arc current, 2) at the magnetic field distributions which confine the electrons strongly and 3) at the magnetic field distribution in which the electrons orbits are far from the beam extraction region. The proton ratio of 93% was obtained in the case where the plasma uniformity was as good as +/- 5% in the area of 8 cm x 100 cm. The highest proton ratio of 95% was obtained with a strongly linked magnetic field distribution. (author)

  20. Productive common light chain libraries yield diverse panels of high affinity bispecific antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Blarcom, Thomas; Melton, Zea; Cheung, Wai Ling; Wagstrom, Chris; McDonough, Dan; Valle Oseguera, Cendy; Ding, Sheng; Rossi, Andrea; Potluri, Shobha; Sundar, Purnima; Sirota, Marina; Yan, Yu; Jones, Jeffrey; Roe-Zurz, Zygy; Srivatsa Srinivasan, Surabhi; Zhai, Wenwu; Pons, Jaume; Rajpal, Arvind; Chaparro-Riggers, Javier

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The commercial success of bispecific antibodies generally has been hindered by the complexities associated with generating appropriate molecules for both research scale and large scale manufacturing purposes. Bispecific IgG (BsIgG) based on two antibodies that use an identical common light chain can be combined with a minimal set of Fc mutations to drive heavy chain heterodimerization in order to address these challenges. However, the facile generation of common light chain antibodies with properties similar to traditional monoclonal antibodies has not been demonstrated and they have only been used sparingly. Here, we describe the design of a synthetic human antibody library based on common light chains to generate antibodies with biochemical and biophysical properties that are indistinguishable to traditional therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. We used this library to generate diverse panels of well-behaved, high affinity antibodies toward a variety of epitopes across multiple antigens, including mouse 4-1BB, a therapeutically important T cell costimulatory receptor. Over 200 BsIgG toward 4-1BB were generated using an automated purification method we developed that enables milligram-scale production of BsIgG. This approach allowed us to identify antibodies with a wide range of agonistic activity that are being used to further investigate the therapeutic potential of antibodies targeting one or more epitopes of 4-1BB. PMID:29227213

  1. High-yield recombinant expression of the extremophile enzyme, bee hyaluronidase in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitinger, Stephan; Boroviak, Thorsten; Laschober, Gerhard Thomas; Fehrer, Christine; Müllegger, Johannes; Lindner, Herbert; Lepperdinger, Günter

    2008-02-01

    Hyaluronidase from honey bee was recombinantly expressed as a secreted glycoprotein in Pichia pastoris. The active enzyme was produced in milligram quantities per liter of primary culture. When changing the codons of the original transcript to triplet sequences preferred by P. pastoris, no further increase of protein product could be achieved. After expression of a fusion protein by linking hyaluronidase and human serum albumin together with the recognition sequence for the protease, factorXa, fragmented protein products were obtained in the culture supernatant. Only after replacement of the hinge region with a serine-glycine-rich linker, stable full-length fusion protein could be generated. The protein products were purified by cation exchange chromatography at pH 5.0 and pure enzyme fractions were further characterized in detail. The biochemical properties of the product matched those of crude hyaluronidase within bee venom: the native and the recombinant enzyme exhibited activity over a pH range from 3 to 8 (maximum: 3.8), at temperatures as low as 4 degrees C and up to 90 degrees C (maximum 62 degrees C), and at ionic strength as high as 2 M salt. Recombinant bee hyaluronidase efficiently degrades 6-S-chondroitin sulfate (chondroitin sulfate C) as well as 4-S-chondroitin sulfate (chondroitin sulfate A), the latter to a lesser extent. Only very little hydrolase activity towards chondroitin sulfate B (dermatan sulfate) was detectable.

  2. Evaluation of low-cost cathode catalysts for high yield biohydrogen production in microbial electrolysis cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Chen, Y; Ye, Y; Lu, B; Zhu, S; Shen, S

    2011-01-01

    As an ideal fuel due to the advantages of no pollution, high combustion heat and abundant sources, hydrogen gas can be produced from organic matter through the electrohydrogenesis process in microbial electrolysis cells. But in many MECs, platinum is often used as catalyst, which limits the practical applications of MECs. To reduce the cost of the MECs, Ni-based alloy cathodes were developed by electrodepositing. In this paper hydrogen production using Ni-W-P cathode was studied for the first time in a single-chamber membrane-free MEC. At an applied voltage of 0.9 V, MECs with Ni-W-P cathodes obtained a hydrogen production rate of 1.09 m3/m3/day with an cathodic hydrogen recovery of 74%, a Coulombic efficiency of 56% and an electrical energy efficiency relative to electrical input of 139%, which was the best result of reports in this study. The Ni-W-P cathode demonstrated a better electrocatalytic activity than the Ni-Ce-P cathode and achieved a comparable performance to the Pt cathode in terms of hydrogen production rate, Coulombic efficiency, cathodic hydrogen recovery and electrical energy efficiency at 0.9 V.

  3. Superselective yttrium-90 radioembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma yields high response rates with minimal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padia, Siddharth A; Kwan, Sharon W; Roudsari, Bahman; Monsky, Wayne L; Coveler, Andrew; Harris, William P

    2014-07-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of yttrium-90 ((90)Y) radioembolization when performed in a superselective fashion for patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This retrospective study included 20 patients with unresectable HCC. Median Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score was 10.5 (range, 6-25), with 8 of 20 patients (40%) classified Child-Pugh class B and 1 of 20 patients (5%) classified class C cirrhosis. Segmental tumor-associated portal vein thrombus was present in 12 patients (60%), and a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt was present in 4 patients (20%). Median tumor diameter was 3.9 cm (range, 2.5-7.1 cm). All patients underwent superselective (90)Y radioembolization targeted to a single liver segment using glass microspheres. Median dose to the treated segment was 254 Gy, and median dose to the tumor was 536 Gy. No grade 3-4 hepatotoxicity occurred. The most common clinical toxicities were fatigue (30%), abdominal pain (10%), and postembolization syndrome (10%). Follow-up imaging demonstrated complete European Association for the Study of the Liver response of the index tumor in 19 of 20 patients (95%) and stable disease in 1 of 20 patients (5%). In patients with complete response, local tumor recurrence rate was 5.3% (1 of 19 patients). Median time to progression was 319 days. Overall survival was 90% (18 of 20 patients) with a median follow-up period of 275 days (range, 32-677 d). When performed in a segmental fashion, (90)Y radioembolization demonstrates high response rates and low local tumor recurrence rates. Complete imaging response can be achieved in patients with locally aggressive disease. This study demonstrates no clinically significant hepatotoxicity, despite moderate liver dysfunction in many patients. Copyright © 2014 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. High-level waste management technology program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document the integrated technology program plan for the Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Management System. The mission of the SRS HLW System is to receive and store SRS high-level wastes in a see and environmentally sound, and to convert these wastes into forms suitable for final disposal. These final disposal forms are borosilicate glass to be sent to the Federal Repository, Saltstone grout to be disposed of on site, and treated waste water to be released to the environment via a permitted outfall. Thus, the technology development activities described herein are those activities required to enable successful accomplishment of this mission. The technology program is based on specific needs of the SRS HLW System and organized following the systems engineering level 3 functions. Technology needs for each level 3 function are listed as reference, enhancements, and alternatives. Finally, FY-95 funding, deliverables, and schedules are s in Chapter IV with details on the specific tasks that are funded in FY-95 provided in Appendix A. The information in this report represents the vision of activities as defined at the beginning of the fiscal year. Depending on emergent issues, funding changes, and other factors, programs and milestones may be adjusted during the fiscal year. The FY-95 SRS HLW technology program strongly emphasizes startup support for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and In-Tank Precipitation. Closure of technical issues associated with these operations has been given highest priority. Consequently, efforts on longer term enhancements and alternatives are receiving minimal funding. However, High-Level Waste Management is committed to participation in the national Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area. 4 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. High-level waste management technology program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document the integrated technology program plan for the Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Management System. The mission of the SRS HLW System is to receive and store SRS high-level wastes in a see and environmentally sound, and to convert these wastes into forms suitable for final disposal. These final disposal forms are borosilicate glass to be sent to the Federal Repository, Saltstone grout to be disposed of on site, and treated waste water to be released to the environment via a permitted outfall. Thus, the technology development activities described herein are those activities required to enable successful accomplishment of this mission. The technology program is based on specific needs of the SRS HLW System and organized following the systems engineering level 3 functions. Technology needs for each level 3 function are listed as reference, enhancements, and alternatives. Finally, FY-95 funding, deliverables, and schedules are s in Chapter IV with details on the specific tasks that are funded in FY-95 provided in Appendix A. The information in this report represents the vision of activities as defined at the beginning of the fiscal year. Depending on emergent issues, funding changes, and other factors, programs and milestones may be adjusted during the fiscal year. The FY-95 SRS HLW technology program strongly emphasizes startup support for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and In-Tank Precipitation. Closure of technical issues associated with these operations has been given highest priority. Consequently, efforts on longer term enhancements and alternatives are receiving minimal funding. However, High-Level Waste Management is committed to participation in the national Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area. 4 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs

  6. Advanced High-Temperature Engine Materials Technology Progresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced High Temperature Engine Materials Technology Program (HITEMP) at the NASA Lewis Research Center is to generate technology for advanced materials and structural analysis that will increase fuel economy, improve reliability, extend life, and reduce operating costs for 21st century civil propulsion systems. The primary focus is on fan and compressor materials (polymer-matrix composites - PMC's), compressor and turbine materials (superalloys, and metal-matrix and intermetallic-matrix composites - MMC's and IMC's), and turbine materials (ceramic-matrix composites - CMC's). These advanced materials are being developed in-house by Lewis researchers and on grants and contracts.

  7. Italian high technology shows its wares at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    Italian industry held an exhibition at CERN on 14-17 November with 26 firms displaying innovative technological developments. In particular it featured categories such as mechanics, high-vacuum technologies, electronics for detectors, and electric and civil engineering. The exhibition was inaugurated in the presence of Guido Possa, vice-minister for education, universities and research. The event was organized by Sandro Centro, INFN researcher and Industrial Liaison Officer at CERN, along with Federico Ferrini, scientific officer for International Organizations of Geneva and the Italian Chamber of Commerce in Switzerland

  8. Development of Nano technology in High Performance Concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nima Farzadnia; Abang Abdullah Abang Ali; Ramazan Demirboga; Demirboga, R.

    2011-01-01

    Concrete is the most widely used building material all around the world which has been undergoing many changes aligned with technological advancement. The most recent available type of concrete is high performance concrete which is produced by employing different admixtures both chemical and mineral to enhance mechanical properties and durability. Recently, technology has made it easy for scientist to study nano sized admixtures and their effect on microstructure of concrete. This paper reviews nano particles in cement composites and how they can improve different properties of concrete. (author)

  9. Highly Polluted Wastewaters Treatment by Improved Dissolved Air Flotation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moga, I. C.; Covaliu, C. I.; Matache, M. G.; Doroftei, B. I.

    2017-06-01

    Numerous investigations are oriented towards the development of new wastewater treatment technologies, having high efficiencies for removing even low concentrations of pollutants found in water. These efforts were determined by the destroyer impact of the pollutants to the environment and human’s health. For this reason this paper presents our study concerning an improved dissolved air flotation technology for wastewater treatment. There is described a dissolved air flotation (DAF) installation composed by two equipments: pressurized capsule and lamellar settling. Also, there are presented some advantages of using nanoparticles as flotation collectors.

  10. Equity yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, E.; van Binsbergen, J.H.; Koijen, R.S.J.; Hueskes, W.

    2013-01-01

    We study a new data set of dividend futures with maturities up to ten years across three world regions: the US, Europe, and Japan. We use these asset prices to construct equity yields, analogous to bond yields. We decompose the equity yields to obtain a term structure of expected dividend growth

  11. Genetic engineering of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 for rapid and high-yield production of vanillin from ferulic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Nadja; Altenbuchner, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Vanillin is one of the most important flavoring agents used today. That is why many efforts have been made on biotechnological production from natural abundant substrates. In this work, the nonpathogenic Pseudomonas putida strain KT2440 was genetically optimized to convert ferulic acid to vanillin. Deletion of the vanillin dehydrogenase gene (vdh) was not sufficient to prevent vanillin degradation. Additional inactivation of a molybdate transporter, identified by transposon mutagenesis, led to a strain incapable to grow on vanillin as sole carbon source. The bioconversion was optimized by enhanced chromosomal expression of the structural genes for feruloyl-CoA synthetase (fcs) and enoyl-CoA hydratase/aldolase (ech) by introduction of the strong tac promoter system. Further genetic engineering led to high initial conversion rates and molar vanillin yields up to 86% within just 3 h accompanied with very low by-product levels. To our knowledge, this represents the highest productivity and molar vanillin yield gained with a Pseudomonas strain so far. Together with its high tolerance for ferulic acid, the developed, plasmid-free P. putida strain represents a promising candidate for the biotechnological production of vanillin.

  12. A High-Yield Synthesis of Chalcopyrite CuInS2 Nanoparticles with Exceptional Size Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chivin Sun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report high-yield and efficient size-controlled syntheses of Chalcopyrite CuInS2 nanoparticles by decomposing molecular single source precursors (SSPs via microwave irradiation in the presence of 1,2-ethanedithiol at reaction temperatures as low as 100°C and times as short as 30 minutes. The nanoparticles sizes were 1.8 nm to 10.8 nm as reaction temperatures were varied from 100°C to 200°C with the bandgaps from 2.71 eV to 1.28 eV with good size control and high yields (64%–95%. The resulting nanoparticles were analyzed by XRD, UV-Vis, ICP-OES, XPS, SEM, EDS, and HRTEM. Titration studies by 1H NMR using SSP 1 with 1,2-ethanedithiol and benzyl mercaptan were conducted to elucidate the formation of Chalcopyrite CuInS2 nanoparticles.

  13. Energy production from agricultural residues: High methane yields in pilot-scale two-stage anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parawira, W.; Read, J.S.; Mattiasson, B.; Bjoernsson, L.

    2008-01-01

    There is a large, unutilised energy potential in agricultural waste fractions. In this pilot-scale study, the efficiency of a simple two-stage anaerobic digestion process was investigated for stabilisation and biomethanation of solid potato waste and sugar beet leaves, both separately and in co-digestion. A good phase separation between hydrolysis/acidification and methanogenesis was achieved, as indicated by the high carbon dioxide production, high volatile fatty acid concentration and low pH in the acidogenic reactors. Digestion of the individual substrates gave gross energy yields of 2.1-3.4 kWh/kg VS in the form of methane. Co-digestion, however, gave up to 60% higher methane yield, indicating that co-digestion resulted in improved methane production due to the positive synergism established in the digestion liquor. The integrity of the methane filters (MFs) was maintained throughout the period of operation, producing biogas with 60-78% methane content. A stable effluent pH showed that the methanogenic reactors had good ability to withstand the variations in load and volatile fatty acid concentrations that occurred in the two-stage process. The results of this pilot-scale study show that the two-stage anaerobic digestion system is suitable for effective conversion of semi-solid agricultural residues as potato waste and sugar beet leaves

  14. Ultrafiltration with size-exclusion liquid chromatography for high yield isolation of extracellular vesicles preserving intact biophysical and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Joel Z; Lee, Yi; Vader, Pieter; Mäger, Imre; Johansson, Henrik J; Heusermann, Wolf; Wiklander, Oscar P B; Hällbrink, Mattias; Seow, Yiqi; Bultema, Jarred J; Gilthorpe, Jonathan; Davies, Tim; Fairchild, Paul J; Gabrielsson, Susanne; Meisner-Kober, Nicole C; Lehtiö, Janne; Smith, C I Edvard; Wood, Matthew J A; El Andaloussi, Samir

    2015-05-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are natural nanoparticles that mediate intercellular transfer of RNA and proteins and are of great medical interest; serving as novel biomarkers and potential therapeutic agents. However, there is little consensus on the most appropriate method to isolate high-yield and high-purity EVs from various biological fluids. Here, we describe a systematic comparison between two protocols for EV purification: ultrafiltration with subsequent liquid chromatography (UF-LC) and differential ultracentrifugation (UC). A significantly higher EV yield resulted from UF-LC as compared to UC, without affecting vesicle protein composition. Importantly, we provide novel evidence that, in contrast to UC-purified EVs, the biophysical properties of UF-LC-purified EVs are preserved, leading to a different in vivo biodistribution, with less accumulation in lungs. Finally, we show that UF-LC is scalable and adaptable for EV isolation from complex media types such as stem cell media, which is of huge significance for future clinical applications involving EVs. Recent evidence suggests extracellular vesicles (EVs) as another route of cellular communication. These EVs may be utilized for future therapeutics. In this article, the authors compared ultrafiltration with size-exclusion liquid chromatography (UF-LC) and ultra-centrifugation (UC) for EV recovery. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. NGS panel analysis in 24 ectopia lentis patients; a clinically relevant test with a high diagnostic yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overwater, E; Floor, K; van Beek, D; de Boer, K; van Dijk, T; Hilhorst-Hofstee, Y; Hoogeboom, A J M; van Kaam, K J; van de Kamp, J M; Kempers, M; Krapels, I P C; Kroes, H Y; Loeys, B; Salemink, S; Stumpel, C T R M; Verhoeven, V J M; Wijnands-van den Berg, E; Cobben, J M; van Tintelen, J P; Weiss, M M; Houweling, A C; Maugeri, A

    2017-09-01

    Several genetic causes of ectopia lentis (EL), with or without systemic features, are known. The differentiation between syndromic and isolated EL is crucial for further treatment, surveillance and counseling of patients and their relatives. Next generation sequencing (NGS) is a powerful tool enabling the simultaneous, highly-sensitive analysis of multiple target genes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic yield of our NGS panel in EL patients. Furthermore, we provide an overview of currently described mutations in ADAMTSL4, the main gene involved in isolated EL. A NGS gene panel was analysed in 24 patients with EL. A genetic diagnosis was confirmed in 16 patients (67%). Of these, four (25%) had a heterozygous FBN1 mutation, 12 (75%) were homozygous or compound heterozygous for ADAMTSL4 mutations. The known European ADAMTSL4 founder mutation c.767_786del was most frequently detected. The diagnostic yield of our NGS panel was high. Causative mutations were exclusively identified in ADAMTSL4 and FBN1. With this approach the risk of misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis can be reduced. The value and clinical implications of establishing a genetic diagnosis in patients with EL is corroborated by the description of two patients with an unexpected underlying genetic condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimal welding technology of high strength steel S690QL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Arsic

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented the detailed procedure for defining the optimal technology for welding the structures made of the high strength steel S690QL. That steel belongs into a group of steels with exceptional mechanical properties. The most prominent properties are the high tensile strength and impact toughness, at room and at elevated temperatures, as well. However, this steel has a negative characteristic - proneness to appearance of cold cracks.  That impedes welding and makes as an imperative to study different aspects of this steel's properties as well as those of eventual filler metal. Selection and defining of the optimal welding technology of this high strength steel is done for the purpose of preserving the favorable mechanical properties once the welded joint is realized; properties of the welded metal and the melting zone, as well as in the heat affected zone, which is the most critical zone of the welded joint.

  17. Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Industrial production in high-wage countries like Germany is still at risk. Yet, there are many counter-examples in which producing companies dominate their competitors by not only compensating for their specific disadvantages in terms of factor costs (e.g. wages, energy, duties and taxes) but rather by minimising waste using synchronising integrativity as well as by obtaining superior adaptivity on alternating conditions. In order to respond to the issue of economic sustainability of industrial production in high-wage countries, the leading production engineering and material research scientists of RWTH Aachen University together with renowned companies have established the Cluster of Excellence “Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries”. This compendium comprises the cluster’s scientific results as well as a selection of business and technology cases, in which these results have been successfully implemented into industrial practice in close cooperation with more than 30 companies of ...

  18. Determination of NABE in urine of high-yield dairy cows in early lactation in conditions of moderate heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fratrić Natalija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the results of investigations of the effect of moderate heat stress on the acidobasal status in high-yield dairy cows in early lactation. Improving performance in high-yield dairy cows increases their inclination toward metabolic disorders. The most likely to be affected is the acid-base balance, in particular when cows are exposed to heat stress. Investigations so far have shown that the taking of urine samples and their analysis is the best and fastest way to diagnose disorders in the acid-base balance. Investigations were carried out on 7 clinically healthy cows of the Holstein- Friesian breed in the phase of early lactation, 30 to 40 days (on days 30, 33 and 40 following calving during the summer period, during the month of July, when there were significant variations in daily and nightly temperatures. The cows were in the second and fourth lactation, the annual milk yield was 8000 L milk per cow. The average daily milk production in the early phase of lactation ranged from 35 to 40 L. The cows were fed mixed rations (TMR twice daily. Lucerne hay in limited quantities was given to the cows prior to the mixed feed ration. The ration for this animal category was optimized on the grounds of the daily milk production. The balance of cations and anions in the feed ration stood at 95 mEq/kg DM. The results clearly demonstrate the cows' response to moderate heat stress through the defense parameters in urine (urine pH, NABE (net-acid-base-excretion, acids, bases, ammonium ion (NH4. The determination of the kidney NABE yields more correct data than the urine pH on acidotic conditions. The results of examinations of the urine pH do not show any digressions from physiological values and are approximately the same in all cows during the investigated periods. Normal NABE values are from 100-200 mmol/L. Burdening with acid products results in a NABE range from 0-100mmol/L, and metabolic acidosis results in NAB<0 mmol/L. NABE in the cows

  19. High yield fabrication of hollow vesica-like silicon based on the Kirkendall effect and its application to energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jianwen; Li, Xiaona; Cheng, Qiushi; Hou, Zhiguo; Fan, Long; Zhu, Yongchun; Qian, Yitai

    2015-02-28

    Recently, a unique process based on the Kirkendall effect was employed to generate hollow nanostructures with a wide variety of materials. However, a similar hollow structure of silicon based on the fabrication mechanism of the Kirkendall effect is still not proposed. Here, we provide an extensible synthesis method for the high yield fabrication of a uniform vesica-like hollow Si material from SiO2 based on the Kirkendall effect in a molten salt reduction process. Significantly, without further modification, the as-prepared hollow vesica-like Si exhibits a high electrochemical storage capacity and long cycling properties (∼712 mA h g(-1) at 0.36 A g(-1) over 200 cycles).

  20. A novel bacterial expression method with optimized parameters for very high yield production of triple-labeled proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Victoria; Huang, Yuefei; Chen, Jianglei; Wang, Jianjun; Li, Qianqian

    2012-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli offer a means for rapid, high-yield, and economical production of recombinant proteins. However, when preparing protein samples for NMR, high-level production of functional isotopically labeled proteins can be quite challenging. This is especially true for the preparation of triple-labeled protein samples in D(2)O ((2)H/(13)C/(15)N). The large expense and time-consuming nature of triple-labeled protein production for NMR led us to revisit the current bacterial protein expression protocols. Our goal was to develop an efficient bacterial expression method for very high-level production of triple-labeled proteins that could be routinely utilized in every NMR lab without changing expression vectors or requiring fermentation. We developed a novel high cell-density IPTG-induction bacterial expression method that combines tightly controlled traditional IPTG-induction expression with the high cell-density of auto-induction expression. In addition, we optimize several key experimental protocols and parameters to ensure that our new high cell-density bacterial expression method routinely produces 14-25 mg of triple-labeled proteins and 15-35 mg of unlabeled proteins from 50-mL bacterial cell cultures.