WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology validation mission

  1. Validating foundry technologies for extended mission profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, K.; Volf, P.; Detcheverry, C.; Yau, A.; Ngan, P.; Liang, Z.; Kuper, F.G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a process qualification and characterization strategy that can extend the foundry process reliability potential to meet specific automotive mission profile requirements. In this case study, data and analyses are provided that lead to sufficient confidence for pushing the allowed

  2. The Cubesat Radiometer Radio Frequency Interference Technology Validation (CubeRRT) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, S.; Johnson, J. T.; Ball, C.; Chen, C. C.; Smith, G.; McKelvey, C.; Andrews, M.; O'Brien, A.; Kocz, J.; Jarnot, R.; Brown, S. T.; Piepmeier, J. R.; Lucey, J.; Miles, L. R.; Bradley, D.; Mohammed, P.

    2016-12-01

    Passive microwave measurements made below 40GHz have experienced increased amounts of man-made radio frequency interference (RFI) over the past couple of decades. Such RFI has had a degenerative impact on various important geophysical retrievals such as soil-moisture, sea-surface salinity, atmospheric water vapor, precipitation etc. The commercial demand for spectrum allocation has increased over the past couple of years - infringing on frequencies traditionally reserved for scientific uses such as Earth observation at passive microwave frequencies. With the current trend in shared spectrum allocations, future microwave radiometers will have to co-exist with terrestrial RFI sources. The CubeSat Radiometer Radio Frequency Interference Technology Validation (CubeRRT) mission is developing a 6U Cubesat system to demonstrate RFI detection and filtering technologies for future microwave radiometer remote sensing missions. CubeRRT will operate between 6-40GHz, and demonstrate on-board real-time RFI detection on Earth brightness temperatures tuned over 1GHz steps. The expected launch date for CubeRRT is early 2018. Digital subsystems for higher frequency microwave radiometry require a larger bandwidth, as well as more processing power and on-board operation capabilities for RFI filtering. Real-time and on-board RFI filtering technology development is critical for future missions to allow manageable downlink data volumes. The enabling CubeRRT technology is a digital FPGA-based spectrometer with a bandwidth of 1 GHz that is capable of implementing advanced RFI filtering algorithms that use the kurtosis and cross-frequency RFI detection methods in real-time on board the spacecraft. The CubeRRT payload consists of 3 subsystems: a wideband helical antenna, a tunable analog radiometer subsystem, and a digital backend. The following presentation will present an overview of the system and results from the latest integration and test.

  3. Impact of the CubeSat Radiometer Radio Frequency Interference Technology Validation (CubeRRT) mission on future resource-constrained science missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, C.; Chen, C. C.; O'Brien, A.; McKelvey, C.; Smith, G.; Misra, S.; Bendig, R.; Andrews, M.; Brown, S. T.; Garry, J. L.; Jarnot, R.; Johnson, J.; Kocz, J.; Bradley, D.; Felten, C.; Mohammed, P.; Lucey, J.; Horgan, K. A.; Bonds, Q.; Duran-Aviles, C.; Solly, M.; Fritts, M.; Piepmeier, J. R.; Pallas, M.; Krauss, E.; Laczkowski, D.

    2017-12-01

    The CubeSat Radiometer Radio Frequency Interference Technology Validation (CubeRRT) mission is developing a 6U CubeSat system to demonstrate radio frequency interference (RFI) detection and mitigation technologies for future microwave radiometer remote sensing missions. CubeRRT will perform observations of Earth brightness temperatures from 6-40 GHz using a 1 GHz bandwidth, 128 channel, digital spectrometer and will demonstrate on-board real-time RFI processing. The maturation of the RFI processor information system from TRL 5 to 7 is a key mission objective that is expected to facilitate the operation of next generation, high bandwidth radiometers in future satellite remote sensing systems. The CubeRRT payload and spacecraft are currently under development, with an expected launch date in March 2018 followed by a one year period of on-orbit operations. A critical challenge of this mission is the optimization of spacecraft resource usage while achieving sufficient sensor performance to satisfy mission requirements. Specifically, operation planning must balance limited electrical power and data downlink capacity. A simulation tool has been developed to optimize mission planning, and performance data from CubeRRT operations will validate the simulations and provide insight for future missions with similar resource constraints.

  4. Validation of Lithium-ion cell technology for JPL's 2003 Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Ratnakumar, Bugga V.; Ewell, R. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Surampudi, S.

    2004-01-01

    n early 2004 JPL successfully landed two Rovers, named Spirit and Opportunity, on the surface of Mars after traveling >300 million miles over a 6-7 month period. In order to operate for extended duration on the surface of Mars, both Rovers are equipped with rechargeable Lithium-ion batteries, which were designed to aid in the launch, correct anomalies during cruise, and support surface operations in conjunction with a triple-junction deployable solar arrays. The requirements of the Lithium-ion battery include the ability to provide power at least 90 sols on the surface of Mars, operate over a wide temperature range (-20 C to +40 C), withstanding long storage periods (e.g., cruise period), operate in an inverted position, and support high currents (e.g., firing pyro events). In order to determine the viability of Lithium-ion technology to meet these stringent requirements, a comprehensive test program was implemented aimed at demonstrating the performance capability of prototype cells fabricated by Lithion, Inc. (Yardney Technical Products, Inc.). The testing performed includes, determining the (a) room temperature cycle life, (b) pulse capability as a function of temperature, (e) self-discharge and storage characteristics mission profile capability, (f) cycle life under mission simulation conditions, (g) impedance characteristics, (h) impact of cell orientation, and (i) performance in 8-cell engineering batteries. As will be discussed, the Lithium-ion prototype cells and batteries were demonstrated to meet, as well as, exceed the requirements defined by the mission.

  5. Mission operations technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsi, Giulio

    In the last decade, the operation of a spacecraft after launch has emerged as a major component of the total cost of the mission. This trend is sustained by the increasing complexity, flexibility, and data gathering capability of the space assets and by their greater reliability and consequent longevity. The trend can, however, be moderated by the progressive transfer of selected functions from the ground to the spacecraft and by application, on the ground, of new technology. Advances in ground operations derive from the introduction in the mission operations environment of advanced microprocessor-based workstations in the class of a few million instructions per second and from the selective application of artificial intelligence technology. In the last few years a number of these applications have been developed, tested in operational settings and successfully demonstrated to users. Some are now being integrated in mission operations facilities. An analysis of mission operations indicates that the key areas are: concurrent control of multiple missions; automated/interactive production of command sequences of high integrity at low cost; automated monitoring of spacecraft health and automated aides for fault diagnosis; automated allocation of resources; automated processing of science data; and high-fidelity, high-speed spacecraft simulation. Examples of major advances in selected areas are described.

  6. Infusion of innovative technologies for mission operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Alessandro

    2010-11-01

    The Advanced Mission Concepts and Technologies Office (Mission Technologies Office, MTO for short) at the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) of ESA is entrusted with research and development of innovative mission operations concepts systems and provides operations support to special projects. Visions of future missions and requests for improvements from currently flying missions are the two major sources of inspiration to conceptualize innovative or improved mission operations processes. They include monitoring and diagnostics, planning and scheduling, resource management and optimization. The newly identified operations concepts are then proved by means of prototypes, built with embedded, enabling technology and deployed as shadow applications in mission operations for an extended validation phase. The technology so far exploited includes informatics, artificial intelligence and operational research branches. Recent outstanding results include artificial intelligence planning and scheduling applications for Mars Express, advanced integrated space weather monitoring system for the Integral space telescope and a suite of growing client applications for MUST (Mission Utilities Support Tools). The research, development and validation activities at the Mission technologies office are performed together with a network of research institutes across Europe. The objective is narrowing the gap between enabling and innovative technology and space mission operations. The paper first addresses samples of technology infusion cases with their lessons learnt. The second part is focused on the process and the methodology used at the Mission technologies office to fulfill its objectives.

  7. Flexible UAV Mission Management Using Emerging Technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Desimone, Roberto; Lee, Richard

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses recent results and proposed work in the application of emerging artificial intelligence technologies for flexible mission management, especially for unmanned (combat) airborne vehicles...

  8. Possible LISA Technology Applications for Other Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livas, Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) has been selected as the third large class mission launch opportunity of the Cosmic Visions Program by the European Space Agency (ESA). LISA science will explore a rich spectrum of astrophysical gravitational-wave sources expected at frequencies between 0.0001 and 0.1 Hz and complement the work of other observatories and missions, both space and ground-based, electromagnetic and non-electromagnetic. Similarly, LISA technology may find applications for other missions. This paper will describe the capabilities of some of the key technologies and discuss possible contributions to other missions.

  9. The Impact of Autonomous Systems Technology on JPL Mission Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Richard J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: (1) Autonomy for Future Missions- Mars Outposts, Titan Aerobot, and Europa Cryobot / Hydrobot; (2) Emergence of Autonomy- Remote Agent Architecture, Closing Loops Onboard, and New Millennium Flight Experiment; and (3) Software Engineering Challenges- Influence of Remote Agent, Scalable Autonomy, Autonomy Software Validation, Analytic Verification Technology, and Autonomy and Software Software Engineering.

  10. 2015 Science Mission Directorate Technology Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seablom, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    The role of the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) is to enable NASA to achieve its science goals in the context of the Nation's science agenda. SMD's strategic decisions regarding future missions and scientific pursuits are guided by Agency goals, input from the science community including the recommendations set forth in the National Research Council (NRC) decadal surveys and a commitment to preserve a balanced program across the major science disciplines. Toward this end, each of the four SMD science divisions -- Heliophysics, Earth Science, Planetary Science, and Astrophysics -- develops fundamental science questions upon which to base future research and mission programs. Often the breakthrough science required to answer these questions requires significant technological innovation, e.g., instruments or platforms with capabilities beyond the current state of the art. SMD's targeted technology investments fill technology gaps, enabling NASA to build the challenging and complex missions that accomplish groundbreaking science.

  11. NASA Technology Demonstrations Missions Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Fiscal Year 2010 (FY10) budget introduced a new strategic plan that placed renewed emphasis on advanced missions beyond Earth orbit. This supports NASA s 2011 strategic goal to create innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic future. As a result of this focus on undertaking many and more complex missions, NASA placed its attention on a greater investment in technology development, and this shift resulted in the establishment of the Technology Demonstrations Missions (TDM) Program. The TDM Program, within the newly formed NASA Office of the Chief Technologist, supports NASA s grand challenges by providing a steady cadence of advanced space technology demonstrations (Figure 1), allowing the infusion of flexible path capabilities for future exploration. The TDM Program's goal is to mature crosscutting capabilities to flight readiness in support of multiple future space missions, including flight test projects where demonstration is needed before the capability can transition to direct mission The TDM Program has several unique criteria that set it apart from other NASA program offices. For instance, the TDM Office matures a small number of technologies that are of benefit to multiple customers to flight technology readiness level (TRL) 6 through relevant environment testing on a 3-year development schedule. These technologies must be crosscutting, which is defined as technology with potential to benefit multiple mission directorates, other government agencies, or the aerospace industry, and they must capture significant public interest and awareness. These projects will rely heavily on industry partner collaboration, and funding is capped for all elements of the flight test demonstration including planning, hardware development, software development, launch costs, ground operations, and post-test assessments. In order to inspire collaboration across government and industry

  12. Logistics Reduction Technologies for Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyan, James L., Jr.; Ewert, Michael K.; Fink, Patrick W.

    2014-01-01

    Human exploration missions under study are limited by the launch mass capacity of existing and planned launch vehicles. The logistical mass of crew items is typically considered separate from the vehicle structure, habitat outfitting, and life support systems. Although mass is typically the focus of exploration missions, due to its strong impact on launch vehicle and habitable volume for the crew, logistics volume also needs to be considered. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) Project is developing six logistics technologies guided by a systems engineering cradle-to-grave approach to enable after-use crew items to augment vehicle systems. Specifically, AES LRR is investigating the direct reduction of clothing mass, the repurposing of logistical packaging, the use of autonomous logistics management technologies, the processing of spent crew items to benefit radiation shielding and water recovery, and the conversion of trash to propulsion gases. Reduction of mass has a corresponding and significant impact to logistical volume. The reduction of logistical volume can reduce the overall pressurized vehicle mass directly, or indirectly benefit the mission by allowing for an increase in habitable volume during the mission. The systematic implementation of these types of technologies will increase launch mass efficiency by enabling items to be used for secondary purposes and improve the habitability of the vehicle as mission durations increase. Early studies have shown that the use of advanced logistics technologies can save approximately 20 m(sup 3) of volume during transit alone for a six-person Mars conjunction class mission.

  13. Technology driven Robotic-Moon-Mission 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Bozic, Ognjan; Longo, Jose M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Summary The paper proposes a concept mission to Moon including a space-tug-vehicle in Moon orbit, a transfer surveillance/relay satellite into low lunar orbit, a Moon lander equipped with a rover for miscellaneous challenges and an Earth return spacecraft transporting Moon samples. To guaranty a low mission cost, trajectories of low impulse has been selected in combination of technologies like combined chemical-electrical propulsion; broad Ka–band/ X–band/ S-band transponder communication...

  14. Technologies and Mission Concepts for NHST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oegerle, William R.

    2003-01-01

    A technology workshop entitled "Innovative Designs for the Next Large Aperture Optical/UV Telescope" was held on April 10-11 at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore. This workshop was held to consider the technologies that will be required to support optical/UV space missions designed to carry out the science envisioned by the Hubble Science Legacy meeting held in April 2002 in Chicago. Subjects covered at the workshop included: optical designs, wavefront control, mirror technologies, spectrographs, coronagraphs, detector technologies, and in-space construction. A summary of the workshop and near-term plans for investigating several mission concepts will be provided. Funding for this workshop was provided by NASA.

  15. How Technology and Data Affect Mission Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-17

    relevant. For example, a concept of support developed using the Op- erational Logistics Planner is not a complete list of detailed decisions by phase, but...a standard issue green notebook and a good me- chanical pencil. Technology and the analysis and mobilization of data can enable or disrupt mission

  16. Human Robotic Systems (HRS): Robotic Technologies for Asteroid Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During 2014, the Robotic Technologies for Asteroid Missions activity has four tasks: Asteroid Retrieval Capture Mechanism Development and Testbed; Mission Operations...

  17. Disruption Tolerant Networking Flight Validation Experiment on NASA's EPOXI Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Jay; Burleigh, Scott; Jones, Ross; Torgerson, Leigh; Wissler, Steve

    2009-01-01

    In October and November of 2008, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory installed and tested essential elements of Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) technology on the Deep Impact spacecraft. This experiment, called Deep Impact Network Experiment (DINET), was performed in close cooperation with the EPOXI project which has responsibility for the spacecraft. During DINET some 300 images were transmitted from the JPL nodes to the spacecraft. Then they were automatically forwarded from the spacecraft back to the JPL nodes, exercising DTN's bundle origination, transmission, acquisition, dynamic route computation, congestion control, prioritization, custody transfer, and automatic retransmission procedures, both on the spacecraft and on the ground, over a period of 27 days. All transmitted bundles were successfully received, without corruption. The DINET experiment demonstrated DTN readiness for operational use in space missions. This activity was part of a larger NASA space DTN development program to mature DTN to flight readiness for a wide variety of mission types by the end of 2011. This paper describes the DTN protocols, the flight demo implementation, validation metrics which were created for the experiment, and validation results.

  18. S5: Information Technology for Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Joe

    2017-01-01

    NASA Missions and Programs create a wealth of science data and information that are essential to understanding our earth, our solar system and the universe. Advancements in information technology will allow many people within and beyond the Agency to more effectively analyze and apply these data and information to create knowledge. The desired end result is to see that NASA data and science information are used to generate the maximum possible impact to the nation: to advance scientific knowledge and technological capabilities, to inspire and motivate the nation's students and teachers, and to engage and educate the public.

  19. Mission Benefits Analysis of Logistics Reduction Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Future space exploration missions will need to use less logistical supplies if humans are to live for longer periods away from our home planet. Anything that can be done to reduce initial mass and volume of supplies or reuse or recycle items that have been launched will be very valuable. Reuse and recycling also reduce the trash burden and associated nuisances, such as smell, but require good systems engineering and operations integration to reap the greatest benefits. A systems analysis was conducted to quantify the mass and volume savings of four different technologies currently under development by NASA s Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing project. Advanced clothing systems lead to savings by direct mass reduction and increased wear duration. Reuse of logistical items, such as packaging, for a second purpose allows fewer items to be launched. A device known as a heat melt compactor drastically reduces the volume of trash, recovers water and produces a stable tile that can be used instead of launching additional radiation protection. The fourth technology, called trash-to-gas, can benefit a mission by supplying fuel such as methane to the propulsion system. This systems engineering work will help improve logistics planning and overall mission architectures by determining the most effective use, and reuse, of all resources.

  20. Exploration Life Support Technology Development for Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K.; Barta, Daniel J.; McQuillan, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Exploration Life Support (ELS) is one of NASA's Exploration Technology Development Projects. ELS plans, coordinates and implements the development of new life support technologies for human exploration missions as outlined in NASA's Vision for Space Exploration. ELS technology development currently supports three major projects of the Constellation Program - the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Altair Lunar Lander and Lunar Surface Systems. ELS content includes Air Revitalization Systems (ARS), Water Recovery Systems (WRS), Waste Management Systems (WMS), Habitation Engineering, Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA), and Validation and Testing. The primary goal of the ELS project is to provide different technology options to Constellation which fill gaps or provide substantial improvements over the state-of-the-art in life support systems. Since the Constellation missions are so challenging, mass, power, and volume must be reduced from Space Shuttle and Space Station technologies. Systems engineering analysis also optimizes the overall architecture by considering all interfaces with the life support system and potential for reduction or reuse of resources. For long duration missions, technologies which aid in closure of air and water loops with increased reliability are essential as well as techniques to minimize or deal with waste. The ELS project utilizes in-house efforts at five NASA centers, aerospace industry contracts, Small Business Innovative Research contracts and other means to develop advanced life support technologies. Testing, analysis and reduced gravity flight experiments are also conducted at the NASA field centers. This paper gives a current status of technologies under development by ELS and relates them to the Constellation customers who will eventually use them.

  1. The LUVOIR Mission Concept: Update and Technology Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.

    2016-01-01

    We present an overview of the Large Ultra Violet Optical Infrared (LUVOIR) decadal mission concept study. We provide updates from recent activities of the Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) and the Technology Working Group (TWG). We review the technology prioritization and discuss specific technology needs to enable the LUVOIR mission.

  2. Development of Life Support System Technologies for Human Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Ewert, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    With the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle planned to be completed in 2009, Exploration Life Support (ELS), a technology development project under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Exploration Technology Development Program, is focusing its efforts on needs for human lunar missions. The ELS Project s goal is to develop and mature a suite of Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) technologies for potential use on human spacecraft under development in support of U.S. Space Exploration Policy. ELS technology development is directed at three major vehicle projects within NASA s Constellation Program (CxP): the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Altair Lunar Lander and Lunar Surface Systems, including habitats and pressurized rovers. The ELS Project includes four technical elements: Atmosphere Revitalization Systems, Water Recovery Systems, Waste Management Systems and Habitation Engineering, and two cross cutting elements, Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis, and Validation and Testing. This paper will provide an overview of the ELS Project, connectivity with its customers and an update to content within its technology development portfolio with focus on human lunar missions.

  3. IMPaCT - Integration of Missions, Programs, and Core Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balacuit, Carlos P.; Cutts, James A.; Peterson, Craig E.; Beauchamp, Patricia M.; Jones, Susan K.; Hang, Winnie N.; Dastur, Shahin D.

    2013-01-01

    IMPaCT enables comprehensive information on current NASA missions, prospective future missions, and the technologies that NASA is investing in, or considering investing in, to be accessed from a common Web-based interface. It allows dependencies to be established between missions and technology, and from this, the benefits of investing in individual technologies can be determined. The software also allows various scenarios for future missions to be explored against resource constraints, and the nominal cost and schedule of each mission to be modified in an effort to fit within a prescribed budget.

  4. 48 CFR 970.5227-3 - Technology transfer mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technology transfer... for Management and Operating Contracts 970.5227-3 Technology transfer mission. As prescribed in 48 CFR 970.2770-4(a), insert the following clause: Technology Transfer Mission (AUG 2002) This clause has as...

  5. LIDAR technology developments in support of ESA Earth observation missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Yannig; Caron, Jérôme; Hélière, Arnaud; Bézy, Jean-Loup; Meynart, Roland

    2017-11-01

    Critical lidar technology developments have been ongoing at the European Space Agency (ESA) in support of EarthCARE (Earth Clouds, Aerosols, and Radiation Explorer), the 6th Earth Explorer mission, and A-SCOPE (Advanced Space Carbon and Climate Observation of Planet Earth), one of the candidates for the 7th Earth Explorer mission. EarthCARE is embarking an Atmospheric backscatter Lidar (ATLID) while A-SCOPE is based on a Total Column Differential Absorption Lidar. As EarthCARE phase B has just started, the pre-development activities, aiming at validating the technologies used in the flight design and at verifying the overall instrument performance, are almost completed. On the other hand, A-SCOPE pre-phase A has just finished. Therefore technology developments are in progress, addressing critical subsystems or components with the lowest TRL, selected in the proposed instrument concepts. The activities described in this paper span over a broad range, addressing all critical elements of a lidar from the transmitter to the receiver.

  6. Optimizing technology investments: a broad mission model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishko, R.

    2003-01-01

    A long-standing problem in NASA is how to allocate scarce technology development resources across advanced technologies in order to best support a large set of future potential missions. Within NASA, two orthogonal paradigms have received attention in recent years: the real-options approach and the broad mission model approach. This paper focuses on the latter.

  7. Managing the Perception of Advanced Technology Risks in Mission Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisario, Sebastian Nickolai

    2012-01-01

    Through my work in the project proposal office I became interested in how technology advancement efforts affect competitive mission proposals. Technology development allows for new instruments and functionality. However, including technology advancement in a mission proposal often increases perceived risk. Risk mitigation has a major impact on the overall evaluation of the proposal and whether the mission is selected. In order to evaluate the different approaches proposals took I compared the proposals claims of heritage and technology advancement to the sponsor feedback provided in the NASA debriefs. I examined a set of Discovery 2010 Mission proposals to draw patterns in how they were evaluated and come up with a set of recommendations for future mission proposals in how they should approach technology advancement to reduce the perceived risk.

  8. Technology Maturation in Preparation for the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) Technology Demonstration Mission (TDM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael L.; Doherty, Michael P.; Moder, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    In support of its goal to find an innovative path for human space exploration, NASA embarked on the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) Project, a Technology Demonstration Mission (TDM) to test and validate key cryogenic capabilities and technologies required for future exploration elements, opening up the architecture for large in-space cryogenic propulsion stages and propellant depots. Recognizing that key Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) technologies anticipated for on-orbit (flight) demonstration would benefit from additional maturation to a readiness level appropriate for infusion into the design of the flight demonstration, the NASA Headquarters Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) authorized funding for a one-year technology maturation phase of the CPST project. The strategy, proposed by the CPST Project Manager, focused on maturation through modeling, concept studies, and ground tests of the storage and fluid transfer of CFM technology sub-elements and components that were lower than a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 5. A technology maturation plan (TMP) was subsequently approved which described: the CFM technologies selected for maturation, the ground testing approach to be used, quantified success criteria of the technologies, hardware and data deliverables, and a deliverable to provide an assessment of the technology readiness after completion of the test, study or modeling activity. The specific technologies selected were grouped into five major categories: thick multilayer insulation, tank applied active thermal control, cryogenic fluid transfer, propellant gauging, and analytical tool development. Based on the success of the technology maturation efforts, the CPST project was approved to proceed to flight system development.

  9. Mission Architecture and Technology Options for a Flagship Class Venus In Situ Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Kwok, Johnny H.; Kolawa, Elizabeth A.; Cutts, James A.; Senske, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Venus, as part of the inner triad with Earth and Mars, represents an important exploration target if we want to learn more about solar system formation and evolution. Comparative planetology could also elucidate the differences between the past, present, and future of these three planets, and can help with the characterization of potential habitable zones in our solar system and, by extension, extrasolar systems. A long lived in situ Venus mission concept, called the Venus Mobile Explorer, was prominently featured in NASA's 2006 SSE Roadmap and supported in the community White Paper by the Venus Exploration Analysis Group (VEXAG). Long-lived in situ missions are expected to belong to the largest (Flagship) mission class, which would require both enabling and enhancing technologies beside mission architecture options. Furthermore, extreme environment mitigation technologies for Venus are considered long lead development items and are expected to require technology development through a dedicated program. To better understand programmatic and technology needs and the motivating science behind them, in this fiscal year (FY08) NASA is funding a Venus Flaghip class mission study, based on key science and technology drivers identified by a NASA appointed Venus Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT). These mission drivers are then assembled around a suitable mission architecture to further refine technology and cost elements. In this paper we will discuss the connection between the final mission architecture and the connected technology drivers from this NASA funded study, which - if funded - could enable a future Flagship class Venus mission and potentially drive a proposed Venus technology development program.

  10. Solar sailing technology, dynamics and mission applications

    CERN Document Server

    McInnes, Colin Robert

    1999-01-01

    Solar sailing offers the possibility of low-cost long-distance missions, impossible for any other type of conventional spacecraft The book provides a detailed account of solar sailing, at a high technical level but in a way accessible to the scientifically informed layman Solar sail orbital dynamics and solar radiation pressure form the foundations of the book, but the engineering design of solar sails is also considered, along with potential mission applications This book introduces the subject and at the same time provides a technical reference source

  11. Space Missions and Information Technology: Some Thoughts and Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation about information technology and its role in space missions is shown. The topics include: 1) Where is the IT on Space Missions? 2) Winners of the NASA Software of the Year Award; 3) Space Networking Roadmap; and 4) 10 (7) -Year Vision for IT in Space.

  12. Definition of technology development missions for early space station satellite servicing, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The results of all aspects of the early space station satellite servicing study tasks are presented. These results include identification of servicing tasks (and locations), identification of servicing mission system and detailed objectives, functional/operational requirements analyses of multiple servicing scenarios, assessment of critical servicing technology capabilities and development of an evolutionary capability plan, design and validation of selected servicing technology development missions (TDMs), identification of space station satellite servicing accommodation needs, and the cost and schedule implications of acquiring both required technology capability development and conducting the selected TDMs.

  13. Hybrid Propulsion Technology for Robotic Science Missions, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — C3 Propulsion's Hybrid Propulsion Technology will be applied to a NASA selected Sample Return Mission. Phase I will demonstrate Proof-of-Principle and Phase II will...

  14. Technology Development Roadmap: A Technology Development Roadmap for a Future Gravitational Wave Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jordan; Conklin, John; Livas, Jeffrey; Klipstein, William; McKenzie, Kirk; Mueller, Guido; Mueller, Juergen; Thorpe, James Ira; Arsenovic, Peter; Baker, John; hide

    2013-01-01

    -led mission after 2020-both use the same technologies. Further, NASA participation in an ESA-led mission would likely augment the eLISA architecture with a third arm to become the SGO Mid architecture. For these reasons, this TDR for a future GW mission applies to both designs and both programmatic paths forward. It is adaptable to the different timelines and roles for an ESA-led or a NASA-led mission, and it is adaptable to available resources. Based on a mature understanding of the interaction between technology and risk, the authors of this TDR have chosen a set of objectives that are more expansive than is usual. The objectives for this roadmap are: (1) reduce technical and development risks and costs; (2) understand and, where possible, relieve system requirements and consequences; (3) increase technical insight into critical technologies; and (4) validate the design at the subsystem level. The emphasis on these objectives, particularly the latter two, is driven by outstanding programmatic decisions, namely whether a future GW mission is ESA-led or NASA-led, and availability of resources. The relative emphasis is best understood in the context of prioritization.

  15. Mission to the Solar System: Exploration and Discovery. A Mission and Technology Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulkis, S. (Editor); Stetson, D. S. (Editor); Stofan, E. R. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Solar System exploration addresses some of humanity's most fundamental questions: How and when did life form on Earth? Does life exist elsewhere in the Solar System or in the Universe? - How did the Solar System form and evolve in time? - What can the other planets teach us about the Earth? This document describes a Mission and Technology Roadmap for addressing these and other fundamental Solar System Questions. A Roadmap Development Team of scientists, engineers, educators, and technologists worked to define the next evolutionary steps in in situ exploration, sample return, and completion of the overall Solar System survey. Guidelines were to "develop aa visionary, but affordable, mission and technology development Roadmap for the exploration of the Solar System in the 2000 to 2012 timeframe." The Roadmap provides a catalog of potential flight missions. (Supporting research and technology, ground-based observations, and laboratory research, which are no less important than flight missions, are not included in this Roadmap.)

  16. Mars Sample Return: Mars Ascent Vehicle Mission and Technology Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Jeffrey V.; Huynh, Loc C.; Hawke, Veronica M.; Jiang, Xun J.

    2013-01-01

    A Mars Sample Return mission is the highest priority science mission for the next decade recommended by the recent Decadal Survey of Planetary Science, the key community input process that guides NASAs science missions. A feasibility study was conducted of a potentially simple and low cost approach to Mars Sample Return mission enabled by the use of developing commercial capabilities. Previous studies of MSR have shown that landing an all up sample return mission with a high mass capacity lander is a cost effective approach. The approach proposed is the use of an emerging commercially available capsule to land the launch vehicle system that would return samples to Earth. This paper describes the mission and technology requirements impact on the launch vehicle system design, referred to as the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV).

  17. Concept designs for NASA's Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcguire, Melissa L.; Hack, Kurt J.; Manzella, David H.; Herman, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission were developed to assess vehicle performance and estimated mission cost. Concepts ranged from a 10,000 kilogram spacecraft capable of delivering 4000 kilogram of payload to one of the Earth Moon Lagrange points in support of future human-crewed outposts to a 180 kilogram spacecraft capable of performing an asteroid rendezvous mission after launched to a geostationary transfer orbit as a secondary payload. Low-cost and maximum Delta-V capability variants of a spacecraft concept based on utilizing a secondary payload adapter as the primary bus structure were developed as were concepts designed to be co-manifested with another spacecraft on a single launch vehicle. Each of the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission concepts developed included an estimated spacecraft cost. These data suggest estimated spacecraft costs of $200 million - $300 million if 30 kilowatt-class solar arrays and the corresponding electric propulsion system currently under development are used as the basis for sizing the mission concept regardless of launch vehicle costs. The most affordable mission concept developed based on subscale variants of the advanced solar arrays and electric propulsion technology currently under development by the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate has an estimated cost of $50M and could provide a Delta-V capability comparable to much larger spacecraft concepts.

  18. Space Technology Mission Directorate: Game Changing Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddis, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    NASA and the aerospace community have deep roots in manufacturing technology and innovation. Through it's Game Changing Development Program and the Advanced Manufacturing Technology Project NASA develops and matures innovative, low-cost manufacturing processes and products. Launch vehicle propulsion systems are a particular area of interest since they typically comprise a large percentage of the total vehicle cost and development schedule. NASA is currently working to develop and utilize emerging technologies such as additive manufacturing (i.e. 3D printing) and computational materials and processing tools that could dramatically improve affordability, capability, and reduce schedule for rocket propulsion hardware.

  19. Selection of a Brine Processor Technology for NASA Manned Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Donald L.; Gleich, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    The current ISS Water Recovery System (WRS) reclaims water from crew urine, humidity condensate, and Sabatier product water. Urine is initially processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) which recovers 75% of the urine as distillate. The remainder of the water is present in the waste brine which is currently disposed of as trash on ISS. For future missions this additional water must be reclaimed due to the significant resupply penalty for missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). NASA has pursued various technology development programs for a brine processor in the past several years. This effort has culminated in a technology down-select to identify the optimum technology for future manned missions. The technology selection is based on various criteria, including mass, power, reliability, maintainability, and safety. Beginning in 2016 the selected technology will be transitioned to a flight hardware program for demonstration on ISS. This paper summarizes the technology selection process, the competing technologies, and the rationale for the technology selected for future manned missions.

  20. Mission & Role | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI TTC serves as the focal point for implementing the Federal Technology Transfer Act to utilize patents as incentive for commercial development of technologies and to establish research collaborations and licensing among academia, federal laboratories, non-profit organizations, and industry. The TTC supports technology development activities for the National Cancer Institute and nine other NIH Institutes and Centers. TTC staff negotiate co-development agreements and licenses with universities, non-profit organizations, and pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies to ensure compliance with Federal statutes, regulations and the policies of the National Institutes of Health. TTC also reviews employee invention reports and makes recommendations concerning filing of domestic and foreign patent applications. | [google6f4cd5334ac394ab.html

  1. Space Technology 5 – Enabling Future Constellation Missions Using Micro-Satellites for Space Weather

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Guan; Moore, Thomas; Slavin, James

    2007-01-01

    Space Technology 5 (ST5) is a three micro-satellite constellation deployed into a 300 x 4500 km, dawn – dusk, sun synchronous polar orbit on March 22, 2006. The spacecraft were maintained in a “pearls on a string” constellation with controlled spacing ranging from just over 5000 km down to under 50 km. Each spacecraft carried a miniature tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer (MAG). Although the short 90-day mission was designed to flight validate new technologies, the constellation mission returned...

  2. How Technology Can Revitalize Historic Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Arthur

    2002-01-01

    In an excerpt from "The Wired Tower," a college president offers his perspective on the revolutionary and evolutionary changes that higher education will experience as a result of information technology and warns against a rush into the digital economy that could destroy higher education's reason for being. (EV)

  3. Technology needs for manned Mars missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Bartine, D.

    1991-01-01

    As members of the Stafford Synthesis Group, we performed an investigation as to the most expeditious manner to explore Mars. To do this, rationale, objectives, requirements and systems definitions were developed. The objectives include the development of the necessary infrastructure and resources for Mars exploration and performing initial successful exploration of Mars. This will include a transportation system between Mars and Earth, habitats for living on Mars, utilization of Martian resources, and the ability to perform exploration over the entire Martian surface. Using the developed architecture, key technologies were identified. 6 figs., 1 tab

  4. A new space technology for ocean observation: the SMOS mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Font

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Capability for sea surface salinity observation was an important gap in ocean remote sensing in the last few decades of the 20th century. New technological developments during the 1990s at the European Space Agency led to the proposal of SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity, an Earth explorer opportunity mission based on the use of a microwave interferometric radiometer, MIRAS (Microwave Imaging Radiometer with Aperture Synthesis. SMOS, the first satellite ever addressing the observation of ocean salinity from space, was successfully launched in November 2009. The determination of salinity from the MIRAS radiometric measurements at 1.4 GHz is a complex procedure that requires high performance from the instrument and accurate modelling of several physical processes that impact on the microwave emission of the ocean’s surface. This paper introduces SMOS in the ocean remote sensing context, and summarizes the MIRAS principles of operation and the SMOS salinity retrieval approach. It describes the Spanish SMOS high-level data processing centre (CP34 and the SMOS Barcelona Expert Centre on Radiometric Calibration and Ocean Salinity (SMOS-BEC, and presents a preliminary validation of global sea surface salinity maps operationally produced by CP34.

  5. Definition of technology development missions for early Space Station satellite servicing. Volume 2: Technical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, D. A.; Diewald, C. A.; Hills, T. C.; Parmentier, T. J.; Spencer, R. A.; Stone, G. E.

    1984-01-01

    Volume 2 contains the Technical Report of the approach and results of the Phase 2 study. The phase 2 servicing study was initiated in June 1983, and is being reported in this document. The scope of the contract was to: (1) define in detail five selected technology development missions (TDM); (2) conduct a design requirement analysis to refine definitions of satellite servicing requirements at the space station; and (3) develop a technology plan that would identify and schedule prerequisite precursor technology development, associated. STS flight experiments and space station experiments needed to provide onorbit validation of the evolving technology.

  6. Mission Systems Open Architecture Science and Technology (MOAST) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn, Kenneth; Rajabian-Schwart, Vahid; Kovach, Nicholas; Satterthwaite, Charles P.

    2017-04-01

    The Mission Systems Open Architecture Science and Technology (MOAST) program is an AFRL effort that is developing and demonstrating Open System Architecture (OSA) component prototypes, along with methods and tools, to strategically evolve current OSA standards and technical approaches, promote affordable capability evolution, reduce integration risk, and address emerging challenges [1]. Within the context of open architectures, the program is conducting advanced research and concept development in the following areas: (1) Evolution of standards; (2) Cyber-Resiliency; (3) Emerging Concepts and Technologies; (4) Risk Reduction Studies and Experimentation; and (5) Advanced Technology Demonstrations. Current research includes the development of methods, tools, and techniques to characterize the performance of OMS data interconnection methods for representative mission system applications. Of particular interest are the OMS Critical Abstraction Layer (CAL), the Avionics Service Bus (ASB), and the Bulk Data Transfer interconnects, as well as to develop and demonstrate cybersecurity countermeasures techniques to detect and mitigate cyberattacks against open architecture based mission systems and ensure continued mission operations. Focus is on cybersecurity techniques that augment traditional cybersecurity controls and those currently defined within the Open Mission System and UCI standards. AFRL is also developing code generation tools and simulation tools to support evaluation and experimentation of OSA-compliant implementations.

  7. Green Propellant Infusion Mission Program Development and Technology Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Christopher H.; Deininger, William D.; Joniatis, John; Aggarwal, Pravin K.; Spores, Ronald A.; Deans, Matthew; Yim, John T.; Bury, Kristen; Martinez, Jonathan; Cardiff, Eric H.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate's (STMD) Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) Technology Demonstration Mission (TDM) is comprised of a cross-cutting team of domestic spacecraft propulsion and storable green propellant technology experts. This TDM is led by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. (BATC), who will use their BCP- 100 spacecraft to carry a propulsion system payload consisting of one 22 N thruster for primary divert (DeltaV) maneuvers and four 1 N thrusters for attitude control, in a flight demonstration of the AF-M315E technology. The GPIM project has technology infusion team members from all three major market sectors: Industry, NASA, and the Department of Defense (DoD). The GPIM project team includes BATC, includes Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR), Air Force Research Laboratory, Aerospace Systems Directorate, Edwards AFB (AFRL), NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). STMD programmatic and technology oversight is provided by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The GPIM project shall fly an operational AF-M315E green propulsion subsystem on a Ball-built BCP-100 spacecraft.

  8. NASA Program Office Technology Investments to Enable Future Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley; Pham, Thai; Ganel, Opher

    2018-01-01

    The Cosmic Origins (COR) and Physics of the Cosmos (PCOS) Program Offices (POs) reside at NASA GSFC and implement priorities for the NASA HQ Astrophysics Division (APD). One major aspect of the POs’ activities is managing our Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program to mature technologies for future strategic missions. The Programs follow APD guidance on which missions are strategic, currently informed by the NRC’s 2010 Decadal Survey report, as well as APD’s Implementation Plan and the Astrophysics Roadmap.In preparation for the upcoming 2020 Decadal Survey, the APD has established Science and Technology Definition Teams (STDTs) to study four large-mission concepts: the Origins Space Telescope (née, Far-IR Surveyor), Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission, Large UV/Optical/IR Surveyor, and Lynx (née, X-ray Surveyor). The STDTs will develop the science case and design reference mission, assess technology development needs, and estimate the cost of their concept. A fifth team, the L3 Study Team (L3ST), was charged to study potential US contributions to ESA’s planned Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) gravitational-wave observatory.The POs use a rigorous and transparent process to solicit technology gaps from the scientific and technical communities, and prioritize those entries based on strategic alignment, expected impact, cross-cutting applicability, and urgency. For the past two years, the technology-gap assessments of the four STDTs and the L3ST are included in our process. Until a study team submits its final report, community-proposed changes to gaps submitted or adopted by a study team are forwarded to that study team for consideration.We discuss our technology development process, with strategic prioritization informing calls for SAT proposals and informing investment decisions. We also present results of the 2017 technology gap prioritization and showcase our current portfolio of technology development projects. To date, 96 COR and 86

  9. 76 FR 34041 - Clean Technologies Mission to India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... will target a broad range of clean technologies including wind, hydro, waste-to-energy, solar power... water and waste water treatment and solid waste management. This mission will contribute to the National..., which will allow delegates to tap into a wealth of local contacts for matchmaking and participate in...

  10. The Importance of Technology Readiness in NASA Earth Venture Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, James E.; Komar, George J.

    2009-01-01

    The first set of Venture-class investigations share the characteristic that the technology should be mature and all investigations must use mature technology that has been modeled or demonstrated in a relevant environment (Technology Readiness Level (TRL) >5). Technology Readiness Levels are a systematic metric/measurement system that supports assessments of the maturity of a particular technology and the consistent comparison of maturity between different types of technology. The TRL is used in NASA technology planning. A major step in the level of fidelity of the technology demonstration follows the completion of TRL 5. At TRL 6, a system or subsystem model or prototype must be demonstrated in a relevant environment (ground or space) representative model or prototype system or system, which would go well beyond ad hoc, "patch-cord," or discrete component level breadboarding. These TRL levels are chosen as target objectives for the Program. The challenge for offerors is that they must identify key aspects (uncertainty, multi subsystem complexity, etc) of the TRL estimate that should be properly explained in a submitted proposal. Risk minimization is a key component of the Earth Venture missions. Experiences of prior airborne missions will be shared. The discussion will address aspects of uncertainty and issues surrounding three areas of airborne earth science missions: (1) Aircraft or proposed flight platform -- Expressing the capability of the aircraft in terms of the supporting mission requirements. These issues include airplane performance characteristics (duration, range, altitude, among others) and multiship complexities. (2) Instruments -- Establishing that the instruments have been demonstrated in a relevant environment. Instruments with heritage in prior space missions meet this requirement, as do instruments tested on the ground. Evidence that the instruments have demonstrated the ability to collect data as advertised will be described. The complexity of

  11. NASA Earth Science Mission Control Center Enterprise Emerging Technology Study Study (MCC Technology Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dan; Horan, Stephen; Royer, Don; Sullivan, Don; Moe, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of the study to identify technologies that could have a significant impact on Earth Science mission operations when looking out at the 5-15 year horizon (through 2025). The potential benefits of the new technologies will be discussed, as well as recommendations for early research and development, prototyping, or analysis for these technologies.

  12. A New Architecture for Visualization: Open Mission Control Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Jay

    2017-01-01

    Open Mission Control Technologies (MCT) is a new architecture for visualisation of mission data. Driven by requirements for new mission capabilities, including distributed mission operations, access to data anywhere, customization by users, synthesis of multiple data sources, and flexibility for multi-mission adaptation, Open MCT provides users with an integrated customizable environment. Developed at NASAs Ames Research Center (ARC), in collaboration with NASAs Advanced Multimission Operations System (AMMOS) and NASAs Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Open MCT is getting its first mission use on the Jason 3 Mission, and is also available in the testbed for the Mars 2020 Rover and for development use for NASAs Resource Prospector Lunar Rover. The open source nature of the project provides for use outside of space missions, including open source contributions from a community of users. The defining features of Open MCT for mission users are data integration, end user composition and multiple views. Data integration provides access to mission data across domains in one place, making data such as activities, timelines, telemetry, imagery, event timers and procedures available in one place, without application switching. End user composition provides users with layouts, which act as a canvas to assemble visualisations. Multiple views provide the capability to view the same data in different ways, with live switching of data views in place. Open MCT is browser based, and works on the desktop as well as tablets and phones, providing access to data anywhere. An early use case for mobile data access took place on the Resource Prospector (RP) Mission Distributed Operations Test, in which rover engineers in the field were able to view telemetry on their phones. We envision this capability providing decision support to on console operators from off duty personnel. The plug-in architecture also allows for adaptation for different mission capabilities. Different data types and

  13. Mission Control Technologies: A New Way of Designing and Evolving Mission Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Jay; Walton, Joan; Saddler, Harry

    2006-01-01

    Current mission operations systems are built as a collection of monolithic software applications. Each application serves the needs of a specific user base associated with a discipline or functional role. Built to accomplish specific tasks, each application embodies specialized functional knowledge and has its own data storage, data models, programmatic interfaces, user interfaces, and customized business logic. In effect, each application creates its own walled-off environment. While individual applications are sometimes reused across multiple missions, it is expensive and time consuming to maintain these systems, and both costly and risky to upgrade them in the light of new requirements or modify them for new purposes. It is even more expensive to achieve new integrated activities across a set of monolithic applications. These problems impact the lifecycle cost (especially design, development, testing, training, maintenance, and integration) of each new mission operations system. They also inhibit system innovation and evolution. This in turn hinders NASA's ability to adopt new operations paradigms, including increasingly automated space systems, such as autonomous rovers, autonomous onboard crew systems, and integrated control of human and robotic missions. Hence, in order to achieve NASA's vision affordably and reliably, we need to consider and mature new ways to build mission control systems that overcome the problems inherent in systems of monolithic applications. The keys to the solution are modularity and interoperability. Modularity will increase extensibility (evolution), reusability, and maintainability. Interoperability will enable composition of larger systems out of smaller parts, and enable the construction of new integrated activities that tie together, at a deep level, the capabilities of many of the components. Modularity and interoperability together contribute to flexibility. The Mission Control Technologies (MCT) Project, a collaboration of

  14. Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) Technology Maturation: Establishing a Foundation for a Technology Demonstration Mission (TDM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Michael P.; Meyer, Michael L.; Motil, Susan M.; Ginty, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    As part of U.S. National Space Policy, NASA is seeking an innovative path for human space exploration, which strengthens the capability to extend human and robotic presence throughout the solar system. NASA is laying the groundwork to enable humans to safely reach multiple potential destinations, including asteroids, Lagrange points, the Moon and Mars. In support of this, NASA is embarking on the Technology Demonstration Mission Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (TDM CPST) Project to test and validate key cryogenic capabilities and technologies required for future exploration elements, opening up the architecture for large cryogenic propulsion stages (CPS) and propellant depots. The TDM CPST project will provide an on-orbit demonstration of the capability to store, transfer, and measure cryogenic propellants for a duration which is relevant to enable long term human space exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Recognizing that key cryogenic fluid management technologies anticipated for on-orbit (flight) demonstration needed to be matured to a readiness level appropriate for infusion into the design of the flight demonstration, the NASA Headquarters Space Technology Mission Directorate authorized funding for a one-year (FY12) ground based technology maturation program. The strategy, proposed by the CPST Project Manager, focused on maturation through modeling, studies, and ground tests of the storage and fluid transfer Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) technology sub-elements and components that were not already at a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 5. A technology maturation plan (TMP) was subsequently approved which described: the CFM technologies selected for maturation, the ground testing approach to be used, quantified success criteria of the technologies, hardware and data deliverables, and a deliverable to provide an assessment of the technology readiness after completion of the test, study or modeling activity. This paper will present

  15. Definition of technology development missions for early space station, orbit transfer vehicle servicing, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Propellant transfer, storage, and reliquefaction TDM; docking and berthing technology development mission; maintenance technology development mission; OTV/payload integration, space station interface/accommodations; combined TDM conceptual design; programmatic analysis; and TDM equipment usage are discussed.

  16. Cryogenic Fluid Management Technology for Moon and Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Michael P.; Gaby, Joseph D.; Salerno, Louis J.; Sutherlin, Steven G.

    2010-01-01

    In support of the U.S. Space Exploration Policy, focused cryogenic fluid management technology efforts are underway within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Under the auspices of the Exploration Technology Development Program, cryogenic fluid management technology efforts are being conducted by the Cryogenic Fluid Management Project. Cryogenic Fluid Management Project objectives are to develop storage, transfer, and handling technologies for cryogens to support high performance demands of lunar, and ultimately, Mars missions in the application areas of propulsion, surface systems, and Earth-based ground operations. The targeted use of cryogens and cryogenic technologies for these application areas is anticipated to significantly reduce propellant launch mass and required on-orbit margins, to reduce and even eliminate storage tank boil-off losses for long term missions, to economize ground pad storage and transfer operations, and to expand operational and architectural operations at destination. This paper organizes Cryogenic Fluid Management Project technology efforts according to Exploration Architecture target areas, and discusses the scope of trade studies, analytical modeling, and test efforts presently underway, as well as future plans, to address those target areas. The target areas are: liquid methane/liquid oxygen for propelling the Altair Lander Ascent Stage, liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen for propelling the Altair Lander Descent Stage and Ares V Earth Departure Stage, liquefaction, zero boil-off, and propellant scavenging for Lunar Surface Systems, cold helium and zero boil-off technologies for Earth-Based Ground Operations, and architecture definition studies for long term storage and on-orbit transfer and pressurization of LH2, cryogenic Mars landing and ascent vehicles, and cryogenic production via in situ resource utilization on Mars.

  17. Science, technology and mission design for LATOR experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turyshev, Slava G.; Shao, Michael; Nordtvedt, Kenneth L.

    2017-11-01

    The Laser Astrometric Test of Relativity (LATOR) is a Michelson-Morley-type experiment designed to test the Einstein's general theory of relativity in the most intense gravitational environment available in the solar system - the close proximity to the Sun. By using independent time-series of highly accurate measurements of the Shapiro time-delay (laser ranging accurate to 1 cm) and interferometric astrometry (accurate to 0.1 picoradian), LATOR will measure gravitational deflection of light by the solar gravity with accuracy of 1 part in a billion, a factor {30,000 better than currently available. LATOR will perform series of highly-accurate tests of gravitation and cosmology in its search for cosmological remnants of scalar field in the solar system. We present science, technology and mission design for the LATOR mission.

  18. Simulation-To-Flight (STF-1): A Mission to Enable CubeSat Software-Based Validation and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Justin; Zemerick, Scott; Grubb, Matt; Lucas, John; Jaridi, Majid; Gross, Jason N.; Ohi, Nicholas; Christian, John A.; Vassiliadis, Dimitris; Kadiyala, Anand; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Simulation-to-Flight 1 (STF-1) CubeSat mission aims to demonstrate how legacy simulation technologies may be adapted for flexible and effective use on missions using the CubeSat platform. These technologies, named NASA Operational Simulator (NOS), have demonstrated significant value on several missions such as James Webb Space Telescope, Global Precipitation Measurement, Juno, and Deep Space Climate Observatory in the areas of software development, mission operations/training, verification and validation (V&V), test procedure development and software systems check-out. STF-1 will demonstrate a highly portable simulation and test platform that allows seamless transition of mission development artifacts to flight products. This environment will decrease development time of future CubeSat missions by lessening the dependency on hardware resources. In addition, through a partnership between NASA GSFC, the West Virginia Space Grant Consortium and West Virginia University, the STF-1 CubeSat will hosts payloads for three secondary objectives that aim to advance engineering and physical-science research in the areas of navigation systems of small satellites, provide useful data for understanding magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling and space weather, and verify the performance and durability of III-V Nitride-based materials.

  19. Aerospace Communications Technologies in Support of NASA Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is endeavoring in expanding communications capabilities to enable and enhance robotic and human exploration of space and to advance aero communications here on Earth. This presentation will discuss some of the research and technology development work being performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center in aerospace communications in support of NASAs mission. An overview of the work conducted in-house and in collaboration with academia, industry, and other government agencies (OGA) to advance radio frequency (RF) and optical communications technologies in the areas of antennas, ultra-sensitive receivers, power amplifiers, among others, will be presented. In addition, the role of these and other related RF and optical communications technologies in enabling the NASA next generation aerospace communications architecture will be also discussed.

  20. Cradle-to-Grave Logistic Technologies for Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyan, James L.; Ewert, Michael K.; Shull, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Human exploration missions under study are very limited by the launch mass capacity of exiting and planned vehicles. The logistical mass of crew items is typically considered separate from the vehicle structure, habitat outfitting, and life support systems. Consequently, crew item logistical mass is typically competing with vehicle systems for mass allocation. NASA is Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) Project is developing four logistics technologies guided by a systems engineering cradle-to-grave approach to enable used crew items to augment vehicle systems. Specifically, AES LRR is investigating the direct reduction of clothing mass, the repurposing of logistical packaging, the processing of spent crew items to benefit radiation shielding and water recovery, and the conversion of trash to propulsion supply gases. The systematic implementation of these types of technologies will increase launch mass efficiency by enabling items to be used for secondary purposes and improve the habitability of the vehicle as the mission duration increases. This paper provides a description, benefits, and challenges of the four technologies under development and a status of progress at the mid ]point of the three year AES project.

  1. Fission Power System Technology for NASA Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lee; Houts, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Under the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program, and in partnership with the Department of Energy (DOE), NASA is conducting a project to mature Fission Power System (FPS) technology. A primary project goal is to develop viable system options to support future NASA mission needs for nuclear power. The main FPS project objectives are as follows: 1) Develop FPS concepts that meet expected NASA mission power requirements at reasonable cost with added benefits over other options. 2) Establish a hardware-based technical foundation for FPS design concepts and reduce overall development risk. 3) Reduce the cost uncertainties for FPS and establish greater credibility for flight system cost estimates. 4) Generate the key products to allow NASA decisionmakers to consider FPS as a preferred option for flight development. In order to achieve these goals, the FPS project has two main thrusts: concept definition and risk reduction. Under concept definition, NASA and DOE are performing trade studies, defining requirements, developing analytical tools, and formulating system concepts. A typical FPS consists of the reactor, shield, power conversion, heat rejection, and power management and distribution (PMAD). Studies are performed to identify the desired design parameters for each subsystem that allow the system to meet the requirements with reasonable cost and development risk. Risk reduction provides the means to evaluate technologies in a laboratory test environment. Non-nuclear hardware prototypes are built and tested to verify performance expectations, gain operating experience, and resolve design uncertainties.

  2. The Science and Technology of Future Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonati, A.; Fusi, R.; Longoni, F.

    1999-12-01

    The future space missions span over a wide range of scientific objectives. After different successful scientific missions, other international cornerstone experiments are planned to study of the evolution of the universe and of the primordial stellar systems, and our solar system. Space missions for the survey of the microwave cosmic background radiation, deep-field search in the near and mid-infrared region and planetary exploration will be carried out. Several fields are open for research and development in the space business. Three major categories can be found: detector technology in different areas, electronics, and software. At LABEN, a Finmeccanica Company, we are focusing the technologies to respond to this challenging scientific demands. Particle trackers based on silicon micro-strips supported by lightweight structures (CFRP) are studied. In the X-ray field, CCD's are investigated with pixels of very small size so as to increase the spatial resolution of the focal plane detectors. High-efficiency and higly miniaturized high-voltage power supplies are developed for detectors with an increasingly large number of phototubes. Material research is underway to study material properties at extreme temperatures. Low-temperature mechanical structures are designed for cryogenic ( 20 K) detectors in order to maintain the high precision in pointing the instrument. Miniaturization of front end electronics with low power consumption and high number of signal processing channels is investigated; silicon-based microchips (ASIC's) are designed and developed using state-of-the-art technology. Miniaturized instruments to investigate the planets surface using X-Ray and Gamma-Ray scattering techniques are developed. The data obtained from the detectors have to be processed, compressed, formatted and stored before their transmission to ground. These tasks open up additional strategic areas of development such as microprocessor-based electronics for high-speed and parallel data

  3. Microwave Radiometer Technology Acceleration Mission (MiRaTA): Advancing Weather Remote Sensing with Nanosatellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoy, K.; Blackwell, W. J.; Bishop, R. L.; Erickson, N.; Fish, C. S.; Neilsen, T. L.; Stromberg, E. M.; Bardeen, J.; Dave, P.; Marinan, A.; Marlow, W.; Kingsbury, R.; Kennedy, A.; Byrne, J. M.; Peters, E.; Allen, G.; Burianek, D.; Busse, F.; Elliott, D.; Galbraith, C.; Leslie, V. V.; Osaretin, I.; Shields, M.; Thompson, E.; Toher, D.; DiLiberto, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Microwave Radiometer Technology Acceleration (MiRaTA) is a 3U CubeSat mission sponsored by the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO). Microwave radiometer measurements and GPS radio occultation (GPSRO) measurements of all-weather temperature and humidity provide key contributions toward improved weather forecasting. The MiRaTA mission will validate new technologies in both passive microwave radiometry and GPS radio occultation: (1) new ultra-compact and low-power technology for multi-channel and multi-band passive microwave radiometers, and (2) new GPS receiver and patch antenna array technology for GPS radio occultation retrieval of both temperature-pressure profiles in the atmosphere and electron density profiles in the ionosphere. In addition, MiRaTA will test (3) a new approach to spaceborne microwave radiometer calibration using adjacent GPSRO measurements. The radiometer measurement quality can be substantially improved relative to present systems through the use of proximal GPSRO measurements as a calibration standard for radiometric observations, reducing and perhaps eliminating the need for costly and complex internal calibration targets. MiRaTA will execute occasional pitch-up maneuvers so that the radiometer and GPSRO observations sound overlapping volumes of atmosphere through the Earth's limb. To validate system performance, observations from both microwave radiometer (MWR) and GPSRO instruments will be compared to radiosondes, global high-resolution analysis fields, other satellite observations, and to each other using radiative transfer models. Both the radiometer and GPSRO payloads, currently at TRL5 but to be advanced to TRL7 at mission conclusion, can be accommodated in a single 3U CubeSat. The current plan is to launch from an International Space Station (ISS) orbit at ~400 km altitude and 52° inclination for low-cost validation over a ~90-day mission to fly in 2016. MiRaTA will demonstrate high fidelity, well-calibrated radiometric

  4. Mission Driven Scene Understanding: Candidate Model Training and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    CNN was able to determine the correct class labels for images taken from the 2,560 image training data set, the validation process did not appear to...set containing approximately 1.2 million images (Fig. 1). In Section 3, we show that the CNN achieved 79.7% validation accuracy for the top-5 class...to their capability to incorporate different types of CNN architectures, their hardware usage (central processing unit [CPU] and graphical

  5. Advanced Water Recovery Technologies for Long Duration Space Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Scan X.

    2005-01-01

    Extended-duration space travel and habitation require recovering water from wastewater generated in spacecrafts and extraterrestrial outposts since the largest consumable for human life support is water. Many wastewater treatment technologies used for terrestrial applications are adoptable to extraterrestrial situations but challenges remain as constraints of space flights and habitation impose severe limitations of these technologies. Membrane-based technologies, particularly membrane filtration, have been widely studied by NASA and NASA-funded research groups for possible applications in space wastewater treatment. The advantages of membrane filtration are apparent: it is energy-efficient and compact, needs little consumable other than replacement membranes and cleaning agents, and doesn't involve multiphase flow, which is big plus for operations under microgravity environment. However, membrane lifespan and performance are affected by the phenomena of concentration polarization and membrane fouling. This article attempts to survey current status of membrane technologies related to wastewater treatment and desalination in the context of space exploration and quantify them in terms of readiness level for space exploration. This paper also makes specific recommendations and predictions on how scientist and engineers involving designing, testing, and developing space-certified membrane-based advanced water recovery technologies can improve the likelihood of successful development of an effective regenerative human life support system for long-duration space missions.

  6. Advanced Exploration Technologies: Micro and Nano Technologies Enabling Space Missions in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabach, Timothy

    1998-01-01

    Some of the many new and advanced exploration technologies which will enable space missions in the 21st century and specifically the Manned Mars Mission are explored in this presentation. Some of these are the system on a chip, the Computed-Tomography imaging Spectrometer, the digital camera on a chip, and other Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology for space. Some of these MEMS are the silicon micromachined microgyroscope, a subliming solid micro-thruster, a micro-ion thruster, a silicon seismometer, a dewpoint microhygrometer, a micro laser doppler anemometer, and tunable diode laser (TDL) sensors. The advanced technology insertion is critical for NASA to decrease mass, volume, power and mission costs, and increase functionality, science potential and robustness.

  7. Mission to Planet Earth: The role of new technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Paul; Price, Robert

    1997-01-01

    The Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) Enterprise is a long-duration, comprehensive program to advance scientific knowledge of the Earth as a system. It includes both national and international elements. A diverse array of spacecraft-borne instruments will be placed into various orbits to continuously monitor the land, oceans, atmosphere, ice cover, and solar irradiation. In addition to extending certain sets of data critical to assessing global change, new measurements will be made that further expand our understanding of the world and its dynamic environment. Because the program extends well into the 21st century, programmatic and technical changes are inevitable. This paper addresses the role of new flight and ground system technologies in sustaining the vitality of the MTPE program and describes some specific initiatives that will assist the technology infusion process.

  8. Physicochemical and biological technologies for future exploration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, S.; Buchert, M.; Bretschneider, J.; Nathanson, E.; Fasoulas, S.

    2014-08-01

    Life Support Systems (LSS) are essential for human spaceflight. They are the key element for humans to survive, to live and to work in space. Ambitious goals of human space exploration in the next 40 years like a permanently crewed surface habitat on Moon or a manned mission to Mars require technologies which allow for a reduction of system and resupply mass. Enhancements of existing technologies, new technological developments and synergetic components integration help to close the oxygen, water and carbon loops. In order to design the most efficient LSS architecture for a given mission scenario, it is important to follow a dedicated design process: definition of requirements, selection of candidate technologies, development of possible LSS architectures and characterisation of LSS architectures by system drivers and evaluation of the LSS architectures. This paper focuses on the approach of a synergetic integration of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEFC) and microalgae cultivated in photobioreactors (PBR). LSS architectures and their benefits for selected mission scenarios are demonstrated. Experiments on critical processes and interfaces were conducted and result in engineering models for a PEFC and PBR system which fulfil the requirements of a synergetic integrative environment. The PEFC system (about 1 kW) can be operated with cabin air enriched by stored or biologically generated oxygen instead of pure oxygen. This offers further advantages with regard to thermal control as high oxygen concentrations effect a dense heat production. The PBR system consists of an illuminated cultivation chamber (about 5 l), a nutrients supply and harvesting and analytics units. Especially the chamber enables a microgravity adapted cultivation of microalgae. However, the peripheral units still have to be adapted in order to allow for a continuous and automated cultivation and harvesting. These automation processes will be tested and evaluated by means of a parabolic

  9. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations. Large space structures, phase 2, midterm review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The large space structures technology development missions to be performed on an early manned space station was studied and defined and the resources needed and the design implications to an early space station to carry out these large space structures technology development missions were determined. Emphasis is being placed on more detail in mission designs and space station resource requirements.

  10. Benefits and technology readiness for using cryogenic instead of storable propellants for return mission from Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachta, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Cryogenic requirements are examined for new missions to the moon. A comparison is made with previous moon landings and a technology assessment investigates the new requirements for such missions. All of the material is presented in viewgraph format.

  11. 75 FR 68600 - Secretarial India High Technology Business Development Mission; February 6-11, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... companies. Key service industries include information technology, telecommunications, hotels, banking, media... U.S. high technology industries. Representatives of the U.S. Trade and Development Agency (USTDA... Department of Commerce Secretarial India High Technology Business Development Mission; February 6...

  12. The evolution of wireless video transmission technology for surveillance missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durso, Christopher M.; McCulley, Eric

    2012-06-01

    Covert and overt video collection systems as well as tactical unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV's) and unmanned ground vehicles (UGV's) can deliver real-time video intelligence direct from sensor systems to command staff providing unprecedented situational awareness and tactical advantage. Today's tactical video communications system must be secure, compact, lightweight, and fieldable in quick reaction scenarios. Four main technology implementations can be identified with the evolutionary development of wireless video transmission systems. Analog FM led to single carrier digital modulation, which gave way to multi-carrier orthogonal modulation. Each of these systems is currently in use today. Depending on the operating environment and size, weight, and power limitations, a system designer may choose one over another to support tactical video collection missions.

  13. NDE reliability and advanced NDE technology validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doctor, S.R.; Deffenbaugh, J.D.; Good, M.S.; Green, E.R.; Heasler, P.G.; Hutton, P.H.; Reid, L.D.; Simonen, F.A.; Spanner, J.C.; Vo, T.V.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on progress for three programs: (1) evaluation and improvement in nondestructive examination reliability for inservice inspection of light water reactors (LWR) (NDE Reliability Program), (2) field validation acceptance, and training for advanced NDE technology, and (3) evaluation of computer-based NDE techniques and regional support of inspection activities. The NDE Reliability Program objectives are to quantify the reliability of inservice inspection techniques for LWR primary system components through independent research and establish means for obtaining improvements in the reliability of inservice inspections. The areas of significant progress will be described concerning ASME Code activities, re-analysis of the PISC-II data, the equipment interaction matrix study, new inspection criteria, and PISC-III. The objectives of the second program are to develop field procedures for the AE and SAFT-UT techniques, perform field validation testing of these techniques, provide training in the techniques for NRC headquarters and regional staff, and work with the ASME Code for the use of these advanced technologies. The final program's objective is to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of interpretation of results from computer-based ultrasonic inservice inspection systems, and to develop guidelines for NRC staff to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of inservice inspections conducted on nuclear power reactors. This program started in the last quarter of FY89, and the extent of the program was to prepare a work plan for presentation to and approval from a technical advisory group of NRC staff

  14. 76 FR 11203 - Water Technology Trade Mission to India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... considered when determining business size. The dual pricing reflects the Commercial Service's user fee... target markets/ in the mission country(ies)], including likelihood of exports resulting from the mission...

  15. Nanosat Technology And Managed Risk; An Update Of The CYGNSS Microsatellite Constellation Mission Development

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Randy; Wells, Will; Rose, Debi; Ruf, Chris; Ridley, Aaron; Nave, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Existing and forecasted budget constraints continue to drive innovative solutions for space-based mission applications. NASA’s Earth science mission, the Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) was selected as part of NASA's Earth Venture program with a total mission cost cap (excluding launch vehicle) of $103M. Performing valuable science at low cost is only possible given technology innovation and a development risk posture higher than typically accepted for NASA missions. CYGNS...

  16. A Lean, Fast Mars Round-trip Mission Architecture: Using Current Technologies for a Human Mission in the 2030s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Lora; Folta, David; Barbee, Brent W.; Vaughn, Frank; Kirchman, Frank; Englander, Jacob; Campbell, Bruce; Thronson, Harley; Lin, Tzu Yu

    2013-01-01

    We present a lean fast-transfer architecture concept for a first human mission to Mars that utilizes current technologies and two pivotal parameters: an end-to-end Mars mission duration of approximately one year, and a deep space habitat of approximately 50 metric tons. These parameters were formulated by a 2012 deep space habitat study conducted at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) that focused on a subset of recognized high- engineering-risk factors that may otherwise limit space travel to destinations such as Mars or near-Earth asteroid (NEA)s. With these constraints, we model and promote Mars mission opportunities in the 2030s enabled by a combination of on-orbit staging, mission element pre-positioning, and unique round-trip trajectories identified by state-of-the-art astrodynamics algorithms.

  17. Definition of technology development missions for early space station satellite servicing, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The testbed role of an early manned space station in the context of a satellite servicing evolutionary development and flight demonstration technology plan which results in a satellite servicing operational capability is defined. A satellite servicing technology development mission (a set of missions) to be performed on an early manned space station is conceptually defined.

  18. Advanced Passive Microwave Radiometer Technology for GPM Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric A.; Im, Eastwood; Kummerow, Christian; Principe, Caleb; Ruf, Christoper; Wilheit, Thomas; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An interferometer-type passive microwave radiometer based on MMIC receiver technology and a thinned array antenna design is being developed under the Instrument Incubator Program (TIP) on a project entitled the Lightweight Rainfall Radiometer (LRR). The prototype single channel aircraft instrument will be ready for first testing in 2nd quarter 2003, for deployment on the NASA DC-8 aircraft and in a ground configuration manner; this version measures at 10.7 GHz in a crosstrack imaging mode. The design for a two (2) frequency preliminary space flight model at 19 and 35 GHz (also in crosstrack imaging mode) has also been completed, in which the design features would enable it to fly in a bore-sighted configuration with a new dual-frequency space radar (DPR) under development at the Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) in Tokyo, Japan. The DPR will be flown as one of two primary instruments on the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission's core satellite in the 2007 time frame. The dual frequency space flight design of the ERR matches the APR frequencies and will be proposed as an ancillary instrument on the GPM core satellite to advance space-based precipitation measurement by enabling better microphysical characterization and coincident volume data gathering for exercising combined algorithm techniques which make use of both radar backscatter and radiometer attenuation information to constrain rainrate solutions within a physical algorithm context. This talk will discuss the design features, performance capabilities, applications plans, and conical/polarametric imaging possibilities for the LRR, as well as a brief summary of the project status and schedule.

  19. The visible nulling coronagraph -- progress towards mission and technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Michael; Levine, B. Martin; Wallace, J. Kent; Serabyn, Eugene; Liu, Duncan T.; Lane, Benjamin F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a space mission for visible direct detection and spectroscopy of Earth like extrasolar planets using a nulling coronagraph instrument behind a moderately sized telescope in space.

  20. Enabling Ring-Cusp Ion Thruster Technology for NASA Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ESA is flying T6 Kaufman ion thrusters on the BepiColombo Mission to Mercury in 2018. They are planning to develop a longer life, higher performing, 30-cm ring-cusp...

  1. Technology under Moon and Mars Analog Missions Activities (MMAMA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA Analog Missions research addresses the need for integrated interdisciplinary field experiments as an integral part of preparation for planned human and robotic...

  2. 75 FR 60736 - Water Technology Trade Mission to India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... dual pricing reflects the Commercial Service's user fee schedule that became effective May 1, 2008 (see... potential for business [in the target markets/ in the mission country(ies)], including likelihood of exports...

  3. Flight Computer Design for the Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, David; Jackson, George; Raphael, Dave; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    As part of NASA's New Millennium Program, the Space Technology 5 mission will validate a variety of technologies for nano-satellite and constellation mission applications. Included are: a miniaturized and low power X-band transponder, a constellation communication and navigation transceiver, a cold gas micro-thruster, two different variable emittance (thermal) controllers, flex cables for solar array power collection, autonomous groundbased constellation management tools, and a new CMOS ultra low-power, radiation-tolerant, +0.5 volt logic technology. The ST-5 focus is on small and low-power. A single-processor, multi-function flight computer will implement direct digital and analog interfaces to all of the other spacecraft subsystems and components. There will not be a distributed data system that uses a standardized serial bus such as MIL-STD-1553 or MIL-STD-1773. The flight software running on the single processor will be responsible for all real-time processing associated with: guidance, navigation and control, command and data handling (C&DH) including uplink/downlink, power switching and battery charge management, science data analysis and storage, intra-constellation communications, and housekeeping data collection and logging. As a nanosatellite trail-blazer for future constellations of up to 100 separate space vehicles, ST-5 will demonstrate a compact (single board), low power (5.5 watts) solution to the data acquisition, control, communications, processing and storage requirements that have traditionally required an entire network of separate circuit boards and/or avionics boxes. In addition to the New Millennium technologies, other major spacecraft subsystems include the power system electronics, a lithium-ion battery, triple-junction solar cell arrays, a science-grade magnetometer, a miniature spinning sun sensor, and a propulsion system.

  4. Mechanically-Deployed Hypersonic Decelerator and Conformal Ablator Technologies for Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Wercinski, Paul F.; Beck, Robin A. S.; Hamm, Kenneth R.; Yount, Bryan C.; Makino, A.; Smith, B.; Gage, P.; Prabhu, D.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a mechanically deployable hypersonic decelerator, developed initially for high mass (40 MT) human Mars missions, is currently funded by OCT for technology maturation. The ADEPT (Adaptive, Deployable Entry and Placement Technology) project has broad, game-changing applicability to in situ science missions to Venus, Mars, and the Outer Planets. Combined with maturation of conformal ablator technology (another current OCT investment), the two technologies provide unique low mass mission enabling capabilities otherwise not achievable by current rigid aeroshell or by inflatables. If this abstract is accepted, we will present results that illustrate the mission enabling capabilities of the mechanically deployable architecture for: (1) robotic Mars (Discovery or New Frontiers class) in the near term; (2) alternate approaches to landing MSL-class payloads, without the need for supersonic parachute or lifting entry, in the mid-term; and (3) Heavy mass and human missions to Mars in the long term.

  5. Overview: Solar Electric Propulsion Concept Designs for SEP Technology Demonstration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcguire, Melissa L.; Hack, Kurt J.; Manzella, David; Herman, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    JPC presentation of the Concept designs for NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration mission paper. Multiple Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Missions were developed to assess vehicle performance and estimated mission cost. Concepts ranged from a 10,000 kg spacecraft capable of delivering 4000 kg of payload to one of the Earth Moon Lagrange points in support of future human-crewed outposts to a 180 kg spacecraft capable of performing an asteroid rendezvous mission after launched to a geostationary transfer orbit as a secondary payload.

  6. Space Technology Mission Directorate Game Changing Development Program FY2015 Annual Program Review: Advanced Manufacturing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, John; Fikes, John

    2015-01-01

    The Advance Manufacturing Technology (AMT) Project supports multiple activities within the Administration's National Manufacturing Initiative. A key component of the Initiative is the Advanced Manufacturing National Program Office (AMNPO), which includes participation from all federal agencies involved in U.S. manufacturing. In support of the AMNPO the AMT Project supports building and Growing the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation through a public-private partnership designed to help the industrial community accelerate manufacturing innovation. Integration with other projects/programs and partnerships: STMD (Space Technology Mission Directorate), HEOMD, other Centers; Industry, Academia; OGA's (e.g., DOD, DOE, DOC, USDA, NASA, NSF); Office of Science and Technology Policy, NIST Advanced Manufacturing Program Office; Generate insight within NASA and cross-agency for technology development priorities and investments. Technology Infusion Plan: PC; Potential customer infusion (TDM, HEOMD, SMD, OGA, Industry); Leverage; Collaborate with other Agencies, Industry and Academia; NASA roadmap. Initiatives include: Advanced Near Net Shape Technology Integrally Stiffened Cylinder Process Development (launch vehicles, sounding rockets); Materials Genome; Low Cost Upper Stage-Class Propulsion; Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME); National Center for Advanced Manufacturing.

  7. Quantitative Validation of the Integrated Medical Model (IMM) for ISS Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Millennia; Arellano, J.; Boley, L.; Garcia, Y.; Saile, L.; Walton, M.; Kerstman, E.; Reyes, D.; Goodenow, D. A.; Myers, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) provided observed medical event data on 33 ISS and 111 STS person-missions for use in further improving and validating the Integrated Medical Model (IMM). Using only the crew characteristics from these observed missions, the newest development version, IMM v4.0, will simulate these missions to predict medical events and outcomes. Comparing IMM predictions to the actual observed medical event counts will provide external validation and identify areas of possible improvement. In an effort to improve the power of detecting differences in this validation study, the total over each program ISS and STS will serve as the main quantitative comparison objective, specifically the following parameters: total medical events (TME), probability of loss of crew life (LOCL), and probability of evacuation (EVAC). Scatter plots of observed versus median predicted TMEs (with error bars reflecting the simulation intervals) will graphically display comparisons while linear regression will serve as the statistical test of agreement. Two scatter plots will be analyzed 1) where each point reflects a mission and 2) where each point reflects a condition-specific total number of occurrences. The coefficient of determination (R2) resulting from a linear regression with no intercept bias (intercept fixed at zero) will serve as an overall metric of agreement between IMM and the real world system (RWS). In an effort to identify as many possible discrepancies as possible for further inspection, the -level for all statistical tests comparing IMM predictions to observed data will be set to 0.1. This less stringent criterion, along with the multiple testing being conducted, should detect all perceived differences including many false positive signals resulting from random variation. The results of these analyses will reveal areas of the model requiring adjustment to improve overall IMM output, which will thereby provide better decision support for

  8. Transmission grating Validation and Qualification for Mars and Future Planetary exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, P.; Fernández, M.; Guembe, V.; Ramos, G.; González, C.; Prieto, J. A. R.; Canchal, R.; Moral, A.; Pérez, C.; Rull, F.

    2013-09-01

    In the frame of ExoMars 2018 mission (ESARoscosmos collaboration), the Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA) in Spain, has successfully finish validation test plan of the transmission grating, one of the key optical components that forms part of the Spectrometer Unit of the instrument Raman Laser Spectrometrer that will be on board of ExoMars 2018 and that has never being qualified before.

  9. Solar Electric and Chemical Propulsion Technology Applications to a Titan Orbiter/Lander Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupples, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Several advanced propulsion technology options were assessed for a conceptual Titan Orbiter/Lander mission. For convenience of presentation, the mission was broken into two phases: interplanetary and Titan capture. The interplanetary phase of the mission was evaluated for an advanced Solar Electric Propulsion System (SEPS), while the Titan capture phase was evaluated for state-of-art chemical propulsion (NTO/Hydrazine), three advanced chemical propulsion options (LOX/Hydrazine, Fluorine/Hydrazine, high Isp mono-propellant), and advanced tank technologies. Hence, this study was referred to as a SEPS/Chemical based option. The SEPS/Chemical study results were briefly compared to a 2002 NASA study that included two general propulsion options for the same conceptual mission: an all propulsive based mission and a SEPS/Aerocapture based mission. The SEP/Chemical study assumed identical science payload as the 2002 NASA study science payload. The SEPS/Chemical study results indicated that the Titan mission was feasible for a medium launch vehicle, an interplanetary transfer time of approximately 8 years, an advanced SEPS (30 kW), and current chemical engine technology (yet with advanced tanks) for the Titan capture. The 2002 NASA study showed the feasibility of the mission based on a somewhat smaller medium launch vehicle, an interplanetary transfer time of approximately 5.9 years, an advanced SEPS (24 kW), and advanced Aerocapture based propulsion technology for the Titan capture. Further comparisons and study results were presented for the advanced chemical and advanced tank technologies.

  10. Design and validation of a GNC system for missions to asteroids: the AIM scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellacani, A.; Kicman, P.; Suatoni, M.; Casasco, M.; Gil, J.; Carnelli, I.

    2017-12-01

    Deep space missions, and in particular missions to asteroids, impose a certain level of autonomy that depends on the mission objectives. If the mission requires the spacecraft to perform close approaches to the target body (the extreme case being a landing scenario), the autonomy level must be increased to guarantee the fast and reactive response which is required in both nominal and contingency operations. The GNC system must be designed in accordance with the required level of autonomy. The GNC system designed and tested in the frame of ESA's Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) system studies (Phase A/B1 and Consolidation Phase) is an example of an autonomous GNC system that meets the challenging objectives of AIM. The paper reports the design of such GNC system and its validation through a DDVV plan that includes Model-in-the-Loop and Hardware-in-the-Loop testing. Main focus is the translational navigation, which is able to provide online the relative state estimation with respect to the target body using exclusively cameras as relative navigation sensors. The relative navigation outputs are meant to be used for nominal spacecraft trajectory corrections as well as to estimate the collision risk with the asteroid and, if needed, to command the execution of a collision avoidance manoeuvre to guarantee spacecraft safety

  11. Validity of Point-of-Care Testing with Mission Plus Hemoglobin in Detecting Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Maria Awaluddin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Point-of-care testing, POCT, was widely used to assess hemoglobin status before proceeding with the confirmation test. Our study aimed to assess the validity of Mission® Plus Hb in detecting hemoglobin levels in a general population compared with a standard laboratory hematology analyser as the gold standard. Methods: Two types of samples, capillary and venous blood, were collected from all respondents by trained nurses. Both blood samples were tested using Mission® Plus while the remaining venous blood in EDTA test tubes was sent to the reference laboratory. Results: A total of 622 respondents participated in this study, 75% of them females. The mean Hb tested from capillary blood using Mission® Plus Hb was 11.80±2.02g/dl. For venous blood, the mean Hb concentrations using Mission® Plus Hb and Sysmex XE-2100 hematology analyser were 12.16±1.84g/dl and 13.07±1.87g/dl, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity in detecting anemia from venous samples were 98.8% and 73.4% respectively. Positive Predictive Value (PPV was 58.5%, while Negative Predictive Value (NPV was 99.4%. Conclusion: The findings of moderate PPV should alert the programme managers to the importance of a confirmatory test following screening using Mission® Plus Hb.

  12. Solar Cell and Array Technology Development for NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczor, Michael; McNatt, Jeremiah; Mercer, Carolyn; Kerslake, Tom; Pappa, Richard

    2012-01-01

    NASA is currently developing advanced solar cell and solar array technologies to support future exploration activities. These advanced photovoltaic technology development efforts are needed to enable very large (multi-hundred kilowatt) power systems that must be compatible with solar electric propulsion (SEP) missions. The technology being developed must address a wide variety of requirements and cover the necessary advances in solar cell, blanket integration, and large solar array structures that are needed for this class of missions. Th is paper will summarize NASA's plans for high power SEP missions, initi al mission studies and power system requirements, plans for advanced photovoltaic technology development, and the status of specific cell and array technology development and testing that have already been conducted.

  13. How Developments in Psychology and Technology Challenge Validity Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mislevy, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Validity is the sine qua non of properties of educational assessment. While a theory of validity and a practical framework for validation has emerged over the past decades, most of the discussion has addressed familiar forms of assessment and psychological framings. Advances in digital technologies and in cognitive and social psychology have…

  14. Enabling Communication and Navigation Technologies for Future Near Earth Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, David J.; Heckler, Gregory; Menrad, Robert; Hudiburg, John; Boroson, Don; Robinson, Bryan; Cornwell, Donald

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, the Earth Regimes Network Evolution Study (ERNESt) proposed an architectural concept and technologies that evolve to enable space science and exploration missions out to the 2040 timeframe. The architectural concept evolves the current instantiations of the Near Earth Network and Space Network with new technologies to provide a global communication and navigation network that provides communication and navigation services to a wide range of space users in the near Earth domain. The technologies included High Rate Optical Communications, Optical Multiple Access (OMA), Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN), User Initiated Services (UIS), and advanced Position, Navigation, and Timing technology. This paper describes the key technologies and their current technology readiness levels. Examples of science missions that could be enabled by the technologies and the projected operational benefits of the architecture concept to missions are also described.

  15. Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan Technology Validation and Market Introduction 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-01-01

    Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan 2008 for technology validation and market introduction, including ENERGY STAR, building energy codes, technology transfer application centers, commercial lighting initiative, EnergySmart Schools, EnergySmar

  16. Advanced Soil Moisture Network Technologies; Developments in Collecting in situ Measurements for Remote Sensing Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, M.; Silva, A. R. D.; Akbar, R.; Clewley, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil moisture Sensing Controller And oPtimal Estimator (SoilSCAPE) wireless sensor network has been developed to support Calibration and Validation activities (Cal/Val) for large scale soil moisture remote sensing missions (SMAP and AirMOSS). The technology developed here also readily supports small scale hydrological studies by providing sub-kilometer widespread soil moisture observations. An extensive collection of semi-sparse sensor clusters deployed throughout north-central California and southern Arizona provide near real time soil moisture measurements. Such a wireless network architecture, compared to conventional single points measurement profiles, allows for significant and expanded soil moisture sampling. The work presented here aims at discussing and highlighting novel and new technology developments which increase in situ soil moisture measurements' accuracy, reliability, and robustness with reduced data delivery latency. High efficiency and low maintenance custom hardware have been developed and in-field performance has been demonstrated for a period of three years. The SoilSCAPE technology incorporates (a) intelligent sensing to prevent erroneous measurement reporting, (b) on-board short term memory for data redundancy, (c) adaptive scheduling and sampling capabilities to enhance energy efficiency. A rapid streamlined data delivery architecture openly provides distribution of in situ measurements to SMAP and AirMOSS cal/val activities and other interested parties.

  17. Heritage and Advanced Technology Systems Engineering Lessons Learned from NASA Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Bryan; Newhouse, Marilyn; Clardy, Dennon

    2010-01-01

    In the design and development of complex spacecraft missions, project teams frequently assume the use of advanced technology systems or heritage systems to enable a mission or reduce the overall mission risk and cost. As projects proceed through the development life cycle, increasingly detailed knowledge of the advanced and heritage systems within the spacecraft and mission environment identifies unanticipated technical issues. Resolving these issues often results in cost overruns and schedule impacts. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Discovery & New Frontiers (D&NF) Program Office at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) recently studied cost overruns and schedule delays for 5 missions. The goal was to identify the underlying causes for the overruns and delays, and to develop practical mitigations to assist the D&NF projects in identifying potential risks and controlling the associated impacts to proposed mission costs and schedules. The study found that optimistic hardware/software inheritance and technology readiness assumptions caused cost and schedule growth for four of the five missions studied. The cost and schedule growth was not found to result from technical hurdles requiring significant technology development. The projects institutional inheritance and technology readiness processes appear to adequately assess technology viability and prevent technical issues from impacting the final mission success. However, the processes do not appear to identify critical issues early enough in the design cycle to ensure project schedules and estimated costs address the inherent risks. In general, the overruns were traceable to: an inadequate understanding of the heritage system s behavior within the proposed spacecraft design and mission environment; an insufficient level of development experience with the heritage system; or an inadequate scoping of the system-wide impacts necessary to implement an advanced technology for space flight

  18. A Vision of Quantitative Imaging Technology for Validation of Advanced Flight Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Thomas J.; Kerns, Robert V.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Grinstead, Jay H.; Schwartz, Richard J.; Gibson, David M.; Taylor, Jeff C.; Tack, Steve; Dantowitz, Ronald F.

    2011-01-01

    Flight-testing is traditionally an expensive but critical element in the development and ultimate validation and certification of technologies destined for future operational capabilities. Measurements obtained in relevant flight environments also provide unique opportunities to observe flow phenomenon that are often beyond the capabilities of ground testing facilities and computational tools to simulate or duplicate. However, the challenges of minimizing vehicle weight and internal complexity as well as instrumentation bandwidth limitations often restrict the ability to make high-density, in-situ measurements with discrete sensors. Remote imaging offers a potential opportunity to noninvasively obtain such flight data in a complementary fashion. The NASA Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements Project has demonstrated such a capability to obtain calibrated thermal imagery on a hypersonic vehicle in flight. Through the application of existing and accessible technologies, the acreage surface temperature of the Shuttle lower surface was measured during reentry. Future hypersonic cruise vehicles, launcher configurations and reentry vehicles will, however, challenge current remote imaging capability. As NASA embarks on the design and deployment of a new Space Launch System architecture for access beyond earth orbit (and the commercial sector focused on low earth orbit), an opportunity exists to implement an imagery system and its supporting infrastructure that provides sufficient flexibility to incorporate changing technology to address the future needs of the flight test community. A long term vision is offered that supports the application of advanced multi-waveband sensing technology to aid in the development of future aerospace systems and critical technologies to enable highly responsive vehicle operations across the aerospace continuum, spanning launch, reusable space access and global reach. Motivations for development of an Agency level imagery

  19. Year 2000 Certification of Mission-Critical DoD Information Technology Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether the year 2000 certification process is adequate to ensure that mission critical DoD information technology systems will continue to operate properly after the year 2000...

  20. KickSat: A Crowd-Funded Technology Demonstration Mission for the Sprite ChipSat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — KickSat is a cubesat technology demonstration mission designed to demonstrate the deployment and operation of prototype sprite "ChipSats" (femtosatellites) developed...

  1. Free Radicals and Reactive Intermediates for the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James G.

    2001-01-01

    This grant provided partial support for participation in the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment. The NASA-sponsored SOLVE mission was conducted Jointly with the European Commission-sponsored Third European Stratospheric Experiment on Ozone (THESEO 2000). Researchers examined processes that control ozone amounts at mid to high latitudes during the arctic winter and acquired correlative data needed to validate the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III satellite measurements that are used to quantitatively assess high-latitude ozone loss. The campaign began in September 1999 with intercomparison flights out of NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in Edwards. CA. and continued through March 2000. with midwinter deployments out of Kiruna. Sweden. SOLVE was co-sponsored by the Upper Atmosphere Research Program (UARP). Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP). Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP). and Earth Observing System (EOS) of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) as part of the validation program for the SAGE III instrument.

  2. CryoSat Mission over the Ocean: A Review of Product Validations, Evolutions and Scientific Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, J.; Abdalla, S.; Bojkov, B.; Calafat, F. M.; Cipollini, P.; Féménias, P.; Leuliette, E. W.; Naeije, M.; Parrinello, T.; Schrama, E. J. O.; Snaith, H. M.; Urien, S.

    2015-12-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present the status of the CryoSat (CS) Mission over the ocean. Launched in 2010, the polar-orbiting CS was primarily developed to measure the changes in the thickness of polar sea ice and the elevation of the ice sheets. Going beyond its ice-monitoring objective, CS is also a valuable source of data for the oceanographic community. The satellite's radar altimeter can indeed measure high resolution Sea-Level Height (SSH), Significant Wave Height (SWH), and Wind Speed (WS) from the open-ocean to the coast. To enable their full scientific and operational exploitation, the CS ocean products continuously evolve and need to be thoroughly validated via science-oriented diagnostics based on in situ data, models and other satellite missions. In support to ESA, the CS ocean validation team (NOCS, ECMWF and TU Delft/DEOS) conjointly conduct these analysis for both the near real time and offline products for the SSH, the SWH, and the WS parameters. The SSH is validated at the coast against sea level measured by a set of carefully selected tide gauges, HF radars and with the help of tools from the Radar Altimetry Database System (RADS). In the open ocean, the SSH is compared globally with the steric heights derived from ARGO temperature and salinity profiles. Near real time WS and SWH are monitored and validated against the corresponding parameters from ECMWF Integrated Forecast System (IFS), the Wavewatch III model, in-situ buoy and platform instruments as well as from other altimetric missions (Jason2 and Saral/AltiKa). Numerical experiments with CS SWH data assimilation have been recently conducted, showing positive impact on ECMWF model analysis and forecasts and leading to the operational assimilation of CS SWH in IFS. Based on the outcomes from these analysis and the scientific exploitations of CS over the ocean, ESA intends to upgrade the CryoSat Ocean processing chain for 2016.

  3. Nuclear electric propulsion for planetary science missions: NASA technology program planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the status of technology program planning to develop those Nuclear Electric Propulsion technologies needed to meet the advanced propulsion system requirements for planetary science missions in the next century. The technology program planning is based upon technologies with significant development heritage: ion electric propulsion and the SP-100 space nuclear power technologies. Detailed plans are presented for the required ion electric propulsion technology development and demonstration. Closer coordination between space nuclear power and space electric propulsion technology programs is a necessity as technology plans are being further refined in light of NEP concept definition and possible early NEP flight activities.

  4. Soviet Robots in the Solar System Mission Technologies and Discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Huntress, JR , Wesley T

    2011-01-01

    The Soviet robotic space exploration program began in a spirit of bold adventure and technical genius. It ended after the fall of the Soviet Union and the failure of its last mission to Mars in 1996. Soviet Robots in the Solar System chronicles the scientific and engineering accomplishments of this enterprise from its infancy to its demise. Each flight campaign is set into context of national politics and international competition with the United States. Together with its many detailed illustrations and images, Soviet Robots in the Solar System presents the most detailed technical description of Soviet robotic space flights provides a unique insight into programmatic, engineering, and scientific issues covers mission objectives, spacecraft engineering, flight details, scientific payload and results describes in technical depth Soviet lunar and planetary probes

  5. Empirical research methods for technology validation: Scaling up to practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.

    tBefore technology is transferred to the market, it must be validated empirically by simulating future prac-tical use of the technology. Technology prototypes are first investigated in simplified contexts, and thesesimulations are scaled up to conditions of practice step by step as more becomes

  6. Operational Concept of the NEXTSat-1 for Science Mission and Space Core Technology Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goo-Hwan Shin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The next generation small satellite-1 (NEXTSat-1 program has been kicked off in 2012, and it will be launched in 2016 for the science missions and the verification of space core technologies. The payloads for these science missions are the Instrument for the Study of Space Storms (ISSS and NIR Imaging Spectrometer for Star formation history (NISS. The ISSS and the NISS have been developed by Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST and Korea Astronomy and Space science Institute (KASI respectively. The ISSS detects plasma densities and particle fluxes of 10 MeV energy range near the Earth and the NISS uses spectrometer. In order to verify the spacecraft core technologies in the space, the total of 7 space core technologies (SCT will be applied to the NEXTSat-1 for space verification and those are under development. Thus, the operation modes for the ISSS and the NISS for space science missions and 7 SCTs for technology missions are analyzed for the required operation time during the NEXTSat-1’s mission life time of 2 years. In this paper, the operational concept of the NEXTSat-1’s science missions as well as the verification of space core technologies are presented considering constraints of volume, mass, and power after launch.

  7. Portable Diagnostics Technology Assessment for Space Missions. Part 2; Market Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Emily S.; Chait, Arnon

    2010-01-01

    A mission to Mars of several years duration requires more demanding standards for all onboard instruments than a 6-month mission to the Moon or the International Space Station. In Part 1, we evaluated generic technologies and suitability to NASA needs. This prior work considered crew safety, device maturity and flightworthiness, resource consumption, and medical value. In Part 2, we continue the study by assessing the current marketplace for reliable Point-of-Care diagnostics. The ultimate goal of this project is to provide a set of objective analytical tools to suggest efficient strategies for reaching specific medical targets for any given space mission as program needs, technological development, and scientific understanding evolve.

  8. Thinking of serving nursing abroad: how technology assists nurses on mission trips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M

    2015-06-01

    Advances in technology have assisted in the proliferation of short-term, faith-based international medical mission trips. Many of these mission trips include health care not only to local citizens but also building schools and churches and sharing the Gospel of Jesus Christ. Included in this article are my own personal experiences in short-term, faith-based medical missions. A step-by-step guide is offered to help prepare inexperienced mission participants gain insight into short-term mission trips. Advanced planning, fundraising, collaboration, and being open to change are key elements to successful participation in these life-changing missions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. How Nasa's Independent Verification and Validation (IVandV) Program Builds Reliability into a Space Mission Software System (SMSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Marcus S.; Northey, Jeffrey; Stanton, William

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to outline how the NASA Independent Verification and Validation (IVV) Program helps to build reliability into the Space Mission Software Systems (SMSSs) that its customers develop.

  10. Measuring Students' Perceptions of Institutional Identity: Validating the DePaul Mission and Values Inventory at a Franciscan University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteo, Elizabeth K.; Bottom, Todd L.; Ferrari, Joseph R.

    2013-01-01

    The "DePaul Mission and Values Inventory" ("DMV") was validated based on the mission, identity, and values of a large, urban, Catholic, Vincentian institution. We examined the suitability of the "DMV" at a small, suburban, Catholic, Franciscan university. A sample of 275 undergraduates (218 women, 57 men:…

  11. Elaboration and validation of an assistive technology assessment questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Jorge Guimarães

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Assistive Technologies consists of resources, methods, and strategies favoring autonomy and inclusion of elderly and people with disabilities, being scarce in the literature instruments assessing them. A methodology study conducted with a panel of specialists and people with visual impairment, aimed to elaborate and validate a questionnaire to assess educational assistive technology. To consider an item as valid, we used 80% as agreement percentage, and validity and reliability of the questionnaire were calculated. Assistive Technology was characterized in six attributes: objectives, access, clarity, structure and presentation, relevance and efficacy, interactivity, and 19 items were elaborated to compose the questionnaire. From those, 11 obtained percentages higher than 80%, seven were modified and one was excluded. The instrument Cronbach’s alpha was 0,822, guaranteeing validity and reliability of the tool to assess health education Assistive Technology, and therefore, its use is indicated.

  12. Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph : technology and mission design studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Virginia G.

    2004-01-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) coronagraph study involves exploring the technologies that enable a coronagraph style instrument to image and characterize earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars. Testbeds have been developed to demonstrate the emerging technologies needed for this effort and an architecture study has resulted in designs of a facility that will provide the environment needed for the technology to function in this role. A broad community of participants is involved in this work through studies, analyses, fabrication of components, and participation in the design effort. The scope of activities - both on the technology side and in the architecture study side - will be presented in this paper. The status and the future plans of the activities will be reviewed.

  13. Progress in Technology Validation of the Next Ion Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Scott W.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system has been in advanced technology development under the NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology project. The highest fidelity hardware planned has now been completed by the government/industry team, including a flight prototype model (PM) thruster, an engineering model (EM) power processing unit, EM propellant management assemblies, a breadboard gimbal, and control unit simulators. Subsystem and system level technology validation testing is in progress. To achieve the objective Technology Readiness Level 6, environmental testing is being conducted to qualification levels in ground facilities simulating the space environment. Additional tests have been conducted to characterize the performance range and life capability of the NEXT thruster. This paper presents the status and results of technology validation testing accomplished to date, the validated subsystem and system capabilities, and the plans for completion of this phase of NEXT development.

  14. Status of the fast mission : Micro-satellite formation flying for technology, science and education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, J.; Maessen, D.C.; Gill, E.K.A.; Moon, S.G.; Zheng, G.

    2009-01-01

    FAST (Formation for Atmospheric Science and Technology demonstration) is a cooperative Dutch Chinese formation flying mission led by Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) in the Netherlands and Tsinghua University in China. It is expected to be the first international micro-satellite formation

  15. Validation of the in-flight calibration procedures for the MICROSCOPE space mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Émilie; Levy, Agnès; Rodrigues, Manuel; Touboul, Pierre; Métris, Gilles

    2013-11-01

    The MICROSCOPE space mission aims to test the Equivalence Principle with an accuracy of 10-15. The drag-free micro-satellite will orbit around the Earth and embark a differential electrostatic accelerometer including two cylindrical test masses submitted to the same gravitational field and made of different materials. The experience consists in testing the equality of the electrostatic acceleration applied to the masses to maintain them relatively motionless. The accuracy of the measurements exploited for the test of the Equivalence Principle is limited by our a priori knowledge of several physical parameters of the instrument. These parameters are partially estimated on-ground, but with an insufficient accuracy, and an in-orbit calibration is therefore required to correct the measurements. The calibration procedures have been defined and their analytical performances have been evaluated. In addition, a simulator software including the dynamics model of the instrument, the satellite drag-free system and the perturbing environment has been developed to numerically validate the analytical results. After an overall presentation of the MICROSCOPE mission, this paper will describe the calibration procedures and focus on the simulator. Such an in-flight calibration is mandatory for similar space missions taking advantage of a drag-free system.

  16. Conceptual definition of a technology development mission for advanced solar dynamic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migra, R. P.

    1986-01-01

    An initial conceptual definition of a technology development mission for advanced solar dynamic power systems is provided, utilizing a space station to provide a dedicated test facility. The advanced power systems considered included Brayton, Stirling, and liquid metal Rankine systems operating in the temperature range of 1040 to 1400 K. The critical technologies for advanced systems were identified by reviewing the current state of the art of solar dynamic power systems. The experimental requirements were determined by planning a system test of a 20 kWe solar dynamic power system on the space station test facility. These requirements were documented via the Mission Requirements Working Group (MRWG) and Technology Development Advocacy Group (TDAG) forms. Various concepts or considerations of advanced concepts are discussed. A preliminary evolutionary plan for this technology development mission was prepared.

  17. Validation of High Wind Retrievals from the Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKague, D. S.; Ruf, C. S.; Balasubramaniam, R.; Clarizia, M. P.

    2017-12-01

    The Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) mission, launched in December of 2016, provides all-weather observations of sea surface winds. Using GPS-based bistatic reflectometry, the CYGNSS satellites can estimate sea surface winds even through a hurricane eye wall. This, combined with the high temporal resolution of the CYGNSS constellation (median revisit time of 2.8 hours), yields unprecedented ability to estimate hurricane strength winds. While there are a number of other sources of sea surface wind estimates, such as buoys, dropsondes, passive and active microwave from aircraft and satellite, and models, the combination of all-weather, high accuracy, short revisit time, high spatial coverage, and continuous operation of the CYGNSS mission enables significant advances in the understanding, monitoring, and prediction of cyclones. Validating CYGNSS wind retrievals over the bulk of the global wind speed distribution, which peaks at around 7 meters per second, is relatively straight-forward, requiring spatial-temporal matching of observations with independent sources (such as those mentioned above). Validating CYGNSS wind retrievals for "high" winds (> 20 meters per second), though, is problematic. Such winds occur only in intense storms. While infrequent, making validation opportunities also infrequent and problematic due to their intense nature, such storms are important to study because of the high potential for damage and loss of life. This presentation will describe the efforts of the CYGNSS Calibration/Validation team to gather measurements of high sea surface winds for development and validation of the CYGNSS geophysical model function (GMF), which forms the basis of retrieving winds from CYGNSS observations. The bulk of these observations come from buoy measurements as well as aircraft ("hurricane hunter") measurements from passive microwave and dropsondes. These data are matched in space and time to CYGNSS observations for training of the

  18. Validating Advanced Supply-Chain Technology (VAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Use philosophy that is so important in today’s procurement environment. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and eCommerce is proving to be a major...the STEPwise methodology are particularly encouraging. These new EDI and eCommerce technologies are becoming more important with the customers who...critical assumption is based upon the 55 fact that eCommerce is growing throughout the commercial and military sector and those who are not

  19. The Impact of Information Technology on the Design, Development, and Implementation of a Lunar Exploration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Anthony R.; Sims, Michael H.; Briggs, Geoffrey A.

    1996-01-01

    From the beginning to the present expeditions to the Moon have involved a large investment of human labor. This has been true for all aspects of the process, from the initial design of the mission, whether scientific or technological, through the development of the instruments and the spacecraft, to the flight and operational phases. In addition to the time constraints that this situation imposes, there is also a significant cost associated with the large labor costs. As a result lunar expeditions have been limited to a few robotic missions and the manned Apollo program missions of the 1970s. With the rapid rise of the new information technologies, new paradigms are emerging that promise to greatly reduce both the time and cost of such missions. With the rapidly increasing capabilities of computer hardware and software systems, as well as networks and communication systems, a new balance of work is being developed between the human and the machine system. This new balance holds the promise of greatly increased exploration capability, along with dramatically reduced design, development, and operating costs. These new information technologies, utilizing knowledge-based software and very highspeed computer systems, will provide new design and development tools, scheduling mechanisms, and vehicle and system health monitoring capabilities that have hitherto been unavailable to the mission and spacecraft designer and the system operator. This paper will utilize typical lunar missions, both robotic and crewed, as a basis to describe and illustrate how these new information system technologies could be applied to all aspects such missions. In particular, new system design tradeoff tools will be described along with technologies that will allow a very much greater degree of autonomy of exploration vehicles than has heretofore been possible. In addition, new information technologies that will significantly reduce the human operational requirements will be discussed.

  20. Logistics Reduction and Repurposing Technology for Long Duration Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyan, James L.; Chu, Andrew; Ewert, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    One of NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) projects is the Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project, which has the goal of reducing logistics resupply items through direct and indirect means. Various technologies under development in the project will reduce the launch mass of consumables and their packaging, enable reuse and repurposing of items and make logistics tracking more efficient. Repurposing also reduces the trash burden onboard spacecraft and indirectly reduces launch mass by replacing some items on the manifest. Examples include reuse of trash as radiation shielding or propellant. This paper provides the status of the LRR technologies in their third year of development under AES. Advanced clothing systems (ACS) are being developed to enable clothing to be worn longer, directly reducing launch mass. ACS has completed a ground exercise clothing study in preparation for an International Space Station (ISS) technology demonstration in 2014. Development of launch packaging containers and other items that can be repurposed on-orbit as part of habitation outfitting has resulted in a logistics-to-living (L2L) concept. L2L has fabricated and evaluated several multi-purpose cargo transfer bags (MCTBs) for potential reuse on orbit. Autonomous logistics management (ALM) is using radio frequency identification (RFID) to track items and thus reduce crew requirements for logistics functions. An RFID dense reader prototype is under construction and plans for integrated testing are being made. Development of a heat melt compactor (HMC) second generation unit for processing trash into compact and stable tiles is nearing completion. The HMC prototype compaction chamber has been completed and system development testing is underway. Research has been conducted on the conversion of trash-to-gas (TtG) for high levels of volume reduction and for use in propulsion systems. A steam reformation system was selected for further system definition of the TtG technology

  1. Development Challenges of Game-Changing Entry System Technologies From Concept to Mission Infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Beck, Robin; Ellerby, Don; Feldman, Jay; Gage, Peter; Munk, Michelle; Wercinski, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Realization within the US and NASA that future exploration both Human and Robotic will require innovative new technologies led to the creation of the Space Technology Mission Directorate and investment in game changing technologies with high pay-off. Some of these investments will see success and others, due to many of the constraints, will not attain their goal. The co-authors of this proposed presentation have been involved from concept to mission infusion aspects of entry technologies that are game changing. The four example technologies used to describe the challenges experienced along the pathways to success are at different levels of maturity. They are Conformal, 3-D MAT, HEEET and ADEPT. The four examples in many ways capture broad aspects of the challenges of maturation and illustrate what led some to be exceptionally successful and how others had to be altered in order remain viable game changing technologies.

  2. Interoperability for Space Mission Monitor and Control: Applying Technologies from Manufacturing Automation and Process Control Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael K.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with interoperability for space mission monitor and control are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Space Project Mission Operations Control Architecture (SuperMOCA) goals and methods for achieving them; 2) Specifics on the architecture: open standards ad layering, enhancing interoperability, and promoting commercialization; 3) An advertisement; 4) Status of the task - government/industry cooperation and architecture and technology demonstrations; and 5) Key features of messaging services and virtual devices.

  3. Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) Enabling Missions Beyond Heritage Carbon Phenolic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackpoole, M.; Boghozian, T.; Chavez-Garcia, J.; Ellerby, D.; Fowler, M.; Gage, P.; Gasch, M.; Gonzales, G.; Kazemba, C.; Kellermann, C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Future NASA robotic missions utilizing an entry system into Venus and the outer planets, results in extremely high entry conditions that exceed the capabilities of state of the art low to mid density ablators such as PICA or AVCOAT. Previously, mission planners had to assume the use of fully dense carbon phenolic heatshields similar to what was flown on Pioneer Venus or Galileo. Carbon phenolic is a robust TPS material, however, its high density and relatively high thermal conductivity constrain mission planners to steep entries, with high heat fluxes and pressures and short entry durations. The high entry conditions pose challenges for certification in existing ground based test facilities and the longer-term sustainability of CP will continue to pose challenges. NASA has decided to invest in new technology development rather than invest in reviving carbon phenolic. The HEEET project, funded by STMD is maturing a game changing Woven Thermal Protection System technology. HEEET is a capability development project and is not tied to a single mission or destination, therefore, it is challenging to complete ground testing needed to demonstrate a capability that is much broader than any single mission or destination would require. This presentation will status HEEET progress. Near term infusion target for HEEET is the upcoming New Frontiers (NF-4) class of competitively selected Science Mission Directorate (SMD) missions for which it is incentivized.

  4. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations: Large space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, R. M.; Reid, G.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives studied are the definition of the tested role of an early Space Station for the construction of large space structures. This is accomplished by defining the LSS technology development missions (TDMs) identified in phase 1. Design and operations trade studies are used to identify the best structural concepts and procedures for each TDMs. Details of the TDM designs are then developed along with their operational requirements. Space Station resources required for each mission, both human and physical, are identified. The costs and development schedules for the TDMs provide an indication of the programs needed to develop these missions.

  5. Logistics Reduction and Repurposing Technology for Long Duration Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Chu, Andrew; Ewert, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    One of NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) projects is the Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project, which has the goal of reducing logistics resupply items through direct and indirect means. Various technologies under development in the project will reduce the launch mass of consumables and their packaging, enable reuse and repurposing of items, and make logistics tracking more efficient. Repurposing also reduces the trash burden onboard spacecraft and indirectly reduces launch mass by one manifest item having two purposes rather than two manifest items each having only one purpose. This paper provides the status of each of the LRR technologies in their third year of development under AES. Advanced clothing systems (ACSs) are being developed to enable clothing to be worn longer, directly reducing launch mass. ACS has completed a ground exercise clothing study in preparation for an International Space Station technology demonstration in 2014. Development of launch packaging containers and other items that can be repurposed on-orbit as part of habitation outfitting has resulted in a logistics-to-living (L2L) concept. L2L has fabricated and evaluated several multi-purpose cargo transfer bags for potential reuse on-orbit. Autonomous logistics management is using radio frequency identification (RFID) to track items and thus reduce crew time for logistics functions. An RFID dense reader prototype is under construction and plans for integrated testing are being made. A heat melt compactor (HMC) second generation unit for processing trash into compact and stable tiles is nearing completion. The HMC prototype compaction chamber has been completed and system development testing is under way. Research has been conducted on the conversion of trash-to-gas (TtG) for high levels of volume reduction and for use in propulsion systems. A steam reformation system was selected for further system definition of the TtG technology.

  6. Helicopter mission optimization study. [portable computer technology for flight optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of using low-cost, portable computer technology to help a helicopter pilot optimize flight parameters to minimize fuel consumption and takeoff and landing noise was demonstrated. Eight separate computer programs were developed for use in the helicopter cockpit using a hand-held computer. The programs provide the helicopter pilot with the ability to calculate power required, minimum fuel consumption for both range and endurance, maximum speed and a minimum noise profile for both takeoff and landing. Each program is defined by a maximum of two magnetic cards. The helicopter pilot is required to key in the proper input parameter such as gross weight, outside air temperature or pressure altitude.

  7. Reliability versus mass optimization of CO2 extraction technologies for long duration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detrell, Gisela; Gríful i Ponsati, Eulàlia; Messerschmid, Ernst

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to optimize reliability and mass of three CO2 extraction technologies/components: the 4-Bed Molecular Sieve, the Electrochemical Depolarized Concentrator and the Solid Amine Water Desorption. The first one is currently used in the International Space Station and the last two are being developed, and could be used for future long duration missions. This work is part of a complex study of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) reliability. The result of this paper is a methodology to analyze the reliability and mass at a component level, which is used in this paper for the CO2 extraction technologies, but that can be applied to the ECLSS technologies that perform other tasks, such as oxygen generation or water recycling, which will be a required input for the analysis of an entire ECLSS. The key parameter to evaluate any system to be used in space is mass, as it is directly related to the launch cost. Moreover, for long duration missions, reliability will play an even more important role, as no resupply or rescue mission is taken into consideration. Each technology is studied as a reparable system, where the number of spare parts to be taken for a specific mission will need to be selected, to maximize the reliability and minimize the mass of the system. The problem faced is a Multi-Objective Optimization Problem (MOOP), which does not have a single solution. Thus, optimum solutions of MOOP, the ones that cannot be improved in one of the two objectives, without degrading the other one, are found for each selected technology. The solutions of the MOOP for the three technologies are analyzed and compared, considering other parameters such as the type of mission, the maturity of the technology and potential interactions/synergies with other technologies of the ECLSS.

  8. Validation of GNSS Multipath Model for Space Proximity Operations Using the Hubble Servicing Mission 4 Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashman, Ben; Veldman, Jeanette; Axelrad, Penina; Garrison, James; Winternitz, Luke

    2016-01-01

    In the rendezvous and docking of spacecraft, GNSS signals can reflect off the target vehicle and cause prohibitively large errors in the chaser vehicle receiver at ranges below 200 meters. It has been proposed that the additional ray paths, or multipath, be used as a source of information about the state of the target relative to the receiver. With Hubble Servicing Mission 4 as a case study, electromagnetic ray tracing has been used to construct a model of reflected signals from known geometry. Oscillations in the prompt correlator power due to multipath, known as multipath fading, are studied as a means of model validation. Agreement between the measured and simulated multipath fading serves to confirm the presence of signals reflected off the target spacecraft that might be used for relative navigation.

  9. Systems Engineering Using Heritage Spacecraft Technology: Lessons Learned from Discovery and New Frontiers Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Bryan; Newhouse, Marilyn; Clardy, Dennon

    2011-01-01

    In the design and development of complex spacecraft missions, project teams frequently assume the use of advanced technology or heritage systems to enable a mission or reduce the overall mission risk and cost. As projects proceed through the development life cycle, increasingly detailed knowledge of the advanced or heritage systems and the system environment identifies unanticipated issues that result in cost overruns or schedule impacts. The Discovery & New Frontiers (D&NF) Program Office recently studied cost overruns and schedule delays resulting from advanced technology or heritage assumptions for 6 D&NF missions. The goal was to identify the underlying causes for the overruns and delays, and to develop practical mitigations to assist the D&NF projects in identifying potential risks and controlling the associated impacts to proposed mission costs and schedules. The study found that the cost and schedule growth did not result from technical hurdles requiring significant technology development. Instead, systems engineering processes did not identify critical issues early enough in the design cycle to ensure project schedules and estimated costs address the inherent risks. In general, the overruns were traceable to: inadequate understanding of the heritage system s behavior within the proposed spacecraft design and mission environment; an insufficient level of experience with the heritage system; or an inadequate scoping of the system-wide impacts necessary to implement the heritage or advanced technology. This presentation summarizes the study s findings and offers suggestions for improving the project s ability to identify and manage the risks inherent in the technology and heritage design solution.

  10. CZMIL (coastal zone mapping and imaging lidar): from first flights to first mission through system validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feygels, Viktor I.; Park, Joong Yong; Wozencraft, Jennifer; Aitken, Jennifer; Macon, Christopher; Mathur, Abhinav; Payment, Andy; Ramnath, Vinod

    2013-06-01

    CZMIL is an integrated lidar-imagery system and software suite designed for highly automated generation of physical and environmental information products for coastal zone mapping in the framework of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) National Coastal Mapping Program (NCMP). This paper presents the results of CZMIL system validation in turbid water conditions along the Gulf Coast of Mississippi and in relatively clear water conditions in Florida in late spring 2012. Results of the USACE May-October 2012 mission in Green Bay, WI and Lake Erie are presented. The system performance tests show that CZMIL successfully achieved 7-8m depth in Mississippi with Kd =0.46m-1 (Kd is the diffuse attenuation coefficient) and up to 41m in Florida when Kd=0.11m-1. Bathymetric accuracy of CZMIL was measured by comparing CZMIL depths with multi-beam sonar data from Cat Island, MS and from off the coast of Fort. Lauderdale, FL. Validation demonstrated that CZMIL meets USACE specifications (two standard deviation, 2σ, ~30 cm). To measure topographic accuracy we made direct comparisons of CZMIL elevations to GPS-surveyed ground control points and vehicle-based lidar scans of topographic surfaces. Results confirmed that CZMIL meets the USACE topographic requirements (2σ, ~15 cm). Upon completion of the Green Bay and Lake Erie mission there were 89 flights with 2231 flightlines. The general hours of aircraft engine time (which doesn't include all transit/ferry flights) was 441 hours with 173 hours of time on survey flightlines. The 4.8 billion (!) laser shots and 38.6 billion digitized waveforms covered over 1025 miles of shoreline.

  11. SMART-1 technology, scientific results and heritage for future space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, B. H.; Racca, G.; Marini, A.; Koschny, D.; Frew, D.; Grieger, B.; Camino-Ramos, O.; Josset, J. L.; Grande, M.; Smart-1 Science; Technology Working Team

    2018-02-01

    ESA's SMART-1 mission to the Moon achieved record firsts such as: 1) first Small Mission for Advanced Research and Technology; with spacecraft built and integrated in 2.5 years and launched 3.5 years after mission approval; 2) first mission leaving the Earth orbit using solar power alone; 3) most fuel effective mission (60 L of Xenon) and longest travel (13 months) to the Moon!; 4) first ESA mission reaching the Moon and first European views of lunar poles; 5) first European demonstration of a wide range of new technologies: Li-Ion modular battery, deep-space communications in X- and Ka-bands, and autonomous positioning for navigation; 6) first lunar demonstration of an infrared spectrometer and of a Swept Charge Detector Lunar X-ray fluorescence spectrometer; 7) first ESA mission with opportunity for lunar science, elemental geochemistry, surface mineralogy mapping, surface geology and precursor studies for exploration; 8) first controlled impact landing on the Moon with real time observations campaign; 9) first mission supporting goals of the International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG) in technical and scientific exchange, international collaboration, public and youth engagement; 10) first mission preparing the ground for ESA collaboration in Chandrayaan-1, Chang' E1 and future international lunar exploration. We review SMART-1 highlights and new results that are relevant to the preparation for future lunar exploration. The technology and methods had impact on space research and applications. Recent SMART-1 results are relevant to topics on: 1) the study of properties of the lunar dust, 2) impact craters and ejecta, 3) the study of illumination, 4) radio observations and science from the Moon, 5) support to future missions, 6) identifying and characterising sites for exploration and exploitation. On these respective topics, we discuss recent SMART-1 results and challenges. We also discuss the use of SMART-1 publications library. The SMART-1 archive

  12. Infrared and submillimeter space missions in the coming decade programmes, programmatics, and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sauvage, Marc; Gallais, Pascal; Vigroux, Laurent

    1996-01-01

    A revolution similar to that brought by CCDs to visible astronomy is still ahead in IR and submillimeter astronomy. There is certainly no wavelength range which has, over the past several years, seen such impressive advances in technology: large-scale detector arrays, new designs for cooling in space, lightweight mirror technologies. Scientific cases for observing the cold universe are outstanding. Observations in the FIR/Submm range will provide answers to such fundamental questions as: What is the spectrum of the primordial fluctuations? How do primeval galaxies look? What are the first stages of star formation? Most of the international space missions that have been triggered by these questions are presented in detail here. Technological issues raised by these missions are reviewed, as are the most recent achievements in cooling and detector technologies.

  13. The Ion Propulsion System for the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Santiago, Walter; Kamhawi, Hani; Polk, James E.; Snyder, John Steven; Hofer, Richard R.; Parker, J. Morgan

    2015-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission is a candidate Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission whose main objectives are to develop and demonstrate a high-power solar electric propulsion capability for the Agency and return an asteroidal mass for rendezvous and characterization in a companion human-crewed mission. The ion propulsion system must be capable of operating over an 8-year time period and processing up to 10,000 kg of xenon propellant. This high-power solar electric propulsion capability, or an extensible derivative of it, has been identified as a critical part of an affordable, beyond-low-Earth-orbit, manned-exploration architecture. Under the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate the critical electric propulsion and solar array technologies are being developed. The ion propulsion system being co-developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle is based on the NASA-developed 12.5 kW Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS0 thruster and power processing technologies. This paper presents the conceptual design for the ion propulsion system, the status of the NASA in-house thruster and power processing activity, and an update on flight hardware.

  14. Technology Readiness Level Assessment Process as Applied to NASA Earth Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leete, Stephen J.; Romero, Raul A.; Dempsey, James A.; Carey, John P.; Cline, Helmut P.; Lively, Carey F.

    2015-01-01

    Technology assessments of fourteen science instruments were conducted within NASA using the NASA Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Metric. The instruments were part of three NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey missions in pre-formulation. The Earth Systematic Missions Program (ESMP) Systems Engineering Working Group (SEWG), composed of members of three NASA Centers, provided a newly modified electronic workbook to be completed, with instructions. Each instrument development team performed an internal assessment of its technology status, prepared an overview of its instrument, and completed the workbook with the results of its assessment. A team from the ESMP SEWG met with each instrument team and provided feedback. The instrument teams then reported through the Program Scientist for their respective missions to NASA's Earth Science Division (ESD) on technology readiness, taking the SEWG input into account. The instruments were found to have a range of TRL from 4 to 7. Lessons Learned are presented; however, due to the competition-sensitive nature of the assessments, the results for specific missions are not presented. The assessments were generally successful, and produced useful results for the agency. The SEWG team identified a number of potential improvements to the process. Particular focus was on ensuring traceability to guiding NASA documents, including the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook. The TRL Workbook has been substantially modified, and the revised workbook is described.

  15. Heritage and Advanced Technology Systems Engineering Lessons Learned from NASA Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Bryan; Newhouse, Marilyn; Bacskay, Allen

    2010-01-01

    Use of heritage and new technology is necessary/enabling to implementing small, low cost missions, yet overruns decrease the ability to sustain future mission flight rates The majority of the cost growth drivers seen in the D&NF study were embedded early during formulation phase and later realized during the development and I&T phases Cost drivers can be avoided or significantly decreased by project management and SE emphasis on early identification of risks and realistic analyses SE processes that emphasize an assessment of technology within the mission system to identify technical issues in the design or operational use of the technology. Realistic assessment of new and heritage spacecraft technology assumptions , identification of risks and mitigation strategies. Realistic estimates of effort required to inherit existing or qualify new technology, identification of risks to estimates and develop mitigation strategies. Allocation of project reserves for risk-based mitigation strategies of each individual area of heritage or new technology. Careful tailoring of inheritance processes to ensure due diligence.

  16. Gossamer-1: Mission concept and technology for a controlled deployment of gossamer spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, Patric; Spietz, Peter; Sproewitz, Tom; Grundmann, Jan Thimo; Hillebrandt, Martin; Hobbie, Catherin; Ruffer, Michael; Straubel, Marco; Tóth, Norbert; Zander, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Gossamer structures for innovative space applications, such as solar sails, require technology that allows their controlled and thereby safe deployment. Before employing such technology for a dedicated science mission, it is desirable, if not necessary, to demonstrate its reliability with a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six or higher. The aim of the work presented here is to provide reliable technology that enables the controlled deployment and verification of its functionality with various laboratory tests, thereby qualifying the hardware for a first demonstration in low Earth orbit (LEO). The development was made in the Gossamer-1 project of the German Aerospace Center (DLR). This paper provides an overview of the Gossamer-1 mission and hardware development. The system is designed based on the requirements of a technology demonstration mission. The design rests on a crossed boom configuration with triangular sail segments. Employing engineering models, all aspects of the deployment were tested under ambient environment. Several components were also subjected to environmental qualification testing. An innovative stowing and deployment strategy for a controlled deployment, as well as the designs of the bus system, mechanisms and electronics are described. The tests conducted provide insights into the deployment process and allow a mechanical characterization of that deployment process, in particular the measurement of the deployment forces. Deployment on system level could be successfully demonstrated to be robust and controllable. The deployment technology is on TRL four approaching level five, with a qualification model for environmental testing currently being built.

  17. Nuclear Thermal Rocket (Ntr) Propulsion: A Proven Game-Changing Technology for Future Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    The NTR represents the next evolutionary step in high performance rocket propulsion. It generates high thrust and has a specific impulse (Isp) of approx.900 seconds (s) or more V twice that of today s best chemical rockets. The technology is also proven. During the previous Rover and NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications) nuclear rocket programs, 20 rocket reactors were designed, built and ground tested. These tests demonstrated: (1) a wide range of thrust; (2) high temperature carbide-based nuclear fuel; (3) sustained engine operation; (4) accumulated lifetime; and (5) restart capability V all the requirements needed for a human mission to Mars. Ceramic metal cermet fuel was also pursued, as a backup option. The NTR also has significant growth and evolution potential. Configured as a bimodal system, it can generate electrical power for the spacecraft. Adding an oxygen afterburner nozzle introduces a variable thrust and Isp capability and allows bipropellant operation. In NASA s recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, the NTR was selected as the preferred propulsion option because of its proven technology, higher performance, lower launch mass, simple assembly and mission operations. In contrast to other advanced propulsion options, NTP requires no large technology scale-ups. In fact, the smallest engine tested during the Rover program V the 25,000 lbf (25 klbf) Pewee engine is sufficient for human Mars missions when used in a clustered engine arrangement. The Copernicus crewed spacecraft design developed in DRA 5.0 has significant capability and a human exploration strategy is outlined here that uses Copernicus and its key components for precursor near Earth asteroid (NEA) and Mars orbital missions prior to a Mars landing mission. Initially, the basic Copernicus vehicle can enable reusable 1-year round trip human missions to candidate NEAs like 1991 JW and Apophis in the late 2020 s to check out vehicle systems. Afterwards, the

  18. Aerocapture Technology to Reduce Trip Time and Cost of Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artis, Gwen R.; James, B.

    2006-12-01

    NASA’s In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Program is investing in technologies to revolutionize the robotic exploration of deep space. One of these technologies is Aerocapture, the most promising of the “aeroassist” techniques used to maneuver a space vehicle within an atmosphere, using aerodynamic forces in lieu of propellant. (Other aeroassist techniques include aeroentry and aerobraking.) Aerocapture relies on drag atmospheric drag to decelerate an incoming spacecraft and capture it into orbit. This technique is very attractive since it permits spacecraft to be launched from Earth at higher velocities, providing shorter trip times and saving mass and overall cost on future missions. Recent aerocapture systems analysis studies quantify the benefits of aerocapture to future exploration. The 2002 Titan aerocapture study showed that using aerocapture at Titan instead of conventional propulsive capture results in over twice as much payload delivered to Titan. Aerocapture at Venus results in almost twice the payload delivered to Venus as with aerobraking, and over six times more mass delivered into orbit than all-propulsive capture. Aerocapture at Mars shows significant benefits as the payload sizes increase and as missions become more complex. Recent Neptune aerocapture studies show that aerocapture opens up entirely new classes of missions at Neptune. Current aerocapture technology development is advancing the maturity of each sub-system technology needed for successful implementation of aerocapture on future missions. Recent development has focused on both rigid aeroshell and inflatable aerocapture systems. Rigid aeroshell systems development includes new ablative and non-ablative thermal protection systems, advanced aeroshell performance sensors, lightweight structures and higher temperature adhesives. Inflatable systems such as trailing tethered and clamped “ballutes” and inflatable aeroshells are also under development. Computational tools required

  19. The Large UV/Optical/Infrared Surveyor (LUVOIR): Decadal Mission concept technology development overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.

    2017-09-01

    The Large Ultraviolet / Optical / Infrared (LUVOIR) Surveyor is one of four large mission concept studies being developed by NASA for consideration in the 2020 Astrophysics Decadal Survey. LUVOIR will support a broad range of science objectives, including the direct imaging and spectral characterization of habitable exoplanets around sun-like stars, the study of galaxy formation and evolution, the epoch of reionization, star and planet formation, and the remote sensing of Solar System bodies. The LUVOIR Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) has tasked a Technology Working Group (TWG), with more than 60 members from NASA centers, academia, industry, and international partners, with identifying technologies that enable or enhance the LUVOIR science mission. The TWG has identified such technologies in the areas of Coronagraphy, Ultra-Stable Opto-mechanical Systems, Detectors, Coatings, Starshades, and Instrument Components, and has completed a detailed assessment of the state-of-the-art. We present here a summary of this technology assessment effort, as well as the current progress in defining a technology development plan to mature these technologies to the required technology readiness level (TRL).

  20. Progress Towards providing Heat-Shield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) for Venus and other New Froniters Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Ellerby, Don; Gage, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Heat-shield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) has been in development since 2014 with the goal of enabling missions to Venus, Saturn and other high-speed sample return missions. It is offered as a new technology and incentivized for mission use in the New Frontiers 4 AO by NASA. The current plans are to mature the technology to TRL 6 by FY18. The HEEET Team has been working closely with multiple NF-4 proposals to Venus, Saturn and has been supporting recent Ice-Giants mission studies. This presentation will provide progress made to date and the plans for development in FY18.

  1. A comparison of superconductor and manganin technology for electronic links used in space mission applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, R.; Selim, R.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    The electronic link connecting cryogenically cooled radiation detectors to data acquisition and signal processing electronics at higher temperatures contributes significantly to the total heat load on spacecraft cooling systems that use combined mechanical and cryogenic liquid cooling. Using high transition temperature superconductors for this link has been proposed to increase the lifetime of space missions. Herein, several YBCO (YBa2Cu3O7) superconductor-substrate combinations were examined and total heat loads were compared to manganin wire technology in current use. Using numerical solutions to the heat-flow equations, it is shown that replacing manganin technology with YBCO thick film technology can extend a 7-year mission by up to 1 year.

  2. Planetary mission requirements, technology and design considerations for a solar electric propulsion stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cork, M. J.; Hastrup, R. C.; Menard, W. A.; Olson, R. N.

    1979-01-01

    High energy planetary missions such as comet rendezvous, Saturn orbiter and asteroid rendezvous require development of a Solar Electric Propulsion Stage (SEPS) for augmentation of the Shuttle-IUS. Performance and functional requirements placed on the SEPS are presented. These requirements will be used in evolution of the SEPS design, which must be highly interactive with both the spacecraft and the mission design. Previous design studies have identified critical SEPS technology areas and some specific design solutions which are also presented in the paper.

  3. Real-time data system: Incorporating new technology in mission critical environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratore, John F.; Heindel, Troy A.

    1990-01-01

    If the Space Station Freedom is to remain viable over its 30-year life span, it must be able to incorporate new information systems technologies. These technologies are necessary to enhance mission effectiveness and to enable new NASA missions, such as supporting the Lunar-Mars Initiative. Hi-definition television (HDTV), neural nets, model-based reasoning, advanced languages, CPU designs, and computer networking standards are areas which have been forecasted to make major strides in the next 30 years. A major challenge to NASA is to bring these technologies online without compromising mission safety. In past programs, NASA managers have been understandably reluctant to rely on new technologies for mission critical activities until they are proven in noncritical areas. NASA must develop strategies to allow inflight confidence building and migration of technologies into the trusted tool base. NASA has successfully met this challenge and developed a winning strategy in the Space Shuttle Mission Control Center. This facility, which is clearly among NASA's most critical, is based on 1970's mainframe architecture. Changes to the mainframe are very expensive due to the extensive testing required to prove that changes do not have unanticipated impact on critical processes. Systematic improvement efforts in this facility have been delayed due to this 'risk to change.' In the real-time data system (RTDS) we have introduced a network of engineering computer workstations which run in parallel to the mainframe system. These workstations are located next to flight controller operating positions in mission control and, in some cases, the display units are mounted in the traditional mainframe consoles. This system incorporates several major improvements over the mainframe consoles including automated fault detection by real-time expert systems and color graphic animated schematics of subsystems driven by real-time telemetry. The workstations have the capability of recording

  4. Acquisition and Analysis of NASA Ames Sunphotometer Measurements during SAGE III Validation Campaigns and other Tropospheric and Stratospheric Research Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, John M.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Cooperative Agreement NCC2-1251 provided funding from April 2001 through December 2003 for Mr. John Livingston of SRI International to collaborate with NASA Ames Research Center scientists and engineers in the acquisition and analysis of airborne sunphotometer measurements during various atmospheric field studies. Mr. Livingston participated in instrument calibrations at Mauna Loa Observatory, pre-mission hardware and software preparations, acquisition and analysis of sunphotometer measurements during the missions, and post-mission analysis of data and reporting of scientific findings. The atmospheric field missions included the spring 2001 Intensive of the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia), the Asian Dust Above Monterey-2003 (ADAM-2003) experiment, and the winter 2003 Second SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE II).

  5. Candidate functions for advanced technology implementation in the Columbus mission planning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Audrey; Kellner, Albrecht

    1988-01-01

    The Columbus Project is the European Space Agency's contribution to the International Space Station program. Columbus is planned to consist of three elements (a laboratory module attached to the Space Station base, a man-tended freeflyer orbiting with the Space Station base, and a platform in polar orbit). System definition and requirements analysis for Columbus are underway, scheduled for completion in mid-1990. An overview of the Columbus mission planning environment and operations concept as currently defined is given, and some of the challenges presented to software maintainers and ground segment personnel during mission operators are identified. The use of advanced technologies in system implementation is being explored. Both advantages of such solutions and potential problems they present are discussed, and the next steps to be taken by Columbus before targeting any functions for advanced technology implementation are summarized. Several functions in the mission planning process were identified as candidates for advanced technology implementation. These range from expert interaction with Columbus' data bases through activity scheduling and near-real-time response to departures from the planned timeline. Each function is described, and its potential for advanced technology implementation briefly assessed.

  6. Characterizing the Radiation Survivability of Space Solar Cell Technologies for Heliospheric Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H.; Walker, D.; Mann, C. J.; Yue, Y.; Nocerino, J. C.; Smith, B. S.; Mulligan, T.

    2016-12-01

    Space solar cells are responsible for powering the majority of heliospheric space missions. This paper will discuss methods for characterizing space solar cell technologies for on-orbit operations that rely on a series of laboratory tests that include measuring the solar cells' beginning of life performance under simulated (e.g. AM0 or air mass zero) sunlight over different operating temperatures and observing their end of life performance following exposure to laboratory-generated charged particle radiation (protons and electrons). The Aerospace Corporation operates a proton implanter as well as electron gun facilities and collaborates with external radiation effects facilities to expose space solar cells or other space technologies to representative space radiation environments (i.e. heliosphere or magnetosphere of Earth or other planets), with goals of characterizing how the technologies perform over an anticipated space mission timeline and, through the application of precision diagnostic capabilities, understanding what part of the solar cell is impacted by varying space radiation environments. More recently, Aerospace has been hosting solar cell flight tests on its previously-flown CubeSat avionics bus, providing opportunities to compare the laboratory tests to on-orbit observations. We hope through discussion of the lessons learned and methods we use to characterize how solar cells perform after space radiation exposure that similar methodology could be adopted by others to improve the state of knowledge on the survivability of other space technologies required for future space missions.

  7. Validating an infrared thermal switch as a novel access technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memarian Negar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a novel single-switch access technology based on infrared thermography was proposed. The technology exploits the temperature differences between the inside and surrounding areas of the mouth as a switch trigger, thereby allowing voluntary switch activation upon mouth opening. However, for this technology to be clinically viable, it must be validated against a gold standard switch, such as a chin switch, that taps into the same voluntary motion. Methods In this study, we report an experiment designed to gauge the concurrent validity of the infrared thermal switch. Ten able-bodied adults participated in a series of 3 test sessions where they simultaneously used both an infrared thermal and conventional chin switch to perform multiple trials of a number identification task with visual, auditory and audiovisual stimuli. Participants also provided qualitative feedback about switch use. User performance with the two switches was quantified using an efficiency measure based on mutual information. Results User performance (p = 0.16 and response time (p = 0.25 with the infrared thermal switch were comparable to those of the gold standard. Users reported preference for the infrared thermal switch given its non-contact nature and robustness to changes in user posture. Conclusions Thermal infrared access technology appears to be a valid single switch alternative for individuals with disabilities who retain voluntary mouth opening and closing.

  8. Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission L4_C Data Product Assessment (Version 2 Validated Release)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, John S.; Jones, Lucas A.; Glassy, Joseph; Stavros, E. Natasha; Madani, Nima; Reichle, Rolf H.; Jackson, Thomas; Colliander, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The SMAP satellite was successfully launched January 31st 2015, and began acquiring Earth observation data following in-orbit sensor calibration. Global data products derived from the SMAP L-band microwave measurements include Level 1 calibrated and geolocated radiometric brightness temperatures, Level 23 surface soil moisture and freezethaw geophysical retrievals mapped to a fixed Earth grid, and model enhanced Level 4 data products for surface to root zone soil moisture and terrestrial carbon (CO2) fluxes. The post-launch SMAP mission CalVal Phase had two primary objectives for each science product team: 1) calibrate, verify, and improve the performance of the science algorithms, and 2) validate accuracies of the science data products as specified in the L1 science requirements. This report provides analysis and assessment of the SMAP Level 4 Carbon (L4_C) product pertaining to the validated release. The L4_C validated product release effectively replaces an earlier L4_C beta-product release (Kimball et al. 2015). The validated release described in this report incorporates a longer data record and benefits from algorithm and CalVal refinements acquired during the SMAP post-launch CalVal intensive period. The SMAP L4_C algorithms utilize a terrestrial carbon flux model informed by SMAP soil moisture inputs along with optical remote sensing (e.g. MODIS) vegetation indices and other ancillary biophysical data to estimate global daily net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and component carbon fluxes for vegetation gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco). Other L4_C product elements include surface (10 cm depth) soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and associated environmental constraints to these processes, including soil moisture and landscape freeze/thaw (FT) controls on GPP and respiration (Kimball et al. 2012). The L4_C product encapsulates SMAP carbon cycle science objectives by: 1) providing a direct link between terrestrial carbon fluxes and

  9. Creating Communications, Computing, and Networking Technology Development Road Maps for Future NASA Human and Robotic Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul; Hayden, Jeffrey L.

    2005-01-01

    For human and robotic exploration missions in the Vision for Exploration, roadmaps are needed for capability development and investments based on advanced technology developments. A roadmap development process was undertaken for the needed communications, and networking capabilities and technologies for the future human and robotics missions. The underlying processes are derived from work carried out during development of the future space communications architecture, an d NASA's Space Architect Office (SAO) defined formats and structures for accumulating data. Interrelationships were established among emerging requirements, the capability analysis and technology status, and performance data. After developing an architectural communications and networking framework structured around the assumed needs for human and robotic exploration, in the vicinity of Earth, Moon, along the path to Mars, and in the vicinity of Mars, information was gathered from expert participants. This information was used to identify the capabilities expected from the new infrastructure and the technological gaps in the way of obtaining them. We define realistic, long-term space communication architectures based on emerging needs and translate the needs into interfaces, functions, and computer processing that will be required. In developing our roadmapping process, we defined requirements for achieving end-to-end activities that will be carried out by future NASA human and robotic missions. This paper describes: 10 the architectural framework developed for analysis; 2) our approach to gathering and analyzing data from NASA, industry, and academia; 3) an outline of the technology research to be done, including milestones for technology research and demonstrations with timelines; and 4) the technology roadmaps themselves.

  10. Human missions to Mars enabling technologies for exploring the red planet

    CERN Document Server

    Rapp, Donald

    2016-01-01

    A mission to send humans to explore the surface of Mars has been the ultimate goal of planetary exploration since the 1950s, when von Braun conjectured a flotilla of 10 interplanetary vessels carrying a crew of at least 70 humans. Since then, more than 1,000 studies were carried out on human missions to Mars, but after 60 years of study, we remain in the early planning stages. The second edition of this book now includes an annotated history of Mars mission studies, with quantitative data wherever possible. Retained from the first edition, Donald Rapp looks at human missions to Mars from an engineering perspective. He divides the mission into a number of stages: Earth’s surface to low-Earth orbit (LEO); departing from LEO toward Mars; Mars orbit insertion and entry, descent and landing; ascent from Mars; trans-Earth injection from Mars orbit and Earth return. For each segment, he analyzes requirements for candidate technologies. In this connection, he discusses the status and potential of a wide range of el...

  11. SCIAMACHY validation by aircraft remote sensing: design, execution, and first measurement results of the SCIA-VALUE mission

    OpenAIRE

    Fix, A.; Ehret, G.; Flentje, H.; Poberaj, G.; Gottwald, M.; Finkenzeller, H.; Bremer, H.; Bruns, M.; Burrows, J. P.; Kleinböhl, A.; Küllmann, H.; Kuttippurath, J.; Richter, A.; Wang, P.; Heue, K.-P.

    2005-01-01

    International audience; For the first time three different remote sensing instruments ? a sub-millimeter radiometer, a differential optical absorption spectrometer in the UV-visible spectral range, and a lidar ? were deployed aboard DLR's meteorological research aircraft Falcon 20 to validate a large number of SCIAMACHY level 2 and off-line data products such as O3, NO2, N2O, BrO, OClO, H2O, aerosols, and clouds. Within two validation campaigns of the SCIA-VALUE mission (SCIAMACHY VALidation ...

  12. A Look at the Impact of High-End Computing Technologies on NASA Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Rupak; Dunbar, Jill; Hardman, John; Bailey, F. Ron; Wheeler, Lorien; Rogers, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    From its bold start nearly 30 years ago and continuing today, the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) facility at Ames Research Center has enabled remarkable breakthroughs in the space agency s science and engineering missions. Throughout this time, NAS experts have influenced the state-of-the-art in high-performance computing (HPC) and related technologies such as scientific visualization, system benchmarking, batch scheduling, and grid environments. We highlight the pioneering achievements and innovations originating from and made possible by NAS resources and know-how, from early supercomputing environment design and software development, to long-term simulation and analyses critical to design safe Space Shuttle operations and associated spinoff technologies, to the highly successful Kepler Mission s discovery of new planets now capturing the world s imagination.

  13. The Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration Mission:. [Progress and Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael L.; Taylor, William J.; Ginty, Carol A.; Melis, Matthew E.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) Mission from formulation through Systems Requirements Review and into preparation for Preliminary Design Review. Accomplishments of the technology maturation phase of the project are included. The presentation then summarizes the transition, due to Agency budget constraints, of CPST from a flight project into a ground project titled evolvable Cryogenics (eCryo).

  14. Minimal support technology and in situ resource utilization for risk management of planetary spaceflight missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, K. L.; Rygalov, V. Ye.; Johnson, S. B.

    2009-04-01

    All artificial systems and components in space degrade at higher rates than on Earth, depending in part on environmental conditions, design approach, assembly technologies, and the materials used. This degradation involves not only the hardware and software systems but the humans that interact with those systems. All technological functions and systems can be expressed through functional dependence: [Function]˜[ERU]∗[RUIS]∗[ISR]/[DR];where [ERU]efficiency (rate) of environmental resource utilization[RUIS]resource utilization infrastructure[ISR]in situ resources[DR]degradation rateThe limited resources of spaceflight and open space for autonomous missions require a high reliability (maximum possible, approaching 100%) for system functioning and operation, and must minimize the rate of any system degradation. To date, only a continuous human presence with a system in the spaceflight environment can absolutely mitigate those degradations. This mitigation is based on environmental amelioration for both the technology systems, as repair of data and spare parts, and the humans, as exercise and psychological support. Such maintenance now requires huge infrastructures, including research and development complexes and management agencies, which currently cannot move beyond the Earth. When considering what is required to move manned spaceflight from near Earth stations to remote locations such as Mars, what are the minimal technologies and infrastructures necessary for autonomous restoration of a degrading system in space? In all of the known system factors of a mission to Mars that reduce the mass load, increase the reliability, and reduce the mission’s overall risk, the current common denominator is the use of undeveloped or untested technologies. None of the technologies required to significantly reduce the risk for critical systems are currently available at acceptable readiness levels. Long term interplanetary missions require that space programs produce a craft

  15. A low-cost approach to the exploration of Mars through a robotic technology demonstrator mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellery, Alex; Richter, Lutz; Parnell, John; Baker, Adam

    2006-10-01

    We present a proposed robotic mission to Mars—Vanguard—for the Aurora Arrow programme which combines an extensive technology demonstrator with a high scientific return. The novel aspect of this technology demonstrator is the demonstration of “water mining” capabilities for in situ resource utilisation (ISRU) in conjunction with high-value astrobiological investigation within a low-mass lander package of 70 kg. The basic architecture comprises a small lander, a micro-rover and a number of ground-penetrating moles. This basic architecture offers the possibility of testing a wide variety of generic technologies associated with space systems and planetary exploration. The architecture provides for the demonstration of specific technologies associated with planetary surface exploration, and with the Aurora programme specifically. Technology demonstration of ISRU will be a necessary precursor to any future human mission to Mars. Furthermore, its modest mass overhead allows the re-use of the already built Mars Express bus, making it a very low-cost option.

  16. High Leverage Space Transportation System Technologies for Human Exploration Missions to the Moon and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    1996-01-01

    The feasibility of returning humans to the Moon by 2004, the 35th anniversary of the Apollo 11 landing, is examined assuming the use of existing launch vehicles (the Space Shuttle and Titan 4B), a near term, advanced technology space transportation system, and extraterrestrial propellant--specifically 'lunar-derived' liquid oxygen or LUNOX. The lunar transportation system (LTS) elements consist of an expendable, nuclear thermal rocket (NTR)-powered translunar injection (TLI) stage and a combination lunar lander/Earth return vehicle (LERV) using cryogenic liquid oxygen and hydrogen (LOX/LH2) chemical propulsion. The 'wet' LERV, carrying a crew of 2, is configured to fit within the Shuttle orbiter cargo bay and requires only modest assembly in low Earth orbit. After Earth orbit rendezvous and docking of the LERV with the Titan 4B-launched NTR TLI stage, the initial mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) is approx. 40 t. To maximize mission performance at minimum mass, the LERV carries no return LOX but uses approx. 7 t of LUNOX to 'reoxidize' itself for a 'direct return' flight to Earth followed by an 'Apollo-style' capsule recovery. Without LUNOX, mission capability is constrained and the total LTS mass approaches the combined Shuttle-Titan 4B IMLEO limit of approx. 45 t even with enhanced NTR and chemical engine performance. Key technologies are discussed, lunar mission scenarios described, and LTS vehicle designs and characteristics are presented. Mission versatility provided by using a small 'all LH2' NTR engine or a 'LOX-augmented' derivative, either individually or in clusters, for outer planet robotic orbiter, small Mars cargo, lunar 'commuter', and human Mars exploration class missions is also briefly discussed.

  17. Fuel cells, electrolyzers, and microalgae photobioreactors: technologies for long-duration missions in human spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Stefan; Bretschneider, Jens; Nathanson, Emil; Buchert, Melanie

    Long-duration and far-distant missions in human spaceflight have higher requirements on life support systems (LSS) technologies than for missions into low Earth orbit (LEO). LSS technologies have to ensure that humans can survive, live, and work in space. Enhancements of existing technologies, new technological developments and synergetic components integration help to close the oxygen, water and carbon loops. For these reasons, the approach of a synergetic integration of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEFC), Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Electrolyzers (PEL) and Photobioreactors (PBR) for microalgae cultivation into the LSS is investigated. It is demonstrated in which mission scenarii the application of PEFC, PEL, and PBR are useful in terms of mass, reliability, and cycle closures. The paper represents the current status of research at the Institute of Space Systems (IRS) of University of Stuttgart on PEFC, PEL, and PBR development. A final configuration of a prototype of a PEFC system includes the gas, water, and thermal management. The PEL is a state-of-the-art technology for space application, but the specific requirements by a synergetic integration are focused. A prototype configuration of a PBR system, which was tested under microgravity conditions in a parabolic experiment, consists of a highly sophisticated cultivation chamber, adapted sensorics, pumps, nutrients supply and harvesting unit. Additionally, the latest results of the cultivation of the microalgae species Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus in the laboratories of the IRS are represented. Both species are robust, nutrient-rich for human diet. An outlook of the next steps is given for in-orbit verification.

  18. Concept and technology development for the multispectral imager of the Canadian Polar Communications and Weather mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Louis; Dubois, Patrick; Girard, Frédéric; Tanguay, François; Giroux, Jacques

    2012-09-01

    The Polar Communications and Weather (PCW) mission is proposed by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), in partnership with Environment Canada, the Department of National Defence, and several other Canadian government departments. The objectives of the PCW mission are to offer meteorological observations and telecommunication services for the Canadian North. These capabilities are particularly important because of increasing interest in the Arctic and the desire to maintain Canadian sovereignty in this region. The PCW mission has completed its Phase A in 2011. The PCW Meteorological Payload is a Multi-Spectral Imager (MSI) that will provide near-real time weather imagery for the entire circumpolar region with a refresh period of 15 to 30 minutes. Two satellites on a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO) will carry the instrument so as to observe the high latitudes 24 hours per day from a point of view that is almost geostationary. The data from the imagers are expected to greatly enhance accuracy of numerical weather prediction models for North America and globally. The mission will also produce useful information on environment and climate in the North. During Phase A, a certain number of critical technologies were identified. The CSA has initiated an effort to develop some of these so that their Technology Readiness Level (TRL) will be suitable for the follow-on phases of the program. An industrial team lead by ABB has been selected to perform technology development activities for the Meteorological Payload. The goal of the project is to enhance the TRL of the telescope, the spectral separation optics, and the infrared multispectral cameras of the PCW Meteorological Payload by fabricating and testing breadboards for these items. We will describe the Meteorological Payload concept and report on the status of the development activities.

  19. The Science and Technology in Future Remote Sensing Space Missions of Alenia Aerospazio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angino, G.; Borgarelli, L.

    1999-12-01

    The Space Division of Alenia Aerospazio, a Finmeccanica company, is the major Italian space industry. It has, in seven plants, design facilities and laboratories for advanced technological research that are amongst the most modern and well equipped in Europe. With the co-ordinated companies Alenia Aerospazio is one of Europe's largest space industries. In the field of Remote Sensing, i.e. the acquisition of information about objects without being in physical contact with them, the Space Division has proven their capability to manage all of the techniques from space (ranging from active instruments as Synthetic Aperture Radar, Radar Altimeter, Scatterometer, etc… to passive ones as radiometer) in different programs with the main international industries and agencies. Space techniques both for Monitoring/Observation (i.e. operational applications) and Exploration (i.e. research for science demonstration) according to the most recent indication from international committees constitute guidelines. The first is devoted to market for giving innovation, added-value to services and, globally, enhancement of quality of life. The second has the basic purpose of pursuing the scientific knowledge. Advanced technology allows to design for multi-functions instruments (easy in configuration, adaptable to impredictable environment), to synthesise, apparently, opposite concepts (see for instance different requirement from military and civil applications). Space Division of Alenia Aerospazio has knowledge and capability to face the challenge of new millennium in space missions sector. In this paper, it will be described main remote sensing missions in which Space Division is involved both in terms of science and technology definition. Two main segments can be defined: Earth and interplanetary missions. To the first belong: ENVISAT (Earth surface), LIGHTSAR (Earth imaging), CRYOSAT (Earth ice) and to the second: CASSINI (study of Titan and icy satellites), MARS EXPRESS (detection

  20. Inertial Navigation System for India's Reusable Launch Vehicle-Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD HEX) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umadevi, P.; Navas, A.; Karuturi, Kesavabrahmaji; Shukkoor, A. Abdul; Kumar, J. Krishna; Sreekumar, Sreejith; Basim, A. Mohammed

    2017-12-01

    This work presents the configuration of Inertial Navigation System (INS) used in India's Reusable Launch Vehicle-Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD) Program. In view of the specific features and requirements of the RLV-TD, specific improvements and modifications were required in the INS. A new system was designed, realised and qualified meeting the mission requirements of RLV-TD, at the same time taking advantage of the flight heritage attained in INS through various Launch vehicle Missions of the country. The new system has additional redundancy in acceleration channel, in-built inclinometer based bias update scheme for acceleration channels and sign conventions as employed in an aircraft. Data acquisition in micro cycle periodicity (10 ms) was incorporated which was required to provide rate and attitude information at higher sampling rate for ascent phase control. Provision was incorporated for acquisition of rate and acceleration data with high resolution for aerodynamic characterisation and parameter estimation. GPS aided navigation scheme was incorporated to meet the stringent accuracy requirements of the mission. Navigation system configuration for RLV-TD, specific features incorporated to meet the mission requirements, various tests carried out and performance during RLV-TD flight are highlighted.

  1. Development and validation of educational technology for venous ulcer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevides, Jéssica Lima; Coutinho, Janaina Fonseca Victor; Pascoal, Liliane Chagas; Joventino, Emanuella Silva; Martins, Mariana Cavalcante; Gubert, Fabiane do Amaral; Alves, Allana Mirella

    2016-04-01

    To develop and validate an educational technology venous ulcers care. Methodological study conducted in five steps: Situational diagnosis; literature review; development of texts, illustrations and layout; apparent and content validity by the Content Validity Index, assessment of Flesch Readability Index; and pilot testing. The developed technology was a type of booklet entitled Booklet for Venous Ulcers Care, consisting of seven topics: Diet and food intake, walking and light exercise, resting with elevated leg, bandage care, compression therapy, family support, and keeping healthy habits. The apparent validity revealed minimal agreement of 85.7% in the clarity and comprehensibility. The total content validity index was 0.97, the Flesch Readability Index was 75%, corresponding to the reading "fairly easy". The pilot test showed that 100% of people with venous ulcers evaluated the text and the illustrations as understandable, as appropriate. The educational technology proved to be valid for the appearance and content with potential for use in clinical practice. Construir e validar uma tecnologia educativa para cuidados com úlcera venosa. Estudo metodológico realizado em cinco fases: diagnóstico situacional; revisão da literatura; desenvolvimento de textos, ilustrações e diagramação; validade de aparência e de conteúdo pelo Índice de Validade de Conteúdo, avaliação do Índice de Legibilidade de Flesch; e teste piloto. A tecnologia desenvolvida foi do tipo cartilha intitulada Cartilha para cuidados com úlcera venosa, constituída de sete tópicos: Alimentação, Caminhadas e exercícios leves, Repouso com a perna elevada, Cuidados com o curativo, Terapia compressiva, Apoio familiar, e manter hábitos saudáveis. A validade aparente revelou concordância mínima de 85,7% na clareza e compreensibilidade. O Índice de Validade de Conteúdo total foi de 0,97, o Índice de legibilidade de Flesch foi de 75%, o que correspondeu à leitura "razoavelmente f

  2. Distrubtion Tolerant Network Technology Flight Validation Report: DINET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ross M.

    2009-01-01

    In October and November of 2008, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory installed and tested essential elements of Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) technology on the Deep Impact spacecraft. This experiment, called Deep Impact Network Experiment (DINET), was performed in close cooperation with the EPOXI project which has responsibility for the spacecraft. During DINET some 300 images were transmitted from the JPL nodes to the spacecraft. Then, they were automatically forwarded from the spacecraft back to the JPL nodes, exercising DTN's bundle origination, transmission, acquisition, dynamic route computation, congestion control, prioritization, custody transfer, and automatic retransmission procedures, both on the spacecraft and on the ground, over a period of 27 days. All transmitted bundles were successfully received, without corruption. The DINET experiment demonstrated DTN readiness for operational use in space missions.

  3. Distribution Tolerant Network Technology Flight Validation Report: DINET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ross M.

    2009-01-01

    In October and November of 2008, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory installed and tested essential elements of Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) technology on the Deep Impact spacecraft. This experiment, called Deep Impact Network Experiment (DINET), was performed in close cooperation with the EPOXI project which has responsibility for the spacecraft. During DINET some 300 images were transmitted from the JPL nodes to the spacecraft. Then, they were automatically forwarded from the spacecraft back to the JPL nodes, exercising DTN's bundle origination, transmission, acquisition, dynamic route computation, congestion control, prioritization, custody transfer, and automatic retransmission procedures, both on the spacecraft and on the ground, over a period of 27 days. All transmitted bundles were successfully received, without corruption. The DINET experiment demonstrated DTN readiness for operational use in space missions.

  4. Fun with Mission Control: Learning Science and Technology by Sitting in the Driver's Seat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, A. J.; Fisher, D. K.; Leon, N.; Novati, A.; Chmielewski, A. B.; Karlson, D. K.

    2012-12-01

    We will demonstrate and discuss iOS games we have developed that simulate real space mission scenarios in simplified form. These games are designed to appeal to multiple generations, while educating and informing the player about the mission science and technology. Such interactive games for mobile devices can reach an audience that might otherwise be inaccessible. However, developing in this medium comes with its own set of challenges. Touch screen input demands a different type of interface and defines new rules for user interaction. Communicating informative messages to an audience on the go also poses unique challenges. The organization and delivery of the content needs to consider that the users are often distracted by their environments or have only short blocks of time in which to become involved with the activity. The first game, "Comet Quest," simulates the Rosetta mission. Rosetta, sponsored by the European Space Agency, with important contributions from NASA, is on its way to Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. It will orbit the comet and drop a lander on the nucleus. It will continue to orbit for two years as the comet approaches the Sun. Both orbiter and lander will make measurements and observations and transmit the data to Earth, in the first close study of a comet's evolution as it journeys to the inner solar system. In "Comet Quest," the player controls the release of the lander and records and transmits all the science data. The game is fun and challenging, no matter the player's skill level. Comet Quest includes a "Learn more" feature, with questions and simple, concise answers about comets and the Rosetta mission. "Rescue 406!" is another simulation game, this one enacting the process of rescuing individuals in distress using the Search And Rescue Satellite-Aided Tracking system, SARSAT. Development of this game was sponsored by NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, R-series, program (GOES-R). This game incorporates the major

  5. NASA Extreme Environments Mission Operations 10 - Evaluation of Robotic and Sensor Technologies for Surgery in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    were a number of minor medical issues typical of NEEMO missions that included skin lesions , a minor case of otitis externa and abrasions. During pre...mission. Treatment continued in saturation and the lesion healed successfully without complications. There were no infectious illnesses in any... meniscal injuries using an arthroscope or external fixation for joint dislocations. CMAS 5 Evaluation of tele- robotic technologies for

  6. Status of Solar Generator Related Technology Development Activities Supporting the Juice Mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baur Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an overview of the current status of several technical development activities initiated by the European Space Agency (ESA to support the JUICE mission to the Jovian system. First of all, the qualification status of the solar cells to be used in the JUICE mission will be reported. Then, the conclusions from a dedicated activity aiming at assessing the potential degradation of triple-junction solar cells upon primary discharges will be discussed. Finally, the results on the coupon tests currently running at ESA will be presented. The coupons consist of representative solar cell assemblies including coverglasses with a conductive Indium Tin Oxide (ITO layer. Dedicated coverglass grounding technologies are tested on the coupons which connect the conductive coverglass surfaces to the panel ground. It will be shown how the resistivity of the materials used in the coupons evolves upon submission to extreme thermal cycles.

  7. Progress in Fire Detection and Suppression Technology for Future Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robert; Urban, David L.

    2000-01-01

    Fire intervention technology (detection and suppression) is a critical part of the strategy of spacecraft fire safety. This paper reviews the status, trends, and issues in fire intervention, particularly the technology applied to the protection of the International Space Station and future missions beyond Earth orbit. An important contribution to improvements in spacecraft fire safety is the understanding of the behavior of fires in the non-convective (microgravity) environment of Earth-orbiting and planetary-transit spacecraft. A key finding is the strong influence of ventilation flow on flame characteristics, flammability limits and flame suppression in microgravity. Knowledge of these flow effects will aid the development of effective processes for fire response and technology for fire suppression.

  8. Small is Beautiful — Technology Trends in the Satellite Industry and Their Implications for Planetary Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, A.

    2017-02-01

    It’s an exciting time in the space business - new technologies being developed under the ‘NewSpace’ umbrella have some profound implications for planetary science missions over the next three decades.

  9. How to build an antimatter rocket for interstellar missions - systems level considerations in designing advanced propulsion technology vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the general mission requirements and system technologies that would be required to implement an antimatter propulsion system where a magnetic nozzle is used to direct charged particles to produce thrust.

  10. Ion drive technology readiness for the 1985 Halley Comet rendezvous mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    Results of a study undertaken in FY 77 to assess readiness by 1985 for a Halley's Comet rendezvous mission (HCR) are presented with reference to already identified risks, e.g., a marginal mass margin of 6.7%, driven by uncertainties in ion drive vehicle masses, and an unconfirmed solar array power degradation model of 12%. Technology for two of the six subsystems, thrust and solar array, is also largely undemonstrated. High-, medium-, and low-risk subsystems are evaluated and compared with one another. Among the low-risk subsystems are those relating to structure, data handling, temperature control, and power supply.

  11. Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) Systems for SMD Mission Needs. Technology Infusion Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David

    2014-01-01

    Two presentations for SBAG and OPAG meetings: 1) Solar Electric Propulsion Systems for SMD Missions, and 2) Technology Infusion Study - Draft Findings Recommendation Small Bodies Assessment Group (SBAG) meeting is January 9th in Washington D.C., and the Outer Planets Assessment Group (OPAG) meeting is January 23-14 in Tucson, AZ. NASA sponsors these assessment groups, through the NRC, for the science community to assess and provide advice. These talks are to provide a status of 2 NASA activities, and to seek feedback from the respective science communities.

  12. The use of a cubesat to validate technological bricks in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotonimbahy, E.; Vives, S.; Dohlen, K.; Savini, G.; Iafolla, V.

    2017-11-01

    In the framework of the FP7 program FISICA (Far Infrared Space Interferometer Critical Assessment), we are developing a cubesat platform which will be used for the validation in space of two technological bricks relevant for FIRI. The first brick is a high-precision accelerometer which could be used in a future space mission as fundamental element for the dynamic control loop of the interferometer. The second brick is a miniaturized version of an imaging multi-aperture telescope. Ultimately, such an instrument could be composed of numerous space-born mirror segments flying in precise formation on baselines of hundreds or thousands of meters, providing high-resolution glimpses of distant worlds. We are proposing to build a very first space-born demonstrator of such an instrument which will fit into the limited resources of one cubesat. In this paper, we will describe the detailed design of the cubesat hosting the two payloads.

  13. Remote sensing validation through SOOP technology: implementation of Spectra system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermattei, Viviana; Madonia, Alice; Bonamano, Simone; Consalvi, Natalizia; Caligiore, Aurelio; Falcone, Daniela; Puri, Pio; Sarti, Fabio; Spaccavento, Giovanni; Lucarini, Diego; Pacci, Giacomo; Amitrano, Luigi; Iacullo, Salvatore; D'Andrea, Salvatore; Marcelli, Marco

    2017-04-01

    The development of low-cost instrumentation plays a key role in marine environmental studies and represents one of the most innovative aspects of marine research. The availability of low-cost technologies allows the realization of extended observatory networks for the study of marine phenomena through an integrated approach merging observations, remote sensing and operational oceanography. Marine services and practical applications critically depends on the availability of large amount of data collected with sufficiently dense spatial and temporal sampling. This issue directly influences the robustness both of ocean forecasting models and remote sensing observations through data assimilation and validation processes, particularly in the biological domain. For this reason it is necessary the development of cheap, small and integrated smart sensors, which could be functional both for satellite data validation and forecasting models data assimilation as well as to support early warning systems for environmental pollution control and prevention. This is particularly true in coastal areas, which are subjected to multiple anthropic pressures. Moreover, coastal waters can be classified like case 2 waters, where the optical properties of inorganic suspended matter and chromophoric dissolved organic matter must be considered and separated by the chlorophyll a contribution. Due to the high costs of mooring systems, research vessels, measure platforms and instrumentation a big effort was dedicated to the design, development and realization of a new low cost mini-FerryBox system: Spectra. Thanks to the modularity and user-friendly employment of the system, Spectra allows to acquire continuous in situ measures of temperature, conductivity, turbidity, chlorophyll a and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescences from voluntary vessels, even by non specialized operators (Marcelli et al., 2014; 2016). This work shows the preliminary application of this technology to

  14. Medium-Power Lead-Alloy Reactors: Missions for This Reactor Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todreas, Neil E.; MacDonald, Philip E.; Hejzlar, Pavel; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Loewen, Eric P.

    2004-01-01

    A multiyear project at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology investigated the potential of medium-power lead-alloy-cooled technology to perform two missions: (1) the production of low-cost electricity and (2) the burning of actinides from light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel. The goal of achieving a high power level to enhance economic performance simultaneously with adoption of passive decay heat removal and modularity capabilities resulted in designs in the range of 600-800 MW(thermal), which we classify as a medium power level compared to the lower [∼100 MW(thermal)] and higher [2800 MW(thermal)] power ratings of other lead-alloy-cooled designs. The plant design that was developed shows promise of achieving all the Generation-IV goals for future nuclear energy systems: sustainable energy generation, low overnight capital cost, a very low likelihood and degree of core damage during any conceivable accident, and a proliferation-resistant fuel cycle. The reactor and fuel cycle designs that evolved to achieve these missions and goals resulted from study of the following key trade-offs: waste reduction versus reactor safety, waste reduction versus cost, and cost versus proliferation resistance. Secondary trade-offs that were also considered were monolithic versus modular design, active versus passive safety systems, forced versus natural circulation, alternative power conversion cycles, and lead versus lead-bismuth coolant.These studies led to a selection of a common modular design with forced convection cooling, passive decay heat removal, and a supercritical CO 2 power cycle for all our reactor concepts. However, the concepts adopt different core designs to optimize the achievement of the two missions. For the low-cost electricity production mission, a design approach based on fueling with low enriched uranium operating without costly reprocessing in a once-through cycle was pursued to achieve a

  15. CLIpSAT for Interplanetary Missions: Common Low-cost Interplanetary Spacecraft with Autonomy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, C.

    2015-10-01

    Blue Sun Enterprises, Inc. is creating a common deep space bus capable of a wide variety of Mars, asteroid, and comet science missions, observational missions in and near GEO, and interplanetary delivery missions. The spacecraft are modular and highly autonomous, featuring a common core and optional expansion for variable-sized science or commercial payloads. Initial spacecraft designs are targeted for Mars atmospheric science, a Phobos sample return mission, geosynchronous reconnaissance, and en-masse delivery of payloads using packetized propulsion modules. By combining design, build, and operations processes for these missions, the cost and effort for creating the bus is shared across a variety of initial missions, reducing overall costs. A CLIpSAT can be delivered to different orbits and still be able to reach interplanetary targets like Mars due to up to 14.5 km/sec of delta-V provided by its high-ISP Xenon ion thruster(s). A 6U version of the spacecraft form fits PPOD-standard deployment systems, with up to 9 km/s of delta-V. A larger 12-U (with the addition of an expansion module) enables higher overall delta-V, and has the ability to jettison the expansion module and return to the Earth-Moon system from Mars orbit with the main spacecraft. CLIpSAT utilizes radiation-hardened electronics and RF equipment, 140+ We of power at earth (60 We at Mars), a compact navigation camera that doubles as a science imager, and communications of 2000 bps from Mars to the DSN via X-band. This bus could form the cornerstone of a large number asteroid survey projects, comet intercept missions, and planetary observation missions. The TugBot architecture uses groups of CLIpSATs attached to payloads lacking innate high-delta-V propulsion. The TugBots use coordinated trajectory following by each individual spacecraft to move the payload to the desired orbit - for example, a defense asset might be moved from GEO to lunar transfer orbit in order to protect and hide it, then returned

  16. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP): A Proven, Growth Technology for Fast Transit Human Missions to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    The "fast conjunction" long surface stay mission option was selected for NASA's recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study because it provided adequate time at Mars (approx. 540 days) for the crew to explore the planet's geological diversity while also reducing the "1-way" transit times to and from Mars to approx. 6 months. Short transit times are desirable in order to reduce the debilitating physiological effects on the human body that can result from prolonged exposure to the zero-gravity (0-gE) and radiation environments of space. Recent measurements from the RAD detector attached to the Curiosity rover indicate that astronauts would receive a radiation dose of approx. 0.66 Sv (approx. 66 rem)-the limiting value established by NASA-during their 1-year journey in deep space. Proven nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) technology, with its high thrust and high specific impulse (Isp approx. 900 s), can cut 1-way transit times by as much as 50 percent by increasing the propellant capacity of the Mars transfer vehicle (MTV). No large technology scale-ups in engine size are required for these short transit missions either since the smallest engine tested during the Rover program-the 25 klbf "Pewee" engine is sufficient when used in a clustered arrangement of three to four engines. The "Copernicus" crewed MTV developed for DRA 5.0 is a 0-gE design consisting of three basic components: (1) the NTP stage (NTPS); (2) the crewed payload element; and (3) an integrated "saddle truss" and LH2 propellant drop tank assembly that connects the two elements. With a propellant capacity of approx. 190 t, Copernicus can support 1-way transit times ranging from approx. 150 to 220 days over the 15-year synodic cycle. The paper examines the impact on vehicle design of decreasing transit times for the 2033 mission opportunity. With a fourth "upgraded" SLS/HLV launch, an "in-line" LH2 tank element can be added to Copernicus allowing 1-way transit times of 130 days. To achieve 100

  17. Low Cost High Performance Generator Technology Program. Volume 4. Mission application study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    Results of initial efforts to investigate application of selenide thermoelectric RTG's to specific missions as well as an indication of development requirements to enable satisfaction of emerging RTG performance criteria are presented. Potential mission applications in DoD such as SURVSATCOM, Advance Defense Support Program, Laser Communication Satellite, Satellite Data System, Global Positioning Satellite, Deep Space Surveillance Satellite, and Unmanned Free Swimming Submersible illustrate power requirements in the range of 500 to 1000 W. In contrast, the NASA applications require lower power ranging from 50 W for outer planetary atmospheric probes to about 200 W for spacecraft flights to Jupiter and other outer planets. The launch dates for most of these prospective missions is circa 1980, a requirement roughly compatible with selenide thermoelectric and heat source technology development. A discussion of safety criteria is included to give emphasis to the requirements for heat source design. In addition, the observation is made that the potential accident environments of all launch vehicles are similar so that a reasonable composite set of design specifications may be derived to satisfy almost all applications. Details of the LCHPG application potential is afforded by three designs: an 80 W RTG using improved selenide thermoelectric material, a 55 to 65 W LCHPG using current and improved selenide materials, and the final 500 W LCHPG as reported in Volume 2. The final results of the LCHPG design study have shown that in general, all missions can expect an LCHPG design which yields 10 percent efficiency at 3 W/lb with the current standard selenide thermoelectric materials, with growth potential to 14 percent at greater than 4 W/lb in the mid 1980's time frame

  18. Low Cost High Performance Generator Technology Program. Volume 4. Mission application study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-07-01

    Results of initial efforts to investigate application of selenide thermoelectric RTG's to specific missions as well as an indication of development requirements to enable satisfaction of emerging RTG performance criteria are presented. Potential mission applications in DoD such as SURVSATCOM, Advance Defense Support Program, Laser Communication Satellite, Satellite Data System, Global Positioning Satellite, Deep Space Surveillance Satellite, and Unmanned Free Swimming Submersible illustrate power requirements in the range of 500 to 1000 W. In contrast, the NASA applications require lower power ranging from 50 W for outer planetary atmospheric probes to about 200 W for spacecraft flights to Jupiter and other outer planets. The launch dates for most of these prospective missions is circa 1980, a requirement roughly compatible with selenide thermoelectric and heat source technology development. A discussion of safety criteria is included to give emphasis to the requirements for heat source design. In addition, the observation is made that the potential accident environments of all launch vehicles are similar so that a reasonable composite set of design specifications may be derived to satisfy almost all applications. Details of the LCHPG application potential is afforded by three designs: an 80 W RTG using improved selenide thermoelectric material, a 55 to 65 W LCHPG using current and improved selenide materials, and the final 500 W LCHPG as reported in Volume 2. The final results of the LCHPG design study have shown that in general, all missions can expect an LCHPG design which yields 10 percent efficiency at 3 W/lb with the current standard selenide thermoelectric materials, with growth potential to 14 percent at greater than 4 W/lb in the mid 1980's time frame.

  19. Future mission opportunities and requirements for advanced space photovoltaic energy conversion technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Dennis J.

    1990-01-01

    The variety of potential future missions under consideration by NASA will impose a broad range of requirements on space solar arrays, and mandates the development of new solar cells which can offer a wide range of capabilities to mission planners. Major advances in performance have recently been achieved at several laboratories in a variety of solar cell types. Many of those recent advances are reviewed, the areas are examined where possible improvements are yet to be made, and the requirements are discussed that must be met by advanced solar cell if they are to be used in space. The solar cells of interest include single and multiple junction cells which are fabricated from single crystal, polycrystalline and amorphous materials. Single crystal cells on foreign substrates, thin film single crystal cells on superstrates, and multiple junction cells which are either mechanically stacked, monolithically grown, or hybrid structures incorporating both techniques are discussed. Advanced concentrator array technology for space applications is described, and the status of thin film, flexible solar array blanket technology is reported.

  20. Understanding Student Teachers’ Behavioural Intention to Use Technology: Technology Acceptance Model (TAM Validation and Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung-Teck, Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sets out to validate and test the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM in the context of Malaysian student teachers’ integration of their technology in teaching and learning. To establish factorial validity, data collected from 302 respondents were tested against the TAM using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, and structural equation modelling (SEM was used for model comparison and hypotheses testing. The goodness-of-fit test of the analysis shows partial support of the applicability of the TAM in a Malaysian context. Overall, the TAM accounted for 37.3% of the variance in intention to use technology among student teachers and of the five hypotheses formulated, four are supported. Perceived usefulness is a significant influence on attitude towards computer use and behavioural intention. Perceived ease of use significantly influences perceived usefulness, and finally, behavioural intention is found to be influenced by attitude towards computer use. The findings of this research contribute to the literature by validating the TAM in the Malaysian context and provide several prominent implications for the research and practice of technology integration development.

  1. Less Contact Ballistogram Recording during Sleep as a Perspective Technology for the Medical Monitoring System in a Mission to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baevsky, R. M.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Funtova, I. I.

    strong argument for success of a future Martian mission is absence of pathologies developed in cosmonauts following one-year or longer space flights that might forbid further gradual extension of piloted missions. However, functional shifts in the neurohormonal regulation revealed during the long-term Mir missions suggest that homeostasis of the vital important body systems is maintained owing to active functioning of the regulatory mechanisms (Grigoriev A.I. et al., 1998). Since overstrain of these mechanisms constitutes one of the main factors of risk of diseases, it is important to provide unfailing and systematic monitoring of the body regulation functional reserves. night ballistocardiography, made it possible to obtain data on super-slow heart rhythm fluctuations reflective of activation of the neurohormonal regulation (Baevsky R.M. et al., 1999). Analysis of the data showed that on a background of extended exposure of the human organism to various stressful factors the cardiovascular homeostasis is maintained through consecutive recruitment in adaptation of higher levels of regulation of the physiological systems (Grigoriev A.I., Baevsky R.M., 2001). This validates the hypothesis concerning the role of the higher autonomous centers in long-term adaptation to the spaceflight factors and opens up the new way to diagnosis and prediction of the human body functional reserves. It was first demonstrated in space during the Mir primary mission 9 in 1991. Sensor-accelerometer secured to cosmonaut's sleeping bag registered micromovements conditioned by the heart, respiratory and motor activities of a sleeping cosmonaut. The joint Russian-Austrian space investigations in 1992-1995 resulted in technology refinement and enhancement. Advantages of medical monitoring during sleep are obvious not only because of the time saving and opportunity to receive systematically information pertaining to the crew health. Records allow, to begin with, evaluate the functional state in

  2. Next Generation Life Support Project: Development of Advanced Technologies for Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Next Generation Life Support (NGLS) is one of several technology development projects sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Game Changing Development Program. NGLS is developing life support technologies (including water recovery, and space suit life support technologies) needed for humans to live and work productively in space. NGLS has three project tasks: Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR), Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing bed, and Alternative Water Processing. The selected technologies within each of these areas are focused on increasing affordability, reliability, and vehicle self sufficiency while decreasing mass and enabling long duration exploration. The RCA and VOR tasks are directed at key technology needs for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for an Exploration Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), with focus on prototyping and integrated testing. The focus of the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing-bed ventilation task is to provide integrated carbon dioxide removal and humidity control that can be regenerated in real time during an EVA. The Variable Oxygen Regulator technology will significantly increase the number of pressure settings available to the space suit. Current spacesuit pressure regulators are limited to only two settings while the adjustability of the advanced regulator will be nearly continuous. The Alternative Water Processor efforts will result in the development of a system capable of recycling wastewater from sources expected in future exploration missions, including hygiene and laundry water, based on natural biological processes and membrane-based post treatment. The technologies will support a capability-driven architecture for extending human presence beyond low Earth orbit to potential destinations such as the Moon, near Earth asteroids and Mars.

  3. Exploration Mission Particulate Matter Filtration Technology Performance Testing in a Simulated Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.; Frederick, Kenneth R.; Mccormick, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Human deep space exploration missions will require advances in long-life, low maintenance airborne particulate matter filtration technology. As one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) developments in this area, a prototype of a new regenerable, multi-stage particulate matter filtration technology was tested in an International Space Station (ISS) module simulation facility. As previously reported, the key features of the filter system include inertial and media filtration with regeneration and in-place media replacement techniques. The testing facility can simulate aspects of the cabin environment aboard the ISS and contains flight-like cabin ventilation system components. The filtration technology test article was installed at the inlet of the central ventilation system duct and instrumented to provide performance data under nominal flow conditions. In-place regeneration operations were also evaluated. The real-time data included pressure drop across the filter stages, process air flow rate, ambient pressure, humidity and temperature. In addition, two video cameras positioned at the filtration technology test articles inlet and outlet were used to capture the mechanical performance of the filter media indexing operation under varying air flow rates. Recent test results are presented and future design recommendations are discussed.

  4. Application of Emerging Pharmaceutical Technologies for Therapeutic Challenges of Space Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putcha, Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    An important requirement of therapeutics for extended duration exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit will be the development of pharmaceutical technologies suitable for sustained and preventive health care in remote and adverse environmental conditions. Availability of sustained, stable and targeted delivery pharmaceuticals for preventive health of major organ systems including gastrointestinal, hepato-renal, musculo-skeletal and immune function are essential to offset adverse effects of space environment beyond low Earth orbit. Specifically, medical needs may include multi-drug combinations for hormone replacement, radiation protection, immune enhancement and organ function restoration. Additionally, extended stability of pharmaceuticals dispensed in space must be also considered in future drug development. Emerging technologies that can deliver stable and multi-therapy pharmaceutical preparations and delivery systems include nanotechnology based drug delivery platforms, targeted-delivery systems in non-oral and non-parenteral formulation matrices. Synthetic nanomaterials designed with molecular precision offer defined structures, electronics, and chemistries to be efficient drug carriers with clear advantages over conventional materials of drug delivery matricies. Nano-carrier materials like the bottle brush polymers may be suitable for systemic delivery of drug cocktails while Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles or (SPIONS) have great potential to serve as carriers for targeted drug delivery to a specific site. These and other emerging concepts of drug delivery and extended shelf-life technologies will be reviewed in light of their application to address health-care challenges of exploration missions. Innovations in alternate treatments for sustained immune enhancement and infection control will be also discussed.

  5. Validation of GPS and accelerometer technology in swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beanland, Emma; Main, Luana C; Aisbett, Brad; Gastin, Paul; Netto, Kevin

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the validity of an integrated accelerometer and Global Positioning System (GPS) device to quantify swimming kinematics variables in swimming. Criterion validation study. Twenty-one sub-elite swimmers completed three 100 m efforts (one butterfly, breaststroke and freestyle) in an outdoor 50 m Olympic pool. A GPS device with an integrated tri-axial accelerometer was used to obtain mid-pool velocity and stroke count of each effort. This data was compared to velocity and stroke count data obtained from concurrently recorded digital video of the performance. A strong relationship was detected between the accelerometer stroke count and the video criterion measure for both breaststroke (r>0.98) and butterfly (r>0.99). Also, no significant differences were detected between the GPS velocity and video obtained velocity for both freestyle and breaststroke. There was a significant difference between the GPS velocity and criterion measure for butterfly. Acceptable standard error and 95% limits of agreement were obtained for freestyle (0.13 m s(-1), 0.36 m s(-1)) and breaststroke (0.12 m s(-1), 0.33 m s(-1)) compared to butterfly (0.18 m s(-1), 0.50 m s(-1)). Relative error measurements ranged between 10.2 and 13.4% across the three strokes. The integrated accelerometer and GPS device offers a valid and accurate tool for stroke count quantification in breaststroke and butterfly as well as measuring mid-pool swimming velocity in freestyle and breaststroke. The application of GPS technology in the outdoor training environment suggests advantageous practical benefits for swimmers, coaches and sports scientists. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.

  6. SCIAMACHY validation by aircraft remote sensing: design, execution, and first measurement results of the SCIA-VALUE mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fix

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time three different remote sensing instruments – a sub-millimeter radiometer, a differential optical absorption spectrometer in the UV-visible spectral range, and a lidar – were deployed aboard DLR's meteorological research aircraft Falcon 20 to validate a large number of SCIAMACHY level 2 and off-line data products such as O3, NO2, N2O, BrO, OClO, H2O, aerosols, and clouds. Within two validation campaigns of the SCIA-VALUE mission (SCIAMACHY VALidation and Utilization Experiment extended latitudinal cross-sections stretching from polar regions to the tropics as well as longitudinal cross sections at polar latitudes at about 70° N and the equator were generated. This contribution gives an overview over the campaigns performed and reports on the observation strategy for achieving the validation goals. We also emphasize the synergetic use of the novel set of aircraft instrumentation and the usefulness of this innovative suite of remote sensing instruments for satellite validation.

  7. Validation of the in-flight calibration procedures for the MICROSCOPE space mission

    OpenAIRE

    Hardy, Emilie; Levy, Agnès; Rodrigues, Manuel; Touboul, Pierre; Métris, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    The MICROSCOPE space mission aims to test the Equivalence Principle with an accuracy of $10^{-15}$. The drag-free micro-satellite will orbit around the Earth and embark a differential electrostatic accelerometer including two cylindrical test masses submitted to the same gravitational field and made of different materials. The experience consists in testing the equality of the electrostatic acceleration applied to the masses to maintain them relatively motionless. The accuracy of the measurem...

  8. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP): A Proven Growth Technology for Human NEO/Mars Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) represents the next "evolutionary step" in high performance rocket propulsion. Unlike conventional chemical rockets that produce their energy through combustion, the NTR derives its energy from fission of Uranium-235 atoms contained within fuel elements that comprise the engine s reactor core. Using an "expander" cycle for turbopump drive power, hydrogen propellant is raised to a high pressure and pumped through coolant channels in the fuel elements where it is superheated then expanded out a supersonic nozzle to generate high thrust. By using hydrogen for both the reactor coolant and propellant, the NTR can achieve specific impulse (Isp) values of 900 seconds (s) or more - twice that of today s best chemical rockets. From 1955 - 1972, twenty rocket reactors were designed, built and ground tested in the Rover and NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications) programs. These programs demonstrated: (1) high temperature carbide-based nuclear fuels; (2) a wide range of thrust levels; (3) sustained engine operation; (4) accumulated lifetime at full power; and (5) restart capability - all the requirements needed for a human Mars mission. Ceramic metal "cermet" fuel was pursued as well, as a backup option. The NTR also has significant "evolution and growth" capability. Configured as a "bimodal" system, it can generate its own electrical power to support spacecraft operational needs. Adding an oxygen "afterburner" nozzle introduces a variable thrust and Isp capability and allows bipropellant operation. In NASA s recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, the NTR was selected as the preferred propulsion option because of its proven technology, higher performance, lower launch mass, versatile vehicle design, simple assembly, and growth potential. In contrast to other advanced propulsion options, no large technology scale-ups are required for NTP either. In fact, the smallest engine tested during the Rover program

  9. Validation test of advanced technology for IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells: Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1992-01-01

    Individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen technology was advanced at NASA Lewis and under Lewis contracts with the intention of improving cycle life and performance. One advancement was to use 26 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte to improve cycle life. Another advancement was to modify the state-of-the-art cell design to eliminate identified failure modes. The modified design is referred to as the advanced design. A breakthrough in the low-earth-orbit (LEO) cycle life of IPV nickel-hydrogen cells has been previously reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte was about 40,000 LEO cycles compared to 3,500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. The boiler plate test results are in the process of being validated using flight hardware and real time LEO testing at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NWSC), Crane, Indiana under a NASA Lewis Contract. An advanced 125 Ah IPV nickel-hydrogen cell was designed. The primary function of the advanced cell is to store and deliver energy for long-term, LEO spacecraft missions. The new features of this design are: (1) use of 26 percent rather than 31 percent KOH electrolyte; (2) use of a patented catalyzed wall wick; (3) use of serrated-edge separators to facilitate gaseous oxygen and hydrogen flow within the cell, while still maintaining physical contact with the wall wick for electrolyte management; and (4) use of a floating rather than a fixed stack (state-of-the-art) to accommodate nickel electrode expansion due to charge/discharge cycling. The significant improvements resulting from these innovations are: extended cycle life; enhanced thermal, electrolyte, and oxygen management; and accommodation of nickel electrode expansion. The advanced cell design is in the process of being validated using real time LEO cycle life testing of NWSC, Crane, Indiana. An update of validation test results confirming this technology is presented.

  10. Definition of technology development missions for early Space Station satellite servicing. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The Executive Summary volume 1, includes an overview of both phases of the Definition of Technology Development Missions for Early Space Station Satellite Servicing. The primary purpose of Phase 1 of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Satellite Servicing Phase 1 study was to establish requirements for demonstrating the capability of performing satellite servicing activities on a permanently manned Space Station in the early 1990s. The scope of Phase 1 included TDM definition, outlining of servicing objectives, derivation of initial Space Station servicing support requirements, and generation of the associated programmatic schedules and cost. The purpose of phase 2 of the satellite servicing study was to expand and refine the overall understanding of how best to use the manned space station as a test bed for demonstration of satellite servicing capabilities.

  11. A Technology Development Roadmap for a Near-Term Probe-Class X-ray Astrophysics Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daelemans, Gerard J.; Petre, Robert; Bookbinder, Jay; Ptak, Andrew; Smith, Randall

    2013-01-01

    This document presents a roadmap, including proposed budget and schedule, for maturing the instrumentation needed for an X-ray astrophysics Probe-class mission. The Physics of the Cosmos (PCOS) Program Office was directed to create this roadmap following the December 2012 NASA Astrophysics Implementation Plan (AIP). Definition of this mission is called for in the AIP, with the possibility of selection in 2015 for a start in 2017. The overall mission capabilities and instrument performance requirements were defined in the 2010 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey report, New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics (NWNH), in connection with the highly ranked International X-ray Observatory (IXO). In NWNH, recommendations were provided regarding the size of, and instrumentation needed by, the next large X-ray observatory. Specifically, the key instrumental capability would be an X-ray calorimeter spectrometer at the focus of a large mirror with angular resolution of 10 arc seconds (arcsec) or better. If possible, a grating spectrometer should also be incorporated into the instrument complement. In response to these recommendations, four instrumentation technologies are included in this roadmap. Three of these are critical for an X-ray mission designed to address NWNH questions: segmented X-ray mirrors, transition edge sensor calorimeters, and gratings. Two approaches are described for gratings, which represent the least mature technology and thus most in need of a parallel path for risk reduction. Also, while current CCD detectors would likely meet the mission needs for grating spectrum readout, specific improvements are included as an additional approach for achieving the grating system effective area requirement. The technical steps needed for these technologies to attain technology readiness levels (TRL) of 5 and 6 are described, as well as desirable modest risk reduction steps beyond TRL-6. All of the technology development efforts are currently

  12. Making Wireless Networks Secure for NASA Mission Critical Applications Using Virtual Private Network (VPN) Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Kelvin F.; Best, Susan; Schneider, Larry

    2004-01-01

    With so many security issues involved with wireless networks, the technology has not been fully utilized in the area of mission critical applications. These applications would include the areas of telemetry, commanding, voice and video. Wireless networking would allow payload operators the mobility to take computers outside of the control room to their off ices and anywhere else in the facility that the wireless network was extended. But the risk is too great of having someone sit just inside of your wireless network coverage and intercept enough of your network traffic to steal proprietary data from a payload experiment or worse yet hack back into your system and do even greater harm by issuing harmful commands. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is improving but has a ways to go before it can be trusted to protect mission critical data. Today s hackers are becoming more aggressive and innovative, and in order to take advantage of the benefits that wireless networking offer, appropriate security measures need to be in place that will thwart hackers. The Virtual Private Network (VPN) offers a solution to the security problems that have kept wireless networks from being used for mission critical applications. VPN provides a level of encryption that will ensure that data is protected while it is being transmitted over a wireless local area network (LAN). The VPN allows a user to authenticate to the site that the user needs to access. Once this authentication has taken place the network traffic between that site and the user is encapsulated in VPN packets with the Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES). 3DES is an encryption standard that uses a single secret key to encrypt and decrypt data. The length of the encryption key is 168 bits as opposed to its predecessor DES that has a 56-bit encryption key. Even though 3DES is the common encryption standard for today, the Advance Encryption Standard (AES), which provides even better encryption at a lower cycle cost is growing

  13. The Copernicus S5P Mission Performance Centre / Validation Data Analysis Facility for TROPOMI operational atmospheric data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compernolle, Steven; Lambert, Jean-Christopher; Langerock, Bavo; Granville, José; Hubert, Daan; Keppens, Arno; Rasson, Olivier; De Mazière, Martine; Fjæraa, Ann Mari; Niemeijer, Sander

    2017-04-01

    Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P), to be launched in 2017 as the first atmospheric composition satellite of the Copernicus programme, carries as payload the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) developed by The Netherlands in close cooperation with ESA. Designed to measure Earth radiance and solar irradiance in the ultraviolet, visible and near infrared, TROPOMI will provide Copernicus with observational data on atmospheric composition at unprecedented geographical resolution. The S5P Mission Performance Center (MPC) provides an operational service-based solution for various QA/QC tasks, including the validation of S5P Level-2 data products and the support to algorithm evolution. Those two tasks are to be accomplished by the MPC Validation Data Analysis Facility (VDAF), one MPC component developed and operated at BIRA-IASB with support from S[&]T and NILU. The routine validation to be ensured by VDAF is complemented by a list of validation AO projects carried out by ESA's S5P Validation Team (S5PVT), with whom interaction is essential. Here we will introduce the general architecture of VDAF, its relation to the other MPC components, the generic and specific validation strategies applied for each of the official TROPOMI data products, and the expected output of the system. The S5P data products to be validated by VDAF are diverse: O3 (vertical profile, total column, tropospheric column), NO2 (total and tropospheric column), HCHO (tropospheric column), SO2 (column), CO (column), CH4 (column), aerosol layer height and clouds (fractional cover, cloud-top pressure and optical thickness). Starting from a generic validation protocol meeting community-agreed standards, a set of specific validation settings is associated with each data product, as well as the appropriate set of Fiducial Reference Measurements (FRM) to which it will be compared. VDAF collects FRMs from ESA's Validation Data Centre (EVDC) and from other sources (e.g., WMO's GAW, NDACC and TCCON). Data

  14. Scaling and calibration of a core validation site for the soil moisture active passive mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    The calibration and validation of soil moisture remote sensing products is complicated due to the logistics of installing a long term soil moisture monitoring network in an active landscape. It is more efficient to locate these stations along agricultural field boundaries, but unfortunately this oft...

  15. Assessment of communication technology and post-operative telephone surveillance during global urology mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, David E; Colhoun, Andrew; Morin, Jacqueline; Bradford, Timothy J

    2018-02-21

    Compliance with post-operative follow-up in the context of international surgical trips is often poor. The etiology of this problem is multifactorial and includes lack of local physician involvement, transportation costs, and work responsibilities. We aimed to better understand availability of communication technologies within Belize and use this information to improve follow-up after visiting surgical trips to a public hospital in Belize City. Accordingly, a 6-item questionnaire assessing access to communication technologies was completed by all patients undergoing evaluation by a visiting surgical team in 2014. Based on this data, a pilot program for patients undergoing surgery was instituted for subsequent missions (2015-2016) that included a 6-week post-operative telephone interview with a visiting physician located in the United States. Fifty-four (n = 54) patients were assessed via survey with 89% responding that they had a mobile phone. Patients reported less access to home internet (59%), local internet (52%), and email (48%). Of 35 surgical patients undergoing surgery during 2 subsequent surgical trips, 18 (51%) were compliant with telephone interview at 6-week follow-up. Issues were identified in 3 (17%) patients that allowed for physician assistance. The cost per patient interview was $10 USD.

  16. Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission L4_SM Data Product Assessment (Version 2 Validated Release)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Rolf Helmut; De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.; Liu, Qing; Ardizzone, Joseph V.; Chen, Fan; Colliander, Andreas; Conaty, Austin; Crow, Wade; Jackson, Thomas; Kimball, John; hide

    2016-01-01

    During the post-launch SMAP calibration and validation (Cal/Val) phase there are two objectives for each science data product team: 1) calibrate, verify, and improve the performance of the science algorithm, and 2) validate the accuracy of the science data product as specified in the science requirements and according to the Cal/Val schedule. This report provides an assessment of the SMAP Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture Passive (L4_SM) product specifically for the product's public Version 2 validated release scheduled for 29 April 2016. The assessment of the Version 2 L4_SM data product includes comparisons of SMAP L4_SM soil moisture estimates with in situ soil moisture observations from core validation sites and sparse networks. The assessment further includes a global evaluation of the internal diagnostics from the ensemble-based data assimilation system that is used to generate the L4_SM product. This evaluation focuses on the statistics of the observation-minus-forecast (O-F) residuals and the analysis increments. Together, the core validation site comparisons and the statistics of the assimilation diagnostics are considered primary validation methodologies for the L4_SM product. Comparisons against in situ measurements from regional-scale sparse networks are considered a secondary validation methodology because such in situ measurements are subject to up-scaling errors from the point-scale to the grid cell scale of the data product. Based on the limited set of core validation sites, the wide geographic range of the sparse network sites, and the global assessment of the assimilation diagnostics, the assessment presented here meets the criteria established by the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites for Stage 2 validation and supports the validated release of the data. An analysis of the time average surface and root zone soil moisture shows that the global pattern of arid and humid regions are captured by the L4_SM estimates. Results from the

  17. Active optics as enabling technology for future large missions: current developments for astronomy and Earth observation at ESA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallibert, Pascal

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, a trend for higher resolution has increased the entrance apertures of future optical payloads for both Astronomy and Earth Observation most demanding applications, resulting in new opto-mechanical challenges for future systems based on either monolithic or segmented large primary mirrors. Whether easing feasibility and schedule impact of tight manufacturing and integration constraints or correcting mission-critical in-orbit and commissioning effects, Active Optics constitutes an enabling technology for future large optical space instruments at ESA and needs to reach the necessary maturity in time for future mission selection and implementation. We present here a complete updated overview of our current R and D activities in this field, ranging from deformable space-compatible components to full correction chains including wavefront sensing as well as control and correction algorithms. We share as well our perspectives on the way-forward to technological maturity and implementation within future missions.

  18. Development and Validation of Information Technology Mentor Teacher Attitude Scale: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltan, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study development and validation of a teacher attitude scale toward Information Technology Mentor Teachers (ITMT). ITMTs give technological support to other teachers for integration of technology in their lessons. In the literature, many instruments have been developed to measure teachers' attitudes towards the technological tools…

  19. Transmission Grating and Optics Technology Development for the Arcus Explorer Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Ralf; Arcus Team

    2018-01-01

    Arcus is a high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy MIDEX mission selected for a Phase A concept study. It is designed to explore structure formation through measurements of hot baryon distributions, feedback from black holes, and the formation and evolution of stars, disks, and exoplanet atmospheres. The design provides unprecedented sensitivity in the 1.2-5 nm wavelength band with effective area above 450 sqcm and spectral resolution R > 2500. The Arcus technology is based on 12 m-focal length silicon pore optics (SPO) developed for the European Athena mission, and critical-angle transmission (CAT) x-ray diffraction gratings and x-ray CCDs developed at MIT. The modular design consists of four parallel channels, each channel holding an optics petal, followed by a grating petal. CAT gratings are lightweight, alignment insensitive, high-efficiency x-ray transmission gratings that blaze into high diffraction orders, leading to high spectral resolution. Each optics petal represents an azimuthal sub-aperture of a full Wolter optic. The sub-aperturing effect increases spectral resolving power further. Two CCD readout strips receive photons from each channel, including higher-energy photons in 0th order. Each optics petal holds 34 SPO modules. Each grating petal holds 34 grating windows, and each window holds 4-6 grating facets. A grating facet consists of a silicon grating membrane, bonded to a flexure frame that interfaces with the grating window. We report on a sequence of tests with increasing complexity that systematically increase the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for the combination of CAT gratings and SPOs towards TLR 6. CAT gratings have been evaluated in x rays for diffraction efficiency (> 30% at 2.5 nm) and for resolving power (R> 10,000). A CAT grating/SPO combination was measured at R ~ 3100 at blaze angles smaller than design values, exceeding Arcus requirements. Efficiency and resolving power were not impacted by vibration and thermal testing of gratings. A

  20. The KOALA Shape Modeling Technique Validated at (21) Lutetia by ESA Rosetta Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carry, Benoit; Merline, W. J.; Kaasalainen, M.; Conrad, A.; Drummond, J. D.; Dumas, C.; Kueppers, M.; OSIRIS Instrument Team

    2010-10-01

    We recently developed a shape reconstruction algorithm, dubbed KOALA (Kaasalainen, IPI 2010; Carry et al., Icarus 2010), which allows the determination of the size, shape, and spin properties of asteroids from a combined data set of disk-resolved images, optical lightcurves, and stellar occultations. Using adaptive optics (AO) imaging systems on the Keck and VLT telescopes, we acquired more than 300 images of the main-belt asteroid (21) Lutetia in 2007 and 2008. We combined these images with 50 lightcurves spanning some 48 years and including data taken almost up until the time of flyby. We produced a 3D shape model of Lutetia and determined the spin pole and rotation rate (Carry et al., submitted to A&A). On 2010 July 10, the International Rosetta Mission of the European Space Agency successfully encountered (21) Lutetia. The images recorded by the OSIRIS camera on-board Rosetta revealed our shape prediction to be accurate. We will present the KOALA (Knitted Occultation, Adaptive-optics, and Lightcurve Analysis) method, and a comparison of our shape model with the high-resolution images acquired by Rosetta during the flyby.

  1. Definition of technology development missions for early space station, orbit transfer vehicle servicing. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) servicing study scope, propellant transfer, storage and reliquefaction technology development missions (TDM), docking and berthing TDM, maintenance TDM, OTV/payload integration TDM, combined TDMS design, summary space station accomodations, programmatic analysis, and TDM equipment operational usage are discussed.

  2. Solar Electric Propulsion System Integration Technology (SEPSIT). Volume 2: Encke rendezvous mission and space vehicle functional description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    A solar electric propulsion system integration technology study is discussed. Detailed analyses in support of the solar electric propulsion module were performed. The thrust subsystem functional description is presented. The space vehicle and the space mission to which the propulsion system is applied are analyzed.

  3. Funding and Strategic Alignment Guidance for Infusing Small Business Innovation Research Technology into Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Projects for 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2017-01-01

    This report is intended to help NASA program and project managers incorporate Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) technologies into NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) projects. Other Government and commercial project managers interested in ARMD funding opportunities through NASA's SBIR program will find this report useful as well.

  4. Power System Options Evaluated for the Radiation and Technology Demonstration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Benson, Scott W.

    2000-01-01

    The Radiation and Technology Demonstration (RTD) Mission is under joint study by three NASA Centers: the NASA Johnson Space Center, the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, and the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. This Earth-orbiting mission, which may launch on a space shuttle in the first half of the next decade, has the primary objective of demonstrating high-power electric thruster technologies. Secondary objectives include better characterization of Earth's Van Allen trapped-radiation belts, measurement of the effectiveness of the radiation shielding for human protection, measurement of radiation effects on advanced solar cells, and demonstration of radiation-tolerant microelectronics. During the mission, which may continue up to 1 year, the 2000-kg RTD spacecraft will first spiral outward from the shuttle-deployed, medium-inclination, low Earth orbit. By the phased operation of a 10-kW Hall thruster and a 10-kW Variable Specific Impulse Magneto-Plasma Rocket, the RTD spacecraft will reach a low-inclination Earth orbit with a radius greater than five Earth radii. This will be followed by an inward spiraling orbit phase when the spacecraft deploys 8 to 12 microsatellites to map the Van Allen belts. The mission will conclude in low Earth orbit with the possible retrieval of the spacecraft by the space shuttle. A conceptual RTD spacecraft design showing two photovoltaic (PV) array wings, the Hall thruster with propellant tanks, and stowed microsatellites is presented. Early power system studies assessed five different PV array design options coupled with a 120-Vdc power management and distribution system (PMAD) and secondary lithium battery energy storage. Array options include (1) state-of-the-art 10-percent efficient three-junction amorphous SiGe thin-film cells on thin polymer panels deployed with an inflatable (or articulated) truss, (2) SCARLET array panels, (3) commercial state-of-the-art, planar PV array rigid panels with 25-percent efficient, three

  5. HTGR Technology Family Assessment for a Range of Fuel Cycle Missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, Steven J.; Bays, Samuel E.; Soelberg, Nick

    2010-01-01

    This report examines how the HTGR technology family can provide options for the once through, modified open cycle (MOC), or full recycle fuel cycle strategies. The HTGR can serve all the fuel cycle missions that an LWR can; both are thermal reactors. Additional analyses are warranted to determine if HTGR 'full recycle' service could provide improved consumption of transuranic (TRU) material than LWRs (as expected), to analyze the unique proliferation resistance issues associated with the 'pebble bed' approach, and to further test and analyze methods to separate TRISO-coated fuel particles from graphite and/or to separate used HTGR fuel meat from its TRISO coating. The feasibility of these two separation issues is not in doubt, but further R and D could clarify and reduce the cost and enable options not adequately explored at present. The analyses here and the now-demonstrated higher fuel burnup tests (after the illustrative designs studied here) should enable future MOC and full recycle HTGR concepts to more rapidly consume TRU, thereby offering waste management advantages. Interest in 'limited separation' or 'minimum fuel treatment' separation approaches motivates study of impurity-tolerant fuel fabrication. Several issues are outside the scope of this report, including the following: thorium fuel cycles, gas-cooled fast reactors, the reliability of TRISO-coated particles (billions in a reactor), and how soon any new reactor or fuel type could be licensed and then deployed and therefore impact fuel cycle performance measures.

  6. Demonstrating Starshade Performance as Part of NASA's Technology Development for Exoplanet Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Spergel, D. N.; Vanderbei, R. J.; Lisman, D.; Shaklan, S.; Thomson, M. W.; Walkemeyer, P. E.; Bach, V. M.; Oakes, E.; Cady, E. J.; Martin, S. R.; Marchen, L. F.; Macintosh, B.; Rudd, R.; Mikula, J. A.; Lynch, D. H.

    2012-01-01

    In this poster we describe the results of our project to design, manufacture, and measure a prototype starshade petal as part of the Technology Development for Exoplanet Missions program. An external occult is a satellite employing a large screen, or starshade,that flies in formation with a spaceborne telescope to provide the starlight suppression needed for detecting and characterizing exoplanets. Among the advantages of using an occulter are the broadband allowed for characterization and the removal of light for the observatory, greatly relaxing the requirements on the telescope and instrument. In this first two-year phase we focused on the key requirement of manufacturing a precision petal with the precise tolerances needed to meet the overall error budget. These tolerances are established by modeling the effect that various mechanical and thermal errors have on scatter in the telescope image plane and by suballocating the allowable contrast degradation between these error sources. We show the results of this analysis and a representative error budget. We also present the final manufactured occulter petal and the metrology on its shape that demonstrates it meets requirements. We show that a space occulter built of petals with the same measured shape would achieve better than 1e-9 contrast. We also show our progress in building and testing sample edges with the sharp radius of curvature needed for limiting solar glint. Finally, we describe our plans for the second TDEM phase.

  7. HTGR Technology Family Assessment for a Range of Fuel Cycle Missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven J. Piet; Samuel E. Bays; Nick Soelberg

    2010-08-01

    This report examines how the HTGR technology family can provide options for the once through, modified open cycle (MOC), or full recycle fuel cycle strategies. The HTGR can serve all the fuel cycle missions that an LWR can; both are thermal reactors. Additional analyses are warranted to determine if HTGR “full recycle” service could provide improved consumption of transuranic (TRU) material than LWRs (as expected), to analyze the unique proliferation resistance issues associated with the “pebble bed” approach, and to further test and analyze methods to separate TRISO-coated fuel particles from graphite and/or to separate used HTGR fuel meat from its TRISO coating. The feasibility of these two separation issues is not in doubt, but further R&D could clarify and reduce the cost and enable options not adequately explored at present. The analyses here and the now-demonstrated higher fuel burnup tests (after the illustrative designs studied here) should enable future MOC and full recycle HTGR concepts to more rapidly consume TRU, thereby offering waste management advantages. Interest in “limited separation” or “minimum fuel treatment” separation approaches motivates study of impurity-tolerant fuel fabrication. Several issues are outside the scope of this report, including the following: thorium fuel cycles, gas-cooled fast reactors, the reliability of TRISO-coated particles (billions in a reactor), and how soon any new reactor or fuel type could be licensed and then deployed and therefore impact fuel cycle performance measures.

  8. OVERVIEW OF IMPACTS OF TECHNOLOGY DEPLOYMENT ON THE MISSION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, D.; Chamberlain, G.; Looney, B.; Gladden, J.

    2010-11-30

    The Environmental Management (EM) mission is to complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy brought about from five decades of nuclear weapons development and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. The EM program has embraced a mission completion philosophy based on reducing risk and environmental liability over a 40-50 year lifecycle. The Department has made great progress toward safely disposing of its legacy nuclear waste. EM Research and Development (R&D) program management strategies have driven numerous technology and engineering innovations to reduce risk, minimize cleanup costs, and reduce schedules. Engineering and technology investments have provided the engineering foundation, technical assistance, approaches, and technologies that have contributed to moving the cleanup effort forward. These successes include start-up and operation of several waste treatment facilities and processes at the sites.

  9. Overview Of Impacts Of Technology Deployment On The Mission Of The Department Of Energy Office Of Environmental Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, D.; Chamberlain, G.; Looney, B.; Gladden, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Environmental Management (EM) mission is to complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy brought about from five decades of nuclear weapons development and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. The EM program has embraced a mission completion philosophy based on reducing risk and environmental liability over a 40-50 year lifecycle. The Department has made great progress toward safely disposing of its legacy nuclear waste. EM Research and Development (R and D) program management strategies have driven numerous technology and engineering innovations to reduce risk, minimize cleanup costs, and reduce schedules. Engineering and technology investments have provided the engineering foundation, technical assistance, approaches, and technologies that have contributed to moving the cleanup effort forward. These successes include start-up and operation of several waste treatment facilities and processes at the sites.

  10. Ella-V and technology usage technology usage in an english language and literacy acquisition validation randomized controlled trial study

    OpenAIRE

    Roisin P. Corcoran; Steven M. Ross; Beverly J. Irby; Fuhui Tong; Rafael Lara-Alecio; Cindy Guerrero

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the use of technology to provide virtual professional development (VPD) for teachers and to conduct classroom observations in a study of English Language Learner (ELL) instruction in grades K–3. The technology applications were part of a cluster randomized control trial (RCT) design for a federally funded longitudinal validation study of a particular program, English Language and Literacy Acquisition-Validation, ELLA- V, to determine its degree of impact on English oral l...

  11. A new technology perspective and engineering tools approach for large, complex and distributed mission and safety critical systems components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrio, Miguel A., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Rapidly emerging technology and methodologies have out-paced the systems development processes' ability to use them effectively, if at all. At the same time, the tools used to build systems are becoming obsolescent themselves as a consequence of the same technology lag that plagues systems development. The net result is that systems development activities have not been able to take advantage of available technology and have become equally dependent on aging and ineffective computer-aided engineering tools. New methods and tools approaches are essential if the demands of non-stop and Mission and Safety Critical (MASC) components are to be met.

  12. An Overview of Mission 21. A Program Designed To Assist Teachers in Integrating Technology into Their Present Curriculum through a Problem-Solving Approach. Grades 1 through 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusic, Sharon A.; And Others

    This booklet presents an overview of Mission 21, a project that promotes technological literacy in the elementary school classroom. Funded since 1985, Mission 21 has enabled graduate research associates and Virginia teachers to write and field test a technology education program for children in grades 1 through 6. Over 30 elementary teachers in 11…

  13. Station Readiness Test for the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of this SRT is to establish testing procedures which will verify that ERTS supporting stations can effectively support the ERTS mission. This SRT is applicable to all supporting stations for the ERTS-A and ERTS-B mission.

  14. Mars mission program for primary students: Building student and teacher skills in science, technology, engineering and mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Naomi; Pakakis, Michael; Christie, Ian

    2011-09-01

    The Victorian Space Science Education Centre (VSSEC) scenario-based programs, including the Mission to Mars and Mission to the Orbiting Space Laboratory, utilize methodologies such as hands-on applications, immersive learning, integrated technologies, critical thinking and mentoring. The use of a scenario provides a real-life context and purpose to what students might otherwise consider disjointed information. These programs engage students in the areas of maths and science, and highlight potential career paths in science and engineering. The introduction of a scenario-based program for primary students engages students in maths and science at a younger age, addressing the issues of basic numeracy and science literacy, thus laying the foundation for stronger senior science initiatives. Primary students absorb more information within the context of the scenario, and presenting information they can see, hear, touch and smell creates a memorable learning and sensory experience. The mission also supports development of teacher skills in the delivery of hands-on science and helps build their confidence to teach science. The Primary Mission to the Mars Base gives primary school students access to an environment and equipment not available in schools. Students wear flight suits for the duration of the program to immerse them in the experience of being an astronaut. Astronauts work in the VSSEC Space Laboratory, which is transformed into a Mars base for the primary program, to conduct experiments in areas such as robotics, human physiology, microbiology, nanotechnology and environmental science. Specialist mission control software has been developed by La Trobe University Centre for Games Technology to provide age appropriate Information and Communication Technology (ICT) based problem solving and support the concept of a mission. Students in Mission Control observe the astronauts working in the space laboratory and talk to them via the AV system. This interactive

  15. An Overview of Future NASA Missions, Concepts, and Technologies Related to Imaging of the World's Land Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonson, Vincent V.

    1999-01-01

    In the near term NASA is entering into the peak activity period of the Earth Observing System (EOS). The EOS AM-1 /"Terra" spacecraft is nearing launch and operation to be followed soon by the New Millennium Program (NMP) Earth Observing (EO-1) mission. Other missions related to land imaging and studies include EOS PM-1 mission, the Earth System Sciences Program (ESSP) Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mission, the EOS/IceSat mission. These missions involve clear advances in technologies and observational capability including improvements in multispectral imaging and other observing strategies, for example, "formation flying". Plans are underway to define the next era of EOS missions, commonly called "EOS Follow-on" or EOS II. The programmatic planning includes concepts that represent advances over the present Landsat-7 mission that concomitantly recognize the advances being made in land imaging within the private sector. The National Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite Series (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP) is an effort that will help to transition EOS medium resolution (herein meaning spatial resolutions near 500 meters), multispectral measurement capabilities such as represented by the EOS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) into the NPOESS operational series of satellites. Developments in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and passive microwave land observing capabilities are also proceeding. Beyond these efforts the Earth Science Enterprise Technology Strategy is embarking efforts to advance technologies in several basic areas: instruments, flight systems and operational capability, and information systems. In the case of instruments architectures will be examined that offer significant reductions in mass, volume, power and observational flexibility. For flight systems and operational capability, formation flying including calibration and data fusion, systems operation autonomy, and mechanical and electronic innovations that can reduce

  16. Integration and Testing Challenges of Small, Multiple Satellite Missions: Experiences from the Space Technology 5 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerwein, Timothy A.; Gostomski, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The ST5 technology demonstration mission led by GSFC of NASA's New Millennium Program managed by JPL consisted of three micro satellites (approximately 30 kg each) deployed into orbit from the Pegasus XL launch vehicle. In order to meet the launch date schedule of ST5, a different approach was required rather than the standard I&T approach used for single, room-sized satellites. The three spacecraft were designed, integrated, and tested at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. It was determined that there was insufficient time in the schedule to perform three spacecraft I&T activities in series using standard approaches. The solution was for spacecraft #1 to undergo integration and test first, followed by spacecraft #2 and #3 simultaneously. This simultaneous integration was successful for several reasons. Each spacecraft had a Lead Test Conductor who planned and coordinated their spacecraft through its integration and test activities. One team of engineers and technicians executed the integration of all three spacecraft, learning and gaining knowledge and efficiency as spacecraft #1 integration and testing progressed. They became acutely familiar with the hardware, operation and processes for I&T, thus had the experience and knowledge to safely execute I&T for spacecraft #2 and #3. The integration team was extremely versatile; each member could perform many different activities or work any spacecraft, when needed. ST5 was successfully integrated, tested and shipped to the launch site per the I&T schedule that was planned three years previously. The I&T campaign was completed with ST5's successful launch on March 22, 2006.

  17. Student Interest in Technology and Science (SITS) Survey: Development, Validation, and Use of a New Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, William; Sadler, Troy D.; Presley, Morgan; Klosterman, Michelle L.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the systematic development, validation, and use of a new instrument for measuring student interest in science and technology. The Student Interest in Technology and Science (SITS) survey is composed of 5 sub-sections assessing the following dimensions: interest in learning science, using technology to learn science, science…

  18. Validation of an Instrument to Measure Students' Motivation and Self-Regulation towards Technology Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Pey-Yan; Kuo, Pei-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined students' attitudinal perceptions of technology. There is no appropriate instrument to measure senior high school students' motivation and self-regulation toward technology learning among the current existing instruments in the field of technology education. Purpose: The present study is to validate an…

  19. Calibration/Validation Technology for the CO2 Satellite Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are proposing to develop high altitude CO2 analyzer technology that can be deployed on the research aircraft of NASA's Airborne Science Program (ASP). The...

  20. Innovative Applications of DoD Propulsion Technology for Low-Cost Satellite Missions, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are proposing to leverage the Missile Defense Agency investments in high-performance propulsion systems for low-cost space missions with large Dv requirements,...

  1. 76 FR 58769 - Ports and Maritime Technology Trade Mission to India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    .... companies in consulting, equipment supply, barge facility, dredging services and vessel traffic management... covering the complete chain: Transport and logistics services, Logistics infrastructure, Logistics real...' Shipping, Transport & Logistics (SITL) trade show, which takes place February 23 to 25. Trade mission...

  2. 75 FR 74001 - Application Deadline Extended; Secretarial Business India High Technology Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Mission Statement Application Deadline... commercial opportunities for U.S. companies, including joint ventures and export opportunities. In each city... Business Liaison and the International Trade Administration will explore and welcome outreach assistance...

  3. Innovative Applications of DOD Propulsion Technology for Low-Cost Satellite Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are proposing to leverage the Missile Defense Agency investments in high-performance propulsion systems for low-cost space missions with large Dv requirements,...

  4. Effect of power system technology and mission requirements on high altitude long endurance aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis was performed to determine how various power system components and mission requirements affect the sizing of a solar powered long endurance aircraft. The aircraft power system consists of photovoltaic cells and a regenerative fuel cell. Various characteristics of these components, such as PV cell type, PV cell mass, PV cell efficiency, fuel cell efficiency, and fuel cell specific mass, were varied to determine what effect they had on the aircraft sizing for a given mission. Mission parameters, such as time of year, flight altitude, flight latitude, and payload mass and power, were also altered to determine how mission constraints affect the aircraft sizing. An aircraft analysis method which determines the aircraft configuration, aspect ratio, wing area, and total mass, for maximum endurance or minimum required power based on the stated power system and mission parameters is presented. The results indicate that, for the power system, the greatest benefit can be gained by increasing the fuel cell specific energy. Mission requirements also substantially affect the aircraft size. By limiting the time of year the aircraft is required to fly at high northern or southern latitudes, a significant reduction in aircraft size or increase in payload capacity can be achieved.

  5. Health Information Technology Usability Evaluation Scale (Health-ITUES) for Usability Assessment of Mobile Health Technology: Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Rebecca; Cho, Hwayoung; Liu, Jianfang

    2018-01-05

    Mobile technology has become a ubiquitous technology and can be particularly useful in the delivery of health interventions. This technology can allow us to deliver interventions to scale, cover broad geographic areas, and deliver technologies in highly tailored ways based on the preferences or characteristics of users. The broad use of mobile technologies supports the need for usability assessments of these tools. Although there have been a number of usability assessment instruments developed, none have been validated for use with mobile technologies. The goal of this work was to validate the Health Information Technology Usability Evaluation Scale (Health-ITUES), a customizable usability assessment instrument in a sample of community-dwelling adults who were testing the use of a new mobile health (mHealth) technology. A sample of 92 community-dwelling adults living with HIV used a new mobile app for symptom self-management and completed the Health-ITUES to assess the usability of the app. They also completed the Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire (PSSUQ), a widely used and well-validated usability assessment tool. Correlations between these scales and each of the subscales were assessed. The subscales of the Health-ITUES showed high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach alpha=.85-.92). Each of the Health-ITUES subscales and the overall scale was moderately to strongly correlated with the PSSUQ scales (r=.46-.70), demonstrating the criterion validity of the Health-ITUES. The Health-ITUES has demonstrated reliability and validity for use in assessing the usability of mHealth technologies in community-dwelling adults living with a chronic illness. ©Rebecca Schnall, Hwayoung Cho, Jianfang Liu. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 05.01.2018.

  6. Game Changing Transformable Entry System Technology Applicability to Robotic Venus Science Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovative adpative deployable entry and placement technology (ADEPT), also known as transformable entry system technology (TEST) concept, akin to an umbrella,...

  7. Electrically Driven Thermal Management: Flight Validation, Experiment Development, Future Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didion, Jeffrey R.

    2018-01-01

    Electrically Driven Thermal Management is an active research and technology development initiative incorporating ISS technology flight demonstrations (STP-H5), development of Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) flight experiment, and laboratory-based investigations of electrically based thermal management techniques. The program targets integrated thermal management for future generations of RF electronics and power electronic devices. This presentation reviews four program elements: i.) results from the Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) Long Term Flight Demonstration launched in February 2017 ii.) development of the Electrically Driven Liquid Film Boiling Experiment iii.) two University based research efforts iv.) development of Oscillating Heat Pipe evaluation at Goddard Space Flight Center.

  8. The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : FY08 testing for functionality, model validation, and technology readiness.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Blecke, Jill; Baker, Michael Sean; Clemens, Rebecca C.; Mitchell, John Anthony; Brake, Matthew Robert; Epp, David S.; Wittwer, Jonathan W.

    2008-10-01

    This report summarizes the functional, model validation, and technology readiness testing of the Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor in FY08. Functional testing of a large number of revision 4 parts showed robust and consistent performance. Model validation testing helped tune the models to match data well and identified several areas for future investigation related to high frequency sensitivity and thermal effects. Finally, technology readiness testing demonstrated the integrated elements of the sensor under realistic environments.

  9. The Extended Duration Sounding Rocket (EDSR): Low Cost Science and Technology Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruddace, R. G.; Chakrabarti, S.; Cash, W.; Eberspeaker, P.; Figer, D.; Figueroa, O.; Harris, W.; Kowalski, M.; Maddox, R.; Martin, C.; McCammon, D.; Nordsieck, K.; Polidan, R.; Sanders, W.; Wilkinson, E.; Asrat

    2011-12-01

    The 50-year old NASA sounding rocket (SR) program has been successful in launching scientific payloads into space frequently and at low cost with a 85% success rate. In 2008 the NASA Astrophysics Sounding Rocket Assessment Team (ASRAT), set up to review the future course of the SR program, made four major recommendations, one of which now called Extended Duration Sounding Rocket (EDSR). ASRAT recommended a system capable of launching science payloads (up to 420 kg) into low Earth orbit frequently (1/yr) at low cost, with a mission duration of approximately 30 days. Payload selection would be based on meritorious high-value science that can be performed by migrating sub-orbital payloads to orbit. Establishment of this capability is a essential for NASA as it strives to advance technical readiness and lower costs for risk averse Explorers and flagship missions in its pursuit of a balanced and sustainable program and achieve big science goals within a limited fiscal environment. The development of a new generation of small, low-cost launch vehicles (SLV), primarily the SpaceX Falcon 1 and the Orbital Sciences Minotaur I has made this concept conceivable. The NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF)conducted a detailed engineering concept study, aimed at defining the technical characteristics of all phases of a mission, from design, procurement, assembly, test, integration and mission operations. The work was led by Dr. Raymond Cruddace, a veteran of the SR program and the prime mover of the EDSR concept. The team investigated details such as, the "FAA licensed contract" for launch service procurement, with WFF and NASA SMD being responsible for mission assurance which results in a factor of two cost savings over the current approach. These and other creative solutions resulted in a proof-of-concept Class D mission design that could have a sustained launch rate of at least 1/yr, a mission duration of up to about 3 months, and a total cost of $25-30 million for each mission

  10. 76 FR 73595 - Healthcare Technology, Policy & Trade Mission: Mexico City, Mexico, May 13-16, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... medical technology industries in Mexico. Participating in an official U.S. industry delegation, rather... pronouncement of regulations for medical technologies, Mexico is expected to become an even more attractive... technology industries; (2) to get a first-hand look at current use of healthcare technology in Mexico's top...

  11. Utilizing the EUVE Innovative Technology Testbed to Reduce Operations Cost for Present and Future Orbiting Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes work done under Cooperative Agreement (CA) on the following testbed projects: TERRIERS - The development of the ground systems to support the TERRIERS satellite mission at Boston University (BU). HSTS - The application of ARC's Heuristic Scheduling Testbed System (HSTS) to the EUVE satellite mission. SELMON - The application of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Selective Monitoring (SELMON) system to the EUVE satellite mission. EVE - The development of the EUVE Virtual Environment (EVE), a prototype three-dimensional (3-D) visualization environment for the EUVE satellite and its sensors, instruments, and communications antennae. FIDO - The development of the Fault-Induced Document Officer (FIDO) system, a prototype application to respond to anomalous conditions by automatically searching for, retrieving, and displaying relevant documentation for an operators use.

  12. Additive Manufacturing: An Enabling Technology for the MoonBEAM 6U CubeSat Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, R. C.; Hickman, R. R.; Cavender, D. P.; Dominquez, A.; Schnell, A. R.; Baysinger, M.; Capizzo, P.; Garcia, J.; Fabisinski, L. L.

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center completed a mission concept study for the Moon Burst Energetics All-sky Monitor (MoonBEAM). The goal of the concept study was to show the enabling aspects that additive manufacturing can provide to CubeSats. In addition to using the additively manufactured tanks as part of the spacecraft structure, the main propulsion system uses a green propellant, which is denser than hydrazine. Momentum unloading is achieved with electric microthrusters, eliminating much of the propellant plumbing. The science mission, requirements, and spacecraft design are described.

  13. An Innovative Solution to NASA's NEO Impact Threat Mitigation Grand Challenge and Flight Validation Mission Architecture Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Hypervelocity Asteroid Intercept Vehicle (HAIV) mission architecture, which blends a hypervelocity kinetic impactor with a subsurface nuclear explosion for optimal...

  14. An Innovative Solution to NASA's NEO Impact Threat Mitigation Grand Challenge and Flight Validation Mission Architecture Development Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Hypervelocity Asteroid Intercept Vehicle (HAIV) mission architecture, which blends a hypervelocity kinetic impactor with a subsurface nuclear explosion for optimal...

  15. Validation test of advanced technology for IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells - Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1992-01-01

    Individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen technology was advanced at NASA Lewis and under Lewis contracts with the intention of improving cycle life and performance. One advancement was to use 26 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte to improve cycle life. Another advancement was to modify the state-of-the-art cell design to eliminate identified failure modes. The modified design is referred to as the advanced design. A breakthrough in the LEO cycle life of IPV nickel-hydrogen cells has been previously reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte was about 40,000 LEO cycles compared to 3,500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. The boiler plate test results are in the process of being validated using flight hardware and real time LEO testing. The primary function of the advanced cell is to store and deliver energy for long-term, LEO spacecraft missions. The new features of this design are: (1) use of 26 percent rather than 31 percent KOH electrolyte; (2) use of a patented catalyzed wall wick; (3) use of serrated-edge separators to facilitate gaseous oxygen and hydrogen flow within the cell, while still maintaining physical contact with the wall wick for electrolyte management; and (4) use of a floating rather than a fixed stack (state-of-the-art) to accommodate nickel electrode expansion due to charge/discharge cycling. The significant improvements resulting from these innovations are: extended cycle life; enhanced thermal, electrolyte, and oxygen management; and accommodation of nickel electrode expansion.

  16. Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) Showcase Presentation on Mission Adaptive Digital Composite Aerostructure Technologies (MADCAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swei, Sean; Cheung, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    This project is to develop a novel aerostructure concept that takes advantage of emerging digital composite materials and manufacturing methods to build high stiffness-to-density ratio, ultra-light structures that can provide mission adaptive and aerodynamically efficient future N+3N+4 air vehicles.

  17. Ion Propulsion Module (IPM) technology readiness assessment: 1985 Halley's Comet rendezvous mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of the risk of utilizing ion propulsion to perform a rendezvous mission with Halley's comet in 1985 is presented, and consideration recommendations for reducing identified risks to the lowest possible level at project start in October 1978 were made.

  18. Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) Technology Development for Potential Deep Space Scientific Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondt, J.; Sievers, R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the alkali metal thermal to electric converter (AMTEC) technology development effort over the past year. The vapor-vapor AMTEC cell technology is being developed for use with either a solar or nuclear heat sources for space.

  19. Technology Maturity for the Habitable-zone Exoplanet Imaging Mission (HabEx) Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Rhonda; Warfield, Keith R.; Stahl, H. Philip; Mennesson, Bertrand; Nikzad, Shouleh; nissen, joel; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Krist, John; Mawet, Dimitri; Stapelfeldt, Karl; warwick, Steve

    2018-01-01

    HabEx Architecture A is a 4m unobscured telescope optimized for direct imaging and spectroscopy of potentially habitable exoplanets, and also enables a wide range of general astrophysics science. The exoplanet detection and characterization drives the enabling core technologies. A hybrid starlight suppression approach of a starshade and coronagraph diversifies technology maturation risk. In this poster we assess these exoplanet-driven technologies, including elements of coronagraphs, starshades, mirrors, jitter mitigation, wavefront control, and detectors. By utilizing high technology readiness solutions where feasible, and identifying required technology development that can begin early, HabEx will be well positioned for assessment by the community in 2020 Astrophysics Decadal Survey.

  20. Initial Technology Assessment for the Large UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) Mission Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Feinberg, Lee D.; France, Kevin; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Redding, David; Schiminovich, David

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Divisions 30-Year Roadmap prioritized a future large-aperture space telescope operating in the ultra-violet-optical-infrared wavelength regime. The Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy envisioned a similar observatory, the High Definition Space Telescope. And a multi-institution group also studied the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope. In all three cases, a broad science case is outlined, combining general astrophysics with the search for bio-signatures via direct-imaging and spectroscopic characterization of habitable exo-planets. We present an initial technology assessment that enables such an observatory that is currently being studied for the 2020 Decadal Survey by the Large UV-Optical Infrared (LUVOIR) surveyor Science and Technology Definition Team. We present here the technology prioritization for the 2016 technology cycle and define the required technology capabilities and current state-of-the-art performance. Current, planned, and recommended technology development efforts are also reported.

  1. Initial Technology Assessment for the Large-Aperture UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) Mission Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Feinberg, Lee; France, Kevin; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Redding, David; Schiminovich, David

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Division's 30-Year Roadmap prioritized a future large-aperture space telescope operating in the ultra-violet/optical/infrared wavelength regime. The Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy envisioned a similar observatory, the High Definition Space Telescope. And a multi-institution group also studied the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope. In all three cases, a broad science case is outlined, combining general astrophysics with the search for biosignatures via direct-imaging and spectroscopic characterization of habitable exoplanets. We present an initial technology assessment that enables such an observatory that is currently being studied for the 2020 Decadal Survey by the Large UV/Optical/Infrared (LUVOIR) surveyor Science and Technology Definition Team. We present here the technology prioritization for the 2016 technology cycle and define the required technology capabilities and current state-of-the-art performance. Current, planned, and recommended technology development efforts are also reported.

  2. Funding and Strategic Alignment Guidance for Infusing Small Business Innovation Research Technology Into Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate Projects for 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2017-01-01

    This report is intended to help NASA program and project managers incorporate Small Business Innovation Research Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR/STTR) technologies into NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) projects. Other Government and commercial projects managers can also find this useful. Space Transportation; Life Support and Habitation Systems; Extra-Vehicular Activity; High EfficiencySpace Power; Human Exploration and Operations Mission,

  3. Validation Study on the MCC-based Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sungkeun; Lee, Dowhan; Kang, Shincheul; Choi, Hyunwoo; Chai, Jangbom

    2006-01-01

    KEPRI and M and D Corporation has developed a methodology, called the NEST I (Non-intrusive Evaluation of Stem Thrust), for determining the stem thrust for a Motor Operated Valve (MOV) based on the motor torque and the stem displacement. The motor torque is determined using another method called NEET (Non-intrusive Evaluation of Electric Torque) which uses the voltage and current data from three phases to obtain the motor torque. The stem displacement is obtained from the voltage and current data along with the nameplate information of the motor, actuator and stem. The motor data (voltage, current and coil current) are measured using MOVIDS (Motor Operated Valve Intelligent Diagnostic System). The motor torque is determined using a NEET algorithm and the stem thrust is calculated using the NEST I method. The goal of this testing was to obtain data from operation of a MOV and to compare the actual measured thrust with the thrust calculated using the NEET / NEST I methods and therefore validate the NEET / NEST I methods

  4. Shielded Heavy-Ion Environment Linear Detector (SHIELD): an experiment for the Radiation and Technology Demonstration (RTD) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavers, M. R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.; Wilson, J. W.; Singleterry, R. C. Jr

    2001-01-01

    Radiological assessment of the many cosmic ion species of widely distributed energies requires the use of theoretical transport models to accurately describe diverse physical processes related to nuclear reactions in spacecraft structures, planetary atmospheres and surfaces, and tissues. Heavy-ion transport models that were designed to characterize shielded radiation fields have been validated through comparison with data from thick-target irradiation experiments at particle accelerators. With the RTD Mission comes a unique opportunity to validate existing radiation transport models and guide the development of tools for shield design. For the first time, transport properties will be measured in free-space to characterize the shielding effectiveness of materials that are likely to be aboard interplanetary space missions. Target materials composed of aluminum, advanced composite spacecraft structure and other shielding materials, helium (a propellant) and tissue equivalent matrices will be evaluated. Large solid state detectors will provide kinetic energy and charge identification for incident heavy-ions and for secondary ions created in the target material. Transport calculations using the HZETRN model suggest that 8 g cm -2 thick targets would be adequate to evaluate the shielding effectiveness during solar minimum activity conditions for a period of 30 days or more.

  5. The Visible Nulling Coronagraph--Progress Toward Mission and Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Michael; Levine, B. Martin; Liu, Duncan; Wallace, J. Kent

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a space mission for visible direct detection and spectroscopy of Earth like extrasolar planets using a nulling coronagraph instrument behind a moderately sized (approximately 4m) telescope in space. In our design, a 4 beam nulling interferometer is synthesized from the telescope pupil, producing a deep null proportional to theta (sup 4) which is then filtered by a coherent array of single mode fibers to suppress the residual scattered light. With diffraction limited telescope optics and similar quality components in the optical train (lambda/20), suppression of the starlight to 10 (exp -10) is achievable. We describe key features of the basic analysis, show how this effects a space mission design, present latest results of laboratory measurements demonstrating achievable null depth and component development, and discuss future key technical milestones.

  6. Advanced Concepts: Enabling Future AF Missions Through the Discovery and Demonstration of Emerging Revolutionary Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    and current cost advantages ( LCA ) for the concepts. Table 1. Summary of Advanced Concepts for Launch Table 2. Summary of Advanced Concepts...for nanoLaunch Concept LTF LMS LCA Primary Challenge for Launch Alternative Mission Advanced Propellants Many Diverse Requirements. --- Air...the total pressure and electron number density were assumed to be radially constant. The results from the model are given below in comparisons with

  7. Effect of NTP technology levels on engine sizing for a 2005 piloted Mars mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Annette D.; Cross, Elden H.; Widman, Frederick W.; North, D. Michael

    1993-01-01

    Previous vehicle mass studies were performed for Mars launch windows in the 2010-2018 time frame. Within the last year, a study was performed to determine the effects of various Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) engine and mission parameters on Initial Mass in Low Earth Orbit (MLEO) for a piloted Mars mission during the 2005 opportunity. Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) and Enabler-type reactors were compared. Parameters evaluated included engine thrust, number of engines, number of Trans-Mars Injection (TMI) burns, engine thrust/weight, engine out capability, engine burn time, and Isp. Earth and Mars departure dates and outbound and return travel times were optimized for a 240-day total interplanetary transfer time (long-duration stay mission). Parameters which were seen to reduce IMLEO included a greater number of perigee burns, multiple engines, and higher Isp. Optimum engine thrust varied substantially depending on the configuration. Engine models developed jointly by Rocketdyne and Westinghouse within the last year formed the basis for the Enabler thrust optimization study.

  8. Effect of NTP technology levels on engine sizing for a 2005 piloted Mars mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, A.D.; Cross, E.H.; Widman, F.W. Jr.; North, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    Previous vehicle mass studies were performed for Mars launch windows in the 2010--2018 time frame. Within the last year, a study was performed to determine the effects of various Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) engine and mission parameters on Initial Mass in Low Earth Orbit (MLEO) for a piloted Mars mission during the 2005 opportunity. Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) and Enabler-type reactors were compared. Parameters evaluated included engine thrust, number of engines, number of Trans-Mars Injection (TMI) burns, engine thrust/weight, engine out capability, engine burn time, and I sp . Earth and Mars departure dates and outbound and return travel times were optimized for a 240-day total interplanetary transfer time (long-duration stay mission). Parameters which were seen to reduce IMLEO included a greater number of perigee burns, multiple engines, and higher I sp . Optimum engine thrust varied substantially depending on the configuration. Engine models developed jointly by Rocketdyne and Westinghouse within the last year formed the basis for the Enabler thrust optimization study

  9. Laser technology to manage periodontal disease: a valid concept?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Samuel B; Mott, Angie

    2014-06-01

    Present day dental lasers can create oral environments conducive for periodontal repair. With the bacterial etiology of periodontitis and the resulting host inflammatory reaction, clinicians continue to search for therapeutic modalities to assist in the non-surgical management of periodontal disease. Traditional chairside therapies consist of mechanical debridement with manual and/or ultrasonic instrumentation with the objective of removing calculus, biofilm, and endotoxin from tooth root surfaces. Decreasing the microbial stimuli and associated end products decreases the inflammatory reaction and allows the host an opportunity to regenerate tissue through wound healing. The purpose of this article is to examine whether dental lasers, which have been in use for the past 3 decades, may augment traditional non-surgical periodontal therapy. Review of research publications related to lasers and non-surgical periodontics with attention focused on systematic studies. Studies utilizing laser technology may demonstrate positive effects on 1) selectively decreasing the biofilm environment, 2) removing calculus deposits and neutralizing endotoxin, 3) removing sulcular epithelium to assist in reattachment and decreased pocket depth, and 4) biostimulation for enhanced wound healing. Comparisons of studies to determine the difference between lasers and their respective effects on the periodontium are difficult to assess due to a wide variation of laser protocols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Summary Report on Phase I and Phase II Results From the 3D Printing in Zero-G Technology Demonstration Mission. Volume II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, T. J.; Werkheiser, N. J.; Ledbetter, F. E., III

    2018-01-01

    In-space manufacturing seeks to develop the processes, skill sets, and certification architecture needed to provide a rapid response manufacturing capability on long-duration exploration missions. The first 3D printer on the Space Station was developed by Made in Space, Inc. and completed two rounds of operation on orbit as part of the 3D Printing in Zero-G Technology Demonstration Mission. This Technical Publication provides a comprehensive overview of the technical objections of the mission, the two phases of hardware operation conducted on orbit, and the subsequent detailed analysis of specimens produced. No engineering significant evidence of microgravity effects on material outcomes was noted. This technology demonstration mission represents the first step in developing a suite of manufacturing capabilities to meet future mission needs.

  11. The Asteroid Impact Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnelli, Ian; Galvez, Andres; Mellab, Karim

    2016-04-01

    radar facilities. For the first time, an impact experiment at asteroid scale will be performed with accurate knowledge of the precise impact conditions and also the impact outcome, together with information on the physical properties of the target, ultimately validating at appropriate scales our knowledge of the process and impact simulations. AIM's important technology demonstration component includes a deep-space optical communication terminal and inter-satellite network with two CubeSats deployed in the vicinity of the Didymos system and a lander on the surface of the secondary. To achieve a low-cost objective AIM's technology and scientific payload are being combined to support both close-proximity navigation and scientific investigations. AIM will demonstrate the capability to achieve a small spacecraft design with a very large technological and scientific mission return.

  12. Mars 2024/2026 Pathfinder Mission: Mars Architectures, Systems, & Technologies for Exploration and Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Integrate In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) sub-systems and examine advanced capabilities and technologies to verify Mars 2024 Forward architecture precursor...

  13. Approach to rapid mission design and planning. [earth orbit missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, W. G.; Matthys, V. J.

    1973-01-01

    Methods and techniques are described for implementation in automated computer systems to assess parametric data, capabilities, requirements and constraints for planning earth orbit missions. Mission planning and design procedures are defined using two types of typical missions as examples. These missions were the high energy Astronomical Observatory Satellite missions, and Small Applications Technology Satellite missions.

  14. Validation of an instrument to measure students' motivation and self-regulation towards technology learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Pey-Yan; Kuo, Pei-Jung

    2014-05-01

    Background:Few studies have examined students' attitudinal perceptions of technology. There is no appropriate instrument to measure senior high school students' motivation and self-regulation toward technology learning among the current existing instruments in the field of technology education. Purpose:The present study is to validate an instrument for assessing senior high school students' motivation and self-regulation towards technology learning. Sample:A total of 1822 Taiwanese senior high school students (1020 males and 802 females) responded to the newly developed instrument. Design and method:The Motivation and Self-regulation towards Technology Learning (MSRTL) instrument was developed based on the previous instruments measuring students' motivation and self-regulation towards science learning. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were utilized to investigate the structure of the items. Cronbach's alpha was applied for measuring the internal consistency of each scale. Furthermore, multivariate analysis of variance was used to examine gender differences. Results:Seven scales, including 'Technology learning self-efficacy,' 'Technology learning value,' 'Technology active learning strategies,' 'Technology learning environment stimulation,' 'Technology learning goal-orientation,' 'Technology learning self-regulation-triggering,' and 'Technology learning self-regulation-implementing' were confirmed for the MSRTL instrument. Moreover, the results also showed that male and female students did not present the same degree of preference in all of the scales. Conclusions:The MSRTL instrument composed of seven scales corresponding to 39 items was shown to be valid based on validity and reliability analyses. While male students tended to express more positive and active performance in the motivation scales, no gender differences were found in the self-regulation scales.

  15. An Innovative Solution to NASA's NEO Impact Threat Mitigation Grand Challenge and Flight Validation Mission Architecture Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wie, Bong; Barbee, Brent; Pitz, Alan; Kaplinger, Brian; Hawkins, Matt; Winkler, Tim; Premaratne, Pavithra; Vardaxis, George; Lyzhoft, Joshua; Zimmerman, Ben

    2015-01-01

    To develop an innovative yet practically implementable mitigation technique for the most probable impact threat of an asteroid or comet with short warning time(i.e., when we don't have sufficient warning times for a deflection mission)

  16. Technology Requirements For a Square-Meter, Arcsecond-Resolution Telescope for X-Rays: The SMART-X Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.; Allured, Ryan; Bookbinder, Jay; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Forman, William; Freeman, Mark; McMuldroch, Stuart; Reid, Paul; Tananbaum, Harvey; Vikhlinin, Alexey; hide

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the astrophysical problems of the 2020's requires sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with square meter effective area. Such requirements can be derived, for example, by considering deep x-ray surveys to find the young black holes in the early universe (large redshifts) which will grow into the first supermassive black holes. We have envisioned a mission based on adjustable x-ray optics technology, in order to achieve the required reduction of mass to collecting area for the mirrors. We are pursuing technology which effects this adjustment via thin film piezoelectric "cells" deposited directly on the non-reflecting sides of thin, slumped glass. While SMARTX will also incorporate state-of-the-art x-ray cameras, the remaining spacecraft systems have no more stringent requirements than those which are well understood and proven on the current Chandra X-ray Observatory.

  17. Summary Report on Phase I Results from the 3D Printing in Zero G Technology Demonstration Mission, Volume I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, T. J.; Bean, Q. A.; Beshears, R. D.; Rolin, T. D.; Werkheiser, N. J.; Ordonez, E. A.; Ryan, R. M.; Ledbetter, F. E., III

    2016-01-01

    Human space exploration to date has been confined to low-Earth orbit and the Moon. The International Space Station (ISS) provides a unique opportunity for researchers to prove out the technologies that will enable humans to safely live and work in space for longer periods of time and venture beyond the Earth/Moon system. The ability to manufacture parts in-space rather than launch them from Earth represents a fundamental shift in the current risk and logistics paradigm for human spaceflight. In September 2014, NASA, in partnership with Made In Space, Inc., launched the 3D Printing in Zero-G technology demonstration mission to explore the potential of additive manufacturing for in-space applications and demonstrate the capability to manufacture parts and tools on orbit using fused deposition modeling. This Technical Publication summarizes the results of testing to date of the ground control and flight prints from the first phase of this ISS payload.

  18. Life Science Research in Outer Space: New Platform Technologies for Low-Cost, Autonomous Small Satellite Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricco, Antonio J.; Parra, Macarena P.; Niesel, David; McGinnis, Michael; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Nicholson, Wayne; Mancinelli, Rocco; Piccini, Matthew E.; Beasley, Christopher C.; Timucin, Linda R.; hide

    2009-01-01

    We develop integrated instruments and platforms suitable for economical, frequent space access for autonomous life science experiments and processes in outer space. The technologies represented by three of our recent free-flyer small-satellite missions are the basis of a rapidly growing toolbox of miniaturized biologically/biochemically-oriented instrumentation now enabling a new generation of in-situ space experiments. Autonomous small satellites ( 1 50 kg) are less expensive to develop and build than fullsize spacecraft and not subject to the comparatively high costs and scheduling challenges of human-tended experimentation on the International Space Station, Space Shuttle, and comparable platforms. A growing number of commercial, government, military, and civilian space launches now carry small secondary science payloads at far lower cost than dedicated missions; the number of opportunities is particularly large for so-called cube-sat and multicube satellites in the 1 10 kg range. The recent explosion in nano-, micro-, and miniature technologies, spanning fields from telecommunications to materials to bio/chemical analysis, enables development of remarkably capable autonomous miniaturized instruments to accomplish remote biological experimentation. High-throughput drug discovery, point-of-care medical diagnostics, and genetic analysis are applications driving rapid progress in autonomous bioanalytical technology. Three of our recent missions exemplify the development of miniaturized analytical payload instrumentation: GeneSat-1 (launched: December 2006), PharmaSat (launched: May 2009), and O/OREOS (organism/organics exposure to orbital stresses; scheduled launch: May 2010). We will highlight the overall architecture and integration of fluidic, optical, sensor, thermal, and electronic technologies and subsystems to support and monitor the growth of microorganisms in culture in these small autonomous space satellites, including real-time tracking of their culture

  19. 3D Printing in Zero G Technology Demonstration Mission: Summary of On-Orbit Operations, Material Testing, and Future Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Tracie; Bean, Quincy; Werkheiser, Niki; Ordonez, Erick; Ledbetter, Frank; Ryan, Richard; Newton, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Human space exploration to date has been limited to low Earth orbit and the moon. The International Space Station (ISS), an orbiting laboratory 200 miles above the earth, provides a unique and incredible opportunity for researchers to prove out the technologies that will enable humans to safely live and work in space for longer periods of time and venture farther into the solar system. The ability to manufacture parts in-space rather than launch them from earth represents a fundamental shift in the current risk and logistics paradigm for human spaceflight. In particularly, additive manufacturing (or 3D printing) techniques can potentially be deployed in the space environment to enhance crew safety (by providing an on-demand part replacement capability) and decrease launch mass by reducing the number of spare components that must be launched for missions where cargo resupply is not a near-term option. In September 2014, NASA launched the 3D Printing in Zero G technology demonstration mission to the ISS to explore the potential of additive manufacturing for in-space applications and demonstrate the capability to manufacture parts and tools on-orbit. The printer for this mission was designed and operated by the company Made In Space under a NASA SBIR (Small Business Innovation Research) phase III contract. The overarching objectives of the 3D print mission were to use ISS as a testbed to further maturation of enhancing technologies needed for long duration human exploration missions, introduce new materials and methods to fabricate structure in space, enable cost-effective manufacturing for structures and mechanisms made in low-unit production, and enable physical components to be manufactured in space on long duration missions if necessary. The 3D print unit for fused deposition modeling (FDM) of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) was integrated into the ISS Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) in November 2014 and phase I printing operations took place from

  20. Antenna Technology for QUASAT application. [radio antenna for very long base interferometry missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, J. S.; Palmer, W. B.

    1985-01-01

    A hybrid growth version of the advanced Sunflower, or precision deployable, antenna was adopted as the configuration proposed for the QUASAT very long baseline interferometry mission. The antenna consists of rigid panels of graphite-epoxy facesheets covering aluminum honeycomb sandwich. The six main folding panels are hinged to a cantilevered support ring attached to the periphery of the center section. Six pairs of intermediate panels are located between these panels and are hinged to each other and to the main panels. The flight configuration, antenna weight, a mass properties, frequency, and contour tolerance are discussed. The advantages of the solid antenna surface cover an all-mesh contour are examined.

  1. Hybrid Life Support System Technology Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, R. C.; Wetzel, J. P.; Richter, R. C.

    2018-02-01

    Demonstration of plant-based hybrid life support technologies in deep space will validate the function of these technologies for long duration missions, such as Mars transit, while providing dietary variety to improve habitability.

  2. Use of Web 2.0 Technologies for Public Outreach on a Simulated Mars Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrone, Kristine; Shiro, Brian; Palaia, Joseph E., IV

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in social media and internet communications have revolutionized the ways people interact and disseminate information. Astronauts are already taking advantage of these tools by blogging and tweeting from space, and almost all NASA missions now have presences on the major social networking sites. One priotity for future human explorers on Mars will be communicating their experiences to the people back on Earth. During July 2009, a 6-member crew of volunteers carried out a simulated Mars mission at the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS). The Mars Society built the mock Mars habitat in 2000-01 to help develop key knowledge and inspire the public for human Mars exploration. It is located on Devon island about 1600 km from the North Pole within the Arctic Circle. The structure is situated on the rim of Haughton Crater in an environment geologically and biologically analogous to Mars. Living in a habitat, conducting EVAs wearing spacesuits, and observing communication delays with "Earth,"the crew endured restrictions similar to those that will be faced by future human Mars explorers. Throughout the expedition, crewmembers posted daily blog entries, reports, photos, videos, and updates to their website and social media outlets Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, and Picasa Web Albums. During the sixteen EVAs of thier field science research campaign, FMARS crewmembers collected GPS track information and took geotagged photos using GPS-enabled cameras. They combined their traverse GPS tracks with photo location information into KML/KMZ files that website visitors can view in Google Earth.

  3. NASA advanced space photovoltaic technology-status, potential and future mission applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Dennis J.; Piszczor, Michael, Jr.; Stella, Paul M.; Bennett, Gary L.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA program in space photovoltaic research and development encompasses a wide range of emerging options for future space power systems, and includes both cell and array technology development. The long range goals are to develop technology capable of achieving 300 W/kg for planar arrays, and 300 W/sq m for concentrator arrays. InP and GaAs planar and concentrator cell technologies are under investigation for their potential high efficiency and good radiation resistance. The Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA) program is a near term effort aimed at demonstrating 130 W/kg beginning of life specific power using thin (62 micrometer) silicon cells. It is intended to be technology transparent to future high efficiency cells and provides the baseline for development of the 300 W/kg array.

  4. Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) - Enabling Missions Beyond Heritage Carbon Phenolic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerby, D.; Beerman, A.; Blosser, M.; Boghozian, T.; Chavez-Garcia, J.; Chinnapongse, R.; Fowler, M.; Gage, P.; Gasch, M.; Gonzales, G.; hide

    2015-01-01

    This poster provides an overview of the requirements, design, development and testing of the 3D Woven TPS being developed under NASA's Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) project. Under this current program, NASA is working to develop a Thermal Protection System (TPS) capable of surviving entry into Venus or Saturn. A primary goal of the project is to build and test an Engineering Test Unit (ETU) to establish a Technical Readiness Level (TRL) of 6 for this technology by 2017.

  5. Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) for Missions to Saturn and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerby, D.; Blosser, M.; Chinnapongse, R.; Fowler, M.; Gasch, M.; Hamm, K.; Kazemba, C.; Ma, J.; Milos, F.; Nishioka, O.; hide

    2015-01-01

    This poster provides an overview of the requirements, design, development and testing of the 3D Woven TPS being developed under NASAs Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) project. Under this current program, NASA is working to develop a Thermal Protection System (TPS) capable of surviving entry into Saturn. A primary goal of the project is to build and test an Engineering Test Unit (ETU) to establish a Technical Readiness Level (TRL) of 6 for this technology by 2017.

  6. Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) Development and Maturation Status for NF Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerby, D.; Blosser, M.; Boghozian, T.; Chavez-Garcia, J.; Chinnapongse, R.; Fowler, M.; Gage, P.; Gasch, M.; Gonzales, G.; Hamm, K.; hide

    2016-01-01

    This poster provides an overview of the requirements, design, development and testing of the 3D Woven TPS being developed under NASA's Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) project. Under this current program, NASA is working to develop a Thermal Protection System (TPS) capable of surviving entry into Saturn. A primary goal of the project is to build and test an Engineering Test Unit (ETU) to establish a Technical Readiness Level (TRL) of 6 for this technology by 2017.

  7. Impact of rocket propulsion technology on the radiation risk in missions to Mars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durante, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung, Biophysics Department, Darmstadt (Germany); Technical University of Darmstadt, Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Darmstadt (Germany); Bruno, C. [Dipartimento di Meccanica e Aeronautica, Universita -La Sapienza-, Roma (Italy)

    2010-10-15

    Exposure to cosmic radiation is today acknowledged as a major obstacle to human missions to Mars. In fact, in addition to the poor knowledge on the late effects of heavy ions in the cosmic rays, simple countermeasures are apparently not available. Shielding is indeed very problematic in space, because of mass problems and the high-energy of the cosmic rays, and radio-protective drugs or dietary supplements are not effective. However, the simplest countermeasure for reducing radiation risk is to shorten the duration time, particularly the transit time to Mars, where the dose rate is higher than on the planet surface. Here we show that using nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) rockets, the transit time could be substantially reduced to a point where radiation risk could be considered acceptable even with the current uncertainty on late effects. (authors)

  8. Integrated Information Technology Framework for Analysis of Data from Enrichment Plants to Support the Safeguards Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marr, Clifton T.; Thurman, David A.; Jorgensen, Bruce V.

    2008-07-15

    ABSTRACT Many examples of software architectures exist that support process monitoring and analysis applications which could be applied to enrichment plants in a fashion that supports the Safeguards Mission. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed mature solutions that will provide the framework to support online statistical analysis of enrichment plans and the entire nuclear fuel cycle. Most recently, PNNL has developed a refined architecture and supporting tools that address many of the common problems analysis and modeling environments experience: pipelining, handling large data volumes, and real-time performance. We propose the architecture and tools may be successfully used in furthering the goals of nuclear material control and accountability as both an aid to processing plant owners and as comprehensive monitoring for oversight teams.

  9. Funding and Strategic Alignment Guidance for Infusing Small Business Innovation Research Technology Into NASA Programs Associated With the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2015-01-01

    This report is intended to help NASA program and project managers incorporate Small Business Innovation Research/Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR/STTR) technologies that have gone through Phase II of the SBIR program into NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) programs. Other Government and commercial project managers can also find this information useful.

  10. Funding and Strategic Alignment Guidance for Infusing Small Business Innovation Research Technology into NASA Programs Associated with the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2015-01-01

    This report is intended to help NASA program and project managers incorporate Small Business Innovation Research/Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR/STTR) technologies that have gone through Phase II of the SBIR program into NASA Aeronautics and Mission Directorate (ARMD) programs. Other Government and commercial program managers can also find this information useful.

  11. Funding and Strategic Alignment Guidance for Infusing Small Business Innovation Research Technology Into Science Mission Directorate Projects at Glenn Research Center for 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2016-01-01

    This report is intended to help NASA program and project managers incorporate Glenn ResearchCenter Small Business Innovation Research/Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR)/(STTR)technologies into NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) programs/projects. Other Government and commercial project managers can also find this useful.

  12. Funding and Strategic Alignment Guidance for Infusing Small Business Innovation Research Technology into NASA Programs Associated with the Science Mission Directorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2015-01-01

    This report is intended to help NASA program and project managers incorporate Small Business Innovation Research/Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR/STTR) technologies that have gone through Phase II of the SBIR program into NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) programs. Other Government and commercial project managers can also find this information useful.

  13. Funding and Strategic Alignment Guidance for Infusing Small Business Innovation Research Technology Into Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Programs and Projects for 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2016-01-01

    This report is intended to help NASA program and project managers incorporate Small Business Innovation Research/Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR)/(STTR) technologies into NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) projects. Other Government and commercial projects managers can also find this useful.

  14. Versatile Satellite Architecture and Technology: A New Architecture for Low Cost Satellite Missions for Solar-Terrestrial Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, T. A.; Chakrabarti, S.; Polidan, R.; Jaeger, T.; Hill, L.

    2011-12-01

    Early in the 20th century, automobiles appeared as extraordinary vehicles - and now they are part of life everywhere. Late in the 20th century, internet and portable phones appeared as innovations - and now omni-present requirements. At mid-century, the first satellites were launched into space - and now 50 years later - "making a satellite" remains in the domain of highly infrequent events. Why do all universities and companies not have their own satellites? Why is the work force capable of doing so remarkably small? Why do highly focused science objectives that require just a glimpse from space never get a chance to fly? Historically, there have been two primary impediments to place an experiment in orbit - high launch costs and the high cost of spacecraft systems and related processes. The first problem appears to have been addressed through the availability of several low-cost (Architecture and Technology (VerSAT) will address the second. Today's space missions are often large, complex and require development times typically a decade from conception to execution. In present risk-averse scenario, the huge expense of these one-of-a-kind mission architecture can only be justified if the technology required to make orders of magnitude gains is flight-proven at the time mission conception. VerSAT will complement these expensive missions which are "too large to fail" and the CUBESATs. A number of Geospace science experiments that could immediately take advantage of VerSAT have been identified. They range from the study of fundamental questions of the "ignorosphere" from a single satellite lasting a few days - a region of space that was probed once about 40 years ago, to a constellation of satellites which will disentangle the space and time ambiguity of the variability of ionospheric structures and their link to the storms in the Sun to long-term studies of the Sun-Earth system. VerSAT is a true multiplexed system that is modular, scalable and reconfigurable; it is

  15. Assistive technology for visually impaired women for use of the female condom: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Duarte Wanderley Cavalcante

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To validate assistive technology for visually impaired women to learn how to use the female condom. METHOD a methodological development study conducted on a web page, with data collection between May and October 2012. Participants were 14 judges; seven judges in sexual and reproductive health (1st stage and seven in special education (2nd stage. RESULTS All items have reached the adopted parameter of 70% agreement. In Stage 1 new materials were added to represent the cervix, and instructions that must be heard twice were included in the 2nd stage. CONCLUSION The technology has been validated and is appropriate for its objectives, structure / presentation and relevance. It is an innovative, low cost and valid instrument for promoting health and one which may help women with visual disabilities to use the female condom.

  16. Ella-V and technology usage technology usage in an english language and literacy acquisition validation randomized controlled trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roisin P. Corcoran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the use of technology to provide virtual professional development (VPD for teachers and to conduct classroom observations in a study of English Language Learner (ELL instruction in grades K–3. The technology applications were part of a cluster randomized control trial (RCT design for a federally funded longitudinal validation study of a particular program, English Language and Literacy Acquisition-Validation, ELLA- V, to determine its degree of impact on English oral language/literacy, reading, and science across 63 randomly assigned urban, suburban, and rural schools (first year of implementation. ELLA-V also examines the impact of bimonthly VPD for treatment teachers compared to comparison group teachers on pedagogical skills, measured by sound observation instruments, and on student achievement, measured by state/national English language/literacy/reading tests and a national science test. This study features extensive technology use via virtual observations, bimonthly VPD, and randomly assigned treatment and control schools with students served in English as second language (ESL instructional time. The study design and methodology are discussed relativeto the specialized uses of technology and issues involving the evaluation of technology’s contribution to the intervention of interest and of the efficient, cost-effective execution of the study.

  17. Scientific Missions and Technologies of the ISSS on board the NEXTSat-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheong Rim Choi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A package of space science instruments, dubbed the Instruments for the Study of Space Storms (ISSS, is proposed for the Next Generation Small Satellite-1 (NEXTSat-1, which is scheduled for launch in May 2016. This paper describes the instrument designs and science missions of the ISSS. The ISSS configuration in NEXTSat-1 is as follows: the space radiation monitoring instruments consist of medium energy particle detector (MEPD and high energy particle detector (HEPD; the space plasma instruments consist of a Langmuir probe (LP, a retarding potential analyzer (RPA, and an ion drift meter (IDM. The space radiation monitoring instruments (MEPD and HEPD measure electrons and protons in parallel and perpendicular directions to the geomagnetic field in the sub-auroral region, and they have a minimum time resolution of 50 msec for locating the region of the particle interactions with whistler mode waves and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC waves. The MEPD measures electrons and protons with energies of tens of keV to ~400 keV, and the HEPD measures electrons with energies of ~100 keV to > ~1 MeV and protons with energies of ~10 MeV. The space plasma instruments (LP, RPA, and IDM observe irregularities in the low altitude ionosphere, and the results will be compared with the scintillations of the GPS signals. In particular, the LP is designed to have a sampling rate of 50 Hz in order to detect these small-scale irregularities.

  18. Recent Efforts in Communications Research and Technology at the Glenn Research Center in Support of NASA's Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    As it has done in the past, NASA is currently engaged in furthering the frontiers of space and planetary exploration. The effectiveness in gathering the desired science data in the amount and quality required to perform this pioneering work relies heavily on the communications capabilities of the spacecraft and space platforms being considered to enable future missions. Accordingly, the continuous improvement and development of radiofrequency and optical communications systems are fundamental to prevent communications to become the limiting factor for space explorations. This presentation will discuss some of the research and technology development efforts currently underway at the NASA Glenn Research Center in the radio frequency (RF) and Optical Communications. Examples of work conducted in-house and also in collaboration with academia, industry, and other government agencies (OGA) in areas such as antenna technology, power amplifiers, radio frequency (RF) wave propagation through Earths atmosphere, ultra-sensitive receivers, thin films ferroelectric-based tunable components, among others, will be presented. In addition, the role of these and other related RF technologies in enabling the NASA next generation space communications architecture will be also discussed.

  19. CECE: Expanding the Envelope of Deep Throttling Technology in Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Hydrogen Rocket Engines for NASA Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Victor J.; Leonard, Timothy G.; Lyda, Randy T.; Kim, Tony S.

    2010-01-01

    As one of the first technology development programs awarded by NASA under the Vision for Space Exploration, the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) Deep Throttling, Common Extensible Cryogenic Engine (CECE) program was selected by NASA in November 2004 to begin technology development and demonstration toward a deep throttling, cryogenic engine supporting ongoing trade studies for NASA s Lunar Lander descent stage. The CECE program leverages the maturity and previous investment of a flight-proven hydrogen/oxygen expander cycle engine, the PWR RL10, to develop and demonstrate an unprecedented combination of reliability, safety, durability, throttlability, and restart capabilities in high-energy, cryogenic, in-space propulsion. The testbed selected for the deep throttling demonstration phases of this program was a minimally modified RL10 engine, allowing for maximum current production engine commonality and extensibility with minimum program cost. Four series of demonstrator engine tests have been successfully completed between April 2006 and April 2010, accumulating 7,436 seconds of hot fire time over 47 separate tests. While the first two test series explored low power combustion (chug) and system instabilities, the third test series investigated and was ultimately successful in demonstrating several mitigating technologies for these instabilities and achieved a stable throttling ratio of 13:1. The fourth test series significantly expanded the engine s operability envelope by successfully demonstrating a closed-loop control system and extensive transient modeling to enable lower power engine starting, faster throttle ramp rates, and mission-specific ignition testing. The final hot fire test demonstrated a chug-free, minimum power level of 5.9%, corresponding to an overall 17.6:1 throttling ratio achieved. In total, these tests have provided an early technology demonstration of an enabling cryogenic propulsion concept with invaluable system-level technology data

  20. Impact of Advanced Propeller Technology on Aircraft/Mission Characteristics of Several General Aviation Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiter, I. D.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of several General Aviation aircraft indicated that the application of advanced technologies to General Aviation propellers can reduce fuel consumption in future aircraft by a significant amount. Propeller blade weight reductions achieved through the use of composites, propeller efficiency and noise improvements achieved through the use of advanced concepts and improved propeller analytical design methods result in aircraft with lower operating cost, acquisition cost and gross weight.

  1. Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Advancement of the MSPI On-Board Processing Platform for the ACE Decadal Survey Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingree, Paula J.; Werne, Thomas A.; Bekker, Dmitriy L.; Wilson, Thor O.

    2011-01-01

    The Xilinx Virtex-5QV is a new Single-event Immune Reconfigurable FPGA (SIRF) device that is targeted as the spaceborne processor for the NASA Decadal Survey Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystem (ACE) mission's Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (MSPI) instrument, currently under development at JPL. A key technology needed for MSPI is on-board processing (OBP) to calculate polarimetry data as imaged by each of the 9 cameras forming the instrument. With funding from NASA's ESTO1 AIST2 Program, JPL is demonstrating how signal data at 95 Mbytes/sec over 16 channels for each of the 9 multi-angle cameras can be reduced to 0.45 Mbytes/sec, thereby substantially reducing the image data volume for spacecraft downlink without loss of science information. This is done via a least-squares fitting algorithm implemented on the Virtex-5 FPGA operating in real-time on the raw video data stream.

  2. A Ground-Based Study on Extruder Standoff Distance for the 3D Printing in Zero Gravity Technology Demonstration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, T. J.; Bean, Q. A.; Werkheiser, N. J.; Beshears, R. D.; Rolin, T. D.; Rabenberg, E. M.; Soohoo, H. A.; Ledbetter, F. E., III; Bell, S. C.

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of phase I specimens produced as part of the 3D printing in zero G technology demonstration mission exhibited some differences in structure and performance for specimens printed onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and specimens produced on the ground with the same printer prior to its launch. This study uses the engineering test unit for the printer, identical to the unit on ISS, to conduct a ground-based investigation of the impact of the distance between the extruder tip and the build tray on material outcomes. This standoff distance was not held constant for the phase I flight prints and is hypothesized to be a major source of the material variability observed in the phase I data set.

  3. Nanosatellite missions - the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudelka, O.; Kuschnig, R.; Wenger, M.; Romano, P.

    2017-09-01

    In the beginning, nanosatellite projects were focused on educational aspects. In the meantime, the technology matured and now allows to test, demonstrate and validate new systems, operational procedures and services in space at low cost and within much shorter timescales than traditional space endeavors. The number of spacecraft developed and launched has been increasing exponentially in the last years. The constellation of BRITE nanosatellites is demonstrating impressively that demanding scientific requirements can be met with small, low-cost satellites. Industry and space agencies are now embracing small satellite technology. Particularly in the USA, companies have been established to provide commercial services based on CubeSats. The approach is in general different from traditional space projects with their strict product/quality assurance and documentation requirements. The paper gives an overview of nanosatellite missions in different areas of application. Based on lessons learnt from the BRITE mission and recent developments at TU Graz (in particular the implementation of the OPS-SAT nanosatellite for ESA), enhanced technical possibilities for a future astronomy mission after BRITE will be discussed. Powerful on-board computers will allow on-board data pre-processing. A state-of-the-art telemetry system with high data rates would facilitate interference-free operations and increase science data return.

  4. Integration and Testing Challenges of Small Satellite Missions: Experiences from the Space Technology 5 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerwein, Timothy A.; Gostomski, Tom

    2007-01-01

    The Space Technology 5(ST5) payload was successfully carried into orbit on an OSC Pegasus XL launch vehicle, which was carried aloft and dropped from the OSC Lockheed L-1011 from Vandenberg Air Force Base March 22,2006, at 9:03 am Eastern time, 6:03 am Pacific time. In order to reach the completion of the development and successful launch of ST 5, the systems integration and test(I&T) team determined that a different approach was required to meet the project requirements rather than the standard I&T approach used for single, room-sized satellites. The ST5 payload, part of NASA's New Millennium Program headquartered at JPL, consisted of three micro satellites (approximately 30 kg each) and the Pegasus Support Structure (PSS), the system that connected the spacecrafts to the launch vehicle and deployed the spacecrafts into orbit from the Pegasus XL launch vehicle. ST5 was a technology demonstration payload, intended to test six (6) new technologies for potential use for future space flights along with demonstrating the ability of small satellites to perform quality science. The main technology was a science grade magnetometer designed to take measurements of the earth's magnetic field. The three spacecraft were designed, integrated, and tested at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center with integration and environmental testing occurring in the Bldg. 7-1 0-15-29. The three spacecraft were integrated and tested by the same I&T team. The I&T Manager determined that there was insufficient time in the schedule to perform the three I&T spacecraft activities in series used standard approaches. The solution was for spacecraft #1 to undergo integration and test first, followed by spacecraft #2 and #3 simultaneously. This simultaneous integration was successful for several reasons. Each spacecraft had a Lead Test Conductor who planned and coordinated their spacecraft through its integration and test activities. One team of engineers and technicians executed the integration of all

  5. NASA advanced space photovoltaic technology: Status, potential and future mission applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Dennis J.; Piszczor, Michael, Jr.; Stella, Paul M.; Bennett, Gary L.

    1989-01-01

    The long term goals of the NASA program in space photovoltaic research are presented. The long range goals are to develop technology capable of achieving 300 W/kg for planar arrays and 300 W per sq m for concentrator arrays. InP and GaAs planar and concentrator cell research projects are described. The near term program of developing the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA) intended to produce 130 W/kg using thin (62 micron) silicon cells, is described. Ways in which this program will provide a baseline for development of 300 W/kg arrays are described.

  6. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-2: Near Real-Time Altimetry Validation System (NRTAVS) QA Reports (NODC Accession 0044984)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains the descriptions for the OSTM/Jason-2 Near Real-Time Altimetry Validation System Quality Reports, which are served through the NOAA/NESDIS...

  7. Validation evaluation of the technological process of leonurus turkestanicus liquid extract production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олеся Владимировна Сермухамедова

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The transfer of Leonurus turkestanicus liquid extract production technology and its validation at LLC «FitOleum» (GMP compliance report conclusion CT PK 1617-2006 «Good Manufacturing Practice. Remedies production. Basic provisions» № 18, Nov. 21, 2014..Methods. Different known statistical methods have been used to evaluate and to interpret both technological parameters and indicators that were determined during quality control of herbal material, intermediate product, and final product. A Statistical process control (SPC concept is applied as a basis for all accepted international instruments ICH Q8 «Pharmaceutical Development», ICH Q10 «Pharmaceutical Quality System», PAT Concept, and FDA Guidance for Process Validation.Results. As a result of research normative documents that regulate manufacturing process in the test conditions have been developed. A comparable data across technological parameters of three consistently manufactured test production series have been obtained, as well as validity of the extract production technological process has been proved.Conclusion. On the basis of research, the experimental-industrial procedure for Leonurus turkestanicus herb liquid extract production at the LLC «FitOleum» has been developed

  8. Selected case studies of technology transfer from mission-oriented applied research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daellenbach, K.K.; Watts, R.L.; Young, J.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Abarcar, R.B. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1992-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD) under the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) supports interdisciplinary applied research and exploratory development that will expand the knowledge base to enable industry to improve its energy efficiency and its capability to use alternative energy resources. AICD capitalizes on scientific and technical advances from the United States and abroad, applying them to address critical technical needs of American industry. As a result, AICD research and development products are many and varied, and the effective transfer of these products to diverse targeted users requires different strategies as well. This paper describes the products of AICD research, how they are transferred to potential users, and how actual transfer is determined.

  9. Assessment of the adequacy of US accelerator technology for Department of Energy missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerry, E.T.; Mani, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    In this report, we review the applications of accelerators in areas other than high energy and nuclear physics. The list of applications that are considered includes such diverse fields as nuclear medicine; diagnostics for the hostile environments of advanced fossil fuel reactors; production of complex integrated circuitry; radiation processing of food and other materials; ion implantation for material processing; and advanced areas such as free electron lasers; inertial fusion drivers etc. The commonalities underlying accelerator technology requirements for the different applications were found and enabled us to propose a set of recommendations on areas where accelerator R and D would enable many energy related applications of interest to DOE. These are discussed in the suggested R and D programs

  10. Technology Requirements for a Square Meter, Arcsecond Resolution Telescope for X-Rays: The SMART-X Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.; Allured, Ryan; Bookbinder, Jay A.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Forman, William R.; Freeman, Mark D.; McMuldroch, Stuart; Reid, Paul B.; Tananbaum, Harvey; Vikhlinin, Alexey A.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the astrophysical problems of the 2020's requires sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with square meter effective area. Such requirements can be derived, for example, by considering deep x-ray surveys to find the young black holes in the early universe (large redshifts) which will grow into the first super-massive black holes. We have envisioned a mission, the Square Meter Arcsecond Resolution Telescope for X-rays (SMART-X), based on adjustable x-ray optics technology, incorporating mirrors with the required small ratio of mass to collecting area. We are pursuing technology which achieves sub-arcsecond resolution by on-orbit adjustment via thin film piezoelectric "cells" deposited directly on the non-reflecting sides of thin, slumped glass. While SMART-X will also incorporate state-of-the-art x-ray cameras, the remaining spacecraft systems have no requirements more stringent than those which are well understood and proven on the current Chandra X-ray Observatory.

  11. The Applications of NASA Mission Technologies to the Greening of Human Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    I will give an overview talk about flight software systems, robotics technologies and modeling for energy minimization as applied to vehicles and buildings infrastructures. A dominant issue in both design and operations of robotic spacecraft is the minimization of energy use. In the design and building of spacecraft increased power is acquired only at the cost of additional mass and volumes and ultimately cost. Consequently, interplanetary spacecrafts are designed to have the minimum essential power and those designs often incorporate careful timing of all power use. Operationally, the availability of power is the most influential constraint for the use of planetary surface robots, such as the Mars Exploration Rovers. The amount of driving done, the amount of science accomplished and indeed the survivability of the spacecraft itself is determined by the power available for use. For the Mars Exploration Rovers there are four tools which are used: (1) models of the rover and it s thermal and power use (2) predictive environmental models of power input and thermal environment (3) fine grained manipulation of power use (4) optimization modeling and planning tools. In this talk I will discuss possible applications of this methodology to minimizing power use on Earth, especially in buildings.

  12. [Care with the child's health and validation of an educational technology for riverside families].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Elizabeth; de Almeida Siqueira, Aldo; da Silva, Joselice Pereira; Lavor, Lília Cunha

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the knowledge and ways of caring for the child health 0-5 years between riverine (Phase 1), and to validate an educational technology (Phase 2). It was carried out a descriptive qualitative study. With the mothers, focus groups and content analysis were used, and with judges-specialists and target-public-applied, forms. The study revealed that the concern with the care of a child between the riverine families permeates the adversity daily, with dedication and commitment of these families in maintaining the health of their children. The sensitivity listening of mothers indicated the need for a closer relationship between nursing professionals and family. The validation of the educational technology was convergent, within the parameters considered adequate.

  13. Validation of innovative technologies and strategies for regulatory safety assessment methods: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, William S; Wind, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    Advances in science and innovative technologies are providing new opportunities to develop test methods and strategies that may improve safety assessments and reduce animal use for safety testing. These include high throughput screening and other approaches that can rapidly measure or predict various molecular, genetic, and cellular perturbations caused by test substances. Integrated testing and decision strategies that consider multiple types of information and data are also being developed. Prior to their use for regulatory decision-making, new methods and strategies must undergo appropriate validation studies to determine the extent that their use can provide equivalent or improved protection compared to existing methods and to determine the extent that reproducible results can be obtained in different laboratories. Comprehensive and optimal validation study designs are expected to expedite the validation and regulatory acceptance of new test methods and strategies that will support improved safety assessments and reduced animal use for regulatory testing.

  14. Validation of the Technological Process of the Preparation "Milk by Vidal".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, L P; Mishchenko, V A; Georgiyants, V A

    2017-01-01

    Validation was performed on the technological process of the compounded preparation "Milk by Vidal" in accordance with the requirements of the regulatory framework of Ukraine. Critical stages of formulation which can affect the quality of the finished preparation were considered during the research. The obtained results indicated that the quality of the finished preparation met the requirements of the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  15. THE ROLE OF LIQUID WASTE PRETREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES IN SOLVING THE DOE CLEAN-UP MISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmarth, B; Sheryl Bush, S

    2008-10-31

    The objective of this report is to describe the pretreatment solutions that allow treatment to be tailored to specific wastes, processing ahead of the completion schedules for the main treatment facilities, and reduction of technical risks associated with future processing schedules. Wastes stored at Hanford and Savannah River offer challenging scientific and engineering tasks. At both sites, space limitations confound the ability to effectively retrieve and treat the wastes. Additionally, the radiation dose to the worker operating and maintaining the radiochemical plants has a large role in establishing the desired radioactivity removal. However, the regulatory requirements to treat supernatant and saltcake tank wastes differ at the two sites. Hanford must treat and remove radioactivity from the tanks based on the TriParty Agreement and Waste Incidental to Reprocessing (WIR) documentation. These authorizing documents do not specify treatment technologies; rather, they specify endstate conditions. Dissimilarly, Waste Determinations prepared at SRS in accordance with Section 3116 of the 2005 National Defense Authorization Act along with state operating permits establish the methodology and amounts of radioactivity that must be removed and may be disposed of in South Carolina. After removal of entrained solids and site-specific radionuclides, supernatant and saltcake wastes are considered to be low activity waste (LAW) and are immobilized in glass and disposed of at the Hanford Site Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) or formulated into a grout for disposal at the Savannah River Site Saltstone Disposal Facility. Wastes stored at the Hanford Site or SRS comprise saltcake, supernate, and sludges. The supernatant and saltcake waste fractions contain primarily sodium salts, metals (e.g., Al, Cr), cesium-137 (Cs-137), technetium-99 (Tc-99) and entrained solids containing radionuclides such as strontium-90 (Sr-90) and transuranic elements. The sludges contain many of the

  16. Preparing Brigade Combat Team Soldiers for Mission Readiness Through Research on Intangible Psychological Constructs and their Applications: Validation and Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    and their Applications: Validation and Pilot Steven N. Aude Kenneth Nicely Michael A. Lodato ICF International Christopher L. Vowels ...Lodato; Christopher L. Vowels 5c. PROJECT NUMBER A790 5d. TASK NUMBER 370 5e. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING... Vowels 14. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words): The U.S. Army Research Institute is developing and piloting measures of Soldier initiative and

  17. Communication from the Permanent Mission of France to the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding guidelines for the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Note Verbale received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Permanent Mission of France to the IAEA providing information on the policies and practices of the Government of France with respect to the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology

  18. Communication from the Permanent Mission of Finland to the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding guidelines for the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Note Verbale received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Permanent Mission of Finland providing information on the export policies and practices of the Government of Finland with respect to the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology

  19. TeSeR – Technology for Self-Removal – First results of an H2020 Project to develop a Post-Mission-Disposal Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt, p.; Vogt, C.; Schubert, R.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of TeSeR (Technology for Self-Removal) is to take the first step towards the development of a scalable, flexible, cost-efficient, but highly reliable Post-Mission-Disposal (PMD) module. This module is to be attached to the spacecraft (S/C) on ground and it shall ensure the PMD of the S...

  20. Validation of tissue microarray technology in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Judith; van Hillegersberg, Richard; van Diest, Paul J; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Rinkes, Inne H M Borel; Kate, Fiebo J W Ten

    2008-05-01

    Tissue microarray (TMA) technology has been developed to facilitate high-throughput immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization analysis of tissues by inserting small tissue biopsy cores into a single paraffin block. Several studies have revealed novel prognostic biomarkers in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) by means of TMA technology, although this technique has not yet been validated for these tumors. Because representativeness of the donor tissue cores may be a disadvantage compared to full sections, the aim of this study was to assess if TMA technology provides representative immunohistochemical results in ESCC. A TMA was constructed containing triplicate cores of 108 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded squamous cell carcinomas of the esophagus. The agreement in the differentiation grade and immunohistochemical staining scores of CK5/6, CK14, E-cadherin, Ki-67, and p53 between TMA cores and a subset of 64 randomly selected donor paraffin blocks was determined using kappa statistics. The concurrence between TMA cores and donor blocks was moderate for Ki-67 (kappa = 0.42) and E-cadherin (kappa = 0.47), substantial for differentiation grade (kappa = 0.65) and CK14 (kappa = 0.71), and almost perfect for p53 (kappa = 0.86) and CK5/6 (kappa = 0.93). TMA technology appears to be a valid method for immunohistochemical analysis of molecular markers in ESCC provided that the staining pattern in the tumor is homogeneous.

  1. Analysis: including visually impaired participants in validation design studies of diabetes technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslan, Mark; Blubaugh, Morgan

    2010-09-01

    In an article in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Sherwyn Schwartz, M.D., presents a study to validate the design of the ClikSTAR® insulin pen from sanofi-aventis and demonstrates that the device can be used correctly by participants with diabetes. Concern with this article lies with the selection of participants, which was meant to reflect the intended audience for the insulin pen device but does not address the inclusion of visually impaired individuals, who comprise over 20% of the adult diabetes population. Visually impaired individuals need to be included as part of the intended audience for insulin administration technology, and manufacturers of these devices need to design their products for safe use by all people, including those who are visually impaired. The study demonstrated successful use of the ClikSTAR insulin pen in a population that did not include subjects with severe visual impairment. We believe that future validation studies for insulin administration technology should also include samples of visually impaired users and that visually impaired patients will embrace the use of insulin pens designed with their needs in mind. © 2010 Diabetes Technology Society.

  2. Funding and Strategic Alignment Guidance for Infusing Small Business Innovation Research Technology Into Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate Projects at Glenn Research Center for 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2016-01-01

    This report is intended to help NASA program and project managers incorporate Glenn Research Center Small Business Innovation Research/Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR)/(STTR) technologies into NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) programs and projects. Other Government and commercial project managers can also find this useful. Introduction Incorporating Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)-developed technology into NASA projects is important, especially given the Agency's limited resources for technology development. The SBIR program's original intention was for technologies that had completed Phase II to be ready for integration into NASA programs, however, in many cases there is a gap between Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) 5 and 6 that needs to be closed. After SBIR Phase II projects are completed, the technology is evaluated against various parameters and a TRL rating is assigned. Most programs tend to adopt more mature technologies-at least TRL 6 to reduce the risk to the mission rather than adopt TRLs between 3 and 5 because those technologies are perceived as too risky. The gap between TRLs 5 and 6 is often called the "Valley of Death" (Figure 1), and historically it has been difficult to close because of a lack of funding support from programs. Several papers have already suggested remedies on how to close the gap (Refs. 1 to 4).

  3. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-3: Near Real-Time Altimetry Validation System (NRTAVS) QA Reports, 2015 - (NCEI Accession 0122600)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Jason-3 is the fourth mission in U.S.-European series of satellite missions that measure the height of the ocean surface. Scheduled to launch in 2015, the mission...

  4. The Development and Delivery of On-Demand RADARSAT Constellation Mission Ground Deformation Products Based on Advanced Insar Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonov, S. V.; Feng, W.

    2017-12-01

    InSAR-based mapping of surface deformation (displacement) has proven valuable to a variety of geoscience applications within NRCan. Conventional approaches to InSAR analysis require significant expert intervention to separate useful signal from noise and are not suited to the address the opportunities and challenges presented by the large multi-temporal SAR datasets provided by future radar constellations. The Canada Centre for Mapping and Earth Observation (CCMEO) develops, in support of NRCAN and Government of Canada priorities a framework for automatic generation of standard and advanced deformation products based on Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technology from RADARSAT Constellation Mission (RCM) Synthetic Aperture Radar data. We utilize existing processing algorithms that are currently used for processing RADARSAT-2 data and adapt them to RCM specifications. In addition we develop novel advanced processing algorithms that address large data sets made possible by the satellites' rapid revisit cycle and expand InSAR functionality to regional and national scales across a wide range of time scales. Through automation the system makes it possible to extend the mapping of surface deformation to non-SAR experts. The architecture is scalable and expandable to serve large number of clients and simultaneously address multiple application areas including: natural and anthropogenic hazards, natural resource development, permafrost and glacier monitoring, coastal and environmental change and wetlands mapping.

  5. SCIAMACHY validation by aircraft remote measurements: design, execution, and first results of the SCIA-VALUE mission

    OpenAIRE

    Fix, A.; Ehret, G.; Flentje, H.; Poberaj, G.; Gottwald, M.; Finkenzeller, H.; Bremer, H.; Bruns, M.; Burrows, J. P.; Kleinböhl, A.; Küllmann, H.; Kuttippurath, J.; Richter, A.; Wang, P.; Heue, K.-P.

    2004-01-01

    For the first time three different remote sensing instruments – a sub-millimeter radiometer, a differential optical absorption spectrometer in the UV-visible spectral range, and a lidar – were deployed aboard DLR's meteorological research aircraft Falcon 20 to validate a large number of SCIAMACHY level 2 and off-line data products such as O3, NO2, N2O, BrO, OClO, H2O, aerosols,...

  6. Study and validation of a gamma-ray spectrometer for the remote analysis of the chemical composition of planetary surfaces: application to a mission to the planet Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirard, B.

    2006-12-01

    This work deals with the design of a gamma-ray spectrometer for the remote analysis of the chemical composition of planetary surfaces and was performed in the frame of a mission scenario to explore the planet Mercury. The research studies consisted first in characterizing the detection performances of a gamma-ray spectrometer using a high-purity germanium crystal cooled actively at cryogenic temperatures. The high energy resolution of the detector allows an accurate measurement of the chemical composition for the main elements from oxygen to uranium. Thereafter the studies dealt with the critical issues addressed for the use of such a detector onboard a mission to the inner solar system. The radiation damage caused by solar protons in germanium crystals was investigated by experimental and numerical means. It has been shown that the detector resolution begins getting damaged for proton fluences over 5*10 8 p/cm 2 . An annealing session where the crystal is heated up to 80 C degrees for a 4-day period allows the detector to get back a sufficient resolution. Annealing over 100 C degrees gives back the detector its initial resolution. Finally, a numerical thermal model of the instrument as well as some tests on a thermal mockup were performed to validate the thermal design of the instrument

  7. The validity of visual acuity assessment using mobile technology devices in the primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Samuel; McAndrew, Darryl J

    2016-04-01

    The assessment of visual acuity is indicated in a number of clinical circumstances. It is commonly conducted through the use of a Snellen wall chart. Mobile technology developments and adoption rates by clinicians may potentially provide more convenient methods of assessing visual acuity. Limited data exist on the validity of these devices and applications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the assessment of distance visual acuity using mobile technology devices against the commonly used 3-metre Snellen chart in a primary care setting. A prospective quantitative comparative study was conducted at a regional medical practice. The visual acuity of 60 participants was assessed on a Snellen wall chart and two mobile technology devices (iPhone, iPad). Visual acuity intervals were converted to logarithm of minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) scores and subjected to intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) assessment. The results show a high level of general agreement between testing modality (ICC 0.917 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.887-0.940). The high level of agreement of visual acuity results between the Snellen wall chart and both mobile technology devices suggests that clinicians can use this technology with confidence in the primary care setting.

  8. Development and Validation of Web-Based Courseware for Junior Secondary School Basic Technology Students in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amosa Isiaka Gambari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to develop and validate a web-based courseware for junior secondary school basic technology students in Nigeria. In this study, a mixed method quantitative pilot study design with qualitative components was used to test and ascertain the ease of development and validation of the web-based courseware. Dick and Carey instructional system design model was adopted for developing the courseware. Convenience sampling technique was used in selecting the three content, computer and educational technology experts to validate the web-based courseware. Non-randomized and non-equivalent Junior secondary school students from two schools were used for field trial validation. Four validating instruments were employed in conducting this study: (i Content Validation Assessment Report (CVAR; (ii Computer Expert Validation Assessment Report (CEAR; (iii Educational Technology Experts Validation Assessment Report (ETEVAR; and (iv Students Validation Questionnaire (SVQ. All the instruments were face and content validated. SVQ was pilot tested and reliability coefficient of 0.85 was obtained using Cronbach Alpha. CVAR, CEAR, ETEVAR were administered on content specialists, computer experts, and educational technology experts, while SVQ was administered on 83 JSS students from two selected secondary schools in Minna. The findings revealed that the process of developing web-based courseware using Dick and Carey Instructional System Design was successful. In addition, the report from the validating team revealed that the web-based courseware is valuable for learning basic technology. It is therefore recommended that web-based courseware should be produced to teach basic technology concepts on large scale.

  9. Funding and Strategic Alignment Guidance for Infusing Small Business Innovation Research Technology Into Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Projects at NASA Glenn Research Center for 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Morris, Jessica R.

    2015-01-01

    This document is intended to enable the more effective transition of NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) SBIR technologies funded by the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program as well as its companion, the Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) program into NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) projects. Primarily, it is intended to help NASA program and project managers find useful technologies that have undergone extensive research and development (RRD), through Phase II of the SBIR program; however, it can also assist non-NASA agencies and commercial companies in this process. aviation safety, unmanned aircraft, ground and flight test technique, low emissions, quiet performance, rotorcraft

  10. The development and test of a hydrogen peroxide monopropellant microrocket engine using MEMS technology (spectrometer for planetary missions)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hebden, R.; Bielby, R.; Baker, A.; Mistry, S.; Köhler, J.; Stenmark, L.; Sanders, H.M.; Moerel, J.L.P.A.; Halswijk, W.H.C.; Rops, C.; Breussin, F.N.; Lang, M.

    2005-01-01

    Given the present, relatively limited deployment of low cost and mass space missions, there are clear opportunities for the application of small-scale propulsion systems in further enabling these small satellite missions. With this situation in mind, a team comprising ASTC, SSTL, TNO and QinetiQ –

  11. Cost-Effective ISS Space-Environment Technology Validation of Advanced Roll-Out Solar Array (ROSA), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DSS proposes to systematically mature, mitigate risk for; and perform hardware-based ground validations / demonstrations of a low-cost, high technology payoff,...

  12. A Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing and Analysis Platform for Validation of Mission and Fault Management Algorithms to Reduce Risk for NASAs Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis; Johnson, Stephen B.; Patterson, Jonathan; Teare, David

    2015-01-01

    The engineering development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) new Space Launch System (SLS) requires cross discipline teams with extensive knowledge of launch vehicle subsystems, information theory, and autonomous algorithms dealing with all operations from pre-launch through on orbit operations. The nominal and off-nominal characteristics of SLS's elements and subsystems must be understood and matched with the autonomous algorithm monitoring and mitigation capabilities for accurate control and response to abnormal conditions throughout all vehicle mission flight phases, including precipitating safing actions and crew aborts. This presents a large and complex systems engineering challenge, which is being addressed in part by focusing on the specific subsystems involved in the handling of off-nominal mission and fault tolerance with response management. Using traditional model-based system and software engineering design principles from the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and Systems Modeling Language (SysML), the Mission and Fault Management (M&FM) algorithms for the vehicle are crafted and vetted in Integrated Development Teams (IDTs) composed of multiple development disciplines such as Systems Engineering (SE), Flight Software (FSW), Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) and the major subsystems and vehicle elements such as Main Propulsion Systems (MPS), boosters, avionics, Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC), Thrust Vector Control (TVC), and liquid engines. These model-based algorithms and their development lifecycle from inception through FSW certification are an important focus of SLS's development effort to further ensure reliable detection and response to off-nominal vehicle states during all phases of vehicle operation from pre-launch through end of flight. To test and validate these M&FM algorithms a dedicated test-bed was developed for full Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing (VMET). For addressing fault management (FM

  13. Instrument for assessing mobile technology acceptability in diabetes self-management: a validation and reliability study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frandes M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mirela Frandes,1 Anca V Deiac,2 Bogdan Timar,1,3 Diana Lungeanu1,2 1Department of Functional Sciences, “Victor Babes” University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Timisoara, 2Department of Mathematics, Polytechnic University of Timisoara, 3Third Medical Clinic, Emergency Hospital of Timisoara, Timisoara, Romania Background: Nowadays, mobile technologies are part of everyday life, but the lack of instruments to assess their acceptability for the management of chronic diseases makes their actual adoption for this purpose slow.Objective: The objective of this study was to develop a survey instrument for assessing patients’ attitude toward and intention to use mobile technology for diabetes mellitus (DM self-management, as well as to identify sociodemographic characteristics and quality of life factors that affect them.Methods: We first conducted the documentation and instrument design phases, which were subsequently followed by the pilot study and instrument validation. Afterward, the instrument was administered 103 patients (median age: 37 years; range: 18–65 years diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 DM, who accepted to participate in the study. The reliability and construct validity were assessed by computing Cronbach’s alpha and using factor analysis, respectively.Results: The instrument included statements about the actual use of electronic devices for DM management, interaction between patient and physician, attitude toward using mobile technology, and quality of life evaluation. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.9 for attitude toward using mobile technology and 0.97 for attitude toward using mobile device applications for DM self-management. Younger patients (Spearman’s ρ=-0.429; P<0.001 with better glycemic control (Spearman’s ρ=-0.322; P<0.001 and higher education level (Kendall’s τ=0.51; P<0.001 had significantly more favorable attitude toward using mobile assistive applications for DM control. Moreover, patients with a higher quality of

  14. A Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing and Analysis Platform for Validation of Mission and Fault Management Algorithms to Reduce Risk for NASA's Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis; Johnson, Stephen B.; Patterson, Jonathan; Teare, David

    2015-01-01

    The development of the Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle requires cross discipline teams with extensive knowledge of launch vehicle subsystems, information theory, and autonomous algorithms dealing with all operations from pre-launch through on orbit operations. The characteristics of these systems must be matched with the autonomous algorithm monitoring and mitigation capabilities for accurate control and response to abnormal conditions throughout all vehicle mission flight phases, including precipitating safing actions and crew aborts. This presents a large complex systems engineering challenge being addressed in part by focusing on the specific subsystems handling of off-nominal mission and fault tolerance. Using traditional model based system and software engineering design principles from the Unified Modeling Language (UML), the Mission and Fault Management (M&FM) algorithms are crafted and vetted in specialized Integrated Development Teams composed of multiple development disciplines. NASA also has formed an M&FM team for addressing fault management early in the development lifecycle. This team has developed a dedicated Vehicle Management End-to-End Testbed (VMET) that integrates specific M&FM algorithms, specialized nominal and off-nominal test cases, and vendor-supplied physics-based launch vehicle subsystem models. The flexibility of VMET enables thorough testing of the M&FM algorithms by providing configurable suites of both nominal and off-nominal test cases to validate the algorithms utilizing actual subsystem models. The intent is to validate the algorithms and substantiate them with performance baselines for each of the vehicle subsystems in an independent platform exterior to flight software test processes. In any software development process there is inherent risk in the interpretation and implementation of concepts into software through requirements and test processes. Risk reduction is addressed by working with other organizations such as S

  15. The subsurface geology of Río Tinto: material examined during a simulated Mars drilling mission for the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Schutt, John; Sutter, Brad; Heldmann, Jennifer L; Bell, Mary Sue; Battler, Melissa; Cannon, Howard; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    The 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) project conducted a simulated 1-month Mars drilling mission in the Río Tinto district, Spain. Dry robotic drilling, core sampling, and biological and geological analytical technologies were collectively tested for the first time for potential use on Mars. Drilling and subsurface sampling and analytical technologies are being explored for Mars because the subsurface is the most likely place to find life on Mars. The objectives of this work are to describe drilling, sampling, and analytical procedures; present the geological analysis of core and borehole material; and examine lessons learned from the drilling simulation. Drilling occurred at an undisclosed location, causing the science team to rely only on mission data for geological and biological interpretations. Core and borehole imaging was used for micromorphological analysis of rock, targeting rock for biological analysis, and making decisions regarding the next day's drilling operations. Drilling reached 606 cm depth into poorly consolidated gossan that allowed only 35% of core recovery and contributed to borehole wall failure during drilling. Core material containing any indication of biology was sampled and analyzed in more detail for its confirmation. Despite the poorly consolidated nature of the subsurface gossan, dry drilling was able to retrieve useful core material for geological and biological analysis. Lessons learned from this drilling simulation can guide the development of dry drilling and subsurface geological and biological analytical technologies for future Mars drilling missions.

  16. Asteroid Kinetic Impactor Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesley, Steven

    2015-08-01

    Asteroid impact missions can be carried out as a relatively low-cost add-ons to most asteroid rendezvous missions and such impact experiments have tremendous potential, both scientifically and in the arena of planetary defense.The science returns from an impactor demonstration begin with the documentation of the global effects of the impact, such as changes in orbit and rotation state, the creation and dissipation of an ejecta plume and debris disk, and morphological changes across the body due to the transmission of seismic waves, which might induce landslides and toppling of boulders, etc. At a local level, an inspection of the impact crater and ejecta blanket reveals critical material strength information, as well as spectral differences between the surface and subsurface material.From the planetary defense perspective, an impact demonstration will prove humankind’s capacity to alter the orbit of a potentially threatening asteroid. This technological leap comes in two parts. First, terminal guidance systems that can deliver an impactor with small errors relative to the ~100-200 meter size of a likely impactor have yet to be demonstrated in a deep space environment. Second, the response of an asteroid to such an impact is only understood theoretically due to the potentially significant dependence on the momentum carried by escaping ejecta, which would tend to enhance the deflection by tens of percent and perhaps as much as a factor of a few. A lack of validated understanding of momentum enhancement is a significant obstacle in properly sizing a real-world impactor deflection mission.This presentation will describe the drivers for asteroid impact demonstrations and cover the range of such concepts, starting with ESA’s pioneering Don Quijote mission concept and leading to a brief description of concepts under study at the present time, including the OSIRIS-REx/ISIS, BASiX/KIX and AIM/DART (AIDA) concepts.

  17. Validation of assistive technology on psychoactive substances for visually impaired people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Fernanda Jorge; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag

    2017-12-26

    To validate the assistive technology "Drugs: reflection for prevention" to be used with visually impaired people. Quantitative and quasi-experimental study, contrasting knowledge before and after the use of the assistive technology with 140 visually impaired people in institutes and associations for people with visual impairment. A questionnaire with identification data, a pre-test, a post-test and a questionnaire to assess the assistive technology were applied. Data were described through means and standard deviations, and analyses included the McNemar test, the exact binomial distribution test, and the intraclass correlation coefficient. Participants were male (65.7%), 84.3% were blind, aged 37.1 years on average and with schooling of 10.1 years on average. There were more correct answers in the post-test (p visually impaired people about psychoactive substance abuse. Implications for rehabilitation Created new tool for prevention substance abuse that can be accessed easily. Improved information about substance psychoactive for users of the assistive technology. Improved quality of life for its users.

  18. Data validation platform for the sophisticated monitoring and communication of the energy technology sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flamos, Alexandros; Doukas, Haris; Psarras, J. [Management and Decision Support Systems Lab (EPU-NTUA), School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9, Iroon Polytechniou str., 15780, Athens (Greece)

    2010-05-15

    It has very often been stated that the difficulty and complexity of achieving green energy targets in the European Union (EU) will require strengthened measures to promote implementation of New Energy Technologies, Energy End-use Efficiency, as well as measures to support the related energy Research and Technology Development (RTD). Often forgotten is the fact, that most of all, a European-wide co-ordinated forum is needed to continuously develop and sophisticate the monitoring and methodology results, bringing together specialised statisticians, energy researchers and experts on energy socio-economics. The aim of this paper is to present the Scientific Reference System (SRS) Scorecard; a data validation platform for the sophisticated monitoring and communication of the energy technology sector. In this respect, the concept of the SRS scorecard system will be laid out, the parameters and the scoring criteria will be explained as well as the assessment system so as to provide the interested reader with the basis needed to understand the technology evaluation examples provided, as well as its critical analysis. (author)

  19. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Pre-Service Teachers' Technology Acceptance: A Validation Study Using Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Timothy; Tan, Lynde

    2012-01-01

    This study applies the theory of planned behavior (TPB), a theory that is commonly used in commercial settings, to the educational context to explain pre-service teachers' technology acceptance. It is also interested in examining its validity when used for this purpose. It has found evidence that the TPB is a valid model to explain pre-service…

  20. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Tracy L.; Rollo, Megan E.; Williams, Rebecca; Wood, Lisa G.; Garg, Manohar L.; Jensen, Megan; Collins, Clare E.

    2017-01-01

    Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design (n = 9). Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records (n = 7), 24-h diet recalls (n = 5), food frequency questionnaires (n = 3) and diet quality assessed by dietary screener (n = 1). Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority (n = 11) automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers (r = 0.09 to 0.25). This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers. PMID:28216582

  1. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Tracy L; Rollo, Megan E; Williams, Rebecca; Wood, Lisa G; Garg, Manohar L; Jensen, Megan; Collins, Clare E

    2017-02-14

    Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design ( n = 9). Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records ( n = 7), 24-h diet recalls ( n = 5), food frequency questionnaires ( n = 3) and diet quality assessed by dietary screener ( n = 1). Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority ( n = 11) automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers ( r = 0.09 to 0.25). This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers.

  2. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L. Burrows

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design (n = 9. Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records (n = 7, 24-h diet recalls (n = 5, food frequency questionnaires (n = 3 and diet quality assessed by dietary screener (n = 1. Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority (n = 11 automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers (r = 0.09 to 0.25. This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers.

  3. Optical Sensors for Planetary Radiant Energy (OSPREy): Calibration and Validation of Current and Next-Generation NASA Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Stanford B.; Bernhard, Germar; Morrow, John H.; Booth, Charles R.; Comer, Thomas; Lind, Randall N.; Quang, Vi

    2012-01-01

    A principal objective of the Optical Sensors for Planetary Radiance Energy (OSPREy) activity is to establish an above-water radiometer system as a lower-cost alternative to existing in-water systems for the collection of ground-truth observations. The goal is to be able to make high-quality measurements satisfying the accuracy requirements for the vicarious calibration and algorithm validation of next-generation satellites that make ocean color and atmospheric measurements. This means the measurements will have a documented uncertainty satisfying the established performance metrics for producing climate-quality data records. The OSPREy approach is based on enhancing commercial-off-the-shelf fixed-wavelength and hyperspectral sensors to create hybridspectral instruments with an improved accuracy and spectral resolution, as well as a dynamic range permitting sea, Sun, sky, and Moon observations. Greater spectral diversity in the ultraviolet (UV) will be exploited to separate the living and nonliving components of marine ecosystems; UV bands will also be used to flag and improve atmospheric correction algorithms in the presence of absorbing aerosols. The short-wave infrared (SWIR) is expected to improve atmospheric correction, because the ocean is radiometrically blacker at these wavelengths. This report describes the development of the sensors, including unique capabilities like three-axis polarimetry; the documented uncertainty will be presented in a subsequent report.

  4. Validating a measure to assess factors that affect assistive technology use by students with disabilities in elementary and secondary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapf, Susan A; Scherer, Marcia J; Baxter, Mary F; H Rintala, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the predictive validity, internal consistency and clinical utility of the Matching Assistive Technology to Child & Augmentative Communication Evaluation Simplified (MATCH-ACES) assessment. Twenty-three assistive technology team evaluators assessed 35 children using the MATCH-ACES assessment. This quasi-experimental study examined the internal consistency, predictive validity and clinical utility of the MATCH-ACES assessment. The MATCH-ACES assessment predisposition scales had good internal consistency across all three scales. A significant relationship was found between (a) high student perseverance and need for assistive technology and (b) high teacher comfort and interest in technology use (p = (0).002). Study results indicate that the MATCH-ACES assessment has good internal consistency and validity. Predisposition characteristics of student and teacher combined can influence the level of assistive technology use; therefore, assistive technology teams should assess predisposition factors of the user when recommending assistive technology. Implications for Rehabilitation Educational and medical professionals should be educated on evidence-based assistive technology assessments. Personal experience and psychosocial factors can influence the outcome use of assistive technology. Assistive technology assessments must include an intervention plan for assistive technology service delivery to measure effective outcome use.

  5. Using smartphone technology to deliver a virtual pedestrian environment: usability and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Severson, Joan; He, Yefei

    2017-09-01

    Various programs effectively teach children to cross streets more safely, but all are labor- and cost-intensive. Recent developments in mobile phone technology offer opportunity to deliver virtual reality pedestrian environments to mobile smartphone platforms. Such an environment may offer a cost- and labor-effective strategy to teach children to cross streets safely. This study evaluated usability, feasibility, and validity of a smartphone-based virtual pedestrian environment. A total of 68 adults completed 12 virtual crossings within each of two virtual pedestrian environments, one delivered by smartphone and the other a semi-immersive kiosk virtual environment. Participants completed self-report measures of perceived realism and simulator sickness experienced in each virtual environment, plus self-reported demographic and personality characteristics. All participants followed system instructions and used the smartphone-based virtual environment without difficulty. No significant simulator sickness was reported or observed. Users rated the smartphone virtual environment as highly realistic. Convergent validity was detected, with many aspects of pedestrian behavior in the smartphone-based virtual environment matching behavior in the kiosk virtual environment. Anticipated correlations between personality and kiosk virtual reality pedestrian behavior emerged for the smartphone-based system. A smartphone-based virtual environment can be usable and valid. Future research should develop and evaluate such a training system.

  6. Validation of the Leap Motion Controller using markered motion capture technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeragliuolo, Anna H; Hill, N Jeremy; Disla, Luis; Putrino, David

    2016-06-14

    The Leap Motion Controller (LMC) is a low-cost, markerless motion capture device that tracks hand, wrist and forearm position. Integration of this technology into healthcare applications has begun to occur rapidly, making validation of the LMC׳s data output an important research goal. Here, we perform a detailed evaluation of the kinematic data output from the LMC, and validate this output against gold-standard, markered motion capture technology. We instructed subjects to perform three clinically-relevant wrist (flexion/extension, radial/ulnar deviation) and forearm (pronation/supination) movements. The movements were simultaneously tracked using both the LMC and a marker-based motion capture system from Motion Analysis Corporation (MAC). Adjusting for known inconsistencies in the LMC sampling frequency, we compared simultaneously acquired LMC and MAC data by performing Pearson׳s correlation (r) and root mean square error (RMSE). Wrist flexion/extension and radial/ulnar deviation showed good overall agreement (r=0.95; RMSE=11.6°, and r=0.92; RMSE=12.4°, respectively) with the MAC system. However, when tracking forearm pronation/supination, there were serious inconsistencies in reported joint angles (r=0.79; RMSE=38.4°). Hand posture significantly influenced the quality of wrist deviation (P<0.005) and forearm supination/pronation (P<0.001), but not wrist flexion/extension (P=0.29). We conclude that the LMC is capable of providing data that are clinically meaningful for wrist flexion/extension, and perhaps wrist deviation. It cannot yet return clinically meaningful data for measuring forearm pronation/supination. Future studies should continue to validate the LMC as updated versions of their software are developed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The LISA Pathfinder Mission: Sub-picometer Interferometry in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutsky, Jacob; LISA Pathfinder Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The European Space Agency’s LISA Pathfinder was a mission built to demonstrate the technologies essential to implement a space-based gravitational wave observatory sensitive in the milli-Hertz frequency band. ESA recently selected the LISA mission as such a future observatory, scheduled to launch in the early 2030s. LISA Pathfinder launched in late 2015 and concluded its final extended mission in July 2017, during which time it placed the two test masses into free fall and successfully measured the relative acceleration between them to a sensitivity that validates a number of critical technologies for LISA. These include drag-free control of the test masses, low noise microNewton thrusters to control the spacecraft, and sub-picometer-level laser metrology in space. The mission also served as a sensitive probe of the environmenal conditions in which LISA will operate. This poster summarizes the recent analysis results, with an eye towards the implications for the LISA mission.

  8. Communication received from the Permanent Mission of New Zealand regarding guidelines for the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Director General has received a note verbale dated 22 December 1994 from the Permanent Mission of New Zealand to the International Atomic Energy Agency providing information on the nuclear export policies and practices of the Government of New Zealand

  9. Communication received from the permanent mission of the Argentine Republic regarding guidelines for the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    On 11 May 1994, the Director General received a note verbale from the Permanent Mission of Argentina to the International Atomic Energy Agency relating to the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology. The purpose of this note verbale is to provide further information on nuclear export policies and practices of the Government of the Argentine Republic. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of the note verbale, the text of the note verbale is annexed hereto

  10. Impact of Recent Trends in Information and Communication Technology on the Validity of the Construct Information Literacy in Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.J. (Jos) van Helvoort

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is a reflective discussion on the validity of the construct Information Literacy in the perspective of changing information and communication technologies. The research question that will be answered is: what is the impact of technological developments on the relevance of

  11. Development and Validation of the Computer Technology Literacy Self-Assessment Scale for Taiwanese Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chiung-Sui

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the development and validation of an instrument to identify various dimensions of the computer technology literacy self-assessment scale (CTLS) for elementary school students. The instrument included five CTLS dimensions (subscales): the technology operation skills, the computer usages concepts, the…

  12. Construction and validation of a tool to Assess the Use of Light Technologies at Intensive Care Units 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Pabliane Matias Lordelo; Campos, Maria Pontes de Aguiar; Rodrigues, Eliana Ofélia Llapa; Gois, Cristiane Franca Lisboa; Barreto, Ikaro Daniel de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to construct and validate a tool to assess the use of light technologies by the nursing team at Intensive Care Units. Method: methodological study in which the tool was elaborated by means of the psychometric method for construction based on the categorization of health technologies by Merhy and Franco, from the National Humanization Policy, using the Nursing Intervention Classification taxonomy to categorize the domains of the tool. Agreement Percentages and Content Validity Indices were used for the purpose of validation. Results: The result of the application of the Interrater Agreement Percentage exceeded the recommended level of 80%, highlighting the relevance for the proposed theme in the assessment, with an agreement rate of 99%. Conclusion: the tool was validated with four domains (Bond, Autonomy, Welcoming and Management) and nineteen items that assess the use of light technologies at Intensive Care Units. PMID:27992025

  13. Mission oriented R and D and the advancement of technology: The imapct of NASA contributions, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, M. D.; Kelley, J. A.; Elliott, L.

    1972-01-01

    The contributions of NASA to the advancement of major developments in several selected fields of technology are identified. Subjects discussed are: (1) developing new knowledge, (2) developing new technology, (3) demonstrating the application of new technology for the first time, (4) augmenting existing technology, (5) applying existing technology in a new context, (6) stimulating industry to acquire or develop new technology, (7) identifying problem areas requiring further research, and (8) creating new markets.

  14. Robotic Mission Simulation Tool, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies proposes a software tool to predict robotic mission performance and support supervision of robotic missions even when environments and...

  15. Measuring technology self efficacy: reliability and construct validity of a modified computer self efficacy scale in a clinical rehabilitation setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laver, Kate; George, Stacey; Ratcliffe, Julie; Crotty, Maria

    2012-01-01

    To describe a modification of the computer self efficacy scale for use in clinical settings and to report on the modified scale's reliability and construct validity. The computer self efficacy scale was modified to make it applicable for clinical settings (for use with older people or people with disabilities using everyday technologies). The modified scale was piloted, then tested with patients in an Australian inpatient rehabilitation setting (n = 88) to determine the internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Construct validity was assessed by correlation of the scale with age and technology use. Factor analysis using principal components analysis was undertaken to identify important constructs within the scale. The modified computer self efficacy scale demonstrated high internal consistency with a standardised alpha coefficient of 0.94. Two constructs within the scale were apparent; using the technology alone, and using the technology with the support of others. Scores on the scale were correlated with age and frequency of use of some technologies thereby supporting construct validity. The modified computer self efficacy scale has demonstrated reliability and construct validity for measuring the self efficacy of older people or people with disabilities when using everyday technologies. This tool has the potential to assist clinicians in identifying older patients who may be more open to using new technologies to maintain independence.

  16. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    be made approximately a year before launch, but there is a strong recommendation from the scientific and resource utilization communities that the ARM target be volatile and organic rich. Three of the proposed candidates are carbonaceous NEAs. Specifically, the ARRM reference target, 2008 EV5 is a carbonaceous (C-type) asteroid that has been remotely characterized (via visual, infrared, and radar wavelengths), is believed to be hydrated, and provides significant return mass (boulders on the surface greater than 20 metric tons). It also has an advantage in that the orbital dynamics of the NEA fall within the current baseline mission timeline of five years between the return of the robotic vehicle to cis-lunar space and the launch of the ARCM. Therefore, NEA 2008 EV5 provides a valid target that can be used to help with formulation and development efforts. Input to ARM and Future Activities: In the fall of 2015, NASA chartered the Formulation Assessment and Support Team (FAST) to provide timely inputs for mission requirement formulation in support of the ARRM Requirements Closure Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) in mid-December of 2015, to assist in developing an initial list of potential mission investigations, and to provide input on potential hosted payloads and partnerships. Expertise from the science, engineering, and technology communities was represented in exploring lines of inquiry related to key characteristics of the ARRM reference target asteroid (2008 EV5) for engineering design purposes. As of December 2015, the FAST has been formally retired and the FAST final report was publically released in February of 2016. However, plans have been made to stand up an ARM Investigation Team (IT), which is expected be formed in 2016. The multidisciplinary IT will assist with the definition and support of mission investigations, support ARM program-level and project-level functions, and support NASA Head-quarters interactions with the science and technology

  17. Mission operations management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Redefining the approach and philosophy that operations management uses to define, develop, and implement space missions will be a central element in achieving high efficiency mission operations for the future. The goal of a cost effective space operations program cannot be realized if the attitudes and methodologies we currently employ to plan, develop, and manage space missions do not change. A management philosophy that is in synch with the environment in terms of budget, technology, and science objectives must be developed. Changing our basic perception of mission operations will require a shift in the way we view the mission. This requires a transition from current practices of viewing the mission as a unique end product, to a 'mission development concept' built on the visualization of the end-to-end mission. To achieve this change we must define realistic mission success criteria and develop pragmatic approaches to achieve our goals. Custom mission development for all but the largest and most unique programs is not practical in the current budget environment, and we simply do not have the resources to implement all of our planned science programs. We need to shift our management focus to allow us the opportunity make use of methodologies and approaches which are based on common building blocks that can be utilized in the space, ground, and mission unique segments of all missions.

  18. A systematic review of the characteristics and validity of monitoring technologies to assess Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Catarina; Domingos, Josefa; Cunha, Guilherme; Santos, Ana T; Fernandes, Ricardo M; Abreu, Daisy; Gonçalves, Nilza; Matthews, Helen; Isaacs, Tom; Duffen, Joy; Al-Jawad, Ahmed; Larsen, Frank; Serrano, Artur; Weber, Peter; Thoms, Andrea; Sollinger, Stefan; Graessner, Holm; Maetzler, Walter; Ferreira, Joaquim J

    2016-03-12

    There is growing interest in having objective assessment of health-related outcomes using technology-based devices that provide unbiased measurements which can be used in clinical practice and scientific research. Many studies have investigated the clinical manifestations of Parkinson's disease using such devices. However, clinimetric properties and clinical validation vary among the different devices. Given such heterogeneity, we sought to perform a systematic review in order to (i) list, (ii) compare and (iii) classify technological-based devices used to measure motor function in individuals with Parkinson's disease into three groups, namely wearable, non-wearable and hybrid devices. A systematic literature search of the PubMed database resulted in the inclusion of 168 studies. These studies were grouped based on the type of device used. For each device we reviewed availability, use, reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change. The devices were then classified as (i) 'recommended', (ii) 'suggested' or (iii) 'listed' based on the following criteria: (1) used in the assessment of Parkinson's disease (yes/no), (2) used in published studies by people other than the developers (yes/no), and (3) successful clinimetric testing (yes/no). Seventy-three devices were identified, 22 were wearable, 38 were non-wearable, and 13 were hybrid devices. In accordance with our classification method, 9 devices were 'recommended', 34 devices were 'suggested', and 30 devices were classified as 'listed'. Within the wearable devices group, the Mobility Lab sensors from Ambulatory Parkinson's Disease Monitoring (APDM), Physilog®, StepWatch 3, TriTrac RT3 Triaxial accelerometer, McRoberts DynaPort, and Axivity (AX3) were classified as 'recommended'. Within the non-wearable devices group, the Nintendo Wii Balance Board and GAITRite® gait analysis system were classified as 'recommended'. Within the hybrid devices group only the Kinesia® system was classified as 'recommended'.

  19. SmallSats, Iodine Propulsion Technology, Applications to Low-Cost Lunar Missions, and the Iodine Satellite (iSAT) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Closing Remarks: ?(1) SmallSats hold significant potential for future low cost high value missions; (2) Propulsion remains a key limiting capability for SmallSats that Iodine can address: High ISP * Density for volume constrained spacecraft; Indefinite quiescence, unpressurized and non-hazardous as a secondary payload; (3) Iodine enables MicroSat and SmallSat maneuverability: Enables transfer into high value orbits, constellation deployment and deorbit; (4) Iodine may enable a new class of planetary and exploration class missions: Enables GTO launched secondary spacecraft to transit to the moon, asteroids, and other interplanetary destinations for approximately 150 million dollars full life cycle cost including the launch; (5) ESPA based OTVs are also volume constrained and a shift from xenon to iodine can significantly increase the transfer vehicle change in volume capability including transfers from GTO to a range of Lunar Orbits; (6) The iSAT project is a fast pace high value iodine Hall technology demonstration mission: Partnership with NASA GRC and NASA MSFC with industry partner - Busek; (7) The iSAT mission is an approved project with PDR in November of 2014 and is targeting a flight opportunity in FY17.

  20. Development and validation of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) based instructional material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustiani, Ineu; Widodo, Ari; Suwarma, Irma Rahma

    2017-05-01

    This study is intended to examine the development and validation of simple machines instructional material that developed based on Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) framework that provides guidance to help students learn and practice for real life and enable individuals to use knowledge and skills they need to be an informed citizen. Sample of this study consist of one class of 8th grader at a junior secondary school in Bandung, Indonesia. To measure student learning, a pre-test and post-test were given before and after implementation of the STEM based instructional material. In addition, a questionnaire of readability was given to examine the clarity and difficulty level of each page of instructional material. A questionnaire of students' response towards instructional material given to students and teachers at the end of instructional material reading session to measure layout aspects, content aspects and utility aspects of instructional material for being used in the junior secondary school classroom setting. The results show that readability aspect and students' response towards STEM based instructional material of STEM based instructional material is categorized as very high. Pretest and posttest responses revealed that students retained significant amounts information upon completion of the STEM instructional material. Student overall learning gain is 0.67 which is categorized as moderate. In summary, STEM based instructional material that was developed is valid enough to be used as educational materials necessary for conducting effective STEM education.

  1. The role of the women's foreign missions in Serbia during the Great War: Transfer of medicalized technologies and the birth of biopolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Dušan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is theoretically and methodologically limited to one narrow aspect of the First World War - to the role of the women's foreign missions. The case of Serbia in this context is of particular importance not just in terms of the weight, dramatic and tragic consequences of the Great war, but because the international engagement of women in foreign missions served as a latent social mechanism - the transfer of medicalized political and social technologies and practices that at the time did not existed. In this paper we analyze the conditions and causes of the changes in social roles of women that were related to their activism, professionalism, mobilization and engagement in medical and humanitarian missions during the Great War. This historical event was also the turning point in regard to the social participation of women as well as the milestone for the changes in the culture of gender relations. The Second front as the front of missionary struggle with epidemics, contagious diseases, the sick, the wounded, poverty, hunger, refugees and orphans took more than a third of total war victims in Serbia. We conclude that social events on this front, especially with the help of the medical campaign, represented the transfer of medicalized technologies of control, medication and prevention over the population. Those were the strategic needs of Serbia at the time but also the foundations of the new biopolitics.

  2. Validation and Assessment of a Technology Familiarity Score in Patients Attending a Symptomatic Breast Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, C; Kelly, J; Lehane, E A; Livingstone, V; Cotter, B; Butt, A; Kelly, L; Corrigan, M A

    2015-10-01

    New media technologies (computers, mobile phones and the internet) have the potential to transform the healthcare information needs of patients with breast disease (Ferlay et al. in Eur J Cancer 49:1374-1403, 2013). However, patients' current level of use and their willingness to accept new media for education and communication remain unknown. This was a single-centre clinic-based prospective cross-sectional study. A previously developed instrument was modified, validated and tested on patients attending a symptomatic breast clinic. The instrument was evaluated on 200 symptomatic breast patients. The commonest outlets for education were staff (95 %), leaflets (69 %) and websites (59 %). Websites are more likely to be consulted by younger patients (new to the clinic were more likely to find text messaging and emailing useful (n messages, apps, websites and email useful (p messaging, apps, websites and email as useful media (p new media technology use among breast patients is expanding as expected along generational trends. As such its' further integration into healthcare systems can potentially ameliorate patient education and communication.

  3. Development and Validation of Web-Based Courseware for Junior Secondary School Basic Technology Students in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Amosa Isiaka Gambari

    2018-01-01

    This research aimed to develop and validate a web-based courseware for junior secondary school basic technology students in Nigeria. In this study, a mixed method quantitative pilot study design with qualitative components was used to test and ascertain the ease of development and validation of the web-based courseware. Dick and Carey instructional system design model was adopted for developing the courseware. Convenience sampling technique was used in selecting the three content, computer an...

  4. Integration of electronic nose technology with spirometry: validation of a new approach for exhaled breath analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, R; Brinkman, P; van der Schee, M P; Fens, N; Dijkers, E; Bootsma, S K; de Jongh, F H C; Sterk, P J

    2015-10-15

    New 'omics'-technologies have the potential to better define airway disease in terms of pathophysiological and clinical phenotyping. The integration of electronic nose (eNose) technology with existing diagnostic tests, such as routine spirometry, can bring this technology to 'point-of-care'. We aimed to determine and optimize the technical performance and diagnostic accuracy of exhaled breath analysis linked to routine spirometry. Exhaled breath was collected in triplicate in healthy subjects by an eNose (SpiroNose) based on five identical metal oxide semiconductor sensor arrays (three arrays monitoring exhaled breath and two reference arrays monitoring ambient air) at the rear end of a pneumotachograph. First, the influence of flow, volume, humidity, temperature, environment, etc, was assessed. Secondly, a two-centre case-control study was performed using diagnostic and monitoring visits in day-to-day clinical care in patients with a (differential) diagnosis of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or lung cancer. Breathprint analysis involved signal processing, environment correction based on alveolar gradients and statistics based on principal component (PC) analysis, followed by discriminant analysis (Matlab2014/SPSS20). Expiratory flow showed a significant linear correlation with raw sensor deflections (R(2)  =  0.84) in 60 healthy subjects (age 43  ±  11 years). No correlation was found between sensor readings and exhaled volume, humidity and temperature. Exhaled data after environment correction were highly reproducible for each sensor array (Cohen's Kappa 0.81-0.94). Thirty-seven asthmatics (41  ±  14.2 years), 31 COPD patients (66  ±  8.4 years), 31 lung cancer patients (63  ±  10.8 years) and 45 healthy controls (41  ±  12.5 years) entered the cross-sectional study. SpiroNose could adequately distinguish between controls, asthma, COPD and lung cancer patients with cross-validation values

  5. Shuttle Imaging Radar-C mission operations - Technology test bed for Earth Observing System synthetic aperture radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, J. P.; Collins, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    The mission operations for the Space Radar Lab (SRL), particularly in the areas of real-time replanning and science activity coordination, are presented. The two main components of SRL are the Shuttle Imaging Radar-C and the X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar. The Earth Observing System SAR will be a multispectral, multipolarization radar satellite that will provide information over an entire decade, permitting scientists to monitor large-scale changes in the earth's environment over a long period of time.

  6. Communication from the Permanent Mission of Australia to the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received a Note Verbale from the Permanent Mission of Australia, dated 31 August 2001, providing information on the export policies and practices of the Government of Australia with respect to the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of the Note Verbale, the text of the Note Verbale is attached. The attachment referenced in the Note Verbale was issued previously as INFCIRC/254/Rev. 5/Part 1

  7. Development of the SEAtrace{trademark} barrier verification and validation technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, S.D.; Lowry, W.; Walsh, R.; Rao, D.V. [Science and Engineering Associates, Santa Fe, NM (United States); Williams, C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Underground Storage Technology Dept.

    1998-08-01

    In-situ barrier emplacement techniques and materials for the containment of high-risk contaminants in soils are currently being developed by the Department of Energy (DOE). Because of their relatively high cost, the barriers are intended to be used in cases where the risk is too great to remove the contaminants, the contaminants are too difficult to remove with current technologies, or the potential movement of the contaminants to the water table is so high that immediate action needs to be taken to reduce health risks. Assessing the integrity of the barrier once it is emplaced, and during its anticipated life, is a very difficult but necessary requirement. Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., (SEA) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) have developed a quantitative subsurface barrier assessment system using gaseous tracers in support of the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area barrier technology program. Called SEAtrace{trademark}, this system integrates an autonomous, multi-point soil vapor sampling and analysis system with a global optimization modeling methodology to locate and size barrier breaches in real time. The methodology for the global optimization code was completed and a prototype code written using simplifying assumptions. Preliminary modeling work to validate the code assumptions were performed using the T2VOC numerical code. A multi-point field sampling system was built to take soil gas samples and analyze for tracer gas concentration. The tracer concentration histories were used in the global optimization code to locate and size barrier breaches. SEAtrace{trademark} was consistently able to detect and locate leaks, even under very adverse conditions. The system was able to locate the leak to within 0.75 m of the actual value, and was able to determine the size of the leak to within 0.15 m.

  8. Target validation for FCV technology development in Japan from energy competition point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ENDO Eiichi

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work is to validate the technical targets in the governmental hydrogen energy road-map of Japan by analyzing market penetration of fuel cell vehicle(FCV)s and effects of fuel price and carbon tax on it from technology competition point of view. In this analysis, an energy system model of Japan based on MARKAL is used. The results of the analysis show that hydrogen FCVs could not have cost-competitiveness until 2030 without carbon tax, including the governmental actual plan of carbon tax. However, as the carbon tax rate increases, instead of conventional vehicles including gasoline hybrid electric vehicle, hydrogen FCVs penetrate to the market earlier and more. By assuming higher fuel price and severer carbon tax rate, market share of hydrogen FCVs approaches to the governmental goal. This suggests that cheaper vehicle cost and/or hydrogen price than those targeted in the road-map is required. At the same time, achievement of the technical targets in the road-map also allows to attain the market penetration target of hydrogen FCVs in some possible conditions. (authors)

  9. Gas mission; Mission gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This preliminary report analyses the desirable evolutions of gas transport tariffing and examines some questions relative to the opening of competition on the French gas market. The report is made of two documents: a synthesis of the previous report with some recommendations about the tariffing of gas transport, about the modalities of network access to third parties, and about the dissociation between transport and trade book-keeping activities. The second document is the progress report about the opening of the French gas market. The first part presents the European problem of competition in the gas supply and its consequences on the opening and operation of the French gas market. The second part presents some partial syntheses about each topic of the mission letter of the Ministry of Economics, Finances and Industry: future evolution of network access tariffs, critical analysis of contractual documents for gas transport and delivery, examination of auxiliary services linked with the access to the network (modulation, balancing, conversion), consideration about the processing of network congestions and denied accesses, analysis of the metering dissociation between the integrated activities of gas operators. Some documents are attached in appendixes: the mission letter from July 9, 2001, the detailed analysis of the new temporary tariffs of GdF and CFM, the offer of methane terminals access to third parties, the compatibility of a nodal tariffing with the presence of three transport operators (GdF, CFM and GSO), the contract-type for GdF supply, and the contract-type for GdF connection. (J.S.)

  10. Validating the Technology Acceptance Model in the Context of the Laboratory Information System-Electronic Health Record Interface System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Cesar A.

    2014-01-01

    This study represents a research validating the efficacy of Davis' Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by pairing it with the Organizational Change Readiness Theory (OCRT) to develop another extension to the TAM, using the medical Laboratory Information Systems (LIS)--Electronic Health Records (EHR) interface as the medium. The TAM posits that it is…

  11. Conceptualization of Approaches and Thought Processes Emerging in Validating of Model in Mathematical Modeling in Technology Aided Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidiroglu, Çaglar Naci; Bukova Güzel, Esra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to conceptualize the approaches displayed for validation of model and thought processes provided in mathematical modeling process performed in technology-aided learning environment. The participants of this grounded theory study were nineteen secondary school mathematics student teachers. The data gathered from the…

  12. Development of the recombinase-based in vivo expression technology in Streptococcus thermophilus and validation using the lactose operon promoter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junjua, M.; Galia, W.; Gaci, N.; Uriot, O.; Genay, M.; Bachmann, H.; Kleerebezem, M.; Dary, A.; Roussel, Y.

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To construct and validate the recombinase-based in vivo expression technology (R-IVET) tool in Streptococcus thermophilus (ST). METHODS AND RESULTS: The R-IVET system we constructed in the LMD-9 strain includes the plasmid pULNcreB allowing transcriptional fusion with the gene of the

  13. Development of the recombinase-based in vivo expression technology in Streptococcus thermophilus and validation using the lactose operon promoter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junjua, M.; Galia, W.; Gaci, N.; Uriot, O.; Genay, M.; Bachmann, H.; Kleerebezem, M.; Dary, A.; Roussel, Y.

    2014-01-01


    Aims

    To construct and validate the recombinase-based in vivo expression technology (R-IVET) tool in Streptococcus thermophilus (ST).

    Methods and Results

    The R-IVET system we constructed in the LMD-9 strain includes the plasmid pULNcreB allowing transcriptional fusion

  14. Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) 2010 Science Operations: Operational Approaches and Lessons Learned for Managing Science during Human Planetary Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Dean; Adams, Byron; Archer, Doug; Baiden, Greg; Brown, Adrian; Carey, William; Cohen, Barbara; Condit, Chris; Evans, Cindy; Fortezzo, Corey; hide

    2012-01-01

    Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is a multi-year series of hardware and operations tests carried out annually in the high desert of Arizona on the San Francisco Volcanic Field. These activities are designed to exercise planetary surface hardware and operations in conditions where long-distance, multi-day roving is achievable, and they allow NASA to evaluate different mission concepts and approaches in an environment less costly and more forgiving than space.The results from the RATS tests allows election of potential operational approaches to planetary surface exploration prior to making commitments to specific flight and mission hardware development. In previous RATS operations, the Science Support Room has operated largely in an advisory role, an approach that was driven by the need to provide a loose science mission framework that would underpin the engineering tests. However, the extensive nature of the traverse operations for 2010 expanded the role of the science operations and tested specific operational approaches. Science mission operations approaches from the Apollo and Mars-Phoenix missions were merged to become the baseline for this test. Six days of traverse operations were conducted during each week of the 2-week test, with three traverse days each week conducted with voice and data communications continuously available, and three traverse days conducted with only two 1-hour communications periods per day. Within this framework, the team evaluated integrated science operations management using real-time, tactical science operations to oversee daily crew activities, and strategic level evaluations of science data and daily traverse results during a post-traverse planning shift. During continuous communications, both tactical and strategic teams were employed. On days when communications were reduced to only two communications periods per day, only a strategic team was employed. The Science Operations Team found that, if

  15. Some Dynamic Aspects of Photogrammetry Missions Performed by “PW-ZOOM” – The UAV of Warsaw University of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodzewicz Mirosław

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analyses of the flights carried out the by the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV named PW-ZOOM used to perform a photogrammetric mission and monitoring of fauna in Antarctic areas. The analyses focus on the deviations of the optical axis of the photo-camera which occurred during photogrammetric flights carried out on the same route but during several Antarctic expeditions performed in subsequent years (2014 and 2015. The results were subjected to correlation tests with weather conditions (wind speed and variability. The basis for these analyses are the data from the onboard signal recorder integrated with an autopilot.

  16. Validation of morphing wing methodologies on an unmanned aerial system and a wind tunnel technology demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Oliviu Sugar

    To increase the aerodynamic efficiency of aircraft, in order to reduce the fuel consumption, a novel morphing wing concept has been developed. It consists in replacing a part of the wing upper and lower surfaces with a flexible skin whose shape can be modified using an actuation system placed inside the wing structure. Numerical studies in two and three dimensions were performed in order to determine the gains the morphing system achieves for the case of an Unmanned Aerial System and for a morphing technology demonstrator based on the wing tip of a transport aircraft. To obtain the optimal wing skin shapes in function of the flight condition, different global optimization algorithms were implemented, such as the Genetic Algorithm and the Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm. To reduce calculation times, a hybrid method was created by coupling the population-based algorithm with a fast, gradient-based local search method. Validations were performed with commercial state-of-the-art optimization tools and demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed methods. For accurately determining the aerodynamic characteristics of the morphing wing, two new methods were developed, a nonlinear lifting line method and a nonlinear vortex lattice method. Both use strip analysis of the span-wise wing section to account for the airfoil shape modifications induced by the flexible skin, and can provide accurate results for the wing drag coefficient. The methods do not require the generation of a complex mesh around the wing and are suitable for coupling with optimization algorithms due to the computational time several orders of magnitude smaller than traditional three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics methods. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional optimizations of the Unmanned Aerial System wing equipped with the morphing skin were performed, with the objective of improving its performances for an extended range of flight conditions. The chordwise positions of the internal actuators

  17. Mission oriented R and D and the advancement of technology: The impact of NASA contributions, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, M. D.; Kelley, J. A.; Elliott, L.

    1972-01-01

    NASA contributions to the advancement of major developments in twelve selected fields of technology are presented. The twelve fields of technology discussed are: (1) cryogenics, (2) electrochemical energy conversion and storage, (3) high-temperature ceramics, (4) high-temperature metals (5) integrated circuits, (6) internal gas dynamics (7) materials machining and forming, (8) materials joining, (9) microwave systems, (10) nondestructive testing, (11) simulation, and (12) telemetry. These field were selected on the basis of both NASA and nonaerospace interest and activity.

  18. Validation of Align Technology's Treat III digital model superimposition tool and its case application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R J; Kuo, E; Choi, W

    2003-01-01

    An assessment of the efficacy and accuracy of three-dimensional computer-based predictive orthodontic systems requires that new methods of treatment analysis be developed and validated. Invisalign is a digitally fabricated, removable orthodontic appliance that has been commercially available since 1999. It is made up of two main components: 1) computerized graphical images of a patient's teeth moving through a series of stages from initial to final position; 2) pressure formed clear plastic appliances made from stereolithography models of the images in the first component. The manufacturer of Invisalign (Align Technology, Inc.) has created a software tool that can be used to superimpose digital models to evaluate treatment outcomes in three dimensions. Using this software, research was conducted to determine if a single operator could repeatedly superimpose two identical digital models using 12 selected points from the palatal rugae over 10 trials. The tool was then applied to one subject's orthodontic treatment. EXPERIMENT VARIABLES: The output from this tool includes rotations, translations and morphological changes. For this study, translations and rotations were chosen. The results showed that the digital superimposition was reproducible, and that after multiple trials, the superimposition error decreased. The average error in x, y, z, Rx, Ry and Rz after 10 trials was determined to approach approximately 0.2 mm in translation and less than 1 degree in rotation, with a standard deviation of 0.15 mm and 0.7 mm, respectively. The treatment outcome from a single Invisalign-treated bicuspid extraction case was also evaluated tooth-by-tooth in x, y, z, Rx, Ry and Rz dimensions. Using the palate, as a stable reference seemed to work well and the evaluation of the single case showed that many, but not all, of the planned movements occurred.

  19. The development of advanced instrumentation and control technology -The development of verification and validation technology for instrumentation and control in NPPs-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kee Choon; Ham, Chang Sik; Lee, Byung Sun; Kim, Jung Taek; Park, Won Man; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Jang Soo; Um, Heung Sub; Kim, Jang Yul; Ryoo, Chan Hoh; Joo, Jae Yoon; Song, Soon Ja [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    We collected and analyzed the domestic/international codes, standards and guidelines to develop high reliable software verification and validation methodology which is satisfied to our real situation. The three major parts of work are performed that is the construction of the frame for high reliable software development environment, establishment of high reliable software development methodology and study for the basic technology related to safety-critical software. These three parts are tightly coupled each other to achieve self-reliable software verification and validation technology for digital I and C in NPPs. The configuration of hardware and software are partly performed using requirements which is developed in first stage for the development of I and C test facility. In hardware part, expanded interface using VXI bus and driving software is completed. The main program for math, modelling and supervisor program for instructions are developed. 27 figs, 22 tabs, 69 refs. (Author).

  20. Exploration Life Support Critical Questions for Future Human Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwert, Michael K.; Barta, Daniel J.; McQuillan, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Exploration Life Support (ELS) is a current project under NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. The ELS Project plans, coordinates and implements the development of advanced life support technologies for human exploration missions in space. Recent work has focused on closed loop atmosphere and water systems for long duration missions, including habitats and pressurized rovers. But, what are the critical questions facing life support system developers for these and other future human missions? This paper explores those questions and how progress in the development of ELS technologies can help answer them. The ELS Project includes the following Elements: Atmosphere Revitalization Systems, Water Recovery Systems, Waste Management Systems, Habitation Engineering, Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis, and Validation and Testing, which includes the Sub-Elements Flight Experiments and Integrated Testing. Systems engineering analysis by ELS seeks to optimize overall mission architectures by considering all the internal and external interfaces of the life support system and the potential for reduction or reuse of commodities. In particular, various sources and sinks of water and oxygen are considered along with the implications on loop closure and the resulting launch mass requirements. Systems analysis will be validated through the data gathered from integrated testing, which will demonstrate the interfaces of a closed loop life support system. By applying a systematic process for defining, sorting and answering critical life support questions, the ELS project is preparing for a variety of future human space missions

  1. Rhodopsin in plasma from patients with diabetic retinopathy - development and validation of digital ELISA by Single Molecule Array (Simoa) technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Eva Rabing Brix; Olsen, Dorte Aalund; Christensen, Henry

    2017-01-01

    was therefore to develop and validate a Rhodopsin assay by employing digital ELISA technology, and to investigate whether Rhodopsin concentrations in diabetes patients with DR are elevated compared with diabetes patients without DR. METHODS: A digital ELISA assay using a Simoa HD-1 Analyzer (Quanterix...... patients with or without DR, but significantly increased number of DR patients having concentrations above the LOD. CONCLUSION: We developed and validated a digital ELISA method for quantification of Rhodopsin in plasma but found no statistically significant difference in the plasma concentration...

  2. The History of Winter Thermochron Mission: Utilizing An Innovative Technology to Promote Science Research in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, K. J.

    2007-12-01

    The goal of the Thermochron Mission, an embedded strand of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center History of Winter (HOW) Program, is to engage participants actively in research methods while focusing on the observation and analysis of changes in ambient temperature. Through experiential learning opportunities, peer coaching, and expert instruction sessions, participants including in-service teachers, pre-service teachers, and ultimately their K-12 students, enhance their understanding of the processes and methods of science research. The initial engagement and exploration training has been provided to participants in the History of Winter (HOW) workshop since 2004. Supportive web-based multimedia resources utilized through modeling within the training program are available to participants online for continued later use within a classroom setting. The Thermochron Mission echoes the learning cycle embedded within the History of Winter Program. Emphasized are critical aspects of inquiry investigation including active and immersive experiences, opportunities for comparison and analysis of data, application of findings to new situations, and the communication of information in an appropriate forum. As a result, past HOW participants have utilized the Thermochron in settings as different as environmental studies through an outdoor education center and the study of acid mine drainage and its effect on local stream. In 2007, we collaborated with the FINNMARK 2007 and the GO NORTH expeditions, providing snow collection information and Thermochrons to gather a continual temperature record during these remote expeditions to the Arctic region. Both FINNMARK2007 and the POLAR Husky GoNorth 2007 dog sled expeditions took a complement of Thermochrons with multimedia instructions and the tools and protocols of the Global Snowflake Network (GSN), an International Polar Year project of the History of Winter Program, to measure temperature and the shape and characteristics of snow

  3. Venus 2000 Mission Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, David; Marr, Greg; Vaughn, Frank; Houghton, Martin B.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the Discovery Program, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has solicited proposals for inter-planetary research to conduct solar system exploration science investigations. A mission, called Venus 2000 (V2k), has been proposed for exploration of the Venus Atmosphere. This is NASAs first voyage to Venus to investigate key science objectives since Magellan and will be launched in summer 2002. In keeping with discovery program requirements to reduce total mission cost and utilize new technology, V2k mission design and control will focus on the use of innovative and proven trajectory analysis programs and control systems provided by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC).

  4. Validating the Technology Proficiency Self-Assessment Questionnaire for 21st Century Learning (TPSA C-21)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald

    2017-01-01

    Accurately measuring levels of technology proficiency in current and future classroom teachers are an important first step toward enhancing comfort level and confidence in integrating technology into the educational environment. The original Technology Proficiency Self-Assessment (TPSA) survey has maintained respectable psychometric properties for…

  5. Education Technology Standards Self-Efficacy (ETSSE) Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Omer; Yazar, Taha

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: The educational technology standards for teachers set by the International Society for Technology in Education (the ISTE Standards-T) represent an important framework for using technology effectively in teaching and learning processes. These standards are widely used by universities, educational institutions, and schools. The…

  6. Integration of electronic nose technology with spirometry: validation of a new approach for exhaled breath analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R.; Brinkman, P.; van der Schee, M. P.; Fens, N.; Dijkers, E.; Bootsma, S. K.; de Jongh, F. H. C.; Sterk, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    New 'omics'-technologies have the potential to better define airway disease in terms of pathophysiological and clinical phenotyping. The integration of electronic nose (eNose) technology with existing diagnostic tests, such as routine spirometry, can bring this technology to 'point-of-care'. We

  7. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions: Overview of the Technology Maturation Efforts Funded by NASA's Game Changing Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Robin A.; Arnold, James O.; Gasch, Matthew J.; Stackpoole, Margaret M.; Fan, Wendy; Szalai, Christine E.; Wercinski, Paul F.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2012-01-01

    The Office of Chief Technologist (OCT), NASA has identified the need for research and technology development in part from NASA's Strategic Goal 3.3 of the NASA Strategic Plan to develop and demonstrate the critical technologies that will make NASA's exploration, science, and discovery missions more affordable and more capable. Furthermore, the Game Changing Development Program (GCDP) is a primary avenue to achieve the Agency's 2011 strategic goal to "Create the innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic future." In addition, recently released "NASA space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities," by the National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academy of Sciences stresses the need for NASA to invest in the very near term in specific EDL technologies. The report points out the following challenges (Page 2-38 of the pre-publication copy released on February 1, 2012): Mass to Surface: Develop the ability to deliver more payload to the destination. NASA's future missions will require ever-greater mass delivery capability in order to place scientifically significant instrument packages on distant bodies of interest, to facilitate sample returns from bodies of interest, and to enable human exploration of planets such as Mars. As the maximum mass that can be delivered to an entry interface is fixed for a given launch system and trajectory design, the mass delivered to the surface will require reduction in spacecraft structural mass; more efficient, lighter thermal protection systems; more efficient lighter propulsion systems; and lighter, more efficient deceleration systems. Surface Access: Increase the ability to land at a variety of planetary locales and at a variety of times. Access to specific sites can be achieved via landing at a specific location (s) or transit from a single designated landing location, but it is currently infeasible to transit long distances and through extremely rugged terrain, requiring landing close to the

  8. Mission Design of the Dutch-Chinese FAST Micro-Satellite Mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maessen, D.C.; Guo, J.; Gill, E.; Laan, E.; Moon, S.; Zheng, G.T.

    2009-01-01

    The paper treats the mission design for the Dutch-Chinese FAST (Formation for Atmospheric Science and Technology demonstration) mission. The space segment of the 2.5 year mission consists out of two formation flying micro-satellites. During the mission, new technologies will be demonstrated and,

  9. Validity of Business Strategy as Driver in Technology Management – A Critical Discussion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben; Østergaard, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    in connecting technological design tightly to the business strategy. The purpose of this paper is to advance a research agenda, where long-term orientation of technology is connected to the necessary tools for obtaining insight in assessing adequacy, reliability and quality of business strategy and evaluation......Frameworks for technological development are increasingly requiring that technology must be developed in accordance with the corporate business strategy. It is an interesting tendency that technological development should reflect and interact with central change processes of the enterprise...... of alternatives. Alternatives are related to business environments, compliance, infrastructure, knowledge, skills and societal factors....

  10. Achievement Emotions in Technology Enhanced Learning: Development and Validation of Self-Report Instruments in the Italian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Raccanello

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The increased use of technology within the educational field gives rise to the need for developing valid instruments to measure key constructs associated with performance. We present some self-report instruments developed and/or validated in the Italian context that could be used to assess achievement emotions and correlates, within the theoretical framework of Pekrun’s control-value model. First, we propose some data related to the construction of two instruments developed to assess ten achievement emotions: the Brief Achievement Emotions Questionnaire, BR-AEQ, used with college students, and the Graduated Achievement Emotions Set, GR-AES, used with primary school students. Second, we describe some data concerning the validation within the Italian context of two instruments assessing achievement goals as antecedents of achievement emotions: the Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised, AGQ-R, and its more recent version based on the 3 X 2 achievement goal model.

  11. An Evolutionary Approach to Small Satellite Technology Development: A Status Report on SSTL Platforms, Payload and Missions

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Jeffrey

    1995-01-01

    Between 1989 and 1995, 10 micro satellites were constructed using SSTL' s 50 kg modular micro satellite design. Eight are presently in orbit, while two are scheduled for launches during summer 1995. Each satellite has incorporated design enhancements, which can be grouped roughly into six distinct design generations. This rapid design and test cycle, combined with in-orbit operational experience, has fostered rapid advancement of technology within the basic modular design. When measured betwe...

  12. [Translation and validation of the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology (QUEST 2.0) into Portuguese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Karla Emanuelle Cotias; Gois Júnior, Miburge Bolívar; Sá, Katia Nunes

    2014-01-01

    To translate and validate the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology (QUEST 2.0) into Brazilian Portuguese. Certified translators translated and back-translated Quest. Content validity (CVI) was determined by 5 experts and, after the final version of B-Quest, a pre-test was applied to users of manual wheelchairs, walkers and crutches. The psychometric properties were tested to assure the validity of items and the reliability and stability of the scale. Data were obtained from 121 users of the above-mentioned devices. Our study showed a CVI of 91.66% and a satisfactory factor analysis referent to the two-dimensional structure of the instrument that ensured the representativeness of the items. The Cron-bach's alpha of the items device, service and total score of B-Quest were 0.862, 0.717 and 0.826, respectively. Test-retest stability conducted after a time interval of 2 months was analyzed using Spearman's correlation test, which showed high correlation (ρ >0.6) for most items. The study suggests that the B-Quest is a reliable, representative, and valid instrument to measure the satisfaction of users of assistive technology in Brazil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Mission analysis report for the Hanford Tanks Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaus, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    This mission analysis report for the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) supports the Hanford Site's Single-Shell Tank (SST) Waste Retrieval Program in its commitment to remove waste from the SSTs for treatment and final closure of the tanks. The results of the HTI will support the US Department of Energy's (DOE) privatization of retrieval efforts. This report addresses the HTI problem statement: Alternative technologies to past practice sluicing (PPS) have not yet been demonstrated to remove the hard heel from a sluiced tank or to remove waste from a leaking SST. Nor have performance-based criteria for cleanout and closure been demonstrated to the degree necessary to validate them as technically and economically achievable. This report also defines the mission statement and mission boundaries; the known interfaces, both programmatic and project; the mission level requirements; the test and evaluation methodology; and measures of success

  14. Education and Public Outreach for the PICASSO-CENA Satellite-Based Research Mission: K-12 Students Use Sun Photometers to Assist Scientists in Validating Atmospheric Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D. Q.

    2001-05-01

    Hampton University, a historically black university, is leading the Education and Public Outreach (EPO) portion of the PICASSO-CENA satellite-based research mission. Currently scheduled for launch in 2004, PICASSO-CENA will use LIDAR (LIght Detection and Ranging), to study earth's atmosphere. The PICASSO-CENA Outreach program works with scientists, teachers, and students to better understand the effects of clouds and aerosols on earth's atmosphere. This program actively involves students nationwide in NASA research by having them obtain sun photometer measurements from their schools and homes for comparison with data collected by the PICASSO-CENA mission. Students collect data from their classroom ground observations and report the data via the Internet. Scientists will use the data from the PICASSO-CENA research and the student ground-truthing observations to improve predications about climatic change. The two-band passive remote sensing sun photometer is designed for student use as a stand alone instrument to study atmospheric turbidity or in conjunction with satellite data to provide ground-truthing. The instrument will collect measurements of column optical depth from the ground level. These measurements will not only give the students an appreciation for atmospheric turbidity, but will also provide quantitative correlative information to the PICASSO-CENA mission on ground-level optical depth. Student data obtained in this manner will be sufficiently accurate for scientists to use as ground truthing. Thus, students will have the opportunity to be involved with a NASA satellite-based research mission.

  15. Innovations in mission architectures for exploration beyond low Earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, D. R.; Joosten, B. J.; Lo, M. W.; Ford, K. M.; Hansen, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    Through the application of advanced technologies and mission concepts, architectures for missions beyond Earth orbit have been dramatically simplified. These concepts enable a stepping stone approach to science driven; technology enabled human and robotic exploration. Numbers and masses of vehicles required are greatly reduced, yet the pursuit of a broader range of science objectives is enabled. The scope of human missions considered range from the assembly and maintenance of large aperture telescopes for emplacement at the Sun-Earth libration point L2, to human missions to asteroids, the moon and Mars. The vehicle designs are developed for proof of concept, to validate mission approaches and understand the value of new technologies. The stepping stone approach employs an incremental buildup of capabilities, which allows for future decision points on exploration objectives. It enables testing of technologies to achieve greater reliability and understanding of costs for the next steps in exploration. c2003 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Towards Developing an Industry-Validated Food Technology Curriculum in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Paul; McNamara, Kevin; Deering, Amanda; Oliver, Haley; Rahimi, Mirwais; Faisal, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Afghanistan remains an agrarian country with most analyses holding food production and processing as key to recovery. To date, however, there are no public or private higher education departments focused on food technology. To bridge this gap, Herat University initiated a new academic department conferring BS degrees in food technology. Models for…

  17. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK): The Development and Validation of an Assessment Instrument for Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Denise A.; Baran, Evrim; Thompson, Ann D.; Mishra, Punya; Koehler, Matthew J.; Shin, Tae S.

    2009-01-01

    Based in Shulman's idea of Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) has emerged as a useful frame for describing and understanding the goals for technology use in preservice teacher education. This paper addresses the need for a survey instrument designed to assess TPACK for preservice teachers. The paper…

  18. Global Positioning System Technology (GPS for Psychological Research: A Test of Convergent and Nomological Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro eWolf

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the convergent and nomological validity of a GPS-based measure of daily activity, operationalized as Number of Places Visited (NPV. Relations among the GPS-based measure and two self-report measures of NPV, as well as relations among NPV and two factors made up of self-reported individual differences were examined. The first factor was composed of variables related to an Active Lifestyle (AL (e.g. positive affect, extraversion… and the second factor was composed of variables related to a Sedentary Lifestyle (SL (e.g. depression, neuroticism…. NPV was measured over a four-day period. This timeframe was made up of two week and two weekend days. A bi-variate analysis established one level of convergent validity and a Split-Plot GLM examined convergent validity, nomological validity, and alternative hypotheses related to constraints on activity throughout the week simultaneously. The first analysis revealed significant correlations among NPV measures- weekday, weekend, and the entire four day blocks, supporting the convergent validity of the Diary-, Google Maps-, and GPS-NPV measures. Results from the second analysis, indicating non-significant mean differences in NPV regardless of method, also support this conclusion. We also found that AL is a statistically significant predictor of NPV no matter how NPV was measured. We did not find a statically significant relation among NPV and SL. These results permit us to infer that the GPS-based NPV measure has convergent and nomological validity.

  19. NEEMO 7 undersea mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirsk, Robert; Williams, David; Anvari, Mehran

    2007-02-01

    The NEEMO 7 mission was the seventh in a series of NASA-coordinated missions utilizing the Aquarius undersea habitat in Florida as a human space mission analog. The primary research focus of this mission was to evaluate telementoring and telerobotic surgery technologies as potential means to deliver medical care to astronauts during spaceflight. The NEEMO 7 crewmembers received minimal pre-mission training to perform selected medical and surgical procedures. These procedures included: (1) use of a portable ultrasound to locate and measure abdominal organs and structures in a crewmember subject; (2) use of a portable ultrasound to insert a small needle and drain into a fluid-filled cystic cavity in a simulated patient; (3) surgical repair of two arteries in a simulated patient; (4) cystoscopy and use of a ureteral basket to remove a renal stone in a simulated patient; and (5) laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a simulated patient. During the actual mission, the crewmembers performed the procedures without or with telementoring and telerobotic assistance from experts located in Hamilton, Ontario. The results of the NEEMO 7 medical experiments demonstrated that telehealth interventions rely heavily on a robust broadband, high data rate telecommunication link; that certain interventional procedures can be performed adequately by minimally trained individuals with telementoring assistance; and that prior clinical experience does not always correlate with better procedural performance. As space missions become longer in duration and take place further from Earth, enhancement of medical care capability and expertise will be required. The kinds of medical technologies demonstrated during the NEEMO 7 mission may play a significant role in enabling the human exploration of space beyond low earth orbit, particularly to destinations such as the Moon and Mars.

  20. INTEGRITY -- Integrated Human Exploration Mission Simulation Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, D.; Tri, T.; Daues, K.

    It is proposed to develop a high -fidelity ground facil ity to carry out long-duration human exploration mission simulations. These would not be merely computer simulations - they would in fact comprise a series of actual missions that just happen to stay on earth. These missions would include all elements of an actual mission, using actual technologies that would be used for the real mission. These missions would also include such elements as extravehicular activities, robotic systems, telepresence and teleoperation, surface drilling technology--all using a simulated planetary landscape. A sequence of missions would be defined that get progressively longer and more robust, perhaps a series of five or six missions over a span of 10 to 15 years ranging in durat ion from 180 days up to 1000 days. This high-fidelity ground facility would operate hand-in-hand with a host of other terrestrial analog sites such as the Antarctic, Haughton Crater, and the Arizona desert. Of course, all of these analog mission simulations will be conducted here on earth in 1-g, and NASA will still need the Shuttle and ISS to carry out all the microgravity and hypogravity science experiments and technology validations. The proposed missions would have sufficient definition such that definitive requirements could be derived from them to serve as direction for all the program elements of the mission. Additionally, specific milestones would be established for the "launch" date of each mission so that R&D programs would have both good requirements and solid milestones from which to build their implementation plans. Mission aspects that could not be directly incorporated into the ground facility would be simulated via software. New management techniques would be developed for evaluation in this ground test facility program. These new techniques would have embedded metrics which would allow them to be continuously evaluated and adjusted so that by the time the sequence of missions is completed

  1. Fostering creativity in product and service development: validation in the domain of information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Liang; Proctor, Robert W; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2011-06-01

    This research is intended to empirically validate a general model of creative product and service development proposed in the literature. A current research gap inspired construction of a conceptual model to capture fundamental phases and pertinent facilitating metacognitive strategies in the creative design process. The model also depicts the mechanism by which design creativity affects consumer behavior. The validity and assets of this model have not yet been investigated. Four laboratory studies were conducted to demonstrate the value of the proposed cognitive phases and associated metacognitive strategies in the conceptual model. Realistic product and service design problems were used in creativity assessment to ensure ecological validity. Design creativity was enhanced by explicit problem analysis, whereby one formulates problems from different perspectives and at different levels of abstraction. Remote association in conceptual combination spawned more design creativity than did near association. Abstraction led to greater creativity in conducting conceptual expansion than did specificity, which induced mental fixation. Domain-specific knowledge and experience enhanced design creativity, indicating that design can be of a domain-specific nature. Design creativity added integrated value to products and services and positively influenced customer behavior. The validity and value of the proposed conceptual model is supported by empirical findings. The conceptual model of creative design could underpin future theory development. Propositions advanced in this article should provide insights and approaches to facilitate organizations pursuing product and service creativity to gain competitive advantage.

  2. Hot slumping glass technology for the grazing incidence optics of future missions with particular reference to IXO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigo, M.; Basso, S.; Bavdaz, M.; Conconi, P.; Citterio, O.; Civitani, M.; Friedrich, P.; Gallieni, D.; Guldimann, B.; Martelli, F.; Negri, R.; Pagano, G.; Pareschi, G.; Parodi, G.; Proserpio, L.; Salmaso, B.; Scaglione, F.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Terzi, L.; Tintori, M.; Vongehr, M.; Wille, E.; Winter, A.; Zambra, A.

    2010-07-01

    The mirrors of the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) consist of a large number of high quality segments delivering a spatial resolution better than 5 arcsec. A study concerning the slumping of thin glass foils for the IXO mirrors is under development in Europe, funded by ESA and led by the Brera Observatory. We are investigating two approaches, the "Direct" and "Indirect" slumping technologies, being respectively based on the use of convex and concave moulds. In the first case during the thermal cycle the optical surface of the glass is in direct contact with the mould surface, while in the second case it is the rear side of the foil which touches the master. Both approaches present pros and cons and aim of this study is also to make an assessment of both processes and to perform a trade-off between the two. The thin plates are made of D263glass produced by Schott. Each plate is 0.4 mm thick, with a reflecting area of 200 mm x 200 mm; the mould are made of Fused Silica. After the thermal cycle the slumped MPs are characterized to define their optical quality and microroughness. The adopted integration process foresees the bonding of the slumped foils to a rigid backplane by means of reinforcing ribs. During the bonding process the plates are constrained to stay in close contact to the surface of the master (i.e. the same mould used for the hot slumping process) by the application of a vacuum pump suction. In this way spring-back deformations and low frequency errors still present on the foil profile after slumping can be corrected. In this paper we present the preliminary results concerning achieved during the first part of the project.

  3. Mission from Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian; Eriksson, Eva; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a particular design method is propagated as a supplement to existing descriptive approaches to current practice studies especially suitable for gathering requirements for the design of children's technology. The Mission from Mars method was applied during the design of an electronic...

  4. KEEL for Mission Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-06

    Alternatives are balanced to achieve the best overall outcome. Then, once deployed and when things don’t go as expected, the mission aborts, is redefined...cognitive technology for application in automotive , industrial automation, medical, military, governmental, enterprise software and electronic gaming

  5. Communication of 29 April 1996 received from the Permanent Mission of the Russian Federation to the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding guidelines for the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The document contains the text of a note verbale dated 29 April 1996 received by the Director General of IAEA from the Permanent Mission of the Russian Federation which provides information on the export policies and practices of the Government of the Russian Federation with respect to transfer of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, material and related technology

  6. Communication from the Permanent Mission of the Russian Federation to the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding guidelines for transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Note Verbale received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Permanent Mission of the Russian Federation to the International Atomic Energy Agency providing information on the export policies and practices of the Government of the Russian Federation with respect to the export of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology

  7. Translation and validation of the parent-adolescent communication scale: technology for DST/HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubert, Fabiane do Amaral; Vieira, Neiva Francenely Cunha; Pinheiro, Patrícia Neyva da Costa; Oriá, Mônica Oliveira Batista; de Almeida, Paulo César; de Araújo, Thábyta Silva

    2013-01-01

    accomplishment of the transcultural adaptation of the Parent-adolescent Communication Scale, which evaluates the frequency of communication between parents and children concerning the subjects related to sex, condom, DST, HIV and pregnancy. Methodological research of quantitative approach, accomplished with 313 adolescent pupils of the feminine sex in the 14 to 18 year age group in Fortaleza-CE. The content validity was carried through by means of the initial translation, back translation, pre-final version and final version, being analyzed by a committee of specialists; the reliability was verified by the Cronbach's Alpha and ascertained by testing the hypotheses and test-retest within five weeks. The scale was applied via computer in the online modality in the period November/2010 to January/2011. The version of the instrument in Portuguese presented an Alpha of 0.86 regarding the validity of the structure, was partially verified since the testing of the hypotheses of the contracted group was not confirmed. The version of the instrument adapted for Portuguese is considered valid and reliable in the study sample.

  8. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Naasz, Bo; Cichy, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a robotic mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, and redirect it into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA’s plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is organizing an ARM Investigation Team, which is being preceded by the Formulation Assessment and Support Team. These teams will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. An overview of robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, will be provided along with a discussion of the potential opportunities associated with the mission.

  9. 78 FR 23472 - Amendments to Existing Validated End-User Authorizations: CSMC Technologies Corporation in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... Corporation in the People's Republic of China (PRC) AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION... Technologies Corporation (CSMC) in the People's Republic of China (PRC). Specifically, BIS amends Supplement No... comment are not required under the APA or by any other law, the analytical requirements of the Regulatory...

  10. Validation of tissue microarray technology in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, Judith; van Hillegersberg, Richard; van Diest, Paul J.; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.; Borel Rinkes, Inne H. M.; ten Kate, Fiebo J. W.

    2008-01-01

    Tissue microarray (TMA) technology has been developed to facilitate high-throughput immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization analysis of tissues by inserting small tissue biopsy cores into a single paraffin block. Several studies have revealed novel prognostic biomarkers in esophageal squamous

  11. A new application and experimental validation of moulding technology for ferrite magnet assisted synchronous reluctance machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qian; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a new application of moulding technology to the installation of ferrite magnet material into the rotor flux barriers of Ferrite Magnet Assisted Synchronous Reluctance Machine (FASynRM). The feasibility of this application with respect to manufacturing process and motor...

  12. Validation of smart sensor technologies for instrument calibration reduction in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.; Mitchell, D.W.; Petersen, K.M.; Shell, C.S.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary results of a research and development project on the validation of new techniques for on-line testing of calibration drift of process instrumentation channels in nuclear power plants. These techniques generally involve a computer-based data acquisition and data analysis system to trend the output of a large number of instrument channels and identify the channels that have drifted out of tolerance. This helps limit the calibration effort to those channels which need the calibration, as opposed to the current nuclear industry practice of calibrating essentially all the safety-related instrument channels at every refueling outage

  13. Validation of smart sensor technologies for instrument calibration reduction in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemian, H M; Mitchell, D W; Petersen, K M; Shell, C S [Analysis and Measurement Services Corp., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary results of a research and development project on the validation of new techniques for on-line testing of calibration drift of process instrumentation channels in nuclear power plants. These techniques generally involve a computer-based data acquisition and data analysis system to trend the output of a large number of instrument channels and identify the channels that have drifted out of tolerance. This helps limit the calibration effort to those channels which need the calibration, as opposed to the current nuclear industry practice of calibrating essentially all the safety-related instrument channels at every refueling outage.

  14. Green Propellant Infusion Mission Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The mission is architected as a collaboration of NASA, Industry, and Air Force partners with the objective to advance the technology for propulsion components using...

  15. A Distributed Science Mission Testbed

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The technology required for distributed spacecraft missions (DSM) is currently hamstrung by the lack of a realistic six-degree-of-freedom (DOF) testing platform.  A...

  16. Telepresence for Deep Space Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Incorporating telepresence technologies into deep space mission operations can give the crew and ground personnel the impression that they are in a location at time...

  17. The OICETS mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jono, Takashi; Arai, Katsuyoshi

    2017-11-01

    The Optical Inter-orbit Communications Engineering Test Satellite (OICETS) was successfully launched on 23th August 2005 and thrown into a circular orbit at the altitude of 610 km. The main mission is to demonstrate the free-space inter satellite laser communications with the cooperation of the Advanced Relay and Technology Mission (ARTEMIS) geostationary satellite developed by the European Space Agency. This paper presents the overview of the OICETS and laser terminal, a history of international cooperation between Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and ESA and typical results of the inter-orbit laser communication experiment carried out with ARTEMIS.

  18. CFD Modelling and Validation of Mixing in a Model Single-Use-Technology Bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Maltby, Richard; Chew, Yong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Single-use-technologies (SUT) are a category of disposable bioprocessing components which have increased in popularity in the biopharmaceutical industry in recent years [1]. Stirred single use bioreactors use a polymeric bag supported by a rigid metal frame. The bag is disposed of and replaced after use, removing the need for energy-intensive and time consuming cleaning and sterilisation in place, as well as improving the flexibility of the production facility [2]. They are currently applied ...

  19. The Validity of an Extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) for Assessing the Acceptability of Autonomous Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Roestad, Viktor Olai Stokvik

    2016-01-01

    The study explored an extended Acceptance Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) for the purpose of developing a reliable tool for measuring potential user’s acceptance of autonomous ships. Correlation analysis was conducted to see if the 8 variables of the extended TAM model co vary, and regression analysis to further explain the nature of the relationships. The study reinforced the notion of strong relationships between the original constructs in TAM. Results also showed that trus...

  20. Development and validation of a septoplasty training model using 3-dimensional printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlReefi, Mahmoud A; Nguyen, Lily H P; Mongeau, Luc G; Haq, Bassam Ul; Boyanapalli, Siddharth; Hafeez, Nauman; Cegarra-Escolano, Francois; Tewfik, Marc A

    2017-04-01

    Providing alternative training modalities may improve trainees' ability to perform septoplasty. Three-dimensional printing has been shown to be a powerful tool in surgical training. The objectives of this study were to explain the development of our 3-dimensional (3D) printed septoplasty training model, to assess its face and content validity, and to present evidence supporting its ability to distinguish between levels of surgical proficiency. Imaging data of a patient with a nasal septal deviation was selected for printing. Printing materials reproducing the mechanical properties of human tissues were selected based on literature review and prototype testing. Eight expert rhinologists, 6 senior residents, and 6 junior residents performed endoscopic septoplasties on the model and completed a postsimulation survey. Performance metrics in quality (final product analysis), efficiency (time), and safety (eg, perforation length, nares damage) were recorded and analyzed in a study-blind manner. The model was judged to be anatomically correct and the steps performed realistic, with scores of 4.05 ± 0.82 and 4.2 ± 1, respectively, on a 5-point Likert scale. Ninety-two percent of residents desired the simulator to be integrated into their teaching curriculum. There was a significant difference (p materials mixed into the 3 relevant consistencies necessary to simulate septoplasty. Our findings provide evidence supporting the validity of the model. © 2016 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  1. Remotely Accessible Instrumented Monitoring of Global Development Programs: Technology Development and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fleming

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Many global development agencies self-report their project outcomes, often relying on subjective data that is collected sporadically and communicated months later. These reports often highlight successes and downplay challenges. Instrumented monitoring via distributed data collection platforms may provide crucial evidence to help inform the sector and public on the effectiveness of aid, and the on-going challenges. This paper presents the process of designing and validating an integrated sensor platform with cellular-to-internet reporting purposely targeted at global development programs. The integrated hardware platform has been applied to water, sanitation, energy and infrastructure interventions and validated through laboratory calibration and field observations. Presented here are two examples: a water pump and a household water filter, wherein field observations agreed with the data algorithm with a linear fit slope of between 0.91 and 1, and an r-squared of between 0.36 and 0.39, indicating a wide confidence interval but with low overall error (i.e., less than 0.5% in the case of structured field observations of water volume added to a household water filter and few false negatives or false positives.

  2. A brief history of Sandia National Laboratories and the Department of Energy%3CU%2B2019%3Es Office of Science : interplay between science, technology, and mission.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Myers, Samuel Maxwell, Jr.; Simmons, Jerry Alvon; McIlroy, Andrew; Vook, Frederick L.; Collis, Samuel Scott; Picraux, Samuel Thomas

    2011-08-01

    In 1957, Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) initiated its first programs in fundamental science, in support of its primary nuclear weapons mission. In 1974, Sandia initiated programs in fundamental science supported by the Department of Energy's Office of Science (DOE-SC). These latter programs have grown to the point where, today in 2011, support of Sandia's programs in fundamental science is dominated by that Office. In comparison with Sandia's programs in technology and mission applications, however, Sandia's programs in fundamental science are small. Hence, Sandia's fundamental science has been strongly influenced by close interactions with technology and mission applications. In many instances, these interactions have been of great mutual benefit, with synergies akin to a positive 'Casimir's spiral' of progress. In this report, we review the history of Sandia's fundamental science programs supported by the Office of Science. We present: (a) a technical and budgetary snapshot of Sandia's current programs supported by the various suboffices within DOE-SC; (b) statistics of highly-cited articles supported by DOE-SC; (c) four case studies (ion-solid interactions, combustion science, compound semiconductors, advanced computing) with an emphasis on mutually beneficial interactions between science, technology, and mission; and (d) appendices with key memos and reminiscences related to fundamental science at Sandia.

  3. What Forty Years of Research Says about the Impact of Technology on Learning: A Second-Order Meta-Analysis and Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamim, Rana M.; Bernard, Robert M.; Borokhovski, Eugene; Abrami, Philip C.; Schmid, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    This research study employs a second-order meta-analysis procedure to summarize 40 years of research activity addressing the question, does computer technology use affect student achievement in formal face-to-face classrooms as compared to classrooms that do not use technology? A study-level meta-analytic validation was also conducted for purposes…

  4. Unique Results and Lessons Learned From the TSS Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nobie H.

    2016-01-01

    The Tethered Satellite System (TSS) Space Shuttle missions, TSS-1 in 1993 and TSS-1R in 1996, were the height of space tether technology development in the U.S. Altogether, the investment made by NASA and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) over the thirteen-year period of the TSS Program totaled approximately $400M-exclusive of the two Space Shuttle flights provided by NASA. Since those two pioneering missions, there have been several smaller tether flight experiments, but interest in this promising technology has waned within NASA as well as the DOD agencies. This is curious in view of the unique capabilities of space tether systems and the fact that they have been flight validated in earth orbit and shown to perform better than the preflight dynamic or electrodynamic theoretical predictions. While it is true that the TSS-1 and TSS-1R missions experienced technical difficulties, the causes of these early developmental problems are now known to have been engineering design flaws, material selection, and procedural issues that (1) are unrelated to the basic viability of space tether technology, and (2) can be readily corrected. The purpose of this paper is to review the dynamic and electrodynamic fundamentals of space tethers and the unique capabilities they afford (that are enabling to certain types of space missions); to elucidate the nature, cause, and solution of the early developmental problems; and to provide an update on progress made in development of the technology.

  5. Solar Sail Models and Test Measurements Correspondence for Validation Requirements Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Anthony; Adams, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Solar sails are being developed as a mission-enabling technology in support of future NASA science missions. Current efforts have advanced solar sail technology sufficient to justify a flight validation program. A primary objective of this activity is to test and validate solar sail models that are currently under development so that they may be used with confidence in future science mission development (e.g., scalable to larger sails). Both system and model validation requirements must be defined early in the program to guide design cycles and to ensure that relevant and sufficient test data will be obtained to conduct model validation to the level required. A process of model identification, model input/output documentation, model sensitivity analyses, and test measurement correspondence is required so that decisions can be made to satisfy validation requirements within program constraints.

  6. A validation of technologies monitoring dairy cow feeding, ruminating, and lying behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, M R; Chang, Y M; Tsai, I C; Wadsworth, B A; Bewley, J M

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate commercially available precision dairy technologies against direct visual observations of feeding, rumination, and lying behaviors. Primiparous (n=24) and multiparous (n=24) lactating Holstein dairy cattle (mean ± standard deviation; 223.4±117.8 d in milk, producing 29.2±8.2kg of milk/d) were fitted with 6 different triaxial accelerometer technologies evaluating cow behaviors at or before freshening. The AfiAct Pedometer Plus (Afimilk, Kibbutz Afikim, Israel) was used to monitor lying time. The CowManager SensOor (Agis, Harmelen, Netherlands) monitored rumination and feeding time. The HOBO Data Logger (HOBO Pendant G Acceleration Data Logger, Onset Computer Corp., Pocasset, MA) monitored lying time. The CowAlert IceQube (IceRobotics Ltd., Edinburgh, Scotland) monitored lying time. The Smartbow (Smartbow GmbH, Jutogasse, Austria) monitored rumination time. The Track A Cow (ENGS, Rosh Pina, Israel) monitored lying time and time spent around feeding areas for the calculation of feeding time. Over 8 d, 6 cows per day were visually observed for feeding, rumination, and lying behaviors for 2 h after morning and evening milking. The time of day was recorded when each behavior began and ended. These times were used to generate the length of time behaviors were visually observed. Pearson correlations (r; calculated using the CORR procedure of SAS Version 9.3, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC), and concordance correlations (CCC; calculated using the epiR package of R version 3.1.0, R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria) evaluated association between visual observations and technology-recorded behaviors. Visually recorded feeding behaviors were moderately correlated with the CowManager SensOor (r=0.88, CCC=0.82) and Track A Cow (r=0.93, CCC=0.79) monitors. Visually recorded rumination behaviors were strongly correlated with the Smartbow (r=0.97, CCC=0.96), and weakly correlated with the CowManager SensOor (r=0

  7. Validation of next generation sequencing technologies in comparison to current diagnostic gold standards for BRAF, EGFR and KRAS mutational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCourt, Clare M; McArt, Darragh G; Mills, Ken; Catherwood, Mark A; Maxwell, Perry; Waugh, David J; Hamilton, Peter; O'Sullivan, Joe M; Salto-Tellez, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has the potential of becoming an important tool in clinical diagnosis and therapeutic decision-making in oncology owing to its enhanced sensitivity in DNA mutation detection, fast-turnaround of samples in comparison to current gold standard methods and the potential to sequence a large number of cancer-driving genes at the one time. We aim to test the diagnostic accuracy of current NGS technology in the analysis of mutations that represent current standard-of-care, and its reliability to generate concomitant information on other key genes in human oncogenesis. Thirteen clinical samples (8 lung adenocarcinomas, 3 colon carcinomas and 2 malignant melanomas) already genotyped for EGFR, KRAS and BRAF mutations by current standard-of-care methods (Sanger Sequencing and q-PCR), were analysed for detection of mutations in the same three genes using two NGS platforms and an additional 43 genes with one of these platforms. The results were analysed using closed platform-specific proprietary bioinformatics software as well as open third party applications. Our results indicate that the existing format of the NGS technology performed well in detecting the clinically relevant mutations stated above but may not be reliable for a broader unsupervised analysis of the wider genome in its current design. Our study represents a diagnostically lead validation of the major strengths and weaknesses of this technology before consideration for diagnostic use.

  8. Web Design for Space Operations: An Overview of the Challenges and New Technologies Used in Developing and Operating Web-Based Applications in Real-Time Operational Support Onboard the International Space Station, in Astronaut Mission Planning and Mission Control Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Operations Planning Team, Mission Control Centre and Mission Automation Support Network (MAS) have all evolved over the years to use commercial web-based technologies to create a configurable electronic infrastructure to manage the complex network of real-time planning, crew scheduling, resource and activity management as well as onboard document and procedure management required to co-ordinate ISS assembly, daily operations and mission support. While these Web technologies are classified as non-critical in nature, their use is part of an essential backbone of daily operations on the ISS and allows the crew to operate the ISS as a functioning science laboratory. The rapid evolution of the internet from 1998 (when ISS assembly began) to today, along with the nature of continuous manned operations in space, have presented a unique challenge in terms of software engineering and system development. In addition, the use of a wide array of competing internet technologies (including commercial technologies such as .NET and JAVA ) and the special requirements of having to support this network, both nationally among various control centres for International Partners (IPs), as well as onboard the station itself, have created special challenges for the MCC Web Tools Development Team, software engineers and flight controllers, who implement and maintain this system. This paper presents an overview of some of these operational challenges, and the evolving nature of the solutions and the future use of COTS based rich internet technologies in manned space flight operations. In particular this paper will focus on the use of Microsoft.s .NET API to develop Web-Based Operational tools, the use of XML based service oriented architectures (SOA) that needed to be customized to support Mission operations, the maintenance of a Microsoft IIS web server onboard the ISS, The OpsLan, functional-oriented Web Design with AJAX

  9. Sprint mechanics evaluation using inertial sensor-based technology: A laboratory validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setuain, I; Lecumberri, P; Ahtiainen, J P; Mero, A A; Häkkinen, K; Izquierdo, M

    2018-02-01

    Advances in micro-electromechanical systems have turned magnetic inertial measurement units (MIMUs) into a suitable tool for vertical jumping biomechanical evaluation. Thus, this study aimed to determine whether appropriate reliability and agreement reports could also be obtained when analyzing 20-m sprint mechanics. Four bouts of 20-m sprints were evaluated to determine whether the data provided by a MIMU placed at the lumbar spine could reliably assess sprint mechanics and to examine the validity of the MIMU sensor compared to force plate recordings. Maximal power (P 0 ), force (F 0 ), and velocity (V 0 ), as well as other mechanical determinants of sprint performance associated with the force-velocity, power-velocity, and ratio of forces-velocity, such as applied horizontal force loss (S fv ) and decrease in ratio of forces (D rf ), were calculated and compared between instrumentations. Extremely large-to-very large correlation levels between MIMU sensor-based sprint mechanics variables and force plate recordings were obtained (mean±SD, force plate vs MIMU; V 0, 8.61±0.85 vs 8.42±0.69; F 0 , 383±110 vs 391±103; P 0 , 873±246 vs 799±241; S fv, -44.6±12.7 vs -46.2±10.7), ranging from 0.88 to 0.94, except for D rf, which showed weak-to-moderate correlation level (r=.45; -6.32±1.08 vs -5.76±0.68). Step-averaged force values measured with both systems were highly correlated (r=.88), with a regression slope close to the identity (1.01). Bland and Altman graphical representation showed a no random distribution of measured force values. Finally, very large-to-extremely large retest correlation coefficients were found for the intertrial reliability of MIMU measurements of sprint performance variables (r value ranging from .72 to .96). Therefore, MIMUs showed appropriate validity and reliability values for 20-m sprint performance variables. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Point-of-care solution for osteoporosis management design, fabrication, and validation of new technology

    CERN Document Server

    Khashayar, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses the important clinical problem of accurately diagnosing osteoporosis, and analyzes how Bone Turnover Markers (BTMs) can improve osteoporosis detection. In her research, the author integrated microfluidic technology with electrochemical sensing to embody a reaction/detection chamber to measure serum levels of different biomarkers, creating a microfluidic proteomic platform that can easily be translated into a biomarker diagnostic. The Osteokit System, a result of the integration of electrochemical system and microfluidic chips, is a unique design that offers the potential for greater sensitivity. The implementation, feasibility, and specificity of the Osteokit platform is demonstrated in this book, which is appropriate for researchers working on bone biology and mechanics, as well as clinicians.

  11. Validity of VR Technology on the Smartphone for the Study of Wind Park Soundscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhong YU

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The virtual reality of the landscape environment supplies a high level of realism of the real environment, and may improve the public awareness and acceptance of wind park projects. The soundscape around wind parks could have a strong influence on the acceptance and annoyance of wind parks. To explore this VR technology on realism and subjective responses toward different soundscapes of ambient wind parks, three different types of virtual reality on the smartphone tests were performed: aural only, visual only, and aural–visual combined. In total, 21 aural and visual combinations were presented to 40 participants. The aural and visual information used were of near wind park settings and rural spaces. Perceived annoyance levels and realism of the wind park environment were measured. Results indicated that most simulations were rated with relatively strong realism. Perceived realism was strongly correlated with light, color, and vegetation of the simulation. Most wind park landscapes were enthusiastically accepted by the participants. The addition of aural information was found to have a strong impact on whether the participant was annoyed. Furthermore, evaluation of the soundscape on a multidimensional scale revealed the key components influencing the individual’s annoyance by wind parks were the factors of “calmness/relaxation” and “naturality/pleasantness”. “Diversity” of the soundscape might correlate with perceived realism. Finally, the dynamic aural–visual stimuli using virtual reality technology could improve the environmental assessment of the wind park landscapes, and thus, provide a more comprehensible scientific decision than conventional tools. In addition, this study could improve the participatory planning process for more acceptable wind park landscapes.

  12. Small Lunar Lander - A Near Term Precursor Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soppa, Uwe; Kyr, Peter; Bolz, Joerg; Bischof, Bernd

    In preparation of the Ministerial Conference in November 2008, the European Space Agency is currently developing a roadmap leading to the capability to sustain long term planetary exploration missions and manned missions to Moon and Mars. Embedded in the cornerstone missions of today's European planetary exploration program, which are marked by the two robotic Exo-Mars and Mars Sample Return missions, ESA has defined a Small Lunar Landing Mission serving as a precursor mission allowing to validate key enabling technologies for planetary exploration, while providing a scientific platform to Lunar exploration at the same time. In reply for the call for missions fitting into the mission time frame ranging from 2014 through 2016, EADS Astrium has proposed a Lunar Lander which can be launched by a Soyuz Fregat, combined with a programmatic planning with the goal being ready to fly within the given time. In the meantime, a European lunar exploration program has gained momentum such that the goals of the proposed mission have been expanded towards the preparation of technologies required for the logistics of lunar exploration including transportation to the Moon and back, building and supporting large scale outposts up to permanently manned bases. These key functions are the capability of autonomous, soft and precision landing, the Rendez-Vous in lunar orbit, plus the provision of surface mobility for science and logistic operations. The paper will first present the concept of the proposed Lunar Landing mission, describe the technical design and programmatic planning, and put it into context of the Mars Sample Return mission. The spacecraft shall be launched into the GTO by a Soyuz Fregat from the Kourou Space Center, and travel to the Moon from there on direct, 5 days transfer trajectory. The spacecraft is a single stage lander with the capability to autonomously perform all operations from launcher separation down to the lunar surface. A lunar rover shall provide

  13. Administration of neuropsychological tests using interactive voice response technology in the elderly: validation and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delyana Ivanova Miller

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Interactive voice response systems (IVR are computer programs, which interact with people to provide a number of services from business to health care. We examined the ability of an IVR system to administer and score a verbal fluency task (fruits and the digit span forward and backward in 158 community dwelling people aged between 65 and 92 years of age (full scale IQ of 68 to 134. Only 6 participants could not complete all tasks mostly due to early technical problems in the study. Participants were also administered the WAIS-IV and WMS-IV sub-tests. The IVR system correctly recognized 90% of the fruits in the verbal fluency task and 93-95% of the number sequences in the digit span. The IVR system typically underestimated the performance of participants because of voice recognition errors. In the digit span, these errors led to the erroneous discontinuation of the test: however the correlation between IVR scoring and clinical scoring was still high (93-95%. The correlation between the IVR verbal fluency and the WAIS-IV Similarities sub-test was 0.31. The correlation between the IVR digit span forward and backward and the in-person administration was 0.46. We discuss how valid and useful IVR systems are for neuropsychological testing in the elderly.

  14. Administration of neuropsychological tests using interactive voice response technology in the elderly: validation and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Delyana Ivanova; Talbot, Vincent; Gagnon, Michèle; Messier, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Interactive voice response (IVR) systems are computer programs, which interact with people to provide a number of services from business to health care. We examined the ability of an IVR system to administer and score a verbal fluency task (fruits) and the digit span forward and backward in 158 community dwelling people aged between 65 and 92 years of age (full scale IQ of 68-134). Only six participants could not complete all tasks mostly due to early technical problems in the study. Participants were also administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale fourth edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale fourth edition subtests. The IVR system correctly recognized 90% of the fruits in the verbal fluency task and 93-95% of the number sequences in the digit span. The IVR system typically underestimated the performance of participants because of voice recognition errors. In the digit span, these errors led to the erroneous discontinuation of the test: however the correlation between IVR scoring and clinical scoring was still high (93-95%). The correlation between the IVR verbal fluency and the WAIS-IV Similarities subtest was 0.31. The correlation between the IVR digit span forward and backward and the in-person administration was 0.46. We discuss how valid and useful IVR systems are for neuropsychological testing in the elderly.

  15. Lunar Prospector Extended Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, David; Beckman, Mark; Lozier, David; Galal, Ken

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) selected Lunar Prospector (LP) as one of the discovery missions to conduct solar system exploration science investigations. The mission is NASA's first lunar voyage to investigate key science objectives since Apollo and was launched in January 1998. In keeping with discovery program requirements to reduce total mission cost and utilize new technology, Lunar Prospector's mission design and control focused on the use of innovative and proven trajectory analysis programs. As part of this effort, the Ames Research Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center have become partners in the Lunar Prospector trajectory team to provide the trajectory analysis, maneuver planning, orbit determination support, and product generation. At the end of 1998, Lunar Prospector completed its one-year primary mission at 100 km altitude above the lunar surface. On December 19, 1998, Lunar Prospector entered the extended mission phase. Initially the mission orbit was lowered from 100 km to a mean altitude of 40 km. The altitude of Lunar Prospector varied between 25 and 55 km above the mean lunar geode due to lunar potential effects. After one month, the lunar potential model was updated based upon the new tracking data at 40 km. On January 29, 1999, the altitude was lowered again to a mean altitude of 30 km. This altitude varies between 12 and 48 km above the mean lunar geode. Since the minimum altitude is very close to the mean geode, various approaches were employed to get accurate lunar surface elevation including Clementine altimetry and line of sight analysis. Based upon the best available terrain maps, Lunar Prospector will reach altitudes of 8 km above lunar mountains in the southern polar and far side regions. This extended mission phase of six months will enable LP to obtain science data up to 3 orders of magnitude better than at the mission orbit. This paper details the trajectory design and orbit determination planning and

  16. Cost Analysis In A Multi-Mission Operations Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, M.; Felton, L.; Bornas, N.; Botts, D.; Roth, K.; Ijames, G.; Montgomery, P.

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft control centers have evolved from dedicated, single-mission or single missiontype support to multi-mission, service-oriented support for operating a variety of mission types. At the same time, available money for projects is shrinking and competition for new missions is increasing. These factors drive the need for an accurate and flexible model to support estimating service costs for new or extended missions; the cost model in turn drives the need for an accurate and efficient approach to service cost analysis. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) provides operations services to a variety of customers around the world. HOSC customers range from launch vehicle test flights; to International Space Station (ISS) payloads; to small, short duration missions; and has included long duration flagship missions. The HOSC recently completed a detailed analysis of service costs as part of the development of a complete service cost model. The cost analysis process required the team to address a number of issues. One of the primary issues involves the difficulty of reverse engineering individual mission costs in a highly efficient multimission environment, along with a related issue of the value of detailed metrics or data to the cost model versus the cost of obtaining accurate data. Another concern is the difficulty of balancing costs between missions of different types and size and extrapolating costs to different mission types. The cost analysis also had to address issues relating to providing shared, cloud-like services in a government environment, and then assigning an uncertainty or risk factor to cost estimates that are based on current technology, but will be executed using future technology. Finally the cost analysis needed to consider how to validate the resulting cost models taking into account the non-homogeneous nature of the available cost data and the

  17. Creating a Test Validated Structural Dynamic Finite Element Model of the Multi-Utility Technology Test Bed Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Chan-Gi; Truong, Samson S.

    2014-01-01

    Small modeling errors in the finite element model will eventually induce errors in the structural flexibility and mass, thus propagating into unpredictable errors in the unsteady aerodynamics and the control law design. One of the primary objectives of Multi Utility Technology Test Bed, X-56A, aircraft is the flight demonstration of active flutter suppression, and therefore in this study, the identification of the primary and secondary modes for the structural model tuning based on the flutter analysis of X-56A. The ground vibration test validated structural dynamic finite element model of the X-56A is created in this study. The structural dynamic finite element model of the X-56A is improved using a model tuning tool. In this study, two different weight configurations of the X-56A have been improved in a single optimization run.

  18. A Process Analytical Technology (PAT) approach to control a new API manufacturing process: development, validation and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Cédric; Clicq, David; Lecomte, Clémence; Merschaert, Alain; Norrant, Edith; Fotiadu, Frédéric

    2014-03-01

    Pharmaceutical companies are progressively adopting and introducing Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and Quality-by-Design (QbD) concepts promoted by the regulatory agencies, aiming the building of the quality directly into the product by combining thorough scientific understanding and quality risk management. An analytical method based on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was developed as a PAT tool to control on-line an API (active pharmaceutical ingredient) manufacturing crystallization step during which the API and residual solvent contents need to be precisely determined to reach the predefined seeding point. An original methodology based on the QbD principles was designed to conduct the development and validation of the NIR method and to ensure that it is fitted for its intended use. On this basis, Partial least squares (PLS) models were developed and optimized using chemometrics methods. The method was fully validated according to the ICH Q2(R1) guideline and using the accuracy profile approach. The dosing ranges were evaluated to 9.0-12.0% w/w for the API and 0.18-1.50% w/w for the residual methanol. As by nature the variability of the sampling method and the reference method are included in the variability obtained for the NIR method during the validation phase, a real-time process monitoring exercise was performed to prove its fit for purpose. The implementation of this in-process control (IPC) method on the industrial plant from the launch of the new API synthesis process will enable automatic control of the final crystallization step in order to ensure a predefined quality level of the API. In addition, several valuable benefits are expected including reduction of the process time, suppression of a rather difficult sampling and tedious off-line analyses. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Mechanical design of the Mars Pathfinder mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Howard Jay; Buck, Carl W.; Gillis-Smith, Greg R.; Umland, Jeffrey W.

    1997-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder mission and the Sojourner rover is reported on, with emphasis on the various mission steps and the performance of the technologies involved. The mechanical design of mission hardware was critical to the success of the entry sequence and the landing operations. The various mechanisms employed are considered.

  20. Cyber Network Mission Dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-18

    May Also Like” (YMAL) features of popular services like Amazon and Netflix . A mockup interface is shown in Figure 6. A supply agent would enter the...without causing serious harm to the execution of the mission. This idea is based on the technology of the Simian Army, implemented by Netflix and used...very successfully both there and at Amazon [15]. The Netflix Simian Army is designed to force developers to create resilient and robust software

  1. NASA/ESTO investments in remote sensing technologies (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Sachidananda R.

    2017-02-01

    For more then 18 years NASA Earth Science Technology Office has been investing in remote sensing technologies. During this period ESTO has invested in more then 900 tasks. These tasks are managed under multiple programs like Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), Advanced Component Technology (ACT), Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST), In-Space Validation of Earth Science Technologies (InVEST), Sustainable Land Imaging - Technology (SLI-T) and others. This covers the whole spectrum of technologies from component to full up satellite in space and software. Over the years many of these technologies have been infused into space missions like Aquarius, SMAP, CYGNSS, SWOT, TEMPO and others. Over the years ESTO is actively investing in Infrared sensor technologies for space applications. Recent investments have been for SLI-T and InVEST program. On these tasks technology development is from simple Bolometers to Advanced Photonic waveguide based spectrometers. Some of the details on these missions and technologies will be presented.

  2. Construction and validation of a tool to Assess the Use of Light Technologies at Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Pabliane Matias Lordelo; Campos, Maria Pontes de Aguiar; Rodrigues, Eliana Ofélia Llapa; Gois, Cristiane Franca Lisboa; Barreto, Ikaro Daniel de Carvalho

    2016-12-19

    to construct and validate a tool to assess the use of light technologies by the nursing team at Intensive Care Units. methodological study in which the tool was elaborated by means of the psychometric method for construction based on the categorization of health technologies by Merhy and Franco, from the National Humanization Policy, using the Nursing Intervention Classification taxonomy to categorize the domains of the tool. Agreement Percentages and Content Validity Indices were used for the purpose of validation. The result of the application of the Interrater Agreement Percentage exceeded the recommended level of 80%, highlighting the relevance for the proposed theme in the assessment, with an agreement rate of 99%. the tool was validated with four domains (Bond, Autonomy, Welcoming and Management) and nineteen items that assess the use of light technologies at Intensive Care Units. construir e validar um instrumento para avaliação do uso de tecnologias leves, pela equipe de enfermagem, em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva. estudo metodológico no qual o instrumento foi elaborado utilizando o método psicométrico para construção com base na categorização das tecnologias em saúde de Merhy e Franco, da Política Nacional de Humanização, utilizando-se a taxonomia Nursing Intervention Classification para categorizar os domínios do instrumento. Utilizou-se o Percentual de Concordância e o Índice de Validade de Conteúdo (IVC) para validação. o resultado da aplicação do Percentual de Concordância entre os juízes foi superior ao recomendado de 80%, havendo destaque na avaliação da pertinência ao tema proposto, apresentando um percentual de concordância de 99%. o instrumento foi validado com quatro domínios (Vínculo, Autonomia, Acolhimento e Gestão) e dezenove itens que avaliam o uso das tecnologias leves em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. construir y validar un instrumento para evaluación del uso de tecnologías leves, por el equipo de enfermer

  3. Extended mission life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrone, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    Extended manned space missions which include interplanetary missions require regenerative life support systems. Manned mission life support considerations are placed in perspective and previous manned space life support system technology, activities and accomplishments in current supporting research and technology (SR&T) programs are reviewed. The life support subsystem/system technologies required for an enhanced duration orbiter (EDO) and a space operations center (SOC), regenerative life support functions and technology required for manned interplanetary flight vehicles, and future development requirements are outlined. The Space Shuttle Orbiters (space transportation system) is space cabin atmosphere is maintained at Earth ambient pressure of 14.7 psia (20% O2 and 80% N2). The early Shuttle flights will be seven-day flights, and the life support system flight hardware will still utilize expendables.

  4. Validation of International Classification of Diseases coding for bone metastases in electronic health records using technology-enabled abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liede, Alexander; Hernandez, Rohini K; Roth, Maayan; Calkins, Geoffrey; Larrabee, Katherine; Nicacio, Leo

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of bone metastases diagnostic coding based on International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision (ICD-9) is unknown for most large databases used for epidemiologic research in the US. Electronic health records (EHR) are the preferred source of data, but often clinically relevant data occur only as unstructured free text. We examined the validity of bone metastases ICD-9 coding in structured EHR and administrative claims relative to the complete (structured and unstructured) patient chart obtained through technology-enabled chart abstraction. Female patients with breast cancer with ≥1 visit after November 2010 were identified from three community oncology practices in the US. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of bone metastases ICD-9 code 198.5. The technology-enabled abstraction displays portions of the chart to clinically trained abstractors for targeted review, thereby maximizing efficiency. We evaluated effects of misclassification of patients developing skeletal complications or treated with bone-targeting agents (BTAs), and timing of BTA. Among 8,796 patients with breast cancer, 524 had confirmed bone metastases using chart abstraction. Sensitivity was 0.67 (95% confidence interval [CI] =0.63-0.71) based on structured EHR, and specificity was high at 0.98 (95% CI =0.98-0.99) with corresponding PPV of 0.71 (95% CI =0.67-0.75) and NPV of 0.98 (95% CI =0.98-0.98). From claims, sensitivity was 0.78 (95% CI =0.74-0.81), and specificity was 0.98 (95% CI =0.98-0.98) with PPV of 0.72 (95% CI =0.68-0.76) and NPV of 0.99 (95% CI =0.98-0.99). Structured data and claims missed 17% of bone metastases (89 of 524). False negatives were associated with measurable overestimation of the proportion treated with BTA or with a skeletal complication. Median date of diagnosis was delayed in structured data (32 days) and claims (43 days) compared with technology-assisted EHR. Technology

  5. Missions and planning for nuclear space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.

    1979-01-01

    Requirements for electrical and propulsion power for space are expected to increase dramatically in the 1980s. Nuclear power is probably the only source for some deep space missions and a major competitor for many orbital missions, especially those at geosynchronous orbit. Because of the potential requirements, a technology program on reactor components has been initiated by the Department of Energy. The missions that are foreseen, the current reactor concept, and the technology program plan are described

  6. Identification and Validation of SNP Markers Linked to Dwarf Traits Using SLAF-Seq Technology in Lagerstroemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yiqian; Jiao, Yao; Feng, Lu; Pan, Huitang; Cheng, Tangren; Zhang, Qixiang

    2016-01-01

    The genetic control of plant architecture is a promising approach to breed desirable cultivars, particularly in ornamental flowers. In this study, the F1 population (142 seedlings) derived from Lagerstroemia fauriei (non-dwarf) × L. indica ‘Pocomoke’ (dwarf) was phenotyped for six traits (plant height (PH), internode length (IL), internode number, primary lateral branch height (PLBH), secondary lateral branch height and primary branch number), and the IL and PLBH traits were positively correlated with the PH trait and considered representative indexes of PH. Fifty non-dwarf and dwarf seedlings were pooled and subjected to a specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) method, which screened 1221 polymorphic markers. A total of 3 markers segregating between bulks were validated in the F1 population, with the M16337 and M38412 markers highly correlated with the IL trait and the M25207 marker highly correlated with the PLBH trait. These markers provide a predictability of approximately 80% using a single marker (M25207) and a predictability of 90% using marker combinations (M16337 + M25207) in the F1 population, which revealed that the IL and the PLBH traits, especially the PLBH, were the decisive elements for PH in terms of molecular regulation. Further validation was performed in the BC1 population and a set of 28 Lagerstroemia stocks using allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) technology, and the results showed the stability and reliability of the SNP markers and the co-determination of PH by multiple genes. Our findings provide an important theoretical and practical basis for the early prediction and indirect selection of PH using the IL and the PLBH, and the detected SNPs may be useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in crape myrtle. PMID:27404662

  7. Using ISS to develop telescope technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz-Otero, Alvar; Miller, David W.

    2005-08-01

    Future space telescope missions concepts have introduced new technologies such as precision formation flight, optical metrology, and segmented mirrors. These new technologies require demonstration and validation prior to deployment in final missions such as the James Webb Space Telescope, Terrestrial Planet Finder, and Darwin. Ground based demonstrations do not provide the precision necessary to obtain a high level of confidence in the technology; precursor free flyer space missions suffer from the same problems as the final missions. Therefore, this paper proposes the use of the International Space Station as an intermediate research environment where these technologies can be developed, demonstrated, and validated. The ISS provides special resources, such as human presence, communications, power, and a benign atmosphere which directly reduce the major challenges of space technology maturation: risk, complexity, cost, remote operations, and visibility. Successful design of experiments for use aboard the space station, by enabling iterative research and supporting multiple scientists, can further reduce the effects of these challenges of space technology maturation. This paper presents results of five previous MIT Space Systems Laboratory experiments aboard the Space Shuttle, MIR, and the ISS to illustrate successful technology maturation aboard these facilities.

  8. Development of the recombinase-based in vivo expression technology in Streptococcus thermophilus and validation using the lactose operon promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junjua, M; Galia, W; Gaci, N; Uriot, O; Genay, M; Bachmann, H; Kleerebezem, M; Dary, A; Roussel, Y

    2014-03-01

    To construct and validate the recombinase-based in vivo expression technology (R-IVET) tool in Streptococcus thermophilus (ST). The R-IVET system we constructed in the LMD-9 strain includes the plasmid pULNcreB allowing transcriptional fusion with the gene of the site-specific recombinase Cre and the chromosomal cassette containing a spectinomycin resistance gene flanked by two loxP sites. When tested in M17 medium, promoters of the genes encoding the protease PrtS, the heat-shock protein Hsp16 and of the lactose operon triggered deletion of the cassette, indicating promoter activity in these conditions. The lactose operon promoter was also found to be activated during the transit in the murine gastrointestinal tract. The R-IVET system developed in ST is relatively stable, functional, very sensitive and can be used to assay activity of promoters, which are specifically active in in vivo conditions. This first adaptation of R-IVET to ST provides a highly valuable tool allowing an exploration of the physiological state of ST in the GIT of mammals, fermentation processes or dairy products. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Validation of the integration of technology that measures additional "vascular" indices into an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotovskaya, Yulia V; Kobalava, Zhanna D; Orlov, Artemy V

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to validate the novel integration of oscillometric (Vasotens(®)) technology into a BPLab(®) ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring system to measure central BP, the aortic augmentation index, and pulse wave velocity (PWV) compared with the recommended and widely accepted tonometric method. The ARTERY Society guidelines for comparison of PWV measurement techniques were used as the basis for recruitment of 99 individuals (mean age 44±19 years, 52 males). The standard for comparison was the conventional "classic" SphygmoCor device. Accordance of the two methods was satisfactory (r=0.98, mean difference of 2.9±3.5 mmHg for central systolic BP; r=0.98, mean difference of -1.1±2.3 mmHg for central diastolic BP; r=0.83, mean difference of -2.6%±13% for aortic augmentation index; r=0.85, mean difference of 0.69±1.4 for PWV). The performance of Vasotens algorithms using an oscillometric ambulatory BP monitoring system is feasible for accurate diagnosis, risk assessment, and evaluation of the effects of antihypertensive drugs.

  10. Development and in-line validation of a Process Analytical Technology to facilitate the scale up of coating processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirges, M; Funke, A; Serno, P; Knop, K; Kleinebudde, P

    2013-05-05

    Incorporation of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) into the coating layer of film-coated tablets is a method mainly used to formulate fixed-dose combinations. Uniform and precise spray-coating of an API represents a substantial challenge, which could be overcome by applying Raman spectroscopy as process analytical tool. In pharmaceutical industry, Raman spectroscopy is still mainly used as a bench top laboratory analytical method and usually not implemented in the production process. Concerning the application in the production process, a lot of scientific approaches stop at the level of feasibility studies and do not manage the step to production scale and process applications. The present work puts the scale up of an active coating process into focus, which is a step of highest importance during the pharmaceutical development. Active coating experiments were performed at lab and production scale. Using partial least squares (PLS), a multivariate model was constructed by correlating in-line measured Raman spectral data with the coated amount of API. By transferring this model, being implemented for a lab scale process, to a production scale process, the robustness of this analytical method and thus its applicability as a Process Analytical Technology (PAT) tool for the correct endpoint determination in pharmaceutical manufacturing could be shown. Finally, this method was validated according to the European Medicine Agency (EMA) guideline with respect to the special requirements of the applied in-line model development strategy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Is the nuclear refractive index lower than cytoplasm? Validation of phase measurements and implications for light scattering technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, Zachary A; Eldridge, Will J; Weintraub, Jacob B; Wax, Adam

    2017-12-01

    The refractive index (RI) of biological materials is a fundamental parameter for the optical characterization of living systems. Numerous light scattering technologies are grounded in a quantitative knowledge of the refractive index at cellular and subcellular scales. Recent work in quantitative phase microscopy (QPM) has called into question the widely held assumption that the index of the cell nucleus is greater than that of the cytoplasm, a result which disagrees with much of the current literature. In this work, we critically examine the measurement of the nuclear and whole-cell refractive index using QPM, validating that nuclear refractive index is lower than that of cytoplasm in four diverse cell lines and their corresponding isolated nuclei. We further examine Mie scattering and phase-wrapping as potential sources of error in these measurements, finding they have minimal impact. Finally, we use simulation to examine the effects of incorrect RI assumptions on nuclear morphology measurements using angle-resolved scattering information. Despite an erroneous assumption of the nuclear refractive index, accurate measurement of nuclear morphology was maintained, suggesting that light scattering modalities remain effective. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Validation of the Technology Acceptance Measure for Pre-Service Teachers (TAMPST) on a Malaysian Sample: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the cross-cultural validity of the technology acceptance measure for pre-service teachers (TAMPST) on a Malaysian sample. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 193 pre-service teachers from a Malaysian university completed a survey questionnaire measuring their responses to five constructs in the…

  13. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations orbit transfer vehicle serving. Phase 2, task 1: Space station support of operational OTV servicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Representative space based orbital transfer vehicles (OTV), ground based vehicle turnaround assessment, functional operational requirements and facilities, mission turnaround operations, a comparison of ground based versus space based tasks, activation of servicing facilities prior to IOC, fleet operations requirements, maintenance facilities, OTV servicing facilities, space station support requirements, and packaging for delivery are discussed.

  14. A Study of USN Aircrew Attitudes Regarding Technology’s Ability to Replace the Naval Flight Officer on Typical Combat Missions Carrier Based Aircraft are Tasked to Perform

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    crewnmmer detracted from survivability. On the other hand, there appears to be a growing sentiment that the low threat and air superiority missions are...survey instrument and anlysis methods were designed to detect and evaluate these ed::fferences. The USAF study concluded that-the perception of a requir

  15. Validity for assisted hatching on pregnancy rate in assisted reproductive technology: analysis based on results of Japan Assisted Reproductive Technology Registry System 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasuji, Takashi; Saito, Hidekazu; Araki, Ryuichiro; Nakaza, Aritoshi; Kuwahara, Akira; Ishihara, Osamu; Irahara, Minoru; Kubota, Toshiro; Yoshimura, Yasunori; Sakumoto, Tetsuro

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of assisted hatching (AH) in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment. In this retrospective observational study, the data of patients who were registered in the National ART Registry System of Japan between January and December 2010 were analyzed. The descriptive statistics and validity of AH in fresh embryo transfer (ET) and frozen-thawed ET were assessed by using multiple logistic regression analyses. From a total of 105,450 single ET, 46,029 (43.7%) cycles underwent AH. A total of 9737 (21.3%) and 36,292 (60.9%) cycles underwent AH from 45,818 fresh single ET and 59,632 frozen-thawed single ET, respectively. In the fresh ET patients that underwent AH, the clinical pregnancy and live birth rate were significantly decreased in patients of all ages compared with that of the non-AH group. In the frozen-thawed ET patients, there was no significant difference in pregnancy and live birth rate between the AH group and the non-AH group. AH treatment was more frequently performed in frozen-thawed ET patients than in fresh ET patients, and in the blastocyst stage than in the early cleavage stage. A significantly decreased pregnancy and live birth rate was observed in the fresh ET patients who underwent AH. In the frozen-thawed ET patients who underwent AH, improvement in the clinical pregnancy and live birth rate was not observed. Further studies on the indication and application of AH in ART treatment are required. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. MITA: An Italian minisatellite for small missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falvella, M. C.; Crisconio, M.; Lupi, T.; Sabatini, P.; Valentini, G.; Viola, F.

    On July 15th 2000 the first MITA (Italian Advanced Technology Minisatellite) was launched from Plesetsk (Russia) by a Cosmos rocket as a piggy-back of the CHAMP satellite. The main purpose of the first MITA mission is its in-flight validation. Furthermore the scientific payload NINA-2 of INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) and the technological payload MTS-AOMS (Micro Tech Sensor for Attitude and Orbit Measurement System) were embarked. The NINA-2 goal is the survey of galactic and solar cosmic rays at 450 km altitude. MTS is an ESA multi-tasking autonomous sensor based on Active Pixel Sensor (star and horizon sensor), Angular Rate Sensor and Magnetic Field Sensor. In this paper the main MITA bus characteristics are reported, together with the description of the launch and the first commissioning phase. The first mission nominal orbit is circular, with a 450 Km altitude and a 87° inclination. The satellite attitude is nadir pointing, 3 axes stabilised. Spacecraft mass is 169.9 Kg. Two fixed solar panels provide an average power of 85 W EOL. The configuration of the satellite main body is based on a cubic shape module, made of Aluminium beams and honeycomb panels. The Mission Control Center is placed in Rome, while the TT&C stations are in Cordoba (Argentina) and, only during the commissioning phase, in Malindi (Kenia); Malindi TT&C station will then be replaced by Fucino (Italy). Since the contacts between spacecraft and the TT&C stations do not occur every orbit, the satellite on board S/W was designed in order to reach the nominal mode without telecommand from ground.

  17. Sustainable, Reliable Mission-Systems Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Graham; Orr, James K.; Watson, Steve

    2007-01-01

    A mission-systems architecture, based on a highly modular infrastructure utilizing: open-standards hardware and software interfaces as the enabling technology is essential for affordable and sustainable space exploration programs. This mission-systems architecture requires (a) robust communication between heterogeneous system, (b) high reliability, (c) minimal mission-to-mission reconfiguration, (d) affordable development, system integration, and verification of systems, and (e) minimal sustaining engineering. This paper proposes such an architecture. Lessons learned from the Space Shuttle program and Earthbound complex engineered system are applied to define the model. Technology projections reaching out 5 years are mde to refine model details.

  18. SPHEREx: Playing Nicely with Other Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Michael; SPHEREx Science Team

    2018-01-01

    SPHEREx, a mission in NASA's Medium Explorer (MIDEX) program that was selected for a competitive Phase A study in August 2017, is an all-sky survey satellite designed to address all three science goals of NASA's Astrophysics Division. SPHEREx is a wide-field spectral imager, and it would produce the first all-sky near-infrared spectral survey, using a passively cooled telescope with a wide field-of-view for large mapping speed. The SPHEREx spectra would have resolving power R=41 at wavelengths from 0.75 to 4.2um, and R=135 from 4.2 to 5um. The spectra resolution is provided by Linear Variable Filters placed directly over the four SPHEREx H2RG detector arrays. SPHEREx would be sensitive enough to obtain spectra of essentially all near-infrared sources from the WISE survey. During its two-year mission, SPHEREx, to be launched in 2022, would produce four complete all-sky spectral maps that would serve as a rich archive for the astronomy community.SPHEREx would be tremendously synergistic with numerous other missions and facilities [NASA and non-NASA] which will be operating in the coming decade. SPHEREx observations could pick out the most promising and exciting targets for investigation from JWST. From the opposite perspective, SPHEREx statistical samples could be used to refine the conclusions derived from JWST’s indepth studies of a few members of an interesting class of objects. SPHEREx and GAIA spectrophotometry, incorporating photometry from WISE and GALEX as well as GAIA astrometry, could lead to the determination of the radii of main sequence stars, and their transiting exoplanets discovered by TESS, with 1% accuracy. SPHEREx low redshift spectra of millions of galaxies could be used to validate and calibrate the photometric nredshift scale being adopted by WFIRST and Euclid, improving the precision of the dark energy measures being returned by those missions. The poster will briefly address SPHEREx synergisms with these and other missions ranging from LSST

  19. Feeling validated yet? A scoping review of the use of consumer-targeted wearable and mobile technology to measure and improve sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Kelly Glazer; Duffecy, Jennifer; Berendsen, Mark A; Cheung Mason, Ivy; Lattie, Emily G; Manalo, Natalie C

    2017-12-20

    The objectives of this review were to evaluate the use of consumer-targeted wearable and mobile sleep monitoring technology, identify gaps in the literature and determine the potential for use in behavioral interventions. We undertook a scoping review of studies conducted in adult populations using consumer-targeted wearable technology or mobile devices designed to measure and/or improve sleep. After screening for inclusion/exclusion criteria, data were extracted from the articles by two co-authors. Articles included in the search were using wearable or mobile technology to estimate or evaluate sleep, published in English and conducted in adult populations. Our search returned 3897 articles and 43 met our inclusion criteria. Results indicated that the majority of studies focused on validating technology to measure sleep (n = 23) or were observational studies (n = 10). Few studies were used to identify sleep disorders (n = 2), evaluate response to interventions (n = 3) or deliver interventions (n = 5). In conclusion, the use of consumer-targeted wearable and mobile sleep monitoring technology has largely focused on validation of devices and applications compared with polysomnography (PSG) but opportunities exist for observational research and for delivery of behavioral interventions. Multidisciplinary research is needed to determine the uses of these technologies in interventions as well as the use in more diverse populations including sleep disorders and other patient populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Study and validation of a gamma-ray spectrometer for the remote analysis of the chemical composition of planetary surfaces: application to a mission to the planet Mercury; Etude et validation d'un spectrometre gamma pour la mesure de la composition chimique des surfaces planetaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirard, B

    2006-12-15

    This work deals with the design of a gamma-ray spectrometer for the remote analysis of the chemical composition of planetary surfaces and was performed in the frame of a mission scenario to explore the planet Mercury. The research studies consisted first in characterizing the detection performances of a gamma-ray spectrometer using a high-purity germanium crystal cooled actively at cryogenic temperatures. The high energy resolution of the detector allows an accurate measurement of the chemical composition for the main elements from oxygen to uranium. Thereafter the studies dealt with the critical issues addressed for the use of such a detector onboard a mission to the inner solar system. The radiation damage caused by solar protons in germanium crystals was investigated by experimental and numerical means. It has been shown that the detector resolution begins getting damaged for proton fluences over 5*10{sup 8} p/cm{sup 2}. An annealing session where the crystal is heated up to 80 C degrees for a 4-day period allows the detector to get back a sufficient resolution. Annealing over 100 C degrees gives back the detector its initial resolution. Finally, a numerical thermal model of the instrument as well as some tests on a thermal mockup were performed to validate the thermal design of the instrument.

  1. Communication from the Permanent Mission of the Russian Federation to the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding guidelines for transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received a Note Verbale from the Permanent Mission of the Russian Federation providing information on the export policies and practices of the Government of the Russian Federation with respect to the export of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of the Note Verbale, the text of the Note Verbale is attached. The attachment to the Note Verbale was issued previously as INFCIRC/2541Rev. 4/Part 2

  2. Communication dated 10 September 2008 received from the Permanent Mission of Egypt to the Agency concerning the High Level Policy Review Seminar of African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a communication dated 10 September 2008 from the Permanent Mission of Egypt enclosing the documents of the High Level Policy Review Seminar of the African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) held in Aswan, Egypt on 28-29 November 2007. The communication, and as requested therein, the enclosures containing the Declaration of Aswan, the Aswan Action Plan and the Profile of the Regional Strategic Cooperative Framework (2008-2013) are circulated herewith for information

  3. Communication from the Permanent Missions of Brazil and Romania to the International Atomic Energy Agency Regarding Guidelines for the Transfers of Nuclear-Related Dual-Use Equipment, Materials, Software and Related Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbale from the Permanent Missions of Brazil and Romania, dated 28 February 2003, providing information on the export policies and practices of the Governments of Brazil and Romania with respect to the export of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of each Note Verbale, the text of the Notes Verbale is attached. The attachment referenced in the Note Verbale was issued previously as INFCIRC/254/Rev.5/Part 2

  4. Validation of Battery Safety for Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Presentation covers: (1) Safety Certification Process at NASA (2) Safety Testing for Lithium-ion Batteries (3) Limitations Observed with Li-ion Batteries in High Voltage and High Capacity Configurations.

  5. Walking the Walk/Talking the Talk: Mission Planning with Speech-Interactive Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Benjamin; Short, Philip; Webb, Stewart

    2010-01-01

    The application of simulation technology to mission planning and rehearsal has enabled realistic overhead 2-D and immersive 3-D "fly-through" capabilities that can help better prepare tactical teams for conducting missions in unfamiliar locales. For aircrews, detailed terrain data can offer a preview of the relevant landmarks and hazards, and threat models can provide a comprehensive glimpse of potential hot zones and safety corridors. A further extension of the utility of such planning and rehearsal techniques would allow users to perform the radio communications planned for a mission; that is, the air-ground coordination that is critical to the success of missions such as close air support (CAS). Such practice opportunities, while valuable, are limited by the inescapable scarcity of complete mission teams to gather in space and time during planning and rehearsal cycles. Moreoever, using simulated comms with synthetic entities, despite the substantial training and cost benefits, remains an elusive objective. In this paper we report on a solution to this gap that incorporates "synthetic teammates" - intelligent software agents that can role-play entities in a mission scenario and that can communicate in spoken language with users. We employ a fielded mission planning and rehearsal tool so that our focus remains on the experimental objectives of the research rather than on developing a testbed from scratch. Use of this planning tool also helps to validate the approach in an operational system. The result is a demonstration of a mission rehearsal tool that allows aircrew users to not only fly the mission but also practice the verbal communications with air control agencies and tactical controllers on the ground. This work will be presented in a CAS mission planning example but has broad applicability across weapons systems, missions and tactical force compositions.

  6. Exploration Life Support Critical Questions for Future Human Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K.; Barta, Daniel J.; McQuillan, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Exploration Life Support (ELS) is a project under NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program. The ELS Project plans, coordinates and implements the development of advanced life support technologies for human exploration missions in space. Recent work has focused on closed loop atmosphere and water systems for a lunar outpost, including habitats and pressurized rovers. But, what are the critical questions facing life support system developers for these and other future human missions? This paper explores those questions and discusses how progress in the development of ELS technologies can help answer them. The ELS Project includes Atmosphere Revitalization Systems (ARS), Water Recovery Systems (WRS), Waste Management Systems (WMS), Habitation Engineering, Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA), and Validation and Testing, which includes the sub-elements Flight Experiments and Integrated Testing. Systems engineering analysis by ELS seeks to optimize the overall mission architecture by considering all the internal and external interfaces of the life support system and the potential for reduction or reuse of commodities. In particular, various sources and sinks of water and oxygen are considered along with the implications on loop closure and the resulting launch mass requirements.

  7. Mission Level Autonomy for USSV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Stirb, Robert C.; Brizzolara, Robert

    2011-01-01

    On-water demonstration of a wide range of mission-proven, advanced technologies at TRL 5+ that provide a total integrated, modular approach to effectively address the majority of the key needs for full mission-level autonomous, cross-platform control of USV s. Wide baseline stereo system mounted on the ONR USSV was shown to be an effective sensing modality for tracking of dynamic contacts as a first step to automated retrieval operations. CASPER onboard planner/replanner successfully demonstrated realtime, on-water resource-based analysis for mission-level goal achievement and on-the-fly opportunistic replanning. Full mixed mode autonomy was demonstrated on-water with a seamless transition between operator over-ride and return to current mission plan. Autonomous cooperative operations for fixed asset protection and High Value Unit escort using 2 USVs (AMN1 & 14m RHIB) were demonstrated during Trident Warrior 2010 in JUN 2010

  8. Sentinel-2 Mission status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoersch, Bianca; Colin, Olivier; Gascon, Ferran; Arino, Olivier; Spoto, Francois; Marchese, Franco; Krassenburg, Mike; Koetz, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Copernicus is a joint initiative of the European Commission (EC) and the European Space Agency (ESA), designed to establish a European capacity for the provision and use of operational monitoring information for environment and security applications. Within the Copernicus programme, ESA is responsible for the development of the Space Component, a fully operational space-based capability to supply earth-observation data to sustain environmental information Services in Europe. The Sentinel missions are Copernicus dedicated Earth Observation missions composing the essential elements of the Space Component. In the global Copernicus framework, they are complemented by other satellites made available by third-parties or by ESA and coordinated in the synergistic system through the Copernicus Data-Access system versus the Copernicus Services. The Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission provides continuity to services relying on multi-spectral high-resolution optical observations over global terrestrial surfaces. Sentinel-2 capitalizes on the technology and the vast experience acquired in Europe and the US to sustain the operational supply of data for services such as forest monitoring, land cover changes detection or natural disasters management. The Sentinel-2 mission offers an unprecedented combination of the following capabilities: ○ Systematic global coverage of land surfaces: from 56°South to 84°North, coastal waters and Mediterranean sea; ○ High revisit: every 5 days at equator under the same viewing conditions with 2 satellites; ○ High spatial resolution: 10m, 20m and 60m; ○ Multi-spectral information with 13 bands in the visible, near infra-red and short wave infra-red part of the spectrum; ○ Wide field of view: 290 km. The data from the Sentinel-2 mission are available openly and freely for all users with online easy access since December 2015. The presentation will give a status report on the Sentinel-2 mission, and outlook for the remaining ramp-up Phase, the

  9. Distributed Spacecraft Mission (DSM) Design Reference Framework and Testbed for Intelligent and Collaborative Constellations (ICC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Under a changing technological and economic environment, there is growing interest in implementing future NASA missions as Distributed Spacecraft Missions (DSM),...

  10. Idaho National Laboratory Mission Accomplishments, Fiscal Year 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Todd Randall [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wright, Virginia Latta [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A summary of mission accomplishments for the research organizations at the Idaho National Laboratory for FY 2015. Areas include Nuclear Energy, National and Homeland Security, Science and Technology Addressing Broad DOE Missions; Collaborations; and Stewardship and Operation of Research Facilities.

  11. Products from NASA's In-Space Propulsion Program Applicable to Low-Cost Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David; Pencil, Eric J.; Glabb, Louis J.; Falck, Robert D.; Dankanich, John

    2013-01-01

    NASAs In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program has been developing technologies for lowering the cost of planetary science missions. The technology areas include electric propulsion technologies, spacecraft bus technologies, entry vehicle technologies, and design tools for systems analysis and mission trajectories. The electric propulsion technologies include critical components of both gridded and non-gridded ion propulsion systems. The spacecraft bus technologies under development include an ultra-lightweight tank (ULTT) and advanced xenon feed system (AXFS). The entry vehicle technologies include the development of a multi-mission entry vehicle, mission design tools and aerocapture. The design tools under development include system analysis tools and mission trajectory design tools.

  12. In-Situ Resource Utilization for Space Exploration: Resource Processing, Mission-Enabling Technologies, and Lessons for Sustainability on Earth and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, A. F.; Palaszewski, B. A.; Landis, G. A.; Jaworske, D. A.; Colozza, A. J.; Kulis, M. J.; Heller, R. S.

    2015-01-01

    As humanity begins to reach out into the solar system, it has become apparent that supporting a human or robotic presence in transit andor on station requires significant expendable resources including consumables (to support people), fuel, and convenient reliable power. Transporting all necessary expendables is inefficient, inconvenient, costly, and, in the final analysis, a complicating factor for mission planners and a significant source of potential failure modes. Over the past twenty-five years, beginning with the Space Exploration Initiative, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), academic collaborators, and industrial partners have analyzed, researched, and developed successful solutions for the challenges posed by surviving and even thriving in the resource limited environment(s) presented by near-Earth space and non-terrestrial surface operations. In this retrospective paper, we highlight the efforts of the co-authors in resource simulation and utilization, materials processing and consumable(s) production, power systems and analysis, fuel storage and handling, propulsion systems, and mission operations. As we move forward in our quest to explore space using a resource-optimized approach, it is worthwhile to consider lessons learned relative to efficient utilization of the (comparatively) abundant natural resources and improving the sustainability (and environment) for life on Earth. We reconsider Lunar (and briefly Martian) resource utilization for potential colonization, and discuss next steps moving away from Earth.

  13. Autonomous Mission Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Autonomous Mission Operations project will develop understanding of the impacts of increasing communication time delays on mission operations and develop...

  14. Bridging the Technology Readiness "Valley of Death" Utilizing Nanosats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Robert A.; Millar, Pamela S.; Norton, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating new technology is a hallmark of space missions. Missions demand ever-improving tools and techniques to allow them to meet the mission science requirements. In Earth Science, these technologies are normally expressed in new instrument capabilities that can enable new measurement concepts, extended capabilities of existing measurement techniques, or totally new detection capabilities, and also, information systems technologies that can enhance data analysis or enable new data analyses to advance modeling and prediction capabilities. Incorporating new technologies has never been easy. There is a large development step beyond demonstration in a laboratory or on an airborne platform to the eventual space environment that is sometimes referred to as the "technology valley of death." Studies have shown that non-validated technology is a primary cause of NASA and DoD mission delays and cost overruns. With the demise of the New Millennium Program within NASA, opportunities for demonstrating technologies in space have been rare. Many technologies are suitable for a flight project after only ground testing. However, some require validation in a relevant or a space flight environment, which cannot be fully tested on the ground or in airborne systems. NASA's Earth Science Technology Program has initiated a nimble program to provide a fairly rapid turn-around of space validated technologies, and thereby reducing future mission risk in incorporating new technologies. The program, called In-Space Validation of Earth Science Technology (InVEST), now has five tasks in development. Each are 3U CubeSats and they are targeted for launch opportunities in the 2016 time period. Prior to formalizing an InVEST program, the technology program office was asked to demonstrate how the program would work and what sort of technologies could benefit from space validation. Three projects were developed and launched, and have demonstrated the technologies that they set out to validate

  15. Solar Power for Future NASA Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    An overview of NASA missions and technology development efforts are discussed. Future spacecraft will need higher power, higher voltage, and much lower cost solar arrays to enable a variety of missions. One application driving development of these future arrays is solar electric propulsion.

  16. The Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) Mission Applications Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, David M.; Winski, Richard; Shidner, Jeremy; Zumwalt, Carlie; Johnston, Christopher O.; Komar, D. R.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Hughes, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the HIAD Mission Applications Study is to quantify the benefits of HIAD infusion to the concept of operations of high priority exploration missions. Results of the study will identify the range of mission concepts ideally suited to HIADs and provide mission-pull to associated technology development programs while further advancing operational concepts associated with HIAD technology. A summary of Year 1 modeling and analysis results is presented covering missions focusing on Earth and Mars-based applications. Recommended HIAD scales are presented for near term and future mission opportunities and the associated environments (heating and structural loads) are described.

  17. Algorithm Design and Validation for Adaptive Nonlinear Control Enhancement (ADVANCE) Technology Development for Resilient Flight Control, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSCI proposes to develop and test a framework referred to as the ADVANCE (Algorithm Design and Validation for Adaptive Nonlinear Control Enhancement), within which...

  18. Improving Life-Cycle Cost Management of Spacecraft Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clardy, Dennon

    2010-01-01

    This presentation will explore the results of a recent NASA Life-Cycle Cost study and how project managers can use the findings and recommendations to improve planning and coordination early in the formulation cycle and avoid common pitfalls resulting in cost overruns. The typical NASA space science mission will exceed both the initial estimated and the confirmed life-cycle costs by the end of the mission. In a fixed-budget environment, these overruns translate to delays in starting or launching future missions, or in the worst case can lead to cancelled missions. Some of these overruns are due to issues outside the control of the project; others are due to the unpredictable problems (unknown unknowns) that can affect any development project. However, a recent study of life-cycle cost growth by the Discovery and New Frontiers Program Office identified a number of areas that are within the scope of project management to address. The study also found that the majority of the underlying causes for cost overruns are embedded in the project approach during the formulation and early design phases, but the actual impacts typically are not experienced until late in the project life cycle. Thus, project management focus in key areas such as integrated schedule development, management structure and contractor communications processes, heritage and technology assumptions, and operations planning, can be used to validate initial cost assumptions and set in place management processes to avoid the common pitfalls resulting in cost overruns.

  19. A university-based distributed satellite mission control network for operating professional space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts, Christopher; Rasay, Mike

    2016-03-01

    For more than a decade, Santa Clara University's Robotic Systems Laboratory has operated a unique, distributed, internet-based command and control network for providing professional satellite mission control services for a variety of government and industry space missions. The system has been developed and is operated by students who become critical members of the mission teams throughout the development, test, and on-orbit phases of these missions. The mission control system also supports research in satellite control technology and hands-on student aerospace education. This system serves as a benchmark for its comprehensive nature, its student-centric nature, its ability to support NASA and industry space missions, and its longevity in providing a consistent level of professional services. This paper highlights the unique features of this program, reviews the network's design and the supported spacecraft missions, and describes the critical programmatic features of the program that support the control of professional space missions.

  20. Communication Received from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Serbia to the International Atomic Energy Agency Regarding Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology and the Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Materials, Software and Related Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Director General has received a note verbale dated 28 September 2012 from the Permanent Mission of Serbia to the International Atomic Energy Agency providing information on the decision of the Government of Serbia to adhere to the 'Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology', issued as document INFCIRC/254/Rev.10/Part 1, including its Annexes, and with the 'Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-Related Dual-Use Equipment, Material, Software and Related Technology', issued as document INFCIRC/254/Rev.8/Part 2 [es

  1. Communication Received from the PermanentMission of Mexico to the International Atomic Energy Agency Regarding Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology and the Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Materials, Software and Related Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Director General has received a note verbale dated 15 June 2012 from the Permanent Mission of Mexico to the International Atomic Energy Agency providing information on the decision of the Government of Mexico to act in accordance with the 'Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology', issued as document INFCIRC/254/Rev.10/Part 1, including its Annexes, and with the 'Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-Related Dual-Use Equipment, Material, Software and Related Technology', issued as document INFCIRC/254/Rev.8/Part 2

  2. Communication Received from the Permanent Mission of Mexico to the International Atomic Energy Agency Regarding Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology and the Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Materials, Software and Related Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Director General has received a note verbale dated 15 June 2012 from the Permanent Mission of Mexico to the International Atomic Energy Agency providing information on the decision of the Government of Mexico to act in accordance with the 'Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology', issued as document INFCIRC/254/Rev.10/Part 1, including its Annexes, and with the 'Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-Related Dual-Use Equipment, Material, Software and Related Technology', issued as document INFCIRC/254/Rev.8/Part 2

  3. Communication Received from the Permanent Mission of the Netherlands regarding Certain Member States' Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Agency has received a Note Verbale from the Permanent Mission of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, dated 12 July 2011, in which it requests that the Agency circulate to all Member States a letter of 12 July 2011 from the Chairman of the Nuclear Suppliers Group, Ambassador Piet de Klerk, to the Director General, on behalf of the Governments of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, providing further information on those Governments' Guidelines for Nuclear Transfers

  4. Communication Received from the Permanent Mission of Brazil regarding Certain Member States' Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Agency has received a Note Verbale from the Permanent Mission of Brazil, dated 22 March 2007, in which it requests that the Agency circulate to all Member States a letter of 12 December 2006 from the Chairman of the Nuclear Suppliers Group, Ambassador Jose Artur Denot Medeiros, to the Director General, on behalf of the Governments of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, providing further information on those Governments' Guidelines for Nuclear Transfers

  5. Communication Received from the Permanent Mission of Brazil regarding Certain Member States' Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Agency has received a Note Verbale from the Permanent Mission of Brazil, dated 22 March 2007, in which it requests that the Agency circulate to all Member States a letter of 12 December 2006 from the Chairman of the Nuclear Suppliers Group, Ambassador Jose Artur Denot Medeiros, to the Director General, on behalf of the Governments of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, providing further information on those Governments' Guidelines for Nuclear Transfers [es

  6. Communication Received from the Permanent Mission of the Netherlands regarding Certain Member States' Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    The Agency has received a Note Verbale from the Permanent Mission of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, dated 12 July 2011, in which it requests that the Agency circulate to all Member States a letter of 12 July 2011 from the Chairman of the Nuclear Suppliers Group, Ambassador Piet de Klerk, to the Director General, on behalf of the Governments of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, providing further information on those Governments' Guidelines for Nuclear Transfers [es

  7. Transcriptomic SNP discovery for custom genotyping arrays: impacts of sequence data, SNP calling method and genotyping technology on the probability of validation success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humble, Emily; Thorne, Michael A S; Forcada, Jaume; Hoffman, Joseph I

    2016-08-26

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery is an important goal of many studies. However, the number of 'putative' SNPs discovered from a sequence resource may not provide a reliable indication of the number that will successfully validate with a given genotyping technology. For this it may be necessary to account for factors such as the method used for SNP discovery and the type of sequence data from which it originates, suitability of the SNP flanking sequences for probe design, and genomic context. To explore the relative importance of these and other factors, we used Illumina sequencing to augment an existing Roche 454 transcriptome assembly for the Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella). We then mapped the raw Illumina reads to the new hybrid transcriptome using BWA and BOWTIE2 before calling SNPs with GATK. The resulting markers were pooled with two existing sets of SNPs called from the original 454 assembly using NEWBLER and SWAP454. Finally, we explored the extent to which SNPs discovered using these four methods overlapped and predicted the corresponding validation outcomes for both Illumina Infinium iSelect HD and Affymetrix Axiom arrays. Collating markers across all discovery methods resulted in a global list of 34,718 SNPs. However, concordance between the methods was surprisingly poor, with only 51.0 % of SNPs being discovered by more than one method and 13.5 % being called from both the 454 and Illumina datasets. Using a predictive modeling approach, we could also show that SNPs called from the Illumina data were on average more likely to successfully validate, as were SNPs called by more than one method. Above and beyond this pattern, predicted validation outcomes were also consistently better for Affymetrix Axiom arrays. Our results suggest that focusing on SNPs called by more than one method could potentially improve validation outcomes. They also highlight possible differences between alternative genotyping technologies that could be

  8. Guidelines and Capabilities for Designing Human Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Christopher S.; Burnett, Rebeka; Charles, John; Cucinotta, Frank; Fullerton, Richard; Goodman, Jerry R.; Griffith, Anthony D., Sr.; Kosmo, Joseph J.; Perchonok, Michele; Railsback, Jan; hide

    2003-01-01

    These guidelines and capabilities identify the points of intersection between human spaceflight crews and mission considerations such as architecture, vehicle design, technologies, operations, and science requirements. In these chapters, we will provide clear, top-level guidelines for human-related exploration studies and technology research that will address common questions and requirements. As a result, we hope that ongoing mission trade studies will consider common, standard, and practical criteria for human interfaces.

  9. Evolution of Orion Mission Design for Exploration Mission 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutkowski, Jeffrey P.; Dawn, Timothy F.; Jedrey, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    The evolving mission design and concepts of NASA’s next steps have shaped Orion into the spacecraft that it is today. Since the initial inception of Orion, through the Constellation Program, and now in the Exploration Mission frame-work with the Space Launch System (SLS), each mission design concept and pro-gram goal have left Orion with a set of capabilities that can be utilized in many different mission types. Exploration Missions 1 and 2 (EM-1 and EM-2) have now been at the forefront of the mission design focus for the last several years. During that time, different Design Reference Missions (DRMs) were built, analyzed, and modified to solve or mitigate enterprise level design trades to ensure a viable mission from launch to landing. The resulting DRMs for EM-1 and EM-2 were then expanded into multi-year trajectory scans to characterize vehicle performance as affected by variations in Earth-Moon geometry. This provides Orion’s subsystems with stressing reference trajectories to help design their system. Now that Orion has progressed through the Preliminary and Critical Design Reviews (PDR and CDR), there is a general shift in the focus of mission design from aiding the vehicle design to providing mission specific products needed for pre-flight and real time operations. Some of the mission specific products needed include, large quantities of nominal trajectories for multiple monthly launch periods and abort options at any point in the mission for each valid trajectory in the launch window.

  10. Technology Readiness of the NEXT Ion Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Scott W.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system has been in advanced technology development under the NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology project. The highest fidelity hardware planned has now been completed by the government/industry team, including: a flight prototype model (PM) thruster, an engineering model (EM) power processing unit, EM propellant management assemblies, a breadboard gimbal, and control unit simulators. Subsystem and system level technology validation testing is in progress. To achieve the objective Technology Readiness Level 6, environmental testing is being conducted to qualification levels in ground facilities simulating the space environment. Additional tests have been conducted to characterize the performance range and life capability of the NEXT thruster. This paper presents the status and results of technology validation testing accomplished to date, the validated subsystem and system capabilities, and the plans for completion of this phase of NEXT development. The next round of competed planetary science mission announcements of opportunity, and directed mission decisions, are anticipated to occur in 2008 and 2009. Progress to date, and the success of on-going technology validation, indicate that the NEXT ion propulsion system will be a primary candidate for mission consideration in these upcoming opportunities.

  11. Mission Complexity Scoring in Distributed Mission Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Denning, Todd

    2003-01-01

    ...) scenarios in terms of specific learning objectives linked to mission-essential competencies and to the underlying knowledge, skills, and experiences that are required for successful combat performance...

  12. NASA Laboratory Analysis for Manned Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krihak, Michael K.; Shaw, Tianna E.

    2014-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability Element under the NASA Human Research Program. ELA instrumentation is identified as an essential capability for future exploration missions to diagnose and treat evidence-based medical conditions. However, mission architecture limits the medical equipment, consumables, and procedures that will be available to treat medical conditions during human exploration missions. Allocated resources such as mass, power, volume, and crew time must be used efficiently to optimize the delivery of in-flight medical care. Although commercial instruments can provide the blood and urine based measurements required for exploration missions, these commercial-off-the-shelf devices are prohibitive for deployment in the space environment. The objective of the ELA project is to close the technology gap of current minimally invasive laboratory capabilities and analytical measurements in a manner that the mission architecture constraints impose on exploration missions. Besides micro gravity and radiation tolerances, other principal issues that generally fail to meet NASA requirements include excessive mass, volume, power and consumables, and nominal reagent shelf-life. Though manned exploration missions will not occur for nearly a decade, NASA has already taken strides towards meeting the development of ELA medical diagnostics by developing mission requirements and concepts of operations that are coupled with strategic investments and partnerships towards meeting these challenges. This paper focuses on the remote environment, its challenges, biomedical diagnostics requirements and candidate technologies that may lead to successful blood-urine chemistry and biomolecular measurements in future space exploration missions.

  13. Technology Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA produces innovative technologies and facilitates their creation in line with the Agency mission to create products such as the stormwater calculator, remote sensing, innovation clusters, and low-cost air sensors.

  14. The Mars Pathfinder mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, Matthew P.

    1997-02-01

    Mars Pathfinder, one of the first Discovery-class missions (quick, low-cost projects with focused science objectives), will land a single spacecraft with a microrover and several instruments on the surface of Mars in 1997. Pathfinder will be the first mission to use a rover, carrying a chemical analysis instrument, to characterize the rocks and soils in a landing area over hundreds of square meters on Mars, which will provide a calibration point or ``ground truth'' for orbital remote sensing observations. In addition to the rover, which also performs a number of technology experiments, Pathfinder carries three science instruments: a stereoscopic imager with spectral filters on an extendable mast, an alpha proton X ray spectrometer, and an atmospheric structure instrument/metereology package. The instruments, the rover technology experiments, and the telemetry system will allow investigations of the surface morphology and geology at submeter to a hundred meters scale, the petrology and geochemistry of rocks and soils, the magnetic properties of dust, soil mechanics and properties, a variety of atmospheric investigations, and the rotational and orbital dynamics of Mars. Landing downstream from the mouth of a giant catastrophic outflow channel, Ares Vallis at 19.5°N, 32.8°W, offers the potential of identifying and analyzing a wide variety of crustal materials, from the ancient heavily cratered terrain, intermediate-aged ridged plains, and reworked channel deposits, thus allowing first-order scientific investigations of the early differentiation and evolution of the crust, the development of weathering products, and the early environments and conditions on Mars.

  15. Cost-Effective ISS Space-Environment Technology Validation of Advanced Roll-Out Solar Array (ROSA), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Effort proposed is for detailed planning, configuration and hardware definition of a low-cost, but high technology payoff, ISS-based flight experiment that will...

  16. Agile: From Software to Mission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Jay; Shirley, Mark H.; Hobart, Sarah Groves

    2016-01-01

    The Resource Prospector (RP) is an in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) technology demonstration mission, designed to search for volatiles at the Lunar South Pole. This is NASA's first near real time tele-operated rover on the Moon. The primary objective is to search for volatiles at one of the Lunar Poles. The combination of short mission duration, a solar powered rover, and the requirement to explore shadowed regions makes for an operationally challenging mission. To maximize efficiency and flexibility in Mission System design and thus to improve the performance and reliability of the resulting Mission System, we are tailoring Agile principles that we have used effectively in ground data system software development and applying those principles to the design of elements of the mission operations system.

  17. MIOSAT Mission Scenario and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostara, C.; Dionisio, C.; Sgroi, G.; di Salvo, A.

    2008-08-01

    MIOSAT ("Mssione Ottica su microSATellite") is a low-cost technological / scientific microsatellite mission for Earth Observation, funded by Italian Space Agency (ASI) and managed by a Group Agreement between Rheinmetall Italia - B.U. Spazio - Contraves as leader and Carlo Gavazzi Space as satellite manufacturer. Several others Italians Companies, SME and Universities are involved in the development team with crucial roles. MIOSAT is a microsatellite weighting around 120 kg and placed in a 525 km altitude sun-synchronuos circular LEO orbit. The microsatellite embarks three innovative optical payloads: Sagnac multi spectral radiometer (IFAC-CNR), Mach Zehender spectrometer (IMM-CNR), high resolution pancromatic camera (Selex Galileo). In addition three technological experiments will be tested in-flight. The first one is an heat pipe based on Marangoni effect with high efficiency. The second is a high accuracy Sun Sensor using COTS components and the last is a GNSS SW receiver that utilizes a Leon2 processor. Finally a new generation of 28% efficiency solar cells will be adopted for the power generation. The platform is highly agile and can tilt along and cross flight direction. The pointing accuracy is in the order of 0,1° for each axe. The pointing determination during images acquisition is <0,02° for the axis normal to the boresight and 0,04° for the boresight. This paper deals with MIOSAT mission scenario and definition, highlighting trade-offs for mission implementation. MIOSAT mission design has been constrained from challenging requirements in terms of satellite mass, mission lifetime, instrument performance, that have implied the utilization of satellite agility capability to improve instruments performance in terms of S/N and resolution. The instruments provide complementary measurements that can be combined in effective ways to exploit new applications in the fields of atmosphere composition analysis, Earth emissions, antropic phenomena, etc. The Mission

  18. Mission aware energy saving strategies for Army ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattathreya, Macam S.

    Fuel energy is a basic necessity for this planet and the modern technology to perform many activities on earth. On the other hand, quadrupled automotive vehicle usage by the commercial industry and military has increased fuel consumption. Military readiness of Army ground vehicles is very important for a country to protect its people and resources. Fuel energy is a major requirement for Army ground vehicles. According to a report, a department of defense has spent nearly $13.6 billion on fuel and electricity to conduct ground missions. On the contrary, energy availability on this plant is slowly decreasing. Therefore, saving energy in Army ground vehicles is very important. Army ground vehicles are embedded with numerous electronic systems to conduct missions such as silent and normal stationary surveillance missions. Increasing electrical energy consumption of these systems is influencing higher fuel consumption of the vehicle. To save energy, the vehicles can use any of the existing techniques, but they require complex, expensive, and time consuming implementations. Therefore, cheaper and simpler approaches are required. In addition, the solutions have to save energy according to mission needs and also overcome size and weight constraints of the vehicle. Existing research in the current literature do not have any mission aware approaches to save energy. This dissertation research proposes mission aware online energy saving strategies for stationary Army ground vehicles to save energy as well as to meet the electrical needs of the vehicle during surveillance missions. The research also proposes theoretical models of surveillance missions, fuzzy logic models of engine and alternator efficiency data, and fuzzy logic algorithms. Based on these models, two energy saving strategies are proposed for silent and normal surveillance type of missions. During silent mission, the engine is on and batteries power the systems. During normal surveillance mission, the engine is

  19. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  20. Recent Hydrologic Developments in the SWOT Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdorf, D. E.; Mognard, N. M.; Cretaux, J.; Calmant, S.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Rodriguez, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography satellite mission (SWOT) is designed to measure the elevations of the world's water surfaces including both terrestrial surface waters and the oceans. CNES, NASA, and the CSA are partners in the mission as are hydrologists, oceanographers, and an international engineering team. Recent hydrologic and mission related advances include the following. (1) An airborne version of SWOT called AirSWOT has been developed to provide calibration and validation for the mission when on orbit as well as to support science and technology during mission development. AirSWOT flights are in the planning stage. (2) In early 2012, NASA and CNES issued calls for proposals to participate in the forthcoming SWOT Science Definition Team. Results are expected in time for a Fall 2012 start of the SDT. (3) A workshop held in June 2012 addressed the problem of estimating river discharge from SWOT measurements. SWOT discharge estimates will be developed for river reaches rather than individual cross-sections. Errors will result from algorithm unknowns of bathymetry and roughness, from errors in SWOT measurements of water surface height and inundation, from the incomplete temporal record dictated by the SWOT orbit, and from fluvial features such as unmeasured inflows and outflows within the reach used to estimate discharge. To overcome these issues, in-situ and airborne field data are required in order to validate and refine algorithms. (4) Two modeling methods are using the Amazon Basin as a test case for demonstrating the utility of SWOT observables for constraining water balances. In one case, parameters used to minimize differences between SWOT and model water surface elevations should be adjusted locally in space and time. In the other case, using actual altimetry data as a proxy for SWOT's water surface elevations, it was determined that model water surface elevations were less than 1.6m different from the altimetry measurements: a considerable match

  1. Communication received from the Permanent Mission of Denmark to the Agency regarding Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbales, dated 1 December 2005, from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, relating to the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology [es

  2. Communication received from the Permanent Mission of Denmark to the Agency regarding Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbales, dated 1 December 2005, from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, relating to the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology

  3. Small space reactor power systems for unmanned solar system exploration missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomfield, H.S.

    1987-12-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of the application of small nuclear reactor space power systems to the Mariner Mark II Cassini spacecraft/mission was conducted. The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the technology and performance issues associated with the reactor power system/spacecraft/mission integration. The Cassini mission was selected because study of the Saturn system was identified as a high priority outer planet exploration objective. Reactor power systems applied to this mission were evaluated for two different uses. First, a very small 1 kWe reactor power system was used as an RTG replacement for the nominal spacecraft mission science payload power requirements while still retaining the spacecraft's usual bipropellant chemical propulsion system. The second use of reactor power involved the additional replacement of the chemical propulsion system with a small reactor power system and an electric propulsion system. The study also provides an examination of potential applications for the additional power available for scientific data collection. The reactor power system characteristics utilized in the study were based on a parametric mass model that was developed specifically for these low power applications. The model was generated following a neutronic safety and operational feasibility assessment of six small reactor concepts solicited from U.S. industry. This assessment provided the validation of reactor safety for all mission phases and generatad the reactor mass and dimensional data needed for the system mass model

  4. Development and validation of a multiplex add-on assay of biomarkers related to sepsis using xMAP technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Kristian; Vest Schneider, Uffe; Scheel, Troels

    2006-01-01

    used markers. METHODS: We used a combination of in-house and commercially available multiplex immunoassays based on Luminex xMAP technology to assay biomarkers of potential interest in EDTA-plasma samples. RESULTS: A 3-plex assay for soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), soluble......: A commercially available xMAP panel can be expanded with markers of interest. The combined multiplex assay can measure the 8 analytes with high reproducibility. The xMAP technology is an appealing tool for assaying conventional cytokines in combination with new markers....

  5. Development of basic technology for instrumentation and control - Development of digital automatic supervisory limitation system and its design= validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung In; Chung, Sung Wook; Koh, Won Seok [Kyungwon University, Sungman (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Duk Young; Cheon, Sei Young [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Kyung; Kim, Sung Hun [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    A major objective of the project is to develop a digital automatic supervisory limitation system and validate its design for the next generation= nuclear power plant. The limitation system assures that the plant does not exceed the operating limits by regulation the plant operations through on-line monitoring the operating margins of the critical parameters. A new conceptual model of power maneuverability has been proposed for the design of the limitation system and for its validation. Also, the limitation system monitors overall operation processes throughout a nuclear power plant by implementing hierarchical communication networks. Based on the conceptual design in software of the 1 st year results, the detailed design of the limitation system has been performed during the 2 nd year with constructing a prototype digital system. The system consists of the software module for plant simulation and the hardware module for implementation of limitation system and the associated interfaces in hardware. The limitation algorithm were implemented into the microprocessor and the interfaces were realized through the I/O modules. Also, these modules are incorporated into the communication networks. The products of the project could be directly applicable to the following nuclear unit adopting the limitation system, providing the bumpless transition to the commercial design phase. And the prototype evaluation scheme will be very useful for the succeeding studies related to the digital nuclear I and C fields, such as fault-tolerance design methods, software verification and validation and response time execution of digital systems. 69 refs., 3 tabs., 44 figs. (author)

  6. A Methodology for Validating Safety Heuristics Using Clinical Simulations: Identifying and Preventing Possible Technology-Induced Errors Related to Using Health Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borycki, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andre; Carvalho, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, health information systems (HIS) safety has emerged as a significant concern for governments. Recently, research has emerged that has documented the ability of HIS to be implicated in the harm and death of patients. Researchers have attempted to develop methods that can be used to prevent or reduce technology-induced errors. Some researchers are developing methods that can be employed prior to systems release. These methods include the development of safety heuristics and clinical simulations. In this paper, we outline our methodology for developing safety heuristics specific to identifying the features or functions of a HIS user interface design that may lead to technology-induced errors. We follow this with a description of a methodological approach to validate these heuristics using clinical simulations. PMID:23606902

  7. Cubesat Gravity Field Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burla, Santoshkumar; Mueller, Vitali; Flury, Jakob; Jovanovic, Nemanja

    2016-04-01

    CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE missions have been successful in the field of satellite geodesy (especially to improve Earth's gravity field models) and have established the necessity towards the next generation gravity field missions. Especially, GRACE has shown its capabilities beyond any other gravity field missions. GRACE Follow-On mission is going to continue GRACE's legacy which is almost identical to GRACE mission with addition of laser interferometry. But these missions are not only quite expensive but also takes quite an effort to plan and to execute. Still there are few drawbacks such as under-sampling and incapability of exploring new ideas within a single mission (ex: to perform different orbit configurations with multi satellite mission(s) at different altitudes). The budget is the major limiting factor to build multi satellite mission(s). Here, we offer a solution to overcome these drawbacks using cubesat/ nanosatellite mission. Cubesats are widely used in research because they are cheaper, smaller in size and building them is easy and faster than bigger satellites. Here, we design a 3D model of GRACE like mission with available sensors and explain how the Attitude and Orbit Control System (AOCS) works. The expected accuracies on final results of gravity field are also explained here.

  8. Operating the Dual-Orbtier GRAIL Mission to Measure the Moon's Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerer, Joseph G.; Havens, Glen G.

    2012-01-01

    The GRAIL mission is on track to satisfy all prime mission requirements. The performance of the orbiters and payload has been exceptional. Detailed pre-launch operations planning and validation have paid off. Prime mission timeline has been conducted almost exactly as laid out in the mission plan. Flight experience in the prime mission puts the flight team in a good position for completing the challenges of the extended mission where the science payoff is even greater

  9. Valid Issues but Limited Scope: A Response to Kitchen and Berk's Research Commentary on Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie

    2017-01-01

    In their Research Commentary, Kitchen and Berk (2016) argue that educational technology may focus only on skills for low-income students and students of color, further limiting their opportunities to learn mathematical reasoning, and thus pose a challenge to realizing standards-based reforms. Although we share the concern about equity and about…

  10. Advanced Multimission Operations Systems Tech (AMMOS) Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AMMOS provides multi-mission operations, navigation, design, and training tools for Planetary Science flight missions, and undertakes technology investments for...

  11. Dukovany ASSET mission preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouklik, I.

    1996-01-01

    We are in the final stages of the Dukovany ASSET mission 1996 preparation. I would like to present some of our recent experiences. Maybe they would be helpful to other plants, that host ASSET missions in future

  12. The First Saildrone Scientific Mission: The Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokelet, E. D.; Meinig, C.; Jenkins, R.; Lawrence-Slavas, N.; Mordy, C. W.; Tabisola, H. M.; Stabeno, P. J.; Cross, J. N.

    2016-02-01

    Unmanned surface vehicles (USV) are a rapidly advancing technology that has the potential to meet the requirement for long duration and economical scientific data collection with the ability for real-time data and adaptive sampling. In 2015, NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, the University of Washington and Saildrone Inc. explored the use of a novel USV technology in the Bering Sea. Two Saildrones, wind- and solar-powered autonomous surface vehicles that can be used for extended research missions in challenging environments, were equipped with a suite of meteorological and oceanographic sensors. Each Saildrone measured position, vehicle attitude, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction, PAR, air temperature, relative humidity, magnetic field strength, ocean skin temperature, water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen concentration, chlorophyll and CDOM fluorescence. Diagnostic data were transmitted ashore every 10 minutes via Iridium satellite and updated on a web site. Command and control information was sent to the Saildrones for setting waypoints, etc. One-minute data were transmitted ashore four times per day allowing measurements to be analyzed and plotted for scientific insight and mission guidance. During this first-ever scientific mission, lasting 97 days and covering over 7600 km each, the Saildrones successfully completed several scientific survey assignments. They encountered below-freezing temperatures and winds in excess of 20 kn several times with gusts of over 46 kn. Measurements were validated against shipboard and mooring observations. Saildrone sampling strategies were modified on the fly, first to measure the effects of sea-ice melt on surface cooling and freshening, and then to study the Yukon River plume. This mission demonstrated the capability of the Saildrone vehicle to be launched from a dock to conduct autonomous and adaptive oceanographic research in a harsh, high-latitude environment.

  13. Study of Power Options for Jupiter and Outer Planet Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Fincannon, James

    2015-01-01

    Power for missions to Jupiter and beyond presents a challenging goal for photovoltaic power systems, but NASA missions including Juno and the upcoming Europa Clipper mission have shown that it is possible to operate solar arrays at Jupiter. This work analyzes photovoltaic technologies for use in Jupiter and outer planet missions, including both conventional arrays, as well as analyzing the advantages of advanced solar cells, concentrator arrays, and thin film technologies. Index Terms - space exploration, spacecraft solar arrays, solar electric propulsion, photovoltaic cells, concentrator, Fresnel lens, Jupiter missions, outer planets.

  14. Smart Aerospace eCommerce: Using Intelligent Agents in a NASA Mission Services Ordering Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moleski, Walt; Luczak, Ed; Morris, Kim; Clayton, Bill; Scherf, Patricia; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes how intelligent agent technology was successfully prototyped and then deployed in a smart eCommerce application for NASA. An intelligent software agent called the Intelligent Service Validation Agent (ISVA) was added to an existing web-based ordering application to validate complex orders for spacecraft mission services. This integration of intelligent agent technology with conventional web technology satisfies an immediate NASA need to reduce manual order processing costs. The ISVA agent checks orders for completeness, consistency, and correctness, and notifies users of detected problems. ISVA uses NASA business rules and a knowledge base of NASA services, and is implemented using the Java Expert System Shell (Jess), a fast rule-based inference engine. The paper discusses the design of the agent and knowledge base, and the prototyping and deployment approach. It also discusses future directions and other applications, and discusses lessons-learned that may help other projects make their aerospace eCommerce applications smarter.

  15. Validation and Quality Assurance for IVOA Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savalle, R.; Le Sidaner, P.; Shih, A.; Normand, J.; Coquatre Zielgen, G.

    2012-09-01

    VO Paris Data Centre is a collaboration between Observatoire de Paris, IAP, and IPSL to promote the Virtual Observatory and develop data centre activities. Our mission is to share the data centre infrastructure as well as the knowledge in standards and software, and competence in technologies. Our implication in development of standards and participation to the IVOA (International Virtual Observatory Alliance) led us to develop a service validator. After this first step we decided to gather statistics on service compliance in the IVOA. We also tried to define metrics to characterize their evolution. Finally, we plan to contact providers to encourage them to modify their services so that they become VO compliant.

  16. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  17. Importance of the validation of saving technologies of electric power; Importancia de la validacion de tecnologias ahorradoras de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valer Negrete, Adrian [Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (PAESE), Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Within the Programs of Energy Saving it is fundamental the search and application of new technologies, with which this saving can be obtained, selected with base in their technical characteristics that allow to reduce to the consumptions and demands of power, without damaging the electric networks nor the transformers of the Comision Federal de Electricidad. It is important that the investments which are made count on attractive periods of capital recovery, in comparison with the useful life of the product, reason why the knowledge and price of the new technologies will be parameters to consider in an important manner, creating the need of conducting tests that verify the veracity of the information of the supplier, resulting in certain cases, the change of design of these technologies, so that thus they fulfill the engaged characteristics. This paper indicates the characteristics that the new saving technologies of electrical energy must fulfill and the tests and parameters to consider their evaluation. [Spanish] Dentro de los Programas de Ahorro de Energia es fundamental la busqueda y aplicacion de nuevas tecnologias, con las que se pueda obtener dicho ahorro, seleccionadas con base en sus caracteristicas tecnicas que permitan reducir los consumos y demandas de potencia, sin danar las redes ni transformadores de la Comision Federal de Electricidad. Es importante que las inversiones que se realicen cuenten con periodos de recuperacion de capital atractivos, comparados con la vida util del producto, por lo que el conocimiento y precio de las nuevas tecnologias seran parametros a considerar de manera importante, creandose la necesidad de realizar pruebas que verifiquen la veracidad de la informacion del proveedor, resultando en determinados casos, el cambio de diseno de dichas tecnologias, para que asi cumplan las caracteristicas prometidas. Este trabajo indica las caracteristicas que deben cumplir las nuevas tecnologias ahorradoras de energia electrica y las

  18. Evaluation and validation of biochip multi-array technology for the screening of six families of antibiotics in honey according to the European guideline for the validation of screening methods for residues of veterinary medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Valérie; Hedou, Celine; Soumet, Christophe; Verdon, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The main chemicals used against varoa are acaricides, and the antibiotics used for the control of bee bacterial diseases are mainly tetracyclines, streptomycins, sulfonamides and chloramphenicol. No maximum residue limits (MRLs) have been set for any antibiotics in honey. Therefore, in the European Union, minimum recommended concentrations (RC) for the analytical performance of methods to control a certain set of these non-authorised chemicals in honey were published by the European Union Reference Laboratory (EU-RL) in 2007. Concerning the strategy for the control for antibiotic residues in honey, there is still a great need for a cheap and single multi-residue method. Biochip array technology is an innovative assay technology for the multi-analyte screening of biological samples in a rapid and easy-to-use format. A multi-array system, called Evidence Investigator™ (Randox, Crumlin, Co., Antrim, UK), was evaluated in our laboratory. It is a semi-automated biochip system designed for research, clinical applications and veterinary use. A competitive chemiluminescent immunoassay is employed for the detection of antimicrobials. The MicroArray II kit (AM II) dedicated to the screening of six different families of antibiotic residues was validated according to the European guideline for the validation of screening methods for residues of veterinary medicines. The specificity was proven to be very satisfactory, and applicability to different kinds of honey was demonstrated. The detection capabilities (CCβ) of six antibiotic residues were determined and were below the RCs when exist. The AM II kit could detect at least six quinolones, four tetracyclines and three epimers, three aminoglycosides, three macrolides, thiamphenicol, florfenicol and ceftiofur along with one of its stabilised metabolites, the desfuroylceftiofurcysteine disulfide (DCCD).

  19. Towards An Australian Validation of SMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J.; Allahmoradi, M.; Peischl, S.; Ye, N.

    2009-04-01

    With the imminent launch of the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, the first space-borne L-band passive microwave observations will soon be available. Consequently, preparations are underway world-wide to validate the brightness temperature measurements from this synthetic aperture technology and its derived soil moisture products during the early post launch stages. With the SMOS launch likely to be in the later part of this year, Australia is particularly well positioned for conducting the first SMOS validation campaign during its spring. The Australian campaign plans to map an approximately 500km x 100km transect (more than 20 pixels) of the Murrumbidgee Catchment of eastern Australia in its entirety at 1km resolution using the Polarimetric L-band Multibeam Radiometer (PLMR). Moreover, the Murrumbidgee Catchment area is unique as it comprises a diverse range of topographic, climatic and land cover characteristics, and therefore represents an excellent validation site for the land component of the SMOS mission. This is further supplemented by a large database of previous campaign measurements, continuous soil moisture monitoring stations, and related meteorological data for the past five years. This paper outlines the airborne campaigns and related ground monitoring planned for this first validation campaign of SMOS. Persons interested in participating in the campaign are encouraged to contact the authors.

  20. Computer graphics aid mission operations. [NASA missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeletic, James F.

    1990-01-01

    The application of computer graphics techniques in NASA space missions is reviewed. Telemetric monitoring of the Space Shuttle and its components is discussed, noting the use of computer graphics for real-time visualization problems in the retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission. The use of the world map display for determining a spacecraft's location above the earth and the problem of verifying the relative position and orientation of spacecraft to celestial bodies are examined. The Flight Dynamics/STS Three-dimensional Monitoring System and the Trajectroy Computations and Orbital Products System world map display are described, emphasizing Space Shuttle applications. Also, consideration is given to the development of monitoring systems such as the Shuttle Payloads Mission Monitoring System and the Attitude Heads-Up Display and the use of the NASA-Goddard Two-dimensional Graphics Monitoring System during Shuttle missions and to support the Hubble Space Telescope.