WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology unit treatment

  1. Enhancing the ecological and operational characteristics of water treatment units at TPPs based on baromembrane technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichirova, N. D.; Chichirov, A. A.; Filimonova, A. A.; Saitov, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    The innovative baromembrane technologies for water demineralization were introduced at Russian TPPs more than 25 years ago. While being used in the power engineering industry of Russia, these technologies demonstrated certain advantages over the traditional ion-exchange and thermal technologies of makeup water treatment for steam boilers. Water treatment units based on the baromembrane technology are compact, easy to operate, and highly automated. The experience gained from the use of these units shows that their reliability depends directly on preliminary water treatment. The popular water pretreatment technology with coagulation by aluminum oxychloride proved to be inefficient during the seasonal changes of source water quality that occurs at some stations. The use of aluminum coagulant at pH 8 and higher does not ensure the stable and qualitative pretreatment regime: soluble aluminum forms slip on membranes of the ultrafiltration unit, thereby causing pollution and intoxication as well as leading to structural damages or worsening of mechanical properties of the membranes. The problem of increased pH and seasonal changes of the source water quality can be solved by substitution of the traditional coagulant into a new one. To find the most successful coagulant for water pretreatment, experiments have been performed on both qualitative and quantitative analysis of the content of natural organic matters in the Volga water and their structure. We have developed a software program and measured the concentrations of soluble aluminum and iron salts at different pH values of the source water. The analysis of the obtained results has indicated that iron sulfate at pH 6.0-10.2, in contrast to aluminum oxychloride, is not characterized by increased solubility. Thus, the basic process diagrams of water pretreatment based on baromembrane technologies with pretreatment through coagulation by iron salts and wastewater amount reducing from 60-40 to 5-2% have been introduced for

  2. Use of solidification/stabilization treatment technology for environmental remediation in the United States and Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilk, C.M.

    2002-01-01

    In the United States (U.S.) Solidification/Stabilization (S/S) treatment is used to treat hazardous wastes for disposal, and in the remediation/site restoration of contaminated land. S/S is also an increasingly popular technology for Brownfields (industrial property) redevelopment since treated wastes can often be left on-site and to actually improve the site's soil for subsequent construction. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers S/S to be an established treatment technology. EPA has identified S/S treatment as Best Demonstrated Available Treatment Technology (BDAT) for at least 57 commonly produced industrial wastes (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)-listed hazardous wastes) and has selected S/S treatment for 25% of its Superfund (abandoned or uncontrolled) site remediation projects. S/S treatment involves mixing a binding reagent into the contaminated media or waste. Successful treatment is accomplished through physical changes to the waste form, and often, chemical changes to the hazardous constituents themselves. Commonly used S/S binding reagents in include portland cement, cement kiln dust, lime, lime kiln dust and fly ash. These materials are used alone or in combination. Proprietary reagents are also beginning to be marketed and used in the U.S. and Canada. This paper will discuss: (a) applicability of the technology to various wastes, (b) basic cement chemistry relating to S/S, (c) tests used to design treatability studies and to verify treatment, (d) basics on implementation of the technology in the field, and (e) examples of actual projects. (author)

  3. Study of the uses of Information and Communication Technologies by Pain Treatment Unit Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriel Fernandez, Jorge; Sánchez Ledesma, María José; López Millan, Manuel; García Cenador, María Begoña

    2017-05-01

    Adequate use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in health has been shown to save the patient and caregiver time, improve access to the health system, improve diagnosis and control of disease or treatment. All this results in cost savings, and more importantly, they help improve the quality of service and the lives of patients. The purpose of this study is to analyse the differences in the uses of this ICTs between those physicians that belong to Pain Treatment Units (PU) and other physicians that work in pain not linked to these PUs. An online survey, generated by Netquest online survey tool, was sent to both groups of professionals and the data collected was statistical analysed through a logistic regression methodology which is the Logit binomial model. Our results show that those physicians that belong to PUs use ICTs more frequently and consider it more relevant to their clinical practice.

  4. ICEMENERG technologies of water treatment applied at Cernavoda NPP Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanca, Angela; Bolma, Aurelia; Serbanescu, Agnes; Raducanu, Alice

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the ICEMENERG technologies for water treatment applied at Cernavoda Unit 1, the treatment of the additional water for power steam generators and the chemical treatment of cooling system water. The requirements for quality of water totally demineralized as imposed by the AECL-ANSALDO consortium are as following: electrical conductivity, < 0.2 mS/cm; total silicon, <0.02 mg/L; ionic silicon, <0.01 mg/L; sodium, < 0.05 mg/L; TOC, <0.300 mg/L. These requirements raise rather difficult problems to be solved because the raw water source in case of Cernavoda NPP is Danube River which presents a raising trend of organic and inorganic contamination. Accordingly, experiments at laboratory scale reproducing the entire technological flow were conducted. The following operations were studied: pretreatment with limewash, ferric chloride (with and without coagulation additives); demineralization with ion exchangers of Purolite and Amberlite types. The system consisted of a cationic stage, formed of an strongly acid step with countercurrent recovery and an anionic stage formed of two steps, namely, a weakly basic step and a strongly basic step with recovery inserted; finishing on mixed bed. The paper presents also the chemical treatment/conditioning of the cooling loop of turbine condenser. The Cernavoda NPP cooling system is an open system with a single flow of cooling water comprising two systems, namely, the circulation water system ensuring the steam condenser cooling and the servicing water system ensuring the cooling of heat exchangers in the recirculated water circuit (RCWS), the turbine oil coolants, the coolants of auxiliary steam as well as the emergency core cooling system. Studies were conducted to ensure the chemical conditioning of the raw water from Danube River, particularly, to destroy and remove the shells, the algae and other components. Finally, the following four steps of conditioning the water of the cooling system are summarized: 1

  5. Water Treatment Technology - Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on filtration provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purposes of sedimentation basins and flocculation…

  6. Water Treatment Technology - Wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on wells provides instructional materials for five competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: dug, driven, and chilled wells, aquifer types, deep well…

  7. Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

  8. ALTERNATIVE REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY STUDY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT AT 200-PO-1 OPERABLE UNIT AT HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DADO MA

    2008-07-31

    This study focuses on the remediation methods and technologies applicable for use at 200-PO-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. The 200-PO-I Groundwater au requires groundwater remediation because of the existence of contaminants of potential concern (COPC). A screening was conducted on alternative technologies and methods of remediation to determine which show the most potential for remediation of groundwater contaminants. The possible technologies were screened to determine which would be suggested for further study and which were not applicable for groundwater remediation. COPCs determined by the Hanford Site groundwater monitoring were grouped into categories based on properties linking them by remediation methods applicable to each COPC group. The screening considered the following criteria. (1) Determine if the suggested method or technology can be used for the specific contaminants found in groundwater and if the technology can be applied at the 200-PO-I Groundwater au, based on physical characteristics such as geology and depth to groundwater. (2) Evaluate screened technologies based on testing and development stages, effectiveness, implementability, cost, and time. This report documents the results of an intern research project conducted by Mathew Dado for Central Plateau Remediation in the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project. The study was conducted under the technical supervision of Gloria Cummins and management supervision of Theresa Bergman and Becky Austin.

  9. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Providers, Emergency Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  10. United States advanced technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longenecker, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    In the United States, the advanced technologies have been applied to uranium enrichment as a means by which it can be assured that nuclear fuel cost will remain competitive in the future. The United States is strongly committed to the development of advanced enrichment technology, and has brought both advanced gas centrifuge (AGC) and atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) programs to a point of significant technical refinement. The ability to deploy advanced technologies is the basis for the confidence in competitive future price. Unfortunately, the development of advanced technologies is capital intensive. The year 1985 is the key year for advanced technology development in the United States, since the decision on the primary enrichment technology for the future, AGC or AVLIS, will be made shortly. The background on the technology selection process, the highlights of AGC and AVLIS programs and the way to proceed after the process selection are described. The key objective is to maximize the sales volume and minimize the operating cost. This will help the utilities in other countries supply low cost energy on a reliable, long term basis. (Kako, I.)

  11. Waste Water Treatment Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.E.K.

    2004-01-01

    A wastewater treatment plant to treat both the sanitary and industrial effluent originated from process, utilities and off site units of the refinery is described. The purpose is to obtain at the end of the treatment plant, a water quality that is in compliance with contractual requirements and relevant environmental regulations. first treatment (pretreatment). Primary de-oiling, Equalization, Neutralization, Secondary de-oiling. Second treatment (Biological), The mechanism of BOD removal, Biological flocculation, Nutrient requirements, Nitrification, De-nitrification, Effect of temperature, Effect of ph, Toxicity

  12. Water Treatment Technology - Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on distribution systems provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pipe for distribution systems, types…

  13. Application Technology Research Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To conduct fundamental and developmental research on new and improved application technologies to protect floricultural, nursery, landscape, turf, horticultural, and...

  14. TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR ARSENIC REMOVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) recently reduced the arsenic maximum contaminant level (MCL) from 0.050 mg/L to 0.010 mg/L. In order to increase arsenic outreach efforts, a summary of the new rule, related health risks, treatment technologies, and desig...

  15. Soil treatment technologies combined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, K.J.; Russell, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) presents a legislative mandate to select effective and long-term remediation options. SARA has spurred the development of innovative technologies and other remedial alternatives that can be applied to the diverse contaminated media at hazardous waste sites. Even though many treatment technologies have been investigated for use at hazardous waste sites, only a few have been used successfully. Soil vapor extraction and soil composting have achieved cleanup goals at sites with soils contaminated with solvents, aromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum derivatives. With the increased use of innovative on-site technologies, the integration of multiple technologies to remediate sites with complex contaminants becomes a viable and cost-effective remedial alternative. Soil vapor extraction and composting have been applied successfully as individual technologies at hazardous waste sites. An integration of these two technologies also has been used to remediate a complex contaminated site

  16. SI units in engineering and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Qasim, S H

    2016-01-01

    SI Units in Engineering and Technology focuses on the use of the International System of Units-Systeme International d'Unités (SI). The publication first elaborates on the SI, derivation of important engineering units, and derived SI units in science and engineering. Discussions focus on applied mechanics in mechanical engineering, electrical and magnetic units, stress and pressure, work and energy, power and force, and magnitude of SI units. The text then examines SI units conversion tables and engineering data in SI units. Tables include details on the sectional properties of metals in SI units, physical properties of important molded plastics, important physical constants expressed in SI units, and temperature, area, volume, and mass conversion. Tables that show the mathematical constants, standard values expressed in SI units, and Tex count conversion are also presented. The publication is a dependable source of data for researchers interested in the use of the International System of Units-Systeme Inter...

  17. Design parameters for waste effluent treatment unit from beverages production

    OpenAIRE

    Mona A. Abdel-Fatah; H.O. Sherif; S.I. Hawash

    2017-01-01

    Based on a successful experimental result from laboratory and bench scale for treatment of wastewater from beverages industry, an industrial and efficient treatment unit is designed and constructed. The broad goal of this study was to design and construct effluent, cost effective and high quality treatment unit. The used technology is the activated sludge process of extended aeration type followed by rapid sand filters and chlorination as tertiary treatment. Experimental results have been con...

  18. Adaptive remediation using portable treatment units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahowick, S.; Folsom, E.; Pico, T.

    1996-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is using adaptive remediation to optimize their environmental restoration strategy. Adaptive remediation uses hydrostratigraphic analysis to gain a better understanding of the subsurface characteristics, hydraulic tests to optimize contaminant transport models, and Portable Treatment Units (PTUs) as an alternative to fixed facilities. Hydrostratigraphic analysis is an optimization tool that improves the ability to identify and target contaminant migration pathways, identify the relationship between plumes and source areas, and better define hydraulic capture areas. Hydraulic tests, performed with PTUs, provide valuable data about subsurface characteristics. As clean up progresses, PTUs can be moved to the appropriate extraction wells to optimize contaminant mass removal. PTUs can also be placed to support innovative treatment technologies such as steam injection and microbial filters. Construction of PTUs will reduce by one-half the capital costs of building the rest of the fixed treatment system planned in the Record of Decision. Regulatory agencies are receptive to the use of the PTUs because the same treatment technology is being used and the PTUs will be able to clean up the plume cheaper and faster. Using adaptive remediation, LLNL is more effectively implementing remediation plans, improving cleanup time, and reducing project costs

  19. Technology assessment of thermal treatment technologies using ORWARE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assefa, G.; Eriksson, O.; Frostell, B.

    2005-01-01

    A technology assessment of thermal treatment technologies for wastes was performed in the form of scenarios of chains of technologies. The Swedish assessment tool, ORWARE, was used for the assessment. The scenarios of chains of thermal technologies assessed were gasification with catalytic combustion, gasification with flame combustion, incineration and landfilling. The landfilling scenario was used as a reference for comparison. The technologies were assessed from ecological and economic points of view. The results are presented in terms of global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, consumption of primary energy carriers and welfare costs. From the simulations, gasification followed by catalytic combustion with energy recovery in a combined cycle appeared to be the most competitive technology from an ecological point of view. On the other hand, this alternative was more expensive than incineration. A sensitivity analysis was done regarding electricity prices to show which technology wins at what value of the unit price of electricity (SEK/kW h). Within this study, it was possible to make a comparison both between a combined cycle and a Rankine cycle (a system pair) and at the same time between flame combustion and catalytic combustion (a technology pair). To use gasification just as a treatment technology is not more appealing than incineration, but the possibility of combining gasification with a combined cycle is attractive in terms of electricity production. This research was done in connection with an empirical R and D work on both gasification of waste and catalytic combustion of the gasified waste at the Division of Chemical Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden

  20. Plasma technology for waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Improved environmental cleanup technology is needed to meet demanding goals for remediation and treatment of future waste streams. Plasma technology has unique features which could provide advantages of reduced secondary waste, lower cost, and onsite treatment for a wide variety of applications. Plasma technology can provide highly controllable processing without the need for combustion heating. It can be used to provide high temperature processing (∼10,000 degrees C). Plasma technology can also be employed for low temperature processing (down to room temperature range) through selective plasma chemistry. A graphite electrode arc plasma furnace at MIT has been used to investigate high temperature processing of simulated solid waste for Department of Energy environmental cleanup applications. Stable, non-leachable glass has been produced. To ensure reliable operation and to meet environmental objectives, new process diagnostics have been developed to measure furnace temperature and to determine metals emissions in the gaseous effluent. Selective plasma destruction of dilute concentrations of hazardous compounds in gaseous waste streams has been investigated using electron beam generated plasmas. Selective destruction makes it possible to treat the gas steam at relatively low temperatures in the 30-300 degrees C range. On-line infrared measurements have been used in feedback operation to maximize efficiency and ensure desired performance. Plasma technology and associated process diagnostics will be used in future studies of a wide range of waste streams

  1. Assisted Reproductive Technology Surveillance - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderam, Saswati; Kissin, Dmitry M; Crawford, Sara B; Folger, Suzanne G; Boulet, Sheree L; Warner, Lee; Barfield, Wanda D

    2018-02-16

    Since the first U.S. infant conceived with assisted reproductive technology (ART) was born in 1981, both the use of ART and the number of fertility clinics providing ART services have increased steadily in the United States. ART includes fertility treatments in which eggs or embryos are handled in the laboratory (i.e., in vitro fertilization [IVF] and related procedures). Although the majority of infants conceived through ART are singletons, women who undergo ART procedures are more likely than women who conceive naturally to deliver multiple-birth infants. Multiple births pose substantial risks for both mothers and infants, including obstetric complications, preterm delivery (state-specific information for the United States (including the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico) on ART procedures performed in 2015 and compares birth outcomes that occurred in 2015 (resulting from ART procedures performed in 2014 and 2015) with outcomes for all infants born in the United States in 2015. 2015. In 1995, CDC began collecting data on ART procedures performed in fertility clinics in the United States as mandated by the Fertility Clinic Success Rate and Certification Act of 1992 (FCSRCA) (Public Law 102-493 [October 24, 1992]). Data are collected through the National ART Surveillance System, a web-based data collection system developed by CDC. This report includes data from 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico). In 2015, a total of 182,111 ART procedures (range: 135 in Alaska to 23,198 in California) with the intent to transfer at least one embryo were performed in 464 U.S. fertility clinics and reported to CDC. These procedures resulted in 59,334 live-birth deliveries (range: 55 in Wyoming to 7,802 in California) and 71,152 infants born (range: 68 in Wyoming to 9,176 in California). Nationally, the number of ART procedures performed per 1 million women of reproductive age (15-44 years), a proxy measure of the ART utilization rate, was

  2. Conceptual Thermal Treatment Technologies Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suer, A.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents a conceptual Thermal Treatment Technologies Feasibility Study (FS) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) focusing exclusively on thermal treatment technologies for contaminated soil, sediment, or sludge remediation projects

  3. Design parameters for waste effluent treatment unit from beverages production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona A. Abdel-Fatah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on a successful experimental result from laboratory and bench scale for treatment of wastewater from beverages industry, an industrial and efficient treatment unit is designed and constructed. The broad goal of this study was to design and construct effluent, cost effective and high quality treatment unit. The used technology is the activated sludge process of extended aeration type followed by rapid sand filters and chlorination as tertiary treatment. Experimental results have been considered as the basis for full scale design of the industrial capacity of 1600 m3/day treatment plant. Final effluent characteristics after treatment comply with Egyptian legalizations after reducing COD and BOD5 by about 97% and 95% respectively. So it is recommended to reuse treated effluent in textile industry in dyeing process.

  4. Wastes to Resources: Appropriate Technologies for Sewage Treatment and Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stephen P.

    Appropriate technology options for sewage management systems are explained in this four-chapter report. The use of appropriate technologies is advocated for its health, environmental, and economic benefits. Chapter 1 presents background information on sewage treatment in the United States and the key issues facing municipal sewage managers.…

  5. Membrane technology revolutionizes water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilderer, P A; Paris, S

    2007-01-01

    Membranes play a crucial role in living cells, plants and animals. They not only serve as barriers between the inside and outside world of cells and organs. More importantly, they are means of selective transport of materials and host for biochemical conversion. Natural membrane systems have demonstrated efficiency and reliability for millions of years and it is remarkable that most of these systems are small, efficient and highly reliable even under rapidly changing ambient conditions. Thus, it appears to be advisable for technology developers to keep a close eye on Mother Nature. By doing so it is most likely that ideas for novel technical solutions are born. Following the concept of natural systems it is hypothesized that the Millennium Development Goals can be best met when counting on small water and wastewater treatment systems. The core of such systems could be membranes in which chemical reactions are integrated allowing recovery and direct utilization of valuable substances.

  6. Guide to treatment technology for contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, H.; Aylward, R.

    1992-01-01

    This document is a guide for the screening of alternative treatment technologies for contaminated soils. The contents of this guide are organized into: 1. Introduction, II. Utilizing the table, III. Tables: Contamination Versus Technology, TV. Contaminant Waste Groups, and V. References. The four Contaminations Versus Technology tables are designed to identify the effectiveness and/or potential applicability of technologies to some or all compounds within specific waste groups. The tables also present limitations and special use considerations for the particular treatment technology. The phase of development of the technology is also included in the table. The phases are: Available, Innovative, and Emerging technologies. The technologies presented in this guide are organized according to the method of treatment. The four (4) treatment methods are Biological, Solidification/Stabilization, Thermal, and Chemical/Physical Treatment. There are several processing methods; some are well developed and proven, and others are in the development stage

  7. Membrane technologies for liquid radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Harasimowicz, M.; Zakrzewska-Trznadel, G.

    1998-01-01

    At Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (INCT) the membrane method for purification of radioactive wastes applied such processes as ultrafiltration (UF), 'seeded' ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis (RO) was developed. On the basis of the results obtained in laboratory experiments the pilot plant for radioactive effluents treatment was built. The plant was composed of UF unit (AMICON H 26P30 capillary module) and two RO units (NITTO NTR 739 HF S-4 spiral wound LPRO modules). The capacity of the pilot plant was up to 200 L/h and the specific activity of wastes purified in the system - below 10 4 Bq/L. Decontamination factor for entire system is higher than 5 x10 3 . Another possibility for radioactive wastes treatment is membrane distillation (MD), non-isothermal process employing hydrophobic polymer membrane, which is developed at INCT now. Preliminary tests with liquid radwaste were carried out on laboratory unit with permeation test-cell holding flat sheet membrane. As a hydrophobic barrier membranes made of two polymers were used: polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polypropylene (PP). The process was arranged in direct contact membrane distillation configuration. The permeate condensed directly in the cold stream (distilled water) and retentate was enriched in radionuclides. The further experiments carried out with capillary module BFMF 06-30-33 (Euro-Sep Ltd.) with polypropylene capillaries, diameter 0.33 mm and cut off 0.6 μm proved previous results. A pilot plant employing GORE-TEX membrane distillation was constructed. The plant can clean the low-level radioactive wastes from nuclear centre, at a throughput about 0.05 m 3 /h

  8. Technologies 1995: environment and wastes treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-03-01

    From new technical or scientific developments, new products launching, and markets evolutions, this catalog gives informations selection on research and development projects, new fabrication processes, activities and plants strategies, licences or technology transfers opportunities. The covered fields are: atmospheric pollution controls, water and liquid wastes treatment, polluted soils treatments, noise and odors treatments, municipal and industrial wastes treatments (metal, plastic, paper, glass), clean materials and technologies, radioactive wastes, and european cooperation programs. (A.B.)

  9. X-231B technology demonstration for in situ treatment of contaminated soil: Technology evaluation and screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegrist, R.L.; Morris, M.I.; Donaldson, T.L.; Palumbo, A.V.; Herbes, S.E.; Jenkins, R.A.; Morrissey, C.M.; Harris, M.T.

    1993-08-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Ports) is located approximately 70 miles south of Columbus in southern Ohio. Among the several waste management units on the facility, the X-231B unit consists of two adjacent oil biodegradation plots. The plots encompass ∼ 0.8 acres and were reportedly used from 1976 to 1983 for the treatment and disposal of waste oils and degreasing solvents, some containing uranium-235 and technetium-99. The X-231B unit is a regulated solid waste management unit (SWMU) under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The X-231B unit is also a designated SWMU located within Quadrant I of the site as defined in an ongoing RCRA Facilities Investigation and Corrective Measures Study (RFI/CMS). Before implementing one or more Technology Demonstration Project must be completed. The principal goal of this project was to elect and successfully demonstrate one ore more technologies for effective treatment of the contaminated soils associated with the X-231B unit at PORTS. The project was divided into two major phases. Phase 1 involved a technology evaluation and screening process. The second phase (i.e., Phase 2) was to involve field demonstration, testing and evaluation of the technology(s) selected during Phase 1. This report presents the methods, results, and conclusions of the technology evaluation and screening portion of the project

  10. The United States Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technology`s Technology Benefits Recording System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, K.R.; Moore, N.L.

    1994-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technology`s (OIT`s) Technology Benefits Recording System (TBRS) was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The TBRS is used to organize and maintain records of the benefits accrued from the use of technologies developed with the assistance of OIT. OIT has had a sustained emphasis on technology deployment. While individual program managers have specific technology deployment goals for each of their ongoing programs, the Office has also established a separate Technology Deployment Division whose mission is to assist program managers and research and development partners commercialize technologies. As part of this effort, the Technology Deployment Division developed an energy-tracking task which has been performed by PNL since 1977. The goal of the energy-tracking task is to accurately assess the energy savings impact of OIT-developed technologies. In previous years, information on OIT-sponsored technologies existed in a variety of forms--first as a hardcopy, then electronically in several spreadsheet formats that existed in multiple software programs. The TBRS was created in 1993 for OIT and was based on information collected in all previous years from numerous industrial contacts, vendors, and plants that have installed OIT-sponsored technologies. The TBRS contains information on technologies commercialized between 1977 and the present, as well as information on emerging technologies in the late development/early commercialization stage of the technology life cycle. For each technology, details on the number of units sold and the energy saved are available on a year-by-year basis. Information regarding environmental benefits, productivity and competitiveness benefits, or impact that the technology may have had on employment is also available.

  11. Nuclear Systems (NS): Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nuclear Systems Project demonstrates nuclear power technology readiness to support the goals of NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate. To this end, the...

  12. Adapting UASB technology for sewage treatment in Palestine and Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoud, N.A.; Zeeman, G.; Lier, van J.B.

    2008-01-01

    High rate anaerobic technologies offer cost-effective solutions for "sewage" treatment in the temperate climate of Palestine and Jordan. However, local sewage characteristics demand amendments to the conventional UASB reactor design. A solution is found in a parallel operating digester unit that

  13. Radioactive Dry Process Material Treatment Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. J.; Hung, I. H.; Kim, K. K. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The project 'Radioactive Dry Process Material Treatment Technology Development' aims to be normal operation for the experiments at DUPIC fuel development facility (DFDF) and safe operation of the facility through the technology developments such as remote operation, maintenance and pair of the facility, treatment of various high level process wastes and trapping of volatile process gases. DUPIC Fuel Development Facility (DFDF) can accommodate highly active nuclear materials, and now it is for fabrication of the oxide fuel by dry process characterizing the proliferation resistance. During the second stage from march 2005 to February 2007, we carried out technology development of the remote maintenance and the DFDF's safe operation, development of treatment technology for process off-gas, and development of treatment technology for PWR cladding hull and the results was described in this report.

  14. Treatment technology for organic radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, S. J.; Lee, Y. H.; Shon, J. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    In this report, various alternative technologies to the incineration for the treatment of radioactive organic wastes were described and reviewed, fallen into two groups of low temperature technologies and high temperature technologies. These technologies have the advantages of low volume gaseous emission, few or no dioxin generation, and operation at low enough temperature that radionuclides are not volatilized. Delphi chemical oxidation, mediated electrochemical oxidation, and photolytic ultraviolet oxidation appear to be the most promising low temperature oxidation process and steam reforming and supercritical water oxidation in the high temperature technologies. 52 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  15. Innovative hazardous waste treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.M.; Sferra, P.R.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains 21 various biodegradation techniques for hazardous waste treatment. Topics include: cyclic vertical water table movement for enhancement of in situ biodegradation of diesel fuel; enhanced biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons; and evaluation of aeration methods to bioremediate fuel-contaminated soils

  16. Membrane technology water treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruzdev, E. N.; Starikov, E.N.

    2009-01-01

    The suggested technical solution, in contrast with the traditional treatment methods using pressure filtration and sorption cleaning, can be applied with minimal used for equipment, stable production and the use of reagents, prevention of the formation of waste water with high mineral content and avoid the need for neutralization of the main stream of waste water

  17. Incineration and flue gas treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The proceedings are presented of an international symposium on Incineration and Flue Gas Treatment Technologies, held at Sheffield University in July 1997. Papers from each of the six sessions cover the behaviour of particles in incinerator clean-up systems, pollution control technologies, the environmental performance of furnaces and incinerators, controlling nitrogen oxide emissions, separation processes during flue gas treatment and regulatory issues relating to these industrial processes. (UK)

  18. Solar based water treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Hyder, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    In developing countries, the quality of drinking water is so poor that reports of 80% diseases from water-related causes is no surprise (Tebbet, 90). Frequently, there are reports in press of outbreak of epidemics in cities due to the unhygienic drinking-water. The state of affairs in the rural areas can be well imagined, where majority of the people live with no piped water. This paper describes the solar-based methods of removing organic pollutants from waste-water (also called Advanced Oxidation Technologies) and solar desalination. Experimental results of a simple solar water-sterilization technique have been discussed, along with suggestions to enhance the performance of this technique. (author)

  19. Assisted reproductive technology treatment outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Naasan, M

    2012-05-01

    Information on the outcomes of ART treatments in Ireland is not readily available to Irish practitioners. The data for hospital affiliated clinics has been made available for many years and is included in the hospital reports. We present a 10-year analysis of the Irish ART results voluntarily reported by six out of seven IVF clinics. The data was collected from published ESHRE reports and from results (2007-8) not yet published. Data collected included: number of clinics and ART cycles, female age, clinical and multiple pregnancy rates and treatment complications. The clinical pregnancy rate per embryo transfer was 31.7% for IVF and 29.8% for ICSI. The proportion of singleton, twin and triplet deliveries for IVF and ICSI combined was 75%, 23.35% and 1.64%. The rate of ovarian hyperstimulation was 0.8%. ART practice in Ireland is safe, effective and responsible. Financial and societal savings could result from the introduction of state funded IVF with compulsory eSET where recommended.

  20. Environmental Consequences of Pig Slurry Treatment Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ten Hoeve, Marieke

    occur during manure storage and after field application. The main emissions are ammonia, nitrous oxide, methane, carbon dioxide, nitrate, phosphorus and odour. Slurry treatment technologies have been and are being developed in order to reduce the environmental impacts of manure. However, it is important...... and excluding biogenic carbon, marine and freshwater eutrophication potential, terrestrial acidification and eutrophication potential, and fossil resource depletion potential. The different types of treatment technologies showed varying environmental profiles, meaning that one type of technology was beneficial...... technology, or co-substrate for anaerobic digestion). With respect to odorous emissions, an LCIA method was developed, but due to a lack of data it proved difficult to include odour in LCA. Regulations appear to have an influence on the environmental impacts of slurry treatment. A decrease in N application...

  1. United States Japan Industry and Technology Management Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gercik, Patricia

    2001-01-01

    .... The intellectual focus of the Program is to integrate the research methodologies of the social sciences, the humanities, and technology to approach issues confronting the United States and Japan...

  2. Decision support for redesigning wastewater treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConville, Jennifer R; Künzle, Rahel; Messmer, Ulrike; Udert, Kai M; Larsen, Tove A

    2014-10-21

    This paper offers a methodology for structuring the design space for innovative process engineering technology development. The methodology is exemplified in the evaluation of a wide variety of treatment technologies for source-separated domestic wastewater within the scope of the Reinvent the Toilet Challenge. It offers a methodology for narrowing down the decision-making field based on a strict interpretation of treatment objectives for undiluted urine and dry feces and macroenvironmental factors (STEEPLED analysis) which influence decision criteria. Such an evaluation identifies promising paths for technology development such as focusing on space-saving processes or the need for more innovation in low-cost, energy-efficient urine treatment methods. Critical macroenvironmental factors, such as housing density, transportation infrastructure, and climate conditions were found to affect technology decisions regarding reactor volume, weight of outputs, energy consumption, atmospheric emissions, investment cost, and net revenue. The analysis also identified a number of qualitative factors that should be carefully weighed when pursuing technology development; such as availability of O&M resources, health and safety goals, and other ethical issues. Use of this methodology allows for coevolution of innovative technology within context constraints; however, for full-scale technology choices in the field, only very mature technologies can be evaluated.

  3. Assessing mixed waste treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.; Bloom, G.A.; Hart, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the management and treatment of its mixed low-level wastes (MLLW). As discussed earlier in this conference MLLW are regulated under both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and various DOE orders. During the next 5 years, DOE will manage over 1,200,000 m 3 of MLLW and mixed transuranic (MTRU) waste at 50 sites in 22 states (see Table 1). The difference between MLLW and MTRU waste is in the concentration of elements that have a higher atomic weight than uranium. Nearly all of this waste will be located at 13 sites. More than 1400 individual mixed waste streams exist with different chemical and physical matrices containing a wide range of both hazardous and radioactive contaminants. Their containment and packaging vary widely (e.g., drums, bins, boxes, and buried waste). This heterogeneity in both packaging and waste stream constituents makes characterization difficult, which results in costly sampling and analytical procedures and increased risk to workers

  4. Plasma technology for treatment of waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, D [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Fusion Center

    1997-12-31

    Meeting goals for waste cleanup will require new technology with improved environmental attractiveness and reduced cost. Plasma technology appears promising because of the high degree of controllability; capability to process waste without the adverse effects of combustion; and a very wide temperature range of operation. At the Plasma Fusion Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, a range of plasma technologies are being investigated. `Hot` thermal plasmas produced by DC arc technology are being examined for treatment of solid waste. In conjunction with this activity, new diagnostics are being developed for monitoring arc furnace operating parameters and gaseous emissions. Electron-beam generated plasma technology is being investigated as a means of producing non-thermal `cold` plasmas for selective processing of dilute concentrations of gaseous waste. (author). 4 figs., 5 refs.

  5. Soil treatment technologies: Comparison of field experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodges, H.I.; Jackson, D.W.; Kline, K.

    1992-01-01

    A number of on-site soil treatment technologies are available for closure of oil-field waste pits, leaking underground storage tank (LUST) sites, and general hydrocarbon contamination. This paper will contrast Separation Systems Consultants, Inc.'s (SSCI's) field experiences with the following soil restoration techniques: (1) Land Treatment using indigenous microbes; (2) Land Farming using commercial microbes; (3) Low Temperature Thermal Treatment; (4) Solidification. The technologies will be contrasted in terms of regulatory constraints and requirements, key set-up and maintenance consideration, selection factors. Included in the regulatory contrast is the authors' perception of regulatory attitudes toward the techniques. Because this paper is based on actual field experience and projects, the practical aspects of making the technologies work is emphasized

  6. The vacuum system for technological unit development and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukeshov, A. M.; Gabdullina, A. T.; Amrenova, A. U.; Giniyatova, Sh G.; Kaibar, A.; Sundetov, A.; Fermakhan, K.

    2015-11-01

    The paper shows results of development of plasma technological unit on the basis of accelerator of vacuum arc and automated system. During the previous years, the authors investigated the operation of pulsed plasma accelerator and developed unique technologies for hardening of materials. Principles of plasma formation in pulsed plasma accelerator were put into basis of the developed unit. Operation of the pulsed arc accelerator was investigated at different parameters of the charge. The developed vacuum system is designed for production of hi-tech plasma units in high technologies in fields of nanomaterials, mechanical and power engineering and production with high added value. Unlike integrated solutions, the system is a module one to allow its low cost, high reliability and simple maintenance. The problems of use of robots are discussed to modernize the technological process.

  7. The vacuum system for technological unit development and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukeshov, A M; Gabdullina, A T; Amrenova, A U; Giniyatova, Sh G; Kaibar, A; Sundetov, A; Fermakhan, K

    2015-01-01

    The paper shows results of development of plasma technological unit on the basis of accelerator of vacuum arc and automated system. During the previous years, the authors investigated the operation of pulsed plasma accelerator and developed unique technologies for hardening of materials. Principles of plasma formation in pulsed plasma accelerator were put into basis of the developed unit. Operation of the pulsed arc accelerator was investigated at different parameters of the charge. The developed vacuum system is designed for production of hi-tech plasma units in high technologies in fields of nanomaterials, mechanical and power engineering and production with high added value. Unlike integrated solutions, the system is a module one to allow its low cost, high reliability and simple maintenance. The problems of use of robots are discussed to modernize the technological process. (paper)

  8. Selection of technologies for municipal wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Rodríguez Miranda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In water environmental planning in watersheds should contain aspects for the decontamination of receiving water body, therefore the selection of the treatment plants municipal wastewater in developing countries, you should consider aspects of the typical composition raw wastewater pollutant removal efficiency by technology, performance indicators for technology, environmental aspects of localization and spatial localization strategy. This methodology is built on the basis of technical, economic and environmental attributes, such as a tool for decision making future investments in treatment plants municipal wastewater with multidisciplinary elements.

  9. Sustainability assessment of advanced wastewater treatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høibye, Linda; Clauson-Kaas, Jes; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    , which includes technical, economic and environmental aspects. The technical and economic assessment is performed on 5 advanced treatment technologies: sand filtration, ozone treatment, UV exclusively for disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms, Membrane Bioreactor (MBR), and UV in combination......As a consequence of the EU Water Framwork Directive, more focus is now on discharges of hazardous substances from wastewater treatment plants and sewers. Thus, many municipalities in Denmark may have to adopt to future advenced treatment technologies. This paper describes a holistic assessment...... with advanced oxidation. The technical assessment is based on 12 hazardous substances comprising heavy metals, organic pollutants, endocrine disruptors as well as pathogenic microorganisms. The environmental assessment is performed by life cycle assessment (LCA) comprising 9 of the specific hazardous substances...

  10. Sustainability assessment of advanced wastewater treatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høibye, Linda; Clauson-Kaas, Jes; Wenzel, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    , which includes technical, economical and environmental aspects. The technical and economical assessment is performed on 5 advanced treatment technologies: sand filtration, ozone treatment, UV exclusively for disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms, membrane bioreactor (MBR) and UV in combination......As a consequence of the EU Water Framework Directive more focus is now on discharges of hazardous substances from wastewater treatment plants and sewers. Thus, many municipalities in Denmark may have to adopt to future advanced treatment technologies. This paper describes a holistic assessment...... with advanced oxidation. The technical assessment is based on 12 hazardous substances comprising heavy metals, organic pollutants, endocrine disruptors as well as pathogenic microorganisms. The environmental assessment is performed by life cycle assessment (LCA) comprising 9 of the specific hazardous substances...

  11. A review of treatment technologies for MTBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, D.

    1995-01-01

    Available treatment technologies for methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) contamination in soil, groundwater, and recovered groundwater are reviewed and assessed. MTBE contamination is becoming an important issue due to the increasing prevalence and regulation of this gasoline additive. In addition, MTBE is more soluble and more mobile in groundwater than most hydrocarbons, so it is usually the first gasoline constituent to reach sensitive receptors. Treatment of MTBE is complicated by its Henry's constant, which is lower than most other gasoline constituents. Furthermore, evidence of biodegradability of MTBE is mixed, and MTBE does not degrade rapidly abiotically. Groundwater pumping is usually employed to contain and collect MTBE-contaminated groundwater, often successfully because of its high aqueous solubility. Air sparging/soil vapor extraction is also successfully employed to treat MTBE, but its effectiveness is reduced by the low Henry's constant of MTBE. Sparging and other aerobic bioremediation approaches are hampered by the poor biodegradability of MTBE. Oxidation technologies, such as ozone injection, hold promise for rapid in situ remediation of MTBE. Treatment of recovered groundwater contaminated with MTBE is also problematic. MTBE adsorbs poorly to granular activated carbon; advanced oxidation processes are effective on MTBE, but entail high capital and operating costs; bioreactors are of questionable effectiveness on MTBE. Air stripping is usually the most cost-effective treatment technology for MTBE so long as the off gas from the air stripper can be discharged without treatment. However, off gas treatment is expensive, so groundwater is sometimes heated to reduce the requirement for stripping air

  12. 76 FR 5834 - International Business Machines Corporation, Global Technology Services Business Unit, Integrated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... Machines Corporation, Global Technology Services Business Unit, Integrated Technology Services, Cost and..., applicable to workers of International Business Machines Corporation, Global Technology Services Business... engaged in activities related to support for the Global Technology Services Business Unit. The company...

  13. Proposal for a United Nations Basic Space Technology Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Werner

    Putting space technology and its applications to work for sustainable economic and social development is the primary objective of the United Nations Programme on Space Applications, launched in 1971. A specific goal for achieving this objective is to establish a sustainable national space capacity. The traditional line of thinking has supported a logical progression from building capacity in basic space science, to using space applications and finally - possibly - to establishing indigenous space technology capabilities. The experience in some countries suggests that such a strict line of progression does not necessarily hold true and that priority given to the establishment of early indigenous space technology capabilities may contribute to promoting the operational use of space applications in support of sustainable economic and social development. Based on these findings and on the experiences with the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI) as well as on a series of United Nations/International Academy of Astronautics Workshops on Small Satellites in the Service of Developing Countries, the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) is considering the launch of a dedicated United Nations Basic Space Technology Initiative (UNBSTI). The initiative would aim to contribute to capacity building in basic space technology and could include, among other relevant fields, activities related to the space and ground segments of small satellites and their applications. It would also provide an international framework for enhancing cooperation between all interested actors, facilitate the exchange of information on best practices, and contribute to standardization efforts. It is expected that these activities would advance the operational use of space technology and its applications in an increasing number of space-using countries and emerging space nations. The paper reports on these initial considerations and on the potential value-adding role

  14. Advances in HTGR spent fuel treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holder, N.D.; Lessig, W.S.

    1984-08-01

    GA Technologies, Inc. has been investigating the burning of spent reactor graphite under Department of Energy sponsorship since 1969. Several deep fluidized bed burners have been used at the GA pilot plant to develop graphite burning techniques for both spent fuel recovery and volume reduction for waste disposal. Since 1982 this technology has been extended to include more efficient circulating bed burners. This paper includes updates on high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel cycle options and current results of spent fuel treatment testing for fluidized and advanced circulating bed burners

  15. High-yield pulping effluent treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, W.X.; Hsieh, J.S.

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this report is to examine the high-yield (mechanical) pulp processes with respect to environmental issues affected by the discharge of their waste streams. Various statistics are given that support the view that high-yield pulping processes will have major growth in the US regions where pulp mills are located, and sites for projects in the development phase are indicated. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies applicable to these processes are reviewed. The different types of mechanical pulping or high-yield processes are explained, and the chemical additives are discussed. The important relationship between pulp yield and measure of BOD in the effluent is graphically presented. Effluent contaminants are identified, along with other important characteristics of the streams. Current and proposed environmental limitations specifically related to mechanical pulp production are reviewed. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies are discussed, along with their principle applications, uses, advantages, and disadvantages. Sludge management and disposal techniques become an intimate part of the treatment of waste streams. The conclusion is made that conventional technologies can successfully treat effluent streams under current waste-water discharge limitations, but these systems may not be adequate when stricter standards are imposed. At present, the most important issue in the treatment of pulp-mill waste is the management and disposal of the resultant sludge

  16. ENDOSCOPIC TECHNOLOGIES IN EARLY RECTAL CANCER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Samsonov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Total mesorectal excision is the “golden standard” of surgical treatment for rectal cancer. Development of endoscopic technologies allowed to implement the benefits of minimally invasive surgery in early rectal cancer treatment, decrease morbidity and mortality, improve functional outcome and quality of life. Oncological safety of this method is still a subject for discussion due to lack of lymph node harvest. Endoscopic operations for early rectal cancer are being actively implemented in daily practice, but lack of experience does not allow to include this method in national clinical prac-tice guidelines.

  17. Cellulose Nanomaterials in Water Treatment Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Alexis Wells; de Lannoy, Charles François; Wiesner, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose nanomaterials are naturally occurring with unique structural, mechanical and optical properties. While the paper and packaging, automotive, personal care, construction, and textiles industries have recognized cellulose nanomaterials’ potential, we suggest cellulose nanomaterials have great untapped potential in water treatment technologies. In this review, we gather evidence of cellulose nanomaterials’ beneficial role in environmental remediation and membranes for water filtration, including their high surface area-to-volume ratio, low environmental impact, high strength, functionalizability, and sustainability. We make direct comparison between cellulose nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in terms of physical and chemical properties, production costs, use and disposal in order to show the potential of cellulose nanomaterials as a sustainable replacement for CNTs in water treatment technologies. Finally, we comment on the need for improved communication and collaboration across the myriad industries invested in cellulose nanomaterials production and development to achieve an efficient means to commercialization. PMID:25837659

  18. Cellulose nanomaterials in water treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Alexis Wells; de Lannoy, Charles-François; Wiesner, Mark R

    2015-05-05

    Cellulose nanomaterials are naturally occurring with unique structural, mechanical and optical properties. While the paper and packaging, automotive, personal care, construction, and textiles industries have recognized cellulose nanomaterials' potential, we suggest cellulose nanomaterials have great untapped potential in water treatment technologies. In this review, we gather evidence of cellulose nanomaterials' beneficial role in environmental remediation and membranes for water filtration, including their high surface area-to-volume ratio, low environmental impact, high strength, functionalizability, and sustainability. We make direct comparison between cellulose nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in terms of physical and chemical properties, production costs, use and disposal in order to show the potential of cellulose nanomaterials as a sustainable replacement for CNTs in water treatment technologies. Finally, we comment on the need for improved communication and collaboration across the myriad industries invested in cellulose nanomaterials production and development to achieve an efficient means to commercialization.

  19. Evaluation of a technology unit in a girls' primary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Marion; Gardner, Paul L.

    1991-12-01

    Rapid advances in technology are changing the structure of the workforce. There are elite highly-paid hi-tech occupations and low status poorly-paid jobs. Women are unfortunately more likely to be found in the latter category. To allow them to qualify and compete for the higher-status positions, girls need to participate in the physical sciences and in technology studies. However, they are rarely attracted to them in secondary school, possibly because they are already alienated from them by the time they leave primary school. This paper reports some of the outcomes of a curriculum unit taught in two primary school classes in an independent school for girls. The unit was cross-curricular, involving technology, science and other fields of knowledge; it made extensive use of LEGO Technic materials. The evaluation of the unit, based on observations, a teacher journal and pupil questionnaires, focussed upon the issue of whether it assisted the girls to feel happier about working with unfamiliar technology and feel more capable of doing so. Implications for teaching technology are also discussed.

  20. 75 FR 20388 - International Business Machines Corporation, Global Technology Services Business Unit, Integrated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... Machines Corporation, Global Technology Services Business Unit, Integrated Technology Services, Cost and... Technology Services Business Unit, Integrated Technology Services, Cost and Expense Team working from various... Technology Services Business Unit. The company reports that workers leased from Datrose, Inc., were employed...

  1. Impact of pre-treatment technologies on soil aquifer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Besançon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of pre-treatment options on the performances of soil columns simulating soil aquifer treatment (SAT. For this purpose a conventional activated sludge (CAS process, a membrane bioreactor (MBR and vertical flow reed beds were used as single units or in combination before SAT. The influent and effluent from each treatment train were monitored over three successive 6-month periods, corresponding to changes in the operational conditions of the MBR and CAS units from 6 days' sludge retention time (SRT to 12 and 20 days. All the columns acted as efficient polishing steps for solids and bacteria. The column receiving effluent from the CAS system running at 6 days' SRT also presented high total nitrogen and total phosphorus removals, but this column was also associated with the lowest infiltration rates over that period. While the quality of the effluent from the column following the CAS process increased over 18 months of operation, the effluent quality of the columns receiving MBR effluent degraded. No correlations were found between variations in SRT of the MBR and CAS processes and the columns' performances. Overall, all columns, except the one receiving CAS effluent, underwent a reduction in infiltration rate over 18 months.

  2. Evaluation of innovative arsenic treatment technologies :the arsenic water technology partnership vendors forums summary report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, Randy L.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean; McConnell, Paul E.; Kirby, Carolyn (Comforce Technical Services, Inc.)

    2006-09-01

    The lowering of the drinking water standard (MCL) for arsenic from 50 {micro}g/L to 10 {micro}g/L in January 2006 could lead to significant increases in the cost of water for many rural systems throughout the United States. The Arsenic Water Technology Partnership (AWTP), a collaborative effort of Sandia National Laboratories, the Awwa Research Foundation (AwwaRF) and WERC: A Consortium for Environmental Education and Technology Development, was formed to address this problem by developing and testing novel treatment technologies that could potentially reduce the costs of arsenic treatment. As a member of the AWTP, Sandia National Laboratories evaluated cutting-edge commercial products in three annual Arsenic Treatment Technology Vendors Forums held during the annual New Mexico Environmental Health Conferences (NMEHC) in 2003, 2004 and 2005. The Forums were comprised of two parts. At the first session, open to all conference attendees, commercial developers of innovative treatment technologies gave 15-minute talks that described project histories demonstrating the effectiveness of their products. During the second part, these same technologies were evaluated and ranked in closed sessions by independent technical experts for possible use in pilot-scale field demonstrations being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories. The results of the evaluations including numerical rankings of the products, links to company websites and copies of presentations made by the representatives of the companies are posted on the project website at http://www.sandia.gov/water/arsenic.htm. This report summarizes the contents of the website by providing brief descriptions of the technologies represented at the Forums and the results of the evaluations.

  3. Onsite Greywater Treatment using Pilot Scale Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor-ul-Haq Rajput

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The GROW Technology for greywater treatment was installed at the MUET (Mehran University of Engineering & Technology, hostel and run under continuous flow conditions with hydraulic loading rate of 0.15m.d-1. The monitoring and analysis of influent and effluent water were carried out during January-December, 2010. Local plants species such as water hyacinth, Pennywort (duck weed, Mint and Cattail were used in the GROW rig as a mixed mode. Coarse Gravels were filled in the troughs as a medium. The collected samples were analyzed for BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand, COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand, TSS (Total Suspended Solids, pH, and DO (Dissolved Oxygen. Removal efficiencies of BOD5, COD and TSS were calculated as 83.0,69.0 and 84.0% respectively. DO was found increased from 0.6-3.5 mg.dm-3 while pH was observed between 6.5-7.8

  4. New technologies for big multimedia data treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Barrionuevo, Mercedes; Britos, Luis; Bustos, Fabricio H.; Gil Costa, Graciela Verónica; Lopresti, Mariela; Mancini, Virginia; Miranda, Natalia Carolina; Ochoa, César; Piccoli, María Fabiana; Printista, Alicia Marcela; Reyes, Nora Susana

    2013-01-01

    With the technology advance and the growth of Internet, the information that can be found in this net, as well as the number of users that access to look for specific data is bigger. Therefore, it is desirable to have a search system that allows to retrieve information at a reasonable time and in an efficient way. In this paper we show two computing paradigms appropriate to apply in the treatment of large amounts of data consisting of objects such as images, text, sound and video, using hybrid ...

  5. WATER MICROPOLLUTANTS: CLASSIFICATION AND TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Patiño

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the different kinds of emerging contaminants, their origin and use, and their presence in the Spanish waters, both in surface and groundwater. Micropollutants are compounds of different origin and chemical nature which had been unnoticed (due to their low concentration and don’t have specific regulation. They are divided into six major groups, and many of them behave as endocrine disruptors causing large negative effects on human health and environment. They are in waters because the waste water treatment plants are not designed for their removal, so they are being discharged. Different alternatives for their removal are discussed - physico- chemical, biological and hybrid treatment technologies -. Among the physicochemical process, the advance oxidation processes (AOPs are very promising.

  6. Technology and the Future of Mental Health Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Intervention Technology? Join a Study Learn More Technology and the Future of Mental Health Treatment Introduction ... What is NIMH’s Role in Mental Health Intervention Technology? Between FY2009 and FY2015, NIMH awarded 404 grants ...

  7. Grey water treatment by a continuous process of an electrocoagulation unit and a submerged membrane bioreactor system

    KAUST Repository

    Bani-Melhem, Khalid; Smith, Edward

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the performance of an integrated process consisting of an electro-coagulation (EC) unit and a submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) technology for grey water treatment. For comparison purposes, another SMBR process without

  8. DESIGNING FEATURES OF POWER OPTICAL UNITS FOR TECHNOLOGICAL EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Afanasiev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the question of an optical unit designing for transmitting power laser radiation through an optical fiber. The aim of this work is designing a simple construction unit with minimized reflection losses. The source of radiation in the optical unit described below is an ultraviolet laser with diode pumping. We present the general functioning scheme and designing features for the three main parts: laser beam deflecting system, laser beam dump and optical unit control system. The described laser beam deflection system is composed of a moving flat mirror and a spherical scattering mirror. Comparative analysis of the production technology for such mirrors was carried out, and, as a result, the decision was made to produce both mirrors of 99.99 % pure molybdenum without coating. A moving mirror deflects laser emission from a source through a fiber or deflects it on a spherical mirror and into the laser beam dump, moreover, switching from one position to another occurs almost immediately. It is shown that a scattering mirror is necessary, otherwise, the absorbing surface of the beam dump is being worn out irregularly. The laser beam dump is an open conical cavity, in which the conical element with its spire turned to the emission source is placed. Special microgeometry of the internal surface of the beam dump is suggested for the better absorption effect. An optical unit control system consists of a laser beam deflection system, laser temperature sensor, deflection system solenoid temperature sensor, and deflection mirror position sensor. The signal processing algorithm for signals coming from the sensors to the controller is described. The optical unit will be used in special technological equipment.

  9. Evaluating Russian space nuclear reactor technology for United States applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polansky, G.F.; Schmidt, G.L.; Voss, S.S.; Reynolds, E.L.

    1994-01-01

    Space nuclear power and nuclear electric propulsion are considered important technologies for planetary exploration, as well as selected earth orbit applications. The Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) was intended to provide an early flight demonstration of these technologies at relatively low cost through extensive use of existing Russian technology. The key element of Russian technology employed in the program was the Topaz II reactor. Refocusing of the activities of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO), combined with budgetary pressures, forced the cancellation of the NEPSTP at the end of the 1993 fiscal year. The NEPSTP was faced with many unique flight qualification issues. In general, the launch of a spacecraft employing a nuclear reactor power system complicates many spacecraft qualification activities. However, the NEPSTP activities were further complicated because the reactor power system was a Russian design. Therefore, this program considered not only the unique flight qualification issues associated with space nuclear power, but also with differences between Russian and United States flight qualification procedures. This paper presents an overview of the NEPSTP. The program goals, the proposed mission, the spacecraft, and the Topaz II space nuclear power system are described. The subject of flight qualification is examined and the inherent difficulties of qualifying a space reactor are described. The differences between United States and Russian flight qualification procedures are explored. A plan is then described that was developed to determine an appropriate flight qualification program for the Topaz II reactor to support a possible NEPSTP launch

  10. Assisted Reproductive Technology Surveillance - 
United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderam, Saswati; Kissin, Dmitry M; Crawford, Sara B; Folger, Suzanne G; Jamieson, Denise J; Warner, Lee; Barfield, Wanda D

    2015-12-04

    Since the first U.S. infant conceived with assisted reproductive technology (ART) was born in 1981, both the use of ART and the number of fertility clinics providing ART services have increased steadily in the United States. ART includes fertility treatments in which eggs or embryos are handled in the laboratory (i.e., in vitro fertilization [IVF] and related procedures). Women who undergo ART procedures are more likely than women who conceive naturally to deliver multiple-birth infants. Multiple births pose substantial risks to both mothers and infants, including obstetric complications, preterm delivery, and low birthweight infants. This report provides state-specific information for the United States (including Puerto Rico) on ART procedures performed in 2013 and compares infant outcomes that occurred in 2013 (resulting from ART procedures performed in 2012 and 2013) with outcomes for all infants born in the United States in 2013. 2013. In 1996, CDC began collecting data on ART procedures performed in fertility clinics in the United States as mandated by the Fertility Clinic Success Rate and Certification Act of 1992 (FCSRCA) (Public Law 102-493). Data are collected through the National ART Surveillance System (NASS), a web-based data collection system developed by CDC. This report includes data from 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia [DC], and Puerto Rico). In 2013, a total of 160,521 ART procedures (range: 109 in Wyoming to 20,299 in California) with the intent to transfer at least one embryo were performed in 467 U.S. fertility clinics and were reported to CDC. These procedures resulted in 53,252 live-birth deliveries (range: 47 in Alaska to 6,979 in California) and 66,691 infants (range: 61 in Alaska to 8,649 in California). Nationally, the total number of ART procedures performed per million women of reproductive age (15-44 years), a proxy measure of the ART usage rate, was 2,521 (range: 352 in Puerto Rico to 7,688 in DC). ART use

  11. Technology for treatment of decontamination products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavkhuta, G.A.; Rozdzyalovskaya, L.F.

    1994-01-01

    The research concerning the methods of management and processing of products generated as the result of post Chernobyl decontamination activities is being carried out by the Institute of Radioecological Problems of Belarus Academy of Science (IRP) in the framework of the Belarus National Programme. The main goal of this work is choice and development of an appropriate system for treatment of the decontamination radwastes, based on currently available information and experimental studies. This paper presents the technological schemes being studied for treating the post-Chernobyl liquid and solid wastes and will also briefly discuss the approach being used to settle a problem on collecting/management of low-level radioactive ash wastes, generated from the use of contaminated fuel

  12. MOBIL CONTAINER UNIT FOR SEWAGE SLUDGE UTILIZATION FROM SMALL AND MEDIUM WASTWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Stanisław Ledakowicz; Paweł Stolarek; A. Malinowski

    2016-01-01

    The most wastewater treatment plants in Poland are small and medium plants of flow capacity below 1000 m3/d. These plants are not able to build sludge incineration plants and the transportation costs to the nearest plants increase the total costs of wastewater treatment. Polish company Metal Expert together with the French company ETIA and Lodz University of Technology proposed mobile unit for integrated drying and pyrolysis of sewage sludge in a pilot bench scale with capacity of 100 kg/h ...

  13. Techno-economic analysis of resource recovery technologies for wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiocchi, Riccardo; Matafome, Beatriz; Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina

    2017-01-01

    resource-recovery treatment units: (a) a chemical precipitation process, for recovery of iron phosphate fertilizer; (b) the Exelys technology, for increased biogas production; and, (c) the Phosnix technology, for recovery of struvite fertilizer. Seven upgrade strategies/flowsheets employing different...... upgrading combinations involving chemical precipitation and Exelys technologies were not found economical for the given plant. Sensitivity analyses on the economic evaluation criteria have demonstrated that the results obtained are robust against uncertainties in influent wastewater characteristics...

  14. Data acquisition and treatment unit for use in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annaix, C; Prieur, G; Vilayleck, S; Jallet, P [C.H.R., Angers (France)

    1981-01-01

    Here is below a one-channel data acquisition unit piloted through a minicomputer programmed by means of an advanced language of the Basic type. This unit allows, especially in nuclear medicine, pulse counts from a spectrometer according to a programmed sequence. Moreover, it provides treatment of measures as well as printing and filing of interpreted results. The acquisition unit is linked to the minicomputer through a RS 232 C serial mode, which ensures both easy operation and universal use of the system here described. Accuracy of measurement is also examined.

  15. Legal aspects of auxillary reproductive technologies in infertility treatment

    OpenAIRE

    V.Yu. Albitskiy; N.D. Odinayeva; V.O. Mansimova

    2011-01-01

    The article presents several aspects of legal regulation of auxillary reproductive technologies in treatment of infertility in Russia and other countries.Key words: auxillary reproductive technologies, method of extracorporeal fertilization, newborn, premature newborn, multiple pregnancy, embryo, infertility, law.

  16. Multi-Criteria Sustainability Assessment of Urban Sludge Treatment Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Da; Xi, Beidou; Ren, Jingzheng

    2017-01-01

    to determine the weights of the criteria for sustainability assessment, and extension theory was used to prioritize the alternative technologies for the treatment of urban sewage sludge and grade their sustainability performances. An illustrative case including three technologies (compositing, incineration...

  17. Radioactive waste treatment technology at Czech nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulovany, J.

    2001-01-01

    This presentation describes the main technologies for the treatment and conditioning of radioactive wastes at Czech nuclear power plants. The main technologies are bituminisation for liquid radioactive wastes and supercompaction for solid radioactive wastes. (author)

  18. Present and Future Developments in Radiotherapy Treatment Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer

    1995-04-01

    Technical advances in the design of medical accelerators are making possible the exploration of new treatment techniques. Technology currently available to the radiation oncologist allows the use of internal and dynamic wedges. Multileaf collimators can be used for static treatment ports, and dynamic field shaping and beam modulation using multileaf collimators has been shown to be feasible. Computer interfaces are necessary to transfer the complex treatment sequences that are possible with these devices. Such network interfaces also provide for more efficient conventional treatments. New machines such as X-band linear accelerators and advanced proton accelerators are being developed for applications such as boron neutron capture therapy and proton conformal therapy.

  19. Graphite electrode DC arc technology program for buried waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittle, J.K.; Hamilton, R.A.; Cohn, D.R.; Woskov, P.P.; Thomas, P.; Surma, J.E.; Titus, C.H.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of the program is to apply EPI's Arc Furnace to the processing of Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) waste from Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This is being facilitated through the Department of Energy's Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. A second objective is to apply the diagnostics capability of MIT's Plasma Fusion Center to the understanding of the high temperature processes taking place in the furnace. This diagnostics technology has promise for being applicable in other thermal treatment processes. The program has two parts, a test series in an engineering-scale DC arc furnace which was conducted in an EPI furnace installed at the Plasma Fusion Center and a pilot-scale unit which is under construction at MIT. This pilot-scale furnace will be capable of operating in a continuous feed and continuous tap mode. Included in this work is the development and implementation of diagnostics to evaluate high temperature processes such as DC arc technology. This technology can be used as an effective stabilization process for Superfund wastes

  20. Selenium: environmental significance, pollution, and biological treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lea Chua; Nancharaiah, Yarlagadda V; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L

    2016-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element needed for all living organisms. Despite its essentiality, selenium is a potential toxic element to natural ecosystems due to its bioaccumulation potential. Though selenium is found naturally in the earth's crust, especially in carbonate rocks and volcanic and sedimentary soils, about 40% of the selenium emissions to atmospheric and aquatic environments are caused by various industrial activities such as mining-related operations. In recent years, advances in water quality and pollution monitoring have shown that selenium is a contaminant of potential environmental concern. This has practical implications on industry to achieve the stringent selenium regulatory discharge limit of 5μgSeL(-1) for selenium containing wastewaters set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Over the last few decades, various technologies have been developed for the treatment of selenium-containing wastewaters. Biological selenium reduction has emerged as the leading technology for removing selenium from wastewaters since it offers a cheaper alternative compared to physico-chemical treatments and is suitable for treating dilute and variable selenium-laden wastewaters. Moreover, biological treatment has the advantage of forming elemental selenium nanospheres which exhibit unique optical and spectral properties for various industrial applications, i.e. medical, electrical, and manufacturing processes. However, despite the advances in biotechnology employing selenium reduction, there are still several challenges, particularly in achieving stringent discharge limits, the long-term stability of biogenic selenium and predicting the fate of bioreduced selenium in the environment. This review highlights the significance of selenium in the environment, health, and industry and biotechnological advances made in the treatment of selenium contaminated wastewaters. The challenges and future perspectives are overviewed considering recent

  1. Who benefits from treatment and rehabilitation in a stroke Unit?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, H S; Kammersgaard, L P; Houth, J

    2000-01-01

    The beneficial effects of treatment and rehabilitation of patients with acute stroke in a dedicated stroke unit (SU) are well established. We wanted to examine if these effects are limited to certain groups of patients or if they apply to all patients independent of age, sex, comorbidity......, and initial stroke severity....

  2. Accessibility of hypertensive users to health units and treatment adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Marques Frota

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to analyze the accessibility of hypertensive users to the health system with focus on treatment adherence. A cross-sectional study with quantitative approach was conducted in four Family Health Basic Units of Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. The sample consisted of 400 users. Data collection happened through a form applied from May to August 2011. About 97.5% of users were older than 40 years, and 67.2% were female. The accessibility to the referral service occurred in 47.2% of users to secondary care, of which 101 (25.2% were referred to Emergency Units, and 88 (22.0% were admitted to Inpatient Units. Most hypertensive patients adhered to healthy habits, except the use of dietetic sweeteners (36.0% and physical exercise (35.0%. The hypertensive patients had good treatment adherence and difficulty in accessibility regarding counter-referral services to secondary and tertiary care services.

  3. Assisted reproductive technology treatment in women with severe eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assens, Maria; Ebdrup, Ninna H; Pinborg, Anja

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This national retrospective cohort study investigates the prevalence of women with severe eating disorders in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment compared with an age-matched background population without ART treatment. It assesses the frequency distribution of the firs...

  4. Stroke treatment outcomes in hospitals with and without Stroke Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masjuan, J; Gállego Culleré, J; Ignacio García, E; Mira Solves, J J; Ollero Ortiz, A; Vidal de Francisco, D; López-Mesonero, L; Bestué, M; Albertí, O; Acebrón, F; Navarro Soler, I M

    2017-10-23

    Organisational capacity in terms of resources and care circuits to shorten response times in new stroke cases is key to obtaining positive outcomes. This study compares therapeutic approaches and treatment outcomes between traditional care centres (with stroke teams and no stroke unit) and centres with stroke units. We conducted a prospective, quasi-experimental study (without randomisation of the units analysed) to draw comparisons between 2 centres with stroke units and 4 centres providing traditional care through the neurology department, analysing a selection of agreed indicators for monitoring quality of stroke care. A total of 225 patients participated in the study. In addition, self-administered questionnaires were used to collect patients' evaluations of the service and healthcare received. Centres with stroke units showed shorter response times after symptom onset, both in the time taken to arrive at the centre and in the time elapsed from patient's arrival at the hospital to diagnostic imaging. Hospitals with stroke units had greater capacity to respond through the application of intravenous thrombolysis than centres delivering traditional neurological care. Centres with stroke units showed a better fit to the reference standards for stroke response time, as calculated in the Quick study, than centres providing traditional care through the neurology department. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. SOLUTIONS TO OVERCOME BARRIERS TO IMPLEMENTATION OF TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    To make treatment a viable option for remediation you must first identify the barriers to implementing treatment. The primary barrier is economics. Treatment options are relatively expensive and there is a lack of funds for treatment. The cost of technologies can be lowered by 1)...

  6. Beyond Ebola treatment units: severe infection temporary treatment units as an essential element of Ebola case management during an outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Christian; Heim, Katrin Moira; Steiner, Florian; Massaquoi, Moses; Gbanya, Miatta Zenabu; Frey, Claudia; Froeschl, Guenter

    2017-02-06

    In the course of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa that was witnessed since early 2014, the response mechanisms showed deficits in terms of timeliness, volume and adequacy. The authors were deployed in the Ebola campaign in the West African country Liberia, where by September 2014 the changing epidemiological pattern made reconsiderations of guidelines and adopted procedures necessary. A temporary facility set up as a conventional Ebola Treatment Unit in the Liberian capital Monrovia was re-dedicated into a Severe Infections Temporary Treatment Unit. This facility allowed for stratification based on the nosocomial risk of exposure to Ebola virus for a growing subgroup of admitted patients that in the end would turn out as Ebola negative cases. At the same time, adequate diagnostic measures and treatment for the non-Ebola conditions of these patients could be provided without compromising work safety of the employed staff. The key elements of the new unit comprised a Suspect Cases Area similar to that of conventional Ebola treatment units for newly arriving patients, an Unlikely Cases Area for patients with a first negative Ebola PCR result, and a Confirmed Negative Cases Area for patients in whom Ebola could be ruled out. The authors, comprising representatives of the Liberian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, as well as infectious disease specialists from the German Ebola Task Force are presenting key features of the adapted concept, and are highlighting its relevance in raising acceptance for outbreak counter-measures within the population at stake.

  7. An overview of in situ waste treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, S.; Hyde, R.A.; Piper, R.B.; Roy, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    In situ technologies are becoming an attractive remedial alternative for eliminating environmental problems. In situ treatments typically reduce risks and costs associated with retrieving, packaging, and storing or disposing-waste and are generally preferred over ex situ treatments. Each in situ technology has specific applications, and, in order to provide the most economical and practical solution to a waste problem, these applications must be understood. This paper presents an overview of thirty different in situ remedial technologies for buried wastes or contaminated soil areas. The objective of this paper is to familiarize those involved in waste remediation activities with available and emerging in situ technologies so that they may consider these options in the remediation of hazardous and/or radioactive waste sites. Several types of in situ technologies are discussed, including biological treatments, containment technologies, physical/chemical treatments, solidification/stabilization technologies, and thermal treatments. Each category of in situ technology is briefly examined in this paper. Specific treatments belonging to these categories are also reviewed. Much of the information on in situ treatment technologies in this paper was obtained directly from vendors and universities and this information has not been verified

  8. Emission of gaseous organic pollutants and flue gas treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Sun, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Gaseous organic pollutants are emitted into atmosphere from various sources, creating a threat to the environment and man. New, economical technologies are needed for flue gas treatment. Emission sources of pollutants are reviewed and different treatment technologies are discussed in this report. (authors)

  9. Water treatment for fossil fuel power generation - technology status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This technology status report focuses on the use of water treatment technology in fossil fuel power plants. The use of polymeric ion exchange resins for deionization of water, the currently preferred use of ion exchange for economically treating water containing low dissolved salts, the use of low pressure high-flux membranes, membrane microfiltration, and reverse osmosis are discussed. Details are given of the benefits of the technologies, water use at power plants, the current status of water treatment technologies, and the potential for future developments, along with power plant market trends and potentials, worldwide developments, and UK capabilities in water treatment plant design and manufacturing

  10. Study on the Development of Household Wastewater Treatment Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hadi Ghawi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The cities of Iraq in general and the city of Al Diwaniyah in particular are characterized by the fact that the majority of households use septic tank to dispose of sewage, leading to contamination of ground and surface water and a disturbance to the environment. The objective of this study is to protect the water and soil sources from the risk of pollution, eliminate the process of perfusion and thus, reduce costs, maintain public health, as well as design and implement the proposed purification unit for domestic wastewater treatment. A domestic wastewater treatment unit has been improved to meet the standard specifications for the quality of the effluent wastewater. In this study, a compact non-electric sewage treatment unit was improved and implemented. Treatment is based on an effective modern biological purification process. Experimental verification and analysis of results were performed to demonstrate the improvement of physical and chemical parameters. The performance of the septic tanks-bioreactor gave satisfactory results. The removal efficiencies of Total Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, Total Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, NH4-N, Total Nitrogen and Total Suspended Solid (TSS were 96.9%, 84.6%, 78.8%, 79.9% and 95.3%, respectively.

  11. Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.; Gibson, Marc A.; Geng, Steven M.; Sanzi, James L.

    2016-01-01

    The Fission Surface Power (FSP) Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) is a system-level demonstration of fission power technology intended for use on manned missions to Mars. The Baseline FSP systems consists of a 190 kWt UO2 fast-spectrum reactor cooled by a primary pumped liquid metal loop. This liquid metal loop transfers heat to two intermediate liquid metal loops designed to isolate fission products in the primary loop from the balance of plant. The intermediate liquid metal loops transfer heat to four Stirling Power Conversion Units (PCU), each of which produce 12 kWe (48 kW total) and reject waste heat to two pumped water loops, which transfer the waste heat to titanium-water heat pipe radiators. The FSP TDU simulates a single leg of the baseline FSP system using an electrically heater core simulator, a single liquid metal loop, a single PCU, and a pumped water loop which rejects the waste heat to a Facility Cooling System (FCS). When operated at the nominal operating conditions (modified for low liquid metal flow) during TDU testing the PCU produced 8.9 kW of power at an efficiency of 21.7 percent resulting in a net system power of 8.1 kW and a system level efficiency of 17.2 percent. The reduction in PCU power from levels seen during electrically heated testing is the result of insufficient heat transfer from the NaK heater head to the Stirling acceptor, which could not be tested at Sunpower prior to delivery to the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The maximum PCU power of 10.4 kW was achieved at the maximum liquid metal temperature of 875 K, minimum water temperature of 350 K, 1.1 kg/s liquid metal flow, 0.39 kg/s water flow, and 15.0 mm amplitude at an efficiency of 23.3 percent. This resulted in a system net power of 9.7 kW and a system efficiency of 18.7 percent.

  12. Drainage treatment technology for water pollution prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebise, Sen' ichi

    1988-03-01

    Drainage is purified either at terminal treatment plants or by septic tanks for sewage. At terminal treatment plants, sewage is purified by activated sludge prosessing or by biological treatment equipment. By the normal activated sludge processing, only 20 - 30 % of nitrogen and phosphur can be removed. To solve this problem, many advanced processing systems have been employed, representative systems being coagulating sedimentation, rapid filtration, recirculating nitro-denitrification, etc. The coagulating sedimentation is a treatment process in which such metallic salt coagulations as aluminum, iron, etc. are injected and mixed with sewage, and then phosphur and the like are sedimented in the form of grains. The rapid filtration requires no large space, and can reliably remove suspended matter. For large scale septic tank processing system, advance treatment processing is supplemented to improve the quality of treated water. Among other systems of sewage purification are oxidized channel, oxidized pond, soil treatment, etc. (2 figs, 2 refs)

  13. Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal focus area. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents details about the technology development programs of the Department of Energy. In this document, waste characterization, thermal treatment processes, non-thermal treatment processes, effluent monitors and controls, development of on-site innovative technologies, and DOE business opportunities are applied to environmental restoration. The focus areas for research are: contaminant plume containment and remediation; mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; high-level waste tank remediation; landfill stabilization; and decontamination and decommissioning

  14. Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal focus area. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents details about the technology development programs of the Department of Energy. In this document, waste characterization, thermal treatment processes, non-thermal treatment processes, effluent monitors and controls, development of on-site innovative technologies, and DOE business opportunities are applied to environmental restoration. The focus areas for research are: contaminant plume containment and remediation; mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; high-level waste tank remediation; landfill stabilization; and decontamination and decommissioning.

  15. Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology and assisted reproductive technology in the United States: a 2016 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, James P; Coddington, Charles C; Doody, Kevin; Van Voorhis, Brad; Seifer, David B; Ball, G David; Luke, Barbara; Wantman, Ethan

    2016-09-01

    The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART) was established within a few years of assisted reproductive technology (ART) in the United States, and has not only reported on the evolution of infertility care, but also guided it toward improved success and safety. Moving beyond its initial role as a registry, SART has expanded its role to include quality assurance, data validation, practice and advertising guidelines, research, patient education and advocacy, and membership support. The success of ART in this country has greatly benefited from SART's role, as highlighted by a series of graphs. SART continues to set the standard and lead the way. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Water Treatment Technologies Inspire Healthy Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Mike Johnson, a former technician at Johnson Space Center, drew on his expertise as a wastewater engineer to create a line of kombucha-based probiotic drinks. Unpeeled Inc., based in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, employs 12 people and has sold more than 6 million units of its NASA-inspired beverage.

  17. The Rationalization of Automatic Units for HPDC Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with problem of optimal used automatic workplace for HPDC technology - mainly from aspects of operations sequence, efficiency of work cycle and planning of using and servicing of HPDC casting machine. Presented are possible ways to analyse automatic units for HPDC. The experimental part was focused on the rationalization of the current work cycle time for die casting of aluminium alloy. The working place was described in detail in the project. The measurements were carried out in detail with the help of charts and graphs mapped cycle of casting workplace. Other parameters and settings have been identified.The proposals for improvements were made after the first measurements and these improvements were subsequently verified. The main actions were mainly software modifications of casting center. It is for the reason that today's sophisticated workplaces have the option of a relatively wide range of modifications without any physical harm to machines themselves. It is possible to change settings or unlock some unsatisfactory parameters.

  18. United States Department of Energy solar receiver technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimas, P. C.; Diver, R. B.; Chavez, J. M.

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), through Sandia National Laboratories, has been conducting a Solar Thermal Receiver Technology Development Program, which maintains a balance between analytical modeling, bench and small scale testing, and experimentation conducted at scales representative of commercially-sized equipment. Central receiver activities emphasize molten salt-based systems on large scales and volumetric devices in the modeling and small scale testing. These receivers are expected to be utilized in solar power plants rated between 100 and 200 MW. Distributed receiver research focuses on liquid metal refluxing devices. These are intended to mate parabolic dish concentrators with Stirling cycle engines in the 5 to 25 kW(sub e) power range. The effort in the area of volumetric receivers is less intensive and highly cooperative in nature. A ceramic foam absorber of Sandia design was successfully tested on the 200 kW(sub t) test bed at Plataforma Solar during 1989. Material integrity during the approximately 90-test series was excellent. Significant progress has been made with parabolic dish concentrator-mounted receivers using liquid metals (sodium or a potassium/sodium mixture) as heat transport media. Sandia has successfully solar-tested a pool boiling reflux receiver sized to power a 25 kW Stirling engine. Boiling stability and transient operation were both excellent. This document describes these activities in detail and will outline plans for future development.

  19. B Plant treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) units inspection plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam, T.G.

    1996-01-01

    This inspection plan is written to meet the requirements of WAC 173-303 for operations of a TSD facility. Owners/operators of TSD facilities are required to inspection their facility and active waste management units to prevent and/or detect malfunctions, discharges and other conditions potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. A written plan detailing these inspection efforts must be maintained at the facility in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC), Chapter 173-303, ''Dangerous Waste Regulations'' (WAC 173-303), a written inspection plan is required for the operation of a treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) facility and individual TSD units. B Plant is a permitted TSD facility currently operating under interim status with an approved Part A Permit. Various operational systems and locations within or under the control of B Plant have been permitted for waste management activities. Included are the following TSD units: Cell 4 Container Storage Area; B Plant Containment Building; Low Level Waste Tank System; Organic Waste Tank System; Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW) Tank System; Low Level Waste Concentrator Tank System. This inspection plan complies with the requirements of WAC 173-303. It addresses both general TSD facility and TSD unit-specific inspection requirements. Sections on each of the TSD units provide a brief description of the system configuration and the permitted waste management activity, a summary of the inspection requirements, and details on the activities B Plant uses to maintain compliance with those requirements

  20. Socioeconomic constraints on the technological choices in rural sewage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Baojing; Fan, Liangcong; Ying, Zechun; Xu, Qingshan; Luo, Weidong; Ge, Ying; Scott, Steffanie; Chang, Jie

    2016-10-01

    Technological innovation is one of the potential engines to mitigate environmental pollution. However, the implementation of new technologies sometimes fails owing to socioeconomic constraints from different stakeholders. Thus, it is essential to analyze constraints of environmental technologies in order to build a pathway for their implementation. In this study, taking three technologies on rural sewage treatment in Hangzhou, China as a case study, i.e., wastewater treatment plant (WTP), constructed wetland (CW), and biogas system, we analyzed how socioeconomic constraints affect the technological choices. Results showed that socioeconomic constraints play a key role through changing the relative opportunity cost of inputs from government as compared to that of residents to deliver the public good-sewage treatment-under different economic levels. Economic level determines the technological choice, and the preferred sewage treatment technologies change from biogas system to CW and further to WTP along with the increase of economic level. Mismatch of technological choice and economic level results in failures of rural sewage treatment, e.g., the CW only work well in moderately developed regions in Hangzhou. This finding expands the environmental Kuznets law by introducing the coproduction theory into analysis (i.e., inputs from both government and residents are essential for the delivery of public goods and services such as good environmental quality). A match between technology and socioeconomic conditions is essential to the environmental governance.

  1. Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment, Applied Technology Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lance Lauerhass; Vince C. Maio; S. Kenneth Merrill; Arlin L. Olson; Keith J. Perry

    2003-01-01

    Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates treatment of sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of sodium-bearing waste by December 31, 2012. Applied technology activities are required to provide the data necessary to complete conceptual design of four identified alternative processes and to select the preferred alternative. To provide a technically defensible path forward for the selection of a treatment process and for the collection of needed data, an applied technology plan is required. This document presents that plan, identifying key elements of the decision process and the steps necessary to obtain the required data in support of both the decision and the conceptual design. The Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Applied Technology Plan has been prepared to provide a description/roadmap of the treatment alternative selection process. The plan details the results of risk analyzes and the resulting prioritized uncertainties. It presents a high-level flow diagram governing the technology decision process, as well as detailed roadmaps for each technology. The roadmaps describe the technical steps necessary in obtaining data to quantify and reduce the technical uncertainties associated with each alternative treatment process. This plan also describes the final products that will be delivered to the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office in support of the office's selection of the final treatment technology

  2. Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment, Applied Technology Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lance Lauerhass; Vince C. Maio; S. Kenneth Merrill; Arlin L. Olson; Keith J. Perry

    2003-06-01

    Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates treatment of sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of sodium-bearing waste by December 31, 2012. Applied technology activities are required to provide the data necessary to complete conceptual design of four identified alternative processes and to select the preferred alternative. To provide a technically defensible path forward for the selection of a treatment process and for the collection of needed data, an applied technology plan is required. This document presents that plan, identifying key elements of the decision process and the steps necessary to obtain the required data in support of both the decision and the conceptual design. The Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Applied Technology Plan has been prepared to provide a description/roadmap of the treatment alternative selection process. The plan details the results of risk analyzes and the resulting prioritized uncertainties. It presents a high-level flow diagram governing the technology decision process, as well as detailed roadmaps for each technology. The roadmaps describe the technical steps necessary in obtaining data to quantify and reduce the technical uncertainties associated with each alternative treatment process. This plan also describes the final products that will be delivered to the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office in support of the office's selection of the final treatment technology.

  3. Silicon technologies ion implantation and thermal treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Baudrant, Annie

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this book is to remind new engineers in silicon foundry, the fundamental physical and chemical rules in major Front end treatments: oxidation, epitaxy, ion implantation and impurities diffusion.

  4. Development of interface technology between unit processes in E-Refining process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. H.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, J. G. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The pyroprocessing is composed mainly four subprocesses, such as an electrolytic reduction, an electrorefining, an electrowinning, and waste salt regeneration/ solidification processes. The electrorefining process, one of main processes which are composed of pyroprocess to recover the useful elements from spent fuel, is under development by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute as a sub process of pyrochemical treatment of spent PWR fuel. The CERS(Continuous ElectroRefining System) is composed of some unit processes such as an electrorefiner, a salt distiller, a melting furnace for the U-ingot and U-chlorinator (UCl{sub 3} making equipment) as shown in Fig. 1. In this study, the interfaces technology between unit processes in E-Refining system is investigated and developed for the establishment of integrated E-Refining operation system as a part of integrated pyroprocessing

  5. Study on application of molten salt oxidation technology (MSO) for PVC wastes treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Thu Ha; Nguyen Hong Quy; Pham Quoc Ky; Nguyen Quang Long; Vuong Thu Bac; Dang Duc Nhan

    2007-01-01

    The project 'Study on application of molten salt oxidation (MSO) for PVC plastic wastes treatment' aims at three followings: 1) Installation of lab-scale MSO unit with essential compositions builds up foundation for the 2) estimation of waste destruction efficiency of the technology. 3) Based on the results of testing PVC - the chlorinated organic wastes on the lab-scale unit, the ability of the technology application at pilot-scale level will be primary estimated. The adjustment and correction of some compositions in the lab-scale unit theoretically designed during experiment overcame the shortages by design and fabrication such as heat distribution regime, feeding wastes and draining spent salt. These solutions adapt to the technical requirement of operation as well as scientific requirement of the research on MSO process. PVC waste treatment was tested on the MSO lab-scale unit in different conditions of operation temperature, superficial air velocity related to air/oxygen feeding rate, waste feeding rate. The testing results showed that destruction efficiency of chlorine in MSO technology was almost absolute. HCl and Cl 2 emission were insignificant in different operation conditions. HCl and Cl 2 emission depend on resident time and nature of molten salt. However, with inherent attributes of MSO technology emission of CO is not avoided in processing waste treatment. Therefore, finding active solutions for reduction CO emission is essential to complete the technology. The experiments also were carried in conditions of single molten salt (Na 2 CO 3 ) and molten (Na 2 CO 3 - K 2 CO 3 ) eutectic. The comparison of efficiency of these tests gives idea of using molten salt eutectic to reduce operation cost in MSO technology. Based on operation parameters and scientific verification results during experiments, the introductory procedure of waste treatment by MSO process was built up. Thereby, primary estimation of development of the technology in pilot-scale is given

  6. Miniaturized Power Processing Unit Study: A Cubesat Electric Propulsion Technology Enabler Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemieh, Shakib M.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates High Voltage Power Processing Unit (PPU) technology and driving requirements necessary to enable the Microfluidic Electric Propulsion technology research and development by NASA and university partners. This study provides an overview of the state of the art PPU technology with recommendations for technology demonstration projects and missions for NASA to pursue.

  7. Development of radiation protection technology for application of the retired steam generator, Kori Unit no. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. H.; Jang, D. C.; Song, K. S.; Lee, S. J.; Ahn, C. S.; Kim, D. H.; Im, Y. K.; Kim, H. D. [Hanil Nuclear Co., Ltd., Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-04-15

    It is a field study to develop and verify maintenance technologies such as verification and technology development of ECT (Eddy current test) using failure, heat tube excavation and field pressure test regarding the utilization of retired steam generator using 2 units of Retired Steam Generator in Kori 1 that was replaced for the first time in Korea in 1998. Since May, 2003, our team has investigated Retired Steam Generator which was stored in Radioactive waste warehouse in Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Kori unit no.1 Branch, in order to study natural fault ECT signal acquisition, maintenance technology verification, small tubes/samples abstraction. A temporal task zone was made focusing on 'Man Way at the bottom of Chamber 'A'.' The purpose of the study is to establish Radiological Protection and Radioactive Waste Treatment Plan by setting ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) goal systematically, which is the basic concept of Radiological Protection and reduction in exposure of radiological workers to radioactive materials with proper Radiological Protection countermeasures according to the changes in radioactivity, to prevent expansion from contamination and to manage 'Radioactive Waste Reduction Activities' effectively.

  8. Advances in surface treatments: Technology, applications, effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niku-Lari, A.

    1987-01-01

    An international handbook has been produced to include all aspects of residual stresses, including the theoretical background, effects of residual stresses, measurement and calculation and quantitative assessment of residual stress effects. Techniques for altering residual stresses, particularly surface treatments, are discussed. Up to date information on the state of the art is presented. (UK)

  9. Advanced oxidation technologies : photocatalytic treatment of wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.

    1997-01-01

    7.1. Summary and conclusions

    The last two decennia have shown a growing interest in the photocatalytic treatment of wastewater, and more and more research has been carried out into the various aspects of photocatalysis, varying from highly fundamental aspects to practical application.

  10. Modification of Wastewater Treatment Technology at Cottonseed Oil Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alshabab Mary Shick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewaters from cottonseed oil producing plant in Syria were studied in laboratory experiments. Aim of the study was to suggest modification of wastewater treatment technology in order to increase its efficiency. Concentration of pollutants in wastewaters was controlled by measurement of COD. According to the results of experiments it was suggested to decrease significantly (8-20 times dosages of reagents (acidifier, coagulant, flocculant in several actual stages of treatment (acidification, separation, coagulation and sedimentation and add stage of dispersed air flotation before coagulation treatment. The modified wastewater treatment technology would reduce COD to the values allowed for irrigation waters by Syrian National Standard.

  11. Influence of technological treatments on bacterial communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of technological treatments on bacterial communities in tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) as determined by 16S rDNA fingerprinting using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE)

  12. Making medical treatments resilient to technological disruptions in telemedicine systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larburu Rubio, Nekane; Widya, I.A.; Bults, Richard G.A.; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Telemedicine depends on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to support remote treatment of patients. This dependency requires the telemedicine system design to be resilient for ICT performance degradation or subsystem failures. Nevertheless, using telemedicine systems create a dependency

  13. Consistent adoption of the International System of Units (SI) in nuclear science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klumpar, J; Kovar, Z [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague. Laborator Radiologicke Dozimetrie; Sacha, J [Slovenska Akademia Vied, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Fyzikalny Ustav

    1975-11-01

    The principles are stressed behind a consistent introduction of the International System of Units (SI) in Czechoslovakia complying with the latest edition of the Czechoslovak Standard CSN 01 1300 on the prescribed system of national and international units. The use of special and auxiliary units in nuclear physics and technology is discussed, particular attention being devoted to the units of activity and to the time units applied in radiology. Conversion graph and tables are annexed.

  14. Advanced oxidation technologies : photocatalytic treatment of wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, J.

    1997-01-01

    7.1. Summary and conclusions

    The last two decennia have shown a growing interest in the photocatalytic treatment of wastewater, and more and more research has been carried out into the various aspects of photocatalysis, varying from highly fundamental aspects to practical application. However, despite all this research, there is still much to investigate. Suggested photocatalytic mechanisms, such as those for oxidation by hydroxyl radicals and for oxidation at the surface of photocata...

  15. Infertility Evaluation and Treatment among Women in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Lawrence M.; Craig, Benjamin M.; Plosker, Shayne M.; Reed, Damon R.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the characteristics of women seeking infertility evaluation and treatment. Design Cross-sectional survey based on in-person interviews, followed by two-step hurdle analysis. Participants 4,558 married or cohabitating women ages 25–44 Setting U.S. household population of women based on the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth Intervention None Main Outcome Measure(s) Likelihood of seeking preliminary infertility evaluation. Likelihood of seeking infertility treatment once evaluated. Treatment type provided. Results 623 women (13.7%) reported seeking infertility evaluation, of which 328 reported undergoing subsequent infertility treatment. Age at marriage, marital status, education, health insurance status, race/ethnicity, and religion were associated with the likelihood of seeking infertility evaluation. For example, the predicted probability that a non-White woman who married at 25 will seek evaluation was 12%. This probability increased to 34% for White women with a graduate degree who married at age 30. Among women who are evaluated, income, employment status, and ethnicity correlated strongly with the likelihood of seeking infertility treatment. Infertility drug therapy was the most frequent treatment used. Reproductive surgery and in vitro fertilization (IVF) were used the least. Conclusions The use of infertility services is not random and understanding the socio-demographic factors correlated with use may assist new couples with family planning. Roughly 50% of the women evaluated for infertility progressed to treatment, and only a small proportion were treated with more advanced assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) such as IVF therapy. Future research aimed at improving access to effective healthcare treatments within the boundaries of affordability is warranted. PMID:23849845

  16. Legal aspects of auxillary reproductive technologies in infertility treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Yu. Albitskiy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents several aspects of legal regulation of auxillary reproductive technologies in treatment of infertility in Russia and other countries.Key words: auxillary reproductive technologies, method of extracorporeal fertilization, newborn, premature newborn, multiple pregnancy, embryo, infertility, law.

  17. An overview of enabling technology research in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Charles C.

    2002-01-01

    The mission of the US Fusion Energy Sciences Program is to advance plasma science, fusion science, and fusion technology--the knowledge base needed for an economically and environmentally attractive fusion energy source. In support of this overall mission, the Enabling Technology Program in the US incorporates both near and long term R and D, contributes to material and engineering sciences as well as technology development, contributes to spin-off applications, and performs global systems assessments and focused design studies. This work supports both magnetic and inertial fusion energy (IFE) concepts. The Enabling Technology research mission is to contribute to the national science and technology base by developing the enabling technology for existing and next-step experimental devices, by exploring and understanding key materials and technology feasibility issues for attractive fusion power sources, by conducting advanced design studies that integrate the wealth of our understanding to guide R and D priorities and by developing design solutions for next-step and future devices. The Enabling Technology Program Plan is organized around five elements: plasma technologies, fusion (chamber) technologies, materials sciences, advanced design, and IFE chamber and target technologies. The principal technical features and research objectives are described for each element

  18. Organizational issues in stroke treatment: The Swiss paradigm - Stroke units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios K Matis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke represents the leading cause of acquired disability in adults and poses a tremendous socioeconomic burden both on patients and the society. In this sense, prompt diagnosis and urgent treatment are needed in order to radically reduce the devastating consequences of this disease. Herein the authors present the new guidelines recently adopted by the Swiss Stroke Society concerning the establishment of stroke units. Standardized treatment and allocation protocols along with an acute rehabilitation concept seem to be the core of the Swiss stroke management system. Coordinated multidisciplinary care provided by specialized medical, nursing and therapy staff is of utmost importance for achieving a significant dependency and death reduction. It is believed that the implementation of these guidelines in the stroke care system would be beneficial not only for the stroke patients, but also for the health system.

  19. CONCEPTUAL BASES OF THE ENERGY EFFICIENT SYSTEM OF MANAGEMENT OF COMBINED UNITS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Shtepa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A critical analysis of the shortcomings of the existing water purification systems is conducted. In order to ensure environmental safety and energy savings it is proposed to use the combined units, including physical, chemical, physical-and-chemical and biological methods. The attention is driven to the fact that the most effective way to maintain current water purification is an adaptive control system. The shortcomings of the management of water treatment units were revealed and it was proposed to produce their synthesis based on the mathematical apparatus of artificial intelligence systems. Taking into account the requirements of the environmental safety and the need in the energy savings, the energy efficiency criteria of combined system functioning has been developed. At an industrial plant (slaughterhouse wastewater treatment the compliance of the production conditions of the criterion has been undertaken that confirmed the criterion relevance and usefulness as applied to the synthesis of energy-efficient control systems. A synthetic control system combined the water treatment plants. Having based on the preliminary research and analysis of the current work in the subject area the architecture of a control system of combined water treatment units that use intelligent technology was developed. The key functional of the unit – information-analytical subsystem of the formation control actions including: multilayer perceptrons self-organization Kohonen network, fuzzy cognitive map. The basic difference between the developed design and its analogues is the ability to adjust the settings of equipment adaptively on the basis of processing sensor data, information on the price of consumables, volley discharges of pollutants, a sudden change in the flow and other force majeure. Adjustment of the parameters of the control system is carried out with the use of experimental and analytical data stored in the knowledge base of technological

  20. Technology in the United Kingdom’s Higher Education Context

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Linda; Kirkwood, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Frequently, university-wide strategic decisions about technology are made without fully understanding the implications for resources, administration, teaching programmes, teaching practices and learning approaches, often resulting in technology-led course designs. Yet evidence shows that it is not the technology per se that changes learning and teaching but the pedagogical advantage we make of its use. In parallel, professional development programmes have largely focused on how to use the tec...

  1. Disruptive technology in the treatment of thoracic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R Stephen

    2013-12-01

    The care of patients with thoracic injuries has undergone monumental change over the past 25 years. Advances in technology have driven improvements in care, with obvious benefits to patients. In many instances, new or "disruptive" technologies have unexpectedly displaced previously established standards for the diagnosis and treatment of these potentially devastating injuries. Examples of disruptive technology include the use of ultrasound technology for the diagnosis of cardiac tamponade and pneumothorax; thoracoscopic techniques instead of thoracotomy, pulmonary tractotomy, and stapled lung resection; endovascular repair of thoracic aortic injury; operative fixation of flail chest; and the enhanced availability of extracorporeal lung support for severe respiratory failure. Surgeons must be prepared to recognize the benefits, and limits, of novel technologies and incorporate these methods into day-to-day treatment protocols. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Leveraging technology to enhance addiction treatment and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsch, Lisa A

    2012-01-01

    Technology such as the Internet and mobile phones offers considerable promise for affecting the assessment, prevention, and treatment of and recovery from substance use disorders. Technology may enable entirely new models of behavioral health care within and outside of formal systems of care. This article reviews the promise of technology-based therapeutic tools for affecting the quality and reach of addiction treatment and recovery support systems, as well as the empirical support to date for this approach. Potential models for implementing technology-based interventions targeting substance use disorders are described. Opportunities to optimize the effectiveness and impact of technology-based interventions targeting addiction and recovery, along with outstanding research needs, are discussed.

  3. Risk assessments of innovative technologies for treatment of mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragaini, R.C.; Aycock, M.T.; Russell, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy's (DOE'S) Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is to develop complete and appropriate technologies for the treatment of DOE mixed low-level waste and transuranic wastes in order to ensure that all affected DOE installations and projects can come into compliance with environmental law and meet DOE's 30-yr cleanup and operational goals. The MWIP will achieve its goal by developing technologies that are in compliance with regulatory requirements, are socially and politically viable, and are cost beneficial and effective in disposed waste source term and volume reduction. The project management plan for MWIP requires that technologies be evaluated in accordance with criteria that rank technologies with regard to performance, risk, and cost-effectiveness. This paper addresses the methodology used to rank alternative mixed-water treatment technologies with regard to relative risk

  4. United States panel presentations[Nuclear power technology in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyea, J [National Audubon Society, New York, NY (United States)

    1990-07-01

    Before I begin I have to make a disclaimer. That is that I am going to be talking about public perception because I think that is very important. But I do not want to give the impression that I think the public is wrong. I happen to agree with the public's perception of nuclear power, and I want to make that clear. I do not like the current generation of nuclear plants as I have made clear in many statements that I have made. On the other hand, in the long term, I feel that we have only two choices on the supply side, and that is nuclear power and solar electricity. And although I think solar electricity has the best chance, I am realistic enough to know that technologies do not always work the way I want. And so I think it is necessary to have at least some kind of nuclear option available. On the other hand, I do not think just any kind of nuclear technology will do. I want to talk to you about the conditions that I think you have to take into account when you try to design reactors that are publicly acceptable. I look at this as an insurance policy. Again, I do not want to be misquoted: I think nuclear power should be considered as an insurance policy, not as our first line of defense. Having made those disclaimers, what we need to do is set out a problem statement. The problem statement I set out is, 'How could one design and demonstrate a nuclear reactor that would regain public confidence in the United States, if one chose to do that?' By regaining confidence, I mean regaining sufficient confidence to site reactors at a number of locations. It is a pretty heavy task because the public cannot judge the technical issues. They have to judge the players by their characters and their histories, just as the way we calibrate anyone that knows things that we do not. I have three theses that I think are crucial. The first is that people do not believe in the claims of advocates, of any point of view, not just nuclear power, once the advocates have been proved wrong on

  5. Developing maintenance technologies for FBR's heat exchanger units by advanced laser processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Akihiko; Shimada, Yukihiro

    2011-01-01

    Laser processing technologies were developed for the purpose of maintenance of FBR's heat exchanger units. Ultrashort laser processing fabricated fiber Bragg grating sensor for seismic monitoring. Fiber laser welding with a newly developed robot system repair cracks on inner wall of heat exchanger tubes. Safety operation of the heat exchanger units will be improved by the advanced laser processing technologies. These technologies are expected to be applied to the maintenance for the next generation FBRs. (author)

  6. Novel treatment technologies for PFAS compounds: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharzyk, Katarzyna H; Darlington, Ramona; Benotti, Mark; Deeb, Rula; Hawley, Elisabeth

    2017-12-15

    Perfluorinated compounds such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have recently drawn great attention due to their wide distribution in aquatic environments. The understanding of the physicochemical properties and fate and transport of PFAs in groundwater is still limited. Preliminary studies indicate that these compounds can readily bioaccumulate and pose human and animal health concerns. Due to their physicochemical properties, PFOS and PFOA are water soluble, nonvolatile and persistent in the environment, which is a cause of concern related to their treatment with conventional remediation technologies. Extraction with inefficient carbon adsorption is one of the most common treatment technologies for remediation of PFOS- or PFOA-impacted groundwater. Several other innovative and promising technologies, including sonochemistry, bioremediation and photolysis, have been tested for their effectiveness in removal of perfluorinated compounds. This paper provides a baseline for understanding research needs to better develop treatment technologies for PFOA and PFOS in groundwater. Frontiers for improving the state of practice for PFOA and PFOS treatment include the development of more cost-effective ex situ treatment methods and the development and demonstration of promising in situ treatment technologies at the pilot and full scale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Uniting Legislation with RFID Privacy-Enhancing Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieback, M.R.; Crispo, B.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    RFID is a popular identification and automation technology with serious security and privacy threats. Legislation expounds upon the actual security and privacy needs of people in RFID-enabled environments, while technology helps to ensure legal compliance. This paper examines the main aims of RFID

  8. The Journey towards Technological Literacy for All in the United States--Are We There Yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Philip A.

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to examine if technology education is getting close to the destination of technological literacy for all in the United States. People now live at a point where all those interested in technological literacy must take a critical, unrelenting look at the profession's history, research base, and contemporary practice. Here, the…

  9. Innovative waste treatment and conditioning technologies at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this publication is to provide Member States with information on the most innovative technologies and strategies used in waste treatment and conditioning. At present, some of those technologies and strategies might not be widely implemented at nuclear power plants (NPP), but they have an important potential for their use as part of the long range NPP, utility, or national strategy. Thus, the target audience is those decision makers at the national and organizational level responsible for selecting waste processing technologies and strategies over a period of three to ten years. Countries and individual nuclear plants have limited financial resources which can be applied toward radioactive waste processing (treatment and conditioning). They are challenged to determine which of the many available technologies and strategies are best suited to meet national or local needs. This publication reduces the selection of processes for wastes generated by nuclear power plants to those technologies and strategies which are considered innovative. The report further identifies the key benefits which may derive from the adoption of those technologies, the different waste streams to which each technology is relevant, and the limitations of the technologies. The technologies and strategies identified have been evaluated to differentiate between (1) predominant technologies (those that are widely practiced in multiple countries or a large number of nuclear plants), and (2) innovative technologies (those which are not so widely used but are considered to offer benefits which make them suitable for broader application across the industry). Those which fall into the second category are the primary focus of this report. Many IAEA publications address the technical aspects of treatment and conditioning for radioactive wastes, covering research, technological advances, and safety issues. These studies and reports primarily target the research and technical staff of a

  10. Eye injury treatment in intensive care unit patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Moshetova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To describe eye injuries in intensive care unit (ICU patients with multitrauma, to study conjunctival microflora in these patients, and to develop etiologically and pathogenically targeted treatment and prevention of wound complications.Materials and methods. Study group included 50 patients (54 eyes with combined mechanical cerebral and eye injury. All patients underwent possible ophthalmological examination (biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy and ocular fundus photographing with portative fundus camera, tonometry, cranial CT and MRT, and bacteriological study of conjunctival smears. Results. Modern methods of ophthalmological examination of ICU patients provided correct diagnosis and prediction of wound healing. Eye injury treatment schedule provided maximum possible results in all ICU patients. Hospitalacquired infection results in asymptomatic dissemination of pathogenic microbes on ocular surface. Conclusions. 14-day topical treatment with antimicrobials, steroids, and NSAIDs reduces posttraumatic inflammation caused by mechanical eye injuries in ICU patients. Bacteriological studies of conjunctival smears demonstrate the presence of pathogenic flora in ICU patients. In these patients, the most effective antibacterial agents are third-generation fluoroquinolones. 

  11. Incorporating regulatory considerations into waste treatment technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, M.R.; Powell, J.A.; Williams, T.A.; Kuusinen, T.L.; Lesperance, A.M.

    1991-02-01

    It is generally recognized that the development of new and innovative waste treatment technologies can significantly benefit the US Department of Energy's (DOE) environmental restoration and waste management program. DOE has established a research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) program, managed by its Office of Technology Development, to encourage and direct the development of new waste treatment and management technologies. The treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous and radioactive waste is heavily regulated both at the federal and state levels. In order to achieve the goals of applying the best new technologies in the fastest and most cost-effective manner possible, it is essential that regulatory factors be considered early and often during the development process. This paper presents a number of regulatory issues that are relevant to any program intended to encourage the development of new waste treatment and management technologies. It will also address how the use of these basic regulatory considerations can help ensure that technologies that are developed are acceptable to regulators and can therefore be deployed in the field. 2 refs

  12. United States geothermal technology: Equipment and services for worldwide applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This document has two intended audiences. The first part, ``Geothermal Energy at a Glance,`` is intended for energy system decision makers and others who are interested in wide ranging aspects of geothermal energy resources and technology. The second part, ``Technology Specifics,`` is intended for engineers and scientists who work with such technology in more detailed ways. The glossary at the end of the document defines many of the specialized terms. A directory of US geothermal industry firms who provide goods and services for clients around the world is available on request.

  13. Current trends in endodontic treatment by general dental practitioners: report of a United States national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savani, Gina M; Sabbah, Wael; Sedgley, Christine M; Whitten, Brian

    2014-05-01

    In the United States almost 70% of root canal treatment (RCT) is performed by general dentists (GPs), yet little is known about their treatment protocols. A paper survey was mailed to 2000 United States GPs with questions about the types of endodontic cases treated, routine treatment protocols, use of newer technologies, and endodontic continuing education (CE). Completed surveys were returned by 479 respondents (24%). GPs who perform RCT (84%) reported providing anterior (99%), bicuspid (95%), and molar (62%) RCT and retreatment (18%). Rubber dam was used always (60%), usually (16%), sometimes (13%), and never (11%). Newer technologies used by GPs included digital radiography (72%), magnification (80%), electronic apex locator (70%), and nickel-titanium rotary instrumentation (74%). Compared with GPs with >20 years of experience, those in practice for ≤10 years were more likely to use rubber dam (P 20 years were more likely to perform retreatments (P 5 hours of CE were more likely to use rotary instrumentation (P irrigant activation devices (P 20 years. More experienced GPs were more likely to take on complicated cases than those with fewer years of practice. There was no association between hours of CE and compliance with rubber dam usage. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The United States Advanced Reactor Technologies Research and Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Connor, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    The following aspects are addressed: • Nuclear energy mission; • Reactor research development and deployment (RD&D) programs: - Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program; - Small Modular Reactor Licensing Technical Support; - Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART)

  15. Enrichment supply and technology outside the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, S.A.; Blumkin, S.

    1977-01-01

    This is a review of foreign uranium enrichment capacity and uranium isotope separation technology, based on news items and articles in the public literature. Tables are included presenting capacity plans, growth, sales, research and development, etc

  16. History of technology in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Nitin; Puri, Vinod; Dellinger, R P

    2009-01-01

    Critical care medicine is a young specialty and since its inception has been heavily reliant upon technology. Invasive monitoring has its humble beginnings in the continuous monitoring of heart rate and rhythm. From the development of right heart catheterization to the adaption of the echocardiogram for use in shock, intensivists have used technology to monitor hemodynamics. The care of the critically ill has been buoyed by investigators who sought to offer renal replacement therapy to unstable patients and worked to improve the monitoring of oxygen saturation. The evolution of mechanical ventilation for the critically ill embodies innumerable technological advances. More recently, critical care has insisted upon rigorous testing and cost-benefit analysis of technological advances.

  17. United States Superconducting MHD Magnet Technology Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, A.M.; Marston, P.G.; Thome, R.J.; Iwasa, Y.; Tarrh, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    A three-faceted program supported by the U.S. Dep of Energy is described. These facets include basic technology development, technology transfer and construction by industry of magnets for the national MHD program. The program includes the maintenance of a large component test facility; investigation of superconductor stability and structural behavior; measurements of materials' properties at low temperatures; structural design optimization; analytical code development; cryogenic systems and power supply design. The technology transfer program is designed to bring results of technology development and design and construction effort to the entire superconducting magnet community. The magnet procurement program is responsible for developing conceptual designs of magnets needed for the national MHD program, for issuing requests for quotation, selecting vendors and supervising design, construction, installation and test of these systems. 9 refs

  18. Problems of reliability and economy work of thermal power plants water treatment based on baromembrane technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichirova, N. D.; Chichirov, A. A.; Saitov, S. R.

    2017-11-01

    The introduction of baromembrane water treatment technologies for water desalination at Russian thermal power plants was beganed more than 25 years ago. These technologies have demonstrated their definite advantage over the traditional technologies of additional water treatment for steam boilers. However, there are problems associated with the reliability and economy of their work. The first problem is a large volume of waste water (up to 60% of the initial water). The second problem a expensive and unique chemical reagents complex (biocides, antiscalants, washing compositions) is required for units stable and troublefree operation. Each manufacturer develops his own chemical composition for a certain membrane type. This leads to a significant increase in reagents cost, as well as creates dependence of the technology consumer on the certain supplier. The third problem is that the reliability of the baromembrane units depends directly on the water preliminary treatment. The popular pre-cleaning technology with coagulation of aluminum oxychloride proves to be unacceptable during seasonal changes in the quality of the source water at a number of stations. As a result, pollution, poisoning and lesion of the membrane structure or deterioration of their mechanical properties are observed. The report presents ways to solve these problems.

  19. NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN THE DIAGNOSIS AND REHABILITATION TREATMENT OF DYSURIA AFTER SURGICAL TREATMENT FOR PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Markosyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the latest neurophysiological technologies for the recognition and treatment of neurogenic disorders of urination and erection in a group of patients operated on for prostate cancer (PC. Acicular electromyography of pelvic floor muscles with transcranial magnetic stimulation of micturition and erectile centers has been put into practice to examine this category of patients. The basic neurophysiological parameters of the muscles examined (cortical and segmental evoked motor response the latency, central motor conduction time (CMCT, and motor unit potential (MUP amplitude and duration were estimated. To develop a normative base, the neurophysiological features of the pelvic floor were studied in healthy volunteers (n = 12 who formed a control group. Examinations were made in 17 patients who had undergone operations for PC at Moscow hospitals 3 to 18 months before, such as retropubic prostatectomy (n = 11 and transurethral resection plus high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU ablation (n = 6. Spontaneous urination was absent in 4 (23.5% of cases; urinary incontinence was observed in 6 (35.2% patients. The study group patients were found to have significant disorders of corticospinal tract conduction and those of perineal muscle contraction as potential fibrillation and positive pointed waves, as well as considerable CMCM prolongation and MUP polyphasia. Denervation alterations in PC patients after surgery and delayed reinnervation processes, nerve control recovery are determined by not only the surgery itself, but also by the features of the course of the underlying cancer process. Pelvic floor muscle studies indicated that HIFU was a very traumatic treatment for PC due to the fact that physical exposure spread outside the prostate to the neuromuscular structures. The denervation alterations detected in the pelvic floor muscles became essential in the elaboration of adequate treatment policy. The use of agents improving the

  20. NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN THE DIAGNOSIS AND REHABILITATION TREATMENT OF DYSURIA AFTER SURGICAL TREATMENT FOR PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Markosyan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the latest neurophysiological technologies for the recognition and treatment of neurogenic disorders of urination and erection in a group of patients operated on for prostate cancer (PC. Acicular electromyography of pelvic floor muscles with transcranial magnetic stimulation of micturition and erectile centers has been put into practice to examine this category of patients. The basic neurophysiological parameters of the muscles examined (cortical and segmental evoked motor response the latency, central motor conduction time (CMCT, and motor unit potential (MUP amplitude and duration were estimated. To develop a normative base, the neurophysiological features of the pelvic floor were studied in healthy volunteers (n = 12 who formed a control group. Examinations were made in 17 patients who had undergone operations for PC at Moscow hospitals 3 to 18 months before, such as retropubic prostatectomy (n = 11 and transurethral resection plus high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU ablation (n = 6. Spontaneous urination was absent in 4 (23.5% of cases; urinary incontinence was observed in 6 (35.2% patients. The study group patients were found to have significant disorders of corticospinal tract conduction and those of perineal muscle contraction as potential fibrillation and positive pointed waves, as well as considerable CMCM prolongation and MUP polyphasia. Denervation alterations in PC patients after surgery and delayed reinnervation processes, nerve control recovery are determined by not only the surgery itself, but also by the features of the course of the underlying cancer process. Pelvic floor muscle studies indicated that HIFU was a very traumatic treatment for PC due to the fact that physical exposure spread outside the prostate to the neuromuscular structures. The denervation alterations detected in the pelvic floor muscles became essential in the elaboration of adequate treatment policy. The use of agents improving the

  1. Application of spent fuel treatment technology to plutonium immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Ackerman, J.P.; Gay, E.C., Johnson, G.K.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the electrometallurgical treatment technology being developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is to convert certain spent nuclear fuels into waste forms that are suitable for disposal in a geological repository for nuclear waste. The spent fuels of interest are those that cannot be safely stored for a long time in their current condition, and those that cannot be qualified for repository disposal. This paper explores the possibility of applying this electrometallurgical treatment technology to immobilization of surplus fissile materials, primarily plutonium. Immobilization of surplus fissile materials by electrometallurgical treatment could be done in the same facilities, at the same time. and in the same equipment as the proposed treatment of the present inventory of spent nuclear fuel. The cost and schedule savings of this simultaneous treatment scheme would be significant

  2. SELECTION OF KURAU FISHING TECHNOLOGY UNITS Eleutheronema tetradactylum WHICH COMPETITIVE AND SUSTAINABLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Natsir Kholis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally friendly fishing technology unit is needed in sustainable fisheries management. The purpose of this study was to determine the fishing technology unit of kurau competitive and sustainable. Data collection was carried out from July to September 2016 in the Coastal Pambang of Bengkalis District of Riau Province, by using the survey method. The analytical data method used is scoring the biological, technical and socioeconomic aspects the fishing technology unit of kurau. Results of research show that combined analysis of biological, technical and socioeconomic aspects have the value of the VA fishing line function (2.48 is higher than the other three fishing gear. Thus, the fishing line is a selected fishing technology unit of kurau competitive and sustainable in the Coastal Pambang Bengkalis District. Keywords: competitive,coastal pambang, fishing technology, kurau fish,sustainable fishing

  3. Radiological emergency response in a medical waste treatment unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Fabio F.; Boni-Mitake, Malvina; Vianna, Estanislau B.; Nicolau, Jose R.A.; Rodrigues, Demerval L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    Radioactive materials are largely used in medicine, research and industry. The amount of radioactive material employed in each application varies from negligible to large and it can be in sealed or non-sealed form. A medical waste treatment unit that deals only with A-type medical waste (ABNT-NBR 12808), which does not include radioactive waste, detected abnormal radiation levels in a collecting truck and the IPEN-CNEN/SP Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Response Team was called. The presence of radioactive material inside the truck was confirmed; however, its origin and nature were not possible to be determined because the truck had collected medical waste in several facilities. So, an operation in order to segregate and identify that material was carried out. During the operation, a second collecting truck presenting abnormal radiation levels arrived to the unit and the same procedure was carried out on that truck. In both situations, the contaminated objects found were infantile diapers. The radioactive waste was transported to IPEN-CNEN/SP to be managed. Samples of the radioactive materials were submitted to gamma spectrometry and the radionuclide was identified as Iodine-131. Since that attendance, similar occurrences have been frequent. These events suggest that it is necessary a better control of the radioactive waste at the generating facilities and there should be basic radioprotection orientations to the discharging patients that were submitted to nuclear medicine procedures. (author)

  4. Radiological emergency response in a medical waste treatment unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Fabio F.; Boni-Mitake, Malvina; Vianna, Estanislau B.; Nicolau, Jose R.A.; Rodrigues, Demerval L.

    2000-01-01

    Radioactive materials are largely used in medicine, research and industry. The amount of radioactive material employed in each application varies from negligible to large and it can be in sealed or non-sealed form. A medical waste treatment unit that deals only with A-type medical waste (ABNT-NBR 12808), which does not include radioactive waste, detected abnormal radiation levels in a collecting truck and the IPEN-CNEN/SP Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Response Team was called. The presence of radioactive material inside the truck was confirmed; however, its origin and nature were not possible to be determined because the truck had collected medical waste in several facilities. So, an operation in order to segregate and identify that material was carried out. During the operation, a second collecting truck presenting abnormal radiation levels arrived to the unit and the same procedure was carried out on that truck. In both situations, the contaminated objects found were infantile diapers. The radioactive waste was transported to IPEN-CNEN/SP to be managed. Samples of the radioactive materials were submitted to gamma spectrometry and the radionuclide was identified as Iodine-131. Since that attendance, similar occurrences have been frequent. These events suggest that it is necessary a better control of the radioactive waste at the generating facilities and there should be basic radioprotection orientations to the discharging patients that were submitted to nuclear medicine procedures. (author)

  5. US Department of Energy interim mixed waste inventory report: Waste streams, treatment capacities and technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to provide an inventory of its mixed wastes and treatment capacities and technologies in response to section 3021(a) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended by section 105(a) of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA) of 1992 (Pub. L. No. 102-386). DOE has prepared this report for submission to EPA and the States in which DOE stores, generates, or treats mixed wastes. As required by the FFCA, this report contains: a national inventory of all mixed wastes in the DOE system that are currently stored or will be generated over the next five years, including waste stream name, description, EPA waste codes, basis for characterization (i.e., sampling and analysis or process knowledge), effect of radionuclides on treatment, quantity stored that is subject to the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDRs) storage prohibition, quantity stored that is not subject to the LDRS, expected generation over the next five years, Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) used for developing the LDR requirements, and waste minimization activities; and a national inventory of mixed waste treatment capacities and technologies, including information such as the descriptions, capacities, and locations of all existing and proposed treatment facilities, explanations for not including certain existing facilities in capacity evaluations, information to support decisions on unavailability of treatment technologies for certain mixed wastes, and the planned technology development activities

  6. The Impact of Advanced Technologies on Treatment Deviations in Radiation Treatment Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, Lawrence B.; Light, Kim L.; Hubbs, Jessica L.; Georgas, Debra L.; Jones, Ellen L.; Wright, Melanie C.; Willett, Christopher G.; Yin Fangfang

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of new technologies on deviation rates in radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Treatment delivery deviations in RT were prospectively monitored during a time of technology upgrade. In January 2003, our department had three accelerators, none with 'modern' technologies (e.g., without multileaf collimators [MLC]). In 2003 to 2004, we upgraded to five new accelerators, four with MLC, and associated advanced capabilities. The deviation rates among patients treated on 'high-technology' versus 'low-technology' machines (defined as those with vs. without MLC) were compared over time using the two-tailed Fisher's exact test. Results: In 2003, there was no significant difference between the deviation rate in the 'high-technology' versus 'low-technology' groups (0.16% vs. 0.11%, p = 0.45). In 2005 to 2006, the deviation rate for the 'high-technology' groups was lower than the 'low-technology' (0.083% vs. 0.21%, p = 0.009). This difference was caused by a decline in deviations on the 'high-technology' machines over time (p = 0.053), as well as an unexpected trend toward an increase in deviations over time on the 'low-technology' machines (p = 0.15). Conclusions: Advances in RT delivery systems appear to reduce the rate of treatment deviations. Deviation rates on 'high-technology' machines with MLC decline over time, suggesting a learning curve after the introduction of new technologies. Associated with the adoption of 'high-technology' was an unexpected increase in the deviation rate with 'low-technology' approaches, which may reflect an over-reliance on tools inherent to 'high-technology' machines. With the introduction of new technologies, continued diligence is needed to ensure that staff remain proficient with 'low-technology' approaches

  7. Development and status of the AL Mixed Waste Treatment Plan or I love that mobile unit of mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounini, L.; Williams, M.; Zygmunt, S.

    1995-01-01

    Nine Department of Energy (DOE) sites reporting to the Albuquerque Office (AL) have mixed waste that is chemically hazardous and radioactive. The hazardous waste regulations require the chemical portion of mixed waste to be to be treated to certain standards. The total volume of low-level mixed waste at the nine sites is equivalent to 7,000 drums, with individual site volumes ranging from 1 gallon of waste at the Pinellas Plant to 4,500 drums at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Nearly all the sites have a diversity of wastes requiring a diversity of treatment processes. Treatment capacity does not exist for much of this waste, and it would be expensive for each site to build the diversity of treatment processes needed to treat its own wastes. DOE-AL assembled a team that developed the AL Mixed Waste Treatment Plan that uses the resources of the nine sites to treat the waste at the sites. Work on the plan started in October 1993, and the plan was finalized in March 1994. The plan uses commercial treatment, treatability studies, and mobile treatment units. The plan specifies treatment technologies that will be built as mobile treatment units to be moved from site to site. Mobile units include bench-top units for very small volumes and treatability studies, drum-size units that treat one drum per day, and skid-size units that handle multiple drum volumes. After the tools needed to treat the wastes were determined, the sites were assigned to provide part of the treatment capacity using their own resources and expertise. The sites are making progress on treatability studies, commercial treatment, and mobile treatment design and fabrication. To date, this is the only plan for treating waste that brings the resources of several DOE sites together to treat mixed waste. It is the only program actively planning to use mobile treatment coordinated between DOE sites

  8. The development of radioactive waste treatment technology(IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joon Hyung; Yim, Sung Paal; Lee, Kune Woo; Yoo, Jeong Woo; Kim, Young Min; Park, Seong Chul

    1992-03-01

    Following studies were performed in the project of development of radioactive waste treatment technology. 1) Treatment of radioactive borated liquid wastes by reverse osmosis : Separation characteristics of boric acid were estimated using cellulose acetate membrane and aromatic polyamide membrane. The performance of reverse osmosis process was evaluated in terms of boric acid recovery, radiochemical rejection, and membrane flux by operating variables such as applied pressure and feed concentration. 2) Oily waste treatment : The mathematical model to estimate oil removal efficiency is to be proposed at coalescence column. 3) Treatment of radioactive laundry waste 4) Comparison of evaporation and ion-exchange 5) State of the art of high integrity container. (Author)

  9. Sorption-reagent treatment of brines produced by reverse osmosis unit for liquid radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avramenko, V. A.; Zheleznov, V. V.; Sergienko, V. I.; Chizhevsky, I. Yu

    2003-01-01

    The results of the pilot plant tests (2002-2003) of the sorption-reagent decontamination of high salinity radioactive waste (brines) remaining after the low-salinity liquid radioactive waste (LRW) treatment in the reverse-osmosis unit from long-lived radionuclides are presented. The sorption-reagent materials used in this work were developed in the Institute of Chemistry FEDRAS. They enable one to decontaminate brines with total salt content up to 50 g/l from long-lived radionuclides of Cs, Sr and Co. At joint application of the reverse-osmosis and sorption-reagent technologies total volume of solid radioactive waste (SRW) decreases up to 100-fold as compared to the technology of cementation of reverse osmosis brines. In this case total cost of LRW treatment and SRW disposal decreases more than 10-fold. Brines decontaminated from radionuclides are then diluted down to the ecologically safe total salts content in water to be disposed of. Tests were performed to compare the efficiency of technologies including evaporation of brines remaining after reverse osmosis process and their decontamination by means of the sorption-reagent method. It was shown that, as compared to evaporation, the sorption-reagent technology provides substantial advantages as in regard to radioactive waste total volume reduction as in view of total cost of the waste management

  10. Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ``ideas``. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ``cradle-to-grave`` systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ``downselection`` of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW.

  11. Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ''ideas''. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ''cradle-to-grave'' systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ''downselection'' of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW

  12. Adoption of precision agriculture technology in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural production in the Southeast is diverse and differs from other regions of the United States (U.S.). Crops grown in the Southeast are specific to the region, such as cotton and peanuts. Corn farmers supply most of the grain produced to the poultry industry to support over 15 billion dolla...

  13. Novel Technology for Phenol Wastewater Treatment Using Electrochemical Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuncheng Xie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various electrochemical approaches to save energy, mostly by means of equipment improvement coupled with other water treatment technologies. Replacement of DC power with pulse power, modified reactor coupled with photocatalysis can decrease cost. But more or less additional input is developed, or infrastructure has to be replaced. In this paper, an N-Step electrochemical reactor, based on stage reaction modeling, is put forward. On the basis of not changing equipment investment and by adjustment of the operating current density at different levels, power consumption decreases. This model develops a foundation of electrochemical water treatment technology for the engineering application.

  14. Highly Polluted Wastewaters Treatment by Improved Dissolved Air Flotation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moga, I. C.; Covaliu, C. I.; Matache, M. G.; Doroftei, B. I.

    2017-06-01

    Numerous investigations are oriented towards the development of new wastewater treatment technologies, having high efficiencies for removing even low concentrations of pollutants found in water. These efforts were determined by the destroyer impact of the pollutants to the environment and human’s health. For this reason this paper presents our study concerning an improved dissolved air flotation technology for wastewater treatment. There is described a dissolved air flotation (DAF) installation composed by two equipments: pressurized capsule and lamellar settling. Also, there are presented some advantages of using nanoparticles as flotation collectors.

  15. United-States: the forefront of new nuclear technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc, B.

    2015-01-01

    In the U.S. there are about 50 enterprises developing new concepts in the nuclear sector specially in power production (smaller reactors) and waste management. These enterprises require important technological and financial means to engage experts and build prototypes so U.S. authorities have developed a platform named GAIN (Gateway for Accelerated Innovation on Nuclear) for providing technological support and financing. The American Department of Energy (DoE) will keep on financing research in the nuclear sector. The American 2016 finance law provides a 9% increase for financing nuclear programmes. Research on Small Modular Reactors (SMR) with a power output ranging from 50 to 300 MW will be favored.

  16. Telecommunications technology and rural education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrine, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    The rural sector of the US is examined from the point of view of whether telecommunications technology can augment the development of rural education. Migratory farm workers and American Indians were the target groups which were examined as examples of groups with special needs in rural areas. The general rural population and the target groups were examined to identify problems and to ascertain specific educational needs. Educational projects utilizing telecommunications technology in target group settings were discussed. Large scale regional ATS-6 satellite-based experimental educational telecommunications projects were described. Costs and organizational factors were also examined for large scale rural telecommunications projects.

  17. Integrated Waste Treatment Unit GFSI Risk Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W. A. Owca

    2007-01-01

    This GFSI Risk Management Plan (RMP) describes the strategy for assessing and managing project risks for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) that are specifically within the control and purview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and identifies the risks that formed the basis for the DOE contingency included in the performance baseline. DOE-held contingency is required to cover cost and schedule impacts of DOE activities. Prior to approval of the performance baseline (Critical Decision-2) project cost contingency was evaluated during a joint meeting of the Contractor Management Team and the Integrated Project Team for both contractor and DOE risks to schedule and cost. At that time, the contractor cost and schedule risk value was $41.3M and the DOE cost and schedule risk contingency value is $39.0M. The contractor cost and schedule risk value of $41.3M was retained in the performance baseline as the contractor's management reserve for risk contingency. The DOE cost and schedule risk value of $39.0M has been retained in the performance baseline as the DOE Contingency. The performance baseline for the project was approved in December 2006 (Garman 2006). The project will continue to manage to the performance baseline and change control thresholds identified in PLN-1963, ''Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Project Execution Plan'' (PEP)

  18. CE: Inside an Ebola Treatment Unit: A Nurse's Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    In December 2013, the first cases of the most recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease (formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever) emerged in the West African nation of Guinea. Within months the disease had spread to the neighboring countries of Liberia and Sierra Leone. The international humanitarian aid organization Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF; known in English as Doctors Without Borders) soon responded by sending staff to set up treatment centers and outreach triage teams in all three countries. In August 2014, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak an international public health emergency.In September 2014, the author was sent by MSF to work as a nurse in an Ebola treatment unit in Liberia for five weeks. This article describes her experiences there. It provides some background, outlines the practices and teams involved, and aims to convey a sense of what it's like to work during an Ebola outbreak and to put a human face on this devastating epidemic.

  19. Radiation processing technology for industrial waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Radiation sterilization technology, cross-linked polymers and curing, food and environmental applications of the radiation is widely used for many years. At the same time, drinking water and wastewater treatment are the part of the radiation technology applications. For this purpose, drinking water and wastewater treatment plants in various countries has been established. In this project, gamma / electron beam radiation treatment is intended to be used for the treatment of alkaloid, textiles and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) wastewater. In this regard, the chemical characterization of wastewater, the interaction with radiation, biological treatment and determination of toxicological properties are the laboratory studies milestones. After laboratory studies, the establishment of a pilot scale treatment plant has been planned. Within the framework of the project a series of dye used in textile industry were examined. Besides the irradiation, the changes in treatment efficiency were investigated by using of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide in conjunction with the irradiation. Same working methods were implemented in the wastewater treatment of Bolvadin Opium Alkaloid Factory as well. In addition to chemical analysis in this study, aerobic and anaerobic biological treatment process also have been applied. Standard reference materials has been used for the marine sediment study contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls.

  20. Adoption of Rice Technologies Introduced by the United States ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study determined the levels of adoption of improved rice technologies introduced by USAID MARKETS project phase one in Anambra and Ebonyi States, Nigeria. The population of the study included all project participant rice farmers of USAID MARKETS project in both Anambra and Ebonyi States. A total sample of 80 ...

  1. Recent technology for nuclear steam turbine-generator units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Shin-ichi; Kuwashima, Hidesumi; Ueno, Takeshi; Ooi, Masao

    1988-01-01

    As the next nuclear power plants subsequent to the present 1,100 MWe plants, the technical development of ABWRs was completed, and the plan for constructing the actual plants is advanced. As for the steam turbine and generator facilities of 1,350 MWe output applied to these plants, the TC6F-52 type steam turbines using 52 in long blades, moisture separation heaters, butterfly type intermediate valves, feed heater drain pumping-up system and other new technologies for increasing the capacity and improving the thermal efficiency were adopted. In this paper, the outline of the main technologies of those and the state of examination when those are applied to the actual plants are described. As to the technical fields of the steam turbine system for ABWRs, the improvement of the total technologies of the plants was promoted, aiming at the good economical efficiency, reliability and thermal efficiency of the whole facilities, not only the main turbines. The basic specification of the steam turbine facilities for 50 Hz ABWR plants and the main new technologies applied to the turbines are shown. The development of 52 in long last stage blades, the development of the analysis program for the coupled vibration of the large rotor system, the development of moisture separation heaters, the turbine control system, condensate and feed water system, and the generators are described. (Kako, I.)

  2. Evaluating the technical aspects of mixed waste treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagaasen, L.M.; Scott, P.A.

    1992-10-01

    This report discusses treatment of mixed wastes which is thought to be more complicated than treatment of either hazardous or radioactive wastes. In fact, the treatment itself is no more complicated: however, the regulations that define acceptability of the final waste disposal system are significantly more entangled, and sometimes in apparent conflict. This session explores the factors that influence the choice of waste treatment technologies, and expands on some of the limitations to their application. The objective of the presentation is to describe the technical factors that influence potential treatment processes and the ramifications associated with particular selections (for example, the generation of secondary waste streams). These collectively provide a framework for making informed treatment process selections

  3. Hadron-therapy: applications of accelerator technologies to tumour treatments

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    In the second part the technologies of dose delivery are described emphasising the main challenges of modern radiotherapy, in particular the treatment of moving organs. In this framework the properties of the beams produced by conventional accelerators (cyclotrons and synchrotrons) are compared with the ones due to two novel approaches based on fast cycling machines, as FFAGs and cyclinacs.

  4. The Melt-Dilute Treatment Technology Offgas Development Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, T. M.

    1999-01-01

    The melt-dilute treatment technology is being developed to facilitate the ultimate disposition of highly enriched Al-Base DOE spent nuclear fuels in a geologic repository such as that proposed for Yucca Mountain. The melt-dilute process is a method of preparing DOE spent nuclear fuel for long term storage

  5. The provision of assistive technology products and services for people with dementia in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Grant; Newton, Lisa; Pritchard, Gary; Finch, Tracy; Brittain, Katie; Robinson, Louise

    2016-07-01

    In this review we explore the provision of assistive technology products and services currently available for people with dementia within the United Kingdom. A scoping review of assistive technology products and services currently available highlighted 171 products or product types and 331 services. In addition, we assimilated data on the amount and quality of information provided by assistive technology services alongside assistive technology costs. We identify a range of products available across three areas: assistive technology used 'by', 'with' and 'on' people with dementia. Assistive technology provision is dominated by 'telecare' provided by local authorities, with services being subject to major variations in pricing and information provision; few currently used available resources for assistive technology in dementia. We argue that greater attention should be paid to information provision about assistive technology services across an increasingly mixed economy of dementia care providers, including primary care, local authorities, private companies and local/national assistive technology resources. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Technology for NPP decantate treatment realized at Kola NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stakhiv, Michael; Avezniyazov, Slava; Savkin, Alexander; Fedorov, Denis; Dmitriev, Sergei; Kornev, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    At Moscow SIA 'Radon' jointly with JSC 'Alliance Gamma', the technology for NPP Decantate Treatment was developed, tested and realized at Kola NPP. This technology consists of dissolving the salt residue and subsequent treatment by ozonization, separation of the deposits formed from ozonization and selective cleaning by ferro-cyanide sorbents. The nonactive salt solution goes to an industrial waste disposal site or a repository specially developed at NPP sites for 'exempt waste' products by IAEA classification. This technology was realized at Kola NPP in December 2006 year. At this time more than 1000 m 3 of decantates log time stored are treated. It allows solving very old problem to empty decantates' tanks at NPPs in environmentally safe manner and with high volume reduction factor. (authors)

  7. TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS ASSESSMENT OF THE DRINKING WATER TREATMENT AT TARGU-MURES WATER TREATMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORNELIA DIANA HERTIA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to assess the technological process of obtaining drinking water at Targu-Mures water treatment plant. The assessment was performed before changing the technological process and four months were chosen to be analized during 2008: January, April, July and October for its efficiency analysis on treatment steps. Mures River is the water source for the water treatment plant, being characterized by unsteady flow and quality parameters with possible important variability in a very short period of time. The treatment technological process is the classic one, represented by coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection, but also prechlorination was constantly applied as additional treatment during 2008. Results showed that for the measured parameters, raw water at the water treatment plant fits into class A3 for surface waters, framing dictated by the bacterial load. The treatment processes efficiency is based on the performance calculation for sedimentation, filtration, global and for disinfection, a better conformation degree of technological steps standing out in January in comparison to the other three analyzed months. A variable non-compliance of turbidity and residual chlorine levels in the disinfected water was observed constantly. Previous treatment steps managed to maintain a low level of oxidisability, chlorine consumption and residual chlorine levels being also low. 12% samples were found inconsistent with the national legislation in terms of bacteriological quality. Measures for the water treatment plant retechnologization are taken primarily for hyperchlorination elimination, which currently constitutes a discomfort factor (taste, smell, and a generating factor of chlorination by-products.

  8. Research on Treatment Technology and Device of Oily Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. Q.; Shui, F. S.; Li, Q. F.

    2017-12-01

    Oily sludge is a solid oily waste, which is produced during the process of oil exploitation, transportation, refining and treatment of oily sewage. It contains a great number of hazardous substance, and is difficult to handle with. To solve the problem of waste resources of oil sludge with high oil content and usually not easy to aggregate during the preparation of profile control agent, a new oily sludge treatment device was developed. This device consists of heat supply unit, flush and filter unit, oil removal unit and dehydration unit. It can effectively clean and filter out the waste from oily sludge, recycle the oil resources and reduce the water content of the residue. In the process of operation, the water and chemical agent are recycled in the device, eventually producing little sewage. The device is small, easy to move and has high degree of automation control. The experimental application shows that the oil removal rate of the oily sludge is up to 70%, and the higher the oil content rate the better the treatment.

  9. Making Choices in the Virtual World: The New Model at United Technologies Information Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliford, Bradley

    1998-01-01

    Describes changes in services of the United Technologies Corporation Information Network from a traditional library system to a virtual system of World Wide Web sites, a document-delivery unit, telephone and e-mail reference, and desktop technical support to provide remote access. Staff time, security, and licensing issues are addressed.…

  10. THE ROLE OF FOLLICULAR UNIT GRAFTING IN TREATMENT ALOPECIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duhita Ayuningtyas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Alopecia is usually treatable and self-limited, but it may be permanent. Careful diagnosis of the type of hair loss will aid in selecting effective treatment. Many drugs used to treat alopecia, but in many people not satisfied with the result. One of the treatment currently used to treat alopecia is hair transplantation with follicular unit grafting (FUG. The advantages of hair transplantation is to create a natural appearance, one that mimics natural hair growth both in terms of numbers and pattern /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  11. Effluent Treatment Technologies in the Iron and Steel Industry - A State of the Art Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Pallabi; Mondal, Gautam C; Singh, Siddharth; Singh, Abhay K; Prasad, Bably; Singh, Krishna K

    2018-05-01

      Iron and steel industry is the principal driving force propelling economic and technological growth of a nation. However, since its inception this industry is associated with widespread environmental pollution and enormous water consumption. Different units of a steel plant discharge effluents loaded with toxic, hazardous pollutants, and unutilized components which necessitates mitigation. In this paper, pollutant removal efficiency, effluent volume product quality, and economic feasibility of existing treatments are studied vis-à-vis their merits, demerits, and innovations to access their shortcomings which can be overcome with new technology to identify future research directions. While conventional methods are inadequate for complete remediation and water reclamation, the potential of advanced treatments, like membrane separation, remains relatively untapped. It is concluded that integrated systems combining membrane separation with chemical treatments can guarantee a high degree of contaminant removal, reusability of effluents concurrently leading to process intensification ensuring ecofriendliness and commercial viability.

  12. Biological control and management of the detoxication wastewater treatment technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topalova Yana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Detoxication technologies require the combination of theoretical and practical knowledge of xenobiotic biodegradation, wastewater treatment technologies, and management rules. The purpose of this complicated combination is to propose specialized strategies for detoxication, based on lab- and pilot-scale modeling. These strategies include preliminary created algorithms for preventing the risk of water pollution and sediments. The technologies and algorithms are essentially important outcome, applied in the textile, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, woodtreating, and oiltreating industries. In this paper four rehabilitation technologies for pretreatment of water contaminated by pentachlorophenol (PCP have been developed in the frame of the European and Bulgarian National projects. Emphasize is put on the biological systems and their potential of detoxication management. The light and transmission electron microscopy of the reconstructed activated sludges the microbial, kinetic and enzymological indicators are presented and approved as critical points in the biocontrol.

  13. Nanofiltration technology in water treatment and reuse: applications and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmansouri, Arash; Bellona, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) is a relatively recent development in membrane technology with characteristics that fall between ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis (RO). While RO membranes dominate the seawater desalination industry, NF is employed in a variety of water and wastewater treatment and industrial applications for the selective removal of ions and organic substances, as well as certain niche seawater desalination applications. The purpose of this study was to review the application of NF membranes in the water and wastewater industry including water softening and color removal, industrial wastewater treatment, water reuse, and desalination. Basic economic analyses were also performed to compare the profitability of using NF membranes over alternative processes. Although any detailed cost estimation is hampered by some uncertainty (e.g. applicability of estimation methods to large-scale systems, labor costs in different areas of the world), NF was found to be a cost-effective technology for certain investigated applications. The selection of NF over other treatment technologies, however, is dependent on several factors including pretreatment requirements, influent water quality, treatment facility capacity, and treatment goals.

  14. WASH activities at two Ebola treatment units in Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Mallow

    Full Text Available The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD in West Africa was the largest in history. Starting in September 2014, International Medical Corps (IMC operated five Ebola treatment units (ETUs in Sierra Leone and Liberia. This paper explores how future infectious disease outbreak facilities in resource-limited settings can be planned, organized, and managed by analyzing data collected on water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH and infection prevention control (IPC protocols.We conducted a retrospective cohort study by analyzing WASH/IPC activity data routinely recorded on paper forms or white boards at ETUs during the outbreak and later merged into a database from two IMC-run ETUs in Sierra Leone between December 2014 and December 2015.The IMC WASH/IPC database contains data from over 369 days. Our results highlight parameters key to designing and maintaining an ETU. High concentration chlorine solution usage was highly correlated with both daily patient occupancy and high-risk zone staff entries; low concentration chlorine usage was less well explained by these measures. There is high demand for laundering and disinfecting of personal protective equipment (PPE on a daily basis and approximately 1 (0-4 piece of PPE is damaged each day.Lack of standardization in the type and format of data collected at ETUs made constructing the WASH/IPC database difficult. However, the data presented here may help inform humanitarian response operations in future epidemics.

  15. Transport of Pathogen Surrogates in Soil Treatment Units: Numerical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Morales

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Segmented mesocosms (n = 3 packed with sand, sandy loam or clay loam soil were used to determine the effect of soil texture and depth on transport of two septic tank effluent (STE-borne microbial pathogen surrogates—green fluorescent protein-labeled E. coli (GFPE and MS-2 coliphage—in soil treatment units. HYDRUS 2D/3D software was used to model the transport of these microbes from the infiltrative surface. Mesocosms were spiked with GFPE and MS-2 coliphage at 105 cfu/mL STE and 105–106 pfu/mL STE, respectively. In all soils, removal rates were >99.99% at 25 cm. The transport simulation compared (1 optimization; and (2 trial-and-error modeling approaches. Only slight differences between the transport parameters were observed between these approaches. Treating both the die-off rates and attachment/detachment rates as variables resulted in an overall better model fit, particularly for the tailing phase of the experiments. Independent of the fitting procedure, attachment rates computed by the model were higher in sandy and sandy loam soils than clay, which was attributed to unsaturated flow conditions at lower water content in the coarser-textured soils. Early breakthrough of the bacteria and virus indicated the presence of preferential flow in the system in the structured clay loam soil, resulting in faster movement of water and microbes through the soil relative to a conservative tracer (bromide.

  16. Process and technological options for odorous emissions control in wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernuschi, S.; Torretta, V.

    1996-01-01

    The emissions of odorous substances together with noise and issues related to proper architectural design within the existing territorial context, have certainly to be considered one of the most significant environmental effects determined by wastewater treatment plants particularly in the most frequent case of their localization in dense urban areas. Following a brief introduction on the chemical properties of odorous compounds and the corresponding methods for representing their concentration levels in air, present work reports on the main qualitative and quantitative characteristics of odorous emissions originating from single unit operations of typical wastewater treatment plants and on the technological and process options available for their control

  17. The Supply and Demand of Technology and Engineering Teachers in the United States: Who Knows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye, Johnny J.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the supply and demand of technology and engineering teachers in the United States. Once gathered, the resulting data (that was available) was compared to previous studies to determine trends. The researcher reviewed the 2010-11 through 2015-16 Technology & Engineering Teacher Education Directories. To…

  18. Recent technology for BWR nuclear steam turbine unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Shin-ichi; Masuda, Toyohiko; Kashiwabara, Katsuto; Oshima, Yoshikuni

    1990-01-01

    As to the ABWR plants which is the third improvement standard boiling water reactor type plants, already the construction of a plant of 1356 MWe class for 50 Hz is planned. Hitachi Ltd. has accumulated the technology for the home manufacture of a whole ABWR plant including a turbine. As the results, the application of a butterfly type combination intermediate valve to No.5 plant in Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., which began the commercial operation recently and later plants, the application of a moisture separating heater to No.4 plant in Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station, Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., which is manufactured at present and later plants and so on were carried out. As to the steam turbine facilities for nuclear power generation manufactured by Hitachi Ltd., three turbines of 1100 MWe class for 50 Hz and one turbine for 60 Hz are in operation. As the new technologies for the steam turbines, the development of 52 in long last stage blades, the new design techniques for the rotor system, the moisture separating heater, the butterfly type combination intermediate valve, cross-around pipes and condensate and feedwater system are reported. (K.I.)

  19. Technology of research of hydroturbine unit work using seismic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleznev, V. S.; Liseikin, A. V.; Gromyko, P. V.; Soloviev, V. M.

    2013-05-01

    On August, 17, 2009 one of the most significant accident in hydropower engineering was happened at Sayano-Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power Station. Specialists of Geophysical Survey SB RAS took part in the State Committee on investigation of the accident cause at Sayano-Shushenskaya HPS. It was determined, that the cause of the accident was a break of stud-bolts on the turbine cover. Why stud-bolts did not stand a load? There were assumptions that hydraulic shock provoked the accident. But, if it is so, seismic station "Cheremushky", situated in 4 km away from the HPS, should has a record of this event. First of all, investigating the record, got at the seismic station in the moment of the accident, it was determined that strength of seismic waves, recorded at the moment of the accident, did not exceed strength of waves got at trotyl explosion of 500 g at a distance to 4 km. The version of hydraulic shock was not proved. There were distinguished low-frequency oscillations and it was determined that the hydroturbine unit (HU) had been raised up more then 10 m in height for 10 sec. Analyzing the seismic station records during the period of more than a year before the accident and records of operating modes of different HU, there was determined that oscillations radiated by second (damaged) HU were approximately 1.5 times more intense than oscillations from all other HU. After the accident at Sayano-Shushenskaya HPS hydroturbine units were started in turns: at first there were started hydroturbine units of old construction (3, 4, 5, 6), then HP of new construction (1, 7, 8, 9). We installed 10 - 15 three-component seismic stations in different points around a HU and studied field of seismic oscillations from it's work. It was determined, that HU radiates a set of monochromatic oscillations divisible by speed of rotation equal to 2.381 Hz. Change of these signals amplitude is connected with change of HU operation modes. Research of changes in oscillations spectral

  20. MOBIL CONTAINER UNIT FOR SEWAGE SLUDGE UTILIZATION FROM SMALL AND MEDIUM WASTWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Ledakowicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The most wastewater treatment plants in Poland are small and medium plants of flow capacity below 1000 m3/d. These plants are not able to build sludge incineration plants and the transportation costs to the nearest plants increase the total costs of wastewater treatment. Polish company Metal Expert together with the French company ETIA and Lodz University of Technology proposed mobile unit for integrated drying and pyrolysis of sewage sludge in a pilot bench scale with capacity of 100 kg/h of dewatered sludge. The pilot plant was mounted in a typical mobile container which could provide service to small and medium wastewater treatment plants offering thermal processing of sewage sludge. This unit consists of KENKI contact dryer and „Spirajoule”® pyrolyser supplied with electricity utilizing the Joule effect, and a boiler, wherein the pyrolysis gases and volatile products are burned producing steam sent to the contact dryer. The bio-char produced during sludge pyrolysis could be utilized for agriculture purposes. During preliminary experiments and short-term exploitation of the unit at Elbląg Wastewater Treatment Plant the obtained results allowed us to make a mass and energy balance depended on the process conditions in the pyrolysis temperature range of 400÷800 °C. Based on the obtained results a calculator was created in the Excel , which enables assessment of pyrolysis products content and making mass and energy balances depended on process parameters such as initial moisture of sludge, pyrolysis temperature and installation output.

  1. An assessment of off-gas treatment technologies for application to thermal treatment of Department of Energy wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, J.D.; Gillins, R.L.; Harris, T.L.; Wollerman, A.L.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe available air pollution control technologies for pollutants generated by thermal treatment of DOE wastes. A basic process for selecting air pollution control devices is summarized. Types of air pollutants generated by thermal treatment units are described, as well as the factors that influence the types and quantities of pollutants generated. This report also reviews applicable regulatory emission requirements. A listing of available and emerging air pollution control technologies and a brief introduction to the basic engineering principles involved in collecting each of the pollutants are presented. Section 7 of this report contains two types of evaluations for air pollution control devices. First, comparative evaluations of individual technologies are presented, based upon criteria generally relevant to DOE facilities. Using this evaluation system, the spray dryer absorber received the highest rating for acid-gas removal; high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters received the highest rating for particulate removal; activated carbon adsorption received the highest rating for the removal of both toxic metals and residual hydrocarbons; and selective catalytic reduction received the highest rating for nitrogen oxide abatement. Also evaluated in Sect. 7 is the expected performance of different types of pollution control systems on two hypothetical waste streams. The waste streams were defined based upon typical DOE wastes and thermal treatment technologies. Section 8 presents conclusions for this report. Two appendixes are included with this report. The first appendix contains a brief description of all the technologies evaluated and the second lists of some of the vendors for each of the technologies that was evaluated

  2. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project. Volume 3, Waste treatment technologies (Draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  3. Environmental assessment of digestate treatment technologies using LCA methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Golkowska, Katarzyna; Lebuf, Viooltje; Vaneeckhaute, Céline; Michels, Evi; Meers, Erik; Benetto, Enrico; Koster, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    The production of biogas from energy crops, organic waste and manure has augmented considerably the amounts of digestate available in Flanders. This has pushed authorities to steadily introduce legislative changes to promote its use as a fertilising agent. There is limited arable land in Flanders, which entails that digestate has to compete with animal manure to be spread. This forces many anaerobic digestion plants to further treat digestate in such a way that it can either be exported or the nitrogen be removed. Nevertheless, the environmental impact of these treatment options is still widely unknown, as well as the influence of these impacts on the sustainability of Flemish anaerobic digestion plants in comparison to other regions where spreading of raw digestate is allowed. Despite important economic aspects that must be considered, the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is suggested in this study to identify the environmental impacts of spreading digestate directly as compared to four different treatment technologies. Results suggest relevant environmental gains when the digestate mix is treated using the examined conversion technologies prior to spreading, although important trade-offs between impact categories were observed and discussed. The promising results of digestate conversion technologies suggest that further LCA analyses should be performed to delve into, for instance, the appropriateness to shift to nutrient recovery technologies rather than digestate conversion treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sodium-bearing Waste Treatment Technology Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles M. Barnes; Arlin L. Olson; Dean D. Taylor

    2004-05-01

    Sodium-bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Office’s (NE-ID) and State of Idaho’s top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL has been working over the past several years to identify a treatment technology that meets NE-ID and regulatory treatment requirements, including consideration of stakeholder input. Many studies, including the High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. This report presents a summary of the applied technology and process design activities performed through February 2004. The SBW issue and the five alternatives are described in Sections 2 and 3, respectively. Details of preliminary process design activities for three of the alternatives (steam reforming, CsIX, and direct evaporation) are presented in three appendices. A recent feasibility study provides the details for calcination. There have been no recent activities performed with regard to vitrification; that section summarizes and references previous work.

  5. Selection criteria for wastewater treatment technologies to protect drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Sperling, M

    2000-01-01

    The protection of water bodies used as sources for drinking water is intimately linked to the adoption of adequate technologies for the treatment of the wastewater generated in the catchment area. The paper presents a general overview of the main technologies used for the treatment of domestic sewage, with a special emphasis on developing countries, and focussing on the main parameters of interest, such as BOD, coliforms and nutrients. A series of tables, figures and charts that can be used for the preliminary selection of treatment technologies is presented. The systems analysed are: stabilisation ponds, activated sludge, trickling filters, anaerobic systems and land disposal. Within each system, the main process variants are covered. Two summary tables are presented, one for quantitative analysis, including easily usable information based on per capita values (US$/cap, Watts/cap, m2 area/cap, m3 sludge/cap), and another for a qualitative comparison among the technologies, based on a one-to-five-star scoring system. The recent trend in tropical countries in the use of UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket) reactors is also discussed.

  6. Technology transfer at Three Mile Island Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, H.M.; Bixby, W.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) formulated a program at TMI-2 in concert with the Coordination Agreement. The DOE TME-2 Information and Examination Program (TI and EP) aims to fulfill three general objectives. First, the TI and EP aims to obtain information from the TMI-2 accidient for resolving specific safety and licensing concerns; modifying applicable standards, specifications, and regulations; and defining changes in design, maintenance, operation, and personnel training. Second, the TI and EP uses TMI-2 information to advance technology in decontamination work; radioactive waste immobilization and disposal; system requalification; damaged fuel handling; and plant, reactor, and safety engineering. Finally, the TI and EP distributes the information gained from the Program to others that are engaged in research and development, design, construction, operation, maintenance, and regulation of nuclear power plants

  7. Low-level radioactive waste disposal technologies used outside the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.; Molton, P.M.; Leigh, I.W.

    1994-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal technologies are an integral part of the waste management process. In the United States, commercial LLW disposal is the responsibility of the State or groups of States (compact regions). The United States defines LLW as all radioactive waste that is not classified as spent nuclear fuel, high- level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or by-product material as defined in Section II(e)(2) of the Atomic Energy Act. LLW may contain some long-lived components in very low concentrations. Countries outside the United States, however, may define LLW differently and may use different disposal technologies. This paper outlines the LLW disposal technologies that are planned or being used in Canada, China, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Sweden, Taiwan, and the United Kingdom (UK)

  8. Clinical treatment planning optimization by Powell's method for gamma unit treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yulong; Shu Huazhong; Bao Xudong; Luo Limin; Bai Yi

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: This article presents a new optimization method for stereotactic radiosurgery treatment planning for gamma unit treatment system. Methods and Materials: The gamma unit has been utilized in stereotactic radiosurgery for about 30 years, but the usual procedure for a physician-physicist team to design a treatment plan is a trial-and-error approach. Isodose curves are viewed on two-dimensional computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) image planes, which is not only time consuming but also seldom achieves the optimal treatment plan, especially when the isocenter weights are regarded. We developed a treatment-planning system on a computer workstation in which Powell's optimization method is realized. The optimization process starts with the initial parameters (the number of iso centers as well as corresponding 3D iso centers' coordinates, collimator sizes, and weight factors) roughly determined by the physician-physicist team. The objective function can be changed to consider protection of sensitive tissues. Results: We use the plan parameters given by a well-trained physician-physicist team, or ones that the author give roughly as the initial parameters for the optimization procedure. Dosimetric results of optimization show a better high dose-volume conformation to the target volume compared to the doctor's plan. Conclusion: This method converges quickly and is not sensitive to the initial parameters. It achieves an excellent conformation of the estimated isodose curves with the contours of the target volume. If the initial parameters are varied, there will be a little difference in parameters' configuration, but the dosimetric results proved almost to be the same

  9. Treatment technology analysis for mixed waste containers and debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrke, R.J.; Brown, C.H.; Langton, C.A.; Askew, N.M.; Kan, T.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1994-03-01

    A team was assembled to develop technology needs and strategies for treatment of mixed waste debris and empty containers in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, and to determine the advantages and disadvantages of applying the Debris and Empty Container Rules to these wastes. These rules issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) apply only to the hazardous component of mixed debris. Hazardous debris that is subjected to regulations under the Atomic Energy Act because of its radioactivity (i.e., mixed debris) is also subject to the debris treatment standards. The issue of treating debris per the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) at the same time or in conjunction with decontamination of the radioactive contamination was also addressed. Resolution of this issue requires policy development by DOE Headquarters of de minimis concentrations for radioactivity and release of material to Subtitle D landfills or into the commercial sector. The task team recommends that, since alternate treatment technologies (for the hazardous component) are Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT): (1) funding should focus on demonstration, testing, and evaluation of BDAT on mixed debris, (2) funding should also consider verification of alternative treatments for the decontamination of radioactive debris, and (3) DOE should establish criteria for the recycle/reuse or disposal of treated and decontaminated mixed debris as municipal waste

  10. The future for electrocoagulation as a localised water treatment technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Peter K; Barton, Geoffrey W; Mitchell, Cynthia A

    2005-04-01

    Electrocoagulation is an electrochemical method of treating polluted water whereby sacrificial anodes corrode to release active coagulant precursors (usually aluminium or iron cations) into solution. Accompanying electrolytic reactions evolve gas (usually as hydrogen bubbles) at the cathode. Electrocoagulation has a long history as a water treatment technology having been employed to remove a wide range of pollutants. However electrocoagulation has never become accepted as a 'mainstream' water treatment technology. The lack of a systematic approach to electrocoagulation reactor design/operation and the issue of electrode reliability (particularly passivation of the electrodes over time) have limited its implementation. However recent technical improvements combined with a growing need for small-scale decentralised water treatment facilities have led to a re-evaluation of electrocoagulation. Starting with a review of electrocoagulation reactor design/operation, this article examines and identifies a conceptual framework for electrocoagulation that focuses on the interactions between electrochemistry, coagulation and flotation. In addition detailed experimental data are provided from a batch reactor system removing suspended solids together with a mathematical analysis based on the 'white water' model for the dissolved air flotation process. Current density is identified as the key operational parameter influencing which pollutant removal mechanism dominates. The conclusion is drawn that electrocoagulation has a future as a decentralised water treatment technology. A conceptual framework is presented for future research directed towards a more mechanistic understanding of the process.

  11. Technology transfer for Ukrainian milk treatment: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, M.J.; Walker, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, radioactive fission products have contaminated the food chain in the Ukraine. The highest doses to humans are a result of cesium contamination in milk. The milk produced in the Ukraine contains radioactive cesium at levels up to 10 times the acceptance standards. Bradtec has developed and demonstrated technology for the US Department of Energy for the treatment of groundwater and effluent water. This technology has also been tested and demonstrated for the Ukrainian government for the purpose of treating contaminated milk. Bradtec, a small business offering specialized technologies in the field of environmental remediation and waste management, has successfully worked with a consortium of businesses, National Laboratories and DOE Headquarters staff to develop and implement a technology demonstration strategy which has led to the implementation of a series collaboration agreements with Ukrainian officials. This paper describes, in a case study approach, the path followed by Bradtec and its collaboration partners in successfully implementing a technology transfer strategy. Also presented is an update on new programs that can provide benefit to private sector companies as DOE seeks to assist the private sector in joint venture/technology transfer relationships with the NIS (New Independent States). This paper should be of interest to all businesses seeking to participate in business opportunities in the NIS

  12. Application of CFB technology for large power generating units and CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabov, G. A.; Folomeev, O. M.; Sankin, D. A.; Khaneev, K. V.; Bondarenko, I. G.; Mel'nikov, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    Data on the development of the circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology for combustion of fuels in large power generating units are examined. The problems with raising the steam parameters and unit power of boilers with a circulating fluidized bed are examined. With the boiler system at the 460 MW unit at Lagisza (Poland) as an example, the feasibility of raising the efficiency of units with CFB boilers through deep recovery of the heat of the effluent gases and reducing expenditure for in-house needs is demonstrated. Comparative estimates of the capital and operating costs of 225 and 330 MW units are used to determine the conditions for optimum use of CFB boilers in the engineering renovation of thermal power plants in Russia. New areas for the application of CFB technology in CO 2 capture are analyzed in connection with the problem of reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  13. Integrating addiction treatment into primary care using mobile health technology: protocol for an implementation research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanbeck, Andrew R; Gustafson, David H; Marsch, Lisa A; McTavish, Fiona; Brown, Randall T; Mares, Marie-Louise; Johnson, Roberta; Glass, Joseph E; Atwood, Amy K; McDowell, Helene

    2014-05-29

    Healthcare reform in the United States is encouraging Federally Qualified Health Centers and other primary-care practices to integrate treatment for addiction and other behavioral health conditions into their practices. The potential of mobile health technologies to manage addiction and comorbidities such as HIV in these settings is substantial but largely untested. This paper describes a protocol to evaluate the implementation of an E-Health integrated communication technology delivered via mobile phones, called Seva, into primary-care settings. Seva is an evidence-based system of addiction treatment and recovery support for patients and real-time caseload monitoring for clinicians. Our implementation strategy uses three models of organizational change: the Program Planning Model to promote acceptance and sustainability, the NIATx quality improvement model to create a welcoming environment for change, and Rogers's diffusion of innovations research, which facilitates adaptations of innovations to maximize their adoption potential. We will implement Seva and conduct an intensive, mixed-methods assessment at three diverse Federally Qualified Healthcare Centers in the United States. Our non-concurrent multiple-baseline design includes three periods - pretest (ending in four months of implementation preparation), active Seva implementation, and maintenance - with implementation staggered at six-month intervals across sites. The first site will serve as a pilot clinic. We will track the timing of intervention elements and assess study outcomes within each dimension of the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance framework, including effects on clinicians, patients, and practices. Our mixed-methods approach will include quantitative (e.g., interrupted time-series analysis of treatment attendance, with clinics as the unit of analysis) and qualitative (e.g., staff interviews regarding adaptations to implementation protocol) methods, and assessment of

  14. REVIEW OF EXISTING LCA STUDIES ON WASTE WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    The EU research project “NEPTUNE” is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and focused on the development of new waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) for municipal waste water. The sustainability of these WWTTs is going to be assessed by the use of life cycle assessment (LCA). New life...... importance of the different life cycle stages and the individual impact categories in the total impact from the waste water treatment, and the degree to which micropollutants, pathogens and whole effluent toxicity have been included in earlier studies. The results show that more than 30 different WWTT (and...

  15. Control and automation technology in United States nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, B.K.H.

    1997-01-01

    The need to use computers for nuclear power plant design, engineering, operation and maintenance has been growing since the inception of commercial nuclear power electricity generation in the 1960s. The needs have intensified in recent years as the demands of safety and reliability, as well as economic competition, have become stronger. The rapid advance of computer hardware and software technology in the last two decades has greatly enlarged the potential of computer applications to plant instrumentation and control of future plants, as well as those needed for operation of existing plants. The traditional role of computers for mathematical calculations and data manipulation has been expanded to automate plant control functions and to enhance human performance and productivity. The major goals of using computers for instrumentation and control of nuclear power plants are (1) to improve safety; (2) to reduce challenges to the power plant; (3) to reduce the cost of operations and maintenance; (4) to enhance power production, and (5) to increase productivity of people. Many functions in nuclear power plants are achieved by a combination of human action and automation. Increasingly, computer-based systems are used to support operations and maintenance personnel in the performance of their tasks. There are many benefits which can accrue from the use of computers but it is important to ensure that the design and implementation of the support system and the human task places the human in the correct role in relation to the machine; that is, in a management position, with the computer serving the human. In addition, consideration must be given to computer system integrity, software validation and verification, consequences of error, etc., to ensure its reliability for nuclear power plant applications. (author). 31 refs

  16. Control and automation technology in United States nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, B.K.H.

    1995-01-01

    The need to use computers for nuclear power plant design, engineering, operation and maintenance has been growing since the inception of commercial nuclear power electricity generation in the 1960s. The needs have intensified in recent years as the demands of safety and reliability, as well as economic competition, have become stronger. The rapid advanced of computer hardware and software technology in the last two decades has greatly enlarged the potential of computer applications to plant instrumentation and control of future plants, as well as those needed for operation of existing plants. The traditional role of computers for mathematical calculations and data manipulation has been expanded to automate plant control functions and to enhance human performance and productivity. The major goals of using computers for instrumentation and control of nuclear power plants are: (1) to improve safety; (2) to reduce challenges to capital investments; (3) to reduce the cost of operations and maintenance; (4) to enhance power production; and (5) to increase productivity of people. Many functions in nuclear power plants are achieved by a combination of human action and automation. Increasingly, computer-based systems are used to support operations and maintenance personnel in the performance of their tasks. There are many benefits which can accrue from the use of computers but it is important to ensure that the design and implementation of the support system, and the human task places the human in the correct role in the relation to the machine; that is, in a management position, with the computer serving the human. In addition, consideration must be given to computer system integrity, software validation and verification, consequences of error, etc., to ensure its reliability for nuclear power plant applications. (author). 31 refs

  17. Control and automation technology in United States nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, B K.H. [Sunutech, Inc., Los Altos, CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The need to use computers for nuclear power plant design, engineering, operation and maintenance has been growing since the inception of commercial nuclear power electricity generation in the 1960s. The needs have intensified in recent years as the demands of safety and reliability, as well as economic competition, have become stronger. The rapid advance of computer hardware and software technology in the last two decades has greatly enlarged the potential of computer applications to plant instrumentation and control of future plants, as well as those needed for operation of existing plants. The traditional role of computers for mathematical calculations and data manipulation has been expanded to automate plant control functions and to enhance human performance and productivity. The major goals of using computers for instrumentation and control of nuclear power plants are (1) to improve safety; (2) to reduce challenges to the power plant; (3) to reduce the cost of operations and maintenance; (4) to enhance power production, and (5) to increase productivity of people. Many functions in nuclear power plants are achieved by a combination of human action and automation. Increasingly, computer-based systems are used to support operations and maintenance personnel in the performance of their tasks. There are many benefits which can accrue from the use of computers but it is important to ensure that the design and implementation of the support system and the human task places the human in the correct role in relation to the machine; that is, in a management position, with the computer serving the human. In addition, consideration must be given to computer system integrity, software validation and verification, consequences of error, etc., to ensure its reliability for nuclear power plant applications. (author). 31 refs.

  18. FY-2001 Accomplishments in Off-gas Treatment Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Douglas William

    2001-09-01

    This report summarizes the efforts funded by the Tank Focus Area to investigate nitrogen oxide (NOx) destruction (a.k.a. deNOx) technologies and off-gas scrubber system designs. The primary deNOx technologies that were considered are staged combustion (a.k.a. NOx reburning), selective catalytic reduction, selective non-catalytic reduction, and steam reformation. After engineering studies and a team evaluation were completed, selective catalytic reduction and staged combustion were considered the most likely candidate technologies to be deployed in a sodium-bearing waste vitrification facility. The outcome of the team evaluation factored heavily in the establishing a baseline configuration for off-gas and secondary waste treatment systems.

  19. New technologies in the treatment of type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by insufficient production of insulin, a hormone needed for proper control of blood glucose levels. People with type 1 diabetes must monitor their blood glucose throughout the day using a glucose meter or a continuous glucose monitor, calculate...... how much insulin is needed to maintain normal blood glucose levels, and administer the insulin dose by pen injection or insulin pump infusion into the subcutaneous tissue. In recent years, several new technologies for the treatment of type 1 diabetes have been developed. This PhD thesis covers two...... studies of the effects of commercially available technologies--sensor-augmented pump therapy and automated insulin bolus calculators--when used in clinical practice. Both studies demonstrated that these technologies have the potential to improve diabetes care. In addition, two in-clinic studies related...

  20. Development of electron beam flue gas treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.

    1995-01-01

    The electron beam flue gas treatment technology is expected to bring many advantages such as the simultaneous reduction of SO x and NO x emissions, a dry process without waste water, valuable fertilizer byproducts, etc. In order to verify the feasibility and performances of the process, a practical application test is carried out with a pilot plant which treats the actual flue gas from a coal-fired boiler. Results are presented. 4 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Distillery spent wash: Treatment technologies and potential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohana, Sarayu; Acharya, Bhavik K.; Madamwar, Datta

    2009-01-01

    Distillery spent wash is the unwanted residual liquid waste generated during alcohol production and pollution caused by it is one of the most critical environmental issue. Despite standards imposed on effluent quality, untreated or partially treated effluent very often finds access to watercourses. The distillery wastewater with its characteristic unpleasant odor poses a serious threat to the water quality in several regions around the globe. The ever-increasing generation of distillery spent wash on the one hand and stringent legislative regulations of its disposal on the other has stimulated the need for developing new technologies to process this effluent efficiently and economically. A number of clean up technologies have been put into practice and novel bioremediation approaches for treatment of distillery spent wash are being worked out. Potential microbial (anaerobic and aerobic) as well as physicochemical processes as feasible remediation technologies to combat environmental pollution are being explored. An emerging field in distillery waste management is exploiting its nutritive potential for production of various high value compounds. This review presents an overview of the pollution problems caused by distillery spent wash, the technologies employed globally for its treatment and its alternative use in various biotechnological sectors

  2. Invasive treatment of NSTEMI patients in German Chest Pain Units - Evidence for a treatment paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Frank P; Schmitt, Claus; Hochadel, Matthias; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Darius, Harald; Maier, Lars S; Schmitt, Claus; Heusch, Gerd; Voigtländer, Thomas; Mudra, Harald; Gori, Tommaso; Senges, Jochen; Münzel, Thomas

    2018-03-15

    Patients with non ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) represent the largest fraction of patients with acute coronary syndrome in German Chest Pain units. Recent evidence on early vs. selective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is ambiguous with respect to effects on mortality, myocardial infarction (MI) and recurrent angina. With the present study we sought to investigate the prognostic impact of PCI and its timing in German Chest Pain Unit (CPU) NSTEMI patients. Data from 1549 patients whose leading diagnosis was NSTEMI were retrieved from the German CPU registry for the interval between 3/2010 and 3/2014. Follow-up was available at median of 167days after discharge. The patients were grouped into a higher (Group A) and lower risk group (Group B) according to GRACE score and additional criteria on admission. Group A had higher Killip classes, higher BNP levels, reduced EF and significant more triple vessel disease (pGerman Chest Pain Units. This treatment paradox may worsen prognosis in patients who could derive the largest benefit from early revascularization. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Innovative technologies for the treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyman, L.D.; Anderson, T.D.

    1988-01-01

    The treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous and mixed wastes incur significant costs for Department of Energy (DOE) installations. These wastes must be managed under strict environmental controls and regulations to prevent the possibility of migration of hazardous materials to the biosphere. Through the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program, the DOE is seeking to develop innovative ways of improving current treatment technologies to eliminate the hazardous components of wastes, reduce waste management costs, and minimize the volume requiring disposal as hazardous or mixed waste. Sponsored projects progress from research and development to field demonstration. Among the innovative technologies under development are supercritical water oxidation of hazardous chemicals, microwave-assisted destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbons, paramagnetic separation of metals from waste, detoxification and reclamation of waste acid, nitrate destruction through calcination, treatment/disposal of reactive metals, and methodologies for encapsulation. Technologies at a demonstration phase include detoxification of mixed waste sludge, microbial degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil, and the remediation process for a hydrocarbon spill. 14 refs

  4. Current trends in endodontic practice: emergency treatments and technological armamentarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michelle; Winkler, Johnathon; Hartwell, Gary; Stewart, Jeffrey; Caine, Rufus

    2009-01-01

    The current clinical practice of endodontics includes the utilization of a variety of new technological advances and materials. The last comprehensive survey that compared treatment modalities used in endodontic practices was conducted in 1990. The purpose of the current survey was to determine the frequency with which these new endodontic technologies and materials are being used in endodontic practices today. An e-mail questionnaire was sent to the 636 active diplomates of the American Board of Endodontics with current e-mail addresses. Two hundred thirty-two diplomates responded for a response rate of 35%. Calcium hydroxide was found to be the most frequently used intracanal medicament for all cases diagnosed with necrotic pulps. Ibuprofen was the most frequently prescribed medication for pain, and penicillin was the most frequently prescribed antibiotic when an active infection was present. Eighty-two percent of the respondents are still incorporating hand files in some fashion during the cleansing and shaping phase of treatment. Lateral condensation and continuous wave were the most common methods used for obturation. Digital radiography was reported as being used by 72.5% of the respondents, whereas 45.3% reported using the microscope greater than 75% of the patient treatment. Ultrasonics was used by 97.8% of the respondents. It appears from the results that new endodontic technology is currently being used in the endodontic offices of those who responded to the survey.

  5. Modified virtual reality technology for treatment of amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastgate, R M; Griffiths, G D; Waddingham, P E; Moody, A D; Butler, T K H; Cobb, S V; Comaish, I F; Haworth, S M; Gregson, R M; Ash, I M; Brown, S M

    2006-03-01

    The conventional patching/occlusion treatment for amblyopia sometimes gives disappointing results for a number of reasons: it is unpopular, prolonged, frequently resulting in poor or noncompliance, and also disrupts fusion. The aim of this research was to develop a novel virtual-reality (VR)-based display system that facilitates the treatment of amblyopia with both eyes stimulated simultaneously. We have adopted a multidisciplinary approach, combining VR expertise with a team of ophthalmologists and orthoptists to develop the Interactive Binocular Treatment (I-BiT) system. This system incorporates adapted VR technology and specially written software providing interactive 2D and 3D games and videos to the patient via a stereo (binocular) display, and a control screen for the clinician. We developed a prototype research system designed for treatment of amblyopia in children. The result is a novel way to treat amblyopia, which allows binocular treatment. It is interactive, and as it is partially software based, can be adapted to suit the age/ability, and needs of the patient. This means that the treatment can be made captivating and enjoyable. Further research is on-going to determine the efficacy of this new modality in the treatment of amblyopia.

  6. Nuclear safety inspection in treatment process for SG heat exchange tubes deficiency of unit 1, TNPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunming; Song Chenxiu; Zhao Pengyu; Hou Wei

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes treatment process for SG heat exchange tubes deficiency of Unit 1, TNPS, nuclear safety inspection of Northern Regional Office during treatment process for deficiency and further inspection after deficiency had been treated. (authors)

  7. Innovative Treatment Technologies for Natural Waters and Wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childress, Amy E.

    2011-07-01

    The research described in this report focused on the development of novel membrane contactor processes (in particular, forward osmosis (FO), pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), and membrane distillation (MD)) in low energy desalination and wastewater treatment applications and in renewable energy generation. FO and MD are recently gaining national and international attention as viable, economic alternatives for removal of both established and emerging contaminants from natural and process waters; PRO is gaining worldwide attention as a viable source of renewable energy. The interrelationship of energy and water are at the core of this study. Energy and water are inextricably bound; energy usage and production must be considered when evaluating any water treatment process for practical application. Both FO and MD offer the potential for substantial energy and resource savings over conventional treatment processes and PRO offers the potential for renewable energy or energy offsets in desalination. Combination of these novel technologies with each other, with existing technologies (e.g., reverse osmosis (RO)), and with existing renewable energy sources (e.g., salinity gradient solar ponds) may enable much less expensive water production and also potable water production in remote or distributed locations. Two inter-related projects were carried out in this investigation. One focused on membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment and PRO for renewable energy generation; the other focused on MD driven by a salinity gradient solar pond.

  8. Effect of technological treatments on bovine lactoferrin: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Indira; Pérez, María Dolores; Conesa, Celia; Calvo, Miguel; Sánchez, Lourdes

    2018-04-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional protein that exerts important activities in the neonate through its presence in milk, and also in other external mucosas, acting as a defense protein of innate immunity. The addition of bovine LF to infant formula and also to other functional products and cosmetics has increased during the last decades. Consequently, it is essential to know the effect that the technological processes, necessary to elaborate those products, have on LF activity. In this study, we have revised the effect of classical treatments on lactoferrin structure and activity, such as heat treatment or drying, and also of emerging technologies, like high pressure or pulsed electric field. The results of the studies included in this review indicate that LF stability is dependent on its level of iron-saturation and on the characteristics of the treatment media. Furthermore, the studies revised here reveal that the non-thermal treatments are interesting alternatives to the traditional ones, as they protect better the structure and activity of lactoferrin. It is also clear the need for research on LF encapsulation by different ways, to protect its properties before it reaches the intestine. All this knowledge would allow designing processes less harmful for LF, thus maintaining all its functionality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Technological feasibility studies on combination treatments for subtropical fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodrick, H.T.; Linde, H.J. van der

    1981-01-01

    Research with subtropical fruits such as papayas and mangoes had advanced beyond the experimental stage in South Africa. This may be attributed to the potential economic benefits likely to be obtained from the combination of heat and irradiation treatments. The outcome of recent marketing trials, however, revealed several problem areas which need further investigation. Some of these problems were studied in greater detail and are reported in this presentation. The effect of time delays between hot-water and irradiation treatments on the efficacy in disease control in the fruit, has received particular attention in the investigations. Efforts have also been made to correlate these results with those obtained in fungal studies in the laboratory. These and other factors relating to the technological feasibility in the use of combined treatments for the preservation of mangoes and papayas are discussed and recommendations or guidelines for future studies are given in this paper. (author)

  10. Treatment technology for removing radon from small community water supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinner, N.E.; Quern, P.A.; Schell, G.S.; Lessard, C.E.; Clement, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Radon contamination of drinking water primarily affects individual homeowners and small communities using ground-water supplies. Presently, three types of treatment processes have been used to remove radon: granular activated carbon adsorption (GAC), diffused-bubble aeration, and packed-tower aeration. In order to obtain data on these treatment alternatives for small communities water supplies, a field evaluation study was conducted on these three processes as well as on several modifications to aeration of water in storage tanks considered to be low cost/low technology alternatives. The paper presents the results of these field studies conducted at a small mobile home park in rural New Hampshire. The conclusion of the study was that the selection of the appropriate treatment system to remove radon from drinking water depends primarily upon: (1) precent removal of process; (2) capital operating and maintenance costs; (3) safety (radiation); and (4) raw water quality (Fe, Mn, bacteria and organics)

  11. Development of advanced treatment technologies of radio-aqueous waste by an environmental friendly decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Wook; Lee, E. H.; Moon, J. K. and others

    2006-01-15

    This project was aimed at the technology developments of electrode fabrication, electrolytic reactor design and fabrication, electrolytic processes and the analyses of electroytic reaction mechanisms, which were essential elements for the development of electrolytic systems to decompose or teat environmentally- friendly the several salts contained in waste solutions which are to be generated in the fields of nuclear/non-nuclear industries. Major research items carried our in this project were as follows; - Development of technologies to choose and fabricate the anodes and cathodes for the treatments of waste solutions containing nitrogen compounds and organics. - Development of a membrane electrolyzer stacked by mono-polar unit cells with independent series flow path of electrolytes - Development of an electrolyzer with a self-pH adjustment and an electrolytic process for ammonia decomposition by using the electrolyzer - Analysis of electrolytic reaction mechanism of ammonia - Development of an ion exchange membrane electrolyzer with only one discharge of pH-controlled electrolyte solution - Development of electrolytic dechlorination technology for the treatment of chloride molten salt waste salt from pyroprocess. - Development of technologies for treatment of high concentration nitric acid and recovery of waste organic solvent.

  12. Combining Follicular Unit Extraction and Scalp Micropigmentation for the Cosmetic Treatment of Alopecias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Rassman, MD

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Two relatively new modalities, follicular unit extraction (FUE and scalp micropigmentation have changed the treatment of hair loss, to reduce the number of procedures and the total costs of the hair restoration process. These 2 modalities augment each other when treating patients with thinning hair and balding. The explosion of FUE procedures (which reflected 52.6% of the hair transplant procedures performed in 2016, up from 48.5% and the appearance of more and more new physicians offering hair restoration technologies employing FUE have caused a 20% annual growth in this industry over the past few years. This article reviews the use of FUE and scalp micropigmentation when used in combination.

  13. Effects of Patient Care Unit Design and Technology on Nurse and Patient Care Technician Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Mary S; Doscher, Mindy

    2018-04-01

    The current study described RN and patient care technician (PCT) communication in centralized and hybrid decentralized workstation designs using hands-free communication technology and infrared locator badge technology to facilitate communication. New construction of an oncology unit provided the opportunity to compare staff communication in two different workstation designs. Observations and questionnaires compared nurse and PCT communication in the two-unit designs. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the differences. The hybrid decentralized unit had increased use of hands-free communication technology and hallway communication by nurses and PCTs, and increased patient room communication by nurses. Perceptions of communication between nurses and PCTs and congruency of priorities for care were similar for both units. The locator badge technology had limited adoption. Replacement of nurse workstations with new construction or remodeling impact staff communication patterns, necessitating that nurse leaders understand the impact of design and technology on communication. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 44(4), 17-22.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Multipurpose units: combining of technological operations of a soil cultivating and seeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Petukhov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern domestic market of technique for grain crops seeding differs variety of machines brands and types. The intensive type technologies combining technological operations of a soil cultivating and grain crops seeding in one pass are more widely used. The authors have established that one-operational units in new machine park have to be replaced multipurpose, universal and combined machines. Such approach will reduce number of machines in grain production from 20-30 to 5-6 name titles. Possibilities of multipurpose sowing units for simultaneous fertilizers application, soil cultivating and weeds destruction were analyzed. It was specified that nowadays there are several technologies types with two, four or six operations overlapping. Operational performance, technological and economical efficiency of the best multipurpose and also efficiency of technological operations overlapping at grain crops cultivating in the conditions of their real operation and at a trial establishment in the Kuban research institute of information and technical and economic studies of agro-industrial complex engineering and technical services were studied. Tit was defined that use of multipurpose sowing units and also studied efficiency of decreases operational costs by 48-71 percent, fuel consumption - by 41-76 percent and reduces labor input by 72-80 percent. Thus grain crops seeding is possible in optimal agrotime because of 4-6 technological operations overlapping in one pass.

  15. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Xiaoyi, E-mail: yangxiaoyi@buaa.edu.cn [Department of Thermal Energy Engineering, BeiHang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2009-09-30

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  16. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaoyi

    2009-01-01

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  17. Role of varicocele treatment in assisted reproductive technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet G. Sönmez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this review, we investigate the advantage of varicocele repair prior to assisted reproductive technologies (ART for infertile couples and provide cost analysis information. Materials and methods: We searched the following electronic databases: PubMed, Medline, Excerpta Medica Database (Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL. The following search strategy was modified for the various databases and search engines: ‘varicocele’, ‘varicocelectomy’, ‘varicocele repair’, ‘ART’, ‘in vitro fertilisation (IVF’, ‘intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI’. Results: A total of 49 articles, including six meta-analyses, 32 systematic reviews, and 11 original articles, were included in the analysis. Bypassing potentially reversible male subfertility factors using ART is currently common practice. However, varicocele may be present in 35% of men with primary infertility and 80% of men with secondary infertility. Varicocele repair has been shown to be an effective treatment for infertile men with clinical varicocele, thus should play an important role in the treatment of such patients due to the foetal/genetic risks and high costs that are associated with increased ART use. Conclusion: Varicocele repair is a cost-effective treatment method that can improve semen parameters, pregnancy rates, and live-birth rates in most infertile men with clinical varicocele. By improving semen parameters and sperm structure, varicocele repair can decrease or even eliminate ART requirement. Keywords: Assisted reproductive technology, In vitro fertilisation, Intracytoplasmic sperm injection, Varicocele, Varicocelectomy

  18. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyi

    2009-09-30

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  19. Radiation-beam technologies of structural materials treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    Considered in the paper are the most advanced and prospective radiation-beam technologies (RBT) for treatment of structural materials, as applied to modifying the structural-phase state in the surface layers of half-finished products and articles with the purpose to improve their service properties. Ion-beam, plasma, and ion-plasma, as well as the technologies based on the use of concentrated fluxes of energy, generated by laser radiation, high-power pulsed electron and ion beams, and high-temperature pulsed plasma fluxes are analysed. As applied to improvement of the corrosion and erosion resistance, breaking strength, friction and wear resistance, and crack resistance, the directions of the choice and the use of RBT have been considered for changes of the surface layer state by applying covers and films, and by a change of the surface topography (relief), surface structure and defects, and the element composition and phase state of materials [ru

  20. Onsite greywater treatment using pilot scale grow technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, M.U.

    2015-01-01

    The GROW Technology for greywater treatment was installed at the MUET (Mehran University of Engineering and Technology), hostel and run under continuous flow conditions with hydraulic loading rate of 0.15m.d-1. The monitoring and analysis of influent and effluent water were carried out during January-December, 2010. Local plants species such as water hyacinth, Pennywort (duck weed), Mint and Cattail were used in the GROW rig as a mixed mode. Coarse Gravels were filled in the troughs as a medium. The collected samples were analyzed for BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand), COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), TSS (Total Suspended Solids), pH, and DO (Dissolved Oxygen). Removal efficiencies of BOD5, COD and TSS were calculated as 83.0,69.0 and 84.0% respectively. DO was found increased from 0.6-3.5 mg.dm-3 while pH was observed between 6.5-7.8. (author)

  1. Technology needs for tomorrow's treatment and diagnosis of macular diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubrane, Gisèle

    2008-02-01

    Retinal imaging is the basis of macular disease's diagnosis. Currently available technologies in clinical practice are fluorescein and indocyanin green (ICG) angiographies, in addition to optical coherence tomography (OCT), which is an in vivo "histology-like" cross-sectional images of the retina. Recent developments in the field of OCT imaging include Spectral-Domain OCT. However OCT remains a static view of the macula with no direct link with dynamic observation obtained by angiographies. Adaptative optics is an encouraging perspective for fundus analysis in the future, and could be linked to OCT or angiographies. Treatments of macular disease have exploded these past few years. Pharmacologic inhibition of angiogenesis represents a novel approach in the treatment of choroidal neovascularization in eyes with age-related macular degeneration. The major action explored is the direct inhibition of the protein VEGF with antibody-like products. New anti-VEGF drugs are in development aiming at the VEGF receptors or synthesis of VEGF. But various components of the neovascular cascade, including growth factor expression, extracellular matrix modulation, integrin inhibition represent potential targets for modulation with drugs. Intra-vitreal injections are nowadays the main route of administration for these new treatments but they are potentially responsible of side effects such as endophtalmitis. Development of other routes of treatment would require new formulation of used drugs. The improvement of retinal imaging leads to a better understanding of macular disease mechanisms and will help to develop new routes and targets of treatment.

  2. Social Media and Mobile Technology for Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Coughlin, Steven S.; Lyons, Elizabeth J.

    2018-01-01

    OVERVIEW Given the number of lives affected by cancer and the great potential for optimizing well-being via lifestyle changes, patients, providers, health care systems, advocacy groups, and entrepreneurs are looking to digital solutions to enhance patient care and broaden prevention efforts. Thousands of health-oriented mobile websites and apps have been developed, with a majority focused upon lifestyle behaviors (e.g., exercise, diet, smoking). In this review, we consider the use and potential of social media and mHealth technologies for cancer prevention, cancer treatment, and survivorship. We identify key principles in research and practice, summarize prior reviews, and highlight notable case studies and patient resources. Further, with the potential for scaled delivery and broad reach, we consider application of social media and mHealth technologies in low-resource settings. With clear advantages for reach, social media and mHealth technologies offer the ability to scale and engage entire populations at low cost, develop supportive social networks, connect patients and providers, encourage adherence with cancer care, and collect vast quantities of data for advancing cancer research. Development efforts have been rapid and numerous, yet evaluation of intervention effects on behavior change and health outcomes are sorely needed, and regulation around data security issues is notably lacking. Attention to broader audiences is also needed, with targeted development for culturally diverse groups and non-English speakers. Further investment in research to build the evidence base and identify best practices will help delineate and actualize the potential of social media and mHealth technologies for cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:28561647

  3. Social Media and Mobile Technology for Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J; Coughlin, Steven S; Lyons, Elizabeth J

    2017-01-01

    Given the number of lives affected by cancer and the great potential for optimizing well-being via lifestyle changes, patients, providers, health care systems, advocacy groups, and entrepreneurs are looking to digital solutions to enhance patient care and broaden prevention efforts. Thousands of health-oriented mobile websites and apps have been developed, with a majority focused upon lifestyle behaviors (e.g., exercise, diet, smoking). In this review, we consider the use and potential of social media and mHealth technologies for cancer prevention, cancer treatment, and survivorship. We identify key principles in research and practice, summarize prior reviews, and highlight notable case studies and patient resources. Further, with the potential for scaled delivery and broad reach, we consider application of social media and mHealth technologies in low-resource settings. With clear advantages for reach, social media and mHealth technologies offer the ability to scale and engage entire populations at low cost, develop supportive social networks, connect patients and providers, encourage adherence with cancer care, and collect vast quantities of data for advancing cancer research. Development efforts have been rapid and numerous, yet evaluation of intervention effects on behavior change and health outcomes are sorely needed, and regulation around data security issues is notably lacking. Attention to broader audiences is also needed, with targeted development for culturally diverse groups and non-English speakers. Further investment in research to build the evidence base and identify best practices will help delineate and actualize the potential of social media and mHealth technologies for cancer prevention and treatment.

  4. Development of the enviromental protection, development of the waste water treatment technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-08-01

    In order to establish the stable wastewater treatment technology for the coal liquefaction plant, the basic study was carried out in the fisical year 1981, 1982 and the laboratory equipment was made for the purpose of the development of the unit operation, which plays an important part of the plant and then, in the fiscal year 1983, on the basis of the results, operation studies were carried out to estimate the general quality of wastewater and the conventional treatment system in coal liquefaction plant was examined thoroughly in 1984. For purpose of the investigation on the total treatment system of coal liquefaction plant, in the current year, was carried out the analysis of water which is produced by the liquefaction reaction in It/d PDU and comparison of the values obtained from the liquefaction water samples from different coals. Moreover, to develop unit operations of effective wastewater treatment system, the following examinations were carried out; (1) phenol removal by solid-supported liquid membrance method. (2) decomposition of BOD by anaerobic fluidized bed. (3) decomposition of phenol by anaerobic bacteria. (4) removal of residual organic matters and S.S. by biofilter. (5) the total treatment system by non-biological method. Consequently many informations were obtained regarding the optimum total system. The studies finished at the fiscal year 1985. (6 tabs)

  5. Principles of topical treatment: advancement in gel vehicle technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Steven R

    2014-04-01

    Topical treatment is a pillar of dermatologic practice. The delivery of drug by a topical vehicle is dependent on complex physical chemistry and on how well patients apply the product. The potency of topical agents is not solely dependent on the concentration of active drug in the vehicle. A corticosteroid molecule may have vastly different potency depending on what vehicle is used to deliver it. Similarly, a new gel vehicle is able to deliver considerably more active antifungal than an older vehicle technology and may represent a promising vehicle for other novel formulations. The use of new vehicles can provide more effective means for treating patients with skin disease.

  6. Whole Language, Computers and CD-ROM Technology: A Kindergarten Unit on "Benjamin Bunny."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajthy, Ernest

    A kindergarten teacher, two preservice teachers, and a college consultant on educational computer technology designed and developed a 10-day whole-language integrated unit on the theme of Beatrix Potter's "Benjamin Bunny." The project was designed as a demonstration of the potential of integrating the CD-ROM-based version of…

  7. Stages of Adoption Concern and Technology Acceptance in a Critical Care Nursing Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Gina M; LoCurto, Jamie; Lippoldt, Diana

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the stages of concern (self, task, and impact) and usability (trust, perceived usefulness, and ease of use) shifts experienced by nurses adopting new technology. Patient care processes in critical care units can be disrupted with the incorporation of information technology. New users of technology typically transition through stages of concern and experience shifts in acceptance during assimilation. Critical care nurses (N = 41) were surveyed twice: (1) pre, immediately after training, and (2) post, 3 months after implementation of technology. From presurvey to postsurvey, self-concerns decreased 14%, whereas impact concerns increased 22%. Furthermore, there was a 30% increase in trust and a 17% increase in perceived usefulness, even with a 27% decrease in ease of use. Adoption of new technology requires critical care nurses to adapt current practices, which may improve trust and perceived usefulness yet decrease perceptions of ease of use.

  8. Adherence to technology-mediated insomnia treatment: a meta-analysis, interviews, and focus groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsch, C.; Lancee, J.; Beun, R.J.; Neerincx, M.A.; Brinkman, W.-P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several technologies have been proposed to support the reduction of insomnia complaints. A user-centered assessment of these technologies could provide insight into underlying factors related to treatment adherence. Objective: Gaining insight into adherence to technology-mediated

  9. Thermal treatment technology at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillary, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Recent surveys of mixed wastes in interim storage throughout the 30-site Department of Energy complex indicate that only 12 of those sites account for 98% of such wastes by volume. Current inventories at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) account for 38% of total DOE wastes in interim storage, the largest of any single site. For a large percentage of these waste volumes, as well as the substantial amounts of buried and currently generated wastes, thermal treatment processes have been designated as the technologies of choice. Current facilities and a number of proposed strategies exist for thermal treatment of wastes of this nature at the INEL. High-level radioactive waste is solidified in the Waste Calciner Facility at the Idaho Central Processing Plant. Low-level solid wastes until recently have been processed at the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF), a compaction, size reduction, and controlled air incineration facility. WERF is currently undergoing process upgrading and RCRA Part B permitting. Recent systems studies have defined effective strategies, in the form of thermal process sequences, for treatment of wastes of the complex and heterogeneous nature in the INEL inventory. This presentation reviews the current status of operating facilities, active studies in this area, and proposed strategies for thermal treatment of INEL wastes

  10. Effluent treatment plant for pharmaceutical unit at Bahipheru - case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayat, A.

    1997-01-01

    This project has been awarded to environ (Pvt) Ltd., on turnkey basis, and is an integrated waste treatment facility for pharmaceuticals companies, manufacturing paracetamole, aspirin and various pharmaceuticals intermediates, from phenol as basic raw material. A highly toxic waste water, containing high concentrations of phenolics and sulfate ions is generated at this plant and has to be treatment before final disposal into an irrigation channel. (author)

  11. Application of photochemical technologies for treatment of landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeroff, Daniel E; Bloetscher, Frederick; Reddy, D V; Gasnier, François; Jain, Swapnil; McBarnette, André; Hamaguchi, Hatsuko

    2012-03-30

    Because of widely varying practices in solid waste management, an all-inclusive solution to long-term management of landfill leachate is currently not available. There is a major technological need for sustainable, economical options for safe discharge of leachate to the environment. Two potential on-site pretreatment technologies, photochemical iron-mediated aeration (PIMA) and TiO(2) photocatalysis were compared for treatment of landfill leachate at laboratory scale. Results of bench scale testing of real landfill leachate with PIMA and TiO(2) photocatalysis showed up to 86% conversion of refractory COD to complete mineralization, up to 91% removal of lead, up to 71% removal of ammonia without pH adjustment, and up to 90% effective color removal with detention times between 4 and 6h, in field samples. The estimated contact times for 90% removal of COD, ammonia, lead, and color were found to be on the order of 10-200 h for PIMA and 3-37 h for TiO(2) photocatalysis. Testing with actual leachate samples showed 85% TiO(2) photocatalyst recovery efficiency with no loss in performance after multiple (n>4 uses). Pre-filtration was not found to be necessary for effective treatment using either process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. In situ treatment of VOCs by recirculation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegrist, R.L.; Webb, O.F.; Ally, M.R.; Sanford, W.E.; Kearl, P.M.; Zutman, J.L.

    1993-06-01

    The project described herein was conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to identify processes and technologies developed in Germany that appeared to have near-term potential for enhancing the cleanup of volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminated soil and groundwater at DOE sites. Members of the ORNL research team identified and evaluated selected German technologies developed at or in association with the University of Karlsruhe (UoK) for in situ treatment of VOC contaminated soils and groundwater. Project activities included contacts with researchers within three departments of the UoK (i.e., Applied Geology, Hydromechanics, and Soil and Foundation Engineering) during fall 1991 and subsequent visits to UoK and private industry collaborators during February 1992. Subsequent analyses consisted of engineering computations, groundwater flow modeling, and treatment process modeling. As a result of these project efforts, two processes were identified as having near-term potential for DOE: (1) the vacuum vaporizer well/groundwater recirculation well and (2) the porous pipe/horizontal well. This document was prepared to summarize the methods and results of the assessment activities completed during the initial year of the project. The project is still ongoing, so not all facets of the effort are completely described in this document. Recommendations for laboratory and field experiments are provided

  13. In situ treatment of VOCs by recirculation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegrist, R.L.; Webb, O.F.; Ally, M.R.; Sanford, W.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US); Kearl, P.M.; Zutman, J.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Grand Junction, CO (US)

    1993-06-01

    The project described herein was conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to identify processes and technologies developed in Germany that appeared to have near-term potential for enhancing the cleanup of volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminated soil and groundwater at DOE sites. Members of the ORNL research team identified and evaluated selected German technologies developed at or in association with the University of Karlsruhe (UoK) for in situ treatment of VOC contaminated soils and groundwater. Project activities included contacts with researchers within three departments of the UoK (i.e., Applied Geology, Hydromechanics, and Soil and Foundation Engineering) during fall 1991 and subsequent visits to UoK and private industry collaborators during February 1992. Subsequent analyses consisted of engineering computations, groundwater flow modeling, and treatment process modeling. As a result of these project efforts, two processes were identified as having near-term potential for DOE: (1) the vacuum vaporizer well/groundwater recirculation well and (2) the porous pipe/horizontal well. This document was prepared to summarize the methods and results of the assessment activities completed during the initial year of the project. The project is still ongoing, so not all facets of the effort are completely described in this document. Recommendations for laboratory and field experiments are provided.

  14. Stem cells technology: a powerful tool behind new brain treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duru, Lucienne N; Quan, Zhenzhen; Qazi, Talal Jamil; Qing, Hong

    2018-06-18

    Stem cell research has recently become a hot research topic in biomedical research due to the foreseen unlimited potential of stem cells in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. For many years, medicine has been facing intense challenges, such as an insufficient number of organ donations that is preventing clinicians to fulfill the increasing needs. To try and overcome this regrettable matter, research has been aiming at developing strategies to facilitate the in vitro culture and study of stem cells as a tool for tissue regeneration. Meanwhile, new developments in the microfluidics technology brought forward emerging cell culture applications that are currently allowing for a better chemical and physical control of cellular microenvironment. This review presents the latest developments in stem cell research that brought new therapies to the clinics and how the convergence of the microfluidics technology with stem cell research can have positive outcomes on the fields of regenerative medicine and high-throughput screening. These advances will bring new translational solutions for drug discovery and will upgrade in vitro cell culture to a new level of accuracy and performance. We hope this review will provide new insights into the understanding of new brain treatments from the perspective of stem cell technology especially regarding regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.

  15. Development of high-level radioactive waste treatment and conversion technologies 'Dry decontamination technology development for highly radioactive contaminants'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Lee, K. W.; Won, H. J.; Jung, C. J.; Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. N.; Moon, J. K.

    2001-04-01

    The followings were studied through the project entitled 'Dry Decontamination Technology Development for Highly Radioactive Contaminants'. 1.Contaminant Characteristics Analysis of Domestic Nuclear Fuel Cycle Projects(NFCP) and Applicability Study of the Unit Dry-Decontamination Techniques A. Classification of contaminated equipments and characteristics analysis of contaminants B. Applicability study of the unit dry-decontamination techniques 2.Performance Evaluation of Unit Dry Decontamination Technique A. PFC decontamination technique B. CO2 decontamination technique C. Plasma decontamination technique 3.Development of Residual Radiation Assessment Methodology for High Radioactive Facility Decontamination A. Development of radioactive nuclide diffusion model on highly radioactive facility structure B. Obtainment of the procedure for assessment of residual radiation dose 4.Establishment of the Design Concept of Dry Decontamination Process Equipment Applicable to Highly Radioactive Contaminants 5.TRIGA soil unit decontamination technology development A. Development of soil washing and flushing technologies B. Development of electrokinetic soil decontamination technology

  16. [Application of three-dimensional digital technology in the diagnosis and treatment planning in orthodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Y X

    2016-06-01

    Three-dimensional(3D)digital technology has been widely used in the field of orthodontics in clinical examination, diagnosis, treatment and curative effect evaluation. 3D digital technology greatly improves the accuracy of diagnosis and treatment, and provides effective means for personalized orthodontic treatment. This review focuses on the application of 3D digital technology in the field of orthodontics.

  17. Application of photochemical technologies for treatment of landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeroff, Daniel E.; Bloetscher, Frederick; Reddy, D.V.; Gasnier, François; Jain, Swapnil; McBarnette, André; Hamaguchi, Hatsuko

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Photochemical iron-mediated aeration and TiO 2 photocatalysis for leachate treatment. ► Removal efficiency tested on COD, BOD 5 , color, ammonia, and lead. ► Contact times for 90% removal were 10–200 h for PIMA ► Contact times for 90% removal were 3–37 h for TiO 2 photocatalysis. ► Pre-filtration is not necessary. - Abstract: Because of widely varying practices in solid waste management, an all-inclusive solution to long-term management of landfill leachate is currently not available. There is a major technological need for sustainable, economical options for safe discharge of leachate to the environment. Two potential on-site pretreatment technologies, photochemical iron-mediated aeration (PIMA) and TiO 2 photocatalysis were compared for treatment of landfill leachate at laboratory scale. Results of bench scale testing of real landfill leachate with PIMA and TiO 2 photocatalysis showed up to 86% conversion of refractory COD to complete mineralization, up to 91% removal of lead, up to 71% removal of ammonia without pH adjustment, and up to 90% effective color removal with detention times between 4 and 6 h, in field samples. The estimated contact times for 90% removal of COD, ammonia, lead, and color were found to be on the order of 10–200 h for PIMA and 3–37 h for TiO 2 photocatalysis. Testing with actual leachate samples showed 85% TiO 2 photocatalyst recovery efficiency with no loss in performance after multiple (n > 4 uses). Pre-filtration was not found to be necessary for effective treatment using either process.

  18. Application of photochemical technologies for treatment of landfill leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeroff, Daniel E., E-mail: dmeeroff@fau.edu [Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatics Engineering, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL (United States); Bloetscher, Frederick; Reddy, D.V.; Gasnier, Francois; Jain, Swapnil; McBarnette, Andre; Hamaguchi, Hatsuko [Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatics Engineering, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL (United States)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photochemical iron-mediated aeration and TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis for leachate treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Removal efficiency tested on COD, BOD{sub 5}, color, ammonia, and lead. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contact times for 90% removal were 10-200 h for PIMA Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contact times for 90% removal were 3-37 h for TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pre-filtration is not necessary. - Abstract: Because of widely varying practices in solid waste management, an all-inclusive solution to long-term management of landfill leachate is currently not available. There is a major technological need for sustainable, economical options for safe discharge of leachate to the environment. Two potential on-site pretreatment technologies, photochemical iron-mediated aeration (PIMA) and TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis were compared for treatment of landfill leachate at laboratory scale. Results of bench scale testing of real landfill leachate with PIMA and TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis showed up to 86% conversion of refractory COD to complete mineralization, up to 91% removal of lead, up to 71% removal of ammonia without pH adjustment, and up to 90% effective color removal with detention times between 4 and 6 h, in field samples. The estimated contact times for 90% removal of COD, ammonia, lead, and color were found to be on the order of 10-200 h for PIMA and 3-37 h for TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis. Testing with actual leachate samples showed 85% TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst recovery efficiency with no loss in performance after multiple (n > 4 uses). Pre-filtration was not found to be necessary for effective treatment using either process.

  19. Seizure reporting technologies for epilepsy treatment: A review of clinical information needs and supporting technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, Jonathan; Khuwatsamrit, Thanin; Askew, Brittain; Ehrenberg, Joshua Andrew; Helmers, Sandra

    2015-11-01

    This review surveys current seizure detection and classification technologies as they relate to aiding clinical decision-making during epilepsy treatment. Interviews and data collected from neurologists and a literature review highlighted a strong need for better distinguishing between patients exhibiting generalized and partial seizure types as well as achieving more accurate seizure counts. This information is critical for enabling neurologists to select the correct class of antiepileptic drugs (AED) for their patients and evaluating AED efficiency during long-term treatment. In our questionnaire, 100% of neurologists reported they would like to have video from patients prior to selecting an AED during an initial consultation. Presently, only 30% have access to video. In our technology review we identified that only a subset of available technologies surpassed patient self-reporting performance due to high false positive rates. Inertial seizure detection devices coupled with video capture for recording seizures at night could stand to address collecting seizure counts that are more accurate than current patient self-reporting during day and night time use. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Effectiveness of Educational Technology in Promoting Quality of Life and Treatment Adherence in Hypertensive People.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Célia Caetano de Souza

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of an educational intervention with use of educational technology (flipchart to promote quality of life (QOL and treatment adherence in people with hypertension. It was an intervention study of before-and-after type conducted with 116 hypertensive people registered in Primary Health Care Units. The educational interventions were conducted using the flipchart educational technology. Quality of life was assessed through the MINICHAL (lowest score = better QOL and the QATSH (higher score = better adherence was used to assess the adherence to hypertension treatment. Both were measured before and after applying the intervention. In the analysis, we used the Student's t-test for paired data. The average baseline quality of life was 11.66 ± 7.55, and 7.71 ± 5.72 two months after the intervention, showing a statistically significant reduction (p <0.001 and mean of differences of 3.95. The average baseline adherence to treatment was 98.03 ± 7.08 and 100.71 ± 6.88 two months after the intervention, which is statistically significant (p < 0.001, and mean of differences of 2.68. The conclusion was that the educational intervention using the flipchart improved the total score of quality of life in the scores of physical and mental domains, and increased adherence to hypertension treatment in people with the disease.

  1. SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR: A PROMISING TECHNOLOGY IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Mahvi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater to surface or groundwater is very dangerous to the environment. Therefore treatment of any kind of wastewater to produce effluent with good quality is necessary. In this regard choosing an effective treatment system is important. Sequencing batch reactor is a modification of activated sludge process which has been successfully used to treat municipal and industrial wastewater. The process could be applied for nutrients removal, high biochemical oxygen demand containing industrial wastewater, wastewater containing toxic materials such as cyanide, copper, chromium, lead and nickel, food industries effluents, landfill leachates and tannery wastewater. Of the process advantages are single-tank configuration, small foot print, easily expandable, simple operation and low capital costs. Many researches have been conducted on this treatment technology. The authors had been conducted some investigations on a modification of sequencing batch reactor. Their studies resulted in very high percentage removal of biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total kjeldahl nitrogen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total suspended solids respectively. This paper reviews some of the published works in addition to experiences of the authors.

  2. China, the United States, and competition for resources that enable emerging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulley, Andrew L.; Nassar, Nedal T.; Xun, Sean

    2018-01-01

    Historically, resource conflicts have often centered on fuel minerals (particularly oil). Future resource conflicts may, however, focus more on competition for nonfuel minerals that enable emerging technologies. Whether it is rhenium in jet engines, indium in flat panel displays, or gallium in smart phones, obscure elements empower smarter, smaller, and faster technologies, and nations seek stable supplies of these and other nonfuel minerals for their industries. No nation has all of the resources it needs domestically. International trade may lead to international competition for these resources if supplies are deemed at risk or insufficient to satisfy growing demand, especially for minerals used in technologies important to economic development and national security. Here, we compare the net import reliance of China and the United States to inform mineral resource competition and foreign supply risk. Our analysis indicates that China relies on imports for over half of its consumption for 19 of 42 nonfuel minerals, compared with 24 for the United States—11 of which are common to both. It is for these 11 nonfuel minerals that competition between the United States and China may become the most contentious, especially for those with highly concentrated production that prove irreplaceable in pivotal emerging technologies.

  3. Impacts of reproductive technologies on beef production in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Carl; Larson, Jamie; Lamb, G Cliff

    2014-01-01

    Estimations of world population growth indicate that by the year 2050 we will reach nine billion habitants on earth. These estimates impose a tremendous challenge in the current agricultural systems as food supply will need to increase by 100 % in the next 40 years (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2009). Beef will be a primary protein source that will assist in meeting the requirements for a portion of the protein in diets of this expanding global populace. Beef is a high-quality protein that contains all essential amino acids for the human body and also contains additional essential nutrients such as iron, zinc, B vitamins, riboflavin, selenium, choline, and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Adopting reproductive technologies at greater rates than currently used is a viable method to dramatically enhance production efficiency of beef cattle enterprises.Artificial insemination (AI), estrous synchronization and fixed-time AI (TAI), semen and embryo cryopreservation, multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET), in vitro fertilization, sex determination of sperm or embryos, and nuclear transfer are technologies that are used to enhance the production efficiency of beef operations. In many cases, the development of these technologies is responsible for significant changes to traditional livestock production practices. However, adoption of these technologies appears to has not grown at the same rate in the United States as other formidable beef producing nations. For example, sales of beef semen for AI increased from 3.3 to 11.9 million units between 1993 and 2011 in Brazil, whereas that in the United States has increased from 2.9 to 3.8 million units during the same period. The significant increases in adoption of reproductive technologies in developing countries is likely as a result of the development of practical estrous synchronization and TAI systems that have allowed beef producers the opportunity to eliminate detection of estrus in their

  4. Comparison of monitor units calculated by radiotherapy treatment planning system and an independent monitor unit verification software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellakumar, P; Arun, C; Sanjay, S S; Ramesh, S B

    2011-01-01

    In radiation therapy, the monitor units (MU) needed to deliver a treatment plan are calculated by treatment planning systems (TPS). The essential part of quality assurance is to verify the MU with independent monitor unit calculation to correct any potential errors prior to the start of treatment. In this study, we have compared the MU calculated by TPS and by independent MU verification software. The MU verification software was commissioned and tested for the data integrity to ensure that the correct beam data was considered for MU calculations. The accuracy of the calculations was tested by creating a series of test plans and comparing them with ion chamber measurements. The results show that there is good agreement between the two. The MU difference (MUdiff) between the monitor unit calculations of TPS and independent MU verification system was calculated for 623 fields from 245 patients and was analyzed by treatment site for head & neck, thorax, breast, abdomen and pelvis. The mean MUdiff of -0.838% with a standard deviation of 3.04% was observed for all 623 fields. The site specific standard deviation of MUdiff was as follows: abdomen and pelvis (<1.75%), head & neck (2.5%), thorax (2.32%) and breast (6.01%). The disparities were analyzed and different correction methods were used to reduce the disparity. © 2010 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Complex technology for water and wastewater disinfection and its industrial realization in prototype unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakcheev, E N; Brunman, V E; Brunman, M V; Konyashin, A V; Dyachenko, V A; Petkova, A P

    Usage of complex automated electrolysis unit for drinking water disinfection and wastewater oxidation and coagulation is scoped, its ecological and energy efficiency is shown. Properties of technological process of anolyte production using membrane electrolysis of brine for water disinfection in municipal pipelines and potassium ferrate production using electrochemical dissolution of iron anode in NaOH solution for usage in purification plants are listed. Construction of modules of industrial prototype for anolyte and ferrate production and applied aspects of automation of complex electrolysis unit are proved. Results of approbation of electrolytic potassium ferrate for drinking water disinfection and wastewater, rain water and environmental water oxidation and coagulation are shown.

  6. Micro-electrolysis technology for industrial wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yi-Zhong; Zhang, Yue-Feng; Li, Wei

    2003-05-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the role of micro-electrolysis in removing chromaticity and COD and improving the biodegradability of wastewater from pharmaceutical, dye-printing and papermaking plants. Results showed that the use of micro-electrolysis technology could remove more than 90% of chromaticity and more than 50% of COD and greatly improved the biodegradability of pharmaceutical wastewater. Lower initial pH could be advantageous to the removal of chromaticity. A retention time of 30 minutes was recommended for the process design of micro-electrolysis. For the use of micro-electrolysis in treatment of dye-printing wastewater, the removal rates of both chromaticity and COD were increased from neutral condition to acid condition for disperse blue wastewater; more than 90% of chromaticity and more than 50% of COD could be removed in neutral condition for vital red wastewater.

  7. Information technology and data mining for spent fuel treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilim, R. B.

    2000-01-01

    Information technology is being used to provide interactive access to data collected from the electro-metallurgical treatment of spent fuel. The data are results from many hundreds of experiments performed to better characterize the processes by which uranium is separated from the waste products. Web-based display and relational database query capabilities facilitate the identification of trends in the data and the relating of these trends to the underlying electrochemistry. The objectives are to ensure that the process behavior is well understood, to make readily accessible the necessary data for development and validation of models, and to identify unexpected trends in the data as indications of phenomena not yet represented in the models

  8. Development of tritium technology for the United States magnetic fusion energy program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.; Wilkes, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    Tritium technology development for the DOE fusion program is taking place principally at three laboratories, Mound Facility, Argonne National Laboratory and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. This paper will review the major aspects of each of the three programs and look at aspects of the tritium technology being developed at other laboratories within the United States. Facilities and experiments to be discussed include the Tritium Effluent Control Laboratory and the Tritium Storage and Delivery System for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor at Mound Facility; the Lithium Processing Test Loop and the solid breeder blanket studies at Argonne; and the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos

  9. Coverage Range and Cost Comparison of Remote Antenna Unit Designs for Inbuilding Radio over Fiber Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razali Ngah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Future communication needs to be ubiquitous, broadband, convergent, and seamless. Radio over fiber (RoF technology is one of the most important enabler in access network for the technologies. Adoption of RoF faces bottleneck in optoelectronics, that they are still expensive, high power consumption, and limited in bandwidth. To solve the problem, transceiver in remote antenna unit (RAU is developed, i.e. electroabsorption transceiver (EAT and asymmetric FabryPerot modulator (AFPM. This paper compares their coverage range and cost in providing WCDMA and WLAN services. Needed gain of RF amplifier for supporting picocell is also discussed.

  10. GUIDING PRINCIPLES FOR GOOD PRACTICES IN HOSPITAL-BASED HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT UNITS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampietro-Colom, Laura; Lach, Krzysztof; Pasternack, Iris; Wasserfallen, Jean-Blaise; Cicchetti, Americo; Marchetti, Marco; Kidholm, Kristian; Arentz-Hansen, Helene; Rosenmöller, Magdalene; Wild, Claudia; Kahveci, Rabia; Ulst, Margus

    2015-01-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) carried out for policy decision making has well-established principles unlike hospital-based HTA (HB-HTA), which differs from the former in the context characteristics and ways of operation. This study proposes principles for good practices in HB-HTA units. A framework for good practice criteria was built inspired by the EFQM excellence business model and information from six literature reviews, 107 face-to-face interviews, forty case studies, large-scale survey, focus group, Delphi survey, as well as local and international validation. In total, 385 people from twenty countries have participated in defining the principles for good practices in HB-HTA units. Fifteen guiding principles for good practices in HB-HTA units are grouped in four dimensions. Dimension 1 deals with principles of the assessment process aimed at providing contextualized information for hospital decision makers. Dimension 2 describes leadership, strategy and partnerships of HB-HTA units which govern and facilitate the assessment process. Dimension 3 focuses on adequate resources that ensure the operation of HB-HTA units. Dimension 4 deals with measuring the short- and long-term impact of the overall performance of HB-HTA units. Finally, nine core guiding principles were selected as essential requirements for HB-HTA units based on the expertise of the HB-HTA units participating in the project. Guiding principles for good practices set up a benchmark for HB-HTA because they represent the ideal performance of HB-HTA units; nevertheless, when performing HTA at hospital level, context also matters; therefore, they should be adapted to ensure their applicability in the local context.

  11. Regional Centres for Space Science and Technology Education Affiliated to the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, A. J. A.; Haubold, H. J.

    2010-05-01

    Based on resolutions of the United Nations General Assembly, Regional Centres for space science and technology education were established in India, Morocco, Nigeria, Brazil and Mexico. Simultaneously, education curricula were developed for the core disciplines of remote sensing, satellite communications, satellite meteorology, and space and atmospheric science. This paper provides a brief report on the status of the operation of the Regional Centres and draws attention to their educational activities.

  12. A comparison of the information technology knowledge of United States and German auditors

    OpenAIRE

    Greenstein-Prosch, Marilyn; McKee, Thomas E.; Quick, Reiner

    2008-01-01

    The International Federation of Accountants has stated that competence in information technology is imperative for the professional accountant due to its pervasive use in the business world. Auditors would normally be expected to have higher knowledge than the average accountant since they must audit the work of many different clients with diverse information systems. We surveyed 2,500 United States and German auditing professionals to determine their self-reported knowledge le...

  13. Support for Development of Electronics and Materials Technologies by the Governments of the United States, Japan, West Germany, France, and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    The governments of the United States, Japan, West Germany, France, and the United Kingdom each have large research and development efforts involving government agencies, universities and industry. This document provides a comparative overview of policies and programs which contribute to the development of technologies in the general area of…

  14. ENEA`s mobile treatment units for specific waters; Impianti mobili ENEA di trattamento / smaltimento rifiuti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beone, G.; Barni, E.; Coronidi, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Bortone, G.; Gambaro, L.; Zanetti, P. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche `Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Liccione, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Matera (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Zanin, E.

    1997-11-01

    Solid waste production in turistic places is characterized by a large increase, up to 80 % for few months during the year. Generally a waste treatment plant is designed for a mean production and can support increases that non exceed 10 %. Treatment plants with higher capacity are not economically convenient and the excedent production is landfilled. An answer to this problem are mobile treatment units that could be used to support resident plants when higher treatment capacity is requested. Mobile units are very useful for other uses like as treatment of specific wastes (agricultural plastic bags and sheets contaminated by antiparasitics and herbicides) infective wastes from hospital and laboratories and leaches from landfills. Mobile units flexibility is also important for environmental protection actions, either scheduled on in an emergency, like as reclamation of contaminated soils, asbestos contaminated site and every time when waste transport is characterized by high cost or safety and sanitary problems.

  15. Effects of Different Animal Waste Treatment Technologies on Detection and Viability of Porcine Enteric Viruses▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Verónica P.; Azevedo, Ana C.; Li, Xin; Williams, Mike C.; Michel, Frederick C.; Saif, Linda J.

    2007-01-01

    Enteric pathogens in animal waste that is not properly processed can contaminate the environment and food. The persistence of pathogens in animal waste depends upon the waste treatment technology, but little is known about persistence of porcine viruses. Our objectives were to characterize the porcine enteric viruses (porcine noroviruses [PoNoVs], porcine sapoviruses [PoSaVs], rotavirus A [RV-A], RV-B, and RV-C) in fresh feces or manure and to evaluate the effects of different candidate environmentally superior technologies (ESTs) for animal waste treatment on the detection of these viruses. Untreated manure and samples collected at different stages during and after treatment were obtained from swine farms that used conventional waste management (CWM) and five different candidate ESTs. The RNA from porcine enteric viruses was detected by reverse transcription-PCR and/or seminested PCR; PoSaV and RV-A were also detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell culture immunofluorescence (CCIF) and experimental inoculation of gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs were used to determine RV-A/C infectivity in posttreatment samples. The PoSaV and RV-A were detected in pretreatment samples from each farm, whereas PoNoV and RV-C were detected in pretreatment feces from three of five and four of five farms using the candidate ESTs, respectively. After treatment, PoSaV RNA was detected only in the samples from the farm using CWM and not from the farms using the candidate ESTs. RV-A and RV-C RNAs were detected in four of five and three of four candidate ESTs, respectively, after treatment, but infectious particles were not detected by CCIF, nor were clinical signs or seroconversion detected in inoculated Gn pigs. These results indicate that only RV-A/C RNA, but no viral infectivity, was detected after treatment. Our findings address a public health concern regarding environmental quality surrounding swine production units. PMID:17601821

  16. Innovative technology of radwaste treatment for new applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhitonov, Y.; Kolobov, E.; Orlov, A.; Kelley, D.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive liquid waste products are created during many stages of the nuclear power cycle. Liquid waste is generated from the ore extraction process through to nuclear power plant decommissioning. Effective treatment of waste from the initial stage to the final stage has been a challenge for nuclear nations. This is particularly true for the more complex waste streams with organic, acid, alkaline, aqueous and metallic compositions. Today the nuclear community is keenly aware of safeguards that are necessary to protect and secure liquid waste. Innovative technologies are being developed to solidify these waste streams, to provide methods for safe transport and disposal, and to lessen the risk of accidents. With wide diversity of liquid compositions and activity levels, it is important to note that many of these products cannot be treated with existing, commonly used techniques. Additionally, as new generators of waste are designed and utilized, there is a need to consider new and safer methods for the treatment of waste. One solution to this problem is to apply proven, low cost polymers to absorb liquid compositions soon after production. The polymers may be combined to create a formula specifically designed to permanently solidify a waste stream in a simple one-step process. Principal advantages for using high tech polymers for treatment are high chemical and radiation stability after solidification without leaching. The purpose of the presented research is to: - determine the optimum bonding ratio for the complex waste stream; - evaluate the immobilization and stability process from polymer solidification after gamma irradiation (Cobalt 60 source). Conditions of the experiments and the test results are analyzed and evaluated in this paper. (author)

  17. Final Report on Testing of Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Abatement of Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarosch, T.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.A.; Raymond, R.; Young, J.E.; Lombard, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the program for off-gas treatment of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program was funded through the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development's VOC's in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VNID). The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed (Looney et al., 1991). That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the United States to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate cost effective evaluation of the emerging technologies. Another motivation for the program is that many CVOCs will be regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and are already regulated by many state regulatory programs. Additionally, compounds such as TCE and PCE are pervasive subsurface environmental contaminants, and, as a result, a small improvement in terms of abatement efficiency or cost will significantly reduce CVOC discharges to the environment as well as costs to United States government and industry

  18. Applications of artificial intelligence technology to wastewater treatment fields in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QING Xiao-xia; WANG Bo; MENG De-tao

    2005-01-01

    Current applications of artificial intelligence technology to wastewater treatment in China are summarized. Wastewater treatment plants use expert system mainly in the operation decision-making and fault diagnosis of system operation, use artificial neuron network for system modeling, water quality forecast and soft measure, and use fuzzy control technology for the intelligence control of wastewater treatment process. Finally, the main problems in applying artificial intelligence technology to wastewater treatment in China are analyzed.

  19. Effectiveness of Educational Technology in Promoting Quality of Life and Treatment Adherence in Hypertensive People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Ana Célia Caetano; Moreira, Thereza Maria Magalhaes; Oliveira, Edmar Souza de; Menezes, Anaíze Viana Bezerra de; Loureiro, Aline Maria Oliveira; Silva, Camila Brasileiro de Araújo; Linard, Jair Gomes; Almeida, Italo Lennon Sales de; Mattos, Samuel Miranda; Borges, José Wicto Pereira

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of an educational intervention with use of educational technology (flipchart) to promote quality of life (QOL) and treatment adherence in people with hypertension. It was an intervention study of before-and-after type conducted with 116 hypertensive people registered in Primary Health Care Units. The educational interventions were conducted using the flipchart educational technology. Quality of life was assessed through the MINICHAL (lowest score = better QOL) and the QATSH (higher score = better adherence) was used to assess the adherence to hypertension treatment. Both were measured before and after applying the intervention. In the analysis, we used the Student's t-test for paired data. The average baseline quality of life was 11.66 ± 7.55, and 7.71 ± 5.72 two months after the intervention, showing a statistically significant reduction (p educational intervention using the flipchart improved the total score of quality of life in the scores of physical and mental domains, and increased adherence to hypertension treatment in people with the disease.

  20. Regional characteristics of individual housing units in Serbia from the aspect of applied building technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović-Popović Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Individual housing units in Serbia have been studied from the aspect of applied technical solutions. Analyzed data have been collected during a field research in accordance with the current administrative regional division, and they represent a basis for definition of regional typology of individual housing units. Characteristic types of objects of each region’s typology have been further analyzed. Upon these analyses regional characteristics of individual housing units regarding applied construction types, building technologies and materials have been defined and presented. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 36034: Investigation and Systematization of Serbian Housing in Context of Globalization and European Integration in the Framework of Quality and Living-Standard Improvement

  1. Carbon Footprint Analyses of Mainstream Wastewater Treatment Technologies under Different Sludge Treatment Scenarios in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Chai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With rapid urbanization and infrastructure investment, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs in Chinese cities are putting increased pressure on energy consumption and exacerbating greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. A carbon footprint is provided as a tool to quantify the life cycle GHG emissions and identify opportunities to reduce climate change impacts. This study examined three mainstream wastewater treatment technologies: Anaerobic–Anoxic–Oxic (A–A–O, Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR and Oxygen Ditch, considering four different sludge treatment alternatives for small-to-medium-sized WWTPs. Following the life cycle approach, process design data and emission factors were used by the model to calculate the carbon footprint. Results found that direct emissions of CO2 and N2O, and indirect emissions of electricity use, are significant contributors to the carbon footprint. Although sludge anaerobic digestion and biogas recovery could significantly contribute to emission reduction, it was less beneficial for Oxygen Ditch than the other two treatment technologies due to its low sludge production. The influence of choosing “high risk” or “low risk” N2O emission factors on the carbon footprint was also investigated in this study. Oxygen Ditch was assessed as “low risk” of N2O emissions while SBR was “high risk”. The carbon footprint of A–A–O with sludge anaerobic digestion and energy recovery was more resilient to changes of N2O emission factors and control of N2O emissions, though process design parameters (i.e., effluent total nitrogen (TN concentration, mixed-liquor recycle (MLR rates and solids retention time (SRT and operation conditions (i.e., nitrite concentration are critical for reducing carbon footprint of SBR. Analyses of carbon footprints suggested that aerobic treatment of sludge not only favors the generation of large amounts of CO2, but also the emissions of N2O, so the rationale of reducing aerobic treatment and

  2. The radioactive waste debate in the United States and nuclear technology for peaceful purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehan, Terrence Norbert

    Many ethical, cultural, and economic concerns have accompanied the rapid growth of Western technology. Nuclear technology in particular has experienced considerable opposition because of its perceived dangers, especially disposal of atomic waste. While this field of science remains in its infancy, many legal, political and ecological groups oppose any further application of nuclear technology--including the significant medical, environmental, and economic benefits possible from a safe and responsible application of nuclear energy. Complete and objective knowledge of this technology is needed to balance a healthy respect for the danger of atomic power with its many advantages. This study focuses on one aspect of nuclear technology that has particularly aroused political and social controversy: nuclear waste. Finding ways of disposing safely of nuclear waste has become an extremely volatile issue because of the popular misconception that there is no permanent solution to this problem. This investigation will demonstrate that the supposedly enduring waste problem has been resolved in several industrial countries that now outstrip the United States in safe commercial applications of nuclear science. This dissertation offers a reasoned and objective contribution to the continuing national debate on the peaceful uses of nuclear technology. This debate becomes more crucial as the nation seeks a dependable substitute for the non-renewable sources of energy now rapidly being exhausted.

  3. Design and Test Plans for a Non-Nuclear Fission Power System Technology Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lee; Palac, Donald; Gibson, Marc; Houts, Michael; Warren, John; Werner, James; Poston, David; Qualls, Arthur Lou; Radel, Ross; Harlow, Scott

    2012-01-01

    A joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Department of Energy (DOE) team is developing concepts and technologies for affordable nuclear Fission Power Systems (FPSs) to support future exploration missions. A key deliverable is the Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU). The TDU will assemble the major elements of a notional FPS with a non-nuclear reactor simulator (Rx Sim) and demonstrate system-level performance in thermal vacuum. The Rx Sim includes an electrical resistance heat source and a liquid metal heat transport loop that simulates the reactor thermal interface and expected dynamic response. A power conversion unit (PCU) generates electric power utilizing the liquid metal heat source and rejects waste heat to a heat rejection system (HRS). The HRS includes a pumped water heat removal loop coupled to radiator panels suspended in the thermal-vacuum facility. The basic test plan is to subject the system to realistic operating conditions and gather data to evaluate performance sensitivity, control stability, and response characteristics. Upon completion of the testing, the technology is expected to satisfy the requirements for Technology Readiness Level 6 (System Demonstration in an Operational and Relevant Environment) based on the use of high-fidelity hardware and prototypic software tested under realistic conditions and correlated with analytical predictions.

  4. Fixed capital investments for the uranium soils integrated demonstration soil treatment technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douthat, D.M.; Armstrong, A.Q. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Stewart, R.N. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The development of a nuclear industry in the United States required mining, milling, and fabricating a large variety of uranium products. One of these products was purified uranium metal which was used in the Savannah River and Hanford Site reactors. Most of this feed material was produced at the United States Department of Energy (DOE) facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, Ohio. During operation of this facility, soils became contaminated with uranium from a variety of sources. To address remediation and management of uranium-contaminated soils at sites owned by DOE, the Uranium Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) Program was formed to evaluate and compare the versatility, efficiency, and economics of various technologies that may be combined into systems designed to characterize and remediate uranium contaminated soils. The USID Program has five major tasks in developing and demonstrating these technologies. Each must be able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from soil, (3) treat or dispose of resulting waste streams, (4) meet necessary state and federal regulations, and (5) meet performance assessment objectives. The role of the performance assessment objectives is to provide the information necessary to conduct evaluations of the technologies. These performance assessments provide the basis for selecting the optimum system for remediation of large areas contaminated with uranium. One of the performance assessment tasks is to address the economics of full-scale implementation of soil treatment technologies developed by the USID Program. The cost of treating contaminated soil is one of the criteria used in the decision-making process for selecting remedial alternatives.

  5. Fixed capital investments for the uranium soils integrated demonstration soil treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douthat, D.M.; Armstrong, A.Q.; Stewart, R.N.

    1995-05-01

    The development of a nuclear industry in the United States required mining, milling, and fabricating a large variety of uranium products. One of these products was purified uranium metal which was used in the Savannah River and Hanford Site reactors. Most of this feed material was produced at the United States Department of Energy (DOE) facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, Ohio. During operation of this facility, soils became contaminated with uranium from a variety of sources. To address remediation and management of uranium-contaminated soils at sites owned by DOE, the Uranium Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) Program was formed to evaluate and compare the versatility, efficiency, and economics of various technologies that may be combined into systems designed to characterize and remediate uranium contaminated soils. The USID Program has five major tasks in developing and demonstrating these technologies. Each must be able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from soil, (3) treat or dispose of resulting waste streams, (4) meet necessary state and federal regulations, and (5) meet performance assessment objectives. The role of the performance assessment objectives is to provide the information necessary to conduct evaluations of the technologies. These performance assessments provide the basis for selecting the optimum system for remediation of large areas contaminated with uranium. One of the performance assessment tasks is to address the economics of full-scale implementation of soil treatment technologies developed by the USID Program. The cost of treating contaminated soil is one of the criteria used in the decision-making process for selecting remedial alternatives

  6. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Treatment and Storage Unit Waste Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PRIGNANO, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document waste analysis activities associated with the Plutonium Finishing Plant Treatment and Storage Unit (PFP Treatment and Storage Unit) to comply with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-300(1), (2), (4)(a) and (5). The PFP Treatment and Storage Unit is an interim status container management unit for plutonium bearing mixed waste radiologically managed as transuranic (TRU) waste. TRU mixed (TRUM) waste managed at the PFP Treatment and Storage Unit is destined for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and therefore is not subject to land disposal restrictions [WAC 173-303-140 and 40 CFR 268]. The PFP Treatment and Storage Unit is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland Washington (Figure 1). Because dangerous waste does not include source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge

  7. Interim Status Closure Plan Open Burning Treatment Unit Technical Area 16-399 Burn Tray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-07

    This closure plan describes the activities necessary to close one of the interim status hazardous waste open burning treatment units at Technical Area (TA) 16 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Facility), hereinafter referred to as the 'TA-16-399 Burn Tray' or 'the unit'. The information provided in this closure plan addresses the closure requirements specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 265, Subparts G and P for the thermal treatment units operated at the Facility under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. Closure of the open burning treatment unit will be completed in accordance with Section 4.1 of this closure plan.

  8. Technological advances in the surgical treatment of movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Robert E; McDougal, Margaret E

    2013-08-01

    Technological innovations have driven the advancement of the surgical treatment of movement disorders, from the invention of the stereotactic frame to the adaptation of deep brain stimulation (DBS). Along these lines, this review will describe recent advances in inserting neuromodulation modalities, including DBS, to the target, and in the delivery of therapy at the target. Recent radiological advances are altering the way that DBS leads are targeted and inserted, by refining the ability to visualize the subcortical targets using high-field strength magnetic resonance imaging and other innovations, such as diffusion tensor imaging, and the development of novel targeting devices enabling purely anatomical implantations without the need for neurophysiological monitoring. New portable computed tomography scanners also are facilitating lead implantation without monitoring, as well as improving radiological verification of DBS lead location. Advances in neurophysiological mapping include efforts to develop automatic target verification algorithms, and probabilistic maps to guide target selection. The delivery of therapy at the target is being improved by the development of the next generation of internal pulse generators (IPGs). These include constant current devices that mitigate the variability introduced by impedance changes of the stimulated tissue and, in the near future, devices that deliver novel stimulation patterns with improved efficiency. Closed-loop adaptive IPGs are being tested, which may tailor stimulation to ongoing changes in the nervous system, reflected in biomarkers continuously recorded by the devices. Finer-grained DBS leads, in conjunction with new IPGs and advanced programming tools, may offer improved outcomes via current steering algorithms. Finally, even thermocoagulation-essentially replaced by DBS-is being advanced by new minimally-invasive approaches that may improve this therapy for selected patients in whom it may be preferred. Functional

  9. Disparities in access to effective treatment for infertility in the United States: an Ethics Committee opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    In the United States, economic, racial, ethnic, geographic, and other disparities exist in access to fertility treatment and in treatment outcomes. This opinion examines the factors that contribute to these disparities and proposes actions to address them. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Internet and information technology use in treatment of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, N

    2010-02-01

    This chapter contains clinical studies and reviews of the state-of-the-art regarding how information technology can help improve outcomes for patients with diabetes through enhanced education and support. With the increasing sophistication of diabetes treatment protocols and diabetes-related devices this new modality offers a remarkable opportunity for clinicians and patients. For the first time, with online tools clinicians are in a position to have a major impact on diabetes outcomes by providing robust and affordable just-in-time support to large numbers of patients who want to improve their diabetes outcomes through enhanced self-management of the complex behaviours so essential for good outcomes. Patients with diabetes often need a complex set of services and support ranging from glucose monitoring, insulin and other medication management, psychotherapy and social support, to physical activity promotion, nutrition counselling and more. Integrating these supports into a patient's therapeutic regimen presents challenges that need to be addressed through a variety of strategies. Patient self-management of diabetes enabled by information technology is becoming an important factor in the way providers deliver healthcare. Approaches using information technology to support clinical services are being dramatically altered by the confluence of several trends. * Patients want an active role in managing their own health and a collaborative relationship with their healthcare providers. * Widespread, low-cost internet access is erasing existing geographic, economic and demographic barriers to obtaining health information online, and with advanced Web 2.0 technologies high levels of interactivity can engage the patient. * Clinicians and researchers now have a deeper understanding of how people learn and respond online, and that knowledge can be crafted into solutions that produce effective, long-term behaviour change. Technology enabled approaches that show great promise to

  11. Improvement of Oil-Vapor Treatment Facility for Wolsong Unit 3,4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Kwon, S. W.; Lee, H. S.

    2009-11-01

    With the purpose to minimize an oil-vapor discharge to the atmosphere and to be an environmentally friendly nuclear power plant by an improvement of mist eliminator for turbine lubricant system at Wolsong Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3,4, this project - project name : Improvement of Oil-vapor Treatment Facility for Wolsong Unit 3,4 - was conducted for six months (from Apr. 15, 2009 to Oct. 14, 2009). This Project contains Oil-vapor Source and Environmental Regulation, Analysis on the Present Oil-vapor Treatment Facility, Improvement of Oil-vapor Treatment Facility, Test Facility Design, Fabrication, Installation, Test Operation, Evaluation of the Facility

  12. Research on Key Technologies of Unit-Based CNC Machine Tool Assembly Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongqi Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assembly is the part that produces the maximum workload and consumed time during product design and manufacturing process. CNC machine tool is the key basic equipment in manufacturing industry and research on assembly design technologies of CNC machine tool has theoretical significance and practical value. This study established a simplified ASRG for CNC machine tool. The connection between parts, semantic information of transmission, and geometric constraint information were quantified to assembly connection strength to depict the assembling difficulty level. The transmissibility based on trust relationship was applied on the assembly connection strength. Assembly unit partition based on assembly connection strength was conducted, and interferential assembly units were identified and revised. The assembly sequence planning and optimization of parts in each assembly unit and between assembly units was conducted using genetic algorithm. With certain type of high speed CNC turning center, as an example, this paper explored into the assembly modeling, assembly unit partition, and assembly sequence planning and optimization and realized the optimized assembly sequence of headstock of CNC machine tool.

  13. Firewater Storage, Treatment, Recycling and Management: New Perspectives Based on Experiences from the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklas Scholz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Smart firewater management and recycling helps reduce water use and protect the environment from pollution. However, contamination of recycled water may pose a health risk to fire fighters. This review assesses international literature to identify best practices, and to recommend new technologies and methods on firewater management and recycling. The literature assessment indicates that this is a new research area where insufficient findings have been published in Web of Science-referenced journals. Therefore, informally published materials (a.k.a. grey literature were also assessed. Findings indicate the need for practical decision support tools to estimate consumption rates, predict “bottlenecks” and bund capacity, assess water quality and determine pump requirements. This article recommends that cost-efficient and rapid on-site treatment methods, such as compact and mobile filtration units for firewater recycling should be researched in the future. The filters should be based on compartments with different media. The empty pore space should decrease from inflow to outflow. A light plastic media should be positioned near the inflow to retain large particles, such as a grid. Activated carbon media could be placed near the outlet to remove fine suspended solids and dissolved contaminants. This should address concerns by fire fighters dealing with contaminated water, spray and foam.

  14. Shredder and incinerator technology for treatment of commercial transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Ross, W.A.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes the selection and evaluation of process equipment to accomplish the shredding and incineration of commercial TRU wastes. The primary conclusions derived from this study are: Shredding and incineration technology appears effective for converting simulated commercial TRU wastes to a noncombustible form. The gas-heated controlled-air incinerator received the highest technical ranking. On a scale of 1 to 10, the incinerator had a Figure-of-Merit (FOM) number of 7.0. This compares to an FOM of 6.1 for the electrically heated controlled-air incinerator and an FOM of 5.8 for the rotary kiln incienrator. The present worth costs of the incineration processes for a postulated commercial reprocessing plant were lowest for the electrically heated and gas-heated controlled-air incinerators with costs of $16.3 M and $16.9 M, respectively (1985 dollars). Due to higher capital and operating costs, the rotary kiln process had a present worth cost of $20.8 M. The recommended process from the three evaluated for the commercial TRU waste application is the gas-heated controlled-air incinerator with a single stage of shredding for feed pretreatment. This process had the best cost-effectiveness ratio of 1.0 (normalized). The electrically heated controller-air incinerator had a rating of 1.2 and the rotary kiln rated a 1.5. Most of the simulated wastes were easily processed by the low-speed shredders evaluated. The HEPA filters proved difficult to process, however. Wood-framed HEPA filters tended to ride on the cutter wheels and spacers without being gripped and shredded. The metal-framed HEPA filters and other difficult to shred items caused the shredders to periodically reach the torque limit and go into an automatic reversal cycle; however, the filters were eventually processed by the units. All three incinerators were ineffective for oxidizing the aluminum metal used as spacers in HEPA filters

  15. 75 FR 62844 - Innovations in Technology for the Treatment of Diabetes: Clinical Development of the Artificial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... state of device systems for autonomous systems for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, the challenges in...] Innovations in Technology for the Treatment of Diabetes: Clinical Development of the Artificial Pancreas (an... a public workshop entitled ``Innovations in Technology for the Treatment of Diabetes: Clinical...

  16. Immersed membrane technology for advanced wastewater treatment and water reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotchkies, J.W. [Zenon Municipal Systems Inc., Oakville, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The use of membrane technology for both municipal water purification and wastewater/sewage treatment was discussed. Membranes are available in a wide range of forms and configurations. Their primary characteristics are pore size and molecular weight separation which classifies then as either microfiltration, ultrafiltration or reverse osmosis membranes. Ultrafiltration can separate soluble organics and insoluble solids such as bacteria, viruses, colloids and suspended particles. Microfiltration can separate most suspended solids including bacteria, many viruses and other suspended solids. It is not, however a complete barrier to viruses and is best used in conjunction with an ultra-violet disinfecting process. Different membrane configurations currently available were described along with their performance and efficiency. The ZenoGem{sup R} process which operates at high organic loadings, meets surface water discharge criteria. This membrane bioreactor makes wastewater reuse an achievable and cost-effective option, particularly when it is combined with carbon filtration and ultra-violet disinfection. The Cycle-Let{sup R} system produces a treated stream that is suitable for re-use in non-potable applications such as toilet flush water or for irrigation. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  17. Energy positive domestic wastewater treatment: the roles of anaerobic and phototrophic technologies

    KAUST Repository

    Shoener, B. D.; Bradley, I. M.; Cusick, R. D.; Guest, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The negative energy balance of wastewater treatment could be reversed if anaerobic technologies were implemented for organic carbon oxidation and phototrophic technologies were utilized for nutrient recovery. To characterize the potential for energy

  18. Identification of Promising Remediation Technologies for Iodine in the UP-1 Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lee, Brady D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Szecsody, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vermeul, Vincent R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Iodine-129 (129I) generated at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site during plutonium production was released to the subsurface, resulting in several large, though dilute, plumes in the groundwater, including the plume in the 200-UP-1 operable unit (OU). Because 129I is an uncommon contaminant, relevant remediation experience and scientific literature are limited, though work is under way to better understand the fate and transport of 129I in the environment and the effectiveness of potential remediation technologies. The recent UP-1 Evaluation Plan for Iodine and report on the Conceptual Model of Iodine Behavior in the Subsurface at the Hanford Site provide information on the history of contamination in the 200-UP-1 OU, relevant controlling processes (biological and geochemical), risk, the conceptual site model, and potential remedial options, which provided a foundation for this study. In this study, available information was compiled and used to categorize potential remediation technologies, culminating in a recommendation of promising technologies for further evaluation. Approaches to improve the technical information about promising technologies are also recommended in this study so that a subsequent evaluation of potential remediation alternatives can assess these technologies.

  19. Development of sterilized porridge for patients by combined treatment of food technology with radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jaehun; Choi, Jongil; Song, Beomseok

    2010-09-01

    This research was conducted to develop patient foods of high quality using a radiation fusion technology with food processing. Radiation technique to increase calorie of porridge was established, and it was investigated that radiation effects on functional materials, which can could be added to increase functionality of patient foods. Moreover, sterilized semi-fluid meal (milk porridge) for patients with higher calorie was developed by a sterilization process by gamma irradiation, combined treatments to improve the sensory qualities, and fortification with various nutrients. Also, sensory survey on irradiated commercial patient foods was performed to find the problems and improvement points of the developed products. Optimal packaging material was selected by evaluation of effect of irradiation in packaging materials and a convenient package for consuming by patients was decided. Safety of the irradiated milk porridge was confirmed by in-vivo genotoxicological test, and its nutritional composition for patients was evaluated by nutritional analysis. Finally, the milk porridge was developed as liquid, dried, powdered, and pellet type products. This research may contribute to improve life quality of patients by supplement of various foods with high quality to immuno-compromised patients. Furthermore, economic profits and technological advances are expected by commercialization of the patient foods

  20. Development of sterilized porridge for patients by combined treatment of food technology with radiation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jaehun; Choi, Jongil; Song, Beomseok; and others

    2010-09-15

    This research was conducted to develop patient foods of high quality using a radiation fusion technology with food processing. Radiation technique to increase calorie of porridge was established, and it was investigated that radiation effects on functional materials, which can could be added to increase functionality of patient foods. Moreover, sterilized semi-fluid meal (milk porridge) for patients with higher calorie was developed by a sterilization process by gamma irradiation, combined treatments to improve the sensory qualities, and fortification with various nutrients. Also, sensory survey on irradiated commercial patient foods was performed to find the problems and improvement points of the developed products. Optimal packaging material was selected by evaluation of effect of irradiation in packaging materials and a convenient package for consuming by patients was decided. Safety of the irradiated milk porridge was confirmed by in-vivo genotoxicological test, and its nutritional composition for patients was evaluated by nutritional analysis. Finally, the milk porridge was developed as liquid, dried, powdered, and pellet type products. This research may contribute to improve life quality of patients by supplement of various foods with high quality to immuno-compromised patients. Furthermore, economic profits and technological advances are expected by commercialization of the patient foods.

  1. Propulsion Control Technology Development in the United States A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaw, Link C.a; Garg, Sanjay

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a historical perspective of the advancement of control technologies for aircraft gas turbine engines. The paper primarily covers technology advances in the United States in the last 60 years (1940 to approximately 2002). The paper emphasizes the pioneering technologies that have been tested or implemented during this period, assimilating knowledge and experience from industry experts, including personal interviews with both current and retired experts. Since the first United States-built aircraft gas turbine engine was flown in 1942, engine control technology has evolved from a simple hydro-mechanical fuel metering valve to a full-authority digital electronic control system (FADEC) that is common to all modern aircraft propulsion systems. At the same time, control systems have provided engine diagnostic functions. Engine diagnostic capabilities have also evolved from pilot observation of engine gauges to the automated on-board diagnostic system that uses mathematical models to assess engine health and assist in post-flight troubleshooting and maintenance. Using system complexity and capability as a measure, we can break the historical development of control systems down to four phases: (1) the start-up phase (1942 to 1949), (2) the growth phase (1950 to 1969), (3) the electronic phase (1970 to 1989), and (4) the integration phase (1990 to 2002). In each phase, the state-of-the-art control technology is described and the engines that have become historical landmarks, from the control and diagnostic standpoint, are identified. Finally, a historical perspective of engine controls in the last 60 years is presented in terms of control system complexity, number of sensors, number of lines of software (or embedded code), and other factors.

  2. Functional unit, technological dynamics, and scaling properties for the life cycle energy of residences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frijia, Stephane; Guhathakurta, Subhrajit; Williams, Eric

    2012-02-07

    Prior LCA studies take the operational phase to include all energy use within a residence, implying a functional unit of all household activities, but then exclude related supply chains such as production of food, appliances, and household chemicals. We argue that bounding the functional unit to provision of a climate controlled space better focuses the LCA on the building, rather than activities that occur within a building. The second issue explored in this article is how technological change in the operational phase affects life cycle energy. Heating and cooling equipment is replaced at least several times over the lifetime of a residence; improved efficiency of newer equipment affects life cycle energy use. The third objective is to construct parametric models to describe LCA results for a family of related products. We explore these three issues through a case study of energy use of residences: one-story and two-story detached homes, 1,500-3,500 square feet in area, located in Phoenix, Arizona, built in 2002 and retired in 2051. With a restricted functional unit and accounting for technological progress, approximately 30% of a building's life cycle energy can be attributed to materials and construction, compared to 0.4-11% in previous studies.

  3. Adherence to Technology-Mediated Insomnia Treatment: A Meta-Analysis, Interviews, and Focus Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Horsch, Corine; Lancee, Jaap; Beun, Robbert Jan; Neerincx, Mark A; Brinkman, Willem-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several technologies have been proposed to support the reduction of insomnia complaints. A user-centered assessment of these technologies could provide insight into underlying factors related to treatment adherence. Objective: Gaining insight into adherence to technology-mediated insomnia treatment as a solid base for improving those adherence rates by applying adherence-enhancing strategies. Methods: Adherence to technology-mediated sleep products was studied in three ways. First...

  4. Treatment technology of low concentration uranium-bearing wastewater and its research progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Guangzhi; Xu Lechang

    2007-01-01

    With growth of the discharged uranium-bearing wastewater capacity, a low cost and effective treatment technology is required to avoid transferring and diffusion of the radioactive nuclides. On the basis of analyses of the source and characteristics of the low-concentration uranium-bearing wastewater, the conventional treatment technologies, such as, flocculating settling, ion exchange, concentration, adsorption, and some innovatory technologies, such as, membrane, microorganism, phytoremediation and zero-valent iron technology are introduced. (authors)

  5. Size matters: Installed maximal unit size predicts market life cycles of electricity generation technologies and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, N.

    2008-01-01

    The electricity generation technologies and systems are complex and change in very dynamic fashions, with a multitude of energy sources and prime movers. Since an important concept in generator design is the 'economies of scale', we discover that the installed maximal unit size (capacity) of the generators is a key 'envelope-pushing' characteristic with logistical behaviors. The logistical wavelet analysis of the max unit sizes for different fuels and prime movers, and the cumulative capacities, reveals universal quantitative features in the aggregate evolution of the power industry. We extract the transition times of the max sizes (spanning 10-90% of the saturation limits) for different technologies and systems, and discover that the max size saturation in the 90-99% range precedes the saturation of cumulative capacities of the corresponding systems in the US. While these universal laws are still empirical, they give us a simple yet elegant framework to examine the evolution of the power industry and markets in predictive, not just descriptive, terms. Such laws give us a quantitative tool to spot trends and predict future development, invaluable in planning and resource allocation based on intrinsic technology and system market life cycles

  6. Plutonium Finishing Plant Treatment and Storage Unit Dangerous Waste Training Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ENTROP, G.E.

    2000-01-01

    The training program for personnel performing waste management duties pertaining to the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Treatment and Storage Unit is governed by the general requirements established in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Dangerous Waste Training Plan (PFP DWTP). The PFP Treatment and Storage Unit DWTP presented below incorporates all of the components of the PFP DWTP by reference. The discussion presented in this document identifies aspects of the training program specific to the PFP Treatment and Storage Unit. The training program includes specifications for personnel instruction through both classroom and on-the-job training. Training is developed specific to waste management duties. Hanford Facility personnel directly involved with the PFP Treatment and Storage Unit will receive training to container management practices, spill response, and emergency response. These will include, for example, training in the cementation process and training pertaining to applicable elements of WAC 173-303-330(1)(d). Applicable elements from WAC 173-303-330(1)(d) for the PFP Treatment and Storage Unit include: procedures for inspecting, repairing, and replacing facility emergency and monitoring equipment; communications and alarm systems; response to fires or explosions; and shutdown of operations

  7. Assisted reproductive technology in the United States: 2001 results generated from the American Society for Reproductive Medicine/Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    To summarize the procedures and outcomes of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) that were initiated in the United States in 2001. Data were collected electronically using the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART) Clinic Outcome Reporting System software and submitted to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine/SART Registry. Three hundred eighty-five clinics submitted data on procedures performed in 2001. Data were collated after November 2002 [corrected] so that the outcomes of all pregnancies would be known. Incidence of clinical pregnancy, ectopic pregnancy, abortion, stillbirth, and delivery. Programs reported initiating 108,130 cycles of ART treatment. Of these, 79,042 cycles involved IVF (with and without micromanipulation), with a delivery rate per retrieval of 31.6%; 340 were cycles of gamete intrafallopian transfer, with a delivery rate per retrieval of 21.9%; 661 were cycles of zygote intrafallopian transfer, with a delivery rate per retrieval of 31.0%. The following additional ART procedures were also initiated: 8,147 fresh donor oocyte cycles, with a delivery rate per transfer of 47.3%; 14,509 frozen ET procedures, with a delivery rate per transfer of 23.5%; 3,187 frozen ETs employing donated oocytes or embryos, with a delivery rate per transfer of 27.4%; and 1,366 cycles using a host uterus, with a delivery rate per transfer of 38.7%. In addition, 112 cycles were reported as combinations of more than one treatment type, 8 cycles as research, and 85 as embryo banking. As a result of all procedures, 29,585 deliveries were reported, resulting in 41,168 neonates. In 2001, there were more programs reporting ART treatment and a significant increase in reported cycles compared with 2000.

  8. DEMONSTRATION OF AQUAFIX AND SAPS PASSIVE MINE WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES AT SUMMITVILLE MINE SITE, INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency evaluated two passive water treatment (PWT) technologies for metals removal from acid mine drainage (AMD) at the Summitville Mine Superfund Site in southern Colorado...

  9. Technology and place: A geography of waste-to-energy in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Jordan Patterson

    The adoption of technologies differs across space, for reasons attributed to economics, politics, and culture, but also due to limitations imposed by both the physical environment and the technology itself. This dissertation considers the case of waste-to-energy (WTE) incinerators in the United States, and asks why this technology is used in some places but rejected in others. The answer to this simple question is remarkably complex, as understandings and arguments about technology and the environment are mobilized differently by various actors to champion, oppose, or in some cases remain ambivalent about the installation and operation of WTE facilities. In this dissertation I explore the geography of WTE incineration in the United States since the 19th century. Informed by the insights of actor-network theory and the social construction of technology school, I employ the tools of discourse analysis to examine published and unpublished statements, papers, project studies, policy briefs, and archival materials generated alongside the development of WTE facilities in the United States, considering the specific case studies discussed below but also WTE technology in general. I look at federal, state, and local environmental agency documents as well as the papers of consulting firms, environmental and industry advocacy groups, and private companies. I also devote significant attention to the analysis of news media outlets in communities where WTE facilities are located or have been considered. In addition to these literal texts, I examine non-written and visual materials associated with WTE facilities, including films, websites, signage and logos, advertising campaigns, facility architecture, and artwork, as well as more abstract `texts' such as industry conferences, trade-show handouts, promotional materials, and academic and industry research programs. I build on this textual analysis with observations of WTE facilities in action. After an introductory chapter, I

  10. Silent Discharge Plasma Technology for the Treatment of Air Toxics and Other Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosocha, Louis A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chase, Peter J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gross, Michael P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1998-09-21

    Under this CRADA, the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and High Mesa Technologies, Inc. (HMT) carried out a joint project on the development of the silent discharge plasma (SDP) technology for the treatment of hazardous air pollutants and other hazardous or toxic chemicals. The project had two major components: a technology-demonstration part and a scale-up and commercialization part. In the first part, a small-scale, mobile SDP plasma processor, which was being developed under a CRADA with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) was the mobile equipment was modified for higher capacity service and employed for an innovative remediation technologies demonstration on soil-vapor extraction off-gases at the McClellan Air Force Base near Sacramento, CA. The performance of the SDP system for the variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) encountered at the McClellan site was sufficiently promising to the project HMT and LANL worked together to formulate a scale-up strategy and commercialization/manufacturing plan, and to design a prototype scaled-up SDP unit. HMT and LANL are now in the final stages of completing a licensing agreement for the technology and HMT is in the process of raising funds to engineer and manufacture commercial prototype SDP equipment focused on stack-gas emissions control and environmental remediation. HMT, in collaboration with another Northern New Mexico business, Coyote Aerospace, has also been successful in receiving a Phase I Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) award from the Army Research Office to develop, design, and construct a small non-thermal plasma reactor for laboratory studies ("Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor for Control of Fugitive Emissions of Toxic Gases")

  11. Testing for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems: Identification of Technologies for Effluent Treatment in Test Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Key steps to ensure identification of relevant effluent treatment technologies for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) testing include the following. 1. Review of...

  12. Robust technology and system for management of sucker rod pumping units in oil wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliev, T. A.; Rzayev, A. H.; Guluyev, G. A.; Alizada, T. A.; Rzayeva, N. E.

    2018-01-01

    We propose a technology for calculating the robust, normalized correlation functions of the signal from the force sensor on the rod string attached to the hanger of the sucker rod pumping unit. The robust normalized correlation functions are used to form sets of informative attribute combinations, each of which corresponds to a technical condition of the sucker rod pumping unit. We demonstrate how these sets can be used to solve identification and management problems in the oil production process in real time using inexpensive controllers. The results obtained from using the system on real objects are also presented in this paper. It was determined that the energy saved and prolonged overhaul period substantially increased the cost-effectiveness.

  13. The technology of the bearings used in the nuclear power generation system turbine generator units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vialettes, J.M.; Rossato, M.

    1997-01-01

    A bearing consists of all the stationary part which allow the relative motion in rotation or in translation, of a shaft line. Inside the bearing there is a journal bearing with a metallic anti-friction coating (the babbitt metal). The high power turbine generator unit rotors are supported by smooth transversal journal bearings fed with oil which fills the empty space and runs along the shaft. The technologies used for the bearings and the thrust bearings of the turbine generator units and the various shaft lines of the French CP0/CP1- and CP2/1300 MW-type nuclear power plants are described. The experience feedback is then discussed in terms of the dynamics of the shaft line, i.e. vibrational problems, the influence of the alignment and the babbitt metal incidents. (author)

  14. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Reactor Technology Complex Operable Unit 2-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard P. Wells

    2007-01-01

    This Groundwater Monitoring Plan describes the objectives, activities, and assessments that will be performed to support the on-going groundwater monitoring requirements at the Reactor Technology Complex, formerly the Test Reactor Area (TRA). The requirements for groundwater monitoring were stipulated in the Final Record of Decision for Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, signed in December 1997. The monitoring requirements were modified by the First Five-Year Review Report for the Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to focus on those contaminants of concern that warrant continued surveillance, including chromium, tritium, strontium-90, and cobalt-60. Based upon recommendations provided in the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Status Report for 2006, the groundwater monitoring frequency was reduced to annually from twice a year

  15. Needs assessment for remote systems technology at the Chornobyl Unit 4 shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carteret, B.A.; Holliday, M.A.; Jones, E.D.

    1997-12-01

    The accident at Chornobyl Unit 4 on April 26, 1986, resulted in a series of unprecedented scientific and technical challenges. The reactor building was damaged extensively. Following the accident, immediate action was needed to seal off the gaping crater created by the accident, which was a continuing source of airborne contamination. Under extreme conditions, a structure called the open-quotes Shelterclose quotes was built over the remains of the reactor building. The Shelter, which was quickly completed in November 1986, was meant to provide immediate but temporary containment. Now, 11 years later, there are significant concerns about its structural integrity and projected life expectancy. The United States and other participating G-7 countries are supporting nuclear safety upgrade efforts in Eastern Europe with a primary focus on placing the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 Shelter in a stable and environmentally acceptable condition. Application of remote systems technologies will play an important part in achieving the goals of this program. The G-7 nations have agreed to support these efforts, including the identification and development of remote system technologies for fuel removal. However at this time they have taken a firm stance against funding actual fuel removal activities. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology requested that a needs assessment be performed to evaluate the requirements for applying remote systems, including robotics, at the Shelter. This document is intended to be used to identify remote systems needs and requirements at the Shelter and to provide general information on the conditions in the Shelter that could impact the use of remote systems. This document is intended as a source of information to assist those who will be implementing the Shelter Implementation Plan tasks. The document provides background information and general guidance on the application of remote systems

  16. Antibiotic resistance genes fate and removal by a technological treatment solution for water reuse in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luprano, Maria Laura; De Sanctis, Marco; Del Moro, Guido; Di Iaconi, Claudio; Lopez, Antonio; Levantesi, Caterina

    2016-11-15

    In order to mitigate the potential effects on the human health which are associated to the use of treated wastewater in agriculture, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are required to be carefully monitored in wastewater reuse processes and their spread should be prevented by the development of efficient treatment technologies. Objective of this study was the assessment of ARGs reduction efficiencies of a novel technological treatment solution for agricultural reuse of municipal wastewaters. The proposed solution comprises an advanced biological treatment (Sequencing Batch Biofilter Granular Reactor, SBBGR), analysed both al laboratory and pilot scale, followed by sand filtration and two different disinfection final stages: ultraviolet light (UV) radiation and peracetic acid (PAA) treatments. By Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), the presence of 9 ARGs (ampC, mecA, ermB, sul1, sul2, tetA, tetO, tetW, vanA) were analysed and by quantitative PCR (qPCR) their removal was determined. The obtained results were compared to the reduction of total bacteria (16S rDNA gene) and of a faecal contamination indicator (Escherichia coli uidA gene). Only four of the analysed genes (ermB, sul1, sul2, tetA) were detected in raw wastewater and their abundance was estimated to be 3.4±0.7 x10(4) - 9.6±0.5 x10(9) and 1.0±0.3 x10(3) to 3.0±0.1 x10(7) gene copies/mL in raw and treated wastewaters, respectively. The results show that SBBGR technology is promising for the reduction of ARGs, achieving stable removal performance ranging from 1.0±0.4 to 2.8±0.7 log units, which is comparable to or higher than that reported for conventional activated sludge treatments. No reduction of the ARGs amount normalized to the total bacteria content (16S rDNA), was instead obtained, indicating that these genes are removed together with total bacteria and not specifically eliminated. Enhanced ARGs removal was obtained by sand filtration, while no reduction was achieved by both UV and PAA disinfection

  17. Quality and productivity drive innovation and improvement at United Technologies Aerospace Operations, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamar, L. G.

    1986-01-01

    Quality and innovation are the hallmarks of the national space program. In programs that preceded the Shuttle Program the emphasis was on meeting the risks and technical challenges of space with safety, quality, reliability, and success. At United Technologies Aerospace Operations, Inc. (UTAO), the battle has developed along four primary fronts. These fronts include programs to motivate and reward people, development and construction of optimized processes and facilities, implementation of specifically tailored management systems, and the application of appropriate measurement and control systems. Each of these initiatives is described. However, to put this quality and productivity program in perspective, UTAO and its role in the Shuttle Program are described first.

  18. Long-term trends in restoration and associated land treatments in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Stella M.; Munson, Seth M.; Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.; Bradford, John B.; Butterfield, Bradley J.

    2018-01-01

    Restoration treatments, such as revegetation with seeding or invasive species removal, have been applied on U.S. public lands for decades. Temporal trends in these management actions have not been extensively summarized previously, particularly in the southwestern United States where invasive plant species, drought, and fire have altered dryland ecosystems. We assessed long-term (1940–2010) trends in restoration using approximately 4,000 vegetation treatments conducted on Bureau of Land Management lands across the southwestern United States. We found that since 1940, the proportions of seeding and vegetation/soil manipulation (e.g. vegetation removal or plowing) treatments have declined, while the proportions of prescribed burn and invasive species treatments have increased. Treatments in pinyon-juniper and big sagebrush communities declined in comparison to treatments in desert scrub, creosote bush, and riparian woodland communities. Restoration-focused treatment objectives increased relative to resource extraction objectives. Species richness and proportion of native species used in seeding treatments also increased. Inflation-adjusted costs per area rose 750% for vegetation/soil manipulation, 600% for seeding, and 400% for prescribed burn treatments in the decades from 1981 to 2010. Seeding treatments were implemented in warmer and drier years when compared to the climate conditions of the entire study period and warmer and wetter years relative to several years before and after the treatment. These results suggest that treatments over a 70-year period on public lands in the southwestern United States are shifting toward restoration practices that are increasingly large, expensive, and related to fire and invasive species control.

  19. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: TORONTO HARBOUR COMMISSIONERS (THC) SOIL RECYCLE TREATMENT TRAIN. Project Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    A demonstration of the Toronto Harbour Commissioners' (THC) Soil Recycle Treatment Train was performed under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program at a pilot plant facility in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Soil Recycle Treatment Train, which consists of s...

  20. The local heat treatment equipment and technology of the pipelines welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korol'kov, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    The principal methods and equipment for local treatment of the pipe-lines weld joints in different industry branches is described. Recommendations about heat treatment equipment and technology application are given

  1. Development of treatment technologies of the processing of U.S. Department of Energy mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backus, P.M.; Berry, J.B.; Coyle, G.J. Jr.; Lurk, P.; Wolf, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Waste contaminated with chemically hazardous and radioactive species is defined as mixed waste. Significant technology development has been conducted for separate treatment of hazardous and radioactive waste, but technology development addressing mixed-waste treatment has been limited. In response to the need for a comprehensive and consistent approach to mixed-waste technology development, the Office of Technology Development of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Mixed Waste Integrated Program. The program is identifying and evaluating treatment technologies to treat present and estimated future mixed wastes at DOE sites. The status of the technical initiatives in chemical/physical treatment, waste destruction/stabilization technology, off-gas treatment, and final waste form production/assessment is described in this paper

  2. Mixed Waste Integrated Program interim evaluation report on thermal treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillins, R.L.; DeWitt, L.M.; Wollerman, A.L.

    1993-02-01

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is one of several US Department of Energy (DOE) integrated programs established to organize and coordinate throughout the DOE complex the development of technologies for treatment of specific waste categories. The goal of the MWIP is to develop and deploy appropriate technologies for -the treatment of DOE mixed low-level and alpha-contaminated wastes in order to bring all affected DOE installations and projects into compliance with environmental laws. Evaluation of treatment technologies by the MWIP will focus on meeting waste form performance requirements for disposal. Thermal treatment technologies were an early emphasis for the MWIP because thermal treatment is indicated (or mandated) for many of the hazardous constituents in DOE mixed waste and because these technologies have been widely investigated for these applications. An advisory group, the Thermal Treatment Working Group (TTWG), was formed during the program's infancy to assist the MWIP in evaluating and prioritizing thermal treatment technologies suitable for development. The results of the overall evaluation scoring indicate that the four highest-rated technologies were rotary kilns, slagging kilns, electric-arc furnaces, and plasma-arc furnaces. The four highest-rated technologies were all judged to be applicable on five of the six waste streams and are the only technologies in the evaluation with this distinction. Conclusions as to the superiority of one technology over others are not valid based on this preliminary study, although some general conclusions can be drawn

  3. LITERATURE SURVEY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR NITRATE IODINE-129 AND URANIUM 200-ZP-1 OPERABLE UNIT HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BYRNES ME

    2008-06-05

    This literature review presents treatment options for nitrate, iodine-129, and uranium, which are present in groundwater at the 200-ZP-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) within the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this review is to determine available methods to treat or sequester these contaminants in place (i.e., in situ) or to pump-and-treat the groundwater aboveground (i.e., ex situ). This review has been conducted with emphasis on commercially available or field-tested technologies, but theoretical studies have, in some cases, been considered when no published field data exist. The initial scope of this literature review included only nitrate and iodine-I 29, but it was later expanded to include uranium. The focus of the literature review was weighted toward researching methods for treatment of nitrate and iodine-129 over uranium because of the relatively greater impact of those compounds identified at the 200-ZP-I OU.

  4. LITERATURE SURVEY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR NITRATE, IODINE-129 AND URANIUM 200-ZP-1 OPERABLE UNIT, HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BYRNES ME

    2008-01-01

    This literature review presents treatment options for nitrate, iodine-129, and uranium, which are present in groundwater at the 200-ZP-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) within the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this review is to determine available methods to treat or sequester these contaminants in place (i.e., in situ) or to pump-and-treat the groundwater aboveground (i.e., ex situ). This review has been conducted with emphasis on commercially available or field-tested technologies, but theoretical studies have, in some cases, been considered when no published field data exist. The initial scope of this literature review included only nitrate and iodine-I 29, but it was later expanded to include uranium. The focus of the literature review was weighted toward researching methods for treatment of nitrate and iodine-129 over uranium because of the relatively greater impact of those compounds identified at the 200-ZP-I OU

  5. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment in women with schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Ninna H; Assens, Maria; Hougaard, Charlotte O

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence rate of women with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and to study these women's fertility treatment outcome in comparison to women with no psychotic disorders.......To determine the prevalence rate of women with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and to study these women's fertility treatment outcome in comparison to women with no psychotic disorders....

  6. Investigation of an innovative technology for oil-field brine treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miskovic, D; Dalmacija, B; Hain, Z; Karlovic, E; Maric, S; Uzelac, N [Inst. of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, V. Vlahovica 2 (YU)

    1989-01-01

    Various aspects of an innovative technology for oil field brine treatment were investigated on a laboratory scale. The both free and dispersed oily matter were separated by gravitation and sedimentation. Apart from the physico-chemical oil removal process, special attention was paid to different variants of improved microbiological treatment: dilution with fresh water and application of powdered activated carbon (PAC). Advanced treatment was carried out on granular biological activated carbon (GBAC). A technological scheme for complete treatment was proposed. (author).

  7. A study on optimum technology for the treatment and disposal of low and medium radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.E.; Chun, K.S.; Kim, K.J.; Lee, H.G.; Kim, K.I.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive compilation and data base of the various treatment techniques available for processing the low- and medium-level radioactive wastes to be generated at nuclear power plants. This enables standardization and localization of the treatment facilities and provodes a data base for selection of the optimum technology for the low- and intermediate-level radioactive solid waste disposal. This present systems which are applied at the Korean Nuclear Power Plant Units No. 2 through No.7 for treatment of radioactive gaseous and liquid wastes should be optimized in respect of radiation protection and economics. However, alternative techniques for solidification of wet solid wastes might be required instead of cementation (for example, bituminization). In addition the application of a shredding technique to the present system would be the most economically effective means of volume reduction. Improved shallow land burial in trenches lined with compacted clay should be most suitable for disposal of the 900,000 drums of radwaste projected by the year 2007. An area of thick clay deposite will be selected as a disposal site, but if no suitable site can be found, a mined cavity or concrete trench facility would be utilized. (Author)

  8. Emerging desalination technologies for water treatment: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, Arun; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, a review of emerging desalination technologies is presented. Several technologies for desalination of municipal and industrial wastewater have been proposed and evaluated, but only certain technologies have been commercialized or are close to commercialization. This review consists of membrane-based, thermal-based and alternative technologies. Membranes based on incorporation of nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes or graphene-based ones show promise as innovative desalination technologies with superior performance in terms of water permeability and salt rejection. However, only nanocomposite membranes have been commercialized while others are still under fundamental developmental stages. Among the thermal-based technologies, membrane distillation and adsorption desalination show the most promise for enhanced performance with the availability of a waste heat source. Several alternative technologies have also been developed recently; those based on capacitive deionization have shown considerable improvements in their salt removal capacity and feed water recovery. In the same category, microbial desalination cells have been shown to desalinate high salinity water without any external energy source, but to date, scale up of the process has not been methodically evaluated. In this paper, advantages and drawbacks of each technology is discussed along with a comparison of performance, water quality and energy consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Using Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Technology To Meet Accelerated Cleanup Program Milestones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, P.J.; Garcia, J.; Estes, C.H.; Palmer, C.R.; Meyers, G.S.

    2006-01-01

    . The waste materials were extremely challenging; at times exceeding 85% total organic chemical content. Vacuum thermal desorption operations are described that resulted in waste processing rates as high as 376 drum equivalents per month, with an average over 300 drums/month for a four month period. During this same time period, performance verification sampling demonstrated 99.2% successful VTD treatment, with only 10 drums failing out of 1,244 drums processed. These 10 drums were successfully treated upon reprocessing in the VTD unit. Condensate volume of 14,400 gallons was collected from the 1,244 drums, composed of approximately 2/3 organic liquid having high chlorine content from both solvents and PCBs. This condensate is being shipped for off-site incineration as it meets the acceptance criteria for that disposal method. With this combination of management initiative, permits, and technology, important Accelerated Cleanup Program milestones have been met. (authors)

  10. Novel technologies for reverse osmosis concentrate treatment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Sung Hee; Tansel, Berrin

    2015-03-01

    Global water shortages due to droughts and population growth have created increasing interest in water reuse and recycling and, concomitantly, development of effective water treatment processes. Pressured membrane processes, in particular reverse osmosis, have been adopted in water treatment industries and utilities despite the relatively high operational cost and energy consumption. However, emerging contaminants are present in reverse osmosis concentrate in higher concentrations than in the feed water, and have created challenges for treatment of the concentrate. Further, standards and guidelines for assessment and treatment of newly identified contaminants are currently lacking. Research is needed regarding the treatment and disposal of emerging contaminants of concern in reverse osmosis concentrate, in order to develop cost-effective methods for minimizing potential impacts on public health and the environment. This paper reviews treatment options for concentrate from membrane processes. Barriers to emerging treatment options are discussed and novel treatment processes are evaluated based on a literature review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. SensInDenT-Noncontact Sensors Integrated Into Dental Treatment Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, Daniel; Teichmann, Maren; Weitz, Philippe; Wolfart, Stefan; Leonhardt, Steffen; Walter, Marian

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents the first system design (SensInDenT) for noncontact cardiorespiratory monitoring during dental treatment. The system is integrated into a dental treatment unit, and combines sensors based on electromagnetic, optical, and mechanical coupling at different sensor locations. The measurement principles and circuits are described and a system overview is presented. Furthermore, a first proof of concept is provided by taking measurements in healthy volunteers under laboratory conditions.

  12. Best available technology for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midkiff, W.S.; Romero, R.L.; Suazo, I.L.; Garcia, R.; Parsons, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    The existing Los Alamos National Laboratory TA-50 liquid radioactive waste treatment plant RLWP has been in service for over thirty years, during this period many technical, regulatory, and processing changes have occurred. The existing facility can no longer comply with the demands and requirements for continued operation, and would not be able to comply with anticipated stringent future contaminant discharge limitations. Either a major upgrading or replacement of the existing facility is required. In order to assess the most appropriate means of providing an adequate facility to comply with predicted requirements for Ta-50, this Best Available Technology (BAT) Study was conducted to compare feasible technical and economic alternatives in order to define the most favorable technology configuration. This report consists of eleven sections. Section 1 provides a general introduction and background of the TA-50 operations and the basis for this study. Section 2 provides a technical discussion of the unit processes at TA-50 and several other comparable operations at other DOE sites. Section 3 addresses the evaluation and selection of appropriate treatment processes. Section 4 provides an analysis of environmental issues and concerns. Section 5 presents the rationale for the selection of preferred process configurations. Section 6 is the evaluation of operational issues. Section 7 addresses energy and resource use topics. Section 8 provides an economic analysis, and Section 9 summarizes the evaluation and the identification of the BAT. These sections are augmented by appendices. The report identifies the construction of a new radioactive liquid waste treatment facility as the BAT. Based on the information analyzed for this study, this option appears to provide the best combination of environmental compliance, operability, and economic value

  13. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: ARSENIC TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This techn...

  14. Description of recommended non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Version 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This document contains description of the technologies selected for inclusions in the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Study. The purpose of these descriptions is to provide a more complete description of the INTS technologies. It supplements the summary descriptions of candidate nonthermal technologies that were considered for the INTS

  15. Description of recommended non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This document contains description of the technologies selected for inclusions in the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Study. The purpose of these descriptions is to provide a more complete description of the INTS technologies. It supplements the summary descriptions of candidate nonthermal technologies that were considered for the INTS.

  16. Advances in the psychosocial treatment of addiction: the role of technology in the delivery of evidence-based psychosocial treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsch, Lisa A; Dallery, Jesse

    2012-06-01

    The clinical community has a growing array of psychosocial interventions with a strong evidence base available for the treatment of SUDs. Considerable opportunity exists for leveraging technology in the delivery of evidence-based interventions to promote widespread reach and impact of evidence-based care. Data from this line of research to date are promising, and underscore the potential public health impact of technology-based therapeutic tools. To fully realize the potential of technology-delivered interventions, several areas of inquiry remain important. First, scientifically sound strategies should be explored to ensure technology-based interventions are optimally designed to produce maximal behavior change. Second, efficient and effective methods should be identified to integrate technology-based interventions into systems of care in a manner that is most responsive to the needs of individual users. Third, payment, privacy, and regulatory systems should be refined and extended to go beyond electronic medical records and telehealth/distance care models, and support the deployment of technology-based systems to enhance the quality, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of care. Fourth, the mechanisms underlying behavior change derived from technology-based treatments should be explicated, including new mechanisms that may be tapped via novel, technology-based tools. Such work will be critical in isolating mechanisms that are useful in predicting treatment response, and in ensuring that key ingredients are present in technology-based interventions as they are made widely available.

  17. Commercial waste treatment R and D needs in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkholder, H.C.

    1982-05-01

    The mission of the commercial waste treatment program is to establish treatment technology for safe and efficient management of high-level and transuranic wastes from reprocessing and fuel fabrication and special wastes from other fuel cycle activities. The four functional objectives that must be achieved to fulfill the mission are: (1) define waste product and treatment process performance requirements; (2) specify adequately safe waste products and verify their performance; (3) specify adequately efficient treatment processes and equipment and verify their performance; (4) solve existing waste treatment problems using verified products and processes. Although commercial waste treatment technology is in many respects highly advanced, there remains a number of areas where significant research and development is needed. These are: (1) technically-based performance requirements for both waste products and treatment processes; (2) pilot-scale radioactive demonstration of liquid-fed ceramic melting process and equipment for borosilicate glass; (3) non-glass TRU waste product and treatment process development; (4) waste product performance testing and predictive modeling; (5) quality verification for treatment processes

  18. An Examination of Information Technology and Its Perceived Quality Issues in Single System Hospitals in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Linda W.

    2009-01-01

    The safety and quality of healthcare is of great concern in the United States. The positive effects of information technology reported in past research, especially case studies, has encouraged expectations that information technology may increase the quality of healthcare while reducing costs of healthcare. The goals of this study was to examine…

  19. Information technology and behavioral medicine: impact on autism treatment & research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberleitner, Ron; Laxminarayan, Swamy

    2004-01-01

    Families, clinicians and researchers involved with varying neurological disorders face amazing challenges to understand, treat, and assist the people they are serving. Autism brings unique challenges and serves as an important model for the application of important concepts in information technology and telemedicine. The rising incidence of autism with limited professional resources has led to more consideration for using information technology and related specialties to link families and professionals, and to implement strategies which implement information technology to improve the outcomes for individuals with autism and their families. These are reviewed in context of the unique health, education, and the research issues facing those dealing with autism.

  20. Use of Computer and Mobile Technologies in the Treatment of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Judith A; Wright, Jesse; Siegle, Greg J; Howland, Robert H; Kepler, Britney B

    2017-06-01

    Major depression (MDD) is a common and disabling disorder. Research has shown that most people with MDD receive either no treatment or inadequate treatment. Computer and mobile technologies may offer solutions for the delivery of therapies to untreated or inadequately treated individuals with MDD. The authors review currently available technologies and research aimed at relieving symptoms of MDD. These technologies include computer-assisted cognitive-behavior therapy (CCBT), web-based self-help, Internet self-help support groups, mobile psychotherapeutic interventions (i.e., mobile applications or apps), technology enhanced exercise, and biosensing technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Treatment of hazardous and toxic liquids using Rochem Disc Tube technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaMonica, D.

    1992-01-01

    Rochem Separation Systems, established in 1990 as a subsidiary of the international Rochem Group, has advanced the treatment of hazardous and toxic liquids with its unique, patented Disc Tube technology. Developed in 1987 at Rochem's design and production facilities in Hamburg, Germany, the Disc Tube technology is a series of membrane modules that greatly reduce the problems that hamper the effectiveness of other treatment technologies (i.e. fouling, scaling, cost, etc.). Applications of the Disc Tube technology include reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration. Rochem was recently accepted into the EPA Superfund Site program as a result of its Disc Tube technology. 1 fig., 1 tab

  2. The Use of Technology for STD Partner Services in the United States: A Structured Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachur, Rachel; Hall, Wendasha; Coor, Alexandra; Kinsey, Jennine; Collins, Dayne; Strona, F V

    2018-05-01

    Since the late 1990s, health departments and STD programs throughout the U.S. have used technologies, such as the internet and mobile phones, to provide services to persons with a sexually transmitted infection, including HIV, and their sex partners, also known as partner services. This study reviewed the published literature to assess and compare partner services outcomes as a result of using technology and to calculate cost savings through cases averted. We conducted a structured literature review of all U.S. studies that examined the use of technology to notify persons exposed to an STD (syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea), including HIV, by health care professionals in the U.S. from 2000 to 2017. Outcome measures, including the number of the number of partners notified, screened or tested; and new positives identified, were captured and cost savings were calculated, when data were available. Seven studies were identified. Methods used for partner services differed across studies, although email was the primary mode in 6 (83%) of the 7 studies. Only 2 of the 7 studies compared use of technology for partner services to traditional partner services. Between 10% and 97% of partners were successfully notified of their exposure through the use of technology and between 34% and 81% were screened or tested. Five studies reported on new infections identified, which ranged from 3-19. Use of technology for partner serves saved programs between $22,795 and $45,362 in direct and indirect medical costs. Use of technology for partner services increased the number of partners notified, screened or tested, and new infections found. Importantly, the use of technology allowed programs to reach partners who otherwise would not have been notified of their exposure to an STD or HIV. Improved response times and time to treatment were also seen as was re-engagement into care for previous HIV positive patients. Data and outcome measures across the studies were not standardized, making it

  3. Plutonium Finishing Plan (PFP) Treatment and Storage Unit Interim Status Closure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PRIGNANO, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    This document describes the planned activities and performance standards for closing the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Treatment and Storage Unit. The PFP Treatment and Storage Unit is located within the 234-52 Building in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility. Although this document is prepared based upon Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 265, Subpart G requirements, closure of the unit will comply with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 regulations pursuant to Section 5.3 of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Action Plan (Ecology et al. 1996). Because the PFP Treatment and Storage Unit manages transuranic mixed (TRUM) waste, there are many controls placed on management of the waste. Based on the many controls placed on management of TRUM waste, releases of TRUM waste are not anticipated to occur in the PFP Treatment and Storage Unit. Because the intention is to clean close the PFP Treatment and Storage Unit, postclosure activities are not applicable to this closure plan. To clean close the unit, it will be demonstrated that dangerous waste has not been left onsite at levels above the closure performance standard for removal and decontamination. If it is determined that clean closure is not possible or is environmentally impractical, the closure plan will be modified to address required postclosure activities. The PFP Treatment and Storage Unit will be operated to immobilize and/or repackage plutonium-bearing waste in a glovebox process. The waste to be processed is in a solid physical state (chunks and coarse powder) and will be sealed into and out of the glovebox in closed containers. The containers of immobilized waste will be stored in the glovebox and in additional permitted storage locations at PFP. The waste will be managed to minimize the potential for spills outside the glovebox, and to preclude spills from reaching soil. Containment surfaces will be maintained to ensure

  4. Application for verification of monitor units of the treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suero Rodrigo, M. A.; Marques Fraguela, E.

    2011-01-01

    Current estimates algorithms achieve acceptable degree of accuracy. However, operate on the basis of un intuitive models. It is therefore necessary to verify the calculation of monitor units of the treatment planning system (TPS) with those obtained by other independent formalisms. To this end, we have developed an application based on factorization formalism that automates the calculation of dose.

  5. Treatment and rehabilitation on a stroke unit improves 5-year survival. A community-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, H S; Kammersgaard, L P; Nakayama, H

    1999-01-01

    We have previously reported a marked reduction in mortality up to 1 year after treatment and rehabilitation on a stroke unit versus on general neurological and medical wards in unselected stroke patients. In the present study we wanted to test the hypothesis that this mortality-reducing effect...

  6. Prevalence and treatment of eating disorders among Hispanics/Latino Americans in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez, Marisol; Ohrt, Tara K.; Hoek, Hans W.

    Purpose of reviewWe reviewed the recent literature on prevalence rates, and application of evidence-based treatments for eating disorders among Hispanics/Latinos residing in the United States.Recent findingsLifetime prevalence rates of anorexia nervosa are lower among Hispanic/Latinos than

  7. Checks for quality control of wedge dynamics in treatment units and the planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateos Salvador, P.; Rodriguez Lopez, B.; Font Gelabert, J.; Hernandez Rodriguez, J.; Arino Gil, A.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to verify the implementation of enhanced dynamic wedge (EDW) vary in the Eclipse planning system and the experimental determination of the parameters that define the dosimetry characteristics of enhanced dynamic wedge of our treatment units. (Author)

  8. [Technical aspects of treatments with single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersema, E.J.; Kreulen, C.M.; Latzke, P.; Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    For the manufacture of single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses, effective communication between dentist and dental technician is required. Mutual insight concerning the (im)possibilities of available treatments and technical options is prerequisitefor this communication. The manufacture of

  9. Prevalence and treatment of eating disorders among Hispanics/Latino Americans in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez, Marisol; Ohrt, Tara K.; Hoek, Hans W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of reviewWe reviewed the recent literature on prevalence rates, and application of evidence-based treatments for eating disorders among Hispanics/Latinos residing in the United States.Recent findingsLifetime prevalence rates of anorexia nervosa are lower among Hispanic/Latinos than

  10. Technology transfer and radioactive waste management at TMI-2 [Three Mile Island Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The accident that occurred on March 28, 1979, at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) nuclear generating station caused extensive damage to the reactor core and created high radiation contamination levels throughout the facility. The electric power industry, regulators, and government agencies were faced with one of the most technically challenging recovery situations ever encountered in this country. But it was also realized that this adversity presented opportunities for the advancement of state-of-the-art technologies as well as the potential to produce information that could enhance nuclear power plant safety and reliability. Perhaps one of the more significant aspects of the TMI-2 recovery has been the advancement of radioactive waste management technology. The high levels and unusual nature of the TMI-2 radioactive waste necessitated the development of innovative techniques for processing, packaging, shipping, and disposal. The investment in research was rewarded with large volume reductions and associated cost savings. It is anticipated that the TMI-2 radioactive waste management technology will make major contributions to the design of new systems to meet this growing need. The following areas appear particularly suited for this purpose: volume reduction, high-integrity containers, and selective isotope removal

  11. Technological developments in real-time operational hydrologic forecasting in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudlow, Michael D.

    1988-09-01

    The hydrologic forecasting service of the United States spans applications and scales ranging from those associated with the issuance of flood and flash warnings to those pertaining to seasonal water supply forecasts. New technological developments (underway in or planned by the National Weather Service (NWS) in support of the Hydrologic Program) are carried out as combined efforts by NWS headquarters and field personnel in cooperation with other organizations. These developments fall into two categories: hardware and software systems technology, and hydrometeorological analysis and prediction technology. Research, development, and operational implementation in progress in both of these areas are discussed. Cornerstones of an overall NWS modernization effort include implementation of state-of-the-art data acquisition systems (including the Next Generation Weather Radar) and communications and computer processing systems. The NWS Hydrologic Service will capitalize on these systems and will incorporate results from specific hydrologic projects including collection and processing of multivariate data sets, conceptual hydrologic modeling systems, integrated hydrologic modeling systems with meteorological interfaces and automatic updating of model states, and extended streamflow prediction techniques. The salient aspects of ongoing work in these areas are highlighted in this paper, providing some perspective on the future U.S. hydrologic forecasting service and its transitional period into the 1990s.

  12. Integrating new technologies into the treatment of CP and DCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, P.H.; Green, D.; Caeyenberghs, K.; Steenbergen, B.; Duckworth, J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how current understandings of childhood participation and motor development provide opportunities for using new technologies (such as virtual reality—VR) for children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Specifically, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and

  13. Mercury emissions control technologies for mixed waste thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, A.; Knecht, M.; Soelberg, N.; Eaton, D.

    1997-01-01

    EPA has identified wet scrubbing at low mercury feedrates, as well as carbon adsorption via carbon injection into the offgas or via flow through fixed carbon beds, as control technologies that can be used to meet the proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rule limit for mercury emissions from hazardous waste incinerators. DOE is currently funding demonstrations of gold amalgamation that may also control mercury to the desired levels. Performance data from a variety of sources was reviewed to determine ranges of achievable mercury control. Preliminary costs were estimated for using these technologies to control mercury emissions from mixed waste incineration. Mercury emissions control for mixed waste incineration may need to be more efficient than for incineration of other hazardous wastes because of higher mercury concentrations in some mixed waste streams. However, mercury control performance data for wet scrubbing and carbon adsorption is highly variable. More information is needed to demonstrate control efficiencies that are achievable under various design and operating conditions for wet scrubbing, carbon adsorption, and gold amalgamation technologies. Given certain assumptions made in this study, capital costs, operating costs, and lifecycle costs for carbon injection, carbon beds, and gold amalgamation generally vary for different assumed mercury feedrates and for different offgas flowrates. Assuming that these technologies can in fact provide the necessary mercury control performance, each of these technologies may be less costly than the others for certain mercury feedrates and the offgas flowrates

  14. The case for SAR as the major component of a hyperthermia treatment unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    A major problem facing clinical hyperthermia is the lack of a useful unit of treatment. Most attempts at a treatment unit have utilized some function of temperature and time. Having accepted the validity of such a hypothetical units, one is faced with the formidable problem of obtaining a three dimensional temperature profile so that thermal dose can be determined. A corollary is the desirability of obtaining uniform temperature in the treatment volume. Various studies suggest that a uniform SAR is a more desirable goal when radiotherapy is to be used in combination with hyperthermia. The synergy between radiation and hyperthermia is maximized in low pH regions of tumor which are presumably also hypoxic. These regions are poorly perfused, likely to heat readily, and are resistant to the cytotoxic effects of radiation alone. On the other hand, well perfused regions of tumor are likely sensitive to radiation, and benefit less from the combination treatment. Other studies have definitely shown that tissue temperatures in the range normally associated with desirable hyperthermia treatment result in severe vascular damage. This damage could be expected to unnecessarily compromise the effectiveness of radiotherapy. Models in the literature can be combined to verify these observations

  15. Home Hemodialysis (HHD Treatment as an Effective yet Underutilized Treatment Modality in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihane J. Hajj

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available End-stage renal disease (ESRD is a major health burden and its incidence has been increasing yearly reaching 120,000 cases in 2014. Home hemodialysis (HHD is a treatment modality option that has been shown to contribute to numerous clinical benefits but is largely underutilized due to many contributing factors. The purpose of this review paper is to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of HHD and the reasons for its low utilization with a special focus on its socioeconomic impact as compared to facility hemodialysis. Key factors contributing to HHD underutilization are related to the reimbursement system of the facility and nephrologists as well as the underutilization of the pre-dialysis educational benefit. Based on this comprehensive review of the literature, we propose several suggestions which may contribute to the expansion of HHD treatment modality.

  16. Surface interactions between nanoscale iron and organic material: Potential uses in water treatment process units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storms, Max

    Membrane systems are among the primary emergent technologies in water treatment process units due to their ease of use, small physical footprint, and high physical rejection. Membrane fouling, the phenomena by which membranes become clogged or generally soiled, is an inhibitor to optimal efficiency in membrane systems. Novel, composite, and modified surface materials must be investigated to determine their efficacy in improving fouling behavior. Ceramic membranes derived from iron oxide nanoparticles called ferroxanes were coated with a superhydrophillic, zwitterionic polymer called poly (sulfobetaine methacrylate) (polySBMA) to form a composite ceramic-polymeric membrane. Membrane samples with and without polySBMA coating were subjected to fouling with a bovine serum albumin solution and fouling was observed by measuring permeate flux at 10 mL intervals. Loss of polySBMA was measured using total organic carbon analysis, and membrane samples were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and optical profilometry. The coated membrane samples decreased initial fouling rate by 27% and secondary fouling rate by 24%. Similarly, they displayed a 30% decrease in irreversible fouling during the initial fouling stage, and a 27% decrease in irreversible fouling in the secondary fouling stage; however, retention of polySBMA sufficient for improved performance was not conclusive. The addition of chemical disinfectants into drinking water treatment processes results in the formation of compounds called disinfection by-products (DBPs). The formation of DBPs occurs when common chemical disinfectants (i.e. chlorine) react with organic material. The harmful effects of DBP exposure require that they be monitored and controlled for public safety. This work investigated the ability of nanostructured hematite derived from ferroxane nanoparticles to remove organic precursors to DBPs in the form of humic acid via adsorption processes. The results show that p

  17. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble

  18. Hong kong chemical waste treatment facilities: a technology overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siuwang, Chu [Enviropace Ltd., Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    1993-12-31

    The effective management of chemical and industrial wastes represents one of the most pressing environmental problems confronting the Hong Kong community. In 1990, the Hong Kong government contracted Enviropace Limited for the design, construction and operation of a Chemical Waste Treatment Facility. The treatment and disposal processes, their integration and management are the subject of discussion in this paper

  19. Hong kong chemical waste treatment facilities: a technology overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siuwang, Chu [Enviropace Ltd., Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    1994-12-31

    The effective management of chemical and industrial wastes represents one of the most pressing environmental problems confronting the Hong Kong community. In 1990, the Hong Kong government contracted Enviropace Limited for the design, construction and operation of a Chemical Waste Treatment Facility. The treatment and disposal processes, their integration and management are the subject of discussion in this paper

  20. In situ gas treatment technology demonstration test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, E.C.; Miller, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    This document defines the objectives and requirements associated with undertaking a field demonstration of an in situ gas treatment appoach to remediation chromate-contaminated soil. The major tasks presented in this plan include the design and development of the surface gas treatment system, performance of permitting activities, and completion of site preparation and field testing activities

  1. Emerging Technologies in Autism Diagnosis, Therapy, Treatment, and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Angela C.

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder is the fastest growing developmental disability today. Autism is a syndrome with a diverse set of symptoms--rarely consistent across diagnosed individuals, and requiring a combination of therapies, educational approaches, and treatments. There is no known cure for autism. Instead treatment is left to educators and…

  2. Development of electron beam flue gas treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Okihiro; Namba, Hideki; Tanaka, Tadashi; Ogura, Yoshimi; Doi, Yoshitake; Aoki, Shinji; Izutsu, Masahiro.

    1995-01-01

    Smoke treatment system making use of electron beam irradiation made it possible to simultaneously eliminate SOx and NOn from exhaust gas. The fundamental study of the system was started in the seventies and at present, its application in practical use is under way. A pilot plant for the smoke treatment system was constructed in cooperation of Chubu Electric Power Company, Inc., Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and Ebara Corporation and several tests with the actual exhaust gas were conducted during the period, Oct. 1992-Dec. 1993 and the treatment efficiency and the control capacity of this system was confirmed to be so high as the conventional systems and many engineering data were obtained. A high treatment efficiency (>94% for desulfurization and >80% for denitrification) was obtainable by choosing the optimum irradiation amount of electron beam and the optimum temperature of gas to treat. And this system was found superior from a financial aspect to the conventional smoke treatment system. (M.N.)

  3. Operation technology of air treatment system in nuclear facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Chun, Y B; Hwong, Y H; Lee, H K; Min, D K; Park, K J; Uom, S H; Yang, S Y

    2001-01-01

    Effective operation techniques were reviewed on the air treatment system to protect the personnel in nuclear facilities from the contamination of radio-active particles and to keep the environment clear. Nuclear air treatment system consisted of the ventilation and filtering system was characterized by some test. Measurement of air velocity of blowing/exhaust fan in the ventilation system, leak tests of HEPA filters in the filtering, and measurement of pressure difference between the areas defined by radiation level were conducted. The results acquired form the measurements were reflected directly for the operation of air treatment. In the abnormal state of virus parts of devices composted of the system, the repairing method, maintenance and performance test were also employed in operating effectively the air treatment system. These measuring results and techniques can be available to the operation of air treatment system of PIEF as well as the other nuclear facilities in KAERI.

  4. Septage unit treatment by sludge treatment reed beds for easy management and reuse: performance and design considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boram; Bel, Thomas; Bourdoncle, Pascal; Dimare, Jocelyne; Troesch, Stéphane; Molle, Pascal

    2018-01-01

    Sustainable treatment and management of fecal sludge in rural areas require adapted solutions. Rustic and simple operating processes such as sludge treatment reed beds (STRB) have been increasingly considered for this purpose. The biggest full scale (2,600 m 2 of STRB) septage treatment unit in France had been built in Nègrepelisse with the final objectives of reusing treated sludge and leachates for agriculture spreading and tree irrigation, respectively. The aim of this investigation was to validate the treatment chain of this installation. The obtained field data showed firstly that the overall removal efficiencies of STRB were satisfactory and stable. Removal rates higher than 98% for chemical oxygen demand and suspended solids and a 95% for Kjeldahl nitrogen represented so far a beneficial septage treatment by STRB. The highlighted necessity of a suitable complementary leachate treatment (before tree irrigation) justified the presence of the second stage of vertical flow constructed wetland. The sludge deposit drying and mineralization efficiencies were on the right track. According to hydrotextural diagram analysis, surface deposit was however found to have high deformability probably due to the youth of the installation. An in-depth understanding of STRB system needs continuous long-term studies.

  5. Treatment utilization among persons with opioid use disorder in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Zhu, He; Swartz, Marvin S

    2016-12-01

    The United States is experiencing an opioid overdose epidemic. Treatment use data from diverse racial/ethnic groups with opioid use disorder (OUD) are needed to inform treatment expansion efforts. We examined demographic characteristics and behavioral health of persons aged ≥12 years that met criteria for past-year OUD (n=6,125) in the 2005-2013 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N=503,101). We determined the prevalence and correlates of past-year use of alcohol/drug use treatment and opioid-specific treatment to inform efforts for improving OUD treatment. Among persons with OUD, 81.93% had prescription (Rx) OUD only, 9.75% had heroin use disorder (HUD) only, and 8.32% had Rx OUD+HUD. Persons with Rx OUD+HUD tended to be white, adults aged 18-49, males, or uninsured. The majority (80.09%) of persons with OUD had another substance use disorder (SUD), and major depressive episode (MDE) was common (28.74%). Of persons with OUD, 26.19% used any alcohol or drug use treatment, and 19.44% used opioid-specific treatment. Adolescents, the uninsured, blacks, native-Hawaiians/Pacific-Islanders/Asian-Americans, persons with Rx OUD only, and persons without MDE or SUD particularly underutilized opioid-specific treatment. Among alcohol/drug use treatment users, self-help group and outpatient rehabilitation treatment were commonly used services. Most people with OUD report no use of OUD treatment. Multifaceted interventions, including efforts to access insurance coverage, are required to change attitudes and knowledge towards addiction treatment in order to develop a supportive culture and infrastructure to enable treatment-seeking. Outreach efforts could target adolescents, minority groups, and the uninsured to improve access to treatment. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. An appraisal of existing decontamination technology used in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenech, J.S.; Frost, F.; Curran, A.R.; Grave, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    This report is a review of decontamination technology applied by industry to radioactively contaminated components in the U.S.A. In addition some newer techniques under development or recently emerging are discussed. Mechanical, chemical, manual and other techniques such as electropolishing and ultrasonics are reviewed. Whilst the emphasis is mainly on non-destructive techniques for components some discussion of segmentation is included as this is inevitable during concrete decontamination; and also when decontamination of components occurs as part of a decommissioning programme the use of segmentation techniques may facilitate the process. A bibliography has been included to facilitate further reading. It is important to consider the relevance of the US data in this report to the United Kingdom both to the learning curve of development and the different nuclear reactor systems in the respective countries. The authors have therefore listed some conclusions and recommendations which have become apparent to them whilst undertaking the study. (U.K.)

  7. Dual Comb Unit High-g Accelerometer Based on CMOS-MEMS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Mottaghi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a capacitive based high-g accelerometer with superior level of sensitivity is presented. It takes advantage of dual comb unit configuration and surface micromachining fabrication process. All aspects of mechanical design such as sensor structure, modal analysis, energy dissipations, dynamic response and stresses in moving structure as well as anchors are described. Electrical circuit based on CMOS technology and its output signal is presented. Fabrication process and packaging are also discussed. The proposed sensor can endure impact loads up to 120,000 g (g = 9.81 m.s-2 and achieves 16.75 µV.g-1 sensitivity with 5 V bridge excitation voltage. Main resonant frequency of structure is found to be 42.4 kHz. Intended applications of suggested sensor include military and aerospace industries as well as field of impact engineering.

  8. Advanced spent fuel processing technologies for the United States GNEP programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laidler, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Spent fuel processing technologies for future advanced nuclear fuel cycles are being developed under the scope of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). This effort seeks to make available for future deployment a fissile material recycling system that does not involve the separation of pure plutonium from spent fuel. In the nuclear system proposed by the United States under the GNEP initiative, light water reactor spent fuel is treated by means of a solvent extraction process that involves a group extraction of transuranic elements. The recovered transuranics are recycled as fuel material for advanced burner reactors, which can lead in the long term to fast reactors with conversion ratios greater than unity, helping to assure the sustainability of nuclear power systems. Both aqueous and pyrochemical methods are being considered for fast reactor spent fuel processing in the current US development programme. (author)

  9. Metal recycling technology and related issues in the United States, a BNFL perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, P.; Dam, S.; Starke, W.

    1995-01-01

    Radioactively contaminated metallic materials comprise a large part of the potential waste products which result from nuclear facility repair, refurbishment, and decommissioning. United States Government (Departments of Energy and Defense) facilities, U.S. nuclear power plants, and other commercial nuclear fuel cycle facilities have large inventories of radioactive scrap metal which could be decontaminated and recycled into useful radioactive and non-radioactive products. Residual radioactivity and recycling criteria is needed to avoid the high cost of disposal and the waste of natural resources. In the United Kingdom, BNFL has decommissioned the gaseous diffusion plant at Capenhurst and has recycled a large fraction of the metallic scrap into the metals market. Other structural materials have also been released as uncontaminated scrap. U.K. release criteria for residual radionuclide contamination have been applied to these operations. A variety of techniques were utilized to size reduce large components, to remove radioactivity, and to survey and release these materials. These methods and the application of release criteria has a direct relationship to methods which would be applicable in the U.S. and in other countries. This paper will describe the specific U.K. technology and experience in the decontamination, recycle, and release of scrap metal. It will also describe the U.S. environment for metal recycle, including the volumes and levels of contamination, and the current and proposed release criteria. Comparisons will be presented between the U.S. and U.K., both in technology and methodology for recycle and in regulatory criteria for residual radioactivity and material release and for ultimate decommissioning. The paper will then provide suggested approaches and criteria for U.S. recycling and decommissioning. (author)

  10. Identification and assessment of site treatment plan implementation opportunities for emerging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), in response to the 1992 Federal Facility Compliance Act, has prepared Site Treatment Plans (STP) for the approximately 2,000 waste streams identified within its mixed waste inventory Concurrently, emerging mixed waste treatment technologies are in final development. This paper defines a three-phase process to identify and assess implementation opportunities for these emerging technologies within the STP. It highlights the first phase, functional matching of expected treatment capabilities with proposed treatment requirements. Matches are based on treatment type, regulated contaminant and waste matrix type, for both capabilities and requirements. Results identify specific waste streams and volumes that could be treated by each emerging technology. A study for Plasma Hearth Process, Delphi DETOX sm , Supercritical Water Oxidation and Vitrification shows that about 200,000 ml of DOE's mixed waste inventory can potentially be treated by one or more of these emerging technologies. Actual implementations are small fractions of the treatable inventory. Differences between potential and actual implementations must be minimized to accrue optimum benefit from implementation of emerging or alternative treatment technologies. Functional matching is the first phase in identifying and quantifying benefits, addressing technology system and treatment issues, and providing, in part, the basis for STP implementation decisions. DOE, through EM's Office of Technology Development, has funded this work

  11. Identification and assessment of site treatment plan implementation opportunities for emerging technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, E.A. [Sandia National Labs., Germantown, MD (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE), in response to the 1992 Federal Facility Compliance Act, has prepared Site Treatment Plans (STP) for the approximately 2,000 waste streams identified within its mixed waste inventory Concurrently, emerging mixed waste treatment technologies are in final development. This paper defines a three-phase process to identify and assess implementation opportunities for these emerging technologies within the STP. It highlights the first phase, functional matching of expected treatment capabilities with proposed treatment requirements. Matches are based on treatment type, regulated contaminant and waste matrix type, for both capabilities and requirements. Results identify specific waste streams and volumes that could be treated by each emerging technology. A study for Plasma Hearth Process, Delphi DETOX{sup sm}, Supercritical Water Oxidation and Vitrification shows that about 200,000 ml of DOE`s mixed waste inventory can potentially be treated by one or more of these emerging technologies. Actual implementations are small fractions of the treatable inventory. Differences between potential and actual implementations must be minimized to accrue optimum benefit from implementation of emerging or alternative treatment technologies. Functional matching is the first phase in identifying and quantifying benefits, addressing technology system and treatment issues, and providing, in part, the basis for STP implementation decisions. DOE, through EM`s Office of Technology Development, has funded this work.

  12. Information needs of health technology assessment units and agencies in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galnares-Cordero, Lorea; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, Iñaki

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the information needs of Spanish health technology assessment (HTA) agencies and units to facilitate access to the resources they require to substantiate their reports. A questionnaire was designed and distributed among HTA bodies to ascertain the actual situation of subscriptions to information resources and what information specialists from these bodies considered would be the ideal subscription situation. Their information needs were then studied, and the resources that best met these needs were put forward. Following this definition, a subscriptions policy was adopted with suppliers and publishers. The survey showed that HTA bodies share a minimum of core subscriptions that includes open sources (MEDLINE, DARE) and sources that the government subscribes to for the health community (ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library Plus). There was no common approach to determining which databases to subscribe to (UpToDate, EMBASE, Ovid EBMR, CINAHL, or ECRI). After identifying the information needs, a list of resources was proposed that would best cover these needs and, of these, subscription to the following was proposed: Scopus, Ovid EBMR, Clinical Evidence, DynaMed, ECRI, and Hayes. There are differences in the way that HTA agencies and units access the different resources of biomedical information. Combined subscription to several resources for documentation services was suggested as a way of resolving these differences.

  13. Treatment of Laboratory Wastewater by Sequence Batch reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imtiaz, N.; Butt, M.; Khan, R.A.; Saeed, M.T.; Irfan, M.

    2012-01-01

    These studies were conducted on the characterization and treatment of sewage mixed with waste -water of research and testing laboratory (PCSIR Laboratories Lahore). In this study all the parameters COD, BOD and TSS etc of influent (untreated waste-water) and effluent (treated waste-water) were characterized using the standard methods of examination for water and waste-water. All the results of the analyzed waste-water parameters were above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) set at National level. Treatment of waste-water was carried out by conventional sequencing batch reactor technique (SBR) using aeration and settling technique in the same treatment reactor at laboratory scale. The results of COD after treatment were reduced from (90-95 %), BOD (95-97 %) and TSS (96-99 %) and the reclaimed effluent quality was suitable for gardening purposes. (author)

  14. United States Department Of Energy Office Of Environmental Management Technology Development Report Fiscal Year 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, S.

    2010-01-01

    The mission of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Management (EM) is to clean up the environmental legacy of nuclear weapons research and production during the Cold War. That mission includes cleaning up nuclear waste, contaminated groundwater and soil, nuclear materials, and contaminated facilities covering two million acres of land in thirty-five states. EM's principal program goals include timely completion of tank waste treatment facilities, reduction of the life-cycle costs and acceleration of the cleanup of the Cold War legacy, and reduction of the EM footprint. The mission of the EM Technology Innovation and Development program is to transform science and innovation into practical solutions to achieve the EM mission. During fiscal year 2010 (October 2009-September 2010), EM focused upon accelerating environmental cleanup by expeditiously filling identified gaps in available knowledge and technology in the EM program areas. This report describes some of the approaches and transformational technologies in tank waste processing, groundwater and soil remediation, nuclear materials disposition, and facility deactivation and decommissioning developed during fiscal year 2010 that will enable EM to meet its most pressing program goals.

  15. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, S.

    2010-10-22

    The mission of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Management (EM) is to clean up the environmental legacy of nuclear weapons research and production during the Cold War. That mission includes cleaning up nuclear waste, contaminated groundwater and soil, nuclear materials, and contaminated facilities covering two million acres of land in thirty-five states. EM's principal program goals include timely completion of tank waste treatment facilities, reduction of the life-cycle costs and acceleration of the cleanup of the Cold War legacy, and reduction of the EM footprint. The mission of the EM Technology Innovation and Development program is to transform science and innovation into practical solutions to achieve the EM mission. During fiscal year 2010 (October 2009-September 2010), EM focused upon accelerating environmental cleanup by expeditiously filling identified gaps in available knowledge and technology in the EM program areas. This report describes some of the approaches and transformational technologies in tank waste processing, groundwater and soil remediation, nuclear materials disposition, and facility deactivation and decommissioning developed during fiscal year 2010 that will enable EM to meet its most pressing program goals.

  16. Population-level differences in revascularization treatment and outcomes among various United States subpopulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Garth Graham; Yang-Yu Karen Xiao; Dan Rappoport; Saima Siddiqi

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent general improvements in health care, significant disparities persist in the cardiovascular care of women and racial/ethnic minorities. This is true even when income, education level, and site of care are taken into consideration. Possible explanations for these disparities include socioeconomic considerations, elements of discrimination and racism that affect socioeconomic status, and access to adequate medical care. Coronary revascularization has become the accepted and recommended treatment for myocardial infarction(MI) today and is one of the most common major medical interventions in the United States, with more than 1 million procedures each year. This review discusses recent data on disparities in co-morbidities and presentation symptoms, care and access to medical resources, and outcomes in revascularization as treatment for acute coronary syndrome, looking especially at women and minority populations in the United States. The data show that revascularization is used less in both female and minority patients. We summarize recent data on disparities in co-morbidities and presentation symptoms related to MI; access to care, medical resources, and treatments; and outcomes in women, blacks, and Hispanics. The picture is complicated among the last group by the many Hispanic/Latino subgroups in the United States. Some differences in outcomes are partially explained by presentation symptoms and co-morbidities and external conditions such as local hospital capacity. Of particular note is the striking differential in both presentation co-morbidities and mortality rates seen in women, compared to men, especially in women ≤ 55 years of age. Surveillance data on other groups in the United States such as American Indians/Alaska Natives and the many Asian subpopulations show disparities in risk factors and co-morbidities, but revascularization as treatment for MI in these populations has not been adequately studied. Significant research is required to

  17. A study on the assessment of treatment technologies for efficient remediation of radioactively-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jong Soon; Shin, Seung Su; KIm, Sun Il [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Soil can be contaminated by radioactive materials due to nuclide leakage following unexpected situations during the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant. Soil decontamination is necessary if contaminated land is to be reused for housing or industry. The present study classifies various soil remediation technologies into biological, physics/chemical and thermal treatment and analyzes their principles and treatment materials. Among these methods, this study selects technologies and categorizes the economics, applicability and technical characteristics of each technology into three levels of high, medium and low by weighting the various factors. Based on this analysis, the most applicable soil decontamination technology was identified.

  18. Testing of an Annular Linear Induction Pump for the Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, K. A.; Pearson, J. B.; Webster, K.; Godfoy, T. J.; Bossard, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Results of performance testing of an annular linear induction pump that has been designed for integration into a fission surface power technology demonstration unit are presented. The pump electromagnetically pushes liquid metal (NaK) through a specially-designed apparatus that permits quantification of pump performance over a range of operating conditions. Testing was conducted for frequencies of 40, 55, and 70 Hz, liquid metal temperatures of 125, 325, and 525 C, and input voltages from 30 to 120 V. Pump performance spanned a range of flow rates from roughly 0.3 to 3.1 L/s (4.8 to 49 gpm), and pressure heads of <1 to 104 kPa (<0.15 to 15 psi). The maximum efficiency measured during testing was 5.4%. At the technology demonstration unit operating temperature of 525 C the pump operated over a narrower envelope, with flow rates from 0.3 to 2.75 L/s (4.8 to 43.6 gpm), developed pressure heads from <1 to 55 kPa (<0.15 to 8 psi), and a maximum efficiency of 3.5%. The pump was supplied with three-phase power at 40 and 55 Hz using a variable-frequency motor drive, while power at 55 and 70 Hz was supplied using a variable-frequency power supply. Measured performance of the pump at 55 Hz using either supply exhibited good quantitative agreement. For a given temperature, the peak in efficiency occurred at different flow rates as the frequency was changed, but the maximum value of efficiency was relative insensitive within 0.3% over the frequency range tested, including a scan from 45 to 78 Hz. The objectives of the FSP technology project are as follows:5 • Develop FSP concepts that meet expected surface power requirements at reasonable cost with added benefits over other options. • Establish a nonnuclear hardware-based technical foundation for FSP design concepts to reduce overall development risk. • Reduce the cost uncertainties for FSP and establish greater credibility for flight system cost estimates. • Generate the key nonnuclear products to allow Agency

  19. Unit 1 and Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant Mochovce construction finishing from primary contractor of technological part. Skoda Praha a. s. point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horky, F.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the history of delivery of technological part for NPP V-1 Mochovce as well as of reconstruction and safety improvements by the Skoda Praha a.s. is presented. Primary contractor of technological part Skoda Praha together with its final suppliers proved ability to realize under hard conditions such a complicated work what was indisputedly Units 1 and 2 finishing. Company proved capability to conform itself flexibly in the course of work to requirements of customer for realization of safety measures which means that Units 1 and 2 fully satisfy international standards. By fulfilment of primary contractor of technology obligations and above all by takeover of complex responsibility for both Units putting in operation including responsibility for 'past' Skoda Praha put away one of basic problems which occurred in decision making to whom will be assigned construction finishing contract. These facts fully qualify Skoda Praha to be selected for possible Units 3 and 4 construction finishing as one of chief construction finishing participant

  20. Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) Input Coal Analyses and Off-Gass Filter (OGF) Content Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, Carol M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Missimer, David M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Guenther, Chris P. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Shekhawat, Dushyant [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); VanEssendelft, Dirk T. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Means, Nicholas C. [AECOM Technology Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-04-23

    A full engineering scale Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) system is being used at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) to stabilize acidic Low Activity Waste (LAW) known as Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW). The INTEC facility, known as the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU), underwent an Operational Readiness Review (ORR) and a Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) in March 2014. The IWTU began non-radioactive simulant processing in late 2014 and by January, 2015 ; the IWTU had processed 62,000 gallons of simulant. The facility is currently in a planned outage for inspection of the equipment and will resume processing simulated waste feed before commencing to process 900,000 gallons of radioactive SBW. The SBW acidic waste will be made into a granular FBSR product (carbonate based) for disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In the FBSR process calcined coal is used to create a CO2 fugacity to force the waste species to convert to carbonate species. The quality of the coal, which is a feed input, is important because the reactivity, moisture, and volatiles (C,H,N,O, and S) in the coal impact the reactions and control of the mineralizing process in the primary steam reforming vessel, the Denitration and Mineralizing Reformer (DMR). Too much moisture in the coal can require that additional coal be used. However since moisture in the coal is only a small fraction of the moisture from the fluidizing steam this can be self-correcting. If the coal reactivity or heating value is too low then the coal feedrate needs to be adjusted to achieve the desired heat generation. Too little coal and autothermal heat generation in the DMR cannot be sustained and/or the carbon dioxide fugacity will be too low to create the desired carbonate mineral species. Too much coal and excess S and hydroxide species can form. Excess sulfur from coal that (1) is too rich in sulfur or (2) from overfeeding coal can promote wall scale and contribute to corrosion

  1. Characterization of a clinical unit for digital radiography based on irradiation side sampling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivetti, Stefano [Fisica Medica, Ospedale di Sassuolo S.p.A., 41049 Sassuolo (Italy); Lanconelli, Nico [Alma Mater Studiorum, Physics Department, University of Bologna, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Bertolini, Marco; Nitrosi, Andrea [Medical Physics Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera ASMN, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, 42123 Reggio Emilia (Italy); Burani, Aldo [Ospedale di Sassuolo S.p.A., 41049 Sassuolo (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: A characterization of a clinical unit for digital radiography (FUJIFILM FDR D-EVO) is presented. This system is based on the irradiation side sampling (ISS) technology and can be equipped with two different scintillators: one traditional gadolinium-oxysulphide phosphor (GOS) and a needle structured cesium iodide (CsI) phosphor panel.Methods: The characterization was achieved in terms of response curve, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectra (NPS), detective quantum efficiency (DQE), and psychophysical parameters (contrast-detail analysis with an automatic reading of CDRAD images). For both scintillation screens the authors accomplished the measurements with four standard beam conditions: RAQ3, RQA5, RQA7, and RQA9.Results: At the Nyquist frequency (3.33 lp/mm) the MTF is about 35% and 25% for CsI and GOS detectors, respectively. The CsI scintillator has better noise properties than the GOS screen in almost all the conditions. This is particularly true for low-energy beams, where the noise for the GOS system can go up to a factor 2 greater than that found for CsI. The DQE of the CsI detector reaches a peak of 60%, 60%, 58%, and 50% for the RQA3, RQA5, RQA7, and RQA9 beams, respectively, whereas for the GOS screen the maximum DQE is 40%, 44%, 44%, and 35%. The contrast-detail analysis confirms that in the majority of cases the CsI scintillator is able to provide improved outcomes to those obtained with the GOS screen.Conclusions: The limited diffusion of light produced by the ISS reading makes possible the achievement of very good spatial resolution. In fact, the MTF of the unit with the CsI panel is only slightly lower to that achieved with direct conversion detectors. The combination of very good spatial resolution, together with the good noise properties reached with the CsI screen, allows achieving DQE on average about 1.5 times greater than that obtained with GOS. In fact, the DQE of unit equipped with CsI is comparable to the best

  2. Report to the United States Congress clean coal technology export markets and financing mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This report responds to a Congressional Conference Report that requests that $625,000 in funding provided will be used by the Department to identify potential markets for clean coal technologies in developing countries and countries with economies in transition from nonmarket economies and to identify existing, or new, financial mechanisms or financial support to be provided by the Federal government that will enhance the ability of US industry to participate in these markets. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects world coal consumption to increase by 30 percent between 1990 and 2010, from 5.1 to 6.5 billion short tons. Five regions stand out as major foreign markets for the export of US clean coal technologies: China; The Pacific Rim (other than China); South Asia (primarily India); Transitional Economies (Central Europe and the Newly Independent States); and Other Markets (the Americas and Southern Africa). Nearly two-thirds of the expected worldwide growth in coal utilization will occur in China, one quarter in the United States. EIA forecasts nearly a billion tons per year of additional coal consumption in China between 1990 and 2010, a virtual doubling of that country's coal consumption. A 30-percent increase in coal consumption is projected in other developing countries over that same period. This increase in coal consumption will be accompanied by an increase in demand for technologies for burning coal cost-effectively, efficiently and cleanly. In the Pacific Rim and South Asia, rapid economic growth coupled with substantial indigenous coal supplies combine to create a large potential market for CCTS. In Central Europe and the Newly Independent States, the challenge will be to correct the damage of decades of environmental neglect without adding to already-considerable economic disruption. Though the situation varies, all these countries share the basic need to use indigenous low-quality coal cleanly and efficiently

  3. A report from the second US/Japan workshop on global change research: Environmental response technologies (mitigation and adaptation). United States-Japan Science and Technology Agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgerton, S. [comp.] [National Science Foundation, Washington, DC (United States). Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences; Mizuno, Tateki [comp.] [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, MITI (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The Second US - Japan Workshop on Global Change: Environmental Response Technologies for Global Change was hosted by the Program on Resources at the East-West Center, in Honolulu, Hawaii on February 1--3, 1993, on behalf of the United States Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES) of the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET). This workshop brought together over fifty leading scientists from the two countries to review existing technologies and to identify needed research on the development of new technologies for mitigation and adaptation of global change. The Workshop was organized around three areas of research: (1) capture, fixation/utilization, and disposal of CO{sub 2} (e.g. CO{sub 2}, separation and capture technologies, ocean and land disposal of CO{sub 2}; (2) energy production and conservation technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (e.g. combustion efficiency, non-carbon based energy technologies, energy conservation technologies); and (3) adaptation technologies and practices related to global climate change (e.g., adaptation responses of crops to climate change, adapting urban infrastructure for climate change). Priorities for joint research in each of these areas were discussed. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. X-231B technology demonstration for in situ treatment of contaminated soil: Laboratory evaluation of chemical oxidation using hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.D.; Siegrist, R.L.

    1993-09-01

    Treatability studies were conducted as part of a comprehensive research project initiated to demonstrate as well as evaluate in situ treatment technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and radioactive substances in wet, slowly permeable soils. The site of interest for this project was the X-231B Oil Biodegradation unit at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility in southern Ohio. This report describes the treatability studies that investigated the feasibility of the application of low-strength hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) solutions to treat trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated soil

  5. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-08-29

    The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble

  6. Outpatient Mental Health Treatment Utilization and Military Career Impact in the United States Marine Corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan; LaCroix, Jessica M; Koss, Kari; Perera, Kanchana U; Rowan, Anderson; VanSickle, Marcus R; Novak, Laura A; Trieu, Theresa H

    2018-04-23

    Service members (SM) are at increased risk of psychiatric conditions, including suicide, yet research indicates SMs believe seeking mental health treatment may negatively impact their military careers, despite a paucity of research examining actual career impacts. This study examined the link between seeking outpatient mental health (MH) treatment and military career impacts within the United States Marine Corps. In Phase 1, a retrospective medical record review of outpatient MH treatment-seeking Marines ( N = 38) was conducted. In Phase 2, a sample of outpatient MH treatment-seeking Marines ( N = 40) was matched to a non-treatment-seeking sample of Marines ( N = 138) to compare career-progression. In Phase 1, there were no significant links between demographic, military, and clinical characteristics and referral source or receipt of career-affecting treatment recommendations. In Phase 2, MH treatment-seeking Marines in outpatient settings were more likely than matched controls to be separated from the military (95.0% versus 63.0%, p = 0.002), but no more likely to experience involuntary separation. MH treatment-seeking Marines were more likely to have documented legal action (45.0% versus 23.9%, p = 0.008) and had a shorter time of military service following the index MH encounter than matched controls ( p < 0.001). Clinical, anti-stigma, and suicide prevention policy implications are discussed.

  7. Outcome predictors of smoking cessation treatment provided by an addiction care unit between 2007 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maurício Castaldelli-Maia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the predictors of smoking cessation treatment outcomes in a sample with a high rate of medical and psychiatric disorders and addictions. Methods: Analysis of predictors of success of a 6-week treatment provided by an addiction care unit (CAPS-AD to 367 smokers in Brazil from 2007 to 2010. Forty variables were collected at baseline. Success was defined as abstinence from smoking for a period of at least 14 consecutive days, including the last day of treatment. Twenty variables were selected for the logistic regression model. Results: The only condition correlated with successful treatment after logistic regression was smoking one's first cigarette 5 minutes or more after waking (beta = 1.85, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] = 1.11-3.10, p = 0.018. Subjects with hypertension and alcohol use disorders and those who were undergoing psychiatric treatment showed success rates comparable to or greater than the average success rate of the sample (34.2-44.4%. Conclusions: These findings support the importance of the variable time to first cigarette in treatment outcomes for a sample with a high rate of clinical and psychiatric disorders. Good success rates were observed for pharmacological treatment, which was combined with group therapy based on cognitive-behavioral concepts and integrated into ongoing treatment of other addictions and psychiatric disorders.

  8. Doses in sensitive organs during prostate treatment with a 60Co unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega-Carrillo, H.R.; Navarro Becerra, J.A.; Pérez Arrieta, M.L.; Pérez-Landeros, L.H.

    2014-01-01

    Using thermoluminiscent dosimeters the absorbed dose in the bladder, rectum and thyroid have been evaluated when 200 cGy was applied to the prostate. The treatment was applied with a 60 Co unit. A water phantom was built and thermoluminiscent dosimeters were located in the position where the prostate, bladder, rectum and thyroid are located. The therapeutic beam was applied in 4 irradiations at 0, 90, 180 and 270° with the prostate at the isocenter. The TLDs readouts were used to evaluate the absorbed dose in each organ. The absorbed doses were used to estimate the effective doses and the probability of developing secondary malignacies in thyroid, rectum and bladder. - Highlights: • The absorbed doses in the bladder, rectum and thyroid were measured. • Measurements were done during prostate treatment with a 60 Co unit. • TLD100s in a water phantom were used. • The effective doses were also estimated

  9. Water treatment technologies for a mixed waste remedial action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, C; Freeman, G [Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., St. Charles, MO (United States); Ballew, B [Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Dames and Moore, St. Charles, MO (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Water treatment is an important element of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP), which is cleaning up a former uranium processing plant near St. Louis, Missouri. This project, under the management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), includes treatment and release of contaminated surface water and possibly groundwater at the plant site and a nearby quarry, which was once used for waste disposal. The contaminants include uranium, thorium, radium, nitroaromatics, nitrates, and metals. Three water treatment plants will be used to treat contaminated water prior to its release to the Missouri River. The first, construction of which is nearly complete, will treat contaminated surface water and interstitial water in and around the quarry. A stepwise process of sedimentation, clarification, filtration, adsorption, and ion exchange will be used to remove the contaminants. A similar sequence will be used for the first train of the water treatment plant at the plant site, although process details have been adjusted to address the different contaminant concentrations. The site water treatment plant will also have a second train consisting of a vapor compression/ distillation (VCD) system. Train 2 is necessary to treat waters primarily from four raffinate pits containing high concentrations of inorganics (e.g., nitrates, sulfates, and chlorides) in addition to radionuclides, nitroaromatics, and metals contamination that are common in most of the waters at the site. Construction is under way on the First train of this facility. After it is treated, all water will be impounded and batch tested for compliance with the project's National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits prior to release to the Missouri River. The third water treatment plant is a mobile system that will be used to treat waters in some of the building sumps. (author)

  10. Water treatment technologies for a mixed waste remedial action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reith, C.; Freeman, G.; Ballew, B.

    1992-01-01

    Water treatment is an important element of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP), which is cleaning up a former uranium processing plant near St. Louis, Missouri. This project, under the management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), includes treatment and release of contaminated surface water and possibly groundwater at the plant site and a nearby quarry, which was once used for waste disposal. The contaminants include uranium, thorium, radium, nitroaromatics, nitrates, and metals. Three water treatment plants will be used to treat contaminated water prior to its release to the Missouri River. The first, construction of which is nearly complete, will treat contaminated surface water and interstitial water in and around the quarry. A stepwise process of sedimentation, clarification, filtration, adsorption, and ion exchange will be used to remove the contaminants. A similar sequence will be used for the first train of the water treatment plant at the plant site, although process details have been adjusted to address the different contaminant concentrations. The site water treatment plant will also have a second train consisting of a vapor compression/ distillation (VCD) system. Train 2 is necessary to treat waters primarily from four raffinate pits containing high concentrations of inorganics (e.g., nitrates, sulfates, and chlorides) in addition to radionuclides, nitroaromatics, and metals contamination that are common in most of the waters at the site. Construction is under way on the First train of this facility. After it is treated, all water will be impounded and batch tested for compliance with the project's National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits prior to release to the Missouri River. The third water treatment plant is a mobile system that will be used to treat waters in some of the building sumps. (author)

  11. Evaluation of appropriate technologies for grey water treatments and reuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangyue; Wichmann, Knut; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    As water is becoming a rare resource, the onsite reuse and recycling of grey water is practiced in many countries as a sustainable solution to reduce the overall urban water demand. However, the lack of appropriate water quality standards or guidelines has hampered the appropriate grey water reuses. Based on literature review, a non-potable urban grey water treatment and reuse scheme is proposed and the treatment alternatives for grey water reuse are evaluated according to the grey water characteristics, the proposed standards and economical feasibility.

  12. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 325 hazardous waste treatment units. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This report contains the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application for the 325 Hazardous Waste Treatment Units (325 HWTUs) which consist of the Shielded Analytical Laboratory, the 325 Building, and the 325 Collection/Loadout Station Tank. The 325 HWTUs receive, store, and treat dangerous waste generated by Hanford Facility programs. Routine dangerous and/or mixed waste treatment that will be conducted in the 325 HWTUs will include pH adjustment, ion exchange, carbon absorption, oxidation, reduction, waste concentration by evaporation, precipitation, filtration, solvent extraction, solids washing, phase separation, catalytic destruction, and solidification/stabilization

  13. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 325 hazardous waste treatment units. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This report contains the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application for the 325 Hazardous Waste Treatment Units (325 HWTUs) which consist of the Shielded Analytical Laboratory, the 325 Building, and the 325 Collection/Loadout Station Tank. The 325 HWTUs receive, store, and treat dangerous waste generated by Hanford Facility programs. Routine dangerous and/or mixed waste treatment that will be conducted in the 325 HWTUs will include pH adjustment, ion exchange, carbon absorption, oxidation, reduction, waste concentration by evaporation, precipitation, filtration, solvent extraction, solids washing, phase separation, catalytic destruction, and solidification/stabilization.

  14. Prevalence and treatment of eating disorders among Hispanics/Latino Americans in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Marisol; Ohrt, Tara K; Hoek, Hans W

    2016-11-01

    We reviewed the recent literature on prevalence rates, and application of evidence-based treatments for eating disorders among Hispanics/Latinos residing in the United States. Lifetime prevalence rates of anorexia nervosa are lower among Hispanic/Latinos than non-Hispanic Whites. There are comparable rates of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder (BED) among Hispanic/Latinos and non-Hispanic Whites. BED is the most common eating disorder among Hispanic/Latinos. Evidence-based treatments have begun to be implemented with Hispanics/Latinos. The core concepts of cognitive behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa and BED apply to this population. Culture-specific adaptations include strengthening the collectivistic framework within an individualistic treatment, psychoeducation of immediate and extended family, and adjustment of meal plans that incorporated cultural foods. There are more similarities than differences in the prevalence of eating disorders across Hispanics/Latinos and non-Hispanic Whites. However, the social context such as immigration status and acculturation is important to consider in the development of eating disorders. In addition, the Westernization of Latin America may change the future relationship of immigration status and development of eating disorder within the United States. Overall, cultural adaptations of evidence-based treatments involved the inclusion of family within treatment, acculturation-related issues, and managing family conflicts that arise because of the changes in eating patterns.

  15. Trends in the United States in the treatment of distal radial fractures in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kevin C; Shauver, Melissa J; Birkmeyer, John D

    2009-08-01

    Traditionally, distal radial fractures in the elderly have been treated nonoperatively with casting. However, since the introduction of the volar locking plating system in 2000, there has been an interest in the use of more aggressive treatment methods. The purpose of the present study was to assess changing trends in the treatment of distal radial fractures in elderly patients in the United States. We evaluated a 5% sample of Medicare data from 1996 to 1997 and a 20% sample from 1998 to 2005. Information on four treatment methods (closed treatment, percutaneous pin fixation, internal fixation, and external fixation) was extracted from the dataset. Other available data were diagnosis, physician specialty, and patient age, sex, and race. We calculated frequencies and rates to compare the utilization of different treatments over time. Over the ten-year time period examined, the rate of internal fixation of distal radial fractures in the elderly increased fivefold, from 3% in 1996 to 16% in 2005. Closed treatment, however, remained the predominant method (used for 82% of the fractures in 1996 and 70% in 2005). Fractures in patients with an age of eighty-five years or more were significantly more likely to be treated in a closed fashion (p < 0.0001). There was a large variation among physician specialties with regard to the fixation methods that were used. Orthopaedic surgeons were significantly more likely to use closed treatment than hand surgeons were, whereas hand surgeons were significantly more likely to use internal fixation than orthopaedic surgeons were. Since 2000, although the majority of distal radial fractures are still treated nonoperatively, there has been an increase in the use of internal fixation and a concurrent decrease in the rate of closed treatment of distal radial fractures in the elderly in the United States.

  16. Cervical Precancer Treatment in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Technology Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Maza

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide, with 90% of cases occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. There has been a global effort to increase access to affordable screening in these settings; however, a corresponding increase in availability of effective and inexpensive treatment modalities for ablating or excising precancerous lesions is also needed to decrease mortality. This article reviews the current landscape of available and developing technologies for treatment of cervical precancer in LMICs. At present, the standard treatment of most precancerous lesions in LMICs is gas-based cryotherapy. This low-cost, effective technology is an expedient treatment in many areas; however, obtaining and transporting gas is often difficult, and unwieldy gas tanks are not conducive to mobile health campaigns. There are several promising ablative technologies in development that are gasless or require less gas than conventional cryotherapy. Although further evaluation of the efficacy and cost-effectiveness is needed, several of these technologies are safe and can now be implemented in LMICs. Nonsurgical therapies, such as therapeutic vaccines, antivirals, and topical applications, are also promising, but most remain in early-stage trials. The establishment of evidence-based standardized protocols for available treatments and the development and introduction of novel technologies are necessary steps in overcoming barriers to treatment in LMICs and decreasing the global burden of cervical cancer. Guidance from WHO on emerging treatment technologies is also needed.

  17. Development of treatment technologies for the processing of US Department of Energy mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backus, P.M.; Berry, J.B.; Coyle, G.J.; Lurk, P.W.; Wolf, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Waste contaminated with chemically hazardous and radioactive species is defined as mixed waste. Significant technology development has been conducted for separate treatment of hazardous and radioactive waste, but technology development addressing mixed-waste treatment has been limited. Management of mixed waste requires treatment which must meet the standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency for the specific hazardous constituents while also providing adequate control of the radionuclides. Technology has not been developed, demonstrated, or tested to produce a low-risk final waste form specifically for mixed waste. Throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex, mixed waste is a problem because definitive treatment standards have not been established and few disposal facilities are available. Treatment capability and capacity are also limited. Site-specific solutions to the management of mixed waste have been initiated; however, site-specific programs result in duplication of technology development between various sites. Significant progress is being made in developing technology for mixed waste under the Mixed Waste Integrated Program. The status of the technical initiatives in chemical/physical treatment, destruction/stabilization technology, off-gas treatment, and final waste form production/assessment is described in this paper

  18. Process water treatment in Canada's oil sands industry : 2 : a review of emerging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, E.W.

    2008-01-01

    This review was conducted to identify candidate treatment technologies for treating oil sands process water. The oil sands industry in Canada uses large volumes of fresh water in order to extract bitumen deposits. The development of process water treatment technologies has become a critical issue for the industry, particularly as oil sand production is expected to triple in the next decade. However, treatment technologies must be adapted to consider the fouling potential of bitumens and fine clays as well as the effect of alkaline process water on treatment performance. The review included developments in chemical modifications to membranes and adsorbents designed to improve pollutant removal and reduce fouling; hybridization technologies designed to enhance the biological treatment of toxic feedwaters; recent advances in photocatalytic oxidation technologies for organic compounds; and new designs for large-scale treatment wetlands for polluted waste waters. It was concluded that major knowledge gaps must be optimized and preliminary studies must be conducted in order to understand how the treatment technologies will be affected by the chemical and physical characteristics of oil sands process water. 188 refs., 8 tabs

  19. The effects of heat treatment on physical and technological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... ween 450 and 660 m altitudes in Cide-Sehdagi (Gercek et al., 1998; Dogu ... changes continue as the temperature is increased in ... Heat treatment slows water uptake and wood cell wall absorbs ...... The Effect of Boiling Time.

  20. Technology for safe treatment of radioisotope organic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Jin; Park, Chong Mook; Choi, W. K.; Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K.; Yang, H. Y.; Kim, B. T.; Park, S. C

    1999-12-01

    An examination of chemical and radiological characteristics of RI organic liquid waste, wet oxidation by Fenton reaction and decomposition liquid waste treatment process were studied. These items will be applied to develop the equipment of wet oxidation and decomposition liquid waste treatment mixed processes for the safe treatment of RI organic liquid waste which is consisted of organic solvents such as toluene, alcohol and acetone. Two types of toluene solutions were selected as a candidate decomposition material. As for the first type, the concentration of toluene was above 20 vol percent. As for the second type, the solubility of toluene was considered. The decomposition ration by Fenton reaction was above 95 percent for both of them. From the adsorption equilibrium tests, a -Na{sup +} substituted/acid treated activated carbon and Zeocarbon mixed adsorbent was selected for the fixed adsorption column. This mixed adsorbent will be used to obtain the basic design data of liquid waste purification equipment for the treatment of decomposition liquid waste arising from the wet oxidation process. Solidification and degree of strength tests were performed with the simulated sludge/spent adsorbent of MgO as an oxide type and KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. From the test results, the design and fabrication of wet oxidation and liquid waste purification process equipment was made, and a performance test was carried out. (author)

  1. The effects of heat treatment on physical and technological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... surface of wood were used to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the surface characteristics of ... Some of the products developed by thermal treat- .... boards were stored uncontrolled condition in an unheated room for .... These results can be explained with material loses in ...... Finland-state of the art.

  2. Carburizing treatment of low alloy steels: Effect of technological parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benarioua, Younes

    2018-05-01

    The surface areas of the parts subjected to mechanical loads influence to a great extent the resistance to wear and fatigue. In majority of cases, producing of a hard superficial layer on a tough substrate is conducive to an increased resistance to mechanical wear and fatigue. Cementation treatment of low alloy steels which bonds superficial martensitic layer of high hardness and lateral compressive to a core of lower hardness and greater toughness is an example of a good solution of the problem. The high hardness of the martensitic layer is due to an increased concentration of interstitial carbon atoms in the austenite before quenching. The lower hardness of the core after quenching is due to the presence of ferrite and pearlite components which appear if the cooling rate after austenitization becomes lower than the critical on. The objective of the present study was to obtain a cemented surface layer on low alloy steel by means of pack carburizing treatment. Different steel grades, austenitization temperatures as well as different soaking times were used as parameters of the pack carburizing treatment. During this treatment, carbon atoms from the pack powder diffuse toward the steels surface and form compounds of iron carbides. The effect of carburizing parameters on the transformation rate of low carbon surface layer of the low alloy steel to the cemented one was investigated by several analytical techniques.

  3. Technology for safe treatment of radioisotope organic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Jin; Park, Chong Mook; Choi, W. K.; Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K.; Yang, H. Y.; Kim, B. T.; Park, S. C.

    1999-12-01

    An examination of chemical and radiological characteristics of RI organic liquid waste, wet oxidation by Fenton reaction and decomposition liquid waste treatment process were studied. These items will be applied to develop the equipment of wet oxidation and decomposition liquid waste treatment mixed processes for the safe treatment of RI organic liquid waste which is consisted of organic solvents such as toluene, alcohol and acetone. Two types of toluene solutions were selected as a candidate decomposition material. As for the first type, the concentration of toluene was above 20 vol percent. As for the second type, the solubility of toluene was considered. The decomposition ration by Fenton reaction was above 95 percent for both of them. From the adsorption equilibrium tests, a -Na + substituted/acid treated activated carbon and Zeocarbon mixed adsorbent was selected for the fixed adsorption column. This mixed adsorbent will be used to obtain the basic design data of liquid waste purification equipment for the treatment of decomposition liquid waste arising from the wet oxidation process. Solidification and degree of strength tests were performed with the simulated sludge/spent adsorbent of MgO as an oxide type and KH 2 PO 4 . From the test results, the design and fabrication of wet oxidation and liquid waste purification process equipment was made, and a performance test was carried out. (author)

  4. Treatment of textile sludge using anaerobic technology | Asia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples were subjected to mesophilic anaerobic treatment at the temperature of 35±2°C. The method achieved solids reduction of 61% total solids, 68% settleable solids and 51% volatile solids and a total bacteria reduction of 99.99%. The reduction in BOD and COD were 89% each. Nitrate and phosphate were found to ...

  5. Optimizing patient treatment decisions in an era of rapid technological advances: the case of hepatitis C treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Brandeau, Margaret L; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D

    2017-03-01

    How long should a patient with a treatable chronic disease wait for more effective treatments before accepting the best available treatment? We develop a framework to guide optimal treatment decisions for a deteriorating chronic disease when treatment technologies are improving over time. We formulate an optimal stopping problem using a discrete-time, finite-horizon Markov decision process. The goal is to maximize a patient's quality-adjusted life expectancy. We derive structural properties of the model and analytically solve a three-period treatment decision problem. We illustrate the model with the example of treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). Chronic HCV affects 3-4 million Americans and has been historically difficult to treat, but increasingly effective treatments have been commercialized in the past few years. We show that the optimal treatment decision is more likely to be to accept currently available treatment-despite expectations for future treatment improvement-for patients who have high-risk history, who are older, or who have more comorbidities. Insights from this study can guide HCV treatment decisions for individual patients. More broadly, our model can guide treatment decisions for curable chronic diseases by finding the optimal treatment policy for individual patients in a heterogeneous population.

  6. Petrochemical wastewater treatment by means of clean electrochemical technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimoglo, A.; Akbulut, H.Y.; Cihan, F.; Karpuzcu, M. [Gebze Institute of Technology, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2004-09-01

    The removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, phenol, hydrocarbon and grease from petrochemical wastewater (PCWW) was experimentally done by using electroflotation (EF) and electrocoagulation (EC). In the EF unit, a graphite anode and a stainless steel mesh as cathode were used. In the EC unit, iron and aluminium were used simultaneously as materials for two blocks of alternating electrodes. The reactor voltage was 12 V, current density (CD) was varied from 5 to 15 mA cm{sup -2}, and the residence time varied in the limits of 2-20 min for EF and 1-10 min for EC. The results have shown that EC removes the mentioned contaminants from PCWW more effectively than EF. Turbidity removal in the process of PCWW purification was estimated as 83% for EF and 88% for EC. The yields of phenol, hydrocarbon and grease removal by EC were examined under different values of residence time, CD, and with iron and aluminium as materials for electrodes. (orig.)

  7. Radiation processing applications in the Czechoslovak water treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacek, K.; Pastuszek, F.; Sedlacek, M.

    1986-01-01

    The regeneration of biologically clogged water wells by radiation proved to be a successful and economically beneficial process among other promising applications of ionizing radiation in the water supply technology. The application conditions and experience are mentioned. The potential pathogenic Mycobacteria occuring in the warm washing and bathing water are resistant against usual chlorine and ozone concentrations. The radiation sensitivity of Mycobacteria allowed to suggest a device for their destroying by radiation. Some toxic substances in the underground water can be efficiently degraded by gamma radiation directly in the wells drilled as a hydraulic barrier surrounding the contaminated land area. Substantial decrease of CN - concentration and C.O.D. value was observed in water pumped from such well equipped with cobalt sources and charcoal. The removing of pathogenic contamination remains to be the main goal of radiation processing in the water purification technologies. The decrease of liquid sludge specific filter resistance and sedimentation acceleration by irradiation have a minor technological importance. The hygienization of sludge cake from the mechanical belt filter press by electron beam appears to be the optimum application in the Czechoslovak conditions. The potatoes and barley crop yields from experimental plots treated with sludge were higher in comparison with using the manure. Biological sludge from the municipal and food industry water purification plants contains nutritive components. The proper hygienization is a necessary condition for using them as a livestock feed supplement. Feeding experiments with broilers and pigs confirmed the possibility of partial (e.g. 50%) replacement of soya-, bone, or fish flour in feed mixtures by dried sludge hygienized either by heat or by the irradiation. (author)

  8. Radiation processing applications in the Czechoslovak water treatment technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacek, K.; Pastuszek, F.; Sedláček, M.

    The regeneration of biologically clogged water wells by radiation proved to be a successful and economically beneficial process among other promising applications of ionizing radiation in the water supply technology. The application conditions and experience are mentioned. The potential pathogenic Mycobacteria occuring in the warm washing and bathing water are resistant against usual chlorine and ozone concentrations. The radiation sensitivity of Mycobacteria allowed to suggest a device for their destroying by radiation. Some toxic substances in the underground water can be efficiently degraded by gamma radiation directly in the wells drilled as a hydraulic barrier surrounding the contaminated land area. Substantial decrease of CN - concentration and C.O.D. value was observed in water pumped from such well equipped with cobalt sources and charcoal. The removing of pathogenic contamination remains to be the main goal of radiation processing in the water purification technologies. The decrease of liquid sludge specific filter resistance and sedimentation acceleration by irradiation have a minor technological importance. The hygienization of sludge cake from the mechanical belt filter press by electron beam appears to be the optimum application in the Czechoslovak conditions. The potatoes and barley crop yields from experimental plots treated with sludge were higher in comparison with using the manure. Biological sludge from the municipal and food industry water purification plants contains nutritive components. The proper hygienization is a necessary condition for using them as a livestock feed supplement. Feeding experiments with broilers and pigs confirmed the possibility of partial (e.g. 50%) replacement of soya-, bone- or fish flour in feed mixtures by dried sludge hygienized either by heat or by the irradiation.

  9. Particle radiotherapy emerging technology for treatment of cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Sahoo, Narayan

    2016-01-01

    The results of decades of research and development are providing compelling evidence about the efficacy of radiation therapy with proton and carbon ion beams to achieve superior complication free tumor control leading to a world-wide rapid growth in their clinical use. This book contains comprehensive reviews of the state of the art of the technology and physics of heavy charge particle therapy by the experts from the leading cancer centers of world that will be valuable as a practical guide for radiation therapy professionals interested in these modalities.

  10. Treatment technologies for non-high-level wastes (USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, C.R.; Clark, D.E.

    1976-06-01

    Non-high-level waste arising from operations at nuclear reactors, fuel fabrication facilities, and reprocessing facilities can be treated using one of several technical alternatives prior to storage. Each alternative and the associated experience and status of development are summarized. The technology for treating non-high-level wastes is generally available for industrial use. Improved techniques applicable to the commercial nuclear fuel cycle are being developed and demonstrated to reduce the volume of waste and to immobilize it for storage. 36 figures, 59 references

  11. Constructed wetlands and solar-driven disinfection technologies for sustainable wastewater treatment and reclamation in rural India: SWINGS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, J A; Ávila, C; Otter, P; Kilian, R; Istenič, D; Rolletschek, M; Molle, P; Khalil, N; Ameršek, I; Mishra, V K; Jorgensen, C; Garfi, A; Carvalho, P; Brix, H; Arias, C A

    2017-09-01

    SWINGS was a cooperation project between the European Union and India, aiming at implementing state of the art low-cost technologies for the treatment and reuse of domestic wastewater in rural areas of India. The largest wastewater treatment plant consists of a high-rate anaerobic system, followed by vertical and horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands with a treatment area of around 1,900 m 2 and a final step consisting of solar-driven anodic oxidation (AO) and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection units allowing direct reuse of the treated water. The implementation and operation of two pilot plants in north (Aligarh Muslim University, AMU) and central India (Indira Gandhi National Tribal University, IGNTU) are shown in this study. The overall performance of AMU pilot plant during the first 7 months of operation showed organic matter removal efficiencies of 87% total suspended solids, 95% 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD 5 ) and 90% chemical oxygen demand, while Kjeldahl nitrogen removal reached 89%. The UV disinfection unit produces water for irrigation and toilet flushing with pathogenic indicator bacteria well below WHO guidelines. On the other hand, the AO disinfection unit implemented at IGNTU and operated for almost a year has been shown to produce an effluent of sufficient quality to be reused by the local population for agriculture and irrigation.

  12. Proceedings of the 1st workshop on radioactive waste treatment technologies, October 28, 1997 Taejon, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This proceedings describes the volume reduction of radioactive waste, the radioactive waste treatment technology, the decontamination and decommissioning, and the incineration and solidification of radioactive waste. Twenty two papers are submitted.

  13. Mining Pribram in science and technology. Proceedings of Session U - Mineral raw materials treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasek, J.; Vetejska, K.

    1987-01-01

    The proceedings of session ''Mineral raw materials treatment'' contain 27 papers of which only one deals with the application of nuclear technology, namely, the effect of fast electrons on the magnetic properties of the polymetallic Rudniany ore. (J.B.)

  14. SELENIUM TREATMENT/REMOVAL ALTERNATIVES DEMONSTRATION PROJECT - MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM ACTIVITY III, PROJECT 20

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is the final report for EPA's Mine WAste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 20--Selenium Treatment/Removal Alternatives Demonstration project. Selenium contamination originates from many sources including mining operations, mineral processing, abandoned...

  15. Proceedings of the 1st workshop on radioactive waste treatment technologies, October 28, 1997 Taejon, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This proceedings describes the volume reduction of radioactive waste, the radioactive waste treatment technology, the decontamination and decommissioning, and the incineration and solidification of radioactive waste. Twenty two papers are submitted

  16. Policy drivers and barriers for coal-to-liquids (CtL) technologies in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallentin, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Because of a growing dependence on oil imports, powerful industrial, political and societal stakeholders in the United States are trying to enhance national energy security through the conversion of domestic coal into synthetic hydrocarbon liquid fuels-so-called coal-to-liquids (CtL) processes. However, because of the technology's high costs and carbon intensity, its market deployment is strongly affected by the US energy, technology and climate policy setting. This paper analyses and discusses policy drivers and barriers for CtL technologies in the United States and reaches the conclusion that an increasing awareness of global warming among US policy-makers raises the requirements for the technology's environmental performance and, thus, limits its potential to regional niche markets in coal-producing states or strategic markets, such as the military, with specific security and fuel requirements

  17. Technology transfer for the implementation of a clinical trials network on drug abuse and mental health treatment in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horigian, Viviana E; Marín-Navarrete, Rodrigo A; Verdeja, Rosa E; Alonso, Elizabeth; Perez, María A; Fernández-Mondragón, José; Berlanga, Carlos; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Szapocznik, José

    2015-09-01

    Low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) lack the research infrastructure and capacity to conduct rigorous substance abuse and mental health effectiveness clinical trials to guide clinical practice. A partnership between the Florida Node Alliance of the United States National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network and the National Institute of Psychiatry in Mexico was established in 2011 to improve substance abuse practice in Mexico. The purpose of this partnership was to develop a Mexican national clinical trials network of substance abuse researchers and providers capable of implementing effectiveness randomized clinical trials in community-based settings. A technology transfer model was implemented and ran from 2011-2013. The Florida Node Alliance shared the "know how" for the development of the research infrastructure to implement randomized clinical trials in community programs through core and specific training modules, role-specific coaching, pairings, modeling, monitoring, and feedback. The technology transfer process was bi-directional in nature in that it was informed by feedback on feasibility and cultural appropriateness for the context in which practices were implemented. The Institute, in turn, led the effort to create the national network of researchers and practitioners in Mexico and the implementation of the first trial. A collaborative model of technology transfer was useful in creating a Mexican researcher-provider network that is capable of changing national practice in substance abuse research and treatment. Key considerations for transnational technology transfer are presented.

  18. Study on Integration Treatment Technology of Waste Emulsion from Machining Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Xin-dong Li; Wan-fu Huang

    2013-01-01

    The study studied the treatment technology of high concentration emulsion wastewater in metal machining plant. By analyzing the properties of emulsion wastewater, the author used the combination process of membrane technology + Fe-C micro-electrolysis + membrane bioreactor to treat the wastewater. Through the ceramic membrane, the removal rate of CODCr can reach 95%. Fe-C micro-electrolysis treatment can improve the biodegradability of wastewater, lastly through the membrane bioreactor treatm...

  19. The Treatment of Breast Cancer Using Liposome Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Brown

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Liposome-based chemotherapeutics used in the treatment of breast cancer can in principle enhance the therapeutic index of otherwise unencapsulated anticancer drugs. This is partially attributed to the fact that encapsulation of cytotoxic agents within liposomes allows for increased concentrations of the drug to be delivered to the tumor site. In addition, the presence of the phospholipid bilayer prevents the encapsulated active form of the drug from being broken down in the body prior to reaching tumor tissue and also serves to minimize exposure of the drug to healthy sensitive tissue. While clinically approved liposome-based chemotherapeutics such as Doxil have proven to be quite effective in the treatment of breast cancer, significant challenges remain involving poor drug transfer between the liposome and cancerous cells. In this review, we discuss the recent advancements made in the development of liposome-based chemotherapeutics with respect to improved drug transfer for use in breast cancer therapy.

  20. The development of radioactive waste treatment technology(IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joon Hyung; Ahan, Byung Gil; Kim, Jeong Guk; Yim, Sung Paal

    1992-03-01

    A full-scale silicon carbide filter (flanged candle type) was made by using an oxide ceramic binder. From the results of filtration test, the manufactured SiC filter was comparable to foreign commercial filters. But the composite type filter with a thin fiber layer on its surface showed more excellent filtration performance than granular bed filter. It is expected that large hysterisis of sintering binder on heating and cooling process would cause a problem in high temperature application. From the results, the development of composite type filter and a study on sintering binder must be continued. Such study results could be utilized for the off-gas treatment of radioactive waste treatment process and general industry. And it will be used as a basic data for solid/gas separation process. (Author)

  1. Novel liposomal technology applied in esophageal cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chia-Hsien; Hsieh, Yei-San; Yang, Pei-wen; Huang, Leaf; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2018-02-01

    Cisplatin (CDDP) has been commonly used as a chemotherapeutic drug, mainly used for the treatment of malignant epithelial cell tumors. We have developed a new method based on innovative lipid calcium phosphate, which encapsulated hydrophobic drugs to form liposomal nanoparticles. Esophageal cancer xenograft model was used to investigate the efficacy of liposomal nanoparticles. and it showed good therapeutic efficacy with lower side effects. Liposomal nanoparticles exhibited a better therapeutic effect than that of conventional CDDP.

  2. Grey water treatment by a continuous process of an electrocoagulation unit and a submerged membrane bioreactor system

    KAUST Repository

    Bani-Melhem, Khalid

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents the performance of an integrated process consisting of an electro-coagulation (EC) unit and a submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) technology for grey water treatment. For comparison purposes, another SMBR process without electrocoagulation (EC) was operated in parallel with both processes operated under constant transmembrane pressure for 24. days in continuous operation mode. It was found that integrating EC process with SMBR (EC-SMBR) was not only an effective method for grey water treatment but also for improving the overall performance of the membrane filtration process. EC-SMBR process achieved up to 13% reduction in membrane fouling compared to SMBR without electrocoagulation. High average percent removals were attained by both processes for most wastewater parameters studied. The results demonstrated that EC-SMBR performance slightly exceeded that of SMBR for COD, turbidity, and colour. Both processes produced effluent free of suspended solids, and faecal coliforms were nearly (100%) removed in both processes. A substantial improvement was achieved in removal of phosphate in the EC-SMBR process. However, ammonia nitrogen was removed more effectively by the SMBR only. Accordingly, the electrolysis condition in the EC-SMBR process should be optimized so as not to impede biological treatment. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Handling and treatment of low-level radioactive wastes from gaseous diffusion plants in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, J.F.; Behrend, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Gaseous diffusion plants in the United States of America currently generate very small quantities of low-level radioactive wastes. These wastes consist primarily of airborne effluent solid trapping media and liquid scrubber solutions, liquid effluent treatment sludges, waste oils and solvents, scrap metals and conventional combustible wastes such as floor sweepings, cleaning rags and shoe covers. In addition to waste emanating from current operations, large quantities of scrap metal generated during the Cascade Improvement Program are stored above ground at each of the diffusion plants. The radionuclides of primary concern are uranium and 99 Tc. Current radioactive waste treatment consists of uranium dissolution in weak acids followed by chemical precipitation and/or solvent extraction for uranium recovery. Current disposal operations consist of above ground storage of scrap metals, shallow land burial of inorganic solids and incineration of combustible wastes. With increased emphasis on reducing the potential for off-site radiological dose, several new treatment and disposal options are being studied and new projects are being planned. One project of particular interest involves the installation of a high temperature incinerator to thermally degrade hazardous organic wastes contaminated with low-level radioactive wastes. Other technologies being studied include fixation of uranium-bearing sludges in concrete before burial, decontamination of scrap metals by smelting and use of specially engineered centralized burial grounds. (author)

  4. Levelised unit electricity cost comparison of alternate technologies for baseload generation in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayres, M.; McRae, M.; Stogran, M.

    2004-08-15

    This report provides a comparison of the lifetime cost of constructing, operating and decommissioning new generation suitable for supplying baseload power by early in the next decade. New baseload generation options in Ontario are nuclear, coal-fired steam turbines or combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT). Nuclear and coal-fired units are characterised by high capital costs and low operating costs. As such, they are candidates for baseload operation only. Gas-fired generation is characterised by lower capital costs and higher operating costs and thus may meet the requirements for operation as peaking and/or baseload generation. The comparison of baseload generating technologies is made by reference to the estimated levelised unit electricity cost (LUEC). The LUEC can be thought of as a 'supply cost', where the unit cost is the price needed to recover all costs over the period. It is determined by finding the price that sets the sum of all future discounted cash flows (net present value, or NPV) to zero. It can also be thought of as representing the constant real wholesale price of electricity that meets the financing cost, debt repayment, income tax and cash flow constraints associated with the construction operation and decommissioning of a generating plant. Levelised unit cost comparisons are usually made with different sets of financing assumptions. This report considers two base cases, which we describe as 'merchant' and 'public' financing. The term 'merchant plant' is used to refer to ones that are built and operated by private investors. These investors pay for their capital through debt and by raising equity, and thus pay return on equity and interest on debt throughout their lifetime. These projects include income taxes, both provincial and federal. Publicly financed projects typically are not subject to income taxes or to the same constraints on raising finance through issuing debt and equity. However, they are

  5. Levelised unit electricity cost comparison of alternate technologies for baseload generation in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, M.; McRae, M.; Stogran, M.

    2004-08-01

    This report provides a comparison of the lifetime cost of constructing, operating and decommissioning new generation suitable for supplying baseload power by early in the next decade. New baseload generation options in Ontario are nuclear, coal-fired steam turbines or combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT). Nuclear and coal-fired units are characterised by high capital costs and low operating costs. As such, they are candidates for baseload operation only. Gas-fired generation is characterised by lower capital costs and higher operating costs and thus may meet the requirements for operation as peaking and/or baseload generation. The comparison of baseload generating technologies is made by reference to the estimated levelised unit electricity cost (LUEC). The LUEC can be thought of as a 'supply cost', where the unit cost is the price needed to recover all costs over the period. It is determined by finding the price that sets the sum of all future discounted cash flows (net present value, or NPV) to zero. It can also be thought of as representing the constant real wholesale price of electricity that meets the financing cost, debt repayment, income tax and cash flow constraints associated with the construction operation and decommissioning of a generating plant. Levelised unit cost comparisons are usually made with different sets of financing assumptions. This report considers two base cases, which we describe as 'merchant' and 'public' financing. The term 'merchant plant' is used to refer to ones that are built and operated by private investors. These investors pay for their capital through debt and by raising equity, and thus pay return on equity and interest on debt throughout their lifetime. These projects include income taxes, both provincial and federal. Publicly financed projects typically are not subject to income taxes or to the same constraints on raising finance through issuing debt and equity. However, they are constrained to provide a rate of return. The

  6. Microbial Community Profiles in Wastewaters from Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Jałowiecki

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the potential of community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs methodology as an assay for characterization of the metabolic diversity of wastewater samples and to link the metabolic diversity patterns to efficiency of select onsite biological wastewater facilities. Metabolic fingerprints obtained from the selected samples were used to understand functional diversity implied by the carbon substrate shifts. Three different biological facilities of onsite wastewater treatment were evaluated: fixed bed reactor (technology A, trickling filter/biofilter system (technology B, and aerated filter system (the fluidized bed reactor, technology C. High similarities of the microbial community functional structures were found among the samples from the three onsite wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs, as shown by the diversity indices. Principal components analysis (PCA showed that the diversity and CLPPs of microbial communities depended on the working efficiency of the wastewater treatment technologies. This study provided an overall picture of microbial community functional structures of investigated samples in WWTPs and discerned the linkages between microbial communities and technologies of onsite WWTPs used. The results obtained confirmed that metabolic profiles could be used to monitor treatment processes as valuable biological indicators of onsite wastewater treatment technologies efficiency. This is the first step toward understanding relations of technology types with microbial community patterns in raw and treated wastewaters.

  7. Stakeholder perceptions of manure treatment technologies in Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Y.; Velthof, G.L.; Case, S.D.C.; Oelofse, M.; Grignani, C.; Balsari, P.; Zavattaro, L.; Gioelli, F.; Bernal, M.P.; Fangueiro, D.; Trindade, H.; Jensen, L.S.; Oenema, O.

    2018-01-01

    Manure treatment technologies have been developed in Europe to better use animal manures and to reduce their environmental impact, but the adoption of these technologies in practice is regionally diverse and still limited. Also, little is known about the opinions of stakeholders towards manure

  8. Cast Stone Technology For The Treatment And Immobilization Of Low-Activity Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minwall, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Cast stone technology is being evaluated for potential application in the treatment and immobilization of Hanford low-activity waste. The purpose of this document is to provide background information on cast stone technology. The information provided in the report is mainly based on a pre-conceptual design completed in 2003.

  9. CAST STONE TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINWALL HJ

    2011-04-08

    Cast stone technology is being evaluated for potential application in the treatment and immobilization of Hanford low-activity waste. The purpose of this document is to provide background information on cast stone technology. The information provided in the report is mainly based on a pre-conceptual design completed in 2003.

  10. Technological Advances in the Treatment of Trauma: A Review of Promising Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lisa A.; Hassija, Christina M.; Clapp, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    Given the availability of empirically supported practices for addressing posttraumatic stress disorder and other forms of trauma-related distress, the development and implementation of new technology to deliver these treatments is exciting. Technological innovations in this literature aim to expand availability of empirically based intervention,…

  11. In situ vitrification: An innovative thermal treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, V.F.; Timmerman, C.L.; Buelt, J.L.

    1987-03-01

    In situ vitrification is a thermal treatment process that converts contaminated soil into a chemically inert, stable glass and crystalline product. A square array of four electrodes are inserted into the ground to the desired treatment depth. Because the soil is not electrically conductive once the moisture has been driven off, a conductive mixture of flaked graphite and glass frit is placed among the electrodes to act as the starter path. An electrical potential is applied to the electrodes, which establishes an electrical current in the starter path. The resultant power heats the starter path and surrounding soil up to 3600 0 F, well above the initial melting temperature or fusion temperature of soils. The normal fusion temperature of soil ranges between 2000 and 2500 0 F. The graphite starter path is eventually consumed by oxidation, and the current is transferred to the molten soil, which is now electrically conductive. As the vitrified zone grows, it incorporates nonvolatile elements and destroys organic components by pyrolysis. The pyrolyzed byproducts migrate to the surface of the vitrified zone, where they combust in the presence of oxygen. A hood placed over the processing area provides confinement for the combustion gases, and the gases are drawn into the off-gas treatment system

  12. Application of radiation technology in healthcare: cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, S.K.

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a standard treatment used as part of the multimodality treatment of several cancers. It is frequently employed in the role of primary and adjuvant therapy for cancers. Historically, RT planning was guided by fluoroscopic or X-ray imaging that provided two dimensional data to determine areas to be treated by using bony landmarks. Limited soft tissue delineation was sometimes possible, for example, by instilling contrast into the bowel and bladder. Definitive/Radical Chemoradiation in cancers significantly improved the local control and survival even in locally advanced cases, but at the cost of increased toxicity due to combined modality of treatment. For the past few years, there was increasing focus on attempts to reduce normal tissue toxicity especially in pelvic tumors. This concept leads to a major transition in radiotherapy techniques; from classical 2-dimensional approach to 3-dimensional high precision approach. These radiation techniques, involve various steps and each step plays a pivotal role in their successful implementation. The delivery technique is a critical part of the success of radiotherapy for these patients. Careful consideration of the related factors involved and critical assessment of the techniques available are fundamental to good and effective practice. Number of linear accelerators are growing rapidly in India especially in private centres, however there is need to keep same pace in government institutions

  13. Technology advances in hospital practices: robotics in treatment of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosiek, Anna; Leksowski, Krzysztof

    2015-06-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is widely considered as the treatment of choice for acute cholecystitis. The safety of the procedure and its minimal invasiveness made it a valid treatment option for a patient not responding to antibiotic therapy. Our research shows that patients positively assess this treatment method, but the world's tendency is to turn to a more sophisticated method utilizing robot-assisted surgery as a gold standard. Providing patient with minimally invasive surgical procedures that utilize the state-of-the-art equipment like the da Vinci Robotic Surgical System underscores the commitment to high-quality patient care while enhancing patient safety. The advantages include minimal invasive scarring, less pain and bleeding, faster recovery time, and shorter hospital stay. The move toward less invasive and less morbid procedures and a need to re-create the true open surgical experience have paved the way for the development and application of robotic and computer-assisted systems in surgery in Poland as well as the rest of the world. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Cyclone Boiler Field Testing of Advanced Layered NOx Control Technology in Sioux Unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc A. Cremer; Bradley R. Adams

    2006-06-30

    A four week testing program was completed during this project to assess the ability of the combination of deep staging, Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) to reduce NOx emissions below 0.15 lb/MBtu in a cyclone fired boiler. The host site for the tests was AmerenUE's Sioux Unit 1, a 500 MW cyclone fired boiler located near St. Louis, MO. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team including AmerenUE, FuelTech Inc., and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). This layered approach to NOx reduction is termed the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA). Installed RRI and SNCR port locations were guided by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based modeling conducted by REI. During the parametric testing, NOx emissions of 0.12 lb/MBtu were achieved consistently from overfire air (OFA)-only baseline NOx emissions of 0.25 lb/MBtu or less, when firing the typical 80/20 fuel blend of Powder River Basin (PRB) and Illinois No.6 coals. From OFA-only baseline levels of 0.20 lb/MBtu, NOx emissions of 0.12 lb/MBtu were also achieved, but at significantly reduced urea flow rates. Under the deeply staged conditions that were tested, RRI performance was observed to degrade as higher blends of Illinois No.6 were used. NOx emissions achieved with ALTA while firing a 60/40 blend were approximately 0.15 lb/MBtu. NOx emissions while firing 100% Illinois No.6 were approximately 0.165 lb/MBtu. Based on the performance results of these tests, economics analyses of the application of ALTA to a nominal 500 MW cyclone unit show that the levelized cost to achieve 0.15 lb/MBtu is well below 75% of the cost of a state of the art SCR.

  15. The Integration of Technology into Treatment Programs to Aid in the Reduction of Chronic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Eckard, Chad; Asbury, Caitlyn; Bolduc, Brandon; Camerlengo, Chelsea; Gotthardt, Julia; Healy, Lauren; Waialae, Laura; Zeigler, Ceirra; Childers, Jennifer; Horzempa, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, roughly $600 billion is spent on pain management ? usually in the form of addictive opioid drugs. Due to the dangers associated with long-term opiate-based pain medication, the development of additional strategies for chronic pain management is warranted. The advent of smartphones and associated technology has provided healthcare providers with a unique opportunity to provide pain management support. This review summarizes of the use of technology to supplement chronic p...

  16. Assessing the level of healthcare information technology adoption in the United States: a snapshot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Middleton Blackford

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comprehensive knowledge about the level of healthcare information technology (HIT adoption in the United States remains limited. We therefore performed a baseline assessment to address this knowledge gap. Methods We segmented HIT into eight major stakeholder groups and identified major functionalities that should ideally exist for each, focusing on applications most likely to improve patient safety, quality of care and organizational efficiency. We then conducted a multi-site qualitative study in Boston and Denver by interviewing key informants from each stakeholder group. Interview transcripts were analyzed to assess the level of adoption and to document the major barriers to further adoption. Findings for Boston and Denver were then presented to an expert panel, which was then asked to estimate the national level of adoption using the modified Delphi approach. We measured adoption level in Boston and Denver was graded on Rogers' technology adoption curve by co-investigators. National estimates from our expert panel were expressed as percentages. Results Adoption of functionalities with financial benefits far exceeds adoption of those with safety and quality benefits. Despite growing interest to adopt HIT to improve safety and quality, adoption remains limited, especially in the area of ambulatory electronic health records and physician-patient communication. Organizations, particularly physicians' practices, face enormous financial challenges in adopting HIT, and concerns remain about its impact on productivity. Conclusion Adoption of HIT is limited and will likely remain slow unless significant financial resources are made available. Policy changes, such as financial incentivesto clinicians to use HIT or pay-for-performance reimbursement, may help health care providers defray upfront investment costs and initial productivity loss.

  17. Survey of information technology in Intensive Care Units in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallett David

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Intensive Care Unit (ICU is a data-rich environment where information technology (IT may enhance patient care. We surveyed ICUs in the province of Ontario, Canada, to determine the availability, implementation and variability of information systems. Methods A self-administered internet-based survey was completed by ICU directors between May and October 2006. We measured the spectrum of ICU clinical data accessible electronically, the availability of decision support tools, the availability of electronic imaging systems for radiology, the use of electronic order entry and medication administration systems, and the availability of hardware and wireless or mobile systems. We used Fisher's Exact tests to compare IT availability and Classification and Regression Trees (CART to estimate the optimal cut-point for the number of computers per ICU bed. Results We obtained responses from 50 hospitals (68.5% of institutions with level 3 ICUs, of which 21 (42% were university-affiliated. The majority electronically accessed laboratory data and imaging reports (92% and used picture archiving and communication systems (PACS (76%. Other computing functions were less prevalent (medication administration records 46%, physician or nursing notes 26%; medication order entry 22%. No association was noted between IT availability and ICU size or university affiliation. Sites used clinical information systems from15 different vendors and 8 different PACS systems were in use. Half of the respondents described the number of computers available as insufficient. Wireless networks and mobile computing systems were used in 23 ICUs (46%. Conclusion Ontario ICUs demontrate a high prevalence of the use of basic information technology systems. However, implementation of the more complex and potentially more beneficial applications is low. The wide variation in vendors utilized may impair information exchange, interoperability and uniform data collection.

  18. Development and demonstration of treatment technologies for the processing of US Department of Energy Mixed Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, G.A.; Berry, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    Mixed waste is defined as ''waste contaminated with chemically hazardous and radioactive species.'' The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) was established in response to the need for a unified, DOE complexwide solution to issues of mixed waste treatment that meets regulatory requirements. MWIP is developing treatment technologies that reduce risk, minimize life-cycle cost, and improve process performance as compared to existing technologies. Treatment for waste streams for which no current technology exists, and suitable waste forms for disposal, will be provided to improve operations of the DOE Office of Waste Management. MWIP is composed of six technical areas within a mixed-waste treatment system: (1) systems analysis, (2) materials handling, (3) chemical/physical separation, (4) waste destruction and stabilization, (5) off-gas treatment, and (6) final waste form stabilization. The status of the technical initiatives and the current research, development, and demonstration in each of these areas are described in this paper

  19. DOE evaluates nine alternative thermal technologies for treatment of mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    In June 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Technology Development commissioned a study to evaluate 19 thermal technologies for treating DOE's mixed waste. The study was divided into two phases: Phase I evaluated ten conventional incineration techniques (primarily rotary kiln), and Phase II looked at nine innovative, alternative thermal treatment technologies. The treatment processes were evaluated as part of an integrated waste treatment system, which would include all of the facilities, equipment, and methods required to treat and dispose DOE mixed waste. The relative merits and life-cycle costs were then developed for each of the 19 waste treatment systems evaluated. The study also identified the additional research and development, demonstration, and testing/evaluation steps that would be necessary for the waste treatment systems to successfully treat DOE mixed waste. 3 tabs., 2 refs

  20. Development of treatment technology for radioactive concrete wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B. Y.; Choi, W. K.; Lee, K. W., E-mail: bymin@kaeri.re.k [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daeduk-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The aim of this study was the separation of clean aggregates from contaminated dismantling concrete wastes by thermal and mechanical processes. In Korea, the decontamination and decommissioning of the retired Korea research reactor (KRR) and a uranium conversion plant (UCP) at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been under way. Hundreds of tons of concrete wastes are expected from these facilities. The KAERI has developed volume reduction technology applicable to an activated heavy concrete waste generated by dismantling KRR-2 and a uranium contaminated light weight concrete produced from a UCP. Contamination level of the gravel and sand aggregates was remarkably decreased by thermal and mechanical process. The volume reduction rate could be achieved above 70% for KRR-2 concrete waste and above to 80% for the UCP concrete waste. (Author)

  1. Physical-chemical hydrodynamics of the processes of sorption-membrane technology of LRW treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander D Efanov; Pyotr N Martynov; Yuri D Boltoev; Ivan V Yagodkin; Nataliya G Bogdanovich; Sergey S Skvortsov; Alexander R Sokolovsky; Elena V Ignatova; Gennady V Grigoriev; Vitaly V Grigorov

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Liquid radioactive NPP waste is generated, when radioactive water is collected and mixed from various routine and non-routine process measures being performed in accordance with the operating regulations of reactor units with water coolant. The main sources of LRW are the primary loop water coolant, deactivation, regeneration and rinse waters, waste laundry and showers water producing the initial averaged LRW as well as spent fuel element cooling pond water and water of biological protection tanks. LRW handling can be substantially advanced, in particular, through development and introduction of the non-conventional sorption-membrane technology of NPP LRW treatment, being developed at SSC RF IPPE. This technology makes use of natural inorganic sorbents (tripolite, zeolite, ion-exchange materials) and filtering nano-structured metallic and ceramic membranes (titanium, zirconium, chromium and other or their oxides, carbides and nitrides). The efficiency of the sorption membrane technology is associated just with the investigation of the physical-chemical processes of sorption, coagulation and sedimentation under the conditions of forced and free convection occurring in LRW. Besides, it is necessary to take into consideration that the hydrodynamics of the flows of LRW being decontaminated by membrane filtration depends on the structure and composition of the porous composition pare 'nano-structured membrane-substrate'. Neglecting these peculiarities can result in drastic reduction of the time of stable LRW filtration, reduction of the operability resource of filtration systems or in quick mechanical destruction of porous materials. The paper presents the investigation results on: -the effect of the convection flows being generated by air bubbling or LRW stirring by agitator on the static sorption conditions (sorption time, medium pH, sorbent dispersity, sorbent concentration in liquid medium) and on the efficiency of extraction by

  2. Cone beam computed tomography image guidance system for a dedicated intracranial radiosurgery treatment unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruschin, Mark; Komljenovic, Philip T; Ansell, Steve; Ménard, Cynthia; Bootsma, Gregory; Cho, Young-Bin; Chung, Caroline; Jaffray, David

    2013-01-01

    Image guidance has improved the precision of fractionated radiation treatment delivery on linear accelerators. Precise radiation delivery is particularly critical when high doses are delivered to complex shapes with steep dose gradients near critical structures, as is the case for intracranial radiosurgery. To reduce potential geometric uncertainties, a cone beam computed tomography (CT) image guidance system was developed in-house to generate high-resolution images of the head at the time of treatment, using a dedicated radiosurgery unit. The performance and initial clinical use of this imaging system are described. A kilovoltage cone beam CT system was integrated with a Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion radiosurgery unit. The X-ray tube and flat-panel detector are mounted on a translational arm, which is parked above the treatment unit when not in use. Upon descent, a rotational axis provides 210° of rotation for cone beam CT scans. Mechanical integrity of the system was evaluated over a 6-month period. Subsequent clinical commissioning included end-to-end testing of targeting performance and subjective image quality performance in phantoms. The system has been used to image 2 patients, 1 of whom received single-fraction radiosurgery and 1 who received 3 fractions, using a relocatable head frame. Images of phantoms demonstrated soft tissue contrast visibility and submillimeter spatial resolution. A contrast difference of 35 HU was easily detected at a calibration dose of 1.2 cGy (center of head phantom). The shape of the mechanical flex vs scan angle was highly reproducible and exhibited cone beam CT image guidance system was successfully adapted to a radiosurgery unit. The system is capable of producing high-resolution images of bone and soft tissue. The system is in clinical use and provides excellent image guidance without invasive frames. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Government financial support for civil aircraft research, technology and development in four European countries and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, B.; Golaszewski, R.; Patten, C.; Rudman, B.; Scott, R.

    1980-01-01

    Data on the levels of government financial support for civil aircraft airframe and engine (CAAE) research and technology (R&T) in the United States and Europe (United Kingdom, West Germany, France and The Netherlands) and means of comparing these levels are provided. Data are presented for the years 1974-1977. European R&T expenditure data were obtained through visits to each of the four European countries, to the Washington office of the European Communities, and by a search of applicable literature. CAAE R&T expenditure data for the United States were obtained from NASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

  4. Subsurface Planar Vitrification Treatment of Problematic TRU Wastes: Status of a Technology Demonstration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, M.K.; Nowack, B.R.; Thompson, L.E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a status of the In Situ Transuranic Waste Delineation and Removal Project in which the GeoMelt R Subsurface Planar Vitrification TM (SPV TM ) process is being evaluated for the in situ treatment of burial sites containing remote handled mixed transuranic (TRU) waste. The GeoMelt R SPV TM process was invented and patented by Geosafe Corporation. AMEC holds the exclusive worldwide license to use this technology. The current project is part of a three-phase demonstration program to evaluate the effectiveness of the GeoMelt R SPV TM process to treat waste contained in vertical pipe units (VPUs) and caissons that were used for the disposal of remote handled transuranic wastes located at Hanford's 618-10 and 618-11 burial grounds. This project is being performed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) for use at the Hanford site and other DOE installations. The Phase I evaluation determined that removal and treatment of the 618-10/11 VPUs are beyond what can be safely accomplished using conventional excavation methods. Accordingly, a careful stepwise non-intrusive delineation approach and treatment using the GeoMelt R SPV TM technology, followed by removal, characterization, and disposal of the resulting inert vitrified mass was identified as the preferred alternative. Phase II of the project, which started in July 2004, included a full-scale non-radioactive demonstration of AMEC's GeoMelt R SPV TM process on a mock VPU configured to match the actual VPUs. The non-radioactive demonstration (completed in May 2005) was performed to confirm the approach and design before proceeding to a radioactive ('hot') demonstration on an actual VPU. This demonstration took approximately 130 hours, processed the entire mock VPU, and resulted in a vitrified monolith weighing an estimated 90 tonnes. [1] Plans for a radioactive demonstration on an actual VPU are being developed for CY 2006. In addition to demonstrating GeoMelt R SPV TM , delineation techniques are being

  5. Upgrading of Wastewater Treatment Plants Through the Use of Unconventional Treatment Technologies: Removal of Lidocaine, Tramadol, Venlafaxine and Their Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Püttmann

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and removal efficiencies of the pharmaceuticals lidocaine (LDC, tramadol (TRA and venlafaxine (VEN, and their major active metabolites monoethylglycinexylidide (MEGX, O-desmethyltramadol (ODT and O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV were studied at four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs equipped with activated sludge treatment technologies. In parallel to activated sludge treatment, the removal efficiency of the compounds in pilot- and full-scale projects installed at the WWTPs was investigated. Within these projects two different treatment methods were tested: adsorption onto powdered/granulated activated carbon (PAC/GAC and ozonation. The metabolite MEGX was not detected in any sample. The concentrations of the target analytes in wastewater effluents resulting from activated sludge treatment ranged from 55 to 183 (LDC, 88 to 416 (TRA, 50 to 245 (ODT, 22 to 176 (VEN and 77 to 520 ng L−1 (ODV. In the pilot project with subsequent treatment with PAC/GAC, the mean concentrations of the analytes were between

  6. Advanced evaporation/concentration treatment technology for radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhijian; Lu Zhiming; Yu Ruixia

    1997-01-01

    A new and effective two stage moisture separator which removes remaining water droplet and free ion in secondary steam can be added between the evaporator and the condenser of existing liquid waste treatment system. Its addition increases decontamination factor to more than ten times. Ion content in condensed water is decreased considerably. Condensed water meets emission standard without passing through ion exchanger. Detail fundamentals are analysed and results are given: (1) system diagram, (2) structure sketch of the two stage moisture separator, (3) laboratory test results

  7. Energy positive domestic wastewater treatment: the roles of anaerobic and phototrophic technologies

    KAUST Repository

    Shoener, B. D.

    2014-01-01

    The negative energy balance of wastewater treatment could be reversed if anaerobic technologies were implemented for organic carbon oxidation and phototrophic technologies were utilized for nutrient recovery. To characterize the potential for energy positive wastewater treatment by anaerobic and phototrophic biotechnologies we performed a comprehensive literature review and analysis, focusing on energy production (as kJ per capita per day and as kJ m-3 of wastewater treated), energy consumption, and treatment efficacy. Anaerobic technologies included in this review were the anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR), anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR), anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFB), upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), microbial electrolysis cell (MEC), and microbial fuel cell (MFC). Phototrophic technologies included were the high rate algal pond (HRAP), photobioreactor (PBR), stirred tank reactor, waste stabilization pond (WSP), and algal turf scrubber (ATS). Average energy recovery efficiencies for anaerobic technologies ranged from 1.6% (MFC) to 47.5% (ABR). When including typical percent chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals by each technology, this range would equate to roughly 40-1200 kJ per capita per day or 110-3300 kJ m-3 of treated wastewater. The average bioenergy feedstock production by phototrophic technologies ranged from 1200-4700 kJ per capita per day or 3400-13000 kJ m-3 (exceeding anaerobic technologies and, at times, the energetic content of the influent organic carbon), with usable energy production dependent upon downstream conversion to fuels. Energy consumption analysis showed that energy positive anaerobic wastewater treatment by emerging technologies would require significant reductions of parasitic losses from mechanical mixing and gas sparging. Technology targets and critical barriers for energy-producing technologies are identified, and the role of integrated anaerobic and phototrophic

  8. Energy positive domestic wastewater treatment: the roles of anaerobic and phototrophic technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoener, B D; Bradley, I M; Cusick, R D; Guest, J S

    2014-05-01

    The negative energy balance of wastewater treatment could be reversed if anaerobic technologies were implemented for organic carbon oxidation and phototrophic technologies were utilized for nutrient recovery. To characterize the potential for energy positive wastewater treatment by anaerobic and phototrophic biotechnologies we performed a comprehensive literature review and analysis, focusing on energy production (as kJ per capita per day and as kJ m(-3) of wastewater treated), energy consumption, and treatment efficacy. Anaerobic technologies included in this review were the anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR), anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR), anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFB), upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), microbial electrolysis cell (MEC), and microbial fuel cell (MFC). Phototrophic technologies included were the high rate algal pond (HRAP), photobioreactor (PBR), stirred tank reactor, waste stabilization pond (WSP), and algal turf scrubber (ATS). Average energy recovery efficiencies for anaerobic technologies ranged from 1.6% (MFC) to 47.5% (ABR). When including typical percent chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals by each technology, this range would equate to roughly 40-1200 kJ per capita per day or 110-3300 kJ m(-3) of treated wastewater. The average bioenergy feedstock production by phototrophic technologies ranged from 1200-4700 kJ per capita per day or 3400-13 000 kJ m(-3) (exceeding anaerobic technologies and, at times, the energetic content of the influent organic carbon), with usable energy production dependent upon downstream conversion to fuels. Energy consumption analysis showed that energy positive anaerobic wastewater treatment by emerging technologies would require significant reductions of parasitic losses from mechanical mixing and gas sparging. Technology targets and critical barriers for energy-producing technologies are identified, and the role of integrated anaerobic and

  9. Prospects of effective microorganisms technology in wastes treatment in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emad A Shalaby

    2011-01-01

    Sludge dewatering and treatment may cost as much as the wastewater treatment. Usually large proportion of the pollutants in wastewater is organic. They are attacked by saprophytic microorganisms, i.e. organisms that feed upon dead organic matter. Activity of organisms causes decomposition of organic matter and destroys them, where the bacteria convert the organic matter or other constituents in the wastewater to new cells, water, gases and other products. Demolition activities, including renovation/remodeling works and complete or selective removal/demolishing of existing structures either by man-made processes or by natural disasters, create an extensive amount of wastes. These demolition wastes are characterized as heterogeneous mixtures of building materials that are usually contaminated with chemicals and dirt. In developing countries, it is estimated that demolition wastes comprise 20% to 30% of the total annual solid wastes. In Egypt, the daily quantity of construction and demolition (C&D) waste has been estimated as 10 000 tones. That is equivalent to one third of the total daily municipal solid wastes generated per day in Egypt. The zabbaliin have since expanded their activities and now take the waste they collect back to their garbage villages where it is sorted into recyclable components: paper, plastics, rags, glass, metal and food. The food waste is fed to pigs and the other items are sold to recycling centers. This paper summarizes the wastewater and solid wastes management in Egypt now and future.

  10. The application of ionising radiation in industrial wastewater treatment technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kos, L. [Inst. of Knitting Technology and Techniques, Lodz (Poland); Perkowski, J. [Inst. of Applied Radiation Chemistry, Technical Univ. of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Ledakowicz, S. [Dept. of Bioprocess Engineering, Technical Univ. of Lodz, Lodz (Poland)

    2003-07-01

    An attempt was made to apply radiation techniques in the treatment of industrial wastewater from a dairy, brewery and sugar factory. For degradation of pollutants present in the wastewater, the following methods were used: irradiation, irradiation combined with aeration, ozonation, and combined irradiation and ozonation. For all three types of wastewater, the best method among these listed above appeared to be the method of irradiation combined with ozonation. Most degradable was the wastewater produced in sugar factories, and the least biodegradable appeared to be dairy wastewater. Depending on the dose of ozone and radiation, a maximum 60% reduction of COD was obtained. No effect of the wastewater aeration on its degradation by radiation was found. Changes in the content of mineral compounds were observed in none of the cases. The process of biological treatment of wastewater was carried out in a low-loaded, wetted bed. Pretreatment of the wastewater had no significant effect on the improvement of the biological step operation. Some effect was observed only in the case of the wastewater coming from a sugar factory. For medium concentrated wastewater from food industry, it is not economically justified to apply the pretreatment with the use of ionising radiation. (orig.)

  11. Comparing Guidelines for Statin Treatment in Canada and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Deirdre A; Bushnik, Tracey; Manuel, Douglas G; Anderson, Todd J

    2015-07-14

    New guidelines for cardiovascular disease risk assessment and statin eligibility have recently been published in the United States by the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association (ACC-AHA). It is unknown how these guidelines compare with the Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) recommendations. Using data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey 2007-2011, we estimated the cardiovascular disease risk and proportion of the Canadian population, aged 40 to 75 years without cardiovascular disease, who would theoretically be eligible for statin treatment under both the CCS and ACC-AHA guidelines. The survey sample used (n=1975) represented 13.1 million community dwelling Canadians between the ages of 40 and 75 years. In comparing the CVD risk assessment methods, we found that calculated CVD risk was higher based on the CCS guidelines compared with the ACC-AHA guidelines. Despite this, a similar proportion and number of Canadians would be eligible for statin treatment under the 2 sets of recommendations. Some discordance in recommendations was found within subgroups of the population, with the CCS guidelines recommending more treatment for individuals who are younger, with a family history of CVD, or with chronic kidney disease. The ACC-AHA recommend more treatment for people who are older (age 60+ years). These results likely overestimate the treatment rate under both guidelines because, in primary prevention, a clinician-patient discussion must occur before treatment and determines uptake. Implementing the ACC-AHA lipid treatment guidelines in Canada would not result in an increase in individuals eligible for statin treatment. In fact, the proportion of the population recommended for statin treatment would decrease slightly and be targeted at different subgroups of the population. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  12. [Evaluation of treatment technology of odor pollution source in petrochemical industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Gui-Qin; Sui, Li-Hua; Guo, Ya-Feng; Ma, Chuan-Jun; Yang, Wen-Yu; Gao, Yang

    2013-12-01

    Using an environmental technology assessment system, we put forward the evaluation index system for treatment technology of the typical odor pollution sources in the petroleum refining process, which has been applied in the assessment of the industrial technology. And then the best available techniques are selected for emissions of gas refinery sewage treatment plant, headspace gas of acidic water jars, headspace gas of cold coke jugs/intermediate oil tank/dirty oil tank, exhaust of oxidative sweetening, and vapors of loading and unloading oil.

  13. CyberKnife SRS: new technologies that enhance the treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, A.

    2008-01-01

    The CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery System (Accuracy Incorporated, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is used worldwide to treat tumors and neurological disorders anywhere in the body with sub-millimetre beam delivery accuracy. Accuracy has developed a number of new technologies in recent years to enhance the treatment of cancer patients. Such new technologies include a fast Monte Carlo Dose Calculation algorithm, Sequential Optimization dose planning, the Iris TM Variable Aperture Collimator, an 800 MU/min Linear Accelerator, and Optimized Path Traversal. These technologies enable physicists and physicians to plan treatments quickly and easily and deliver them with unrivalled accuracy and precision

  14. Plasmarc technology for the treatment of metallic radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffelner, W.; Weigel, H.

    1999-01-01

    The Plasmarc incineration and melting technology is suitable for processing radioactive wastes arising from the fields of medicine, industry and research, and from the operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. Combustible wastes can be thermally decomposed and metals melted in the same facility together, and the incineration products and metals are thus turned into a form suitable for disposal in one step. In secondary metallurgy the Plasmarc technology can be used for melting scrap metal and recovering usable metals from metalliferous wastes, particularly composites of different metals and ceramics and metals and plastics. In the case of special wastes, it is possible to thermally decompose otherwise problematic residues in an oxygen free atmosphere at high temperatures. Material construction in the incineration mode could be in 200-litre standard drums with a total weight up to 300 kilograms if an average processing efficiency of 200 kilograms of mixed waste per hours is assumed. Melting: In the melting mode for metals, the drums coming from the storage rack are placed in the slowly rotating furnace using a grabbing device. Because of the low speed of rotation, the central outlet is initially blocked with a stopper. The drums, with contents, are then molten in the plasma arc. As soon as there is a melted mass, the speed of rotation of the furnace is increased until there is no material outflow when the stopper is removed. The stopped is then removed and the speed of rotation is reduced once again to allow the melt to flow out, exactly as in the incineration mode. Mixing: In the mixing mode, metallic/nonmetallic mixtures (e.g. reinforced concrete) can be processed. The meltable components are melted and the organic components are thermally decomposed. Because of differences in density, the inorganic residues float on the surface of the molten metal and can be vitrified using additives. These different operating modes of the Plasmarc furnace allow various

  15. Computational fluid dynamics research at the United Technologies Research Center requiring supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgrebe, Anton J.

    1987-01-01

    An overview of research activities at the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) in the area of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is presented. The requirement and use of various levels of computers, including supercomputers, for the CFD activities is described. Examples of CFD directed toward applications to helicopters, turbomachinery, heat exchangers, and the National Aerospace Plane are included. Helicopter rotor codes for the prediction of rotor and fuselage flow fields and airloads were developed with emphasis on rotor wake modeling. Airflow and airload predictions and comparisons with experimental data are presented. Examples are presented of recent parabolized Navier-Stokes and full Navier-Stokes solutions for hypersonic shock-wave/boundary layer interaction, and hydrogen/air supersonic combustion. In addition, other examples of CFD efforts in turbomachinery Navier-Stokes methodology and separated flow modeling are presented. A brief discussion of the 3-tier scientific computing environment is also presented, in which the researcher has access to workstations, mid-size computers, and supercomputers.

  16. An Ethnographic Study of Health Information Technology Use in Three Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Myles; Paradis, Elise; Gropper, Michael A; Kitto, Simon; Reeves, Scott; Pronovost, Peter

    2017-08-01

    To identify the impact of a full suite of health information technology (HIT) on the relationships that support safety and quality among intensive care unit (ICU) clinicians. A year-long comparative ethnographic study of three academic ICUs was carried out. A total of 446 hours of observational data was collected in the form of field notes. A subset of these observations-134 hours-was devoted to job-shadowing individual clinicians and conducting a time study of their HIT usage. Significant variation in HIT implementation rates and usage was noted. Average HIT use on the two "high-use" ICUs was 49 percent. On the "low-use" ICU, it was 10 percent. Clinicians on the high-use ICUs experienced "silo" effects with potential safety and quality implications. HIT work was associated with spatial, data, and social silos that separated ICU clinicians from one another and their patients. Situational awareness, communication, and patient satisfaction were negatively affected by this siloing. HIT has the potential to accentuate social and professional divisions as clinical communications shift from being in-person to electronically mediated. Socio-technically informed usability testing is recommended for those hospitals that have yet to implement HIT. For those hospitals already implementing HIT, we suggest rapid, locally driven qualitative assessments focused on developing solutions to identified gaps between HIT usage patterns and organizational quality goals. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  17. Independent dose per monitor unit review of eight U.S.A. proton treatment facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyers, M. F.; Ibbott, G. S.; Grant, R. L.; Summers, P. A.; Followill, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Compare the dose per monitor unit at different proton treatment facilities using three different dosimetry methods. Methods: Measurements of dose per monitor unit were performed by a single group at eight facilities using 11 test beams and up to six different clinical portal treatment sites. These measurements were compared to the facility reported dose per monitor unit values. Results: Agreement between the measured and reported doses was similar using any of the three dosimetry methods. Use of the ICRU 59 N D,w based method gave results approximately 3% higher than both the ICRU 59 N X and ICRU 78 (TRS-398) N D,w based methods. Conclusions: Any single dosimetry method could be used for multi-institution trials with similar conformity between facilities. A multi-institutional trial could support facilities using both the ICRU 59 N X based and ICRU 78 (TRS-398) N D,w based methods but use of the ICRU 59 N D,w based method should not be allowed simultaneously with the other two until the difference is resolved

  18. Design of chemical treatment unit for radioactive liquid wastes in Serpong nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimin, Z.; Walman, E.; Santoso, P.; Purnomo, S.; Sugito; Suwardiyono; Wintono

    1996-01-01

    The chemical treatment unit for radioactive liquid wastes arising from nuclear fuel fabrication, radioisotopes production and radiometallurgy facility has been designed. The design of chemical processing unit is based on the characteristics of liquid wastes containing fluors from uranium fluoride conversion process to ammonium uranyl carbonate on the fuel fabrication. The chemical treatment has the following process steps: coagulation-precipitation of fluoride ion by calcium hydroxide coagulant, separation of supernatant solution from sludge, coagulation of remaining fluoride on the supernatant solution by alum, separation of supernatant from sludge, and than precipitation of fluors on the supernatant by polymer resin WWS 116. The processing unit is composed of 3 storage tanks for raw liquid wastes (capacity 1 m 3 per tank), 5 storage tanks for chemicals (capacity 0.5 m 3 per tank), 2 mixing reactors (capacity 0.5 m 3 per reactor), 1 storage tank for supernatant solution (capacity 1 m 3 ), and 1 storage tank for sludge (capacity 1 m 3 )

  19. Critical factors for bioenergy technology implementation. Five case studies of bioenergy markets in the United States, Sweden and Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Anders [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest-Industry-Market Studies

    1998-07-01

    This report analyses the driving forces of, and barriers to, biomass energy technology implementation with the objective of defining the most important factors behind the growth of bioenergy markets and suggesting strategies for policy makers and investors. The approach is to describe the important factors for the development of real bioenergy markets at two levels: (1) Institutional, primarily policy, and (2) market structure. Concepts from economic theory, primarily transaction cost theory and industrial organisation, are used in a qualitative way. The report is based on literature studies and field studies of bioenergy markets in three countries: the United States of America, Austria, and Sweden. It is divided into five sections. After the introduction in section one, literature with relevance for this study is reviewed in section two. In section three the energy policy and energy sectors of each country are described. The descriptions include an overview of the biomass energy sectors. Five cases of developed bioenergy markets in the three countries are presented in section four. The cases are residential heating with wood pellets in New Hampshire, United States, biomass power production in Maine, residential heating with pellets in Sweden, biomass district heating in Sweden, and biomass district heating in Austria. All markets are described in terms of the historical development, technical issues, economics, market structure and local policy influences. In the discussion in section five a number of key factors behind the success or failure of bioenergy are presented. Six factors are most important: (1) Complementaries between the bioenergy operations and another activity (for instance when the bioenergy production uses biomass waste products from another industry); (2) economics of scale within the bioenergy business through larger production series, standards, specialization etc.; (3) a competitive bioenergy market (Many sellers and buyers operate in the

  20. Critical factors for bioenergy technology implementation. Five case studies of bioenergy markets in the United States, Sweden and Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, Anders

    1998-01-01

    This report analyses the driving forces of, and barriers to, biomass energy technology implementation with the objective of defining the most important factors behind the growth of bioenergy markets and suggesting strategies for policy makers and investors. The approach is to describe the important factors for the development of real bioenergy markets at two levels: (1) Institutional, primarily policy, and (2) market structure. Concepts from economic theory, primarily transaction cost theory and industrial organisation, are used in a qualitative way. The report is based on literature studies and field studies of bioenergy markets in three countries: the United States of America, Austria, and Sweden. It is divided into five sections. After the introduction in section one, literature with relevance for this study is reviewed in section two. In section three the energy policy and energy sectors of each country are described. The descriptions include an overview of the biomass energy sectors. Five cases of developed bioenergy markets in the three countries are presented in section four. The cases are residential heating with wood pellets in New Hampshire, United States, biomass power production in Maine, residential heating with pellets in Sweden, biomass district heating in Sweden, and biomass district heating in Austria. All markets are described in terms of the historical development, technical issues, economics, market structure and local policy influences. In the discussion in section five a number of key factors behind the success or failure of bioenergy are presented. Six factors are most important: (1) Complementaries between the bioenergy operations and another activity (for instance when the bioenergy production uses biomass waste products from another industry); (2) economics of scale within the bioenergy business through larger production series, standards, specialization etc.; (3) a competitive bioenergy market (Many sellers and buyers operate in the

  1. Critical factors for bioenergy technology implementation. Five case studies of bioenergy markets in the United States, Sweden and Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Anders [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest-Industry-Market Studies

    1998-07-01

    This report analyses the driving forces of, and barriers to, biomass energy technology implementation with the objective of defining the most important factors behind the growth of bioenergy markets and suggesting strategies for policy makers and investors. The approach is to describe the important factors for the development of real bioenergy markets at two levels: (1) Institutional, primarily policy, and (2) market structure. Concepts from economic theory, primarily transaction cost theory and industrial organisation, are used in a qualitative way. The report is based on literature studies and field studies of bioenergy markets in three countries: the United States of America, Austria, and Sweden. It is divided into five sections. After the introduction in section one, literature with relevance for this study is reviewed in section two. In section three the energy policy and energy sectors of each country are described. The descriptions include an overview of the biomass energy sectors. Five cases of developed bioenergy markets in the three countries are presented in section four. The cases are residential heating with wood pellets in New Hampshire, United States, biomass power production in Maine, residential heating with pellets in Sweden, biomass district heating in Sweden, and biomass district heating in Austria. All markets are described in terms of the historical development, technical issues, economics, market structure and local policy influences. In the discussion in section five a number of key factors behind the success or failure of bioenergy are presented. Six factors are most important: (1) Complementaries between the bioenergy operations and another activity (for instance when the bioenergy production uses biomass waste products from another industry); (2) economics of scale within the bioenergy business through larger production series, standards, specialization etc.; (3) a competitive bioenergy market (Many sellers and buyers operate in the

  2. The Development of Treatment Process Technology for Radioactive Gravel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shon, Dong Bin; Kim, Gye Nam; Park, Hye Min; Kim, Ki Hong; Kim, Wan Suk; Lee, Kun Woo; Lee, Ki Won; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The soil washing method holds great promise for the decontamination of contaminated soil as it is very efficient at removal and is time-effective for a great deal of contaminated soils. In addition, this method compensates for a weak point in that is generates a great deal of uranium-contaminated leachate with a short reaction time. Therefore, the soil washing method technology is a good method to remove the initial radioactive substance. The soil dimension compositions consist of clay with small particle sizes, and gravel of larger particle sizes than clay. Also, large gravel creates several problems. Gravel weakens the intensity of the equipment. In addition, intercept soil is discharged in the equipment. And interfere with the pedal recurrence occurs. Therefore, it is necessary to classify the soil. The gravel particle size ranges from 0.5cm to 7.5cm and the granulated gravel particle size ranges from 7.5cm to 20cm. We suppose that the radioactive concentrations are stronger in soil particles larger than the soil particle size (below a 0.5cm diameter). The purpose of this study is to develop a soil washing system for uranium gravel and to define the most suitable operational conditions for the individual elemental equipment in a soil washing system for decontaminating the radioactive gravel from contaminated soil

  3. Development of exhaust gas treatment technologies for environment protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, E.; Stefanescu, I.; Stanciu, V.; Niculescu, V.; Sandru, C.; Armeanu, A.; Bucura, F.; Sisu, C.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The emission of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and other pollutants which result from burning fossil fuels has been identified as the major contributor to global warming and climate change. However, for the immediate term over the next 10 - 20 years at least, the world will continue to rely on fossil fuels as the source of primary energy. The challenge for the fossil fuel industry is to find cost-effective solutions that will reduce the release of CO 2 and other pollutants into the atmosphere. The focus of this paper is on the ability to treat the exhaust gas from fossil fuel power plants in order to capture and store the CO 2 and remove other pollutants such as SO x and NO x which are released in the atmosphere. In summary, capture/separation costs represent the largest financial impediment for this types of plants. Hence, efficient, cost-effective capture/separation technologies will need to be developed in order to allow their large-scale use. (authors)

  4. MBR technology: a promising approach for the (pre-)treatment of hospital wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, S; Cramer, C; Mauer, C; Köster, S; Schröder, H Fr; Pinnekamp, J

    2012-01-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology is a very reliable and extensively tested solution for biological wastewater treatment. Nowadays, separate treatment of highly polluted wastewater streams especially from hospitals and other health care facilities is currently under investigation worldwide. In this context, the MBR technology will play a decisive role because an effluent widely cleaned up from solids and nutrients is absolutely mandatory for a subsequent further elimination of organic trace pollutants. Taking hospital wastewater as an example, the aim of this study was to investigate to what extent MBR technology is an adequate 'pre-treatment' solution for further elimination of trace pollutants. Therefore, we investigated - within a 2-year period - the performance of a full-scale hospital wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) equipped with a MBR by referring to conventional chemical and microbiological standard parameters. Furthermore, we measured the energy consumption and tested different operating conditions. According to our findings the MBR treatment of the hospital wastewater was highly efficient in terms of the removal of solids and nutrients. Finally, we did not observe any major adverse effects on the operation and performance of the MBR system which potentially could derive from the composition of the hospital wastewater. In total, the present study proved that MBR technology is a very efficient and reliable treatment approach for the treatment of highly polluted wastewater from hospitals and can be recommended as a suitable pre-treatment solution for further trace pollutant removal.

  5. A Productivity Analysis of Adopting Information Technology for the Treatment of Autism, with Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Philip

    2016-01-01

    The adoption of information technology might improve the productivity of autism treatment centers. Productivity improvement might resolve the problem of the insufficient supply of autism treatment service. The problem caused tremendous financial burdens to private individuals and public healthcare systems. The researcher explored the relationships…

  6. The impact of treatment complexity and computer-control delivery technology on treatment delivery errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraass, Benedick A.; Lash, Kathy L.; Matrone, Gwynne M.; Volkman, Susan K.; McShan, Daniel L.; Kessler, Marc L.; Lichter, Allen S.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze treatment delivery errors for three-dimensional (3D) conformal therapy performed at various levels of treatment delivery automation and complexity, ranging from manual field setup to virtually complete computer-controlled treatment delivery using a computer-controlled conformal radiotherapy system (CCRS). Methods and Materials: All treatment delivery errors which occurred in our department during a 15-month period were analyzed. Approximately 34,000 treatment sessions (114,000 individual treatment segments [ports]) on four treatment machines were studied. All treatment delivery errors logged by treatment therapists or quality assurance reviews (152 in all) were analyzed. Machines 'M1' and 'M2' were operated in a standard manual setup mode, with no record and verify system (R/V). MLC machines 'M3' and 'M4' treated patients under the control of the CCRS system, which (1) downloads the treatment delivery plan from the planning system; (2) performs some (or all) of the machine set up and treatment delivery for each field; (3) monitors treatment delivery; (4) records all treatment parameters; and (5) notes exceptions to the electronically-prescribed plan. Complete external computer control is not available on M3; therefore, it uses as many CCRS features as possible, while M4 operates completely under CCRS control and performs semi-automated and automated multi-segment intensity modulated treatments. Analysis of treatment complexity was based on numbers of fields, individual segments, nonaxial and noncoplanar plans, multisegment intensity modulation, and pseudoisocentric treatments studied for a 6-month period (505 patients) concurrent with the period in which the delivery errors were obtained. Treatment delivery time was obtained from the computerized scheduling system (for manual treatments) or from CCRS system logs. Treatment therapists rotate among the machines; therefore, this analysis does not depend on fixed therapist staff on particular

  7. Status, direction, and critical issues of waste treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowlton, D.E.; Bonner, W.F.

    1983-06-01

    Nuclear power production and related activities generate radioactive wastes that must be safely managed to protect workers and the general public. The liquid-fed ceramic melting (LFCM) vitrification process is the reference process for vitrifying high-level nuclear waste in the US as well as in Japan and India. The French are currently using a rotary kiln calciner/metallic melter system at their reprocessing facility. Compaction or controlled-air incineration are the currently preferred options for low-level waste solids, followed by immobilization in an appropriate matrix. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 is a significant step in proceeding with waste treatment and disposal. Programs can now build on past work to assure that public safety and regulations atre met in a cost-effective manner. 7 references, 2 figures, 3 tables

  8. Status, direction, and critical issues of waste treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, D.E.; Bonner, W.F.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear power production and related activities generate radioactive wastes that must be safely managed to protect workers and the general public. The liquid-fed ceramic melting (LFCM) vitrification process is the reference process for vitrifying high-level nuclear waste in the U.S. as well as in Japan and India. The French are currently using a rotary kiln calciner/metallic melter system at their reprocessing facility. Compaction or controlled-air incineration are the currently preferred options for low-level waste solids, followed by immobilization in an appropriate matrix. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 is a significant step in proceeding with waste treatment and disposal. Programs can now build on past work to assure that public safety and regulations are met in a cost-effective manner

  9. Oil sludge treatment using thermal and ash vitrification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohyiza Baan; Sharifah Aishah, S.A.K.; Mohamad Puad Abu; Mohd Abdul Wahab Yusof

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, an experimental study of crude oil sludge terminal for volume reduction and radionuclide stability was treated by using integrated thermal treatment system. The pre-thermal treatment of oil sludge was carried out in fluidized bed combustor at temperature 500 degree Celsius, and then the ash produced from that process was vitrified in high temperature furnace at temperature above 1000 degree Celsius. The main contents of oil sludge are composed of 80% carbon, 11% sulphur, 50% volatile matter and 30% ash. The high heating value was 35,722 kJ/ kg. Analysis by gamma spectrometer was showed the radionuclide as Ra-226 (52.23 Bq/ kg), Ra-228 (47.48 Bq/ kg), K-40 (172.55 Bq/ kg), whereas analysis by neutron activation analysis (NAA) for U (0.5 μg/ g) and Th (0.5 μg/ g) was present in low concentration. Trace elements as Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, As, Pb, Al, Zn, Ni was determine by using ICPMS. Thermal analysis has shown loss of mass and residual decomposition in the TG and DTA curves. The concentration of radionuclide in ash from fluidized bed combustor process was increased for Ra-226 (264.27 Bq/ kg) and Ra-228 (253.77 Bq/ kg). The slag was produced from ash vitrification process was characterized by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and showed that silica oxide and potassium oxide were found. The slag characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that slag composed of crystalline. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test showed that the slag resulted in very low leachability of heavy metals. Most of the toxic metals are fixed in the vitrification process and the leachate values meet the standard level of Malaysian Department of Environmental (DOE) of hazardous materials. The average concentration of each element varied between 1.5-14.0 mg/ kg. (author)

  10. Ordered Effects of Technology Education Units on Higher-Order Critical Thinking Skills of Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica, Kern D.

    2010-01-01

    In this quasi-experimental quantitative study, 105 eighth grade students at a suburban middle school in New York State participated in a seven month-long project involving the ordered effects of the technology education units of Lego[R] Mindstorms(TM) NXT Robotics System, Digital Storytelling with Microsoft Windows Movie Maker, and the Marble Maze…

  11. Analyzing the Curricula of Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Technology-Related Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaden, Abdullah; Ku, Heng-Yu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze on-campus and online PhD programs in educational technology-related fields in the United States. In particular, it sought to evaluate the most common program titles; core, elective, and research courses based on program curricula. The research design was quantitative content analysis and data were collected…

  12. Technological advances in the treatment of trauma: a review of promising practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lisa A; Hassija, Christina M; Clapp, Joshua D

    2012-11-01

    Given the availability of empirically supported practices for addressing posttraumatic stress disorder and other forms of trauma-related distress, the development and implementation of new technology to deliver these treatments is exciting. Technological innovations in this literature aim to expand availability of empirically based intervention, increase treatment adherence and acceptability, and overcome barriers commonly encountered with conventional trauma-focused treatment. Much of the current research on these technological developments consists of brief reviews and case studies of the separate therapy modalities. Although this work serves to document the appeal and utility of these innovations, it does not provide comprehensive information about the host of options available. To that end, the three general categories of technological advances in trauma therapy (i.e., videoconferencing, e-Health, virtual reality) are reviewed here, including information regarding their empirical support and suggestions for future research and clinical practice.

  13. Pilot demonstrations of arsenic treatment technologies in U.S. Department of Energy Arsenic Water Technology Partnership program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, Randy L.; Aragon, Alicia R.; Siegal Malcolm D.; Dwyer, Brian P.

    2005-01-01

    The Arsenic Water Technology Partnership program is a multi-year program funded by a congressional appropriation through the Department of Energy. The program is designed to move technologies from benchscale tests to field demonstrations. It will enable water utilities, particularly those serving small, rural communities and Indian tribes, to implement the most cost-effective solutions to their arsenic treatment needs. As part of the Arsenic Water Technology Partnership program, Sandia National Laboratories is carrying out field demonstration testing of innovative technologies that have the potential to substantially reduce the costs associated with arsenic removal from drinking water. The scope for this work includes: (1) Selection of sites and identification of technologies for pilot demonstrations; (2) Laboratory studies to develop rapid small-scale test methods; and (3) Pilot-scale studies at community sites involving side-by-side tests of innovative technologies. The goal of site selection is to identify sites that allow examination of treatment processes and systems under conditions that are relevant to different geochemical settings throughout the country. A number of candidate sites have been identified through reviews of groundwater quality databases, conference proceedings and discussions with state and local officials. These include sites in New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, Oklahoma, Michigan, and California. Candidate technologies for the pilot tests are being reviewed through vendor forums, proof-of-principle benchscale studies managed by the American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AwwaRF) and the WERC design contest. The review considers as many potential technologies as possible and screens out unsuitable ones by considering data from past performance testing, expected costs, complexity of operation and maturity of the technology. The pilot test configurations will depend on the site-specific conditions such as access, power availability

  14. Adherence to Technology-Mediated Insomnia Treatment: A Meta-Analysis, Interviews, and Focus Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsch, Corine; Lancee, Jaap; Beun, Robbert Jan; Neerincx, Mark A; Brinkman, Willem-Paul

    2015-09-04

    Several technologies have been proposed to support the reduction of insomnia complaints. A user-centered assessment of these technologies could provide insight into underlying factors related to treatment adherence. Gaining insight into adherence to technology-mediated insomnia treatment as a solid base for improving those adherence rates by applying adherence-enhancing strategies. Adherence to technology-mediated sleep products was studied in three ways. First, a meta-analysis was performed to investigate adherence rates in technology-mediated insomnia therapy. Several databases were queried for technology-mediated insomnia treatments. After inclusion and exclusion steps, data from 18 studies were retrieved and aggregated to find an average adherence rate. Next, 15 semistructured interviews about sleep-support technologies were conducted to investigate perceived adherence. Lastly, several scenarios were written about the usage of a virtual sleep coach that could support adherence rates. The scenarios were discussed in six different focus groups consisting of potential users (n=15), sleep experts (n=7), and coaches (n=9). From the meta-analysis, average treatment adherence appeared to be approximately 52% (95% CI 43%-61%) for technology-mediated insomnia treatments. This means that, on average, half of the treatment exercises were not executed, suggesting there is a substantial need for adherence and room for improvement in this area. However, the users in the interviews believed they adhered quite well to their sleep products. Users mentioned relying on personal commitment (ie, willpower) for therapy adherence. Participants of the focus groups reconfirmed their belief in the effectiveness of personal commitment, which they regarded as more effective than adherence-enhancing strategies. Although adherence rates for insomnia interventions indicate extensive room for improvement, users might not consider adherence to be a problem; they believe willpower to be an

  15. Design of Biochemical Oxidation Process Engineering Unit for Treatment of Organic Radioactive Liquid Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainus Salimin; Endang Nuraeni; Mirawaty; Tarigan, Cerdas

    2010-01-01

    Organic radioactive liquid waste from nuclear industry consist of detergent waste from nuclear laundry, 30% TBP-kerosene solvent waste from purification or recovery of uranium from process failure of nuclear fuel fabrication, and solvent waste containing D 2 EHPA, TOPO, and kerosene from purification of phosphoric acid. The waste is dangerous and toxic matter having low pH, high COD and BOD, and also low radioactivity. Biochemical oxidation process is the effective method for detoxification of organic waste and decontamination of radionuclide by bio sorption. The result process are sludges and non radioactive supernatant. The existing treatment facilities radioactive waste in Serpong can not use for treatment of that’s organics waste. Dio chemical oxidation process engineering unit for continuous treatment of organic radioactive liquid waste on the capacity of 1.6 L/h has been designed and constructed the equipment of process unit consist of storage tank of 100 L capacity for nutrition solution, 2 storage tanks of 100 L capacity per each for liquid waste, reactor oxidation of 120 L, settling tank of 50 L capacity storage tank of 55 L capacity for sludge, storage tank of 50 capacity for supernatant. Solution on the reactor R-01 are added by bacteria, nutrition and aeration using two difference aerators until biochemical oxidation occurs. The sludge from reactor of R-01 are recirculated to the settling tank of R-02 and on the its reverse operation biological sludge will be settled, and supernatant will be overflow. (author)

  16. Community unit performance: factors associated with childhood diarrhea and appropriate treatment in Nyanza Province, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatsu, Yoshito; Tanaka, Junichi; Ogawa, Kazuya; Ogendo, Kenneth; Honda, Sumihisa

    2017-02-16

    The government of Kenya launched its community health strategy in 2006 to improve certain aspects of its community health program. Under the strategy, community units (CUs) were established as level one of the Kenyan health system. A core member at this level is the community health worker (CHW). The objective of this study was to assess the relationship among the performance of the CUs, the prevalence of childhood diarrhea and appropriate treatment for it by controlling individual and community-level factors. The main dataset used in this study was the 2011 Nyanza Province county-based Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS). In addition, based on the list of community units in Nyanza Province, Kenya, we identified the area's CUs and their performance. MICS data and data on CUs were merged using sub-location names. There were 17 individual and two community-level independent variables in this study. Bivariate analysis and a multilevel logistic regression were performed. Factors significantly associated with a lower prevalence of diarrhea among children under five were the child's increasing age, middle-aged household heads, children who received more attention, water treatment and rural versus urban area residence, while male children and highly performing CUs were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of diarrhea. In addition, middle wealth index, severity of diarrhea and middle- and high-CU performance were significantly associated with appropriate treatment for childhood diarrhea. Although this study found that children living in areas of high CU performance were more likely to have diarrhea, these areas would have been identified as being more at risk for diarrhea prevalence and other health concerns, prioritized for the establishment of a CU and allocated more resources to improve the performance of CUs. A higher CU performance was significantly associated with the appropriate treatment. It was suggested that CHWs could have a positive effect on

  17. Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes as decentralized water treatment technologies to remediate domestic washing machine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Alexsandro Jhones; Costa, Emily Cintia Tossi de Araújo; da Silva, Djalma Ribeiro; Garcia-Segura, Sergi; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos Alberto

    2018-03-01

    Water scarcity is one of the major concerns worldwide. In order to secure this appreciated natural resource, management and development of water treatment technologies are mandatory. One feasible alternative is the consideration of water recycling/reuse at the household scale. Here, the treatment of actual washing machine effluent by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes was considered. Electrochemical oxidation and electro-Fenton technologies can be applied as decentralized small-scale water treatment devices. Therefore, efficient decolorization and total organic abatement have been followed. The results demonstrate the promising performance of solar photoelectro-Fenton process, where complete color and organic removal was attained after 240 min of treatment under optimum conditions by applying a current density of 66.6 mA cm -2 . Thus, electrochemical technologies emerge as promising water-sustainable approaches.

  18. Treatment technology for removing radon from small community water supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinner, N.E.; Quern, P.A.; Schell, G.S.; Lessard, C.E.; Clement, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the selection of an appropriate treatment system to remove radon from drinking water which depends primarily upon percent removal; capital and operating and maintenance costs; safety; raw water quality with respect to parameters such as Fe, Mn, bacteria, and organics. The radon removal efficiency of the diffused bubble and packed tower aeration exceeded 99% at A:W ratios of 15:1 and 5:1, respectively; the GAC system averaged 81 ± 7.7%. Though our field evaluations indicated that GAC systems may not be as efficient as aeration systems, the system tested was operated above design requirements for most of the study period. Other researchers have found removals of greater than 99% with GAC point-of-entry applications. Therefore, each of these processes has the potential to consistently remove 99% of the radon applied. However, even this percent removal may not be sufficient to meet an MCL in the range of 200 to 1000 pCi/L if the raw water contained more than 20,000 to 100,000 pCi/L, respectively

  19. Increased trends in the use of treatment-limiting decisions in a regional neurosurgical unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William T; McMillan, Tristan; Young, Adam M H; White, Mark A J

    2017-04-01

    Treatment-limiting decisions (TLDs) are employed to actively withhold treatment from patients whom clinicians feel would derive no benefit or suffer detrimental effects from further intervention. The use of such decisions has been heavily discussed in the media and clinicians in the past have been reluctant to institute them, even though it is in the best interests of the patients. Their use is influenced by several ethical, religious and social factors all of which have changed significantly over time. This study reports the trends in use of TLDs in a regional neurosurgical unit over 23 years. Patient archives were reviewed to identify the number of admissions and procedures performed at the Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow, in the years 1988, 1997 and 2011. Death certificate records were used to identify mortality in the unit in the year 2011. Patient records were used to obtain details of diagnosis, time from admission to death, and the presence and timing of a TLD. The results show an increase in the use of TLDs, with decisions made for 89% of those who died in 2011, compared to 68% in 1997 and 51% in 1988. The number of admissions has increased substantially since 1988 as has the percentage of patients undergoing surgery (46, 67 and 72% in 1988, 1997 and 2011, respectively). There is a trending increase in the number of patients who have a TLD in our regional neurosurgical unit. This demonstrates an increased willingness of clinicians to recognise poor prognosis and to withdraw or withhold treatment in these cases. Continued appropriate use of the TLD is recommended but it is to only ever reflect the best interests of the patient.

  20. Solutions to microplastic pollution - Removal of microplastics from wastewater effluent with advanced wastewater treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talvitie, Julia; Mikola, Anna; Koistinen, Arto; Setälä, Outi

    2017-10-15

    Conventional wastewater treatment with primary and secondary treatment processes efficiently remove microplastics (MPs) from the wastewater. Despite the efficient removal, final effluents can act as entrance route of MPs, given the large volumes constantly discharged into the aquatic environments. This study investigated the removal of MPs from effluent in four different municipal wastewater treatment plants utilizing different advanced final-stage treatment technologies. The study included membrane bioreactor treating primary effluent and different tertiary treatment technologies (discfilter, rapid sand filtration and dissolved air flotation) treating secondary effluent. The MBR removed 99.9% of MPs during the treatment (from 6.9 to 0.005 MP L -1 ), rapid sand filter 97% (from 0.7 to 0.02 MP L -1 ), dissolved air flotation 95% (from 2.0 to 0.1 MP L -1 ) and discfilter 40-98.5% (from 0.5 - 2.0 to 0.03-0.3 MP L -1 ) of the MPs during the treatment. Our study shows that with advanced final-stage wastewater treatment technologies WWTPs can substantially reduce the MP pollution discharged from wastewater treatment plants into the aquatic environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Point Source of a Different Color: Identifying a Gap in United States Regulatory Policy for “Green” CSO Treatment Using Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeno F. Levy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Up to 850 billion gallons of untreated combined sewer overflow (CSO is discharged into waters of the United States each year. Recent changes in CSO management policy support green infrastructure (GI technologies as “front of the pipe” approaches to discharge mitigation by detention/reduction of urban stormwater runoff. Constructed wetlands for CSO treatment have been considered among suites of GI solutions. However, these wetlands differ fundamentally from other GI technologies in that they are “end of the pipe” treatment systems that discharge from a point source, and are therefore regulated in the U.S. under the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES. We use a comparative regulatory analysis to examine the U.S. policy framework for CSO treatment wetlands. We find in all cases that permitting authorities have used best professional judgment to determine effluent limits and compliance monitoring requirements, referencing technology and water quality-based standards originally developed for traditional “grey” treatment systems. A qualitative comparison with Europe shows less stringent regulatory requirements, perhaps due to institutionalized design parameters. We recommend that permitting authorities develop technical guidance documents for evaluation of “green” CSO treatment systems that account for their unique operational concerns and benefits with respect to sustainable development.

  2. Assessment of technologies for hazardous waste site remediation: Non-treatment technologies and pilot scale facility implementation -- monitoring technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, H.R.; Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Molnar, D.L.

    1994-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate existing proven technologies for the monitoring of hazardous waste sites during remediation activities and to protect the health and safety of all related entities while complying with government regulations. The study began with a literature search to determine manufacturers and related instrumentation which would be applicable to the most complex (in terms of toxicity and mediums affected) sites. Criteria for monitoring and analyses were established and a functional analysis was performed to select the most appropriate instrumentation available. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry is the most widely accepted method for generating quantitative data given the characterization of the Winfield site. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, while not a new technology, has the distinct advantage of measuring simultaneously hundreds of gaseous pollutants which can also be sparged from water and this technology received the highest score as per the functional analysis. To protect workers and the public surrounding remediation sites which are known to contain VOCs, on site monitoring prior to, and during the excavation operations, is recommended until enough data are obtained to assess the health risks to workers. The conclusion of this study is to recommend evaluation of both the mobile GC/MS and FTIR systems simultaneously in identical operating conditions

  3. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure sumamry for the Uranium Treatment Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This closure summary has been prepared for the Uranium Treatment Unit (UTU) located at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The actions required to achieve closure of the UTU area are outlined in the Closure Plan, submitted to and approved by the Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation staff, respectively. The UTU was used to store and treat waste materials that are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This closure summary details all steps that were performed to close the UTU in accordance with the approved plan

  4. Oil atlas: National Petroleum Technology Office activities across the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiedemann, H.A.

    1998-03-01

    Petroleum imports account for the largest share of the US trade deficit. Over one-third of the 1996 merchandise trade deficit is attributed to imported oil. The good news is that substantial domestic oil resources, both existing and yet-to-be-discovered, can be recovered using advanced petroleum technologies. The Energy Information Agency estimates that advanced technologies can yield 10 billion additional barrels, equal to $240 billion in import offsets. The US Department of Energy`s National Petroleum Technology Office works with industry to develop advanced petroleum technologies and to transfer successful technologies to domestic oil producers. This publication shows the locations of these important technology development efforts and lists DOE`s partners in this critical venture. The National Petroleum Technology Office has 369 active technology development projects grouped into six product lines: Advanced Diagnostics and Imaging Systems; Advanced Drilling, Completion, and Stimulation; Reservoir Life Extension and Management; Emerging Processing Technology Applications; Effective Environmental Protection; and Crosscutting Program Areas.

  5. Recent Weather Technologies Delivered to America's Space Program by the Applied Meteorology Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, WIlliam, H., III; Crawford, Winifred

    2009-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) is a unique joint venture of NASA, the Air Force and the National Weather Service (NWS) and has been supporting the Space Program for nearly two decades. The AMU acts as a bridge between the meteorological research community and operational forecasters by developing, evaluating and transitioning new technology and techniques to improve weather support to spaceport operations at the Eastern Range (ER) and Kennedy Space Center. Its primary customers are the 45th Weather Squadron at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), the Spaceflight Meteorology Group at Johnson Space Center and the National Weather Service Office in Melbourne, FL. Its products are used to support NASA's Shuttle and ELV programs as well as Department of Defense and commercial launches from the ER. Shuttle support includes landing sites beyond the ER. The AMU is co-located with the Air Force operational forecasters at CCAFS to facilitate continuous two-way interaction between the AMU and its operational customers. It is operated under a NASA, Air Force, and NWS Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) by a competitively-selected contractor. The contract, which is funded and managed by NASA, provides five full time professionals with degrees in meteorology or related fields, some of whom also have operational experience. NASA provides a Ph.D.- level NASA civil service scientist as Chief of the AMU. The AMU is tasked by its customers through a unique, nationally recognized process. The tasks are limited to development, evaluation and operational transition of technology to improve weather support to spaceport operations and providing expert advice to the customers. The MOU expressly forbids using the AMU resources to conduct operations or do basic research. The presentation will provide a brief overview of the AMU and how it is tasked by its customers to provide high priority products and services. The balance of the presentation will cover a sampling of products

  6. [Application of new technologies in the design, manufacture and use of technology deployment of field medical units and establishments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovlev, S V; Sidorov, V A; Korniushko, I G; Medvedev, V R; Matveev, A G

    2011-11-01

    Presented data is about attendance means of deployment of field medical units and pieces of army-level medical services and disaster medicine Defense Ministry did not ensure compliance with requirements to create optimal conditions for highly effective work of the medical staff, placing the wounded, the use of modern aids and appliances. The prospects of creation of mobile unit for high-availability modular pre-fabricated on the basis of tent structures, pneumoconstructions and removable habitable bodies, containers, tents, pneumocovers till 2020 are analyzed. Livelihood systems provide armor protection against fragments, bullets, flames, damaging factors of chemical and biological weapons.

  7. The role of health information technology in care coordination in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Chun-Ju; King, Jennifer; Hing, Esther; Simon, Alan E

    2015-02-01

    Examine the extent to which office-based physicians in the United States receive patient health information necessary to coordinate care across settings and determine whether receipt of information needed to coordinate care is associated with use of health information technology (HIT) (defined by presence or absence of electronic health record system and electronic sharing of information). Cross-sectional study using the 2012 National Electronic Health Records Survey (65% weighted response rate). Office-based physicians. Use of HIT and 3 types of patient health information needed to coordinate care. In 2012, 64% of physicians routinely received the results of a patient's consultation with a provider outside of their practice, whereas 46% routinely received a patient's history and reason for a referred consultation from a provider outside of their practice. About 54% of physicians reported routinely receiving a patient's hospital discharge information. In adjusted analysis, significant differences in receiving necessary information were observed by use of HIT. Compared with those not using HIT, a lower percentage of physicians who used an electronic health record system and shared patient health information electronically failed to receive the results of outside consultations or patient's history and reason for a referred consultation. No significant differences were observed for the receipt of hospital discharge information by use of HIT. Among physicians routinely receiving information needed for care coordination, at least 54% of them did not receive the information electronically. Although a higher percentage of physicians using HIT received patient information necessary for care coordination than those who did not use HIT, more than one third did not routinely receive the needed patient information at all.

  8. Treatment of skin and soft tissue infections in a pediatric observation unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Roni D; Sandweiss, David R; Corneli, Howard M

    2014-05-01

    To report the success rate of observation unit (OU) treatment of pediatric skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) and to see if we could identify variables at the time of initial evaluation that predicted successful OU treatment. A retrospective review of children less than 18 years of age admitted for SSTI treatment to our OU from the emergency department between January 2003 and June 2009. On records review, 853 patients matched eligibility criteria; median age was 5.2 years (interquartile range = 2.5-9 years). Of the 853 patients, 597 (70.0%) met the primary outcome criteria of successful OU discharge within 26 hours. Secondary analysis revealed that 82% of the patients achieved successful discharge from the OU within 48 hours. Although some laboratory variables demonstrated statistical association with success, none achieved a combination of high sensitivity and specificity to predict OU failure. OU success rates varied by location. Dental and face infections and those of the extremities or multiple sites demonstrated OU success rates higher than 65%, while infection of the groin, buttocks, trunk, or neck had success rates between 24% (neck) and 60% (groin). In multivariate analysis, only 3 variables remained significant. Unfavorable location was most strongly associated with OU failure, followed by C-reactive protein > 4 and then by erythrocyte sedimentation rate > 20. Our findings suggest that successful OU treatment is possible in a large group of patients needing hospitalization for SSTIs. Consideration of infection location may assist the emergency department clinician in determining the most appropriate unit for admission.

  9. A perspective of hazardous waste and mixed waste treatment technology at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, J.L.; Venkatesh, S.; Bailey, L.L.; Langton, C.A.; Hay, M.S.; Stevens, C.B.; Carroll, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Treatment technologies for the preparation and treatment of heavy metal mixed wastes, contaminated soils, and mixed mercury wastes are being considered at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a DOE nuclear material processing facility operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The proposed treatment technologies to be included at the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Treatment Building at SRS are based on the regulatory requirements, projected waste volumes, existing technology, cost effectiveness, and project schedule. Waste sorting and size reduction are the initial step in the treatment process. After sorting/size reduction the wastes would go to the next applicable treatment module. For solid heavy metal mixed wastes the proposed treatment is macroencapsulation using a thermoplastic polymer. This process reduces the leachability of hazardous constituents from the waste and allows easy verification of the coating integrity. Stabilization and solidification in a cement matrix will treat a wide variety of wastes (i.e. soils, decontamination water). Some pretreatments may be required (i.e. Ph adjustment) before stabilization. Other pretreatments such as soil washing can reduce the amount of waste to be stabilized. Radioactive contaminated mercury waste at the SRS comes in numerous forms (i.e. process equipment, soils, and lab waste) with the required treatment of high mercury wastes being roasting/retorting and recovery. Any unrecyclable radioactive contaminated elemental mercury would be amalgamated, utilizing a batch system, before disposal

  10. Development of high-level radioactive waste treatment and conversion technologies 'Dry decontamination technology development for highly radioactive contaminants'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Lee, K. W.; Won, H. J.; Jung, C. J.; Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. N.; Moon, J. K

    2001-04-01

    The followings were studied through the project entitled 'Dry Decontamination Technology Development for Highly Radioactive Contaminants'. 1.Contaminant Characteristics Analysis of Domestic Nuclear Fuel Cycle Projects(NFCP) and Applicability Study of the Unit Dry-Decontamination Techniques A. Classification of contaminated equipments and characteristics analysis of contaminants B. Applicability study of the unit dry-decontamination techniques 2.Performance Evaluation of Unit Dry Decontamination Technique A. PFC decontamination technique B. CO2 decontamination technique C. Plasma decontamination technique 3.Development of Residual Radiation Assessment Methodology for High Radioactive Facility Decontamination A. Development of radioactive nuclide diffusion model on highly radioactive facility structure B. Obtainment of the procedure for assessment of residual radiation dose 4.Establishment of the Design Concept of Dry Decontamination Process Equipment Applicable to Highly Radioactive Contaminants 5.TRIGA soil unit decontamination technology development A. Development of soil washing and flushing technologies B. Development of electrokinetic soil decontamination technology.

  11. Measuring relative efficiency of applied science and technology universities in province of Semnan, Iran and providing suggestions for merging units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Danaei

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available University of applied science and technology has been designed to create a platform for multilateral activities such as industrial, military and academic in developing countries to promote science and scientific research applications. These universities are responsible to promote practical training in quantitative and qualitative indicators and they provide appropriate infrastructure to implement theoretical graduates to solve practical problems to build necessary infrastructure to transfer modern technology into developing countries. During the past few years, there have been tremendous development on these units but some of them have not been efficient. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the relative efficiencies of various units of applied science and technology universities using data envelopment analysis. The proposed model of this paper uses two inputs including human resources as well as total assets and two outputs including the number of graduate students as well as operating profit. The results of the study have indicated that some of the units are inefficient and need to be merged with other units to increase the relative efficiency of these universities.

  12. TREATMENT OF CYANIDE SOLUTIONS AND SLURRIES USING AIR-SPARGED HYDROCYCLONE (ASH) TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan D. Miller; Terrence Chatwin; Jan Hupka; Doug Halbe; Tao Jiang; Bartosz Dabrowski; Lukasz Hupka

    2003-03-31

    The two-year Department of Energy (DOE) project ''Treatment of Cyanide Solutions and Slurries Using Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone (ASH) Technology'' (ASH/CN) has been completed. This project was also sponsored by industrial partners, ZPM Inc., Elbow Creek Engineering, Solvay Minerals, EIMCO-Baker Process, Newmont Mining Corporation, Cherokee Chemical Co., Placer Dome Inc., Earthworks Technology, Dawson Laboratories and Kennecott Minerals. Development of a new technology using the air-sparged hydrocyclone (ASH) as a reactor for either cyanide recovery or destruction was the research objective. It was expected that the ASH could potentially replace the conventional stripping tower presently used for HCN stripping and absorption with reduced power costs. The project was carried out in two phases. The first phase included calculation of basic processing parameters for ASH technology, development of the flowsheet, and design/adaptation of the ASH mobile system for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) recovery from cyanide solutions. This was necessary because the ASH was previously used for volatile organics removal from contaminated water. The design and modification of the ASH were performed with the help from ZPM Inc. personnel. Among the modifications, the system was adapted for operation under negative pressure to assure safe operating conditions. The research staff was trained in the safe use of cyanide and in hazardous material regulations. Cyanide chemistry was reviewed resulting in identification of proper chemical dosages for cyanide destruction, after completion of each pilot plant run. The second phase of the research consisted of three field tests that were performed at the Newmont Mining Corporation gold cyanidation plant near Midas, Nevada. The first field test was run between July 26 and August 2, 2002, and the objective was to demonstrate continuous operation of the modified ASH mobile system. ASH units were applied for both stripping and absorption

  13. Delivery Unit Costs for Antiretroviral Treatment and Prevention of Mother-to-Child-Transmission of HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galárraga, Omar; Wirtz, Veronika J.; Figueroa-Lara, Alejandro; Santa-Ana-Tellez, Yared; Coulibaly, Ibrahima; Viisainen, Kirsi; Medina-Lara, Antonieta; Korenromp, Eline L.

    2013-01-01

    Background As antiretroviral treatment (ART) for HIV/AIDS is scaled-up globally, information on per-person costs is critical to improve efficiency in service delivery and maximize coverage and health impact. Objective To review studies on delivery unit costs for adult and pediatric ART provision per-patient-year, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions per mother-infant pair screened or treated, in low- and middle-income countries. Methods Systematic review of English, French and Spanish publications from 2001 to 2009, reporting empirical costing that accounted for at least antiretroviral (ARV) medicines, laboratory testing and personnel. Expenditures were analyzed by country income level and cost component. All costs were standardized to 2009 US dollars. Results Analyses covered 29 eligible, comprehensive costing studies. In the base case, in low-income countries (LIC), median, ART cost per patient-year was $792 (mean: $839, range: $682-$1089); for lower-middle-income countries (LMIC), the median was $932 (mean: $1246, range: $156-$3904); and for upper-middle-income countries (UMIC) the median was $1454 (mean: $2783, range: $1230-$5667). ARV drugs were largest component of overall ART cost in all settings (62%, 50% and 47% in LIC, LMIC and UMIC respectively). Out of 26 ART studies, 14 report which drug regimes were used, and only one study explicitly reported second line treatment costs. The second cost driver was laboratory cost in LIC and LMIC (14% and 19.5%) whereas it was personnel costs in UMIC (26%). Two studies specified the types of laboratory tests costed, and three studies specifically included above-facility-level personnel costs. Three studies reported detailed PMTCT costs, and two studies reported on pediatric ART. Conclusions There is a paucity of data on the full ART and PMTCT delivery unit costs, in particular for low-and middle-income countries. Heterogeneity in activities costed and insufficient detail regarding

  14. Development of high level radwaste treatment and conversion technology. Transmutation technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Suk; Song, T Y; Kim, Y H

    2001-03-01

    The final disposition of spent fuel has been, and continues to be, an important issue of nuclear industry. The conceptual design for the accelerator driven transmutation system HYPER is scheduled to be completed by the year of 2006. As the first step for the conceptual design, a study to determine 1. sub-critical core characteristics, 2. fuel concept, 3. coolant system concept, 4. spallation target concept for the HYPER was performed from 1997 to 2000. Most of concept studies were done on the literature basis. The major objectives of the study is to give a guid-line for the second stage research which will be performed during 2001-2003. In addition, the technologies related with TRU-Zr fuel and Pb-Bi coolant can be utilized for the future nuclear reactor development such as generation 4.

  15. Development of high level radwaste treatment and conversion technology. Transmutation technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Won Suk; Song, T. Y.; Kim, Y. H.

    2001-03-01

    The final disposition of spent fuel has been, and continues to be, an important issue of nuclear industry. The conceptual design for the accelerator driven transmutation system HYPER is scheduled to be completed by the year of 2006. As the first step for the conceptual design, a study to determine 1. sub-critical core characteristics, 2. fuel concept, 3. coolant system concept, 4. spallation target concept for the HYPER was performed from 1997 to 2000. Most of concept studies were done on the literature basis. The major objectives of the study is to give a guid-line for the second stage research which will be performed during 2001-2003. In addition, the technologies related with TRU-Zr fuel and Pb-Bi coolant can be utilized for the future nuclear reactor development such as generation 4

  16. Treatment patterns in disease-modifying therapy for patients with multiple sclerosis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafede, Machaon M; Johnson, Barbara H; Wenten, Madé; Watson, Crystal

    2013-10-01

    Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) whose disease activity is inadequately controlled with a platform therapy (interferon beta or glatiramer acetate [GA]) may switch to another platform therapy or escalate therapy to natalizumab or fingolimod, which were approved in the US in 2006 and 2010, respectively. The objective of this study was to describe treatment patterns in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) in the United States who were followed for 2 years after initiating a disease-modifying therapy (DMT). A retrospective observational cohort study was conducted to examine treatment patterns of initial DMT use (on initial therapy for 2 years with and without gaps of ≥ 60 days, medication switching, and discontinuation) among patients with MS who initiated a platform therapy (interferon-β or glatiramer acetate) or natalizumab between January 1, 2007, and September 30, 2009; the first DMT claim was the index. Eligible patients were identified in the MarketScan Commercial and Medicare Supplemental databases based on continuous enrollment for 6 months before (preindex period) and 24 months after their index date, with a diagnosis of MS and no claim for a previous DMT in the 6-month preindex period. Demographics at index and clinical characteristics during the preindex period were also analyzed. A total of 6181 MS patients were included, with 5735 (92.8%) starting on platform therapy. Natalizumab initiators were more likely to stay on index therapy (32.3% vs 16.9%, P treatment gaps of ≥ 60 days (44.8% vs 55.3%, P treatment (13.9% vs 19.1%, P = 0.007) and took longer to switch (400.9 days vs 330.7 days, P treatment gaps, and switch less than platform initiators in the 2 years after treatment initiation. Switching between platform therapies is common despite evidence that MS patients on platform therapy may benefit from switching to natalizumab. © 2013 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. State of the art of membrane technology for treatment of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donno, S. De

    1997-11-01

    This topic has been selected in accordance with a general interest expressed by the Gas Industry. Membranes technology is achieving industrial success in many operations for selective fluids separation. In the specific area of natural gas treatment, membranes are viewed as a technological breakthrough in the coming years despite the fact that the real entity of their potential advantage on conventional technologies has still to be clarified. Aim of this report has been an overview of the overall potentiality and present limits of the use of membranes in natural gas treatment with emphasis on requirements and conditions which could enable established applications of membranes in short to medium terms. This Committee report is based on recent literature and on the opinions of gas companies active and/or interest in technology development of membranes for naturla gas. (au) 27 refs.

  18. [Evaluation and selection of VOCs treatment technologies in packaging and printing industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Lin; Wang, Jun-Hui; Zhu, Chun-Lei; Nie, Lei; Hao, Zheng-Ping

    2014-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play an important role in urban air pollution. Activities of industries including the packaging and printing industries are regarded as the major sources. How to select the suitable treating techniques is the major problem for emission control. In this article, based on the VOCs emission characteristics of the packaging and printing industry and the existing treatment technologies, using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model, an evaluation system for VOCs selection was established and all the technologies used for treatment were assessed. It showed that the priority selection was in the following order: Carbon Fiber Adsorption-Desorption > Granular Carbon Adsorption-Desorption > Thermal Combustion > Regenerative Combustion > Catalytic combustion > Rotary adsorption-concentration and combustion > Granular Carbon adsorption-concentration and combustion. Carbon Fiber Adsorption-Desorption was selected as the best available technology due to its highest weight among those technologies.

  19. Survey of subsurface treatment technologies for environmental restoration sites at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, Lucas K.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Wright, Jerome L.

    2003-08-01

    This report provides a survey of remediation and treatment technologies for contaminants of concern at environmental restoration (ER) sites at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. The sites that were evaluated include the Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater, Technical Area V, and Canyons sites. The primary contaminants of concern at these sites include trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and nitrate in groundwater. Due to the low contaminant concentrations (close to regulatory limits) and significant depths to groundwater ({approx}500 feet) at these sites, few in-situ remediation technologies are applicable. The most applicable treatment technologies include monitored natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation/denitrification to reduce the concentrations of TCE, PCE, and nitrate in the groundwater. Stripping technologies to remove chlorinated solvents and other volatile organic compounds from the vadose zone can also be implemented, if needed.

  20. Assisted reproductive technologies before de European Court of Human Rights: From Evans v. The United Kingdom to Parrillo v. Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Farnós Amorós, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Although most of the European legal systems regulate assisted reproductive technologies, diversity among member states regarding highly sensitive questions remains (e.g., conditions for access to certain treatments; use of Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis in order to avoid a children’s genetic disease; resource to heterologous technologies with donated gametes; effects of international surrogacy arrangements; or the final destiny of cryopreserved embryos resulting from an “in vitro” fertiliz...

  1. Use of advanced treatment technologies among men at low risk of dying from prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Bruce L; Zhang, Yun; Schroeck, Florian R; Skolarus, Ted A; Wei, John T; Montie, James E; Gilbert, Scott M; Strope, Seth A; Dunn, Rodney L; Miller, David C; Hollenbeck, Brent K

    2013-06-26

    The use of advanced treatment technologies (ie, intensity-modulated radiotherapy [IMRT] and robotic prostatectomy) for prostate cancer is increasing. The extent to which these advanced treatment technologies have disseminated among patients at low risk of dying from prostate cancer is uncertain. To assess the use of advanced treatment technologies, compared with prior standards (ie, traditional external beam radiation treatment [EBRT] and open radical prostatectomy) and observation, among men with a low risk of dying from prostate cancer. Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data, we identified a retrospective cohort of men diagnosed with prostate cancer between 2004 and 2009 who underwent IMRT (n = 23,633), EBRT (n = 3926), robotic prostatectomy (n = 5881), open radical prostatectomy (n = 6123), or observation (n = 16,384). Follow-up data were available through December 31, 2010. The use of advanced treatment technologies among men unlikely to die from prostate cancer, as assessed by low-risk disease (clinical stage ≤T2a, biopsy Gleason score ≤6, and prostate-specific antigen level ≤10 ng/mL), high risk of noncancer mortality (based on the predicted probability of death within 10 years in the absence of a cancer diagnosis), or both. In our cohort, the use of advanced treatment technologies increased from 32% (95% CI, 30%-33%) to 44% (95% CI, 43%-46%) among men with low-risk disease (P risk of noncancer mortality (P use of these advanced treatment technologies among men with both low-risk disease and high risk of noncancer mortality increased from 25% (95% CI, 23%-28%) to 34% (95% CI, 31%-37%) (P use of advanced treatment technologies for men unlikely to die from prostate cancer increased from 13% (95% CI, 12%-14%), or 129.2 per 1000 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer, to 24% (95% CI, 24%-25%), or 244.2 per 1000 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer (P risk disease, high risk of noncancer mortality, or both, the use of

  2. SU-E-P-45: An Analytical Formula for Deriving Mechanical Iso-Center of Rotational Gantry Treatment Unit Rotational Gantry Treatment Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, X; Bues, M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To present an analytical formula for deriving mechanical isocenter (MIC) of a rotational gantry treatment unit. The input data to the formula is obtained by a custom-made device. The formula has been implemented and used in an operational proton therapy facility since 2005. Methods: The custom made device consisted of 3 mutually perpendicular dial indicators and 5 clinometers, to obtain displacement data and gantry angle data simultaneously. During measurement, a steel sphere was affixed to the patient couch, and the device was attached to the snout rotating with the gantry. The displacement data and angle data were obtained simultaneously at angular increments of less than 1 degree. The analytical formula took the displacement and angle as input and derived the positions of dial indicator tips (DIT) position in room-fixed coordinate system. The formula derivation presupposes trigonometry and 3-dimentional coordinate transformations. Due to the symmetry properties of the defining equations, the DIT position can be solved for analytically without using mathematical approximations. We define the mean of all points in the DIT trajectory as the MIC. The formula was implemented in computer code, which has been employed during acceptance test, commissioning, as well as routine QA practice in an operational proton facility since 2005. Results: It took one minute for the custom-made device to acquire the measurement data for a full gantry rotation. The DIT trajectory and MIS are instantaneously available after the measurement. The MIC Result agrees well with vendor’s Result, which came from a different measurement setup, as well as different data analysis algorithm. Conclusion: An analytical formula for deriving mechanical isocenter was developed and validated. The formula is considered to be absolutely accurate mathematically. Be analyzing measured data of radial displacements as function of gantry angle, the formula calculates the MI position in room

  3. Decentralised water and wastewater treatment technologies to produce functional water for irrigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, Adriano; Steiner, Michele; Andersen, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The EU project SAFIR aimed to help farmers solve problems related to the use of low quality water for irrigation in a context of increasing scarcity of conventional freshwater resources. New decentralised water treatment devices (prototypes) were developed to allow a safe direct or indirect reuse...... of wastewater produced by small communities/industries or the use of polluted surface water. Water treatment technologies were coupled with irrigation strategies and technologies to obtain a flexible, easy to use, integrated management of the system. The challenge is to apply new strategies and technologies...... which allow using the lowest irrigation water quality without harming food safety or yield and fruit or derivatives quality. This study presents the results of prototype testing of a small-scale compact pressurized membrane bioreactor and of a modular field treatment system including commercial gravel...

  4. Pervasive Home Care - Technological support for treatment of diabetic foot ulcers at home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon Bo

    2006-01-01

    of the patient in collaboration with patient and home care clinicians. My main research method has been qualitative analysis of the empirical results generated during an experimental project using Participatory Design (PD) to investigate potential futures in the treatment of patients with diabetic foot ulcers...... the need arises for moving treatment and care involving specialised knowledge from the hospital to the home. In this dissertation I use the term Home Care" for the multidisciplinary investigation of how this movement can be supported with technology enabling the expert to carry on a treatment in the home...... approach that I outline in this dissertation. Furthermore I describe the results of the project contributing to three related scientific fields: home care technologies, telemedicine and computer supported cooperative work (CSCW). The main conclusion towards home care technologies is that the many visionary...

  5. Sludge Treatment and Extraction Technology Development: Results of FY 1993 studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumetta, G.J.; Wagner, M.J.; Barrington, R.J.; Rapko, B.M.; Carlson, C.D.

    1994-03-01

    This report describes experimental results from work conducted in FY 1993 under the Sludge Treatment and Extraction Technology Development Task of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Pretreatment Technology Development Project at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Experiments were conducted in the following six general areas: (1) sludge washing, (2) sludge leaching, (3) sludge dissolution, (4) actinide separation by solvent extraction and extraction chromatography, (5) Sr separation by solvent extraction, and (6) extraction of Cs from acidic solution

  6. An Economic Evaluation of Tofacitinib Treatment in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Modeling the Cost of Treatment Strategies in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Lindsay; Jenks, Michelle; Taylor, Matthew; Wallenstein, Gene; Mendelsohn, Alan M; Bourret, Jeffrey A; Singh, Amitabh; Moynagh, Dermot; Gerber, Robert A

    2016-09-01

    Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Tofacitinib is approved in the United States for use in adults with moderately to severely active RA and an inadequate response or intolerance to methotrexate. To (a) evaluate, using an economic model, the treatment costs of an RA strategy including tofacitinib, compared with adalimumab, etanercept, certolizumab and tocilizumab biologic RA treatment strategies, which are commonly prescribed in the United States, and (b) assess the economic impact of monotherapy and combination therapy in patients who had an inadequate response to methotrexate therapy (MTX-IR analysis) and to combination therapy in patients who had an inadequate response to a tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNF-IR analysis). A transparent, Excel-based economic model with a decision-tree approach was developed to evaluate costs over a 1- and 2-year time horizon. The model compared tofacitinib 5 mg twice a day (BID) either as monotherapy or in combination with MTX with similarly labeled biologic therapies. Response to treatment was modeled as American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20/50/70 response. ACR20 represented clinical response and determined whether patients continued therapy. ACR response rates at 6-month intervals were sourced from prescribing information and safety event rates from a published meta-analysis. Following an adverse event or a lack of response to treatment, it was assumed that 75% of patients switched to the next line of treatment (first to abatacept and then to rituximab). The perspective was that of a U.S. payer. Costs were reported in 2015 U.S. dollars and included drug wholesale acquisition costs, monitoring, drug administration, and treatment for minor and serious adverse events. The patient population eligible for treatment was based on the total number of members (i.e., RA and non-RA) in a payer organization; members with RA treated with biologic therapies were estimated using

  7. Multibeam tomotherapy: A new treatment unit devised for multileaf collimation, intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achterberg, Nils; Mueller, Reinhold G.

    2007-01-01

    A fully integrated system for treatment planning, application, and verification for automated multileaf collimator (MLC) based, intensity-modulated, image-guided, and adaptive radiation therapy (IMRT, IGRT and ART, respectively) is proposed. Patient comfort, which was the major development goal, will be achieved through a new unit design and short treatment times. Our device for photon beam therapy will consist of a new dual energy linac with five fixed treatment heads positioned evenly along one plane but one electron beam generator only. A minimum of moving parts increases technical reliability and reduces motion times to a minimum. Motion is allowed solely for the MLCs, the robotic patient table, and the small angle gantry rotation of ±36 deg. . Besides sophisticated electron beam guidance, this compact setup can be built using existing modules. The flattening-filter-free treatment heads are characterized by reduced beam-on time and contain apertures restricted in one dimension to the area of maximum primary fluence output. In the case of longer targets, this leads to a topographic intensity modulation, thanks to the combination of ''step and shoot'' MLC delivery and discrete patient couch motion. Owing to the limited number of beam directions, this multislice cone beam serial tomotherapy is referred to as ''multibeam tomotherapy.'' Every patient slice is irradiated by one treatment head at any given moment but for one subfield only. The electron beam is then guided to the next head ready for delivery, while the other heads are preparing their leaves for the next segment. The ''Multifocal MLC-positioning'' algorithm was programmed to enable treatment planning and optimize treatment time. We developed an overlap strategy for the longitudinally adjacent fields of every beam direction, in doing so minimizing the field match problem and the effects of possible table step errors. Clinical case studies show for the same or better planning target volume coverage

  8. Process engineering design of pathological waste incinerator with an integrated combustion gases treatment unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, A F

    2007-06-25

    Management of medical wastes generated at different hospitals in Egypt is considered a highly serious problem. The sources and quantities of regulated medical wastes have been thoroughly surveyed and estimated (75t/day from governmental hospitals in Cairo). From the collected data it was concluded that the most appropriate incinerator capacity is 150kg/h. The objective of this work is to develop the process engineering design of an integrated unit, which is technically and economically capable for incinerating medical wastes and treatment of combustion gases. Such unit consists of (i) an incineration unit (INC-1) having an operating temperature of 1100 degrees C at 300% excess air, (ii) combustion-gases cooler (HE-1) generating 35m(3)/h hot water at 75 degrees C, (iii) dust filter (DF-1) capable of reducing particulates to 10-20mg/Nm(3), (iv) gas scrubbers (GS-1,2) for removing acidic gases, (v) a multi-tube fixed bed catalytic converter (CC-1) to maintain the level of dioxins and furans below 0.1ng/Nm(3), and (vi) an induced-draft suction fan system (SF-1) that can handle 6500Nm(3)/h at 250 degrees C. The residence time of combustion gases in the ignition, mixing and combustion chambers was found to be 2s, 0.25s and 0.75s, respectively. This will ensure both thorough homogenization of combustion gases and complete destruction of harmful constituents of the refuse. The adequate engineering design of individual process equipment results in competitive fixed and operating investments. The incineration unit has proved its high operating efficiency through the measurements of different pollutant-levels vented to the open atmosphere, which was found to be in conformity with the maximum allowable limits as specified in the law number 4/1994 issued by the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) and the European standards.

  9. The potential impact of increased treatment rates for alcohol dependence in the United Kingdom in 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Kevin D; Rehm, Jürgen; Rehm, Maximilien X; Gmel, Gerrit; Drummond, Colin

    2014-02-05

    Alcohol consumption has been linked to a considerable burden of disease in the United Kingdom (UK), with most of this burden due to heavy drinking and Alcohol Dependence (AD). However, AD is undertreated in the UK, with only 8% of those individuals with AD being treated in England and only 6% of those individuals with AD being treated in Scotland. Thus, the objective of this paper is to quantify the deaths that would have been avoided in the UK in 2004 if the treatment rate for AD had been increased. Data on the prevalence of AD, alcohol consumption, and mortality were obtained from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, the Global Information System on Alcohol and Health, and the 2004 Global Burden of Disease study respectively. Data on the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment and Motivational Interviewing/Cognitive Behavioural Therapy were obtained from Cochrane reviews and meta-analyses. Simulations were used to model the number of deaths under different treatment scenarios. Sensitivity analyses were performed to model the effects of Brief Interventions and to examine the effect of using AD prevalence data obtained from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. In the UK, 320 female and 1,385 male deaths would have been avoided if treatment coverage of pharmacological treatment had been increased to 20%. This decrease in the number of deaths represents 7.9% of all alcohol-attributable deaths (7.0% of all alcohol-attributable deaths for women and 8.1% of all alcohol-attributable deaths for men). If we used lower AD prevalence rates obtained from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, then treatment coverage of pharmacological treatment in hospitals for 20% of the population with AD would have resulted in the avoidance of 529 deaths in 2004 (99 deaths avoided for women and 430 deaths avoided for men). Increasing AD treatment in the UK would have led to a large number of deaths being avoided in 2004. Increased AD

  10. Thermal Treatment of Hydrocarbon-Impacted Soils: A Review of Technology Innovation for Sustainable Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia E. Vidonish

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal treatment technologies hold an important niche in the remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and sediments due to their ability to quickly and reliably meet cleanup standards. However, sustained high temperature can be energy intensive and can damage soil properties. Despite the broad applicability and prevalence of thermal remediation, little work has been done to improve the environmental compatibility and sustainability of these technologies. We review several common thermal treatment technologies for hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, assess their potential environmental impacts, and propose frameworks for sustainable and low-impact deployment based on a holistic consideration of energy and water requirements, ecosystem ecology, and soil science. There is no universally appropriate thermal treatment technology. Rather, the appropriate choice depends on the contamination scenario (including the type of hydrocarbons present and on site-specific considerations such as soil properties, water availability, and the heat sensitivity of contaminated soils. Overall, the convergence of treatment process engineering with soil science, ecosystem ecology, and plant biology research is essential to fill critical knowledge gaps and improve both the removal efficiency and sustainability of thermal technologies.

  11. Development and demonstration of treatment technologies for the processing of US Department of Energy mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.; Bloom, G.A.; Kuchynka, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Mixed waste is defined as waste contaminated with chemically hazardous (governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) and radioactive species [governed by US Department of Energy (DOE) orders]. The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is responding to the need for DOE mixed waste treatment technologies that meet these dual regulatory requirements. MWIP is developing emerging and innovative treatment technologies to determine process feasibility. Technology demonstrations will be used to determine whether processes are superior to existing technologies in reducing risk, minimizing life-cycle cost, and improving process performance. The Program also provides a forum for stakeholder and customer involvement in the technology development process. MWIP is composed of six technical areas that support a mixed-waste treatment system: (1) systems analysis, (2) materials handling, (3) chemical/physical separation, (4) waste destruction and stabilization, (5) off-gas treatment, and (6) final waste form stabilization. The status of the technical initiatives and the current research, development, and demonstration in each of these areas is described in this paper

  12. Initial Selection of Supplemental Treatment Technologies for Hanford's Low-Activity Tank Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, Richard E.; Powell, Roger W.; Hamilton, Dennis W.; Kitchen, William A.; Mauss, Billie M.; Brouns, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) documented a plan for accelerating cleanup of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, by at least 35 years (DOE 2002). A key element of the accelerated cleanup plan was a strategic initiative for acceleration of the tank waste program and completion of ''tank waste treatment by 2028 by increasing the capacity of the planned Waste Treatment Plant (ETP) and using supplemental technologies for waste treatment and immobilization''. The plan identified specific technologies to be evaluated for supplemental treatment of as much as 70% of the low-activity waste (LAW). The objective was to complete required testing and evaluation that would ''...bring an appropriate combination of the above technologies to deployment to supplement LAW treatment and immobilization in the WTP to achieve the completion of tank waste treatment by 2028''. In concert with this acceleration plan, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology have proposed to accelerate from 2012 to 2005 the Hanford Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone (M-62-08) associated with a final decision on treatment of the balance of tank waste that is beyond the capacity of the currently designed WTP

  13. Comparison of end-of-life tire treatment technologies: a Chinese case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingfu; Xu, He; Gao, Yingnan; Tao, Yijun

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare different end-of-life tire (ELT) treatment technologies in China from an environmental and economic perspective. Four treatment technologies were evaluated: ambient grinding, devulcanization, pyrolysis and illegal tire oil extraction. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to evaluate the potential environmental impact of each treatment based on the Eco-indicator 99 (Hierarchist approach) method provided by GaBi 4 software. The final result shows that pyrolysis represents the environmentally benign option while illegal tire oil extraction caused the worst damages. For the three legal treatments, although high credit was obtained when considering avoided impacts from recycled materials and energy, they have great impact as to respiratory effects (inorganic) dominantly contributed by energy production stage, which implies that the emphasis on environmental policies related to ELT treatment should shift from the control of emissions from treatment process to the reduction of energy consumption. A simplified comparison of net benefits and total impacts shows that the most eco-effective ELT treatment technology is pyrolysis, followed by dynamic devulcanization and ambient grinding. The illegal tire oil extraction, however, must be prohibited immediately because of its highest environmental pollution and lowest net benefit. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Independent calculation of the monitor units and times of treatment in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Marcio Rogerio

    2005-01-01

    In this work, an independent verification system of calculations in radiotherapy was developed and applied, using Visual Basic TM programming language. The computational program performs calculations of monitor units and treatment time, based on the algorithm of manual calculation. The calculations executed for the independent system had initially been compared with the manual calculations performed by the medical physicists of the Institute of Radiotherapy of the Hospital das Clinicas da Universidade de Sao Paulo. In this step, the results found for more than two hundred fields studied were similar to those found in the literature; deviations larger than +- 1% were found only in five cases involving errors in manual calculation. The application of the independent system, in this stage, could have identified errors up to +- 2,4%. Based on these data, the system was validated for use in clinical routine. In a second step, calculations were compared with calculations realized by the treatment computerized planning system CadPIan TM . When, again, the results were similar to those published in other works allowing to obtain levels of acceptance of the discrepancies between the calculations executed for the independent system and the calculations developed from the planning system, separated by anatomical region, as recommended according by the recent literature. For beams of 6 MV, the levels of acceptance for deviations between the calculations of monitor units, separated by treatment region were the following; breast +- 1.7%, head and neck +2%; hypophysis +- 2.2%; pelvis +- 4 . 1% and thorax +- 1.5%. For beams of 15 MV, the level suggested for pelvis was of +- 4.5%. (author)

  15. Thermal treatment technology study and data base for Department of Energy mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillins, R.L.; Steverson, E.M.; Balo, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has a wide variety of waste streams that must be treated to meet various regulations before final disposal. One category of technologies for treating many of these waste streams is thermal treatment. A study of known thermal treatment technologies was conducted to aid DOE in the development of strategies to meet its waste management needs. The study was specifically addressed to mixed waste, but it is also applicable to hazardous and radioactive wastes. The data collected in the study, along with other waste management data, are being included in a comprehensive data base that DOE is developing. 3 refs., 1 fig

  16. Use of plasma arc technology for treatment of solid radioactive waste and review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, E.; Bataklieva, T.

    2011-01-01

    The thermal treatment of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes by arc technology is an advanced and promising process. Therefore, this technology is becoming an important part of the waste management systems of new and existing nuclear power plants. However, due to the small number of existing facilities worldwide, limited operating experience and the ongoing need for research and development activities in this area, the reliability of the technology and the economical benefits are not well understood. Therefore, the goal of this report is to provide a basic understanding of the arc discharge technology for low and intermediate level radioactive waste destruction and to review the end product characteristics and the advancements in their improvement. In addition the information in this paper can be used as base for developing of technical, operational and economical criteria for technology selection methodology. (authors)

  17. Current trends in using Internet and mobile technology to support the treatment of substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucciare, Michael A; Weingardt, Kenneth R; Greene, Carolyn J; Hoffman, Julia

    2012-09-01

    By allowing for the efficient delivery of instructional content and the secure collection of self-report data regarding substance use and related problems, the Internet has tremendous potential to improve the effectiveness and accessibility of Substance Use Disorder (SUD) treatment and recovery-oriented services. This article discusses some of the ways in which Internet and mobile technology can facilitate, complement and support the process of traditional clinician-delivered treatment for individuals with SUDs. Internet applications are being used to support a range of activities including (a) the assessment and feedback process that constitutes a key feature of brief motivational interventions; and (b) the concurrent monitoring of patients who are receiving treatment for SUDs, to support continuing care, and the ongoing recovery of SUD patients who have completed face-to-face treatment. Internet technology is also being used to (c) support efficient delivery of clinical training in evidence-based practices for treating individuals who may have SUDs. This emerging body of literature suggests that SUD treatment providers and program administrators can enhance the quality of clinician-delivered treatment by incorporating internet applications into existing processes of care and recovery oriented services. Internet applications provide an unparalleled opportunity to engage patients in the treatment process, incorporate real-time data into treatment planning, prevent relapse, and promote evidence-based treatment approaches.

  18. New and emerging technologies for the treatment of inherited retinal diseases: a horizon scanning review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J; Ward, D; Michaelides, M; Moore, A T; Simpson, S

    2015-09-01

    The horizon scanning review aimed to identify new and emerging technologies in development that have the potential to slow or stop disease progression and/or reverse sight loss in people with inherited retinal diseases (IRDs). Potential treatments were identified using recognized horizon scanning methods. These included a combination of online searches using predetermined search terms, suggestions from clinical experts and patient and carer focus groups, and contact with commercial developers. Twenty-nine relevant technologies were identified. These included 9 gene therapeutic approaches, 10 medical devices, 5 pharmacological agents, and 5 regenerative and cell therapies. A further 11 technologies were identified in very early phases of development (typically phase I or pre-clinical) and were included in the final report to give a complete picture of developments 'on the horizon'. Clinical experts and patient and carer focus groups provided helpful information and insights, such as the availability of specialised services for patients, the potential impacts of individual technologies on people with IRDs and their families, and helped to identify additional relevant technologies. This engagement ensured that important areas of innovation were not missed. Most of the health technologies identified are still at an early stage of development and it is difficult to estimate when treatments might be available. Further, well designed trials that generate data on efficacy, applicability, acceptability, and costs of the technologies, as well as the long-term impacts for various conditions are required before these can be considered for adoption into routine clinical practice.

  19. Assessment of impacts from different waste treatment and waste disposal technologies: Regional Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, B.C.; Sutherland, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    This report presents assessments of treatment and disposal technologies that appear to be appropriate for use in regional facilities in the Midwest Compact Region. The treatment technologies assessed: compaction with a supercompactor; incineration; and incineration followed by solidfication of the incinerator ash. The disposal technologies assessed are: shallow land burial, considered a baseline for comparison of other technologies; below-ground vaults; abov-groudn vaults; the earth mounded concrete bunker, a technology developed in France; improved shallow land burial, essentially deeper burial; modular concrete canister disposal; mined cavities (both new and existing); and unlined augered holes; and lined augered holes. The teatment technologies are assessed primarily in terms of the their impact on the waste management system, and generally not comparatively. The dispoal technologies are assessed relative to the present standard practice shallow land burial; shallow land burial was slected as a frame of reference because it has an experience base spanning several decades, not because of any preferential characteristics. 20 refs., 5 tabs

  20. Test results from the GA Technologies engineering-scale off-gas treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, D.D.; Olguin, L.J.; Wilbourn, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    Test results are available from the GA Technologies (GA) off-gas treatment facilities using gas streams from both the graphite fuel element burner system and from the spent fuel dissolver. The off-gas system is part of a pilot plant for development of processes for treating spent fuel from high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). One method for reducing the volume of HTGR fuel prior to reprocessing or spent fuel storage is to crush and burn the graphite fuel elements. The burner off-gas (BOG) contains radioactive components, principally H-3, C-14, Kr-85, I-129, and Rn-220, as well as chemical forms such as CO 2 , CO, O 2 , and SO 2 . The BOG system employs components designed to remove these constituents. Test results are reported for the iodine and SO 2 adsorbers and the CO/HT oxidizer. Integrated testing of major BOG system components confirmed the performance of units evaluated in individual tests. Design decontamination and conversion factors were maintained for up to 72 h. In a reprocessing flowsheet, the solid product from the burners is dissolved in nitric or Thorex acid. The dissolver off-gas (DOG) contains radioactive components H-3, Kr-85, I-129, Rn-220 plus chemical forms such as nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/). In the pilot-scale system iodine is removed from the DOG by adsorption. Tests of iodine removal have been conducted using either silver-exchanged mordenite (AgZ) or AgNO 3 -impregnated silica gel (AC-6120). Although each sorbent performed well in the presence of NO/sub x/, the silica gel adsorbent proved more efficient in silver utilization and, thus, more cost effective