WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology target audience

  1. Characterizing Health Information for Different Target Audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yueping; Hou, Zhen; Hou, Li; Li, Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Different groups of audiences in health care: health professionals and health consumers, each have different information needs. Health monographs targeting different audiences are created by leveraging readers' background knowledge. The NCI's Physician Data Query (PDQ®) Cancer Information Summaries provide parallel cancer information and education resources with different target audiences. In this paper, we used targeted audience-specific cancer information PDQs to measure characteristic differences on the element level between audiences. In addition, we compared vocabulary coverage. Results show a significant difference between the professional and patient version of cancer monographs in both content organization and vocabulary. This study provides a new view to assess targeted audience-specific health information, and helps editors to improve the quality and readability of health information.

  2. Modern museum exhibition technology revolution for audience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Today's digital revolution leads to the increasing mobile device usage, which has changed people's life and work. However, the traditional static display and graphic version is unable to meet the requirements of the modern audience, which makes museums face the challenge in the distribution of knowledge. Meanwhile, the information storm produced by big data emerged a variety of new media, such as social media, Natural User Interface, Augmented Reality, and electronic publishing. This dizzying array of tools offered opportunities for museums all over the world to become more vibrant and accessible. Museums around the world have been constant changed and improved its presentation, which provides a valuable experience for us. The new Shanghai Natural History Museum has also applied information technology on exhibition, education, research and collection. But the change does not mean a complete subversion. Because the museum audience are di- verse, such as born in a different era, have different learning habits, museums need to control the change magnitude of display technology to meet the requirements of different audience.

  3. PR Students Learn to Target Audiences through Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalupa, Frank B.; Trotter, Edgar P.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an advanced course in public relations methods wherein students use an online computer terminal system to analyze up-to-date field data and to prepare realistic audience-targeted campaigns. (RL)

  4. Reaching and Teaching: A Study in Audience Targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Ellen M.; Welch, Diane T.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a project conducted by the Texas Agricultural Extension Service to market the Family Day Home Care Providers Program to an unknown clientele. Discusses the problems involved in identifying and reaching the target audience. (JOW)

  5. Defining and targeting an audience for cancer-prevention messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettinghaus, E P

    1992-01-01

    The target audience for cancer-prevention messages is not the cancer patient. Cancer-prevention messages should be designed for and directed toward groups of people who have been determined to be at risk for the disease. Potential audiences may vary widely in size and nature, depending on the specific cancer, its cause, and its etiology. The prevention of specific disease, eg, lung cancer, typically demands some behavior on the part of the recipient of a cancer-prevention message. Thus, members of a target audience may be asked to stop smoking or to refrain from starting. Each potential target audience is likely to be unique and cannot always be reached with typical mass-media campaigns. Messages designed to be effective for such special audiences may be required if a significant impact on behavior is to be obtained. This article attempts to identify potential audiences for cancer-prevention messages and develops the nature of the media to be used, the sources to be employed, and the arguments to be developed in such a campaign. Characteristics (eg, sex, race, age, marital status, and socioeconomic status) are used as examples of variables that may dictate the nature of cancer-prevention campaigns.

  6. Audience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Kim Christian; Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby

    2018-01-01

    The entry defines audiences in a digital, mediatized society as the people who, in their capacity of social actors, are attending to, negotiating the meaning of, and sometimes participating in the multimodal processes initiated or carried by institutional media. The first part of the entry discus...

  7. The perspective of a pharmacoeconomic study: targeting for audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs, T D; Mantovani, L G

    1997-05-01

    As with any type of research, it is crucial at the outset to consider the concerns and perspectives of the audience to which economic study results will be presented. Because the results of a pharmacoeconomic study should result in decisions that can have great impact on the use of a drug or a service, a concise objective with clearly defined and relevant measurement criteria must be provided. The study must answer the questions of the target audience in an unambiguous, understandable language. A thorough assessment of the costs involved to carry out the research must also take place early on in the study design, in order not to jeopardise the study's progress or perceived value for money. The paper discusses briefly some points to bear in mind at the study design stage regarding tailoring the focus to the target audience.

  8. Targeting Audiences and Content for Forest Fire Information Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Edwin H.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses opinion survey results for the purpose of improving the capabilities of forest managers to effectively communicate new fire management objectives and plans. Includes recommendations based on the analysis concerning the appropriate audiences and content to target in the design of fire information programs. (ML)

  9. The Effects of Target Audience on Social Tagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsarhan, Hesham

    2013-01-01

    Online social bookmarking systems allow users to assign tags (i.e., keywords) to represent the content of resources. Research on the effects of target audience on social tagging suggests that taggers select different tags for themselves, their community (e.g., family, friends, colleagues), and the general public (Panke & Gaiser, 2009; Pu &…

  10. The Filipino male as a target audience in family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitug, W

    1986-01-01

    Since the official launching of the Philippine Population Program in 1970, family planning campaigns have substantially addressed themselves to women. The suggestion to devote equal, if not more, attention to men as family planning targets had been raised by Dr. Mercado as early as 1971. It was not until 1978, that the deliberate inclusion of males as a target audience in family planning became a matter of policy. The Population Center Foundation (PCF), from 1979 to 1982, carried out research projects to determine the most suitable approaches and strategies to reach Filipino men. The objectives of the PCF's Male Specific Program are: 1) to test alternative schemes in promoting male family planning methods through pilot-testing of family planning clinics for men, 2) to develop teaching materials geared toward specific segments of the male population, 3) to undertake skills training in male-specific motivational approaches for program professionals, and 4) to assess the extent of the husband's role in family planning. An important finding of 1 study was that most outreach workers were female stood in the way of the motivation process, thus hampering the campaign. While the consultative motivational skills training improved knowledge, attitudes, and skills of outreach workers with regard to vasectomy and the motivation process, there were certain predispositions that were hindering the fieldworkers' effectiveness in motivating target clients. Overall, in-depth, 1-to-1 motivation in dealing with men is needed to strengthen internalization of family planning values.

  11. Bringing in the target audience in bystander social marketing materials for communities: suggestions for practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Sharyn J; Stapleton, Jane G

    2011-06-01

    The Know Your Power™ social marketing campaign images model active bystander behaviors that target audience members can use in situations where sexual and relationship violence and stalking are occurring, have occurred, or have the potential to occur. In this practitioner note, we describe strategies that we have used to engage target audience members in the development of the social marketing campaign that we hope can be used by practitioners. We give examples from the development and evaluation of the Know Your Power(TM) social marketing campaign that used focus group and other types of feedback from the target audience to inform the direction of the campaign.

  12. Alcohol and tobacco advertising in black and general audience newspapers: targeting with message cues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Elisia L; Caburnay, Charlene A; Rodgers, Shelly

    2011-07-01

    This study content analyzed 928 tobacco- and alcohol-related advertisements from a 3-year national sample of Black (n = 24) and general audience (n = 11) newspapers from 24 U.S. cities. The authors compared the frequency of tobacco and alcohol product and control advertising in Black versus general audience newspapers, as well as the presence of 5 message cues: model ethnicity, presence of health official, referral to resources, personal behavior mobilization, and localization. Results within health issues show that Black newspapers had more alcohol product advertising than did general audience newspapers. In contrast, Black newspapers had less alcohol and tobacco control advertising than general audience newspapers. Black newspapers' tobacco/alcohol product advertisements had more African American models than did general audience newspapers' tobacco/alcohol advertising, whereas general audience newspapers' tobacco control advertisements were significantly more likely to feature public health officials than ads in Black newspapers. Fewer message cues such as personal behavior mobilization, referral to resources, and localization were present in Black versus general audience newspapers. Results suggest that Black newspapers may have greater dependency than do general audience newspapers on these risk-related advertisements that target African American consumers. Given the current advertising environment, public health initiatives are needed to counter unhealthy alcohol product advertising messages that target vulnerable populations.

  13. Targeting anti-smoking messages: does audience race matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp-Taylor, Shannah; Fryer, Craig S; Shadel, William G

    2012-07-01

    This study examined whether an adolescent's self-identified race moderates the perceived effectiveness of anti-smoking messages. A sample of 94 never smoking adolescents (59% African-American; 41% European-American) participated in this two-part study. First, they rated the persuasive strength of a series of five decontextualized anti-smoking messages (i.e., messages delivered in text format). Second, they were exposed to five sets of anti-smoking public service announcements (PSAs; viewed as TV advertisements) that had embedded in them the five anti-smoking messages used in the first part of the study and rated their smoking refusal self-efficacy after each one. Although race moderated participants' ratings of the decontextualized messages, there were no significant moderating effects of race when those messages were embedded in PSAs. The results of this study support the notion that anti-smoking PSAs should not be targeted to adolescent racial background, but suggests that decontextualized anti-smoking messages may be more effective if targeted to adolescent race.

  14. New Model for Ecosystem Management Interpretation: Target Audiences on Military Lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Susan K.; Marynowski, Susan B.

    1998-01-01

    An interpretation model focusing on audience characteristics guided development of an ecosystem-management interpretive program targeting military leaders and planners at Eglin Air Force Base (Florida). Of five interpretative media tested, print mass media were most successful in increasing ecosystem knowledge and enhancing attitudes of both…

  15. Analysis of brand-coloristics as an instrument to influence a target brand’s audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Makhnusha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors analyze the content, particularities and the rules of brand-coloristics as an instrument to influence a target brands audience. Approaches to estimating the results of brand-coloristics are proposed and attitude of different age consumer groups to its measures is found out.

  16. How much importance do we give to target audiences in article writing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Nedjat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Writing papers can be used as a means to convey a message. Knowledge transfer is also about conveying the right message to the right target audience. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of articles that had mentioned a clear message and the target audience in the abstract and the article as a whole, and also to examine their association with different deter-minant factors. Methods: Articles published from 2001 to 2006 that were based on clinical and health system research conducted on Iranian popu-lations and on maternal care, diabetes and tuberculosis were searched systematically in domestic and international databases. Eventually checklists (Additional file 1 were completed for 795 articles. Results: Overall, 98.5% of articles had a clear message, whereas 12.5% had addressed the direct target audience. Presence of a clear message in formatted abstracts were seen 3.6 times more (CI95%: 1.5-8.7 than in articles without formatted abstracts (p = 0.005. Addressing of the direct target audience was seen twice as much in health system research articles as compared to clinical studies, odds ratio was 2.3 (CI95%: 1.47-3.48, p<0.001. Conclusions: Creating a format for journal abstracts seems to be an effective intervention for presenting the message in articles.

  17. Improving Community Understanding of Medical Research: Audience Response Technology for Community Consultation for Exception to Informed Consent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Vohra

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Department of Health and Human Services and Food and Drug Administration described guidelines for exception from informed consent (EFIC research. These guidelines require community consultation (CC events, which allow members of the community to understand the study, provide feedback and give advice. A real-time gauge of audience understanding would allow the speaker to modify the discussion. The objective of the study is to describe the use of audience response survey (ARS technology in EFIC CCs. Methods: As part of the Rapid Anticonvulsant Medication Prior to Arrival Trial (RAMPART, 13 CC events were conducted. We prepared a PowerPoint™ presentation with 4 embedded ARS questions,according to specific IRB guidelines to ensure that the pertinent information would reach our targeted audience. During 6 CCs, an ARS was used to gauge audience comprehension. Participants completed paper surveys regarding their opinion of the study following each CC. Results: The ARS was used with minimal explanation and only one ARS was lost. Greater than 80% of the participants correctly answered 3 of the 4 ARS questions with 61% correctly answering the question regarding EFIC. A total of 105 participants answered the paper survey; 80-90% of the responses to the paper survey were either strongly agree or agree. The average scores on the paper survey in the ARS sites compared to the non-ARS sites were significantly more positive. Conclusion: The use of an audience response system during the community consultation aspects of EFIC is feasible and provides a real-time assessment of audience comprehension of the study and EFIC process. It may improve the community’s opinion and support of the study.

  18. Employee Anonymous Online Dissent: Dynamics and Ethical Challenges for Employees, Targeted Organisations, Online Outlets and Audiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzani, Silvia; Mazzei, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    ethical challenges that take into consideration the perspectives of employees, targeted organisations, online outlet administrators and audiences. The ethical challenge for employees is to disclose problems for organisational and societal changes in a safe context and supported by a large audience, while......This paper aims to enhance understanding of dissent expressive acts that employees voice via anonymous online public contexts. Based on literature on organisational dissent, anonymity and online disclosure, we first point out key dynamics of employee anonymous online dissent, and then present...... remaining accountable for them and avoiding emotion-focused and defensive disclosure. Targeted organisations need to prevent external disclosure while ensuring freedom of speech and employee privacy, and to respond effectively when overt criticism is found online. Other tensions concern online outlet...

  19. COREnet: The Fusion of Social Network Analysis and Target Audience Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    be integrated into a HTML5 web-based Target Audience Analysis Worksheet TAAW? D. SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY This is a three-phase capstone project. The...Harrison & S. Huntington (Eds.), Culture matters: How values shape human progress (pp. 98–111). New York: Basic Books Gauchat, J. D., (2012). HTML5 for...networks to inform tactical engagement strategies that will influence the human domain. Small Wars Journal. MacDonald, M. (2012). HTML5 : The

  20. A New Development in Audiovisual Translation Studies: Focus on Target Audience Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Denton

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Audiovisual translation is now a well-established sub-discipline of Translation Studies (TS: a position that it has reached over the last twenty years or so. Italian scholars and professionals in the field have made a substantial contribution to this successful development, a brief overview of which will be given in the first part of this article, inevitably concentrating on dubbing in the Italian context. Special attention will be devoted to the question of target audience perception, an area where researchers in the University of Bologna at Forlì have excelled. The second part of the article applies the methodology followed by the above mentioned researchers in a case study of how Italian end users perceive the dubbed version of the British film The History Boys (2006, which contains a plethora of culture-specific verbal and visual references to the English education system. The aim of the study was to ascertain: a whether translation/adaptation allows the transmission in this admittedly constrained medium of all the intended culture-bound issues, only too well known to the source audience, and, if so, to what extent, and b whether the target audience respondents to the e-questionnaire used were aware that they were missing information. The linked, albeit controversial, issue of quality assessment will also be addressed.

  1. Using support vector machine ensembles for target audience classification on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Siaw Ling; Chiong, Raymond; Cornforth, David

    2015-01-01

    The vast amount and diversity of the content shared on social media can pose a challenge for any business wanting to use it to identify potential customers. In this paper, our aim is to investigate the use of both unsupervised and supervised learning methods for target audience classification on Twitter with minimal annotation efforts. Topic domains were automatically discovered from contents shared by followers of an account owner using Twitter Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA). A Support Vector Machine (SVM) ensemble was then trained using contents from different account owners of the various topic domains identified by Twitter LDA. Experimental results show that the methods presented are able to successfully identify a target audience with high accuracy. In addition, we show that using a statistical inference approach such as bootstrapping in over-sampling, instead of using random sampling, to construct training datasets can achieve a better classifier in an SVM ensemble. We conclude that such an ensemble system can take advantage of data diversity, which enables real-world applications for differentiating prospective customers from the general audience, leading to business advantage in the crowded social media space.

  2. [Relationship among weblog authors' target audience, contents, and types of interpersonal communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Asako; Matsumura, Naohiro; Kitayama, Satoshi

    2008-12-01

    Weblogs are one of the most popular personal websites in Japan, where entries are made in journal style and displayed in reverse chronological order. This study examined the relationship between weblog authors' target audience (i.e., orientation) and the actual situations depicted in their weblogs by combining a questionnaire survey of the authors with an analysis of their weblog content data. Based on a questionnaire survey of 736 Japanese weblog authors, their target audience was divided into four clusters: (a) general public, (b) self, (c) self and offline friends, and (d) various others. To assess the actual situations depicted in their weblogs, the amount of happy and unhappy emotional expression in their writing and the frequency of interpersonal communication (comments, bookmarks, and trackbacks) were calculated from their log data. The results suggested that weblog authors wrote different types of content and used different types of communication depending on their audience, whereas the weblog content itself still showed the diary-like characteristic of personal daily-life records.

  3. Targeting the audience for AIDS messages by actual and perceived risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, L B; Rouse, R A

    1992-01-01

    Since there are many ways to segment an audience into target groups, we suggest that a productive strategy for AIDS education is to divide the audience by their actual and perceived risk. We provide an example in which we segmented an urban U.S. sample and make suggestions as to how messages appropriate for each group can be constructed. In our sample, the "unthreatened" accurately assessed their low risk of AIDS, and showed high knowledge and tolerance rates. The "panicked," who included more women and Hispanics, inaccurately thought themselves at high risk because of misunderstandings about the causes of AIDS, and showed more intolerance of people with AIDS. "Deniers" continued to have multiple sexual partners and take precautions irregularly, despite seeing AIDS as a social problem and having more education and AIDS knowledge. In contrast, "gamblers" recognized their higher risk of AIDS and were most likely to have taken some action, although not enough to prevent sexual transmission of the HIV virus.

  4. Is Extension Ready to Adopt Technology for Delivering Programs and Reaching New Audiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Keith G.; Hino, Jeff; Martin, Dana; Meisenbach, Terry

    2011-01-01

    The Cooperative Extension System is at a crossroads regarding educational program delivery and clientele relationships in a digital age. To "help prepare counties for a future that demands increased use of technology for improving work efficiencies and expanding audience outreach," an assessment team was appointed to conduct a case study to…

  5. Marketing and semiotic approach on communication. Consequences on knowledge of target-audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borţun, D; Purcarea, V L

    2013-03-15

    Modern marketing puts the consumer and not the manufacturer in the center, the essence of the marketing approach being the conception, the projection and the making of the product, starting from the consumer towards the manufacturer; this resulting in the fact that the product's marketing approach seems strikingly similar to the semiotic approach of the message. In the semiotic approach, the message is a construction of signs, which, by interacting with the receiver, produces the meaning. The transmitter (the message transmitter) becomes less important. The focus is centered to the "text" and the way this is "read", the sense being born when the "reader" negotiates the "text". The negotiation takes place when the "reader" filtrates the message through the sieve of his cultural loading. A "target public" is a group which is specific to a certain Cultural Loading, a loading which deals with linguistic, logical, psychological and symbolic structures, which get out to meet the message and "negotiates" with the structures similar to it. When we are thinking in terms of the semiotic approach, we are handling the cultural determinism of communication, using the concepts of Kuhn and Gonseth (paradigm and referential). They open a new path in the market research, in the market segmentation and knowledge of the "target audiences".

  6. Marketing and semiotic approach on communication. Consequences on knowledge of target-audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borţun, D; Purcarea, VL

    2013-01-01

    Modern marketing puts the consumer and not the manufacturer in the center, the essence of the marketing approach being the conception, the projection and the making of the product, starting from the consumer towards the manufacturer; this resulting in the fact that the product’s marketing approach seems strikingly similar to the semiotic approach of the message. In the semiotic approach, the message is a construction of signs, which, by interacting with the receiver, produces the meaning. The transmitter (the message transmitter) becomes less important. The focus is centered to the „text" and the way this is „read", the sense being born when the „reader" negotiates the „text". The negotiation takes place when the „reader" filtrates the message through the sieve of his cultural loading. A „target public" is a group which is specific to a certain Cultural Loading, a loading which deals with linguistic, logical, psychological and symbolic structures, which get out to meet the message and „negotiates" with the structures similar to it. When we are thinking in terms of the semiotic approach, we are handling the cultural determinism of communication, using the concepts of Kuhn and Gonseth (paradigm and referential). They open a new path in the market research, in the market segmentation and knowledge of the „target audiences". PMID:23610591

  7. Alcohol harm reduction advertisements: a content analysis of topic, objective, emotional tone, execution and target audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstone, Kimberley; Brennan, Emily; Slater, Michael D; Dixon, Helen G; Durkin, Sarah J; Pettigrew, Simone; Wakefield, Melanie A

    2017-04-11

    Public health mass media campaigns may contribute to reducing the health and social burden attributed to alcohol consumption, but little is known about which advertising characteristics have been used, or have been effective, in alcohol harm reduction campaigns to date. As a first step towards encouraging further research to identify the impact of various advertising characteristics, this study aimed to systematically identify and examine the content of alcohol harm reduction advertisements (ads). Ads were identified through an exhaustive internet search of Google, YouTube, Vimeo, and relevant government and health agency websites. Eligible ads were: English language, produced between 2006 and 2014, not primarily focused on drink-driving or alcohol in pregnancy, and not alcohol industry funded. Systematic content analysis of all ads was performed; each ad was double-coded. In total, 110 individual ads from 72 different alcohol harm reduction campaigns were identified, with the main source countries being Australia (40%) and the United Kingdom (26%). The dominant topic for 52% of ads was short-term harms, while 10% addressed long-term harms, 18% addressed underage drinking, 17% communicated a how-to-change message, and 3% advocated for policy change. The behavioural objective of most ads was to motivate audiences to reduce their alcohol consumption (38%) or to behave responsibly and/or not get drunk when drinking (33%). Only 10% of all ads mentioned low-risk drinking guidelines. Eighty-seven percent of ads used a dramatisation execution style and 74% had a negative emotional tone. Ninety percent of ads contained messages or content that appeared to target adults, and 36% specifically targeted young adults. Some message attributes have been employed more frequently than others, suggesting several promising avenues for future audience or population-based research to compare the relative effectiveness of different characteristics of alcohol harm reduction ads. Given

  8. Evaluation of the Acceptance of Audience Response System by Corporations Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hsing-Hui; Lu, Ta-Jung; Wann, Jong-Wen

    The purpose of this research is to explore enterprises' acceptance of Audience Response System (ARS) using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The findings show that (1) IT characteristics and facilitating conditions could be external variables of TAM. (2) The degree of E-business has positive significant correlation with behavioral intention of employees. (3) TAM is a good model to predict and explain IT acceptance. (4) Demographic variables, industry and firm characteristics have no significant correlation with ARS acceptance. The results provide useful information to managers and ARS providers that (1) ARS providers should focus more on creating different usages to enhance interactivity and employees' using intention. (2) Managers should pay attention to build sound internal facilitating conditions for introducing IT. (3) According to the degree of E-business, managers should set up strategic stages of introducing IT. (4) Providers should increase product promotion and also leverage academic and government to promote ARS.

  9. Developing clinical practice guidelines: target audiences, identifying topics for guidelines, guideline group composition and functioning and conflicts of interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eccles Martin P

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Clinical practice guidelines are one of the foundations of efforts to improve health care. In 1999, we authored a paper about methods to develop guidelines. Since it was published, the methods of guideline development have progressed both in terms of methods and necessary procedures and the context for guideline development has changed with the emergence of guideline clearing houses and large scale guideline production organisations (such as the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. It therefore seems timely to, in a series of three articles, update and extend our earlier paper. In this first paper we discuss: the target audience(s for guidelines and their use of guidelines; identifying topics for guidelines; guideline group composition (including consumer involvement and the processes by which guideline groups function and the important procedural issue of managing conflicts of interest in guideline development.

  10. Developing clinical practice guidelines: target audiences, identifying topics for guidelines, guideline group composition and functioning and conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, Martin P; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Shekelle, Paul; Schünemann, Holger J; Woolf, Steven

    2012-07-04

    Clinical practice guidelines are one of the foundations of efforts to improve health care. In 1999, we authored a paper about methods to develop guidelines. Since it was published, the methods of guideline development have progressed both in terms of methods and necessary procedures and the context for guideline development has changed with the emergence of guideline clearing houses and large scale guideline production organisations (such as the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence). It therefore seems timely to, in a series of three articles, update and extend our earlier paper. In this first paper we discuss: the target audience(s) for guidelines and their use of guidelines; identifying topics for guidelines; guideline group composition (including consumer involvement) and the processes by which guideline groups function and the important procedural issue of managing conflicts of interest in guideline development.

  11. Astronomy and Disabled: Implementation of new technologies to communicate science to new audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Beatriz; Ortiz Gil, Amelia; Proust, Dominique

    2015-08-01

    Commission 46 proposed in 2012 the creation of an interdisciplinary WG in which astronomers work together with technicians, educators and disability specialists to develop new teaching and learning strategies devoted o generate resources of high impact among disabled populations, which are usually away from astronomy. Successful initiatives designed to research the best-practices in using new technologies to communicate science in these special audiences include the creation of models and applications, and the implementation of a data base of didactic approaches and tools. Between the achievements of this proposal, we have original development in: design of electronics, design of original software, scripts and music for Planetarium functions, design of models and their associated explanatory script, printed material in Braille and 3D, filming associated with sign language, interviews and docs recompilation and the recently project on the Sign Language Universal Encyclopedic Dictionary, based on the proposal by Proust (2009) and, which proposes the dissemination of a unique language for the deaf worldwide, associated with astronomical terms.We present, on behalf of the WG, some of the achievements, developments, successful stories of recent applications of this new approach to the science for all, thinking in the new “public of sciences”, and new challenges.

  12. Predicting web site audience demographics for web advertising targeting using multi-web site clickstream data

    OpenAIRE

    Bock, K W; D. VAN DEN POEL; Manigart, S.

    2009-01-01

    Several recent studies have explored the virtues of behavioral targeting and personalization for online advertising. In this paper, we add to this literature by proposing a cost-effective methodology for the prediction of demographic web site visitor profiles that can be used for web advertising targeting purposes. The methodology involves the transformation of web site visitors’ clickstream patterns to a set of features and the training of Random Forest classifiers that generate predictions ...

  13. Targeting modulates audiences' brain and behavioral responses to safe sex video ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, An-Li; Lowen, Steven B; Shi, Zhenhao; Bissey, Bryn; Metzger, David S; Langleben, Daniel D

    2016-10-01

    Video ads promoting condom use are a key component of media campaigns to stem the HIV epidemic. Recent neuroimaging studies in the context of smoking cessation, point to personal relevance as one of the key variables that determine the effectiveness of public health messages. While minority men who have sex with men (MSM) are at the highest risk of HIV infection, most safe-sex ads feature predominantly Caucasian actors in heterosexual scenarios. We compared brain respons of 45 African American MSM to safe sex ads that were matched (i.e. 'Targeted') to participants' sexual orientation and race, and 'Untargeted' ads that were un matched for these characteristics. Ad recall, perceived 'convincingness' and attitudes towards condom use were also assessed. We found that Targeted ads were better remembered than the Untargeted ads but perceived as equally convincing. Targeted ads engaged brain regions involved in self-referential processing and memory, including the amygdala, hippocampus, temporal and medial prefrontal cortices (MPFC) and the precuneus. Connectivity between MPFC and precuneus and middle temporal gyrus was stronger when viewing Targeted ads. Our results suggest that targeting may increase cognitive processing of safe sex ads and justify further prospective studies linking brain response to media public health interventions and clinical outcomes.

  14. Use of clinical simulations for patient education: targeting an untapped audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwe, Karin; Berterö, Carina; Pugh, Carla; Wijma, Barbro

    2009-01-01

    In most cases, the health professional has been the target for simulation based learning curricula. We have developed a simulation based curriculum for patient education. In our curriculum lay-women learn how to perform the clinical female pelvic examination using a manikin-based trainer. Learner assessments show that prior negative expectations turned into positive expectations regarding future pelvic examinations.

  15. Targeting Audience Subcategories for Specialty Magazines: A Uses and Gratifications Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Pamela J.; Inskip, Elizabeth

    A study tested the uses and gratifications theoretical perspective--that motivations affect media use which in turn influences the effects of that use. The American Student Dental Association targeted its publications to different subaudiences and provided a grant to the University of Texas at Austin to study (1) whether the differentiation…

  16. Conflict or Caveats? Effects of Media Portrayals of Scientific Uncertainty on Audience Perceptions of New Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Andrew R; Hillback, Elliott D; Brossard, Dominique

    2016-04-01

    Research indicates that uncertainty in science news stories affects public assessment of risk and uncertainty. However, the form in which uncertainty is presented may also affect people's risk and uncertainty assessments. For example, a news story that features an expert discussing both what is known and what is unknown about a topic may convey a different form of scientific uncertainty than a story that features two experts who hold conflicting opinions about the status of scientific knowledge of the topic, even when both stories contain the same information about knowledge and its boundaries. This study focuses on audience uncertainty and risk perceptions regarding the emerging science of nanotechnology by manipulating whether uncertainty in a news story about potential risks is attributed to expert sources in the form of caveats (individual uncertainty) or conflicting viewpoints (collective uncertainty). Results suggest that the type of uncertainty portrayed does not impact audience feelings of uncertainty or risk perceptions directly. Rather, the presentation of the story influences risk perceptions only among those who are highly deferent to scientific authority. Implications for risk communication theory and practice are discussed.

  17. Poème Numérique: Technology-Mediated Audience Participation (TMAP) using Smartphones and High-Frequency Sound IDs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kayali, Fares; Bartmann, Christoph; Hödl, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    . In this setup the audience needs to install a smartphone app. Using high-frequency sound IDs music samples and colors can be triggered on the audience’s smartphones without the need to have an internet connection. The resulting soundscape is determined by the samples and parameters selected by the artist......In this paper we discuss a setup for technology-mediated audience participation using smartphones and high-frequency sound IDs. Drawing from the insights of a research project on audience participation in live music we describe a setup for playful music interaction composed of smartphones...

  18. Target Audience of Live Opera Transmissions to Cinema Theatres from the Marketing Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Tahal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Opera has a famous history and even the present-day repertoire in opera houses mostly consists of classical and well-known works. Marketers are trying to find new ways that would enable opera lovers all over the world to enjoy top quality performances. One of the most successful models is real-time transmissions of operas to geographically remote cinemas. Cinemas from all around the world participate in the project. In this paper, the authors analyze the spectators´ profile and point out differences between North America and the Czech Republic, focusing on transmissions of performances by the Metropolitan Opera in New York. The authors submit a detailed analysis of the socio-demographic characteristics of the spectators and the attendance frequency. Special attention is paid to the marketing profile of Czech spectators, based on primary data gathered in the research. The paper is a combination of research report and business case study. The study reveals that female visitors prevail. Elderly people are also represented in high percentages. The spectators are characterized by refined taste in their lifestyles and familiarity with modern technology.

  19. Survey of the Target Audience for the Adult Learning Program Service (ALPS), with a Review of Pertinent Research Studies. A Report to the Corporation for Public Broadcasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Urban Education, New York, NY.

    To provide information on the target audience for the Adult Learning Program Service (ALPS), a television series being developed by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, interviews were conducted with a small national sample of potential viewers. The main focus of the study was an examination of the social-psychological aspects of a decision…

  20. Reaching the Target Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    their rich history, strong economy and a powerful military. All this was done at a time when the rest of the world was mired in the Great Depression ...the message. In today’s marketing world, this is called branding; tying slogans, images, color, symbols and music to a product.42 MISO must take full...halls and community centers) to listen to the music and news radio until home radios became affordable in the early 1930s. During the era of the

  1. Boundaries and audiences of national histories of science: insights from the history of science and technology of the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homburg, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    The present paper traces the evolution of writing national-oriented histories of science and technology of the Netherlands. Several episodes are distinguished. A first wave of national histories of science and technology was written during the first decades of the 19th century. These histories had a wide scope, which included science, technology, the humanities and the arts. A second wave, which lasted from about 1865 to 1900, was strongly connected to the rise of the scientific professions. Its focus was on the sciences perse, and on the Dutch "Golden Age" of the 17th century. A third wave occurred during and shortly after the Second World War. Its focus was mainly on the "Second Golden Age" of Dutch science (1870-1910), and its major audience were young boys that were to be recruited to the sciences. The second part of the paper discusses the growing influence of "contextualization" in both the history of science and the history of technology from about 1975 onwards. As a result, local factors often received more attention in historical studies of science and technology than national influences. In 1985, Klaas van Berkel undertook a bold attempt to write a new synthesis of the history of Dutch science, but his approach was too strongly influenced by the three previous waves of national histories. From 1989 to 2003 two projects on the national history of technology resulted in 13 volumes on Dutch technology between 1800 and 1970. New research was initiated, and the issue of "national styles" in the development of technology received ample attention. In his conclusions the author points to lessons to be learned from economic history and the history of art, and he concludes with a plea for more historiographical discussion in the history of science and technology.

  2. Peering into the "black box" of education interventions and attitude change: Audience characteristics moderate the effectiveness…and then only toward specific targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoori-Rostam, Sara Michelle; Tate, Charlotte Chucky

    2017-01-01

    To probe the inconsistent link between education and attitude change toward minority social groups, we conducted a field study that focused on audience characteristics and education about lesbian, gay, and transgender (LGT) targets. Participants enrolled in a sexuality course were compared to those in a neurology course, both taught by the same professor. Multiple regression analyses predicted attitude change toward LGT targets from social dominance orientation (SDO), right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), ratings of professor's characteristics, SDO by course interaction, and RWA by course interaction. Only the SDO by course interaction significantly predicted attitude change. Simple slopes analyses indicated that high-SDO participants in the sexuality course showed the most positive attitude change. These findings suggest that education may reduce prejudice for certain audience characteristics.

  3. An Empirical Study of Neural Network-Based Audience Response Technology in a Human Anatomy Course for Pharmacy Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; López-González, Laura; González-Sequeros, Ofelia; Jayne, Chrisina; López-Jiménez, Juan José; Carrillo-de-Gea, Juan Manuel; Toval, Ambrosio

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents an empirical study of a formative neural network-based assessment approach by using mobile technology to provide pharmacy students with intelligent diagnostic feedback. An unsupervised learning algorithm was integrated with an audience response system called SIDRA in order to generate states that collect some commonality in responses to questions and add diagnostic feedback for guided learning. A total of 89 pharmacy students enrolled on a Human Anatomy course were taught using two different teaching methods. Forty-four students employed intelligent SIDRA (i-SIDRA), whereas 45 students received the same training but without using i-SIDRA. A statistically significant difference was found between the experimental group (i-SIDRA) and the control group (traditional learning methodology), with T (87) = 6.598, p SIDRA and the methodology used during the process of learning anatomy (M = 4.59). The new empirical contribution presented in this paper allows instructors to perform post hoc analyses of each particular student's progress to ensure appropriate training.

  4. The use of audience response system technology with limited-english-proficiency, low-literacy, and vulnerable populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keifer, Matthew C; Reyes, Iris; Liebman, Amy K; Juarez-Carrillo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Audience response systems (ARS) have long been used to improve the interactivity of educational activities. Most studies of ARS have addressed education of literate trainees. How well these devices work with low-literacy subjects is not well studied. Information gathering on the training audience is an important use of ARS and helpful in improving the targeting of training information. However, obtaining demographic information from vulnerable populations with reasons to be concerned about divulging information about themselves has not been tested. In addition, a culturally competent method to effectively collect demographic and evaluation data of this growing population is essential. This project investigated the use of ARS to gather information from Hispanic immigrant workers, many of whom are socially vulnerable and have limited English proficiency (LEP) and low-literacy. Workers attended focus groups and were asked to use ARS devices or clickers to respond to questions. Questions were both categorical (multiple choice) and open-ended numerical (text entry), and varied from simple queries to more sensitive points regarding immigration. Most workers answered the one-key response categorical questions with little difficulty. In contrast, some participants struggled when responding to numerical questions, especially when the response required pressing multiple clicker keys. An overwhelming majority of participants reported that the clickers were comfortable and easy to use despite the challenges presented by the more complex responses. The error rate increased as question complexity increased and the trend across three ordered categories of response complexity reached statistical significance. Results suggest that ARS is a viable method for gathering dichotomous or higher-order categorical information from LEP and low-literacy populations in a group setting while assuring anonymity. However, it is recommended that clickers be developed and tested with fewer, bigger

  5. Audience Commodification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajeheian, Datis

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a research project aimed at developing a business model by changing the value-creation mechanism. The essence of this change is to persuade customers to perform actions in favour of the service provider. Such actions include responding to advertising clips to unlock value....... The business model was generated from the concept of audience commodification and is based on the idea of looking at the users as source of a tradeable asset in business-to-business markets. Here, attention and actions are the assets that users pay to access the proposed value. The research includes two phases...... of surveys and experimentation. In the first phase, the tendency and acceptance level of users towards watching advertisements to unlock value are measured. In the next phase, a platform prototype is developed to test and understand user actions towards receiving value. The sample includes 52 users...

  6. Blogging and Audience Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapp, Diane; Shea, Andrea; Wolsey, Thomas DeVere

    2011-01-01

    Weblogs or blogging may foreground audience needs for a written work and help novice authors grow in audience awareness and elicit and use audience feedback. A case study of a second-grade classroom compared students' growing audience awareness and the ways they addressed audience needs. Analysis of student written work, students' comments to…

  7. TARGETED TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO US INDEPENDENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald F. Duttlinger; E. Lance Cole

    2005-01-01

    FY04. Activities remained at high levels. Board and staff interaction has defined strategic thrusts to further outreach. Networking, involvement in technical activities and an active exhibit schedule are increasing PTTC's sphere of influence with both producers and the service sector. PTTC's reputation for unbiased bottom line information stimulates cooperative ventures with other organizations. Efforts to build the contact database and a growing E-mail Technology Alert service are expanding PTTC's audience.

  8. Pedagogical strategies and evaluations used with target audience students of Special Education according to the account of the ordinary and special education teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielli Silva Gualda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the account of common classroom teachers on the teaching strategies used with the possible target audience students of special education (TASSE before forwarding them to the specialized educational service (SES in multifunctional resource classrooms (MRCs, as well as analyses the evaluation criteria established with those who came to receive such service, and the account of special education teachers about the assessments used with the TASSE, after receiving the SES in MRCs. For data collection, two interview scripts were used, one of which was answered by 30 ordinary classroom teachers and the other by five special education teachers. The results suggested that the pedagogical strategies and assessments directed at the TASSE were decisive factors to identify whether the policy proposals related to inclusive education were being effectively implemented in elementary schools.

  9. Knowing Your Audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmgren, Dallin

    1989-01-01

    Talks to English teachers about the importance of knowing their audience--the students. Encourages teachers to continue to be humanitarians even though they can not always see the good they are doing for their audience. (MG)

  10. Who Is Audience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeching, Angela M.

    2016-01-01

    Music conservatoires have generally neglected focusing on a key issue: that of audiences--their needs and wants, why they value particular music, and how music actually functions in any particular community. Yet audience is typically a musician's first contact with the "real world"; understanding audience (one's market or customers) is…

  11. Developing a Motion Comic for HIV/STD Prevention for Young People Ages 15-24, Part 1: Listening to Your Target Audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Leigh A; Kachur, Rachel; Castellanos, Ted J; Spikes, Pilgrim; Gaul, Zaneta J; Gamayo, Ashley C; Durham, Marcus; Jones, Sandra; Nichols, Kristen; Han Barthelemy, Solange; LaPlace, Lisa; Staatz, Colleen; Hogben, Matthew; Robinson, Susan; Brooks, John T; Sutton, Madeline Y

    2016-12-21

    Young people (15-24 years) in the United States are disproportionately affected by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Shortfalls in HIV/STD-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions (KABI) likely contribute to this discrepancy. In this report we describe our experience developing a novel means of health communication combining entertainment-education theory and recent technological advances to create a HIV/STD-focused "motion comic." We also report the audience satisfaction and acceptance of the intervention. We used the Health Belief Model (HBM), entertainment-education (EE) principles, and the Sabido Method (SM) and conducted three rounds of focus groups to develop a 38-minute HIV/STD focused motion comic for young people between the ages 15 and 24 years. Participants indicated that motion comics were an acceptable method of delivering HIV/STD prevention messages. They also expressed satisfaction with motion comics plot, story settings, the tone of humor, and drama. Our results suggest that motion comics are a viable new method of delivering health communication messages about HIV/STD and other public health issues, and warrant further development and broader evaluation.

  12. 新疆主流媒体对外传播目标受众研究%A Study of External Communication Target Audience of Mainstream Media in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦若薇

    2012-01-01

    由于传播资源的有限性和受众之间存在的客观差异,有效传播往往是建立在对对象分析了解的基础上。按照程曼丽教授的“国际传播受众分类”理论。可对新疆主流媒体对外传播的受众进行不同层次的划分。在新疆主流媒体的传播实践中,应影响重点受众、次重点受众并在世界范围内产生影响力从而间接影响一般受众;影响顺意受众,关注中立受众,促使逆意受众的转变;固化行动受众的积极心理定势,促使知晓受众形成积极态度,正面影响潜在受众的态度及其行为。这样才能真正提升对外传播的效果。%Because of objective differences between limited communication resources and audience, effective dissemination is often based of an analysis of target audience. According to Professor Cheng Manli' s the International Audience Classification Theory, different levels of external communication audiences of mainstream media can be divided in Xinjiang. In the practice of mainstream media dissemination in Xinjiang, suggestions such as first affecting audiences of most importance, then of secondary importance, and then produce influence in the world and thus indirectly affect the general audience and other proposals are put forward to really enhance the effect of external communication.

  13. The Imagined Audience on Social Network Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eden Litt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available When people construct and share posts on social network sites like Facebook and Twitter, whom do they imagine as their audience? How do users describe this imagined audience? Do they have a sub-audience in mind (e.g., “friends who like reality television”? Do they share more broadly and abstractly (e.g., “the public”? Do such imaginings fluctuate each time a person posts? Using a mixed-methods approach involving a 2-month-long diary study of 119 diverse American adults and their 1,200 social network site posts, supplemented with follow-up interviews (N = 30, this study explores the imagined audience on social network sites. The findings reveal that even though users often interacted with large diverse audiences as they posted, they coped by envisioning either very broad abstract imagined audiences or more targeted specific imagined audiences composed of personal ties, professional ties, communal ties, and/or phantasmal ties. When people had target imagined audiences in mind, they were most often homogeneous and composed of people’s friends and family. Users’ imaginings typically fluctuated among these audience types as they posted even though the potential audience as per their posts’ privacy settings often did not change. The findings provide a list of audience types, as well as detailed descriptions, examples, and frequencies on which future research can build. With people’s online presence playing an important role for their reputations, these findings provide more insight into for whom people are managing their privacy and whom they have in mind as they share.

  14. Realizing Technologies for Magnetized Target Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurden, Glen A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-24

    Researchers are making progress with a range of magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) concepts. All of these approaches use the addition of a magnetic field to a target plasma, and then compress the plasma to fusion conditions. The beauty of MIF is that driver power requirements are reduced, compared to classical inertial fusion approaches, and simultaneously the compression timescales can be longer, and required implosion velocities are slower. The presence of a sufficiently large Bfield expands the accessibility to ignition, even at lower values of the density-radius product, and can confine fusion alphas. A key constraint is that the lifetime of the MIF target plasma has to be matched to the timescale of the driver technology (whether liners, heavy ions, or lasers). To achieve sufficient burn-up fraction, scaling suggests that larger yields are more effective. To handle the larger yields (GJ level), thick liquid wall chambers are certainly desired (no plasma/neutron damage materials problem) and probably required. With larger yields, slower repetition rates ({approx}0.1-1 Hz) for this intrinsically pulsed approach to fusion are possible, which means that chamber clearing between pulses can be accomplished on timescales that are compatible with simple clearing techniques (flowing liquid droplet curtains). However, demonstration of the required reliable delivery of hundreds of MJ of energy, for millions of pulses per year, is an ongoing pulsed power technical challenge.

  15. Connecting with Your Audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamchur, Carolyn

    1989-01-01

    A workshop model on presentation skills for teachers in the classroom is presented. The goals and techniques would apply to many teaching situations in the college classroom, as well as lectures and symposium presentations. Making a personal connection, focusing on audience, and empowering the audience are discussed. (MLW)

  16. Perelman's Universal Audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, John W.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the concept of the universal audience as the basic factor of Chaim Perelman's rhetorical theory and concludes that it is subject to the same criticism as Rousseau's general will and Kant's categorical imperative. (JMF)

  17. Future technological developments to fulfill AG2020 targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mads Ville; Østergård, Hanne; Borch, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    This report constitute an analysis of selected technologies that are anticipated to underpin the images described in Giaoutzi et al (2008) and it proposes policy measures to promote these technologies. It builds on Borch et al (2008) where a more detailed description of technologies can be found....... Based on the technological narratives and imperatives, we select a set of present available technologies that are able to support the society in reaching the targets set up by AG2020. For each of these technologies, we evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the technology to reach the target as well...... as the threats for development of the technology in the respective images. Finally policies for promoting and spreading technologies are proposed....

  18. Targeted Technology Transfer to US Independents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald F. Duttlinger; E. Lance Cole

    2006-09-29

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) was established by domestic crude oil and natural gas producers in 1994 as a national not-for-profit organization to address the increasingly urgent need to improve the technology-transfer process in the U.S. upstream petroleum industry. Coordinated from a Headquarters (HQ) office in Houston, PTTC maintains an active grassroots program executed by 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) and two satellite offices (Figure 1). Regional Directors interact with domestic oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, technical publications and cooperative outreach efforts. HQ facilitates inter-regional technology transfer and implements a comprehensive communications program. Active volunteers on the National Board and in Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs) in each of the 10 regions focus effort in areas that will create the most impact for domestic producers. Focused effort by dedicated individuals across the country has enabled PTTC to achieve the milestones outlined in Appendix A.

  19. Privacy-Preserving Television Audience Measurement Using Smart TVs

    OpenAIRE

    Drosatos, George; Tasidou, Aimilia; Efraimidis, Pavlos,

    2012-01-01

    Part 6: Privacy Attitudes and Properties; International audience; Internet-enabled television systems, often referred to as Smart TVs, are a new development in television and home entertainment technologies. In this work, we propose a new, privacy-preserving, approach for Television Audience Measurement (TAM), utilizing the capabilities of the Smart TV technologies. We propose a novel application to calculate aggregate audience measurements using Smart TV computation capabilities and permanen...

  20. Creating Visual Design and Meaningful Audience Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steijn, Arthur; Ion Wille, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    consider digital media and new technologies as appropriate ways to reach new audiences. However in the field of classical composition music, new technologies have more than often been applied mainly to online ticket sales, web based marketing, and social medias. The focus of our work at the School...

  1. Antisense technologies targeting fatty acid synthetic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinshun; Liu, Feng; Jiang, Yuyang

    2012-05-01

    Fatty acid synthesis is a coordinated process involving multiple enzymes. Overexpression of some of these enzymes plays important roles in tumor growth and development. Therefore, these enzymes are attractive targets for cancer therapies. Antisense agents provide highly specific inhibition of the expression of target genes and thus have served as powerful tools for gene functional studies and potential therapeutic agents for cancers. This article reviews different types of antisense agents and their applications in the modulation of fatty acid synthesis. Patents of antisense agents targeting fatty acid synthetic enzymes are introduced. In addition, miR-122 has been shown to regulate the expression of fatty acid synthetic enzymes, and thus antisense agent patents that inhibit miR-122 expression are also discussed.

  2. Targeted Technology Transfer to US Independents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Lance Cole

    2009-09-30

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) was established by domestic crude oil and natural gas producers, working in conjunction with the Independent Petroleum Association of America (IPAA), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and selected universities, in 1994 as a national not-for-profit organization. Its goal is to transfer Exploration and Production (E&P) technology to the domestic upstream petroleum industry, in particular to the small independent operators. PTTC connects producers, technology providers and innovators, academia, and university/industry/government research and development (R&D) groups. From inception PTTC has received federal funding through DOE's oil and natural gas program managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). With higher funding available in its early years, PTTC was able to deliver well more than 100 workshops per year, drawing 6,000 or more attendees per year. Facing the reality of little or no federal funding in the 2006-2007 time frame, PTTC and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) worked together for PTTC to become a subsidiary organization of AAPG. This change brings additional organizational and financial resources to bear for PTTC's benefit. PTTC has now been 'powered by AAPG' for two full fiscal years. There is a clear sense that PTTC has stabilized and is strengthening its regional workshop and national technology transfer programs and is becoming more entrepreneurial in exploring technology transfer opportunities beyond its primary DOE contract. Quantitative accomplishments: PTTC has maintained its unique structure of a national organization working through Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) to deliver local, affordable workshops. During the contract period PTTC consolidated from 10 to six regions efficiency and alignment with AAPG sections. The number of workshops delivered by its RLOs during the contract period is shown below. Combined attendance over the

  3. Targeted Technology Transfer to US Independents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Lance Cole

    2009-09-30

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) was established by domestic crude oil and natural gas producers, working in conjunction with the Independent Petroleum Association of America (IPAA), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and selected universities, in 1994 as a national not-for-profit organization. Its goal is to transfer Exploration and Production (E&P) technology to the domestic upstream petroleum industry, in particular to the small independent operators. PTTC connects producers, technology providers and innovators, academia, and university/industry/government research and development (R&D) groups. From inception PTTC has received federal funding through DOE's oil and natural gas program managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). With higher funding available in its early years, PTTC was able to deliver well more than 100 workshops per year, drawing 6,000 or more attendees per year. Facing the reality of little or no federal funding in the 2006-2007 time frame, PTTC and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) worked together for PTTC to become a subsidiary organization of AAPG. This change brings additional organizational and financial resources to bear for PTTC's benefit. PTTC has now been 'powered by AAPG' for two full fiscal years. There is a clear sense that PTTC has stabilized and is strengthening its regional workshop and national technology transfer programs and is becoming more entrepreneurial in exploring technology transfer opportunities beyond its primary DOE contract. Quantitative accomplishments: PTTC has maintained its unique structure of a national organization working through Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) to deliver local, affordable workshops. During the contract period PTTC consolidated from 10 to six regions efficiency and alignment with AAPG sections. The number of workshops delivered by its RLOs during the contract period is shown below. Combined attendance over the

  4. The Negligence of the Target Audience's Psychological Needs in the Chinese Home-made Cartoons and Reflections%国产动画受众心理需求的缺失及反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭松

    2015-01-01

    动画作品存在的根本价值之一在于满足受众的心理需求。反观当前的国产动画,在满足受众心理需求上存在着缺失。总体认识上,受众心理需求的类型认识不清,导致供需定位整体模糊。具体层面上,对儿童受众心理需求的实质认识和适龄细分不足以至于“看不懂”;对成人受众的心理需求从属性定位到主观实践总体滞后造成了“看不惯”。综合而言,上述因素是造成当前国产动画与受众心理需求之间“供需失衡”现状的根本原因。%One of the fundamental existential values of the Chinese home-made cartoons is to meet the psychological needs of the target audience.In contrast,the current Chinese home-made cartoons have long been in the habit of neglecting their audiences'psychological needs.In view of the holistic recognition,the unclear classification of the types of the psychologi-cal needs result in the fuzzy demand and supply orientation.In the concrete level,owing to the improper understanding of the children's psychological needs between children of different ages,many cartoons are found to be difficult for children to under-stand;the lagging behind in the orientation of the adult audience's psychological needs,whether in terms of attribute orientation or the subj ective practice,has resulted in the unpopularity.In a word,the above-mentioned factors are the primary causes that lead to the imbalance between demand and supply concerning the psychological needs of the target audiences for the Chinese home-made cartoons.

  5. Telephone and Face-to-Face Interviews with Low-Income Males with Child Care Responsibilities Support Inclusion as a Target Audience in SNAP-Ed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krall, Jodi Stotts; Wamboldt, Patricia; Lohse, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Federally funded nutrition programs mostly target females. Changes in family dynamics suggest low-income men have an important role in food management responsibilities. The purpose of this study was to inform nutrition education program planning to meet needs of lower-income males. Cross-sectional telephone and face-to-face interviews. Stratified random sample of men (n = 101), 18-59 years of age, with child care responsibilities, living in households participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and a convenience sample of adult males (n = 25) recruited from lower income venues. (1) Scripted telephone interviews about health status, eating behaviors, eating competence, food security, technology usage and topics and strategies for nutrition education. (2) In-person cognitive interviews during review of selected online nutrition education lessons. Nutrition education topics of interest, preferred educational strategies, influences on and barriers to intake, eating competence, critiques of online program content, graphics, format. Bivariate correlations, independent t tests, one-way analysis of variance or Chi square, as appropriate. Thematic analyses of cognitive interviews. Of telephone interviewees, 92.1% prepared meals/snacks for children and 54.5% made major household food decisions. Taste was the greatest influence on food selection and the greatest barrier to eating healthful foods. Topics of highest interest were "which foods are best for kids" and "how to eat more healthy foods." Preferred nutrition education strategies included online delivery. Online lessons were highly rated. Interactive components were recognized as particularly appealing; enhanced male centricity of lessons was supported. Findings provided compelling evidence for including needs specific to low-income males when planning, designing, and funding nutrition education programs.

  6. Targeted Technology Transfer to US Independents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatzinger, Viola [Petroleum Tech. Transfer Council, Tulsa, OK (United States); Chapman, Kathy [Petroleum Tech. Transfer Council, Tulsa, OK (United States); Lovendahl, Kristi [Petroleum Tech. Transfer Council, Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) is a unique not-for-profit network that focuses on transferring Exploration and Production (E&P) technology to the domestic oil and natural gas producing industry. PTTC connects producers, technology providers and innovators, academia, research and development (R&D) consortiums and governments. Local affordable workshops delivered by Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs), which are typically a university or geological survey, are a primary tool. PTTC also maintains a website network, issues a national newsletter, provides a column in a major trade publication, and exhibits at major industry events. It also encourages industry to ask technology-related questions, striving to find relevant answers that will save questioners significant time. Working since late 1993, the PTTC network has a proven track record of providing industry with technology insights they can apply. Volunteers at the regional and national level provide key guidance regarding where to focus technical effort and help connect PTTC with industry. At historical funding levels, PTTC had been able to hold well more than 100 workshops per year, drawing 6,000+ attendees. As funding decreased in the early 2000s, the level of activity decreased and PTTC sought a merger with the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), becoming an AAPG-managed organization at the start of FY08. This relationship with AAPG was terminated by mutual consent in May 2011 and PTTC once again operates independently. Chris Hall, California continued to serve as Chairman of the Board of Directors until December 2013. At the time PTTC reorganized into a RLO led organization with Mary Carr and Jeremy Viscomi as co-Executive Directors. Jerry Anderson became the Chairman of the PTTC Board of Directors and Chris Hall continues to serve on the Board. Workshop activity stabilized at 55-65 workshops per year averaging 3,100 attendees. FY14 represented the fifth year in a multi

  7. Facing the Audience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    and audience. Dialogic theory is applied toward an exploration of how humans make meaning (semiosis) on the basis of previous experience or knowledge. Three main Bakhtinian concepts are discussed in an attempt to gain understand theoretical understanding of the hybrid animated film: heteroglossia (multiple......This chapter explores machinima as a "hybrid animated film" or "hybrid text", with focus on the combination of machinima animation and live-action imagery. Machinima is used as an example of how "novel" or new forms of text evolve. The meaning-making processes of machinima filmmakers and audiences...... linguistic and cultural evolutions, and may even propel them. This essay concerns the dialogic theories on language and culture inspired by the Russian literary philosopher M. M. Bakhtin (1895-1975) applied to understanding machinima (realtime animation), which is seen as an example of “hybrid animated film...

  8. Capturing the Audience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Kim Christian; Kobbernagel, Christian; Peters, Chris

    that underlie established news paradigms (Peters and Witschge, 2014). This paper thus focuses on methodological challenges that impede efforts to understand such shifting audience practices on three levels: conducting longitudinal research; operationalizing cross-national studies with a genuine comparative......-in-the-life interviews, Q-sort methodology and think-aloud protocols, alongside recent Dutch and Danish data that expands upon this research. The results highlight tensions and inconsistencies in data and design that hinder meaningful research into ever-shifting audiences. We argue that in order to enable comparison......, research instruments must have a high degree of standardization. However, in order to be valid they must also be sensitive to specificities – both for the sake of being faithful to the media system of each specific country or time being compared and in order to be meaningful to the vernacular...

  9. Field precision machining technology of target chamber in ICF lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanli; Wu, Wenkai; Shi, Sucun; Duan, Lin; Chen, Gang; Wang, Baoxu; Song, Yugang; Liu, Huilin; Zhu, Mingzhi

    2016-10-01

    In ICF lasers, many independent laser beams are required to be positioned on target with a very high degree of accuracy during a shot. The target chamber provides a precision platform and datum reference for final optics assembly and target collimation and location system. The target chamber consists of shell with welded flanges, reinforced concrete pedestal, and lateral support structure. The field precision machining technology of target chamber in ICF lasers have been developed based on ShenGuangIII (SGIII). The same center of the target chamber is adopted in the process of design, fabrication, and alignment. The technologies of beam collimation and datum reference transformation are developed for the fabrication, positioning and adjustment of target chamber. A supporting and rotating mechanism and a special drilling machine are developed to bore the holes of ports. An adjustment mechanism is designed to accurately position the target chamber. In order to ensure the collimation requirements of the beam leading and focusing and the target positioning, custom-machined spacers are used to accurately correct the alignment error of the ports. Finally, this paper describes the chamber center, orientation, and centering alignment error measurements of SGIII. The measurements show the field precision machining of SGIII target chamber meet its design requirement. These information can be used on similar systems.

  10. Mirror Your Audience's Attitude: A Global Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meussling, Vonne

    Recent advertising research has suggested that to gain initial entry into and retain continual success with a targeted audience of consumers, it is wise to mirror the attitudes and desires of those consumers. This has proven effective in the United States, where companies such as Chevrolet, Levi Strauss, and Coca-Cola have successfully catered to…

  11. Discourse swings in understanding audiences:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, CarrieLynn D.

    and media professionals characterize the role of people in media engagings.  The initial conceptualization of “audience-as-commodity” was challenged by increased recognition of the audience as active consumers, or “audience-as-agent”.  Recently this recognition has led to the Hollywood media industry...

  12. Sleeping with the enemy: Audience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Joke; Berg, Annika van den; Mol, Marloes

    2013-01-01

    Audience studies is not the vibrant field it was in its 1980s and early 1990s heyday. Cultural studies today has a more balanced interest in production, audiences and texts. A renewed focus in audience studies on everyday meaning production, identity and relations of power could benefit from recent

  13. In search of an audience...

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Stremersch (Stefan)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractFor an academic, finding an audience is critical. However, finding an audience is not always easy for most marketing academics. This inaugural address explores what the challenges are in finding an audience, among fellow scholars, students, public policy, industry, or society in general.

  14. Art and the Educated Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, James O.

    2010-01-01

    The important role audiences play in the workings of a well-ordered art world is seldom recognized. Aestheticians have little to say about audiences, and artists sometimes express disdain or even contempt for the judgment of audiences. I argue that valuable artworks are unlikely to be produced unless artists are responsive to a broad educated…

  15. In search of an audience...

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Stremersch (Stefan)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractFor an academic, finding an audience is critical. However, finding an audience is not always easy for most marketing academics. This inaugural address explores what the challenges are in finding an audience, among fellow scholars, students, public policy, industry, or society in general.

  16. Technology strategy for gas technologies; Technology Target Areas; TTA8 Gas Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    TTA8 - Gas technologies points out the various routes Norway can follow to capitalise on the vast resources of natural gas that will be produced in the years to come by developing a strong technology and competence platform. A broad view is taken for the value creation having as basis the continued gas export from NCS to Europe, but also a strong focus on development of gas resources in other parts of the world. The latter can also be seen as part of international positioning for upstream resources and does also include involvements in projects, and export of technology and products. The TTA has structured the analysis into 3 main areas: Gas transport and processing (pipeline, LNG, other); Gas conversion to fuels, chemicals and materials; CO{sub 2} management. In this report, for each of these areas, scenarios based on a gap analysis are presented. One of the key goals has been to identify pacing and emerging technologies for the next 20 years. Based on this, technologies have been mapped according to importance for future competitiveness and technology ambitions. This also includes primary funding responsibilities (public and/or industry). The road map below reflects the key issues in the proposed strategy. The base level of the figure explains areas that will have to be pursued to maintain Norway's role as a key gas and gas technology provider. The second layer represents near term options and possibilities with a reasonable risk profile that could further enhance the Norwegian position given the resources and drive to further develop this industry. As the top layer we have selected some of our 'dreams', what we may achieve if a progressive approach is followed with a strongly innovation based policy. It is acknowledged by the TTA that Norway cannot be a leading technology player in all aspects of the gas value chain. For some technologies we should be an active player and developer, whilst for other technologies we should become a competent buyer

  17. How Communication Goals Determine when Audience Tuning Biases Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echterhoff, Gerald; Higgins, E. Tory; Kopietz, Rene; Groll, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    After tuning their message to suit their audience's attitude, communicators' own memories for the original information (e.g., a target person's behaviors) often reflect the biased view expressed in their message--producing an audience-congruent memory bias. Exploring the motivational circumstances of message production, the authors investigated…

  18. Advanced drug delivery and targeting technologies for the ocular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Barar, Jaleh; AGHANEJAD, Ayuob; Fathi, Marziyeh; Omidi, Yadollah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Ocular targeted therapy has enormously been advanced by implementation of new methods of drug delivery and targeting using implantable drug delivery systems (DDSs) or devices (DDDs), stimuli-responsive advanced biomaterials, multimodal nanomedicines, cell therapy modalities and medical bioMEMs. These technologies tackle several ocular diseases such as inflammation-based diseases (e.g., scleritis, keratitis, uveitis, iritis, conjunctivitis, chorioretinitis, choroiditis, retinitis...

  19. Movies: the Audience Favorites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern screen art over its success to the use of folklore, myth, synthesis of the natural and supernatural, and a consistent orientation toward the most popular plot schemes. Their metaphorical appeal is not to the rational but to the emotional, through identification with the magic power of heroes and standardization of ideas, situations, characters and so on in compensation for dreams not realized in life, there are illusions – happy endings. In movies, TV shows, and music videos' rhythmic organization, viewers' feelings are influenced as much by the order of changing shots as by the content of productions. On the basis of the foregoing, it can be concluded that the media texts of popular culture obliged to a variety of factors for its success. These include: reliance on folklore and mythological sources, constancy metaphors, focus on consistent implementation of the most persistent plot schemes, the synthesis of the natural and the supernatural, the appeal not to rational and emotional, through the identification of (imaginary transformation in of active characters merge with the atmosphere, the aura of works, “magic power” of heroes, standardization (replication, unification, adaptation ideas, situations, characters, etc., mosaic, seriality, the compensation (of the cherished illusion, but not come true desires, the happy ending, the use of such rhythmic organization movies, TV shows, clips, where the feeling of the audience with the content of the frame affects the order of their shift; intuitive guessing subconscious audience interests, etc.

  20. Technology developments in biological tools for targeted genome surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teimourian, Shahram; Abdollahzadeh, Rasoul

    2015-01-01

    Different biological tools for targeted genome engineering have recently appeared and these include tools like meganucleases, zinc-finger nucleases and newer technologies including TALENs and CRISPR/Cas systems. transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) have greatly improved genome editing efficiency by making site-specific DNA double-strand breaks. Several studies have shown the prominence of TALENs in comparison to the meganucleases and zinc-finger nucleases. The most important feature of TALENs that makes them suitable tools for targeted genome editing is the modularity of central repeat domains, meaning that they can be designed to recognize any desirable DNA sequence. In this review, we present a comprehensive and concise description of TALENs technology developments for targeted genome surgery with to the point description and comparison of other tools.

  1. Chamber and target technology development for inertial fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M; Besenbruch, G; Duke, J; Forman, L; Goodin, D; Gulec, K; Hoffer, J; Khater, H; Kulcinsky, G; Latkowski, J F; Logan, B G; Margevicious, B; Meier, W R; Moir, R W; Morley, N; Nobile, A; Payne, S; Peterson, P F; Peterson, R; Petzoldt, R; Schultz, K; Steckle, W; Sviatoslavsky, L; Tillack, M; Ying, A

    1999-04-07

    Fusion chambers and high pulse-rate target systems for inertial fusion energy (IFE) must: regenerate chamber conditions suitable for target injection, laser propagation, and ignition at rates of 5 to 10 Hz; extract fusion energy at temperatures high enough for efficient conversion to electricity; breed tritium and fuel targets with minimum tritium inventory; manufacture targets at low cost; inject those targets with sufficient accuracy for high energy gain; assure adequate lifetime of the chamber and beam interface (final optics); minimize radioactive waste levels and annual volumes; and minimize radiation releases under normal operating and accident conditions. The primary goal of the US IFE program over the next four years (Phase I) is to develop the basis for a Proof-of-Performance-level driver and target chamber called the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE). The IRE will explore beam transport and focusing through prototypical chamber environment and will intercept surrogate targets at high pulse rep-rate. The IRE will not have enough driver energy to ignite targets, and it will be a non-nuclear facility. IRE options are being developed for both heavy ion and laser driven IFE. Fig. 1 shows that Phase I is prerequisite to an IRE, and the IRE plus NIF (Phase II) is prerequisite to a high-pulse rate. Engineering Test Facility and DEMO for IFE, leading to an attractive fusion power plant. This report deals with the Phase-I R&D needs for the chamber, driver/chamber interface (i.e., magnets for accelerators and optics for lasers), target fabrication, and target injection; it is meant to be part of a more comprehensive IFE development plan which will include driver technology and target design R&D. Because of limited R&D funds, especially in Phase I, it is not possible to address the critical issues for all possible chamber and target technology options for heavy ion or laser fusion. On the other hand, there is risk in addressing only one approach to each technology

  2. Facing the Audience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    linguistic and cultural evolutions, and may even propel them. This essay concerns the dialogic theories on language and culture inspired by the Russian literary philosopher M. M. Bakhtin (1895-1975) applied to understanding machinima (realtime animation), which is seen as an example of “hybrid animated film......This chapter explores machinima as a "hybrid animated film" or "hybrid text", with focus on the combination of machinima animation and live-action imagery. Machinima is used as an example of how "novel" or new forms of text evolve. The meaning-making processes of machinima filmmakers and audiences...... of live action and the animated in filmmaking. The hybridity poses several theoretical challenges. On the one hand, understanding hybridity as an aspect of all texts, as any text builds on all previous texts or is intertextual. On the other hand, understanding the meaning-making process of filmmakers...

  3. Audience in the Service of Learning: How Kids Negotiate Attention in an Online Community of Interactive Media Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Audience can serve as powerful motivation in learning--and network technologies have the potential to greatly broaden audience for the processes and products of learning. But these new opportunities for audience are accompanied by new challenges. In this paper, we examine and problematize the notion and role of audience in learning by presenting a…

  4. WRITING FOR A REAL AUDIENCE: A LETTER-EXCHANGE PROJECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In an EFL class, writing for a real audience can bring aboutmany inherent educational benefits. However, this is often ne-glected by many language teachers. This paper reports on the re-sults obtained from using a writing for a real audience project inan Intensive Reading course for non-English majors. Students inthis project wrote letters to their partners in the target languageand shared information with each other. The author found thatthe process of writing for a real audience can not only help stu-dents practice using the target language but also can encouragethem to overcome writing apprehension.

  5. Audience Research for the Performing Arts: Romanian Music Festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin G. LUCHIAN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the strategic marketing tools (instruments such as segmentation and targeting for a better understanding of current and potential audiences of classical music festivals. Arts administrators need to locate and address the audience segmentation, enhancing communication with audiences of all segments. The marketing strategies for music festivals should include improving music festival branding as well as developing diverse programs and engaging with the community on multiple levels. The study incorporates a literature review of the recent sociological research dealing with the consumption of arts products and a case study approach on the fifteenth edition of Romanian Music Festival in Iași, involving an audience survey. The research can be used as a tool to inform marketing and audience development plans for the organisers of Romanian Music Festival and other arts organisations. It also contains insights that organisations might find useful in the development of an arts activity itself.

  6. Las series televisivas juveniles: tramas y conflictos en una «teen series» Television Fiction Series Targeted at Young Audience: Plots and Conflicts Portrayed in a Teen Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria García Muñoz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los principales hallazgos de un estudio sobre las «teen series», es decir las series de ficción televisiva protagonizadas por personajes adolescentes y dirigidas expresamente a una audiencia juvenil. El análisis del retrato de los jóvenes representados en productos específicamente dirigidos a un público juvenil tiene un valor muy significativo tanto por la producción de ficción como por la recepción, ya que los consumidores potenciales se encuentran en un momento clave del proceso de construcción de sus identidades. Después de repasar los principales antecedentes en el estudio de la representación de los jóvenes en la ficción televisiva, se describe el marco conceptual relativo a las «teen series» y se discute su relación con el consumo juvenil. Sucesivamente se presenta un estudio de caso que consiste en un análisis de contenido de la serie norteamericana «Dawson’s creek», realizado sobre una muestra representativa de tres temporadas de la serie, para analizar dos grupos de variables: variables relativas a los personajes y variables relativas a las tramas y a los conflictos. Se discuten los resultados relativos al segundo grupo de variables, con particular atención a las características de las tramas y al papel de los personajes en el desarrollo y en la resolución de las mismas. La aceptación de la identidad personal, el amor y la amistad han resultado ser las temáticas más recurrentes. Además, las relaciones sociales entre los personajes han resultado ejercer un papel fundamental en el desarrollo de las tramas y de los conflictos.This paper presents the main findings of a research project on teen series, which are television fiction series featuring teenagers and specifically targeted at a young audience. The analysis of the portrayal of young people in television fictional series specifically targeted at a young audience has a meaningful value both for television production and for audience reception

  7. Selling Participation to Audiences in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo Huang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Media globalization is facilitated by the development of new technologies within a framework of digitization and convergence. Contemporary new media provide networks through which the mingling of media occurs, shaping a “multi-mediacy” age, and a connecting of mediated/mediating venues in a condition of “immediacy”. Additionally, the business of communication has evolved from being the “communication of business” to the “business of business”. Multi-mediacy and immediacy have generated new avenues of profit from media. The paper will draw on Chitty’s theorization on web transactional venues to discuss new ways of farming of revenue from media. Media revenues have in the past and today been drawn from licence fees, media subscriptions and advertising. Today, media networks also sell “participation” to audiences directly by charging for text message voting/gaming, or sell a range of products and services through web-venue based commerce. This paper will undertake case studies to examine the increasing trend of “direct audience payment for participation”. The case studies that will be used are (A the intervention of Chinese Service Providers in reality TV shows and (B E-commerce on the Internet. Monternet (mo[bile I]nternet and Linktone are investigated as Service Providers (SPs and the consumer-to-consumer (C2C website www.taobao.com is studied compared with Eachnet (eBay in China. The paper will also investigate the influences of “direct audience payment for participation” on the quality of media products and communication flow between media and audience and generally discuss the consequences of the “direct audience payment for participation” from the perspective of communication ethics.

  8. Screening Technologies for Target Identification in Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michl, Patrick, E-mail: michlp@med.uni-marburg.de; Ripka, Stefanie; Gress, Thomas; Buchholz, Malte [Department of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, University Hospital, Philipps-University Marburg, Baldinger Strasse, D-35043 Marburg (Germany)

    2010-12-29

    Pancreatic cancer exhibits an extraordinarily high level of resistance to almost any kind of systemic therapy evaluated in clinical trials so far. Therefore, the identification of novel therapeutic targets is urgently required. High-throughput screens have emerged as an important tool to identify putative targets for diagnosis and therapy in an unbiased manner. More than a decade ago, microarray technology was introduced to identify differentially expressed genes in pancreatic cancer as compared to normal pancreas, chronic pancreatitis and other cancer types located in close proximity to the pancreas. In addition, proteomic screens have facilitated the identification of differentially secreted proteins in body fluids of pancreatic cancer patients, serving as possible biomarkers. Recently, RNA interference-based loss-of-function screens have been used to identify functionally relevant genes, whose knock-down has impact on pancreatic cancer cell viability, thereby representing potential new targets for therapeutic intervention. This review summarizes recent results of transcriptional, proteomic and functional screens in pancreatic cancer and discusses potentials and limitations of the respective technologies as well as their impact on future therapeutic developments.

  9. The Advanced Linked Extended Reconnaissance & Targeting Technology Demonstration project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mark

    2008-04-01

    The Advanced Linked Extended Reconnaissance & Targeting (ALERT) Technology Demonstration (TD) project is addressing many operational needs of the future Canadian Army's Surveillance and Reconnaissance forces. Using the surveillance system of the Coyote reconnaissance vehicle as an experimental platform, the ALERT TD project aims to significantly enhance situational awareness by fusing multi-sensor and tactical data, developing automated processes, and integrating beyond line-of-sight sensing. The project is exploiting important advances made in computer processing capability, displays technology, digital communications, and sensor technology since the design of the original surveillance system. As the major research area within the project, concepts are discussed for displaying and fusing multi-sensor and tactical data within an Enhanced Operator Control Station (EOCS). The sensor data can originate from the Coyote's own visible-band and IR cameras, laser rangefinder, and ground-surveillance radar, as well as from beyond line-of-sight systems such as mini-UAVs and unattended ground sensors. Video-rate image processing has been developed to assist the operator to detect poorly visible targets. As a second major area of research, automatic target cueing capabilities have been added to the system. These include scene change detection, automatic target detection and aided target recognition algorithms processing both IR and visible-band images to draw the operator's attention to possible targets. The merits of incorporating scene change detection algorithms are also discussed. In the area of multi-sensor data fusion, up to Joint Defence Labs level 2 has been demonstrated. The human factors engineering aspects of the user interface in this complex environment are presented, drawing upon multiple user group sessions with military surveillance system operators. The paper concludes with Lessons Learned from the project. The ALERT system has been used in a number of C4ISR

  10. The Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Digital News Audiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The changing patterns of news consumption in a digital era bring about new configurations between audiences, information, the devices upon which they consume it and the different (mobile) places and (shiftable) times where and when this is possible. This chapter highlights the need to consider...... these interrelated changes in the media ecology if we want to grasp the newfound complexity of media consumption. Specifically, it outlines how audience engagement with news and different spatiotemporal configurations made possible by digital technology are trends that complement and reinforce one another in terms...... of changing the socially-situated affordances of news use. Having sketched these contours, the chapter then highlights analytical challenges for understanding and conceptualizing the new interrelations between digital news content, production, and consumption, grounding this analysis with theoretical insights...

  11. How to trigger low carbon technologies by EU targets for 2030? An assessment of technology needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenenberg, H.; Van Breevoort, P.; Janeiro, L.; Winkel, T.

    2013-04-15

    The current EU framework for energy and climate policies up to 2020 consists of three headline targets: 20% reduction of GHG emissions compared to 2005, a 20% share of renewable energy in final energy consumption, and 20% primary energy savings compared to baseline developments. While progress on these 2020 targets is mixed, discussions in the EU about climate and energy policies and targets for the period after 2020 have started. Given the long cycles associated to energy and climate investments, agreement on a clear longer-term policy framework is critical to improve visibility for investors and avoid lock-in effects in inefficient or polluting technologies. Therefore, the European Commission published a Communication on 6 June 2012 on the need for a long term policy framework for renewable energy, and a Green Paper on the 2030 climate and energy policy framework on 27 March 2013. Against this background, the Dutch Ministries of Infrastructure and Environment and the Ministry of Economic Affairs requested PBL to create input for the European debate on climate targets and policies until and beyond 2030. Ecofys supported PBL by addressing the following two questions: (1) What steps are needed for selected key technology groups to achieve long term GHG emission reductions and what climate and energy policies are likely to trigger these steps?; and (2) What are the pros and cons of a 2030 policy framework with (a) a GHG reduction target only, and (b) targets for GHG reduction, renewable energy, and energy efficiency? The focus of the first question was on four technology groups, namely (1) energy efficiency in the built environment, notably for heat; (2) solar PV and wind energy; (3) advanced biofuels; (4) CO2 carbon capture and storage (CCS). An analysis of the steps needed for the deployment of the full GHG mitigation potential of the discussed technology groups shows that this will largely depend on the adoption of a wide range of policy instruments by EU Member

  12. Pharmaceutical technology at the service of targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allémann, Eric; Delie, Florence; Lange, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Research in pharmaceutical technology has drifted from formulation of systems with improved drug absorption and bioavailability to systems targeting molecular sites of diseases. The research unit of Pharmaceutical Technology from the University of Geneva focuses on the development of systems for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Three types of constructs for targeting are reviewed. With a fine-tuning of size and surface composition, polymeric nanoparticles are developed to improve detection of micrometastasis by fluorescence imaging. Furthermore, surface coating with specific antibodies increase the therapeutic efficiency of the encapsulated chemotherapeutic agent for tumor treatment in animal models. Constructs that are activated by remote sources of energy are investigated in the unit. For instance, microbubbles bearing specific antibody fragments at their surface are useful contrast agents for ultrasound molecular imaging. Microbubbles, if combined with a thrombolytic drug and ultrasound, improve clot lysis, which is promising for stroke treatments. Enzymatically activated prodrug scaffolds are also under development. With this approach, intrinsic enzymatic activity of a diseased tissue activates the formulations. This concept led to the development of theranostic agents that can be used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  13. Evaluation of image uniformity and radiolucency for computed tomography phantom made of 3-dimensional printing of fused deposition modeling technology by using acrylonitrile but audience styrene resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seoung, Youl Hun [Dept. of of Radiological Science, Cheongju University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiolucency for the phantom output to the 3D printing technology. The 3D printing technology was applied for FDM (fused deposition modeling) method and was used the material of ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) resin. The phantom was designed in cylindrical uniformity. An image uniformity was measured by a cross-sectional images of the 3D printed phantom obtained from the CT equipment. The evaluation of radiolucency was measured exposure dose by the inserted ion-chamber from the 3D printed phantom. As a results, the average of uniformity in the cross-sectional CT image was 2.70 HU and the correlation of radiolucency between PMMA CT phantom and 3D printed ABS phantom is found to have a high correlation to 0.976. In the future, this results will be expected to be used as the basis for the phantom production of the radiation quality control by used 3D printing technology.

  14. Behzat Ç. An Ankara Detective: An Audience Perception Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Şeker

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was proposed to reveal how “Behzat Ç. An Ankara Detective” serial is perceived among audiences. The research was done by 11 participants and by means of deep engagements audience notions devoted to reception aesthetic were examined. It was confirmed that audiences were highly sensitive to messages. We acquired that socio-demographic variables differ from presented content in terms of resistance. While sense production related to social reality was closer to mass media reality among the youth, elder groups and educateds producted senses that did not coincide with tendency of serial. During the engagements, Behzat Ç. was characterized as a political person and the idea that certain political parties and communities were targeted became prominent. It was determined that the audience of Behzat Ç. interprets each message according to his or her intellectual and ideological framework with an active and sensitive eye.

  15. Teaching Audience Analysis with Presidential "Victory" Speeches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kevin T.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching students to understand the importance of audience analysis can be challenging. In fact, many public-speaking texts suggest methods for engaging audience analysis that is not always practical or possible (e.g., polling audiences before you speak to them). One practical way of understanding audience analysis is to see it at work in the text…

  16. Personalized medicine: risk prediction, targeted therapies and mobile health technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Daniel F; Markus, Hugh S; Leslie, R David; Topol, Eric J

    2014-02-28

    Personalized medicine is increasingly being employed across many areas of clinical practice, as genes associated with specific diseases are discovered and targeted therapies are developed. Mobile apps are also beginning to be used in medicine with the aim of providing a personalized approach to disease management. In some areas of medicine, patient-tailored risk prediction and treatment are applied routinely in the clinic, whereas in other fields, more work is required to translate scientific advances into individualized treatment. In this forum article, we asked specialists in oncology, neurology, endocrinology and mobile health technology to discuss where we are in terms of personalized medicine, and address their visions for the future and the challenges that remain in their respective fields.

  17. Hydrogen Technology Education Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-12-01

    This document outlines activities for educating key target audiences, as suggested by workshop participants. Held December 4-5, 2002, the Hydrogen Technology Education Workshop kicked off a new education effort coordinated by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, & Infrastructure Technologies Program of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  18. Videoethnographic approaches to audience research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildermuth, Norbert

      In my paper I will explore the methodological uses and epistemological consequences of videoethnography in audience studies. With reference to research done on young people and their media appropriations in Recife (Brazil), in December 2005, I will argue for the creative integration of video...... recordings in doing mediaethnographic audience research. Moreover, I will discuss the use and potentials of hypermedia in presenting the results of ethnographic audience research. Based on recent conceptualisations and theories of hypermodality and multimodal ethnography (Lemke, 2002; Idema, 2003; Dicks......'. Finally, considerations regarding a planned hypermediated presentation of my research project in Recife, will be related to the experiences made with video as tool of mediaethnographic investigation and analysis. How the potential of non-sequentiality enshrined in hypermedia applications can...

  19. Advanced drug delivery and targeting technologies for the ocular diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barar, Jaleh; Aghanejad, Ayuob; Fathi, Marziyeh; Omidi, Yadollah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Ocular targeted therapy has enormously been advanced by implementation of new methods of drug delivery and targeting using implantable drug delivery systems (DDSs) or devices (DDDs), stimuli-responsive advanced biomaterials, multimodal nanomedicines, cell therapy modalities and medical bioMEMs. These technologies tackle several ocular diseases such as inflammation-based diseases (e.g., scleritis, keratitis, uveitis, iritis, conjunctivitis, chorioretinitis, choroiditis, retinitis, retinochoroiditis), ocular hypertension and neuropathy, age-related macular degeneration and mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) due to accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Such therapies appear to provide ultimate treatments, even though much more effective, yet biocompatible, noninvasive therapies are needed to control some disabling ocular diseases/disorders. Methods: In the current study, we have reviewed and discussed recent advancements on ocular targeted therapies. Results: On the ground that the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analyses of ophthalmic drugs need special techniques, most of ocular DDSs/devices developments have been designed to localized therapy within the eye. Application of advanced DDSs such as Subconjunctival insert/implants (e.g., latanoprost implant, Gamunex-C), episcleral implant (e.g., LX201), cationic emulsions (e.g., Cationorm™, Vekacia™, Cyclokat™), intac/punctal plug DDSs (latanoprost punctal plug delivery system, L-PPDS), and intravitreal implants (I-vitaion™, NT-501, NT- 503, MicroPump, Thethadur, IB-20089 Verisome™, Cortiject, DE-102, Retisert™, Iluvein™ and Ozurdex™) have significantly improved the treatment of ocular diseases. However, most of these DDSs/devices are applied invasively and even need surgical procedures. Of these, use of de novo technologies such as advanced stimuli-responsive nanomaterials, multimodal nanosystems (NSs)/nanoconjugates (NCs), biomacromolecualr scaffolds, and bioengineered cell therapies

  20. An Audience for the Aliens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryer, Theo

    2013-01-01

    This account of the making and sharing of self-authored digital videos in a Year 5 classroom focuses on the way that the children appear to be influenced by their awareness of audience. Drawing on evidence of video observation, written and moving image texts produced by the children and semi-structured interviews with them, I examine the factors…

  1. An Audience for the Aliens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryer, Theo

    2013-01-01

    This account of the making and sharing of self-authored digital videos in a Year 5 classroom focuses on the way that the children appear to be influenced by their awareness of audience. Drawing on evidence of video observation, written and moving image texts produced by the children and semi-structured interviews with them, I examine the factors…

  2. An Investigation of TV Audience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER LIM

    1996-01-01

    WITH 850 million viewers watching 300 million TV sets, China has the biggest TV audience in the world. Here, 72 percent of households with TVs. have more than one set. On average, urban citizens spend more than two hours watching TV every day. All the above data comes from the China Central Television Consultation Center of Information Investigation (CCTVCCII).

  3. Potential of phage-displayed peptide library technology to identify functional targeting peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumpe, Lauren RH; Mori, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    Combinatorial peptide library technology is a valuable resource for drug discovery and development. Several peptide drugs developed through phage-displayed peptide library technology are presently in clinical trials and the authors envision that phage-displayed peptide library technology will assist in the discovery and development of many more. This review attempts to compile and summarize recent literature on targeting peptides developed through peptide library technology, with special emphasis on novel peptides with targeting capacity evaluated in vivo. PMID:20150977

  4. The advertising and children's audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Teletov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of article. The article shows that today more and more citizens supply from advertising. Children's perception of the world is radically different from the adults’ perception. Modern advertising industry affects children's audience more and more. The aim of the article is to analyze the impact of advertising on children's audience with further proposals. The results of the analysis. Some social critics believe that advertising provides new information that helps to be more adaptive in society and to develop memory. Others think that advertising reduces mental activity, imposes ideals of beauty and effects family relationships. Modern advertising industry is increasingly effects children. It is profitable because it is easier to attract young audience who easy perceive new things, habits and tastes. Children audience hasn’t molded own lifestyle. Social activities of companies are not limited to charity. Advertising for children should not be difficult and confusing to children. Following the requirements of creation the socially responsible advertising can gain adherents not only among adults but also among children, who will become loyal to particular company and products which it produces over time. The algorithm for creating socially responsible advertising campaign for children is proposed. Authors proposed appropriate slogans for different applications. It is very difficult to predict the children’s reaction. Indifferent attitude to the creation of advertising can lead to destruction of children’s right values. Children get information from any source. Conclusions and directions of further researches should be conducted towards the need of social responsibility for creating advertising in general and advertising for particular child. Children more respond to images with audio accompaniment. Special attention should be paid to the creation of television advertising and advertisement.

  5. WHAT DOES LESBIAN AUDIENCE LIKE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ibiti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to identify the mechanisms that define the pleasure (taste and disgust (disgust of the lesbian audience in receiving audiovisual set in lesbian communities. After viewing two stories constructed from the series The  L Word, 25 lesbians WERE interviewed in depth. Next, we conducted a qualitative content anaLysis of the interviews. The results are discussed from the theories of Entertainment (Media Psychology.

  6. Protein-protein interactions as druggable targets: recent technological advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higueruelo, Alicia P; Jubb, Harry; Blundell, Tom L

    2013-10-01

    Classical target-based drug discovery, where large chemical libraries are screened using inhibitory assays for a single target, has struggled to find ligands that inhibit protein-protein interactions (PPI). Nevertheless, in the past decade there have been successes that have demonstrated that PPI can be useful drug targets, and the field is now evolving fast. This review focuses on the new approaches and concepts that are being developed to tackle these challenging targets: the use of fragment based methods to explore the chemical space, stapled peptides to regulate intracellular PPI, alternatives to competitive inhibition and the use of antibodies to enable small molecule discovery for these targets.

  7. Using Audience Segmentation to Tailor Residential Irrigation Water Conservation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Laura A.; Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Rumble, Joy N.; Lamm, Alexa J.; Momol, Esen

    2017-01-01

    Today's complex issues require technical expertise as well as the application of innovative social science techniques within Extension contexts. Researchers have suggested that a social science approach will play a critical role in water conservation, and people who use home landscape irrigation comprise a critical target audience for agriculture…

  8. Absent Audiences: Youth Identity Formation in Preparations for Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Carol C.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the use of audiences in preparation for public presentation by an urban youth organization in Camden, New Jersey (U.S.). Camden is an impoverished city with few opportunities for youth. The organization, a hybrid of youth development, technology, business, and college preparation, prepared youth for good jobs or college.…

  9. Technology strategy for subsea processing and transport; Technology Target Areas; TTA6 - Subsea processing and transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    OG21 (www.OG21.org) Norway's official technology strategy for the petroleum sector issued a revised strategy document in November 2005 (new strategy planned in 2009). In this document 'Subsea processing and transport' was identified as one of the eight new technology target areas (TTAs). The overall OG21 strategy document is on an aggregated level, and therefore the Board of OG21 decided that a sub-strategy for each TTA was needed. This document proposes the sub-strategy for the technology target area 'Subsea processing and transport' which covers the technology and competence necessary to effectively transport well stream to a platform or to onshore facilities. This includes multiphase flow modelling, flow assurance challenges to avoid problems with hydrates, asphaltenes and wax, subsea or downhole fluid conditioning including bulk water removal, and optionally complete water removal, and sand handling. It also covers technologies to increase recovery by pressure boosting from subsea pumping and/or subsea compression. Finally it covers technologies to facilitate subsea processing such as control systems and power supply. The vision of the Subsea processing and transport TTA is: Norway is to be the leading international knowledge- and technology cluster in subsea processing and transport: Sustain increased recovery and accelerated production on the NCS by applying subsea processing and efficient transport solutions; Enable >500 km gas/condensate multiphase well stream transport; Enable >200 km oil-dominated multiphase well stream transport; Enable well stream transport of complex fluids; Enable subsea separation, boosting compression, and water injection; Enable deepwater developments; Enable environmentally friendly and energy efficient field development. Increase the export of subsea processing and transport technology: Optimize technology from the NCS for application worldwide; Develop new technology that can meet the challenges found in

  10. Exploring Learning through Audience Interaction in Virtual Reality Dome Theaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolellis, Panagiotis; Daradoumis, Thanasis

    Informal learning in public spaces like museums, science centers and planetariums is increasingly popular during the last years. Recent advancements in large-scale displays allowed contemporary technology-enhanced museums to get equipped with digital domes, some with real-time capabilities like Virtual Reality systems. By conducting extensive literature review we have come to the conclusion that little to no research has been carried out on the leaning outcomes that the combination of VR and audience interaction can provide in the immersive environments of dome theaters. Thus, we propose that audience collaboration in immersive virtual reality environments presents a promising approach to support effective learning in groups of school aged children.

  11. Defining Audience Segments for Extension Programming Using Reported Water Conservation Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Paul; Ott, Emily; Wilber, Wendy; Gouldthorpe, Jessica; Racevskis, Laila

    2013-01-01

    A tool from social marketing can help Extension agents understand distinct audience segments among their constituents. Defining targeted audiences for Extension programming is a first step to influencing behavior change among the public. An online survey was conducted using an Extension email list for urban households receiving a monthly lawn and…

  12. The science of science outreach: methods to maximise audience engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Kathryn; Lane, Timothy

    2016-04-01

    Effective public engagement relies on a clear understanding of public audiences; their existing knowledge base and their learning preferences. Scientific content that is effective in academic spheres is not necessarily popular in the public domain. This may be due to content (e.g. beginner level to advanced terminology); presentation style (graphical, text, multimedia); audience demographic (children to adults); and entertainment value. Over the last few years, there has been a major expansion in the quantity and quality of science outreach material. For scientists, the production of outreach material, in any form, is the first giant leap to disseminating their knowledge to broader audiences. However, there is also a need to evaluate the performance of outreach material, so that its content and delivery style can be tailored and maximised for the target audience. We examine the Google Analytics data for climate science outreach website Climatica over a 12 month period in 2015. The site publishes regular posts, which take the form of short written articles, graphics, videos, or teaching resources, on all aspects of climate science. The site is publicised via social media including Twitter and Facebook. In particular, we assess website performance, in terms of website visits and post engagement. These are examined in the context of: post topic, post style, social media engagement, and the timing of post publication/advertisement. The findings of this investigation are used to explore audience preferences and mechanisms for future post development to maximise the use of this web resource.

  13. Message Design and Audience Engagement with Tobacco Prevention Posts on Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalova, Yulia A; Damiani, Rachel E

    2016-11-10

    Understanding the appropriate medium to communicate health promotion messages is vital for improving personal and societal health. As increasingly more people utilize social media for health information, public health practitioners use these platforms to engage an existing audience in health promotion messages. In this study, the relational framing theory was used as a lens for studying how message framing may influence social media audience engagement. Specifically, we assessed how posts from Tobacco Free Florida's Facebook page were framed as either dominant-submissive or affiliate-disaffiliate to an implied audience of either smokers, nonsmokers, active quitters, or a mixed audience, and the extent to which a direct call for engagement, in terms of a request to comment, like, or share the post, was used for audience engagement. A three-way interaction for the level of engagement through comments was significant, F(3217) = 7.11, p engagement, and varying implied audience choice played a role in audience engagement with smoking cessation posts on social media. Implied audiences of Tobacco Free Florida's posts included smokers, those who are trying to quit, and nonsmokers as health promotion can be targeted at the individual's health, social support infrastructure, or the well-being of the society, and implications for strategic message design and audience targeting are discussed.

  14. What do audiences do when they sit and listen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Ana-Despina; Poeschl, Sandra; Doering, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Speech anxiety (SA) training may help subjects improve their skills on keeping audiences interested in the speech and on managing calm or restless audiences. Attention and lack of attention during speeches are displayed through several nonverbal cues. Such and other nonverbal behaviors can also spread throughout a group and engage whole audiences. The current study is an inquiry into the nonverbal markers of attention and lack of attention during lectures (e.g. note taking, eye gaze towards the speaker, conduct with electronic devices such as mobile phones or laptops). Additionally, the study tries to identify nonverbal behaviors that are diffused and their spatial and time diffusion characteristics. 37 university students at the Ilmenau University of Technology have been observed during a 40-minutes lecture. A quantitative content analysis is conducted to identify patterns of behaviors depicting attention and inattention. Afterwards a qualitative content analysis is carried out to identify contagious behaviors and their spreading characteristics. The findings are used to design virtual audiences (VA) whose members react to each other or display observable audience responses (OAR) and will be implemented into training scenarios for training university students against SA.

  15. Videoethnographic approaches to audience research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildermuth, Norbert

    and Mason, 1998; Dicks, Soyinka and Coffey, 2006) I will seek to show, by help of my own material, that the creative integration of different media may offer the reader and analyst a more adequate approximation of the richness of mediaethnographic knowledge than conventional textual presentations......  In my paper I will explore the methodological uses and epistemological consequences of videoethnography in audience studies. With reference to research done on young people and their media appropriations in Recife (Brazil), in December 2005, I will argue for the creative integration of video...

  16. The Places and Spaces of News Audiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on-demand. Day-by-day, month-by-month, year-by-year, technology moves forward, impacting more than just the ways in which we get news. These fundamental shifts change what news ‘is’. This book expands our understanding of contemporary news audiences and explores how the different places and spaces......Historically, or so we would like to believe, the story of everyday life for many people included regular, definitive moments of news consumption. Journalism, in fact, was distributed around these routines: papers were delivered before breakfast, the evening news on TV buttressed the transition...... can consume journalism and engage with information – from tablets, to smartphones, online, and so forth – and the different places and moments of news consumption have multiplied as a result, to the point where news is increasingly mobile and instantaneous. It is personalized, localized and available...

  17. TALENs: a widely applicable technology for targeted genome editing

    OpenAIRE

    Joung, J. Keith; Sander, Jeffry D.

    2012-01-01

    Engineered nucleases enable the targeted alteration of any DNA sequence in a wide range of cell types and organisms. The newly-developed transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) comprise a non-specific DNA-cleaving nuclease fused to a DNA-binding domain that can be easily engineered so that TALENs can target essentially any sequence. The capability to quickly and efficiently alter any gene sequence using TALENs promises to have profound impacts on biological research and to yi...

  18. Energy technologies for post Kyoto targets in the medium term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soenderberg Petersen, L.; Larsen, H. (eds.)

    2003-09-01

    The Risoe International Energy Conference took place 19 - 21 May 2003 and the aim was to present and discuss new developments and trends in energy technologies which may become main contributors to the energy scene in 15 to 20 years. The conference addressed R&D related to the individual technologies as well as system integration. The proceedings are prepared from papers presented at the conference and received with corrections, if any, until the final deadline on 25 June 2003. (au)

  19. Technology transfer from NASA to targeted industries, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccain, Wayne; Schroer, Bernard J.; Souder, William E.; Spann, Mary S.; Watters, Harry; Ziemke, M. Carl

    1993-01-01

    This volume contains the following materials to support Volume 1: (1) Survey of Metal Fabrication Industry in Alabama; (2) Survey of Electronics Manufacturing/Assembly Industry in Alabama; (3) Apparel Modular Manufacturing Simulators; (4) Synopsis of a Stereolithography Project; (5) Transferring Modular Manufacturing Technology to an Apparel Firm; (6) Letters of Support; (7) Fact Sheets; (8) Publications; and (9) One Stop Access to NASA Technology Brochure.

  20. Characterizing and Reaching High-Risk Drinkers Using Audience Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Howard B.; Kirby, Susan D.; Donodeo, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Background Market or audience segmentation is widely used in social marketing efforts to help planners identify segments of a population to target for tailored program interventions. Market-based segments are typically defined by behaviors, attitudes, knowledge, opinions, or lifestyles. They are more helpful to health communication and marketing planning than epidemiologically-defined groups because market-based segments are similar in respect to how they behave or might react to marketing and communication efforts. However, market segmentation has rarely been used in alcohol research. As an illustration of its utility, we employed commercial data that describes the sociodemographic characteristics of high-risk drinkers as an audience segment; where they tend to live, lifestyles, interests, consumer behaviors, alcohol consumption behaviors, other health-related behaviors, and cultural values. Such information can be extremely valuable in targeting and planning public health campaigns, targeted mailings, prevention interventions and research efforts. Methods We describe the results of a segmentation analysis of those individuals who self-report consuming five or more drinks per drinking episode at least twice in the last 30-days. The study used the proprietary PRIZM™ audience segmentation database merged with Center for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) database. The top ten of the 66 PRIZM™ audience segments for this risky drinking pattern are described. For five of these segments we provide additional in-depth details about consumer behavior and the estimates of the market areas where these risky drinkers reside. Results The top ten audience segments (PRIZM clusters) most likely to engage in high-risk drinking are described. The cluster with the highest concentration of binge drinking behavior is referred to as the “Cyber Millenials.” This cluster is characterized as “the nation's tech-savvy singles

  1. Characterizing and reaching high-risk drinkers using audience segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Howard B; Kirby, Susan D; Donodeo, Fred

    2009-08-01

    Market or audience segmentation is widely used in social marketing efforts to help planners identify segments of a population to target for tailored program interventions. Market-based segments are typically defined by behaviors, attitudes, knowledge, opinions, or lifestyles. They are more helpful to health communication and marketing planning than epidemiologically defined groups because market-based segments are similar in respect to how they behave or might react to marketing and communication efforts. However, market segmentation has rarely been used in alcohol research. As an illustration of its utility, we employed commercial data that describes the sociodemographic characteristics of high-risk drinkers as an audience segment, including where they tend to live, lifestyles, interests, consumer behaviors, alcohol consumption behaviors, other health-related behaviors, and cultural values. Such information can be extremely valuable in targeting and planning public health campaigns, targeted mailings, prevention interventions, and research efforts. We described the results of a segmentation analysis of those individuals who self-reported to consume 5 or more drinks per drinking episode at least twice in the last 30 days. The study used the proprietary PRIZM (Claritas, Inc., San Diego, CA) audience segmentation database merged with the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) database. The top 10 of the 66 PRIZM audience segments for this risky drinking pattern are described. For five of these segments we provided additional in-depth details about consumer behavior and the estimates of the market areas where these risky drinkers resided. The top 10 audience segments (PRIZM clusters) most likely to engage in high-risk drinking are described. The cluster with the highest concentration of binge-drinking behavior is referred to as the "Cyber Millenials." This cluster is characterized as "the nation's tech

  2. Infrared dim target detection technology based on background estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Liu; Zhijian, Huang

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, two new algorithms - background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method are presented. The basic principles and the implementing procedure of these algorithms for target detection are described. Using these algorithms, the experiments on some real-life IR images are performed. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective view and objective view. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

  3. Experiences of faculty and students using an audience response system in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christine M; Monturo, Cheryl; Conroy, Katherine

    2011-07-01

    The advent of innovative technologies, such as the audience response system, provides an opportunity to engage students and enhance learning. Based on their experiences, three nursing faculty evaluated the use of an audience response system in four distinct nursing courses through the use of informal survey results. When using the audience response system, the faculty experienced an increased perception of student attentiveness and engagement, high level of class attendance, and enhanced learning. Faculty feelings were mixed concerning the burden in adapting to increased classroom time and increased preparation time. Students' perception of the value of audience response system use was mostly positive, except when responses were included as part of the grade. The majority of the students indicated that use of the audience response system enhanced learning and was a helpful learning method when used with NCLEX-style questions. Overall, faculty believed that the benefits of student engagement and enhanced learning outweighed the burdens of incorporating this new technology in the classroom.

  4. TALENs: a widely applicable technology for targeted genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, J Keith; Sander, Jeffry D

    2013-01-01

    Engineered nucleases enable the targeted alteration of nearly any gene in a wide range of cell types and organisms. The newly-developed transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) comprise a nonspecific DNA-cleaving nuclease fused to a DNA-binding domain that can be easily engineered so that TALENs can target essentially any sequence. The capability to quickly and efficiently alter genes using TALENs promises to have profound impacts on biological research and to yield potential therapeutic strategies for genetic diseases.

  5. Teaching audience analysis to the technical student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debs, M. B.; Brillhart, L. V.

    1981-01-01

    Teaching audience analysis, as practiced in a technical writing course for engineering students, is discussed. Audience analysis is described as the task of defining the audience for a particular piece of writing and determining those characteristics of the audience which constrain the writer and effect reception of the message. A mature technical writing style that shows the tension produced when a text is written to be read and understood is considered in terms of audience analysis. Techniques include: (1) conveying to students the concept that a reader with certain expectations exist, (2) team teaching to preserve the context of a given technical discipline, and (3) assigning a technical report that addresses a variety of readers, thus establishing the complexity of audience oriented writing.

  6. Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

    2013-09-01

    Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

  7. Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells, II: conditional technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genome modification via transgenesis has allowed researchers to link genotype and phenotype as an alternative approach to the characterization of random mutations through evolution. The synergy of technologies from the fields of embryonic stem (ES) cells, gene knockouts, and protein-mediated recombi...

  8. Digital TV, advertising and audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Cruz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the advertisingsegment and their relationship with the development process of the digital television. We intent to observe the new perspectives of production and consumption of media. Among other things, that involves the issues of interactivity, the exhaustion of the traditional media models, and the relationship of the new media with the audience, considering the analysis of the tripod: digital television, advertising and audience. In Brazil, with the implementation of the Brazilian System of Digital Television (SBTVD, the problem takes bigger proportions, as a consequence of the possibility to issue and track down the digital content consumed. That happens as a consequence of the consumer ability to watch the program withor without the commercial break. At the current model of television, the public is the legitimizing factor: the broadcasters issues the public a ention asan instrument to obtain pecuniary rewarding of theadvertisers. That model constitutes itself as the main funding source of the channels and networks. On the one hand, digital television represents an advantage at the quality of picture and audio, multiplying the capacity to transmit television signals and to transport new features and services. On the other hand, it seems impossible to transform this industry without some reaction. The many interests involved constitute the main cause of that scenario: the agents interested in advertising are those concerned with the role of ideology, the support of capitalism and the industrial culture. Considering all these questions, it seems almost impossible to produce deep chances,contrary to the interests involved.

  9. FY05 Targeted Technology Transfer to US Independents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald F. Duttlinger; E. Lance Cole

    2005-11-01

    Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) was established by domestic crude oil and natural gas producers in 1994 as a national not-for-profit organization to address the increasingly urgent need to improve the technology-transfer process in the U.S. upstream petroleum industry. PTTC's technology-transfer programs enhance U.S. national security. PTTC administers the only nation-wide, comprehensive program dedicated to maximizing America's supplies of domestic oil and gas. PTTC conducts grassroots programs through 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) and two satellite offices, leveraging their preexisting connections with industry. This organizational structure helps bring researchers and academia to the table. Nationally and regionally, volunteers within a National Board and Regional Producer Advisory Groups guide efforts. The National Board meets three times per year, an important function being approving the annual plans and budgets developed by the regions and Headquarters (HQ). Between Board meetings, an active Management and Budget Committee guide HQ activity. PTTC itself undergoes a thorough financial audit each year. The PTTC's HQ staff plans and manages all aspects of the PTTC program, conducts nation-wide technology-transfer activities, and implements a comprehensive communications program. Networking, involvement in technical activities, and an active exhibit schedule are increasing PTTC's sphere of influence with both producers and the oilfield service sector. Circulation for ''PTTC Network News'', the quarterly newsletter, has risen to nearly 17,500. About 7,500 people receive an email Technology Alert on an approximate three-week frequency. Case studies in the ''Petroleum Technology Digest in World Oil'' appear monthly, as do ''Tech Connections'' columns in ''The American Oil and Gas Reporter''. As part of its oversight responsibility for the regions

  10. FY05 Targeted Technology Transfer to US Independents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald F. Duttlinger; E. Lance Cole

    2005-11-01

    Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) was established by domestic crude oil and natural gas producers in 1994 as a national not-for-profit organization to address the increasingly urgent need to improve the technology-transfer process in the U.S. upstream petroleum industry. PTTC's technology-transfer programs enhance U.S. national security. PTTC administers the only nation-wide, comprehensive program dedicated to maximizing America's supplies of domestic oil and gas. PTTC conducts grassroots programs through 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) and two satellite offices, leveraging their preexisting connections with industry. This organizational structure helps bring researchers and academia to the table. Nationally and regionally, volunteers within a National Board and Regional Producer Advisory Groups guide efforts. The National Board meets three times per year, an important function being approving the annual plans and budgets developed by the regions and Headquarters (HQ). Between Board meetings, an active Management and Budget Committee guide HQ activity. PTTC itself undergoes a thorough financial audit each year. The PTTC's HQ staff plans and manages all aspects of the PTTC program, conducts nation-wide technology-transfer activities, and implements a comprehensive communications program. Networking, involvement in technical activities, and an active exhibit schedule are increasing PTTC's sphere of influence with both producers and the oilfield service sector. Circulation for ''PTTC Network News'', the quarterly newsletter, has risen to nearly 17,500. About 7,500 people receive an email Technology Alert on an approximate three-week frequency. Case studies in the ''Petroleum Technology Digest in World Oil'' appear monthly, as do ''Tech Connections'' columns in ''The American Oil and Gas Reporter''. As part of its oversight responsibility for the regions

  11. Application of phage display technology in targeted therapy of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mian Kong; Junye Wang; Baojiang Li

    2013-01-01

    Phage display is a technology of gene expression and screening, it is widely used in the fields of defining antigenepitopes, signal transduction, genetic treatment, parasites research and tumor targeted therapy. Breast cancer is the mostcommon cancer in women, we can obtain peptides specially associated with breast cancer by using phage display technology,and this method has great potential in early diagnosis of breast cancer and development new targeted drugs.

  12. CRISPR/Cas9 technology for targeted genome editing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomov N. A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available CRISPRs (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats are the segments of prokaryotic DNA containing short repeats in its nucleotide sequence. Today we know that this is a bacterial protection system against viral DNA. The molecular components of CRISPR/Cas9 system have been used for a gene editing in eukaryotes since 2013. But as any other method it also has the limitations and drawbacks. Here we are going to review the history of CRISPR biology and to discuss the possibilities that this new technology provides to researchers as well as the prospects for its use in the medical research and treatment.

  13. PEMBUATAN APLIKASI AUDIENCE RESPONSE SYSTEM BERBASIS WEB DAN ANDROID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Leonardo Pisa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Audience Response Systems are widely used in various events as a media to gather information, to collect data, and to know the opinions of the general public towards particular issues, topics, news. Audience Response System can also be used to find out the client or customer satisfaction to the quality of products or services. Unfortunately most of the audience response systems that exist today are in the form of a physical (or remote device which is severely limited in use. Along with the development of technology, almost all people have a smartphone to support their daily activities. The physical remote device called a clicker can be replaced with an application or program that can be installed on smartphones, while the polls are created through the website. In this research, the Audience response system was built using Node.js, PhoneGap platform, and the WebSocket Socket.IO as Javascript library to support bi-directional data communications. Based on testing result, this application can run properly all the functionalities that have been mentioned such as login to the system, create a poll, join a poll, and give a vote. The realiability of the system is 93%..

  14. Rational Wizards: Audience Interpreters in French Television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bourdon, Jérôme; Méadel, Cécile

    2013-01-01

    abstractThis paper will tell the story of the smallgroup of people who, in France, have been in charge of the measurement and theappreciation of the audience of television, and had to invent audience research,to organize it and to communicate its results to "clients" whodepended on it much earlier t

  15. Innovativeness and the Public Radio Audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wenmouth, Jr.; Krugman, Dean M.

    1981-01-01

    A public radio audience was surveyed to test the hypothesis that a relationship exists between innovativeness and public radio listening. Rather than supporting the hypothesis, findings indicate that the entertainment and information elements of public radio are the primary attractions for the public radio audience. (MER)

  16. Rearticulating Audience Engagement: Social Media and Television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moe, H.; Poell, T.; van Dijck, J.

    2016-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue on social media and television audience engagement sketches the key dimensions that affect how audiences are transformed through the development of social platforms. Building on the five contributions to the special issue, we identify three dimensions that dese

  17. Rearticulating Audience Engagement: Social Media and Television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moe, H.; Poell, T.; van Dijck, J.

    2016-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue on social media and television audience engagement sketches the key dimensions that affect how audiences are transformed through the development of social platforms. Building on the five contributions to the special issue, we identify three dimensions that

  18. Attracting New Audiences through Special Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christyson, M. Jane

    1996-01-01

    Explores reasons to create special events, change existing events, or discontinue events, in the pursuit of new audiences. Describes surveys of usership at Cleveland Metroparks to identify new audiences. Effective event design and implementation requires effective advertising, which is expensive, so a discussion of fund development, branding, and…

  19. The Audience in Oral Interpretation: Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael, Ed.; Oschmann, Wendy, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This journal issue deals with the ways in which elements of a literary text specify the manner in which an oral interpreter will present the text to an audience. After an introductory statement, four poems by a contemporary poet are presented as sample texts. Four commentators discuss the ways these poems might be interpreted to an audience, and…

  20. Rearticulating Audience Engagement: Social Media and Television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Moe; T. Poell; J. van Dijck

    2015-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue on social media and television audience engagement sketches the key dimensions that affect how audiences are transformed through the development of social platforms. Building on the five contributions to the special issue, we identify three dimensions that dese

  1. Rational Wizards: Audience Interpreters in French Television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bourdon, Jérôme; Méadel, Cécile

    2013-01-01

    abstractThis paper will tell the story of the smallgroup of people who, in France, have been in charge of the measurement and theappreciation of the audience of television, and had to invent audience research,to organize it and to communicate its results to "clients" whodepended on it much earlier t

  2. Review of Current Aided/Automatic Target Acquisition Technology for Military Target Acquisition Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    new advancements in military-relevant performance. C©2011 Society of Photo -Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). [DOI: 10.1117/1.3601879] Subject...indication (MTI) become first- step candidate approaches. Change detection can be a major tool in improvised explosive detection (IED) detection. Dis- turbed...Wilson, “A time-critical targeting roadmap,” Air Command and Staff Collage , Maxwell AFB, AL, Source Code 405502 ADA420658 (April 2002). 8. J. R. Rufa

  3. Teaching Energy to a General Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baski, Alison; Hunnicutt, Sally

    2010-02-01

    A new, interdisciplinary course entitled ``Energy!'' has been developed by faculty in the physics and chemistry departments to meet the university's science and technology general education requirement. This course now enrolls over 400 students each semester in a single lecture where faculty from both departments co-teach throughout the term. Topics include the fundamentals of energy, fossil fuels, global climate change, nuclear energy, and renewable energy sources. The students represent an impressive range of majors (science, engineering, business, humanities, etc.) and comprise freshmen to seniors. To effectively teach this diverse audience and increase classroom engagement, in-class ``clickers'' are used with guided questions to teach concepts, which are then explicitly reinforced with online LON-CAPAfootnotetextFree open-source distributed learning content management and assessment system (www.lon-capa.org) homework. This online system enables immediate feedback in a structured manner, where students can practice randomized versions of problems for homework, quizzes, and exams. The course is already in high demand after only two semesters, in part because it is particularly relevant to students given the challenging energy and climate issues facing the nation and world. )

  4. Engagement with physics across diverse festival audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Joseph; Stanley, Jessica; Davis, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    Science shows provide a method of introducing large public audiences to physics concepts in a nonformal learning environment. While these shows have the potential to provide novel means of educational engagement, it is often difficult to measure that engagement. We present a method of producing an interactive physics show that seeks to provide effective and measurable audience engagement. We share our results from piloting this method at a leading music and arts festival as well as a science festival. This method also facilitated the collection of opinions and feedback directly from the audience which helps explore the benefits and limitations of this type of nonformal engagement in physics education.

  5. When do Logos Talk to their Audience?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Tore; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2015-01-01

    This study is based on two experiments where the ability of a new logo to reach and audience is explored. The approach is inspired by cybernetics and is based on measuring the variation of the reception of a logo seen just once. The variation is measured as the combined variation of between...... to the audience. A big variation within-subject means that the individual receives a varied, deep, and nuanced message. The ability to do this rests partly on the ability to activate competences and experiences from the past and thus making sense. The findings are that few logo elements are received by audiences...

  6. Identifying like-minded audiences for global warming public engagement campaigns: an audience segmentation analysis and tool development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward W Maibach

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Achieving national reductions in greenhouse gas emissions will require public support for climate and energy policies and changes in population behaviors. Audience segmentation--a process of identifying coherent groups within a population--can be used to improve the effectiveness of public engagement campaigns. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Fall 2008, we conducted a nationally representative survey of American adults (n = 2,164 to identify audience segments for global warming public engagement campaigns. By subjecting multiple measures of global warming beliefs, behaviors, policy preferences, and issue engagement to latent class analysis, we identified six distinct segments ranging in size from 7 to 33% of the population. These six segments formed a continuum, from a segment of people who were highly worried, involved and supportive of policy responses (18%, to a segment of people who were completely unconcerned and strongly opposed to policy responses (7%. Three of the segments (totaling 70% were to varying degrees concerned about global warming and supportive of policy responses, two (totaling 18% were unsupportive, and one was largely disengaged (12%, having paid little attention to the issue. Certain behaviors and policy preferences varied greatly across these audiences, while others did not. Using discriminant analysis, we subsequently developed 36-item and 15-item instruments that can be used to categorize respondents with 91% and 84% accuracy, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In late 2008, Americans supported a broad range of policies and personal actions to reduce global warming, although there was wide variation among the six identified audiences. To enhance the impact of campaigns, government agencies, non-profit organizations, and businesses seeking to engage the public can selectively target one or more of these audiences rather than address an undifferentiated general population. Our screening instruments

  7. Psychosocial stress evoked by a virtual audience: relation to neuroendocrine activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Owen; Matheson, Kimberly; Martinez, Alejandra; Merali, Zul; Anisman, Hymie

    2007-10-01

    A modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was employed to determine whether exposure to a virtual audience using virtual reality (VR) technology would prompt an increase of neuroendocrine activity comparable to that prompted by a real audience. Following an anticipatory period, participants completed a speech or a speech-plus-math challenge in front of either a virtual audience, a panel of judges they were led to believe was behind a one-way mirror, or an audience comprised of confederates. An additional group that had prepared a speech was simply directed to observe the virtual audience but did not deliver the speech. Finally, a control group completed questionnaires for the duration of the experiment. Cortisol samples were obtained upon arrival to the laboratory, just before the challenge, and 15 and 30 minutes after the task. Participants also completed a measure assessing stressor appraisals of the task before and after the challenge. Anticipation of the task was associated with a modest increase of cortisol levels, and a further rise of cortisol was evident in response to the challenge. The neuroendocrine changes evoked by the virtual audience were comparable to those elicited by the imagined audience (behind the one-way mirror) but less than changes evoked by the panel of confederates. Stressor appraisals were higher post-challenge compared to those reported prior to the task; however, appraisals were similar across each group. These data suggest that VR technology may be amenable to evaluating the impact of psychosocial stressors such as the TSST.

  8. Mobile eye-tracking methods in studies of audience learning in health promotion exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Zachariassen, Maria; Kharlamov, Nikita

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a methodological discussion of the potential and challenges of involving mobile eye tracking technology in studies of knowledge generation and learning in a science centre context. The methodological exploration is based on eye-tracking studies of audience interaction...... target groups were families with children age 6–12 years and school classes with students from 4th to 6th grade. The main purpose of the study was to understand the methodological potential and challenges mobile eye tracking comprises during the different stages of research on informal e......-learning in a science centre context utilising digital platforms to enhance informal learning and interaction. The paper presents how eye-tracking methods influence research on: 1) an interventional level: what role eye tracking and eye-tracking equipment plays in interventions; 2) a data level: what new types of data...

  9. Effective Climate Communication with Difficult Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, S.

    2015-12-01

    Climate communication is often fraught with ideological baggage ("noise") that makes it very difficult to connect to audiences. In these cases, it is helpful to use "best practices" known from other fields of communication. Engaging audiences with authenticity, using plain language, respecting cultural and political differences, and a sprinkling of humor can go a long way toward establishing a connection. It's important to avoid common but polarizing tropes from popular media, and often quite helpful to frame climate issues in novel or unexpected ways that cut across entrenched political discourse. Emerging social science research Beyond ideology, climate change is Simple, Serious, and Solvable. Effective communication of these three key ideas can succeed when the science argument is carefully framed to avoid attack of the audience's ethical identity. Simple arguments from common sense and everyday experience are more successful than data. Serious consequences to values that resonate with the audience can be avoided by solutions that don't threaten those values.

  10. Engaging and Supporting Culturally Diverse Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupla, C.; Buxner, S.; Peticolas, L. M.; Mendez, B.; Acevedo, S.; Begay, D.; Higgins, M. L.; Norman, D.

    2013-04-01

    This two hour special workshop was held during the 2012 ASP conference in Tucson. There are a variety of reasons that science education needs to reach out to culturally diverse audiences. Each culture, and each individual community, has its own challenges; each brings special insight to science. What does the research say about engaging these different audiences? How can science educators attract and sustain programs with various cultures? How do the needs of our audiences vary with culture and within communities? Moderators Shupla, Sanlyn, and Peticolas invited a variety of presenters with expertise to share their experiences: Salvador Acevado, David Begay, Michelle Higgins, Bryan Mendez, and Dara Norman. During the first hour, presenters shared a variety of best practices for engaging and supporting culturally diverse audiences; in the second hour, participants and presenters discussed specific programmatic challenges and possible directions.

  11. The Disappearing Audience and Reflexive Visibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Girginova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to popular opinion and some academic writing that celebrates the renewed visibility of new media audiences, this essay argues that they are increasingly going into retreat. To understand how new media audiences “disappear” from view of one another, I borrow from Brighenti’s typology of visibility and develop the idea of “reflexive visibility.” The latter describes the ability to socially orient ourselves in a digital environment through the textual and contextual cues of others—an activity that is of utmost importance not only to researchers wishing to “see” various audiences but also for audiences writ large, wishing to know themselves.

  12. Research of maneuvering target prediction and tracking technology based on IMM algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zheng; Mao, Yao; Deng, Chao; Liu, Qiong; Chen, Jing

    2016-09-01

    Maneuvering target prediction and tracking technology is widely used in both military and civilian applications, the study of those technologies is all along the hotspot and difficulty. In the Electro-Optical acquisition-tracking-pointing system (ATP), the primary traditional maneuvering targets are ballistic target, large aircraft and other big targets. Those targets have the features of fast velocity and a strong regular trajectory and Kalman Filtering and polynomial fitting have good effects when they are used to track those targets. In recent years, the small unmanned aerial vehicles developed rapidly for they are small, nimble and simple operation. The small unmanned aerial vehicles have strong maneuverability in the observation system of ATP although they are close-in, slow and small targets. Moreover, those vehicles are under the manual operation, therefore, the acceleration of them changes greatly and they move erratically. So the prediction and tracking precision is low when traditional algorithms are used to track the maneuvering fly of those targets, such as speeding up, turning, climbing and so on. The interacting multiple model algorithm (IMM) use multiple models to match target real movement trajectory, there are interactions between each model. The IMM algorithm can switch model based on a Markov chain to adapt to the change of target movement trajectory, so it is suitable to solve the prediction and tracking problems of the small unmanned aerial vehicles because of the better adaptability of irregular movement. This paper has set up model set of constant velocity model (CV), constant acceleration model (CA), constant turning model (CT) and current statistical model. And the results of simulating and analyzing the real movement trajectory data of the small unmanned aerial vehicles show that the prediction and tracking technology based on the interacting multiple model algorithm can get relatively lower tracking error and improve tracking precision

  13. Harry Potter and the Susceptible Child Audience

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Kara Lynn

    2005-01-01

    Kara Lynn Andersen, in her paper "Harry Potter and the Susceptible Child Audience," argues for a rethinking of assumptions of child audiences as passive readers and viewers through an analysis of the Harry Potter phenomenon. Andersen argues that instead of categorizing children as passive and homogenous subjects of analysis, they should instead be incorporated as participants in the discourse about children's books and films. Although frequently figured as especially susceptible to the affect...

  14. Creating learner-centered classrooms: use of an audience response system in pediatric dentistry education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey T

    2005-03-01

    Research suggests that the exclusive use of lecture in the classroom hinders student learning. The advent of compact electronic wireless audience response systems has allowed for increased student participation in the classroom. Such technology is utilized in medical education. This article describes the use of an audience response system in a "quiz bowl" format to facilitate and improve the comprehension of student dentists in core concepts in pulp therapy for the pediatric patient.

  15. How accessible was information about H1N1 flu? Literacy assessments of CDC guidance documents for different audiences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa P Lagassé

    Full Text Available We assessed the literacy level and readability of online communications about H1N1/09 influenza issued by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC during the first month of outbreak. Documents were classified as targeting one of six audiences ranging in technical expertise. Flesch-Kincaid (FK measure assessed literacy level for each group of documents. ANOVA models tested for differences in FK scores across target audiences and over time. Readability was assessed for documents targeting non-technical audiences using the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM. Overall, there was a main-effect by audience, F(5, 82 = 29.72, P.05. A time-by-audience interaction was significant, F(10, 82 = 2.11, P<.05. Documents targeting non-technical audiences were found to be text-heavy and densely-formatted. The vocabulary and writing style were found to adequately reflect audience needs. The reading level of CDC guidance documents about H1N1/09 influenza varied appropriately according to the intended audience; sub-optimal formatting and layout may have rendered some text difficult to comprehend.

  16. How Accessible Was Information about H1N1 Flu? Literacy Assessments of CDC Guidance Documents for Different Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagassé, Lisa P.; Rimal, Rajiv N.; Smith, Katherine C.; Storey, J. Douglas; Rhoades, Elizabeth; Barnett, Daniel J.; Omer, Saad B.; Links, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the literacy level and readability of online communications about H1N1/09 influenza issued by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) during the first month of outbreak. Documents were classified as targeting one of six audiences ranging in technical expertise. Flesch-Kincaid (FK) measure assessed literacy level for each group of documents. ANOVA models tested for differences in FK scores across target audiences and over time. Readability was assessed for documents targeting non-technical audiences using the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM). Overall, there was a main-effect by audience, F(5, 82) = 29.72, P.05. A time-by-audience interaction was significant, F(10, 82) = 2.11, P<.05. Documents targeting non-technical audiences were found to be text-heavy and densely-formatted. The vocabulary and writing style were found to adequately reflect audience needs. The reading level of CDC guidance documents about H1N1/09 influenza varied appropriately according to the intended audience; sub-optimal formatting and layout may have rendered some text difficult to comprehend. PMID:22039401

  17. Teaching Audience Adaptation Using Connected Presentations and Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opt, Susan K.

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Introduction to Communication, Public Speaking, Persuasion, Business Communication. Objective: This activity increases students' understanding of audience adaptation and improves their ability to adapt presentations to specific audiences.

  18. Teaching Audience Adaptation Using Connected Presentations and Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opt, Susan K.

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Introduction to Communication, Public Speaking, Persuasion, Business Communication. Objective: This activity increases students' understanding of audience adaptation and improves their ability to adapt presentations to specific audiences.

  19. Integration of multidisciplinary technologies for real time target visualization and verification for radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang WC

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wen-Chung Chang,1,* Chin-Sheng Chen,2,* Hung-Chi Tai,3 Chia-Yuan Liu,4,5 Yu-Jen Chen3 1Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Graduate Institute of Automation Technology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Department of Radiation Oncology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Department of Medicine, Mackay Medical College, New Taipei City, Taiwan  *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The current practice of radiotherapy examines target coverage solely from digitally reconstructed beam's eye view (BEV in a way that is indirectly accessible and that is not in real time. We aimed to visualize treatment targets in real time from each BEV. The image data of phantom or patients from ultrasound (US and computed tomography (CT scans were captured to perform image registration. We integrated US, CT, US/CT image registration, robotic manipulation of US, a radiation treatment planning system, and a linear accelerator to constitute an innovative target visualization system. The performance of this algorithm segmented the target organ in CT images, transformed and reconstructed US images to match each orientation, and generated image registration in real time mode with acceptable accuracy. This image transformation allowed physicians to visualize the CT image-reconstructed target via a US probe outside the BEV that was non-coplanar to the beam's plane. It allowed the physicians to remotely control the US probe that was equipped on a robotic arm to dynamically trace and real time monitor the coverage of the target within the BEV during a simulated beam-on situation. This target visualization system may provide a direct remotely accessible and real time way to visualize, verify, and ensure tumor targeting during radiotherapy. Keywords: ultrasound, computerized tomography

  20. Projecting the voice: observations of audience behaviours in ICT-mediated contemporary opera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Wei; Williams, Alan E.

    2014-07-01

    This paper examines how audiences experience live opera performance and the behaviours they exhibit during live-streaming of the performance. It aims to contribute to our understanding of how audiences, who increasingly inhabit an environment saturated with digital media, respond to contemporary opera performance. Based on a comparative study of audience experiences and behaviours during a live opera performance and the streamed opera screening, we investigate whether digital mediation affects audience appreciation, and whether streaming live opera means the same thing to an audience as the unmediated performance. We firstly outline the conception, design and performance of a contemporary opera and its simultaneous streaming to nearby digital screens. Then, we report the evaluation of the project as measured by a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods during the rehearsals, the live performance and the screening. As one of the few social studies of contemporary classical music in Britain, our study of opera audience behaviours sheds light on the challenges and opportunities afforded by digital technologies for opera companies. Understanding how audiences appreciate digital operas offers practical advice on how theatres and opera companies could respond to new forms of digital activities.

  1. A TOOL FOR STRATEGIC TARGET SETTING ON DEVELOPMENT AND IMPROVEMENT OF REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yasushi; Katayama, Arata

    A tool for strategic development and improvement of remediation technologies was proposed to set a target specification by applying the RNSOIL, an evaluation index of remediation technologies for contaminated soil. Under the scenario of agricultural site contamination with dieldrin and its remediation, improving items and the target values of the bioremediation using charcoal material (charcoal bioremediation), as a developing technology, were determined. The development target was that the RNSOIL value of charcoal bioremediation fell below that of high temperature thermal desorption as a competing technology. Sensitivity assessments of the RNSOIL selected a remediation period and an incubation volume for bacterial growth and settlement in the charcoal as improving properties. Risk assessment and life cycle inventory analysis was introduced to determine a human health risk due to contaminant, and a total cost of remediation or a CO2 emission accompanied with remediation, as evaluating factors of RNSOIL, respectively. Assessment based on the RNSOIL was able to show clearly improving items for achieving the target or items with great effect for improvement.

  2. Method for Targeted Therapeutic Delivery of Proteins into Cells | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Protein Expression Laboratory at the National Cancer Institute in Frederick, MD is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop a platform technology for the targeted intra-cellular delivery of proteins using virus-like particles (VLPs).

  3. A novel technology to target adenovirus vectors : application in cells involved in atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gras, Jan Cornelis Emile

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis a novel technology is described to target adenovirus vectors. Adenovirus vectors are powerful tools to modulate gene expression. The use of these vectors however, is hampered by the fact that many for gene therapy interesting cell types do not, or only at low levels express the CAR re

  4. How accessible was information about H1N1 flu? Literacy assessments of CDC guidance documents for different audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagassé, Lisa P; Rimal, Rajiv N; Smith, Katherine C; Storey, J Douglas; Rhoades, Elizabeth; Barnett, Daniel J; Omer, Saad B; Links, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the literacy level and readability of online communications about H1N1/09 influenza issued by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) during the first month of outbreak. Documents were classified as targeting one of six audiences ranging in technical expertise. Flesch-Kincaid (FK) measure assessed literacy level for each group of documents. ANOVA models tested for differences in FK scores across target audiences and over time. Readability was assessed for documents targeting non-technical audiences using the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM). Overall, there was a main-effect by audience, F(5, 82) = 29.72, P.05. A time-by-audience interaction was significant, F(10, 82) = 2.11, Ptargeting non-technical audiences were found to be text-heavy and densely-formatted. The vocabulary and writing style were found to adequately reflect audience needs. The reading level of CDC guidance documents about H1N1/09 influenza varied appropriately according to the intended audience; sub-optimal formatting and layout may have rendered some text difficult to comprehend.

  5. Marketing to Your Target Audience: How Syracuse University Public Safety Reached Its Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Josh

    2008-01-01

    Every year, marketers spend millions of dollars trying to vie for the attention of that oh-so-lucrative demographic--the 18- to 24-year-old. For those people serving academic environments, this just happens to be the demographic of their entire clientele. So the challenge becomes how to grasp a slice of these attention spans distracted by…

  6. The development of uranium foil farication technology utilizing twin roll method for Mo-99 irradiation target

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, C K; Park, H D

    2002-01-01

    MDS Nordion in Canada, occupying about 75% of global supply of Mo-99 isotope, has provided the irradiation target of Mo-99 using the rod-type UAl sub x alloys with HEU(High Enrichment Uranium). ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) through co-operation with BATAN in Indonesia, leading RERTR (Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors) program substantially for nuclear non-proliferation, has designed and fabricated the annular cylinder of uranium targets, and successfully performed irradiation test, in order to develop the fabrication technology of fission Mo-99 using LEU(Low Enrichment Uranium). As the uranium foils could be fabricated in laboratory scale, not in commercialized scale by hot rolling method due to significant problems in foil quality, productivity and economic efficiency, attention has shifted to the development of new technology. Under these circumstances, the invention of uranium foil fabrication technology utilizing twin-roll casting method in KAERI is found to be able to fabricate LEU or...

  7. Astronomy Outreach for Large and Unique Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, D.; Sparks, R. T.; Pompea, S. M.; Kendall, J. S.; Dugan, C.

    2013-04-01

    In this session, we discuss different approaches to reaching large audiences. In addition to star parties and astronomy events, the audiences for some of the events include music concerts or festivals, sick children and their families, minority communities, American Indian reservations, and tourist sites such as the National Mall. The goal is to bring science directly to the public—to people who attend astronomy events and to people who do not come to star parties, science museums, or science festivals. These programs allow the entire community to participate in astronomy activities to enhance the public appreciation of science. These programs attract large enthusiastic crowds often with young children participating in these family learning experiences. The public will become more informed, educated, and inspired about astronomy and will also be provided with information that will allow them to continue to learn after this outreach activity. Large and unique audiences often have common problems, and their solutions and the lessons learned will be presented. Interaction with the participants in this session will provide important community feedback used to improve astronomy outreach for large and unique audiences. New ways to expand astronomy outreach to new large audiences will be discussed.

  8. TV Audience Measurement with Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Shawndra

    2014-06-01

    TV audience measurement involves estimating the number of viewers tuned into a TV show at any given time as well as their demographics. First introduced shortly after commercial television broadcasting began in the late 1940s, audience measurement allowed the business of television to flourish by offering networks a way to quantify the monetary value of TV audiences for advertisers, who pay for the estimated number of eyeballs watching during commercials. The first measurement techniques suffered from multiple limitations because reliable, large-scale data were costly to acquire. Yet despite these limitations, measurement standards remained largely unchanged for decades until devices such as cable boxes, video-on-demand boxes, and cell phones, as well as web apps, Internet browser clicks, web queries, and social media activity, resulted in an explosion of digitally available data. TV viewers now leave digital traces that can be used to track almost every aspect of their daily lives, allowing the potential for large-scale aggregation across data sources for individual users and groups and enabling the tracking of more people on more dimensions for more shows. Data are now more comprehensive, available in real time, and cheaper to acquire, enabling accurate and fine-grained TV audience measurement. In this article, I discuss the evolution of audience measurement and what the recent data explosion means for the TV industry and academic research.

  9. GIS-Based Target Tree Management Supporting System Based on Plug-In Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixiang Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional forest management models based on stand or landscape level should be transformed to concluding an individual tree level at the same time. Target tree management individual operation method based on close-to-nature sivlculture need to develop to implement such transformation. Aiming to complicated analysis, large computing and the status of lack of effective analysis tool for the operation method, we tried to develop GIS-based plug-in Target Tree Management system Supporting System (TTMSS to meet this requirement combing plug-in technology of .Net framework, C# and ArcGIS Engine 9.3 components kit. A target tree management individual operation method was established by designing target trees and interference trees decision processes and methods based on Geographic Information System (GIS. The results showed that the operation method improved the feasibility and reduced the difficulty of the target tree management with GIS technology to help improve the operations on the individual tree level. It was proved that TTMSS was an effective tool for target tree management. Under this plug-in mode, the users merely need to do is add or replace plug-ins if one wants to expand or upgrade the system, extremely improve TTMSS’s portability and expandability.

  10. Keeping Your Audience in Mind: Applying Audience Analysis to the Design of Interactive Score Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Rivera, Juan Diego; Katz, Irvin R.

    2014-01-01

    Score reports have one or more intended audiences: the people who use the reports to make decisions about test takers, including teachers, administrators, parents and test takers. Attention to audience when designing a score report supports assessment validity by increasing the likelihood that score users will interpret and use assessment results…

  11. Audience studies 2.0: on the theory, politics and method of qualitative audience research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, J.

    2009-01-01

    Audience research, this paper suggests, is an excellent field to test the claims of Media Studies 2.0. Moreover, 2.0 claims are a good means to review qualitative audience research itself too. Working from a broad strokes analysis of the theory, politics and method of interpretative research with au

  12. Keeping Your Audience in Mind: Applying Audience Analysis to the Design of Interactive Score Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Rivera, Juan Diego; Katz, Irvin R.

    2014-01-01

    Score reports have one or more intended audiences: the people who use the reports to make decisions about test takers, including teachers, administrators, parents and test takers. Attention to audience when designing a score report supports assessment validity by increasing the likelihood that score users will interpret and use assessment results…

  13. Flipping the Audience Script: An Activity That Integrates Research and Audience Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chris; Hannah, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a flipped classroom activity that requires students to integrate research and audience analysis. The activity uses Twitter as a data source. In the activity, students identify a sample, collect customer tweets, and analyze the language of the tweets in an effort to construct knowledge about an audience's values, needs, and…

  14. Toward Audience Involvement: Extending Audiences of Written Physician Notes in a Hospital Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuch, Lee-Ann Kastman; Bakke, Abigail; Thomas-Pollei, Kimberly; Mackey, L. Elizabeth; Weinert, Craig

    2016-01-01

    This article explores rhetorical implications of extending the audience of written physician notes in hospital settings to include patients and/or family members (the OpenNotes program). Interviews of participating hospital patients and family members (n = 16) underscored the need for more complex understandings of audience beyond…

  15. Cultural Mythology Analysisof Media texts in the Classroom at the Student Audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The author of this article presents the cultural mythology analysis of media texts: identification and analysis of mythologizing (including in the framework of the so-called folk sources - fairy tales, urban legends, etc. plot, those types of characters, etc. in media texts. In particular, the audience (for example, students offered by critical analysis to answer the question why so many entertainment media texts so popular with a mass audience? The author thinks that the media texts relating to the mass / popular culture, have success with the audience is not due to the fact that they supposedly only target people with low aesthetic taste, subject to psychological pressure, easy to believing the lie, etc., but because their authors respect and learning needs of the audience, including - information, compensatory, hedonistic, recreational, moral, aesthetic, etc.

  16. The Active Audience? Gurus, Management Ideas and Consumer Variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groß, C.; Heusinkveld, H.S.; Clark, T

    2015-01-01

    This study draws on an active audience perspective to develop a better understanding of mass audiences' attraction towards popular management ideas. It focuses on audience members' own experiences and, in particular, what audience activities actually play a role in shaping mass attraction, and how t

  17. Hearing or Ignoring Audience: the Dilemma of the Freshman Writer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenner, Barbara

    Students work most productively when they feel free to move back and forth from ignoring audience to addressing it. Students should consider audience as they begin a writing task. Then they should get away from it all and simply write. If they find an audience inhibiting, they should feel free to ignore the idea of audience altogether or alter…

  18. Audience Design and Social Relations in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Cohen, Deborah

    2015-10-01

    This study asks two questions: (1) Do older adults modify their language based on age of the listener (audience design)? (2) Does social contact affect audience design in older adults? Older adults (n = 34; mean age = 82) engaged in an instructions task with two fictive listeners (a child and an adult) to test these questions. Results show that older adults used a greater total number of propositions and rapport-building devices and a lower type-token ratio when giving instructions to the child compared to the adult listener. Adults with more social interactions used more propositions when talking to a child. In addition, satisfaction with interactions was significantly positively related to task-tracking devices and negatively related to rapport-building devices by older adults. These results suggest that audience design and social relations are worth further study in language maintenance in older age.

  19. Extending IPY Data to a Wider Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrin, M.; Bell, R. E.; Pfirman, S. L.

    2010-12-01

    Perhaps the most significant IPY contribution to science education was the vast amount of data collected at the polar-regions on Earth systems and processes that was made immediately available to teachers and curriculum developers. Supplementing textbooks with the Internet as an education partner, allowed participating teachers to transform science education through: their use of current data as an integral component of their classroom teaching; their training of students to seek out data as evidence of Earth processes; and their instruction to students on how to validate sources and uses of data. Yet, for every teacher and student who has been part of this successful IPY outreach there are many more who have not been reached, don’t know how to include polar science into their coursework, or don’t comfortably work with data. Our experience with data education projects suggests that to reach the next round of students, teachers, educators and the wider adult population we need to translate this data so it is accessible through carefully constructed activities, simulations, and games. In addition we need to actively seek new partnership and outlet opportunities. The collected measurements tell us that our poles are warming on a human timescale. Using data to tell the story, the unambiguous signal of warming makes it accessible to a much broader audience. Our experience has shown that, for a novice population working with data, the educational effectiveness is significantly enhanced when the signal in the data is strong and the Earth processes are clear. Building upon IPY data and resources, focusing on the Earth’s changing climate, and working with partnerships developed over the last two years, Lamont has put together several new education and outreach collaborations. Our goal is to reach new audiences through: 1) Inventorying, Assessing and Planning - Through an NSF planning grant we are leveraging IPY connections and findings in a Polar Climate Education

  20. The research on infrared small-target detection technology under complex background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Wang, Xin; Chen, Jilu; Huang, Zhijian

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detecting are described. Then, according to actual needs and the comparison results of those algorithms, some of them are optimized in combination with the image pre-processing. On the foundation of above works, a moving target detecting and tracking software base on the OpenCV is developed by the software developing platform MFC. Three kinds of detecting algorithms are integrated in this software. These three detecting algorithms are Frame Difference method, Background Estimation method and Mixture Gaussian Modeling method. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detecting targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. This paper is very significant in the application of the infrared target detecting technology.

  1. Research on infrared small-target tracking technology under complex background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Wang, Xin; Chen, Jilu; Pan, Tao

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target tracking are described. On the foundation of above works, a moving target tracking software base on the OpenCV is developed by the software developing platform MFC. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. These two tracking algorithms are Kalman Filter tracking method and Camshift tracking method. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for tracking targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. This paper is very significant in the application of the infrared target tracking technology.

  2. [Audience response-systems enhance the learning environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jacob Vad; Østergaard, Doris

    2011-11-14

    The purpose of this article was to describe the possibilities gained by using an electronic voting system (EVS), the existing evidence to determine whether an EVS affects learning proceeds, challenges in EVS and perspectives for EVS in Danish medical training. Audience Response-Systems (ARS) seem suited to enhance participants' activity and attention. The technology as such holds the potential to enhance learning outcome, but changes in the pedagogical method are needed. More studies examining the use of new wireless, mobile voting systems are required.

  3. Reaching Diverse Audiences through NOAO Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Sparks, R. T.; Walker, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    NOAO education programs are designed to reach diverse audiences. Examples described in this poster include the Hands-On Optics Project nationwide, an extension of the Hands-On Optics program at Boys and Girls Clubs in Arizona and in Hawaii, a professional development program for Navajo and Hopi teachers, a number of programs for the Tohono O'odham Nation, and a project collecting and reviewing Spanish language astronomy materials. Additionally NOAO is also involved in several local outreach projects for diverse and underserved audiences.

  4. Inhibition of cell division induced by external guide sequences (EGS Technology targeting ftsZ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Davies Sala

    Full Text Available EGS (external guide sequence technology is a promising approach to designing new antibiotics. EGSs are short antisense oligoribonucleotides that induce RNase P-mediated cleavage of a target RNA by forming a precursor tRNA-like complex. The ftsZ mRNA secondary structure was modeled and EGSs complementary to two regions with high probability of being suitable targets were designed. In vitro reactions showed that EGSs targeting these regions bound ftsZ mRNA and elicited RNase P-mediated cleavage of ftsZ mRNA. A recombinant plasmid, pEGSb1, coding for an EGS that targets region "b" under the control of the T7 promoter was generated. Upon introduction of this plasmid into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3(pLysS the transformant strain formed filaments when expression of the EGS was induced. Concomitantly, E. coli harboring pEGSb1 showed a modest but significant inhibition of growth when synthesis of the EGSb1 was induced. Our results indicate that EGS technology could be a viable strategy to generate new antimicrobials targeting ftsZ.

  5. Fermilab Project X nuclear energy application: Accelerator, spallation target and transmutation technology demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohar, Yousry; /Argonne; Johnson, David; Johnson, Todd; Mishra, Shekhar; /Fermilab

    2011-04-01

    The recent paper 'Accelerator and Target Technology for Accelerator Driven Transmutation and Energy Production' and report 'Accelerators for America's Future' have endorsed the idea that the next generation particle accelerators would enable technological breakthrough needed for nuclear energy applications, including transmutation of waste. In the Fall of 2009 Fermilab sponsored a workshop on Application of High Intensity Proton Accelerators to explore in detail the use of the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) accelerator technology for Nuclear Energy Applications. High intensity Continuous Wave (CW) beam from the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Linac (Project-X) at beam energy between 1-2 GeV will provide an unprecedented experimental and demonstration facility in the United States for much needed nuclear energy Research and Development. We propose to carry out an experimental program to demonstrate the reliability of the accelerator technology, Lead-Bismuth spallation target technology and a transmutation experiment of spent nuclear fuel. We also suggest that this facility could be used for other Nuclear Energy applications.

  6. Technology strategy for cost-effective drilling and intervention; Technology Target Areas; TTA4 - Cost effective drilling and intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The main goals of the OG21 initiative are to (1) develop new technology and knowledge to increase the value creation of Norwegian oil and gas resources and (2) enhance the export of Norwegian oil and gas technology. The OG21 Cost-effective Drilling and Intervention (CEDI) Technology Target Area (TTA) has identified some key strategic drilling and well intervention needs to help meet the goals of OG21. These key strategic drilling and well intervention needs are based on a review of present and anticipated future offshore-Norway drilling and well intervention conditions and the Norwegian drilling and well intervention industry. A gap analysis has been performed to assess the extent to which current drilling and well intervention research and development and other activities will meet the key strategic needs. Based on the identified strategic drilling and well intervention needs and the current industry res each and development and other activities, the most important technology areas for meeting the OG21 goals are: environment-friendly and low-cost exploration wells; low-cost methods for well intervention/sidetracks; faster and extended-reach drilling; deep water drilling, completion and intervention; offshore automated drilling; subsea and sub-ice drilling; drilling through basalt and tight carbonates; drilling and completion in salt formation. More specific goals for each area: reduce cost of exploration wells by 50%; reduce cost for well intervention/sidetracks by 50%; increase drilling efficiency by 40%; reduce drilling cost in deep water by 40 %; enable offshore automated drilling before 2012; enable automated drilling from seabed in 2020. Particular focus should be placed on developing new technology for low-cost exploration wells to stem the downward trends in the number of exploration wells drilled and the volume of discovered resources. The CEDI TTA has the following additional recommendations: The perceived gaps in addressing the key strategic drilling and

  7. Targeted Gene Manipulation in Plants Using the CRISPR/Cas Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dandan; Li, Zhenxiang; Li, Jian-Feng

    2016-05-20

    The CRISPR/Cas technology is emerging as a revolutionary genome editing tool in diverse organisms including plants, and has quickly evolved into a suite of versatile tools for sequence-specific gene manipulations beyond genome editing. Here, we review the most recent applications of the CRISPR/Cas toolkit in plants and also discuss key factors for improving CRISPR/Cas performance and strategies for reducing the off-target effects. Novel technical breakthroughs in mammalian research regarding the CRISPR/Cas toolkit will also be incorporated into this review in hope to stimulate prospective users from the plant research community to fully explore the potential of these technologies.

  8. How Accessible Was Information about H1N1 Flu? Literacy Assessments of CDC Guidance Documents for Different Audiences

    OpenAIRE

    Lagassé, Lisa P.; Rimal, Rajiv N.; Smith, Katherine C; J. Douglas Storey; Elizabeth Rhoades; Barnett, Daniel J.; Saad B Omer; Jonathan Links

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the literacy level and readability of online communications about H1N1/09 influenza issued by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) during the first month of outbreak. Documents were classified as targeting one of six audiences ranging in technical expertise. Flesch-Kincaid (FK) measure assessed literacy level for each group of documents. ANOVA models tested for differences in FK scores across target audiences and over time. Readability was assessed for documents ta...

  9. Solar Europe industry initiative: research technology development and demonstration in support of 2020 and long-term targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinke, W.C.; Fraile Montoro, D.; Despotou, E.; Nowak, S.; Perezagua, E.

    2010-01-01

    The European Union has set an ambitious target for the implementation of renewable energy technologies by 2020, i.e. a share of 20% of the total energy consumption. In support of these targets the Strategic Energy Technology (SET) Plan has been initiated by the European Commission. One of the key co

  10. Solar Europe industry initiative: research technology development and demonstration in support of 2020 and long-term targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinke, W.C.; Fraile Montoro, D.; Despotou, E.; Nowak, S.; Perezagua, E.

    2010-01-01

    The European Union has set an ambitious target for the implementation of renewable energy technologies by 2020, i.e. a share of 20% of the total energy consumption. In support of these targets the Strategic Energy Technology (SET) Plan has been initiated by the European Commission. One of the key co

  11. Technology strategy for enhanced recovery; Technology Target Areas; TTA3 - enhanced recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) is facing new challenges in reserve replacement and improved recovery in order to maintain the overall oil production rate from the area. A new target for an increase in oil reserves of 800 million Sm3 of oil (5 billion barrels) by year 2015 has been set by NPD. This is an ambitious goal considering several of the large fields are on a steep decline, and most of the recent discoveries are relatively small. A significant part of these increased reserves will have to come from fields currently on production, from reservoir areas that have been partly or fully swept, and it is therefore evident that Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) methods have to play a key role in achieving this target. EOR methods can be divided into gas based EOR methods and water based EOR methods. Thermal methods are not considered applicable on the NCS due to the relatively light oils present, and the depth of the reservoirs. Gas Based EOR; Water Based EOR; CO{sub 2} injection; Surfactants; Air injection; Polymer; Nitrogen injection; Alkaline; Flue gas injection; Polymer gels; WAG; MEOR; FAWAG. The former OG21 strategy document gave high priority to Water Alternating Gas (WAG) methods and CO{sub 2} injection for enhanced recovery. A lot of research and development and evaluation projects on CO{sub 2} injection were launched and are on-going, most of these are being CO{sub 2} WAG studies. The main challenge now in order to realize CO{sub 2} injection on the NCS is on CO{sub 2} availability and transport. It is also believed that increasing gas prices will limit the availability of hydrocarbon gas for injection purposes in the future. There is, however, a clear need for developing alternative cost efficient EOR methods that can improve the sweep efficiency significantly. Since a majority of the fields on the NCS are being produced under water flooding (or WAG), methods that can improve the water flooding efficiency by chemical additives are of special interest and

  12. Targeted plant genome editing via the CRISPR/Cas9 technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Feng; Zhang, Dandan; Sheen, Jen

    2015-01-01

    Targeted modification of plant genome is key for elucidating and manipulating gene functions in basic and applied plant research. The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) technology is emerging as a powerful genome editing tool in diverse organisms. This technology utilizes an easily reprogrammable guide RNA (gRNA) to guide Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 endonuclease to generate a DNA double-strand break (DSB) within an intended genomic sequence and subsequently stimulate chromosomal mutagenesis or homologous recombination near the DSB site through cellular DNA repair machineries. In this chapter, we describe the detailed procedure to design, construct, and evaluate dual gRNAs for plant codon-optimized Cas9 (pcoCas9)-mediated genome editing using Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana protoplasts as model cellular systems. We also discuss strategies to apply the CRISPR/Cas9 system to generating targeted genome modifications in whole plants.

  13. Towards Biometric Assessment of Audience Affect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng Wieland, Jakob; Larsen, Lars Bo; Laursen, Jeanette Kølbæk

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how reliable affective responses can be obtained using objective biometric measures for media audience research. We use Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) to detect sixteen respondents’ arousal levels and as an objective measure to show how self- reporting disrupts the experience...

  14. Audience and Revision: Middle Schoolers "Slam" Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jester, Judith

    1997-01-01

    Describes organizing a poetry "slam" (a contest in which people read their original poems and listeners cast votes for their favorites) involving 200 eighth graders from two different schools. Discusses how this experience made vivid for students the need to write for an audience and to revise. (SR)

  15. Engagement with Physics across Diverse Festival Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Joseph; Stanley, Jessica; Davis, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Science shows provide a method of introducing large public audiences to physics concepts in a nonformal learning environment. While these shows have the potential to provide novel means of educational engagement, it is often difficult to measure that engagement. We present a method of producing an interactive physics show that seeks to provide…

  16. Audience development and its blind spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelof, Anja Mølle

    2015-01-01

    that the discourse developing around audience development takes an organizational and institutionalized approach to performance culture that risks reducing dilemmas in performing arts institutions to a question of either marketing or social distinction. It overlooks a substantial body of knowledge of performance...... nuanced language on how performance matters....

  17. The Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Digital News Audiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The changing patterns of news consumption in a digital era bring about new configurations between audiences, information, the devices upon which they consume it and the different (mobile) places and (shiftable) times where and when this is possible. This chapter highlights the need to consider th...... challenges the conventional routines and symbolic power of journalism as a place where, metaphorically, people can come together....

  18. Language, gay pornography, and audience reception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leap, William L

    2011-01-01

    Erotic imagery is an important component of gay pornographic cinema, particularly, where work of audience reception is concerned. However, to assume the audience engagement with the films is limited solely to the erotic realm is to underestimate the workings of ideological power in the context and aftermath of reception. For example, the director of the film under discussion here (Men of Israel; Lucas, 2009b) intended to present an erotic celebration of the nation-state. Yet, most viewers ignore the particulars of context in their comments about audience reception, placing the "Israeli" narrative within a broader framework, using transnational rather than film-specific criteria to guide their "reading" of the Israeli-centered narrative. This article uses as its entry point the language that viewers employ when describing their reactions to Men of Israel on a gay video club's Web site; this article shows how the work of audience reception may draw attention to a film's erotic details while invoking social and political messages that completely reframe the film's erotic narrative.

  19. To Crowdfund Research, Scientists Must Build an Audience for Their Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Jarrett E K; Ranganathan, Jai; Walker, Barbara L E; Faulkes, Zen

    2014-01-01

    As rates of traditional sources of scientific funding decline, scientists have become increasingly interested in crowdfunding as a means of bringing in new money for research. In fields where crowdfunding has become a major venue for fundraising such as the arts and technology, building an audience for one's work is key for successful crowdfunding. For science, to what extent does audience building, via engagement and outreach, increase a scientist's abilities to bring in money via crowdfunding? Here we report on an analysis of the #SciFund Challenge, a crowdfunding experiment in which 159 scientists attempted to crowdfund their research. Using data gathered from a survey of participants, internet metrics, and logs of project donations, we find that public engagement is the key to crowdfunding success. Building an audience or "fanbase" and actively engaging with that audience as well as seeking to broaden the reach of one's audience indirectly increases levels of funding. Audience size and effort interact to bring in more people to view a scientist's project proposal, leading to funding. We discuss how projects capable of raising levels of funds commensurate with traditional funding agencies will need to incorporate direct involvement of the public with science. We suggest that if scientists and research institutions wish to tap this new source of funds, they will need to encourage and reward activities that allow scientists to engage with the public.

  20. To Crowdfund Research, Scientists Must Build an Audience for Their Work.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarrett E K Byrnes

    Full Text Available As rates of traditional sources of scientific funding decline, scientists have become increasingly interested in crowdfunding as a means of bringing in new money for research. In fields where crowdfunding has become a major venue for fundraising such as the arts and technology, building an audience for one's work is key for successful crowdfunding. For science, to what extent does audience building, via engagement and outreach, increase a scientist's abilities to bring in money via crowdfunding? Here we report on an analysis of the #SciFund Challenge, a crowdfunding experiment in which 159 scientists attempted to crowdfund their research. Using data gathered from a survey of participants, internet metrics, and logs of project donations, we find that public engagement is the key to crowdfunding success. Building an audience or "fanbase" and actively engaging with that audience as well as seeking to broaden the reach of one's audience indirectly increases levels of funding. Audience size and effort interact to bring in more people to view a scientist's project proposal, leading to funding. We discuss how projects capable of raising levels of funds commensurate with traditional funding agencies will need to incorporate direct involvement of the public with science. We suggest that if scientists and research institutions wish to tap this new source of funds, they will need to encourage and reward activities that allow scientists to engage with the public.

  1. The technology of indirectly irradiated targets for inertial fusion researches at the Russian Federal nuclear center - VNIIEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andramanova, Y.V.; Veselov, A.V.; Zhidkov, N.V.; Ivanin, I.A.; Ignatev, Y.V.; Izgorodin, V.M.; Kirillov, G.A.; Komleva, G.A.; Makarov, M.Y.; Medvedev, E.F.; Morovov, A.P.; Nikolaev, G.P.; Pinegin, A.V.; Romaev, V.N.; Solomatina, E.Y.; Tacenko, M.V.; Tenyaev, B.N.; Cherkesova, I.N.; Yukhimchuk, A.A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center, All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics, RFNC-VNIIEF, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    The results of targets technology development for indirectly drive implosion experiments on the laser facility ISKRA-5, and also the constructions of targets developed at VNIIEF during last 4 years are represented. Moreover, a development of not destroying control methods for target parameters is written. (authors)

  2. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation technology of wide-band radar targets based on scattering center model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Hao; Pan Minghai; Lu Zhijun

    2015-01-01

    Hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulation technology can verify and evaluate the radar by simulating the radio frequency environment in an anechoic chamber. The HWIL simulation technology of wide-band radar targets can accurately generate wide-band radar target echo which stands for the radar target scattering characteristics and pulse modulation of radar transmitting sig-nal. This paper analyzes the wide-band radar target scattering properties first. Since the responses of target are composed of many separate scattering centers, the target scattering characteristic is restructured by scattering centers model. Based on the scattering centers model of wide-band radar target, the wide-band radar target echo modeling and the simulation method are discussed. The wide-band radar target echo is reconstructed in real-time by convoluting the transmitting signal to the target scattering parameters. Using the digital radio frequency memory (DRFM) system, the HWIL simulation of wide-band radar target echo with high accuracy can be actualized. A typical wide-band radar target simulation is taken to demonstrate the preferable simulation effect of the reconstruction method of wide-band radar target echo. Finally, the radar target time-domain echo and high-resolution range profile (HRRP) are given. The results show that the HWIL simulation gives a high-resolution range distribution of wide-band radar target scattering centers.

  3. Using Target Audience Analysis to Aid Strategic Level Decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    continuum of wrong activities being undertaken. In Iraq and Afghanistan, he saw how big public relations and marketing companies cost the U.S...triumphalism—the belief that western, liberal, democratic free market econ- omies were the answer to all ills. Yet across Eastern Europe, the Maghreb, the...Pakhtunkhwa; the city of Peshawar and dis- tricts south of the city, including travel on the Pesha- war to Chitral road via the Lowari Pass; northern and

  4. Sensing technologies for precision irrigation

    CERN Document Server

    Ćulibrk, Dubravko; Minic, Vladan; Alonso Fernandez, Marta; Alvarez Osuna, Javier; Crnojevic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides an overview of state-of-the-art sensing technologies relevant to the problem of precision irrigation, an emerging field within the domain of precision agriculture. Applications of wireless sensor networks, satellite data and geographic information systems in the domain are covered. This brief presents the basic concepts of the technologies and emphasizes the practical aspects that enable the implementation of intelligent irrigation systems. The authors target a broad audience interested in this theme and organize the content in five chapters, each concerned with a specific technology needed to address the problem of optimal crop irrigation. Professionals and researchers will find the text a thorough survey with practical applications.

  5. The CRISPR-Cas9 technology: Closer to the ultimate toolkit for targeted genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quétier, Francis

    2016-01-01

    The first period of plant genome editing was based on Agrobacterium; chemical mutagenesis by EMS (ethyl methanesulfonate) and ionizing radiations; each of these technologies led to randomly distributed genome modifications. The second period is associated with the discoveries of homing and meganuclease enzymes during the 80s and 90s, which were then engineered to provide efficient tools for targeted editing. From 2006 to 2012, a few crop plants were successfully and precisely modified using zinc-finger nucleases. A third wave of improvement in genome editing, which led to a dramatic decrease in off-target events, was achieved in 2009-2011 with the TALEN technology. The latest revolution surfaced in 2013 with the CRISPR-Cas9 system, whose high efficiency and technical ease of use is really impressive; scientists can use in-house kits or commercially available kits; the only two requirements are to carefully choose the location of the DNA double strand breaks to be induced and then to order an oligonucleotide. While this close-to- ultimate toolkit for targeted editing of genomes represents dramatic scientific progress which allows the development of more complex useful agronomic traits through synthetic biology, the social acceptance of genome editing remains regularly questioned by anti-GMO citizens and organizations.

  6. Rational Wizards: Audience Interpreters in French Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Bourdon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will tell the story of the smallgroup of people who, in France, have been in charge of the measurement and theappreciation of the audience of television, and had to invent audience research,to organize it and to communicate its results to "clients" whodepended on it much earlier than usually assumed: television managers andprofessionals, public authorities, and, last but not least, advertisers. The paper will explore both change andcontinuity. First, change: the professional origin and training of measurerschanged much over the years. In the early days, they could have an almostliterary profile. The first person in charge of the audience at the RadioTélévision Française was a teacher of philosophy. His followers had a formationin sociology and semiology. They all insisted on the fact that they were not"simply" measurers, and also worried about appreciation, quality,culture. They always figures did produce figures, but rarely only about thenumber of people present in front of the screen, mostly about satisfaction,appreciation, preferences for given genres, viewing habits. As there was onlyone channel – until 1964, with the number of TV sets rising sharply, ratings,in the modern sense, were not critical.Things started to change gradually. In 1974,the public broadcasting corporation was divided into several companies,including three competing channels. The service in charge of measuring audiencewas put under the direct authority of the Prime Minister. Audience figuresplayed a part in the distribution of resources, not only advertising but throughthe license fee sharing. However, the law also provided a clause about an indexof quality, which never functioned satisfactorily, although the service incharge of audiences put much effort into it. In 1985, around the time of deregulation,change came. From outside, this was translated into the rise of daily,detailed, fast produced figures of the audience through audimeters, thenpeoplemeters

  7. Application of ultrasound microbubble contrast technology in ophthalmic targeted therapy: literature analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jia-Ying; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Tang, Chong; Zhu, Hong; Xie, Hua; Gao, Shuan-Jie

    2011-01-01

    To analyze the application of microbubble contrast technology in the treatment of ophthalmic diseases, mainly analyzing its advantages and existing problems. A total of 30 representative literatures about the application of ultrasound contrast agent in gene targeted therapy at home and abroad were collected, and focusing on sorting out the literature reporting the treatment of ophthalmic diseases with microbubble contrast technology in recent years, then recalling its advantages and problems, finally making reasonable assessment on existing problems and proposing possible solutions to the problems. DUE TO ITS UNIQUE SAFETY AND EFFICACY, THE TREATMENT OF OPHTHALMIC DISEASES WITH MICROBUBBLE CONTRAST TECHNOLOGY HAS INCREASINGLY DRAWN THE ATTENTION OF CLINICIANS, BUT TWO RELEVANT ISSUES SHOULD BE CONSIDERED: first, the nature of contrast agent and the choice of corresponding ultrasound parameters; second, relative incidence of tissue bleeding, intravascular hemolysis, moderate or severe allergy as well as other side effects. Microbubble may become the carrier of targeted therapy, and as a kind of new non-invasive delivery system, the ultrasound contrast agent has broad application prospects, but its application in ophthalmic research is still in its initial stage and the safety of contrast-enhanced ultrasound still needs further study.

  8. Audiences : Defining and Researching Screen Entertainment Reception

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This timely volume engages with one of the most important shifts in recent film studies: the turn away from text-based analysis towards the viewer. Historically, this marks a return to early interest in the effect of film on the audience by psychoanalysts and psychologists, which was overtaken by concern with the 'effects' of film, linked to calls for censorship and moral panics rather than to understanding the mental and behavioral world of the spectator. Early cinema history has revealed th...

  9. Prior experience and its effects on audience design

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    PRIOR EXPERIENCE AND ITS EFFECTS ON AUDIENCE DESIGN. Abstract Objective Audience design involves tailoring utterances to suit the needs of your partner. The current experiment was interested in whether a speaker’s experience has an impact on their use of audience design as a conversational tool and whether a speaker can transfer knowledge gained in one task across to a similar task. Design Two description tasks were used to investigate audience design by recording the numbe...

  10. [Overview of patents on targeted genome editing technologies and their implications for innovation and entrepreneurship education in universities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiangyu, Fan; Yanping, Lin; Guojian, Liao; Jianping, Xie

    2015-12-01

    Zinc finger nuclease, transcription activator-like effector nuclease, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 nuclease are important targeted genome editing technologies. They have great significance in scientific research and applications on aspects of functional genomics research, species improvement, disease prevention and gene therapy. There are past or ongoing disputes over ownership of the intellectual property behind every technology. In this review, we summarize the patents on these three targeted genome editing technologies in order to provide some reference for developing genome editing technologies with self-owned intellectual property rights and some implications for current innovation and entrepreneurship education in universities.

  11. Comparing Demographic, Health Status and Psychosocial Strategies of Audience Segmentation to Promote Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boslaugh, Sarah E.; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Nicholson, Robert A.; Naleid, Kimberly

    2005-01-01

    The goal of audience segmentation is to identify population subgroups that are homogeneous with respect to certain variables associated with a given outcome or behavior. When such groups are identified and understood, targeted intervention strategies can be developed to address their unique characteristics and needs. This study compares the…

  12. A Typology of Middle School Girls: Audience Segmentation Related to Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staten, Lisa K.; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Jobe, Jared B.; Elder, John P.

    2006-01-01

    The Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) combines social ecological and social marketing approaches to promote girls' participation in physical activity programs implemented at 18 middle schools throughout the United States. Key to the TAAG approach is targeting materials to a variety of audience segments. TAAG segments are individuals…

  13. Comparing Four Touch-Based Interaction Techniques for an Image-Based Audience Response System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorritsma, Wiard; Prins, Jonatan T.; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the most appropriate touch-based interaction technique for I2Vote, an image-based audience response system for radiology education in which users need to accurately mark a target on a medical image. Four plausible techniques were identified: land-on, take-off, zoom-poin

  14. Targeted Prostate Biopsy: Lessons Learned Midst the Evolution of a Disruptive Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassiri, Nima; Natarajan, Shyam; Margolis, Daniel J; Marks, Leonard S

    2015-09-01

    Lessons learned during a 6-year experience with more than 1200 patients undergoing targeted prostate biopsy via MRI/ultrasound fusion are reported: (1) the procedure is safe and efficient, requiring some 15-20 minutes in an office setting; (2) MRI is best performed by a radiologist with specialized training, using a transabdominal multiparametric approach and preferably a 3T magnet; (3) grade of MRI suspicion is the most powerful predictor of biopsy results, eg, Grade 5 usually represents cancer; (4) some potentially important cancers (15%-30%) are MRI-invisible; (5) Targeted biopsies provide >80% concordance with whole-organ pathology. Early enthusiasm notwithstanding, cost-effectiveness is yet to be resolved, and the technologies remain in evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. TARGETED PROSTATE BIOPSY: LESSONS LEARNED MIDST THE EVOLUTION OF A DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassiri, Nima; Natarajan, Shyam; Margolis, Daniel J.; Marks, Leonard S.

    2015-01-01

    Lessons learned during a 6-year experience with more than 1200 patients undergoing targeted prostate biopsy via MRI/US fusion are reported: (1) The procedure is safe and efficient, requiring some 15–20 minutes in an office setting; (2) MRI is best performed by a radiologist with specialized training, employing a trans-abdominal multi-parametric approach and preferably a 3T magnet; (3) Grade of MRI suspicion is the most powerful predictor of biopsy results, e.g., Grade 5 usually represents cancer; (4) Some potentially-important cancers (15%–30%) are MRI-invisible; (5) Targeted biopsies provide >80% concordance with whole-organ pathology. Early enthusiasm notwithstanding, cost-effectiveness is yet to be resolved, and the technologies remain in evolution. PMID:26166671

  16. TARGETED RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY WITHIN NASA'S LIVING WITH A STAR PROGRAM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosling, J. T.; Antiochos, Spiro; Baker, Kile; Bellaire, Paul; Blake, Bern; Crowley, Geoff; Eddy, Jack; Goodrich, Charles; Gopalswamy, Nat; Hesse, Michael; Hurlburt, Neal; Jackman, Charles; Kozyra, Janet; Labonte, Barry; Lean, Judith; Linker, Jon; Mazur, Joe; Onsager, Terry; Sibeck, David

    2003-07-10

    NASA’s Living With a Star (LWS) initiative is a systematic, goal-oriented research program targeting those aspects of the Sun-Earth system that affect society. The Targeted Research and Technology (TR&T) component of LWS provides the theory, modeling, and data analysis necessary to enable an integrated, system-wide picture of Sun-Earth connection science with societal relevance. Recognizing the central and essential role that TR&T would have for the success of the LWS initiative, the LWS Science Architecture Team (SAT) recommended that a Science Definition Team (SDT), with the same status as a flight mission definition team, be formed to design and coordinate a TR&T program having prioritized goals and objectives that focused on practical societal benefits. This report details the SDT recommendations for the TR&T program.

  17. Targeting low-arsenic groundwater with mobile-phone technology in Araihazar, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geen, A; Trevisani, M; Immel, J; Jakariya, Md; Osman, N; Cheng, Z; Gelman, A; Ahmed, K M

    2006-09-01

    The Bangladesh Arsenic Mitigation and Water Supply Program (BAMWSP) has compiled field-kit measurements of the arsenic content of groundwater for nearly five million wells. By comparing the spatial distribution of arsenic inferred from these field-kit measurements with geo-referenced laboratory data in a portion of Araihazar upazila, it is shown here that the BAMWSP data could be used for targeting safe aquifers for the installation of community wells in many villages of Bangladesh. Recent experiences with mobile-phone technology to access and update the BAMWSP data in the field are also described. It is shown that the technology, without guaranteeing success, could optimize interventions by guiding the choice of the drilling method that is likely to reach a safe aquifer and identifying those villages where exploratory drilling is needed.

  18. Sleeping with the enemy: Audience studies and critical literacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, J.; van den Berg, A.; Mol, M.

    2013-01-01

    Audience studies is not the vibrant field it was in its 1980s and early 1990s heyday. Cultural studies today has a more balanced interest in production, audiences and texts. A renewed focus in audience studies on everyday meaning production, identity and relations of power could benefit from recent

  19. Audience and Young Bilingual Writers: Building on Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Leah

    2017-01-01

    This study explored how an audience-focused writing curriculum mediated the literacy development of bilingual Latina/o first-grade students. Drawing on translingual theories of literacy and scholarship describing the role of audience and audience awareness in skilled writing, this study qualitatively documented and analyzed students' writing and…

  20. A Sense of Audience in Young Children's Multimodal Information Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hongmei

    2010-01-01

    Elementary children's sense of audience related to their multimodal information writing was examined. Forty-six third graders' interviews about the books that they created at the end of a science unit were analyzed to understand children's conception of audience, the connection between their sense of audience and their composing process, and their…

  1. Lecture-Free High School Biology Using an Audience Response System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Larry J.

    2008-01-01

    Audience Response Systems (ARS) represent a powerful new tool for increasing student engagement. ARS technology (known variously as electronic voting systems, personal response systems, interactive student response systems, and classroom performance systems) includes one hand-held remote per student, a receiver (infrared or radio frequency,…

  2. Mobile eye-tracking methods in studies of audience learning in health promotion exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Zachariassen, Maria; Kharlamov, Nikita

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a methodological discussion of the potential and challenges of involving mobile eye-tracking technology in studies of knowledge generation and learning in a science centre context. The methodological exploration is based on eye-tracking studies of audience interaction...

  3. TARGET:?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James M Acton

    2014-01-01

      By 2003. as military planners had become worried that the country's long-range conventional weapons, such as cruise missiles, might be too slow to reach hypothetical distant targets that needed to be struck urgently...

  4. "LET'S SPEAK ENGLISH," AN EXPERIMENT IN ADULT EDUCATIONAL TV DESIGNED TO TEACH ENGLISH TO BEGINNERS, WITH A REPORT ON THE AUDIENCE REACHED AND ITS REACTIONS TO THE PROGRAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967

    THREE-HUNDRED SIXTY-EIGHT INTERVIEWS CONDUCTED IN THE HOME, BY MAIL, AND BY TELEPHONE PROVIDED DATA FOR THIS AUDIENCE STUDY OF THE ENGLISH COURSE FEATURING A MIMICRY-MEMORY TECHNIQUE. ABOUT 35 PER CENT OF AN IDEAL TARGET AUDIENCE IN THE TORONTO METROPOLITAN AREA DEFINED ACCORDING TO AGE AND LINGUISTIC ABILITY WATCHED SOME OF THE PROGRAM, AND ABOUT…

  5. The Effects of Authentic Audience on English as a Second Language (ESL) Writers: A Task-Based, Computer-Mediated Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Julian ChengChiang; Brown, Kimberly Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The majority of writing tasks assigned to second language (L2) learners tend to target an abstract audience and the writing generated is not meant for real or meaningful purposes. The emergence of Web 2.0 concepts has created a potential educational environment where students have access to a widely distributed, authentic audience with a simple…

  6. Technology targeting for sustainable intensification of crop production in the Delta region of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulthess, U.; Krupnik, T. J.; Ahmed, Z. U.; McDonald, A. J.

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing data are nowadays being acquired within short intervals and made available at a low cost or for free. This opens up opportunities for new remote sensing applications, such as the characterization of entire regions to identify most suitable areas for technology targeting. Increasing population growth and changing dietary habits in South Asia call for higher cereal production to ensure future food security. In the Delta area of Bangladesh, surface water is considered to be available in quantities large enough to support intensification by adding an irrigated dry season crop. Fuel-efficient, low lift axial flow pumps have shown to be suitable to carry water to fields that are within a buffer of four hundred meters of the rivers. However, information on how and where to target surface water irrigation efforts is currently lacking. We describe the opportunities and constraints encountered in developing a procedure to identify cropland for which axial flow pumps could be successfully deployed upon in a 43'000 km2 area. First, we isolated cropland and waterways using Landsat 5 and 7 scenes using image segmentation followed by classification with the random forest algorithm. Based on Landsat 7 and 8 scenes, we extracted maximum dry season enhanced vegetation index (EVI) values, which we classified into fallow, low-, and high-intensity cropland for the last three years. Last, we investigated the potential for surface water irrigation on fallow and low-intensity land by applying a cropping risk matrix to address the twin threats of soil and water salinity. Our analysis indicates that there are at least 20,000 ha of fallow land under the low-risk category, while more than 100,000 ha of low-intensity cropland can be brought into intensified production. This information will aid in technology targeting for the efficient deployment of surface water irrigation as a tool for intensification.

  7. Designing virtual audiences for fear of public speaking training - an observation study on realistic nonverbal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeschl, Sandra; Doering, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Virtual Reality technology offers great possibilities for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy of fear of public speaking: Clients can be exposed to virtual fear-triggering stimuli (exposure) and are able to role-play in virtual environments, training social skills to overcome their fear. Usually, prototypical audience behavior (neutral, social and anti-social) serves as stimulus in virtual training sessions, although there is significant lack of theoretical basis on typical audience behavior. The study presented deals with the design of a realistic virtual presentation scenario. An audience (consisting of n=18 men and women) in an undergraduate seminar was observed during three frontal lecture sessions. Behavior frequency of four nonverbal dimensions (eye contact, facial expression, gesture, and posture) was rated by means of a quantitative content analysis. Results show audience behavior patterns which seem to be typical in frontal lecture contexts, like friendly and neutral face expressions. Additionally, combined and even synchronized behavioral patterns between participants who sit next to each other (like turning to the neighbor and start talking) were registered. The gathered data serve as empirical design basis for a virtual audience to be used in virtual training applications that stimulate the experiences of the participants in a realistic manner, thereby improving the experienced presence in the training application.

  8. Determination of somatic oncogenic mutations linked to target-based therapies using MassARRAY technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorca-Cardeñosa, Marta J.; Mongort, Cristina; Alonso, Elisa; Navarro, Samuel; Burgues, Octavio; Vivancos, Ana; Cejalvo, Juan Miguel; Perez-Fidalgo, José Alejandro; Roselló, Susana; Ribas, Gloria; Cervantes, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Somatic mutation analysis represents a useful tool in selecting personalized therapy. The aim of our study was to determine the presence of common genetic events affecting actionable oncogenes using a MassARRAY technology in patients with advanced solid tumors who were potential candidates for target-based therapies. The analysis of 238 mutations across 19 oncogenes was performed in 197 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples of different tumors using the OncoCarta Panel v1.0 (Sequenom Hamburg, Germany). Of the 197 specimens, 97 (49.2%) presented at least one mutation. Forty-nine different oncogenic mutations in 16 genes were detected. Mutations in KRAS and PIK3CA were detected in 40/97 (41.2%) and 30/97 (30.9%) patients respectively. Thirty-one patients (32.0%) had mutations in two genes, 20 of them (64.5%) initially diagnosed with colorectal cancer. The co-occurrence of mutation involved mainly KRAS, PIK3CA, KIT and RET. Mutation profiles were validated using a customized panel and the Junior Next-Generation Sequencing technology (GS-Junior 454, Roche). Twenty-eight patients participated in early clinical trials or received specific treatments according to the molecular characterization (28.0%). MassARRAY technology is a rapid and effective method for identifying key cancer-driving mutations across a large number of samples, which allows for a more appropriate selection for personalized therapies. PMID:26968814

  9. Assessment of Microbiology Students’ Progress With an Audience Response System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmad Chaudhry

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of new approaches to teaching of large lecture courses is needed. Today’s classroom has a wide range of students including high-achieving motivated learners, students struggling to understand basic concepts, and learning-challenged students. Many of these students can be lost in large classes under the shadow of the high-achieving extroverted students who dominate classroom question-and-answer sessions. Measuring a student’s understanding and achievement of content standards becomes difficult until an assessment has been done. To close this gap, an audience response system was introduced in an introductory Principles of Microbiology course. This technology specifically addressed the goal of individualizing instruction to the needs of the students. The evaluation of this project indicated an overall positive impact on student learning.

  10. Focusing the EarthScope for a Broader Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Konter, B. R.

    2011-12-01

    One of the most challenging milestones of scientific research is often the translation of a technical result into a clear "teachable moment" that is accessible (and interesting!) to a broader audience. The success of this milestone can largely be measured by its effectiveness to inspire interest and enthusiasm in the non-scientist. Moreover, as 4D multimedia now dominates most aspects of our social environment, science "teaching" now also requires intervention of visualization technology and animation to portray research results in an inviting and stimulating manner. In response to these needs, a primary objective of the EarthScope Education and Outreach program is to transform technical science into teachable products for a technologically thriving generation. Following the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS)'s lead in developing interactive Earth science kiosk multimedia (bundled in a free product called Active Earth), a major focus of this EarthScope CAREER project is aimed at the construction and installation of customized EarthScope-themed touch screen kiosks in local communities. These kiosks are helping to educate a broader audience about EarthScope's unique instrumentation and observations using interactive animations, games, and virtual field trips. An additional focus of this CAREER project is aimed at the development of several Earthquakes in Action teaching modules for grades 6-12, which have been successfully tested and implemented in both teacher-prep courses and an annual high school summer geosciences camp at the University of Texas at El Paso. These activities are beginning to shape a new pathway for how teachers teach and students learn about planet Earth and its fantastic EarthScope - one click (and touch) at a time.

  11. A Research into the Evaluation Target System and Comprehensive Evaluation Method About the Science and Technology Development of Provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ci-sheng; WANG Min; LI Xing-guo

    2001-01-01

    Based on the systematic theory and the system analytic method, this thesis expounds manifestly the evaluation target system and comprehensive evaluation method about the science and technology development of provinces (cities and districts). By putting it into practice of provinces (cities and districts) science and technology development, this set of target system and method may fully reflect the impact on the social development. The acceleration of transferring the extensive economy to the intensive one in province (cities and districts) and the relation of coordinated growth of science and technology, economy, society are of momentous current significance.

  12. Technology strategy for integrated operations and real time reservoir management; Technology Target Areas; TTA5 - Integrated operations and RTRM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    In Norway Integrated Operations (IO) is a concept which in the first phase (G1) has been used to describe how to integrate processes and people onshore and offshore using ICT solutions and facilities that improve onshore's ability to support offshore operationally. The second generation (G2) Integrated Operations aims to help operators utilize vendors' core competencies and services more efficiently. Utilizing digital services and vendor products, operators will be able to update reservoir models, drilling targets and well trajectories as wells are drilled, manage well completions remotely, optimize production from reservoir to export lines, and implement condition-based maintenance concepts. The total impact on production, recovery rates, costs and safety will be profound. When the international petroleum business moves to the Arctic region the setting is very different from what is the case on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) and new challenges will arise. The Norwegian Ministry of Environment has recently issued an Integrated Management Plan for the Barents Sea where one focus is on 'Monitoring of the Marine Environment in the North'. The Government aims to establish a new and more coordinated system for monitoring the marine ecosystems in the north. A representative group consisting of the major Operators, the Service Industry, Academia and the Authorities have developed the enclosed strategy for the OG21 Integrated Operations and Real Time Reservoir Management (IO and RTRM) Technology Target Area (TTA). Major technology and work process research and development gaps have been identified in several areas: Bandwidth down-hole to surface; Sensor development including Nano-technology; Cross discipline use of Visualisation, Simulation and model development particularly in Drilling and Reservoir management areas; Software development in terms of data handling, model updating and calculation speed; Enabling reliable and robust communications

  13. Can donated media placements reach intended audiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Chu, Jennifer; Polonec, Lindsey

    2013-09-01

    Donated media placements for public service announcements (PSAs) can be difficult to secure, and may not always reach intended audiences. Strategies used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Screen for Life: National Colorectal Cancer Action Campaign (SFL) to obtain donated media placements include producing a diverse mix of high-quality PSAs, co-branding with state and tribal health agencies, securing celebrity involvement, monitoring media trends to identify new distribution opportunities, and strategically timing the release of PSAs. To investigate open-ended recall of PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, CDC conducted 12 focus groups in three U.S. cities with men and women either nearing age 50 years, when screening is recommended to begin, or aged 50-75 years who were not in compliance with screening guidelines. In most focus groups, multiple participants recalled exposure to PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, and most of these individuals reported having seen SFL PSAs on television, in transit stations, or on the sides of public buses. Some participants reported exposure to SFL PSAs without prompting from the moderator, as they explained how they learned about the disease. Several participants reported learning key campaign messages from PSAs, including that colorectal cancer screening should begin at age 50 years and screening can find polyps so they can be removed before becoming cancerous. Donated media placements can reach and educate mass audiences, including millions of U.S. adults who have not been screened appropriately for colorectal cancer.

  14. Using Mobile Apps to Entice General Education Students into Technology Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Michelle; Murphy, Diane

    2013-01-01

    It is of national importance to increase the number of college students pursuing degrees in information systems/information technology (IT/IS) subjects. The primary focus at many institutions is renovating or enhancing existing IT/IS programs and the target audience is the students who have selected to major in IT/IS subjects. This paper looks at…

  15. Community Essay: Seeking a dialogue: a targeted technology for sustainable agricultural systems in the American Corn Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Christianson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This Community Essay aims to start a dialogue on the role of targeted environmental technologies in “sustainable agriculture.” Using the new water-quality technology of denitrification bioreactors as a specific example, we focus on the question: are edge-of-field technologies such as bioreactors simply band-aid approaches to sustainable agriculture? Or can they be part of a comprehensive paradigm shift? Denitrification bioreactors are a novel approach for reducing the amount of nitrate in on-farm agricultural drainage, a pollutant that has caused water-quality concerns at both local and national scales. We first address whether or not denitrification bioreactors might qualify singularly as a "sustainable technology" within the conceptual continuum of weak to strong sustainability. Then we introduce a broader perspective on the potential role that targeted technologies might play in multifunctional agricultural landscapes. We suggest that denitrification bioreactors are one technology that can, in a small way, mediate a shift in agrarian paradigms. A transition toward sustainability is a long and gradual process requiring the incorporation of a wide range of approaches including targeted technologies and multifunctional landscapes. While the issues presented here are hardly exhaustive, it is our hope that this commentary spurs broader dialogue within the sustainable agriculture community about the role of technology in the future of agriculture. We are seeking to encourage broader philosophical reflection on work being done in the name of a sustainable agriculture.

  16. Audience reach of science on television in 10 European countries: An analysis of people-meter data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmkuhl, Markus; Boyadjieva, Pepka; Cunningham, Yvonne; Karamanidou, Christina; Mörä, Tuomo

    2016-02-01

    Beginning with a differentiation of science programmes into five different editorial concepts, this article explores the audience reach of science on television in 10 European countries with a special emphasis on young audiences aged between 14 and 29 years. In relation to the share of this age group in the entire population, science programmes in all countries reach a considerably smaller proportion of younger viewers. Specific preferences for science content on television do not seem to be relevant in explaining aggregated viewing behaviours especially of young audiences. Unlike all other segments, the young science viewer segment is almost intangible as an aggregated group, as a definable segment of a mass audience that can be targeted by science programme makers.

  17. Advance of Molecular Imaging Technology and Targeted Imaging Agent in Imaging and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yi Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imaging is an emerging field that integrates advanced imaging technology with cellular and molecular biology. It can realize noninvasive and real time visualization, measurement of physiological or pathological process in the living organism at the cellular and molecular level, providing an effective method of information acquiring for diagnosis, therapy, and drug development and evaluating treatment of efficacy. Molecular imaging requires high resolution and high sensitive instruments and specific imaging agents that link the imaging signal with molecular event. Recently, the application of new emerging chemical technology and nanotechnology has stimulated the development of imaging agents. Nanoparticles modified with small molecule, peptide, antibody, and aptamer have been extensively applied for preclinical studies. Therapeutic drug or gene is incorporated into nanoparticles to construct multifunctional imaging agents which allow for theranostic applications. In this review, we will discuss the characteristics of molecular imaging, the novel imaging agent including targeted imaging agent and multifunctional imaging agent, as well as cite some examples of their application in molecular imaging and therapy.

  18. Application of real-time single camera SLAM technology for image-guided targeting in neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yau-Zen; Hou, Jung-Fu; Tsao, Yi Hsiang; Lee, Shih-Tseng

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we propose an application of augmented reality technology for targeting tumors or anatomical structures inside the skull. The application is a combination of the technologies of MonoSLAM (Single Camera Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) and computer graphics. A stereo vision system is developed to construct geometric data of human face for registration with CT images. Reliability and accuracy of the application is enhanced by the use of fiduciary markers fixed to the skull. The MonoSLAM keeps track of the current location of the camera with respect to an augmented reality (AR) marker using the extended Kalman filter. The fiduciary markers provide reference when the AR marker is invisible to the camera. Relationship between the markers on the face and the augmented reality marker is obtained by a registration procedure by the stereo vision system and is updated on-line. A commercially available Android based tablet PC equipped with a 320×240 front-facing camera was used for implementation. The system is able to provide a live view of the patient overlaid by the solid models of tumors or anatomical structures, as well as the missing part of the tool inside the skull.

  19. Advances in production technology

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This edited volume contains the selected papers presented at the scientific board meeting of the German Cluster of Excellence on “Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries”,  held in November 2014. The topical structure of the book is clustered in six sessions: Integrative Production Technology, Individualised Production, Virtual Production Systems, Integrated Technologies, Self-Optimising Production Systems and Human Factors in Production Technology. The Aachen perspective on a holistic theory of production is complemented by conference papers from external leading researchers in the fields of production, materials science and bordering disciplines. The target audience primarily comprises research experts and practitioners in the field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  20. Health-related media use among youth audiences in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glik, Deborah; Massey, Philip; Gipson, Jessica; Dieng, Thierno; Rideau, Alexandre; Prelip, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are experiencing rapid changes in access to and use of new internet and digital media technologies. The purpose of this study was to better understand how younger audiences are navigating traditional and newer forms of media technologies, with particular emphasis on the skills and competencies needed to obtain, evaluate and apply health-related information, also defined as health and media literacy. Sixteen focus group discussions were conducted throughout Senegal in September 2012 with youth aged 15-25. Using an iterative coding process based on grounded theory, four themes emerged related to media use for health information among Senegalese youth. They include the following: (i) media utilization; (ii) barriers and conflicts regarding media utilization; (iii) uses and gratifications and (iv) health and media literacy. Findings suggest that Senegalese youth use a heterogeneous mix of media platforms (i.e. television, radio, internet) and utilization often occurs with family members or friends. Additionally, the need for entertainment, information and connectedness inform media use, mostly concerning sexual and reproductive health information. Importantly, tensions arise as youth balance innovative and interactive technologies with traditional and conservative values, particularly concerning ethical and privacy concerns. Findings support the use of multipronged intervention approaches that leverage both new media, as well as traditional media strategies, and that also address lack of health and media literacy in this population. Implementing health-related interventions across multiple media platforms provides an opportunity to create an integrated, as opposed to a disparate, user experience.

  1. Print, Newspapers and Audiences in Colonial Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Bodil Folke

    2011-01-01

    The article addresses African and Indian newspaper networks in Kenya in the late 1940s in an Indian Ocean perspective. Newspapers were important parts of a printing culture that was sustained by Indian and African nationalist politics and economic enterprise. In this period new intermediary groups...... of African and Indian entrepreneurs, activists and publicists, collaborating around newspaper production, captured fairly large and significant non-European audiences (some papers had print runs of around ten thousand) and engaged them in new ways, incorporating their aspirations, writings and points of view...... in newspapers. They depended on voluntary and political associations and anti-colonial struggles in Kenya and on links to nationalists in India and the passive resistance movement in South Africa. They sidestepped the European-dominated print culture and created an anti-colonial counter-voice. Editors insisted...

  2. Eliciting Audience's Experience to Improve Interactive Art Installation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baharin, Hanif; Morrison, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Designing with the users in mind is one of the widely accepted design practices in the Interaction Design field. On the other hand, it can be said that audience's experience is the heart of an interactive art. Since Interaction Design has shown that user's involvement in the design process can...... be beneficial, it is speculated that involving the audiences in the creative process of developing an interactive art piece can make the artist improve the art in general and the audience's experience in particular. In this paper, the experience of eliciting the experience of the audiences of an interactive art...

  3. Technology strategy for integrated operations and real time reservoir management; Technology Target Areas; TTA5 - Integrated operations and RTRM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    In Norway Integrated Operations (IO) is a concept which in the first phase (G1) has been used to describe how to integrate processes and people onshore and offshore using ICT solutions and facilities that improve onshore's ability to support offshore operationally. The second generation (G2) Integrated Operations aims to help operators utilize vendors' core competencies and services more efficiently. Utilizing digital services and vendor products, operators will be able to update reservoir models, drilling targets and well trajectories as wells are drilled, manage well completions remotely, optimize production from reservoir to export lines, and implement condition-based maintenance concepts. The total impact on production, recovery rates, costs and safety will be profound. When the international petroleum business moves to the Arctic region the setting is very different from what is the case on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) and new challenges will arise. The Norwegian Ministry of Environment has recently issued an Integrated Management Plan for the Barents Sea where one focus is on 'Monitoring of the Marine Environment in the North'. The Government aims to establish a new and more coordinated system for monitoring the marine ecosystems in the north. A representative group consisting of the major Operators, the Service Industry, Academia and the Authorities have developed the enclosed strategy for the OG21 Integrated Operations and Real Time Reservoir Management (IO and RTRM) Technology Target Area (TTA). Major technology and work process research and development gaps have been identified in several areas: Bandwidth down-hole to surface; Sensor development including Nano-technology; Cross discipline use of Visualisation, Simulation and model development particularly in Drilling and Reservoir management areas; Software development in terms of data handling, model updating and calculation speed; Enabling reliable and robust communications

  4. Research on the development of space target detecting system and three-dimensional reconstruction technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Wei, Zhen; Song, Dawei; Sun, Wenfeng; Fan, Xiaoyan

    2016-11-01

    With the development of space technology, the number of spacecrafts and debris are increasing year by year. The demand for detecting and identification of spacecraft is growing strongly, which provides support to the cataloguing, crash warning and protection of aerospace vehicles. The majority of existing approaches for three-dimensional reconstruction is scattering centres correlation, which is based on the radar high resolution range profile (HRRP). This paper proposes a novel method to reconstruct the threedimensional scattering centre structure of target from a sequence of radar ISAR images, which mainly consists of three steps. First is the azimuth scaling of consecutive ISAR images based on fractional Fourier transform (FrFT). The later is the extraction of scattering centres and matching between adjacent ISAR images using grid method. Finally, according to the coordinate matrix of scattering centres, the three-dimensional scattering centre structure is reconstructed using improved factorization method. The three-dimensional structure is featured with stable and intuitive characteristic, which provides a new way to improve the identification probability and reduce the complexity of the model matching library. A satellite model is reconstructed using the proposed method from four consecutive ISAR images. The simulation results prove that the method has gotten a satisfied consistency and accuracy.

  5. Developing and delivering food systems training programs for 21st century audiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Hahn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Expectations for training programmes today are very different from expectations for training programmes in the past, because today’s audiences are not only multigenerational, but the younger generations learn in distinctly different ways from older, more traditional audiences. To meet the needs of these multigenerational audiences, the Auburn University Food Systems Institute (AUFSI has developed on-demand, online courses that offer a variety of ways for learners to interact with training materials. For example, a typical course may offer not only traditional text, but audio, video, simulations, and more. In addition, AUFSI has developed supporting educational tools such as interactive virtual tours and video games. This approach to creating courses is a response to the  different levels of experiences of the generations as well as different expectations of how materials should be delivered. In order to be effective, training materials need to be designed to appeal to this multigenerational audience. Traditionalists (born before 1946 prefer face-to-face training programmes. Baby Boomers (born 1946-1964 are more accepting of technology. Generations X (born 1965-1980, Y (born 1981- 2000 and C (born after 2000, however, expect to receive training at their convenience, to have it delivered electronically, and to be entertained as well as educated.

  6. Developing and delivering food systems training programs for 21st century audiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Hahn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Expectations for training programmes today are very different from expectations for training programmes in the past, because today’s audiences are not only multigenerational, but the younger generations learn in distinctly different ways from older, more traditional audiences. To meet the needs of these multigenerational audiences, the Auburn University Food Systems Institute (AUFSI has developed on-demand, online courses that offer a variety of ways for learners to interact with training materials. For example, a typical course may offer not only traditional text, but audio, video, simulations, and more. In addition, AUFSI has developed supporting educational tools such as interactive virtual tours and video games. This approach to creating courses is a response to the  different levels of experiences of the generations as well as different expectations of how materials should be delivered. In order to be effective, training materials need to be designed to appeal to this multigenerational audience. Traditionalists (born before 1946 prefer face-to-face training programmes. Baby Boomers (born 1946-1964 are more accepting of technology. Generations X (born 1965-1980, Y (born 1981- 2000 and C (born after 2000, however, expect to receive training at their convenience, to have it delivered electronically, and to be entertained as well as educated.

  7. Listening for Listeners: Two Educational Radio Stations Discover Audience Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavitsky, Alan G.

    Two pioneering public radio stations--WOSU-AM, licensed to the Ohio State University in Columbus, and WHA-AM, licensed to the University of Wisconsin in Madison--conducted audience research as early as the 1920s. The challenge for early education broadcasters became to adapt the existing audience research paradigm to their purposes, or to develop…

  8. Sensing Audience Response - Beyond One Way Streaming of Live Performances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Wang (Chen); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago); E. Geelhoed; I. Biscoe; P. Stenton

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractDuring a live theatre performance, Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) of 15 audience members was measured simultaneously and synchronized with video footage of performers and audience. Questionnaires explored emotions evoked during the play. The research is part of an EU Framework 7 program to

  9. Physical Activity in the Mass Media: An Audience Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ben J.; Bonfiglioli, Catriona M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity's role in promoting health is highlighted in public health campaigns, news and current affairs, reality television and other programs. An investigation of audience exposure, beliefs and reactions to media portrayals of physical activity offers insights into the salience and influence of this communication. An audience reception…

  10. World Wide Web Homepages: An Examination of Content and Audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Betty; And Others

    This paper shows how the content of a World Wide Web page is selected and how an examination of the intended audience influences content. Examples from the New Mexico Tech (NMT) Library homepage show what sources are selected and what level of detail is appropriate for the intended audience. Six fundamental functions of libraries and information…

  11. Audience Insights: Communicating to Teens (Aged 12-17)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009

    2009-01-01

    CDC's Marketing and Communication Strategy Branch (MCSB) in the National Center for Health Marketings Division of Health Communication and Marketing divides audiences into segments with similar needs, preferences, and characteristics and provides CDC programs with audience-specific information, marketing expertise, and communication planning. To…

  12. Physical Activity in the Mass Media: An Audience Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ben J.; Bonfiglioli, Catriona M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity's role in promoting health is highlighted in public health campaigns, news and current affairs, reality television and other programs. An investigation of audience exposure, beliefs and reactions to media portrayals of physical activity offers insights into the salience and influence of this communication. An audience reception…

  13. Sensing Audience Response - Beyond One Way Streaming of Live Performances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.; Cesar Garcia, P.S.; Geelhoed, E.; Biscoe, I.; Stenton, P.

    2013-01-01

    During a live theatre performance, Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) of 15 audience members was measured simultaneously and synchronized with video footage of performers and audience. Questionnaires explored emotions evoked during the play. The research is part of an EU Framework 7 program to support rem

  14. Integrating Digital Response Systems within a Diversity of Agricultural Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarappa, William; Quinn, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    Extension educators have new computer-assisted tools as audience response systems (clickers) for increasing educational effectiveness and improving assessment by facilitating client input. From 2010-2012, 26 sessions involving 1093 participants in six diverse client categories demonstrated wide audience acceptance and suitability of clickers in…

  15. Museum Accessibility: Combining Audience Research and Staff Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levent, Nina; Reich, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses an audience-informed professional development model that combines audience research focus groups and staff training that includes interaction and direct feedback from visitors, in this case, visitors with low vision. There are two critical components to this model: one is that museums' programming decisions are informed by…

  16. Technology strategy for deepwater and subsea production systems 2008 update; Technology Target Areas; TTA7 - Deep water and subsea prodution technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    Executive summary 'Deepwater and Subsea Production Systems' has been identified as one of the eight new Technology Target Areas (TTAs) in Norway's technology strategy for the Oil and Gas sector. This TTA covers deepwater floating production systems, subsea systems (except subsea processing technologies which are addressed by TTA6) and arctic development systems (in both shallow and deepwater). The total hydrocarbon reserves worldwide, which are enabled by the technologies under this TTA exceed 400 billion boe which, itself exceeds the proven reserves of Saudi Arabia. For deepwater developments the long term technical challenge is to develop flexible and adaptive systems which are better able to cope with subsurface uncertainties e.g. compartmentalisation and provide required access to the reservoir to enable successful recovery. More specific medium term challenges relate to developing solutions for harsh environmental conditions such as those offshore Norway and to develop cost effective methods of installing subsea hardware in deep and ultra deep water without requiring expensive crane vessels. For subsea systems the challenge is to develop solutions for ultra deepwater without increasing costs, so that Norway's leading export position in this area can be maintained and strengthened. Considering developments in the arctic, Norwegian industry is already well placed through its familiarity with arctic climate, close relationship with Russia and involvement in Sakhalin II. As we move to water depth beyond about 150m use of Gravity Base Structures (GBS) becomes very expensive or non-feasible and we need to consider other solutions. Subsea-to-beach could be an attractive solution but we need to resolve challenges related to long distance tie backs, flow assurance, uneven terrain, etc. There is also a specific need to develop floating systems capable of drilling and production in an arctic environment. To address the above technical challenges the

  17. Social Audience in Spain: Succesful strategies in national TV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Saavedra Llamas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research presents the concept of social audience, as a new narrative space born in the convergence of the TV audience and the user’s conversations in Twitter, and examine strategies of TV programs in Spain with higher social audience. Understand what exactly the social audience is, how does it works or what kind of metrics are made for it, becomes more necessary than ever to deepen into the uses and opportunities facing both the television media and advertisers who choose to invest in a TV space.Through the study of successful cases already implemented is to establish formulas for success that achieve a more active participation of users, transfer from social to traditional audience and the profitable inclusion of brands in this full of possibilities new communication scenario.

  18. Media perspective - new opportunities for reaching audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haswell, Katy

    2007-08-01

    The world of media is experiencing a period of extreme and rapid change with the rise of internet television and the download generation. Many young people no longer watch standard TV. Instead, they go on-line, talking to friends and downloading pictures, videos, music clips to put on their own websites and watch/ listen to on their laptops and mobile phones. Gone are the days when TV controllers determined what you watched and when you watched it. Now the buzzword is IPTV, Internet Protocol Television, with companies such as JOOST offering hundreds of channels on a wide range of subjects, all of which you can choose to watch when and where you wish, on your high-def widescreen with stereo surround sound at home or on your mobile phone on the train. This media revolution is changing the way organisations get their message out. And it is encouraging companies such as advertising agencies to be creative about new ways of accessing audiences. The good news is that we have fresh opportunities to reach young people through internet-based media and material downloaded through tools such as games machines, as well as through the traditional media. And it is important for Europlanet to make the most of these new and exciting developments.

  19. Updating United States Advanced Battery Consortium and Department of Energy battery technology targets for battery electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Pesaran, Ahmad; Bae, Chulheung; Elder, Ron; Cunningham, Brian

    2014-12-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer significant potential to reduce the nation's consumption of petroleum based products and the production of greenhouse gases however, their widespread adoption is limited largely by the cost and performance limitations of modern batteries. With recent growth in efforts to accelerate BEV adoption (e.g. the Department of Energy's (DOE) EV Everywhere Grand Challenge) and the age of existing BEV battery technology targets, there is sufficient motivation to re-evaluate the industry's technology targets for battery performance and cost. Herein we document the analysis process that supported the selection of the United States Advanced Battery Consortium's (USABC) updated BEV battery technology targets. Our technology agnostic approach identifies the necessary battery performance characteristics that will enable the vehicle level performance required for a commercially successful, mass market full BEV, as guided by the workgroup's OEM members. The result is an aggressive target, implying that batteries need to advance considerably before BEVs can be both cost and performance competitive with existing petroleum powered vehicles.

  20. Timing of presentation of an audience: aggressive priming and audience effects in male displays of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Ricardo J.; Peake, Tom M.; McGregor, Peter K.

    2003-05-28

    Studies of animal communication often underestimate the presence of individuals other than the signaller-receiver dyad. Signalling interactions often occur in the presence of non-participating individuals (audiences); the effect of these individuals upon the dynamics of interactions has been called the audience effect. Recent studies of fighting fish Betta splendens have shown that the presence of a male audience can increase aggression during interactions. However, in many of these studies males were allowed to see the audience prior to the interaction, thus such pre-exposure may have facilitated aggressive behaviour (aggressive priming). Here we present results of two experiments designed to examine the relative importance of priming and audience effects on the dynamics of aggressive interactions. Males that were pre-exposed showed higher levels of aggression during subsequent interactions regardless of the presence or absence of an audience. When only one of the interactants had been pre-exposed to the audience, the non-exposed male showed similar increases in aggressive behaviour, i.e. matching the level of aggression showed by his opponent. Taken together these results suggest that aggressive priming may have resulted in an over-estimation of the audience effect in previous studies. The results still highlight the importance of social environment in determining the dynamics and outcomes of aggressive contests.

  1. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, M. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    On December 30, 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. In September 1995 this contract ended and a second contract was issued for us to continue this ICF target support work. This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1995 through September 30, 1996. During this period, GA and our partners WJ Schafer Associates (WJSA) and Soane Technologies, Inc. (STI) were assigned 14 formal tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct {open_quotes}Onsite Support{close_quotes} at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). We fabricated and delivered over 800 gold-plated hohlraum mandrels to LLNL, LANL and SNLA. We produced nearly 1,200 glass and plastic target capsules for LLNL, LANL, SNLA and University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). We also delivered over 100 flat foil targets for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and SNLA in FY96. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require capsules containing cryogenic layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. We are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program to create and demonstrate viable ways to generate and characterize cryogenic layers. Substantial progress has been made on ways to both create and characterize viable layers. During FY96, significant progress was made in the design of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA.

  2. New design targets and new automated technology for the production of radionuclides with high specificity radioactivity in nuclear research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerasimov, A.S.; Kiselev, G.V. [State Russian Center of the Russian Federation, Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics

    1997-10-01

    Current demands of industry require the application of radionuclides with high specific radioactivity under low consumption of neutrons. To provide this aim staff of ITEP Reactor Department investigated the different type AEs of start targets for the production of the main radionuclides; Co-60, Ir-192 and others. In first turn the targets of Co and Ir without the block-effect of neutron flux (with low absorption of neutrons) were investigated. The following principal results were received for example for Ir-192: block effect is equal 0.086 for diameter of Ir target mm and is equal 0.615 for diameter Ir target 0.5mm. It means average neutron flux for Ir target diameter 0.5mm and therefore the production of Ir-192 will be at 10 times more than for diameter 6.0mm. To provide the automated technology of the manufacture of radioactive sources with radionuclides with high specific radioactivity it was proposed that the compound targets for the irradiation of ones and for the management with the irradiated targets. Different types of compound targets were analyzed. (authors)

  3. Beyond the "general public": implications of audience characteristics for promoting species conservation in the Western Ghats hotspot, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagavel, Arun; Raghavan, Rajeev; Veríssimo, Diogo

    2014-03-01

    Understanding how different audience groups perceive wildlife is crucial for the promotion of biodiversity conservation, especially given the key role of flagship species in conservation campaigns. Although the heterogeneity in preferences reinforces the need for campaigns tailored to specific target audiences, many conservation education and awareness campaigns still claim to target the "general public". Audiences can be segmented according to social, economic, and cultural criteria across which species perceptions are known to vary. Different studies have investigated the preferences of different groups towards certain wildlife species, but these are largely confined to a single conservation stakeholder group, such as tourists, local communities, or potential donors in western countries. In this study, we seek to determine from a multi-stakeholder perspective, audience characteristics that influence perceptions towards wildlife at Valparai, a fragmented plateau in the Western Ghats region of the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka Hotspot. We found that stakeholder group membership was the most important characteristic followed by gender. While some characteristics had a wide-scale effect others were restricted to a few species. Our results emphasize the need to design conservation campaigns with specific audiences in mind, instead of the very often referred to "general public".

  4. H-TArget model: Early technology assessment for ext generation sequencing in oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Retel, Valesca P.; Joore, Manuela A.; Ramaekers, Bram; Heuvel, van den Michel M.; Heijden, van der Michiel Simon; Harten, van W.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) promises to find mutations (targets) in individual cancer patients, to subsequently prescribe targeted therapy. Currently, NGS is in development, the effects on choice of therapy and prognosis are still unclear, and the costs for targeted therapies are hi

  5. Site-specific modification of ED-B-targeting antibody using intein-fusion technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greven Simone

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A promising new approach in cancer therapy is the use of tumor specific antibodies coupled to cytotoxic agents. Currently these immunoconjugates are prepared by rather unspecific coupling chemistries, resulting in heterogeneous products. As the drug load is a key parameter for the antitumor activity, site-specific strategies are desired. Expressed protein ligation (EPL and protein trans-splicing (PTS are methods for the specific C-terminal modification of a target protein. Both include the expression as an intein fusion protein, followed by the exchange of the intein for a functionalized moiety. Results A full-length IgG specific for fibronectin ED-B was expressed as fusion protein with an intein (Mxe GyrA or Npu DnaE attached to each heavy chain. In vitro protocols were established to site-specifically modify the antibodies in high yields by EPL or PTS, respectively. Although reducing conditions had to be employed during the process, the integrity or affinity of the antibody was not affected. The protocols were used to prepare immunoconjugates containing two biotin molecules per antibody, attached to the C-termini of the heavy chains. Conclusion Full-length antibodies can be efficiently and site-specifically modified at the C-termini of their heavy chains by intein-fusion technologies. The described protocols can be used to prepare immunoconjugates of high homogeneity and with a defined drug load of two. The attachment to the C-termini is expected to retain the affinity and effector functions of the antibodies.

  6. Arctic Change Information for a Broad Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soreide, N. N.; Overland, J. E.; Calder, J.

    2002-12-01

    Demonstrable environmental changes have occurred in the Arctic over the past three decades. NOAA's Arctic Theme Page is a rich resource web site focused on high latitude studies and the Arctic, with links to widely distributed data and information focused on the Arctic. Included is a collection of essays on relevant topics by experts in Arctic research. The website has proven useful to a wide audience, including scientists, students, teachers, decision makers and the general public, as indicated through recognition by USA Today, Science magazine, etc. (http://www.arctic.noaa.gov) Working jointly with NSF and the University of Washington's Polar Science Center as part of the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) program, NOAA has developed a website for access to pan-Arctic time series spanning diverse data types including climate indices, atmospheric, oceanic, sea ice, terrestrial, biological and fisheries. Modest analysis functions and more detailed analysis results are provided. (http://www.unaami.noaa.gov/). This paper will describe development of an Artic Change Detection status website to provide a direct and comprehensive view of previous and ongoing change in the Arctic for a broad climate community. For example, composite metrics are developed using principal component analysis based on 86 multivariate pan-Arctic time series for seven data types. Two of these metrics can be interpreted as a regime change/trend component and an interdecadal component. Changes can also be visually observed through tracking of 28 separate biophysical indicators. Results will be presented in the form of a web site with relevant, easily understood, value-added knowledge backed by peer review from Arctic scientists and scientific journals.

  7. Engaging Latino audiences in informal science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfield, Susan B.

    Environment for the Americas (EFTA), a non-profit organization, developed a four-year research project to establish a baseline for Latino participation and to identify practical tools that would enable educators to overcome barriers to Latino participation in informal science education (ISE). Its national scope and broad suite of governmental and non-governmental, Latino and non-Latino partners ensured that surveys and interviews conducted in Latino communities reflected the cosmopolitan nature of the factors that influence participation in ISE programs. Information about economic and education levels, country of origin, language, length of residence in the US, and perceptions of natural areas combined with existing demographic information at six study sites and one control site provided a broader understanding of Latino communities. The project team's ability to work effectively in these communities was strengthened by the involvement of native, Spanish-speaking Latino interns in the National Park Service's Park Flight Migratory Bird Program. The project also went beyond data gathering by identifying key measures to improve participation in ISE and implementing these measures at established informal science education programs, such as International Migratory Bird Day, to determine effectiveness. The goals of Engaging Latino Audiences in Informal Science Education (ISE) were to 1) identify and reduce the barriers to Latino participation in informal science education; 2) provide effective tools to assist educators in connecting Latino families with science education, and 3) broadly disseminate these tools to agencies and organizations challenged to engage this audience in informal science education (ISE). The results answer questions and provide solutions to a challenge experienced by parks, refuges, nature centers, and other informal science education sites across the US. Key findings from this research documented low participation rates in ISE by Latinos, and that

  8. Effects of audience awareness on procedural text writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Koichi; Matsushima, Kazutoshi

    2006-08-01

    Effects of audience awareness were examined. Some participants acted as writers and the others acted as readers. Writers wrote a text describing a geometrical figure. Readers read the text and tried to draw the figure according to the description. In Exp. 1, audience awareness was manipulated among undergraduate students, 11 men and 34 women. Writers in the high audience-awareness condition spent more time planning and writing texts than writers in the low audience-awareness condition. Texts in the high audience-awareness condition consisted of more letters and sentences with descriptions elaborating the texts. In Exp. 2, prototype texts were constructed based on the results of Exp. 1. Undergraduate students, 11 men and 47 women, who read the prototype text in the high audience-awareness condition could draw the figure more accurately. In Exp. 3, effects of feedback from readers were examined. Ninth-grade students, 22 boys and 34 girls, participated as writers and 7th-grade students, 22 boys and 34 girls, participated as readers. Merely being told to attend to an audience did not improve the quality of texts written by 9th-grade students. However, feedback from the readers who were 7th-grade students was effective. Writers could revise the texts appropriately according to feedback and improve the quality of texts. In addition, the experience of revising the text according to feedback transferred to later writing. Educational implications of the results are discussed.

  9. Audience noise in concert halls during musical performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Marie, Pierre; Brunskog, Jonas; Møller Petersen, Claus

    2012-04-01

    Noise generated by the audience during musical performances is audible and sometimes disturbing. In this study, an attempt to estimate such audience noise was carried out. From the recordings of performances in five performance spaces (four concert halls and one opera house), probability density functions of the sound pressure levels were obtained in octave bands, which were fitted with three Gaussian distribution curves. The Gaussian distribution curve with the lowest mean value corresponds to a mixture of the technical background noise and audience generated noise, which is named the mixed background noise. Finally, the audience noise distribution is extracted by energy subtraction of the technical background noise levels measured in an empty condition from the mixed background noise levels. As a single index, L(90) of the audience noise distribution is named the audience noise level. Empirical prediction models were made using the four orchestra concert halls, revealing that the audience noise level is significantly correlated with the technical background noise level. It is therefore concluded that a relaxation of the current background noise recommendations for concert halls is not recommended.

  10. Advanced research technology for discovery of new effective compounds from Chinese herbal medicine and their molecular targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Vincent Kam-Wai; Law, Betty Yuen-Kwan; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Xi; Xu, Su Wei; Liu, Liang; Leung, Elaine Lai-Han

    2016-09-01

    Traditional biotechnology has been utilized by human civilization for long in wide aspects of our daily life, such as wine and vinegar production, which can generate new phytochemicals from natural products using micro-organism. Today, with advanced biotechnology, diverse applications and advantages have been exhibited not only in bringing benefits to increase the diversity and composition of herbal phytochemicals, but also helping to elucidate the treatment mechanism and accelerate new drug discovery from Chinese herbal medicine (CHM). Applications on phytochemical biotechnologies and microbial biotechnologies have been promoted to enhance phytochemical diversity. Cell labeling and imaging technology and -omics technology have been utilized to elucidate CHM treatment mechanism. Application of computational methods, such as chemoinformatics and bioinformatics provide new insights on direct target of CHM. Overall, these technologies provide efficient ways to overcome the bottleneck of CHM, such as helping to increase the phytochemical diversity, match their molecular targets and elucidate the treatment mechanism. Potentially, new oriented herbal phytochemicals and their corresponding drug targets can be identified. In perspective, tighter integration of multi-disciplinary biotechnology and computational technology will be the cornerstone to accelerate new arena formation, advancement and revolution in the fields of CHM and world pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Audience noise in concert halls during musical performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marie, Pierre; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Noise generated by the audience during musical performances is audible and sometimes disturbing. In this study, an attempt to estimate such audience noise was carried out. From the recordings of performances in five performance spaces (four concert halls and one opera house), probability density...... prediction models were made using the four orchestra concert halls, revealing that the audience noise level is significantly correlated with the technical background noise level. It is therefore concluded that a relaxation of the current background noise recommendations for concert halls is not recommended....

  12. Audience noise in concert halls during musical performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Marie, Pierre; Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Noise generated by the audience during musical performances is audible and sometimes disturbing. In this study, an attempt to estimate such audience noise was carried out. From the recordings of performances in five performance spaces (four concert halls and one opera house), probability density...... prediction models were made using the four orchestra concert halls, revealing that the audience noise level is significantly correlated with the technical background noise level. It is therefore concluded that a relaxation of the current background noise recommendations for concert halls is not recommended...

  13. Emergent health risks and audience information engagement on social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalova, Yulia A

    2016-03-01

    Social media can effectively reach large audiences and serve as an indicator for the public's sentiment and engagement in situations of disease outbreaks. This study used Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Facebook posts between March 18 and October 31, 2014, surrounding the 2014 Ebola outbreak, to look at the audience engagement with online health information. The CDC submitted fewer posts about Ebola than about non-Ebola topics, but audience engagement with Ebola posts was significantly higher, and men were more interested in Ebola posts and submitted more comments per user.

  14. Graphic Novels: A New Stress Mitigation Tool for Military Training: Developing Content for Hard-to-Reach Audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourani, Laurel; Lambert, Shari; Peeler, Russ; Lane, Becky; Borst, Carrie

    2017-05-01

    This article describes the development of two graphic novels as a new approach to mental health communication and coping strategies for the Navy and Marine Corps. The novels are intended to capture the attention of the younger target audience and provide vital teaching messages to better prepare personnel for deployment to combat zones. The novels were developed based on embedding the principles of combat and operational stress control (COSC) into realistic and relatable characters, stories, and images. Approaches used for development included (a) basing storylines on real-life service members and the situations they face in combat and their personal lives; (b) partnering with COSC experts to embed teaching points; (c) ensuring technical accuracy through research and target audience reviews of the storyboard and artwork; (d) developing characters that are representative of the target audience, with varied jobs, ages, backgrounds, and professional concerns; and (e) designing artwork in a manner sensitive to training objectives and the psychological effects on readers. Because technical accuracy, realism, and sensitivity were noted as essential components of an effective graphic novel tool, focus-group research and review of author drafts by the target audience and technical experts are strongly recommended.

  15. Surgical pathology and the patient: a systematic review evaluating the primary audience of pathology reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossanen, Matthew; True, Lawrence D; Wright, Jonathan L; Vakar-Lopez, Funda; Lavallee, Danielle; Gore, John L

    2014-11-01

    The pathology report is a critical document that helps guide the management of patients with cancer. More and more patients read their reports, intending to participate in decisions about their care. However, a substantial subset of patients may lack the ability to comprehend this often technical and complex document. We hypothesized that most literature on pathology reports discusses reports from the perspective of other physicians and not from the perspective of patients. An expert panel of physicians developed a list of search criteria, which we used to identify articles on PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Reviews, and Google Scholar databases. Two reviewers independently evaluated all articles to identify for detailed review those that met search criteria. We identified the primary audience of the selected articles and the degree to which these articles addressed clarity of communication of pathology reports with patients. Of 801 articles identified in our search, 25 involved the formatting of pathology reports for clarity of communication. Recurrent themes in proposed improvements in reports included content standardization, variation in terminology, clarity of communication, and quality improvement. No articles discussed patients as their target audience. No study evaluated the health literacy level required of patients to comprehend pathology reports. In summary, there is a scarcity of patient-centered approaches to improve pathology reports. The literature on pathology reports does not include patients as a target audience. Limited resources are available to help patients comprehend their reports. Efforts to improve patient-centered communication are desirable to address this overlooked aspect of patient care.

  16. 移动目标防御技术综述%Overview on Moving Target Defense Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓玉; 李振邦

    2013-01-01

    Moving target defense technology is one of the cyberspace game-changing revolutionary technologies proposed by Federal Networking and Information technology Research and Development (NITRD) in recent years. Not alike to the prior efforts in cybersecurity research, moving target defense technology, through diverse and continually-changing evaluation, deployment mechanisms and strategy, raises the complexity and costs for attackers, and effectively restricts the vulnerabilities exposure and the opportunities for attack. Therefore, the in-depth study on this technology is of great improtance for future development of china’s communication network and cybersecurity. This paper gives an overview on the goals and development stragegies, including feasibility, recent progress, prospects and challenges of moving target defense technology.%  移动目标防御技术是近年来美国科学技术委员会提出的网络空间“改变游戏规则”的革命性技术之一。它完全不同于以往的网络安全研究思路,通过多样的、不断变化的构建、评价和部署机制及策略来增加攻击者的攻击难度及代价,有效限制脆弱性暴露及被攻击的机会。因此,深入研究该技术对我国未来通信网络及网络安全的发展具有重要意义。主要对移动目标防御技术的目标和发展战略、可行性、最新进展、以及未来发展前景及面临的挑战等方面进行了全面概述。

  17. Enhancing the quality of life and preserving independence for target needs populations through integration of assistive technology devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muncert, Eric S; Bickford, Steven A; Guzic, Brenda L; Demuth, Barbara R; Bapat, Ashok R; Roberts, Jay B

    2011-01-01

    Telehealth Test Bed-Quality of Life Studies is a research study investigating, testing, evaluating, and demonstrating technologies that have the potential to improve the quality of life for target populations, such as warriors in transition, veterans, individuals with physical and mental disabilities, and adults age 65 and older, who may require assistive technology devices to aid in maintaining or improving their quality of life. Thousands of soldiers who fought in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom have been wounded in action or have sustained injuries from noncombat accidents. Many of these injuries affecting military populations, as well as the general public, have resulted in amputations, traumatic brain injuries, and other physical or mental impairments. Depending on the severity of the injury, assistive technologies may be temporarily needed, or as a long-term solution, to regain and maintain normal daily functions. Saint Francis University's Center of Excellence for Remote and Medically Under-Served Areas developed an evaluation matrix comparing assistive technologies to identify devices that will improve or maintain the quality of life for these target populations. The integration of telehealth and telerehabilitation applications into patients' daily lives was examined to help improve home rehabilitation via access to healthcare specialties in rural and medically underserved settings. Researchers identified and tested assistive technology devices to be included in a self-sufficient living environment. The continuation of this research involves recruiting individuals to test and evaluate the functions of these commercially available technologies and to complete data collection surveys and questionnaires. The results are useful in selecting devices that will enhance or extend the quality of life of the target populations.

  18. Knowledge Generation in Technology-Enhanced Health Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Kharlamov, Nikita; Zachariasssen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results from eye-tracking studies of audience interaction and knowledge generation in the technology-enhanced health promotion exhibition PULSE at a science centre in Copenhagen, Denmark. The main purpose of the study was to understand what types of knowledge audiences build...... in health promotion exhibitions designed to include direct physical interaction. The current study is part of the larger PULSE project, which aims to develop innovative health promotion activities that include a science museum exhibition as a key setting. The primary target group is families with children...... age 6–12. Health promotion technologies are defined here, as technologies designed specifically for the purpose of health promotion, be they educational or focused on physical activities. The study was conducted in late 2015 and comprised eight families with children in 2nd-6th grade visiting...

  19. Monoclonal Antibody Fragments for Targeting Therapeutics to Growth Plate Cartilage | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NICHD seeks statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to co-develop, evaluate, or commercialize treatment of skeletal disorders using targeting antibodies.

  20. Multiscreen television and audience research: the case of regional channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Medina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available TV content can be enjoyed on multiple screens not only on the TV set. This is what we called Smart or Connected TV, that is to say, an online and interactive television that enables personalized and on demand consumption through a variety of deliveries. The development of connected TV needs new audience measurement systems that allow monitoring the audience across multiple screens. Only a suitable measuring method allows to know the audience for content management and advertising sales.The firstobjective of this paper is to analyze whether the public regional public television in Spain also made this offer. We have chosen the Catalan Corporation of Audiovisual Media (CCMA and EITB, the Basque Radio and Television (EITB. Our second goal is to study the need of new audience measurement systems for this regional television and make suggestions that could help them to exploit the new sources of revenue.

  1. Watching Dallas again 1: Doing retro audience research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Gilroy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay and the audience reception projects it introduces alleviate the desperation of seeking the television audience by recourse to Ien Ang's influential book, Watching Dallas ([1982] 1985. Within the context of a unit on audience research in a master's-level course on media, two groups of students explored the possibilities of remixing Ang in the present digital media landscape via informants' comments on the first season of the new series of Dallas (2012–14. Discourses of nostalgia circulate within and around the text, as well as the project itself. Retro audience research generates not only data about the affective memories and critical reflections of informants but also insights into research methods and the production of new nostalgic subjects.

  2. Audience affects decision-making in a marmoset communication network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toarmino, Camille R; Wong, Lauren; Miller, Cory T

    2017-01-01

    An audience can have a profound effect on the dynamics of communicative interactions. As a result, non-human primates often adjust their social decision-making strategies depending on the audience composition at a given time. Here we sought to test how the unique vocal behaviour of multiple audience members affected decisions to communicate. To address this issue, we developed a novel experimental paradigm in which common marmosets directly interacted with multiple 'virtual monkeys' (VMs), each of whom represented an individual marmoset with distinct vocal behaviour. This active social signalling paradigm provided subjects an opportunity to interact with and learn about the behaviour of each VM in the network and apply this knowledge in subsequent communicative decisions. We found that subjects' propensity to interact with particular VMs was determined by the behaviour of each VM in the audience and suggests that marmoset social decision-making strategies are highly adaptive to nuances of the immediate communication network.

  3. Integration of multidisciplinary technologies for real time target visualization and verification for radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Chin-Sheng; Tai, Hung-Chi; Liu, Chia-Yuan; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2014-01-01

    The current practice of radiotherapy examines target coverage solely from digitally reconstructed beam's eye view (BEV) in a way that is indirectly accessible and that is not in real time. We aimed to visualize treatment targets in real time from each BEV. The image data of phantom or patients from ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) scans were captured to perform image registration. We integrated US, CT, US/CT image registration, robotic manipulation of US, a radiation treatment planning system, and a linear accelerator to constitute an innovative target visualization system. The performance of this algorithm segmented the target organ in CT images, transformed and reconstructed US images to match each orientation, and generated image registration in real time mode with acceptable accuracy. This image transformation allowed physicians to visualize the CT image-reconstructed target via a US probe outside the BEV that was non-coplanar to the beam's plane. It allowed the physicians to remotely control the US probe that was equipped on a robotic arm to dynamically trace and real time monitor the coverage of the target within the BEV during a simulated beam-on situation. This target visualization system may provide a direct remotely accessible and real time way to visualize, verify, and ensure tumor targeting during radiotherapy.

  4. Narrative Writing in Digital Formats: Interpreting the Impact of Audience

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence Joshua Fahey; Niiya Melissa; Warschauer March

    2015-01-01

    Digital writing has enabled students to write for a variety of authentic audiences, both in and out of the classroom. As they consider audience, students shoulder a cognitive burden that they must juggle in addition to the task of composition. At the same time, writing provides students with opportunities to craft and express their identities. The ways that identity formation and cognitive load intersect may be particularly complex in digital, online writing environments, as students gain the...

  5. Fabrication technology for a series of cylindrical thin-wall cavity targets

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng Yong; Sun Zu Oke; Wang Ming Da; Zhou La; Zhou Zhi Yun

    2002-01-01

    Cylindrical thin-wall cavity targets have been fabricated to study the behavior of superthermal electrons and their effects on inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Self-supporting cavity targets having adjustable, uniform wall thickness, and low surface roughness were required. This required production of high-quality mandrels, coating them by sputtering or electroplating, developing techniques for measurement of wall thickness and other cavity parameters, improving the uniformity of rotation of the mandrels, and preventing damage to the targets during removal from the mandrels. Details of the fabrication process are presented. Experimental results from the use of these targets are presented. These results, in good agreement with simulations, indicate that the use of thin-wall cavity targets is an effective method for studying superthermal electrons in ICF.

  6. Energy technologies for Post Kyoto targets in the medium term. Proceedings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The Risø International Energy Conference took place 19 - 21 May 2003 and the aim was to present and discuss new developments and trends in energy technologies which may become main contributors to the energy scene in 15 to 20 years. The conferenceaddressed R&D related to the individual technologies...

  7. Organ donation on Web 2.0: content and audience analysis of organ donation videos on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yan

    2010-04-01

    This study examines the content of and audience response to organ donation videos on YouTube, a Web 2.0 platform, with framing theory. Positive frames were identified in both video content and audience comments. Analysis revealed a reciprocity relationship between media frames and audience frames. Videos covered content categories such as kidney, liver, organ donation registration process, and youth. Videos were favorably rated. No significant differences were found between videos produced by organizations and individuals in the United States and those produced in other countries. The findings provide insight into how new communication technologies are shaping health communication in ways that differ from traditional media. The implications of Web 2.0, characterized by user-generated content and interactivity, for health communication and health campaign practice are discussed.

  8. [Impact on evaluation of clinical efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine for level in soft targets of processing technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ming-Yi; Wei, Ming; Yan, Bo-Hua

    2014-04-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a very practical subject, which has its unique theoretical system and clinical characteristics. In the course of clinical practice, the exact clinical efficacy is the key of existence and development. But the existing evaluation system is difficult to objectively evaluate the clinical efficacy of TCM. Therefore, how to objectively evaluate the clinical efficacy and get definitive evidence is the focus of the evaluation of clinical efficacy of TCM. Relative to modern medicine, TCM is more concerned about the changes of feelings and clinical symptoms of the patient in the course of the evolution of the disease. Soft targets mainly used for the evaluation of the clinical efficacy of symptoms and functional activity of the disease. The level in soft targets of processing technology is often used methods in clinical evaluation. But it has often produced the phenomenon which the results of the evaluation is mutual contradiction, which will ultimately affect the effect of evaluation of clinical efficacy of TCM. In order to better evaluate the clinical efficacy of TCM, in the process of adoption of soft targets, it clearly identify it's role, highlighting the characteristics of interventions on disease, and as much as possibly avoid the level in soft targets of processing technology to real assess clinical efficacy of TCM.

  9. Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA®): A Novel Isothermal DNA Amplification Technology Demonstrating High Specificity and Sensitivity for a Single Molecule of Target Analyte

    OpenAIRE

    Mark J Hoser; Mansukoski, Hannu K.; Morrical, Scott W.; Kevin E. Eboigbodin

    2014-01-01

    Isothermal nucleic acid amplification technologies offer significant advantages over polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in that they do not require thermal cycling or sophisticated laboratory equipment. However, non-target-dependent amplification has limited the sensitivity of isothermal technologies and complex probes are usually required to distinguish between non-specific and target-dependent amplification. Here, we report a novel isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology, Strand Invas...

  10. Identifying Effective Strategies for Climate Change Education: The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) Partnership Audiences and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. G.; Feldman, A.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Gilbes, F.; Stone, D.; Plank, L.; Reynolds, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    Many past educational initiatives focused on global climate change have foundered on public skepticism and disbelief. Some key reasons for these past failures can be drawn directly from recognized best practices in STEM education - specifically, the necessity to help learners connect new knowledge with their own experiences and perspectives, and the need to create linkages with issues or concerns that are both important for and relevant to the audiences to be educated. The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) partnership has sought to follow these tenets as guiding principles in identifying critical audiences and developing new strategies for educating the public living in the low-lying coastal areas of Florida and the Caribbean on the realities, risks, and adaptation and mitigation strategies for dealing with the regional impacts of global climate change. CACCE is currently focused on three key learner audiences: a) The formal education spectrum, targeting K-12 curricula through middle school marine science courses, and student and educator audiences through coursework and participatory research strategies engaging participants in a range of climate-related investigations. b) Informal science educators and outlets, in particular aquaria and nature centers, as an avenue toward K-12 teacher professional development as well as for public education. c) Regional planning, regulatory and business professionals focused on the built environment along the coasts, many of whom require continuing education to maintain licensing and/or other professional certifications. Our current activities are focused on bringing together an effective set of educational, public- and private-sector partners to target the varied needs of these audiences in Florida and the U.S. Caribbean, and tailoring an educational plan aimed at these stakeholder audiences that starts with the regionally and topically relevant impacts of climate change, and strategies for effective adaptation and

  11. Targeting Long Noncoding RNA with Antisense Oligonucleotide Technology as Cancer Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tianyuan; Kim, Youngsoo; MacLeod, A Robert

    2016-01-01

    Recent annotation of the human transcriptome revealed that only 2 % of the genome encodes proteins while the majority of human genome is transcribed into noncoding RNAs. Although we are just beginning to understand the diverse roles long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play in molecular and cellular processes, they have potentially important roles in human development and pathophysiology. However, targeting of RNA by traditional structure-based design of small molecule inhibitors has been difficult, due to a lack of understanding of the dynamic tertiary structures most RNA molecules adopt. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are capable of targeting specific genes or transcripts directly through Watson-Crick base pairing and thus can be designed based on sequence information alone. These agents have made possible specific targeting of "non-druggable targets" including RNA molecules. Here we describe how ASOs can be applied in preclinical studies to reduce levels of lncRNAs of interest.

  12. An Audience-Centric Approach for Museums Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Di Pietro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to propose a visitor centric perspective that can support museums towards sustainability. The main premise of this study is due to a concept of economic and social sustainability of museums, defined as the possession of sufficient resources to maintain the existence of an organization, and achieve their goals in the future, ensuring a certain flow of visitors. A great number of museums are characterized by a low number of visits; therefore, in order to become sustainable, museums should pay attention to audience and its internal diversity. In this way, a cultural site can plan tailored strategies to increase the number of visits and re-visits and to achieve community support. For this reason it is necessary to understand the cultural needs of visitors, acquiring appropriate monitoring tools, such as qualitative and quantitative ones. Generally, quantitative analyses are more reliable and complete, even if they require a considerable number of observations for the reliability of the results. Moreover, qualitative analysis provides more in depth information, even if their data do not allow us to make generalizations. The qualitative and quantitative methods for the detection of satisfaction are usually used separately, but their integration may bring significant added value in terms of the wealth of information. This study follows the analysis of the potential of the integration of qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques customized with respect to different types of targets. The results of the experimentation performed on ethnographic museums shows a consistency of the results obtained by the two different tools that increase the capacity information of survey instruments.

  13. Audience reactions and receptivity to HIV prevention message concepts for people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrig, Jennifer D; Bann, Carla M; Wasserman, Jill; Guenther-Grey, Carolyn; Eroğlu, Doğan

    2010-04-01

    This study measured audience reactions and receptivity to five draft HIV prevention messages developed for people living with HIV (PLWH) to inform future HIV message choice and audience targeting decisions. Our premise was that message concepts that receive wide audience appeal constitute a strong starting point for designing future HIV prevention messages, program activities, and health communication and marketing campaigns for PLWH. The majority of participants indicated agreement with evaluative statements that expressed favorable attitudes toward all five of the message concepts we evaluated. Participants gave the lowest approval to the message promoting sero-sorting. Sociodemographic characteristics played less of a role in predicting differences in message perceptions than attitudes, beliefs and sexual behavior. The general appeal for these messages is encouraging given that messages were expressed in plain text without the support of other creative elements that are commonly used in message execution. These results confirm the utility of systematic efforts to generate and screen message concepts prior to large-scale testing.

  14. TRANSFORMATION OF THE INTERACTION OF PUBLIC RELATIONS AND PUBLIC DIPLOMACY WITH AN AUDIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Aleksandrovna Kontsevaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the phenomenon of transformation of the interaction of public relations and public diplomacy with an audience. Since 1980-s, experts have noted strengthening of the role of public in the communication process of PR and Public Diplomacy. Analysis of the work in this direction has revealed changes in the communication world order, due to several factors, which caused the transformation. These factors are: globalization of society (active tourism, developing from the end of the ХХ century, communication without geographical boundaries allowing people to send and receive information outside the country, technological development (penetration of Internet, in particular social networks, in the communication process and changed attitude of the audience to information (also due to the widespread use of social networks, allowing open access to personal information for strangers. Experts evaluate positively the changes in public relations and public diplomacy that have occurred under the influence of transformation of their interaction with the audience. The analysis made in the article is based on the works of renowned experts in this field.

  15. Audience segmentation to promote lifestyle for cancer prevention in the Korean community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Heui-Sug; Jung, Su-Mi

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to segment the audience group of '10 lifestyle for cancer prevention' based on demographic characteristics and the level of knowledge about each guideline for cancer prevention among the community in South Korea. Participants were chosen through stratified random sampling according to the age and gender distribution of Gangwon province in South Korea. A telephone survey was conducted from 6 to 15 calls among 2,025 persons on October 2008. A total of 1,687 persons completed the survey (response rate: 83.3%). Survey items were composed of socio-demographic characteristics such as age, gender, income, education, and residence area and the knowledge level of '10 guidelines for cancer prevention', developed by 'Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare' and covering smoking cessation, appropriate drinking, condom use, and regular physical activity and so on. We selected the priority needed to promote awareness and segmented the audience group based on the demographic characteristics, homogeneous with respect to the knowledge level using Answer Tree 3.0 with CHAID as a data mining algorithm. The results of analysis showed that each guideline of ' 10 lifestyle for cancer prevention' had its own segmented subgroup characterized by each demographic. Especially, residence area, city or county, and ages were the first split on the perceived level of knowledge and these findings suggested that segmentation of audiences for targeting is needed to deliver more effective education of patients and community people. In developing the strategy for effective education, the method of social marketing using the decision tree analysis could be a useful and appropriate tool. The study findings demonstrate the potential value of using more sophisticated strategies of designing and providing health information based on audience segmentation.

  16. The relationship between audience mentality and attitudes towards healthy lifestyle promotion in the mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignowska, Izabella; Borowiec, Agnieszka; Slonska, Zofia

    2016-09-01

    Health promoters who use the mass media to encourage people to change their health behaviours usually underestimate the importance of audience's mental predispositions, which may determine their susceptibility to such influences. This paper presents research findings that show how some elements of an audience's mentality are related to their attitudes towards healthy lifestyle promotion in the mass media (HLPMM). The research project, undertaken between 2007 and 2009, comprised: a qualitative study using in-depth interviews (N=30); a self-administered survey on a purposive sample (N=237) and a computer-assisted personal interview or interviewing (CAPI) survey on a representative sample of Polish adult population (N=934). The findings from the first two studies were used to construct a scale to investigate the attitude towards HLPMM. This scale was applied in a nation wide survey and, as a result, four dimensions of the attitude were identified: (1) appraisal of the idea of HLPMM; (2) appraisal of HLPMM practice; (3) propensity to receive media messages promoting healthy lifestyle and (4) propensity to avoid such messages. Moreover, the survey results confirmed the hypotheses whereby a higher degree of individualism, a higher degree of authoritarianism, a weaker demanding orientation and generalised trust are related to a more positive attitude towards HLPMM. The aforementioned relationships indicate that producers of media messages promoting a healthy lifestyle need to take account of their audience's mentality, since knowledge of mental predispositions of the target audience may help them make the message more suitable for specific recipients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Utilizing nanobody technology to target non-immunodominant domains of VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev, Sisse B; Florea, Raluca; Nielsen, Morten A

    2014-01-01

    and maternal anemia. IE accumulation is supported by the binding of the parasite-expressed protein VAR2CSA to placental chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). Defining specific CSA-binding epitopes of VAR2CSA, against which to target the immune response, is essential for the development of a vaccine aimed at blocking IE...... adhesion. However, the development of a VAR2CSA adhesion-blocking vaccine remains challenging due to (i) the large size of VAR2CSA and (ii) the extensive immune selection for polymorphisms and thereby non-neutralizing B-cell epitopes. Camelid heavy-chain-only antibodies (HcAbs) are known to target epitopes...

  18. R&D-needs and opportunities to broaden the data base on materials and technology for liquid metal spallation targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, G.S.

    1996-06-01

    Liquid metals have so far only been used to a very limited extent as spallation targets, notably at the ISOLDE-facility at CERN (Pb and La) to produce radioactive isotopes. Virtually no systematic studies have been carried out so far. The available data base is by no means sufficient to answer conclusively very important questions such as predicting reliably the service time of medium-to-high power target systems or determining precisely what technological measures are required and appropriate to maintain an optimum coolant quality, to mitigate the effects of pressure waves in short pulse sources and others. During the workshop several areas have been identified, where there exists an urgent need for improved knowledge and reliable data, and opportunities have been presented to acquire such knowledge and to generate such data. Opportunities to do such research and pertinent know-how, although scarce, are spread over institutions in several countries, and efforts to use these opportunities often require substantial resources both in man power and money. The workshop participants therefore unanimously supported the view that a coordinated and internationally concerted effort should be undertaken to make the best possible use of existing opportunities and available resources in order to develop the knowledge and technology necessary for the deployment and safe operation of target systems suitable for pulsed spallation neutron sources in the multi-megawatt range of beam power.

  19. An audience with … the public, the representative, the sovereign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanese Niccolo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The right of audience, in common law, is the right of a lawyer to represent a client in a court. Royalty, the Pope and some Presidents grant audiences. What does the power to grant an audience consist in? And what does it mean to demand an audience (with? Through a reading of the way in which the vocabulary of theatre, acting and audience is involved in the generation of a theory of state by Hobbes and Rousseau, this paper looks to reopen these questions as a political resource for us to re-imagine and refigure our ways of being together. Through readings of Hobbes and Rousseau, it looks at the ways in which the performance of politics creates the public, the representative and the sovereign and the ways these figures interact. It proposes an alternative role for theatre as places of affective learning and a civic ethics of playfulness, in which the auto-institution of the state as an imagined collectivity is fully assumed.

  20. Audience reaction movie trailers and the Paranormal Activity franchise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Swanson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the concept and growing practice of audience reaction movie trailers, specifically for films in the horror genre. Popularized by the Paranormal Activity series of films, these trailers primarily utilize green night-vision video footage of a movie theater audience reacting to the film being advertised, yet also consist of webcam recordings of screaming fans, documentary-style B-roll footage of audiences filing into preview screenings with high levels of anticipation, and close-up shots of spectator facial expressions, accompanied by no footage whatsoever from the film being advertised. In analyzing these audience-centric promotional paratexts, my aim is to reveal them as attempting to sell and legitimize the experiential, communal, and social qualities of the theatrical movie viewing experience while at the same time calling for increased fan investment in both physical and online spaces. Through the analysis of audience reaction trailers, this article hopes to both join and engender conversations about horror fan participation, the nature of anticipatory texts as manipulative, and the current state of horror gimmickry in the form of the promotional paratext.

  1. Audience design through social interaction during group discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Shane L; Fay, Nicolas; Maybery, Murray

    2013-01-01

    This paper contrasts two accounts of audience design during multiparty communication: audience design as a strategic individual-level message adjustment or as a non-strategic interaction-level message adjustment. Using a non-interactive communication task, Experiment 1 showed that people distinguish between messages designed for oneself and messages designed for another person; consistent with strategic message design, messages designed for another person/s were longer (number of words) than those designed for oneself. However, audience size did not affect message length (messages designed for different sized audiences were similar in length). Using an interactive communication task Experiment 2 showed that as group size increased so too did communicative effort (number of words exchanged between interlocutors). Consistent with a non-strategic account, as group members were added more social interaction was necessary to coordinate the group's collective situation model. Experiment 3 validates and extends the production measures used in Experiment 1 and 2 using a comprehension task. Taken together, our results indicate that audience design arises as a non-strategic outcome of social interaction during group discussion.

  2. Building the Bridge to Help Engage your Audience to your Science and Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, K.

    2014-12-01

    When we talk about NASA and how NASA is contributing to societal benefits, such as education, what do we really mean? How do we know that we are doing something right? And how do we know that we are making a difference? With just over a dozen NASA Earth remote sensing missions flying, NASA is providing remote sensing data on a daily basis, where the data and information can contribute to the relevancy of science in our daily lives and bring perspective to common knowledge. To date, we are seeing a widening gap in the general awareness and understanding of the basic science and concepts among the formal and informal audiences. At a time when we are discovering and understanding more about our home planet, using cutting edge technologies that should inspire people, we have also discovered that we have estranged a generation of potentital users. The reality is that NASA data is being used by a relatively small group of people and they are nearly all scientists. Even when we "collaborate" with other federal agencies or universities, the actual work and impact remains on a scale that is only statistically significant. This is a far cry from being socially significant. There are key factors that are essential for success in communicating and working with both the technical and less technical audiences; they are the foundation to bridging the audience gaps and ultimately, truly engaging them. We need to show that the content is important and meaningful in our everyday lives by appealing to the audiences' sensibilities, packaging the content in a format that will be used by the audience, and we need to encourage and support people to create and innovate with this data and information. When you come right down to it, NASA is still the only agency that is continually putting up the new technologies, enabling and maintaining that crucial data flow, and supporting the umbilical cord of global data sets to the science community world-wide. But times have changed. It is not

  3. Paradigm shifts in plasma processing and application of fundamental kinetics to problems targeting 5 nm technology device technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lee

    2016-09-01

    It is often said that semiconductor technology is approaching the end of scaling. While fundamental device limits do approach, plasma etching has been doing the heavy lifting to supplement the basic limits in lithography. RF plasmas, pulsing in many forms, diffusion plasmas are but a few of the important developments over the last 20 years that have succeeded in the seemingly impossible tasks. The commonality of these plasmas is being self-consistent: their near-Boltzmann EEDf maintains ionization with its tail while providing charge-balance with its Te . To control the plasma chemistry is to control its EEDf; the entanglement of ionization with charge-balance in self-consistent plasmas places a constraint on the decoupling of plasma chemistry from ionization. Example like DC/RF parallel-plate hybridizes stochastic heating with DC-cathode injected e- -beam. While such arrangement offers some level of decoupling, it raised more questions than what it helped answered along the lines of beam-plasma instabilities, bounce-resonance ionization, etc. Pure e- -beam plasmas could be a drastic departure from the self-consistent plasmas. Examples like the NRL e- -beam system and the more recent TEL NEP (Nonambipolar e- Plasma) show strong decoupling of Te from ionization but it is almost certain, many more questions lurk: the functions connecting collisional relaxation with instabilities, the channels causing the dissociation of large fluorocarbons (controlling the ion-to- radical ratio), the production of the damaging deep UV in e- -beam plasmas, etc., and the list goes on. IADf is one factor on feature-profile and IEDf determines the surgical surface-excitation governing the selectivity, and both functions have Ti as the origin; what controls the e- -beam plasmas' Ti ? RF-bias has served well in applications requiring energetic excitation but, are there ways to improve the IEDf tightness? What are the adverse side-effects of ``improved IEDf''? Decades ago an infant RF

  4. Elucidating antimalarial drug targets/mode-of-action by application of system biology technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Becker, J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available . In this regard, the researchers chose the polymine metabolic pathway in P. falciparum as a proof of concept project, to validate the pathway as a drug target and elucidate the (MoA) of cyclohexylamine in P. falciparum 3D7. Drug effects were examined through...

  5. Research on one-piece structure target flow sensing technology based on fiber Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuntong; Zhang, Zhengyi; Li, Hongcai; He, Zhenxin; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Wu, Rongjing

    2016-12-01

    In view of problems existing in the detection of the traditional hydraulic system, such as the large volume of sensor and the low measurement accuracy, a new one-piece target type flow sensor is designed and researched based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG). A compact structure is designed, which is convenient to be dismantled, processed, and installed, based on the analysis of the principle of FBG and the structure of target type flow sensor. The force of target put in fluid flow is turned into the FBG wavelength drift, with a corresponding relationship. The problem on the cross sensitivities of the temperature and strain is solved effectively by using double FBG symmetrically pasted on the both surfaces of the cantilever. The impact on the fluid state is analyzed through simulation in the software FLUENT, and the results show that the impact was smaller than that of the traditional structure. The results of experiments in the hydraulic system show that there is a good linear relationship between the change in the dual FBG central wavelength and mass loading on the target sheet has a good linear relationship, and the sensitivity is twice that of a single FBG sensitivity.

  6. Applications of Gene Targeting Technology to Mental Retardation and Developmental Disability Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Aurea F.; Levitt, Pat

    2005-01-01

    The human and mouse genome projects elucidated the sequence and position map of innumerous genes expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), advancing our ability to manipulate these sequences and create models to investigate regulation of gene expression and function. In this article, we reviewed gene targeting methodologies with emphasis on…

  7. Chemical Genomics and Emerging DNA Technologies in the Identification of Drug Mechanisms and Drug Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Louise Cathrine Braun; Færgeman, Nils J.

    2012-01-01

    critical roles in the genomic age of biological research and drug discovery. In the present review we discuss how simple biological model organisms can be used as screening platforms in combination with emerging genomic technologies to advance the identification of potential drugs and their molecular...

  8. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, M. [ed.

    1995-04-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. During the period, GA was assigned 17 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. This year they achieved full production capabilities for the micromachining, dimensional characterization and gold plating of hohlraums. They fabricated and delivered 726 gold-plated mandrels of 27 different types to LLNL and 48 gold-plated mandrels of two different types to LANL. They achieved full production capabilities in composite capsule production ad delivered in excess of 240 composite capsules. They continuously work to improve performance and capabilities. They were also directed to dismantle, remove, and disposition all equipment at the previous contractor (KMSF) that had radioactive contamination levels low enough that they could be exposed to the general public without radiological constraints. GA was also directed to receive and store the tritium fill equipment. They assisted LANL in the development of techniques for characterization of opaque targets. They developed deuterated and UV-opaque polymers for use by the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) and devised a triple-orifice droplet generator to demonstrate the controlled-mass nature of the microencapsulation process. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at NIF and the Omega Upgrade. Both facilities will require capsules containing layered D{sub 2} or D-T fuel. They continued engineering and assembly of equipment for a cryogenic target handling system for UR/LLE that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments.

  9. EMOTIONAL CONTAGION AND MOOD IN CROWD SERVING AS AUDIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beno Arnejcic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The global world is gradually becoming a world of separated crowds despite the artificial wire and wireless connection through television and the Internet. Crowds remain a prevailing subject of research in different social studies, and the research of changes in the psychological structure of crowds and their characteristics is still of primary interest. The main focus of the research is on the interpretation of the results of the research paper about a special separated crowd called audience. It was observed how students, constituting the crowd, perceive a crowd on video. The observation was focused on the research of emotional contagion and mood in the crowd serving as audience. While watching a mass event on a big screen, the crowd serving as audience emotionally converges with someone else, in our case with public speakers.

  10. Visual Peoplemeter: A Vision-based Television Audience Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SKELIN, A. K.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Visual peoplemeter is a vision-based measurement system that objectively evaluates the attentive behavior for TV audience rating, thus offering solution to some of drawbacks of current manual logging peoplemeters. In this paper, some limitations of current audience measurement system are reviewed and a novel vision-based system aiming at passive metering of viewers is prototyped. The system uses camera mounted on a television as a sensing modality and applies advanced computer vision algorithms to detect and track a person, and to recognize attentional states. Feasibility of the system is evaluated on a secondary dataset. The results show that the proposed system can analyze viewer's attentive behavior, therefore enabling passive estimates of relevant audience measurement categories.

  11. Audience preferences are predicted by temporal reliability of neural processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmochowski, Jacek P; Bezdek, Matthew A; Abelson, Brian P; Johnson, John S; Schumacher, Eric H; Parra, Lucas C

    2014-07-29

    Naturalistic stimuli evoke highly reliable brain activity across viewers. Here we record neural activity from a group of naive individuals while viewing popular, previously-broadcast television content for which the broad audience response is characterized by social media activity and audience ratings. We find that the level of inter-subject correlation in the evoked encephalographic responses predicts the expressions of interest and preference among thousands. Surprisingly, ratings of the larger audience are predicted with greater accuracy than those of the individuals from whom the neural data is obtained. An additional functional magnetic resonance imaging study employing a separate sample of subjects shows that the level of neural reliability evoked by these stimuli covaries with the amount of blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) activation in higher-order visual and auditory regions. Our findings suggest that stimuli which we judge favourably may be those to which our brains respond in a stereotypical manner shared by our peers.

  12. Targeting Non-Coding RNAs in Plants with the CRISPR-Cas Technology is a Challenge yet Worth Accepting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Jolly; Nithin, Chandran

    2015-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have emerged as versatile master regulator of biological functions in recent years. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous ncRNAs of 18-24 nucleotides in length that originates from long self-complementary precursors. Besides their direct involvement in developmental processes, plant miRNAs play key roles in gene regulatory networks and varied biological processes. Alternatively, long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) are a large and diverse class of transcribed ncRNAs whose length exceed that of 200 nucleotides. Plant lncRNAs are transcribed by different RNA polymerases, showing diverse structural features. Plant lncRNAs also are important regulators of gene expression in diverse biological processes. There has been a breakthrough in the technology of genome editing, the CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9) technology, in the last decade. CRISPR loci are transcribed into ncRNA and eventually form a functional complex with Cas9 and further guide the complex to cleave complementary invading DNA. The CRISPR-Cas technology has been successfully applied in model plants such as Arabidopsis and tobacco and important crops like wheat, maize, and rice. However, all these studies are focused on protein coding genes. Information about targeting non-coding genes is scarce. Hitherto, the CRISPR-Cas technology has been exclusively used in vertebrate systems to engineer miRNA/lncRNAs, but it is still relatively unexplored in plants. While briefing miRNAs, lncRNAs and applications of the CRISPR-Cas technology in human and animals, this review essentially elaborates several strategies to overcome the challenges of applying the CRISPR-Cas technology in editing ncRNAs in plants and the future perspective of this field.

  13. Targeting non-coding RNAs in Plants with the CRISPR-Cas technology is a challenge yet worth accepting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly eBasak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs have emerged as versatile master regulator of biological functions in recent years. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small endogenous ncRNAs of 18-24 nucleotides in length that originates from long self-complementary precursors. Besides their direct involvement in developmental processes, plant miRNAs play key roles in gene regulatory networks and varied biological processes. Alternatively, long ncRNAs (lncRNAs are a large and diverse class of transcribed ncRNAs whose length exceed that of 200 nucleotides. Plant lncRNAs are transcribed by different RNA polymerases, showing diverse structural features. Plant lncRNAs also are important regulators of gene expression in diverse biological processes. There has been a breakthrough in the technology of genome editing, the CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 technology, in the last decade. CRISPR loci are transcribed into ncRNA and eventually form a functional complex with Cas9 and further guide the complex to cleave complementary invading DNA. The CRISPR-Cas technology has been successfully applied in model plants such as Arabidopsis and tobacco and important crops like wheat, maize and rice. However, all these studies are focused on protein coding genes. Information about targeting non-coding genes is scarce. Hitherto, the CRISPR-Cas technology has been exclusively used in vertebrate systems to engineer miRNA/lncRNAs, but it is still relatively unexplored in plants. While briefing miRNAs, lncRNAs and applications of the CRISPR-Cas technology in human and animals, this review essentially elaborates several strategies to overcome the challenges of applying the CRISPR-Cas technology in editing ncRNAs in plants and the future perspective of this field.

  14. Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA®: a novel isothermal DNA amplification technology demonstrating high specificity and sensitivity for a single molecule of target analyte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Hoser

    Full Text Available Isothermal nucleic acid amplification technologies offer significant advantages over polymerase chain reaction (PCR in that they do not require thermal cycling or sophisticated laboratory equipment. However, non-target-dependent amplification has limited the sensitivity of isothermal technologies and complex probes are usually required to distinguish between non-specific and target-dependent amplification. Here, we report a novel isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology, Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA. SIBA technology is resistant to non-specific amplification, is able to detect a single molecule of target analyte, and does not require target-specific probes. The technology relies on the recombinase-dependent insertion of an invasion oligonucleotide (IO into the double-stranded target nucleic acid. The duplex regions peripheral to the IO insertion site dissociate, thereby enabling target-specific primers to bind. A polymerase then extends the primers onto the target nucleic acid leading to exponential amplification of the target. The primers are not substrates for the recombinase and are, therefore unable to extend the target template in the absence of the IO. The inclusion of 2'-O-methyl RNA to the IO ensures that it is not extendible and that it does not take part in the extension of the target template. These characteristics ensure that the technology is resistant to non-specific amplification since primer dimers or mis-priming are unable to exponentially amplify. Consequently, SIBA is highly specific and able to distinguish closely-related species with single molecule sensitivity in the absence of complex probes or sophisticated laboratory equipment. Here, we describe this technology in detail and demonstrate its use for the detection of Salmonella.

  15. Audience responses to television news coverage of medical advances: The mediating role of audience emotions and identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyehyun

    2015-08-01

    Exemplifying a real person in news stories has become a popular journalistic technique to describe an event or issue. With the frequent appearance of medical news reports in local television in recent years, this news presentation style is widely believed to help audiences better engage in and understand complex medical information and to influence their perceptions and judgments. In terms of television news coverage of medical advances, this study investigates how audiences respond to embedded human examples (mainly patients who experience benefits from the advances) and to overall news stories, and how such responses are related to their perception of portrayed medical advances. The experimental results indicate that news stories with a human example were more likely to intensify the audience's positive emotions than those without, which in turn influenced favorable perceptions of the described medical advance. In addition, the extent to which the audience identified with a human example (in particular, sympathy) mediated the relationship between the audience's involvement in the news story and its perception of the portrayed medical advance.

  16. Mobile Audience Response Systems at a Continuing Medical Education Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Alexandra; Gousseau, Michael; Sommerfeld, Connor; Leitao, Darren; Gooi, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Mobile audience response systems (mARS) are electronic systems allowing speakers to ask questions and audience members to respond anonymously and immediately on a screen which enables learners to view their peers' responses as well as their own. mARS encourages increased interaction and active learning. This study aims to examine the perceptions of audience members and speakers towards the implementation of mARS at a national medical conference. mARS was implemented at the CSO Annual Meeting in Winnipeg 2015. Eleven presenters agreed to participate in the mARS trial. Both audience and presenters received instructions. Five-point Likert questions and short answer questions were emailed to all conference attendees and the data was evaluated. Twenty-seven participants responded, 23 audience members and 4 instructors. Overall, responders indicated improved attention, involvement, engagement and recognition of audience's understanding of topics with the use of mARS. mARS was perceived as easy to use, with clear instructions, and the majority of respondents expressed an interest in using mARS in more presentations and in future national medical conferences. Most respondents preferred lectures with mARS over lectures without mARS. Some negative feedback on mARS involved dissatisfaction with how some presenters implemented mARS into the workshops. Overall mARS was perceived positively with the majority of respondents wanting mARS implemented in more national medical conferences. Future studies should look at how mARS can be used as an educational tool to help improve patient outcomes.

  17. Audience response-systemer styrker læringsmiljøet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Vad; Østergaard, Doris

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe the possibilities gained by using an electronic voting system (EVS), the existing evidence to determine whether an EVS affects learning proceeds, challenges in EVS and perspectives for EVS in Danish medical training. Audience Response-Systems (ARS) seem...... suited to enhance participants' activity and attention. The technology as such holds the potential to enhance learning outcome, but changes in the pedagogical method are needed. More studies examining the use of new wireless, mobile voting systems are required....

  18. Polymeric particulate technologies for oral drug delivery and targeting: A pathophysiological perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunter, A. Christy; Elsom, Jacqueline; Wibroe, Peter Popp;

    2012-01-01

    to optimize drug targeting and bioavailability. Frequently the carrier systems used are either constructed from or contain polymeric materials. Examples of these nanocarriers include polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanocarriers, self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems and nanocrystals......Publication year: 2012 Source:Maturitas, Volume 73, Issue 1 A. Christy Hunter, Jacqueline Elsom, Peter P. Wibroe, S. Moein Moghimi The oral route for delivery of pharmaceuticals is the most widely used and accepted. Nanoparticles and microparticles are increasingly being applied within this arena...

  19. AN IMPLEMENTATION METHOD OF ADAPTIVE THRESHOLD TO DETECT MOVING TARGETS BASED ON ATI TECHNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AT-InSAR(Along Track Interferometric SAR) is a technique to detect slow-moving targets.However, the detection performance is greatly influenced by noise and clutter. In this paper, the influence of noise and clutter on the detecting performance is analyzed. By simulating different background clutter and noise, the performances of the phase threshold and dual-threshold methods are discussed in detail, and then the adaptive-threshold method is proposed which can greatly improve the detection performance.

  20. Research on video target tracking technology based on improved SIFT algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Zhemin; Guo, Zhijie; Yuang, Ye

    2017-01-01

    A novel target tracking algorithm based on improved SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm is proposed in this paper. In order to improve real-time performance, the processing neighborhood of SIFT has been improved to decrease the complexity of calculation, and the dimension of the SIFT vector is set from 128 to 40. Simulations and experiments show this improved algorithm brings us low computation complexity and high tracking accuracy and robustness.

  1. Using Social Media Sentiment Analysis to Understand Audiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGuire, Mark; Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    projects, technical communicators can listen to their external users and identify areas of importance with greater accuracy. While other methods of sentiment analysis look for a solution that leads to artificial intelligence in the program, this paper identifies the present needs of a human interaction......Social media communication is changing the opportunities for technical communicators to really understand audiences when these audiences are active about issues on social media platforms. Through applying ad-hoc corpus building processes to create word lists relevant to specific organizational...

  2. The impact of stage hypnosis on audience members and participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKillop, James; Jay Lynn, Steven; Meyer, Eric

    2004-07-01

    Before and after a stage-hypnosis performance, 67 audience members and 6 participants completed the Hypnotic Attitudes Questionnaire (HAQ), the Posthypnotic Experience Scale (PES), and several questions related to attitudes about performing in public. Audience members' beliefs about hypnosis (HAQ total and factor scores),experience ratings (PES factor scores: pleasantness, anger/irritability,anxiety), and responses to the performance-related questions changed in a positive direction after the performance. The participants in the show reported no significant pre- to postperformance changes. How-ever, there were indications that the on stage participants exhibited generally favorable attitudes toward hypnosis and performing before they engaged in the actual performance.

  3. The Sender-Receiver Model and the Targeting Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Mark A.

    The goal of this paper is to describe how one classroom teacher uses the Sender-Receiver Communications Model to illustrate for students in a lively and memorable way the process of "targeting your audience" with medium and message. Students are used as examples of Receivers, or target audience, illustrating the potential range of…

  4. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography using cadence-contrast pulse sequencing technology for targeted biopsy of the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, Friedrich; Pallwein, Leo; Mitterberger, Michael; Pinggera, Germar M; Mikuz, Gregor; Horninger, Wolfgang; Frauscher, Ferdinand

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (US) using cadence-contrast pulse sequencing (CPS) technology, compared with systematic biopsy for detecting prostate cancer, as grey-scale US has low sensitivity and specificity for detecting prostate cancer. In all, 44 men with suspicious prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and CPS findings were assessed; all had CPS-targeted and systematic biopsy. Transrectal CPS images were taken with a low mechanical index (0.14). A microbubble contrast agent (SonoVue, Bracco International BV, Amsterdam, the Netherlands) was administered as a bolus, with a maximum dose of 4.8 mL. CPS was used to assess prostatic vascularity. Areas with a rapid and increased contrast enhancement within the peripheral zone were defined as suspicious for prostate cancer. Up to five CPS targeted biopsies were taken and subsequently a 10-core systematic biopsy was taken. Cancer detection rates for the two techniques were compared. Overall, cancer was detected in 35 of 44 patients (80%), with a mean PSA level of 3.8 ng/mL. Lesions suspicious on CPS showed cancer in 35 of 44 patients (80%) and systematic biopsy detected cancer in 15 of 44 patients (34%). CPS-targeted cores were positive in 105 of 220 cores (47.7%) and in 41 of 440 systematic biopsy cores (9.3%) (P biopsy was 6.7 and for CPS-targeted biopsy 6.8 (P > 0.05). The sensitivity of CPS for detecting cancer was 100% (confidence interval, 95%). However, limitations in the series included that only CPS-positive cases were investigated, and CPS-targeted biopsy should be evaluated in a more extended biopsy scheme. Contrast-enhanced US using CPS enables excellent visualization of the microvasculature associated with prostate cancer, and can improve the detection of prostate cancer compared with systematic biopsy.

  5. Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development report. Annual report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinman, D. [ed.

    1994-03-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities which took place under this contract during the period of October 1, 1992 through September 30, 1993. During this period, GA was assigned 18 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. These tasks included ``Capabilities Activation`` and ``Capabilities Demonstration`` to enable us to begin production of glass and composite polymer capsules. Capsule delivery tasks included ``Small Glass Shell Deliveries`` and ``Composite Polymer Capsules`` for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We also were asked to provide direct ``Onsite Support`` at LLNL and LANL. We continued planning for the transfer of ``Micromachining Equipment from Rocky Flats`` and established ``Target Component Micromachining and Electroplating Facilities`` at GA. We fabricated over 1100 films and filters of 11 types for Sandia National Laboratory and provided full-time onsite engineering support for target fabrication and characterization. We initiated development of methods to make targets for the Naval Research Laboratory. We investigated spherical interferometry, built an automated capsule sorter, and developed an apparatus for calorimetric measurement of fuel fill for LLNL. We assisted LANL in the ``Characterization of Opaque b-Layered Targets.`` We developed deuterated and UV-opaque polymers for use by the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) and devised a triple-orifice droplet generator to demonstrate the controlled-mass nature of the microencapsulation process.

  6. The Science and Technologies for Fusion Energy With Lasers and Direct-Drive Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    international efforts. Note that the National Ignition Fa- cility ( NIF ) will use the indirect-drive approach for the first laboratory demonstration of...thermonuclear ignition. This approach, where laser light is converted to X-rays that drive the target, was chosen based on the primary mission of the NIF to...pumped with an array of high-efficiency (> 60%) high-power (> 100-W) diodes. The medium is Yb:S-FAP, but other media, including the NIF choice of Nd:glass

  7. Target selection and pharma industry productivity: what can we learn from technology S-curve theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David

    2006-07-01

    The number of new drug approvals per annum has been decreasing regularly over the past decade, and changes made 12 to 15 years ago to the research and development approach of the pharmaceutical industry may have contributed to this fall in productivity. In particular, the rapid switch at that time away from an 'observation-led' approach toward a 'hypothesis-led' approach to target selection may be a key contributing factor to this issue. The strengths and weaknesses of both approaches are analyzed herein, and it is suggested that unsolved weaknesses in both approaches are holding back the productivity of the pharmaceutical/biotechnology industry.

  8. Utilization of TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9 technologies for gene targeting and modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Jiali; Frescas, David; Zhang, Baorong; Feng, Jian

    2015-08-01

    The capability to modify the genome precisely and efficiently offers an extremely useful tool for biomedical research. Recent developments in genome editing technologies such as transcription activator-like effector nuclease and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats system have made genome modification available for a number of organisms with relative ease. Here, we introduce these genome editing techniques, compare and contrast each technical approach and discuss their potential to study the underlying mechanisms of human disease using patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells.

  9. Targeting treatment technologies to address specific stormwater pollutants and numeric discharge limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Shirley E; Pitt, Robert

    2012-12-15

    Stormwater treatment is entering a new phase with stormwater management systems being required to meet specific numeric objectives, as opposed to the historic approach of meeting guidance-document-provided percent removal rates. Meeting numeric discharge requirements will require designers to better understand and apply the physical, chemical, and biological processes underpinning these treatment technologies. This critical review paper focuses on the potential unit treatment operations available for stormwater treatment and outlines how to identify the most applicable treatment options based on the needed pollutant removal goals.

  10. Take Me Out to the Ball Game: Science Outreach to Non-traditional Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsted, B. A.

    2010-08-01

    Science outreach often targets audiences that are already interested in science and are looking for related educational experiences for themselves or their families. The University of Wisconsin Geology Museum (UWGM) with funding from the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) is targeting unique venues and thereby new audiences who may not typically seek out science outreach events. With this goal in mind, in June, 2009 the UWGM and NAI sponsored an "Astrobiology Night at the Ballpark" at the Madison Mallards Ballpark, the local Madison, Wisconsin minor league baseball venue. At the game, 6,250 attendees were exposed to current NASA-funded astrobiology research being conducted at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Fans were greeted at the gate by volunteers passing out a nine-card pack of extremophile trading cards, each of which featured a different extremophile group (e.g. halophiles, cryophiles, and barophiles). Next, participants could interact with project scientists, graduate students and museum staff at four exploration stations, where each station highlighted astrobiology themes (i.e. extremophiles, banded iron formation, earth's oldest rocks, earth's oldest fossils). Before the game began, the video board on the field was used to broadcast short NASA videos about recent Mars missions as well as the search for life in space. Additionally, inning breaks were used as fun opportunities to engage fans through an "Alien vs. Kids" tug-of-war as well as the distribution of Frisbees with an astrobiology timeline printed on them. Engaging the broader public at a non-science venue is a means to breaking down perceived barriers between scientists and the general public. We found Mallards fans to be receptive and ready to connect with our science themes. Tapping into a new audience also builds a larger awareness of our museum and University, expanding our impact in the community.

  11. Narrative Writing in Digital Formats: Interpreting the Impact of Audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Joshua Fahey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital writing has enabled students to write for a variety of authentic audiences, both in and out of the classroom. As they consider audience, students shoulder a cognitive burden that they must juggle in addition to the task of composition. At the same time, writing provides students with opportunities to craft and express their identities. The ways that identity formation and cognitive load intersect may be particularly complex in digital, online writing environments, as students gain the ability to share and receive feedback from global and local audiences. In this counterbalanced experimental study, 86 seventh- and eighth-grade students responded to two narrative prompts. One prompt was written for the teacher and the other was written for the teacher and peers in an online forum. We examined student writing fluency, mechanical errors, academic word use, and setting. Students were found to be more likely to set narratives in private settings when writing for an audience that included peers. We discuss this finding from cognitive and sociocultural perspectives and how it might inform networked communication research.

  12. Audience expectations of media accountability in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wurff, R.; Schönbach, K.

    2014-01-01

    Citizens in the Netherlands demand that news media are transparent and responsive to audiences. But above all, the population expects journalism to adopt a more professional manner of self-regulation in order to strengthen news quality. These are the main findings from a large-scale representative

  13. Audience Expectations of Media Accountability: More Professionalization of Journalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wurff, R.; Schönbach, K.

    2013-01-01

    Citizens in the Netherlands demand that news media are transparent and responsive to audiences. But above all, these citizens expect journalism to adopt a more professional manner of self-regulation in order to strengthen news quality. These are the main findings from a large-scale representative

  14. The Risk of Delivering Disturbing Messages to Zoo Family Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esson, Maggie; Moss, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    One of the roles of the modern zoo is to provide environmental education. Zoo visitation comprises primarily family groups seeking to spend time together. There is potential for tension between message and audience expectation as zoos seek to raise awareness of the effects of irresponsible human behavior on the environment. This may unsettle…

  15. The Risk of Delivering Disturbing Messages to Zoo Family Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esson, Maggie; Moss, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    One of the roles of the modern zoo is to provide environmental education. Zoo visitation comprises primarily family groups seeking to spend time together. There is potential for tension between message and audience expectation as zoos seek to raise awareness of the effects of irresponsible human behavior on the environment. This may unsettle…

  16. Exploring Individual Differences in Attitudes toward Audience Response Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Robin H.; Knaack, Liesel

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine individual differences in attitudes toward Audience Response Systems (ARSs) in secondary school classrooms. Specifically, the impact of gender, grade, subject area, computer comfort level, participation level, and type of use were examined in 659 students. Males had significantly more positive attitudes…

  17. Best Practices in Nutrition Education for Low-Income Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Susan; Auld, Garry; MacKinnon, Chloe; Ammerman, Alice; Hanula, Gail; Lohse, Barbara; Scott, Marci; Serrano, Elena; Tucker, Easter; Wardlaw, Mary Kay

    2014-01-01

    The Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) identified a need for a comprehensive set of best practices in nutrition education for low-income audiences for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) educational projects, including SNAP-Ed. A comprehensive list of best practices would promote consistency and efficacy in program planning,…

  18. Messages from within: Communicating with Internal Audiences Is Increasingly Important

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubbage, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Many communications offices are so busy working on external communications that they tend to neglect their internal audiences. But the reality is that in higher education, communicating effectively with students, faculty, and staff is critical to achieving an institution's overall communications goals. Having realized that reaching internal…

  19. Researching the Film Audience: Purposes, Procedures, and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Bruce A.

    Film audience research complements institutional research, verifying scholarship on the meanings films have to viewers and providing broad-based explanations of film images. Most important, such research focuses on the decision and motivation processes people use before they set foot in the movie theater, thereby helping to construct a context…

  20. Segmenting Broadcast News Audiences in the New Media Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Robert H.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the "benefit segmentation model," a marketing strategy for local news media which is capable of sorting consumers into discrete segments interested in similar salient product attributes or benefits. Concludes that benefit segmentation may provide a means by which news programmers may respond to their audience. (RS)

  1. Audience gaze while appreciating a multipart musical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Satoshi; Obata, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    Visual information has been observed to be crucial for audience members during musical performances. The present study used an eye tracker to investigate audience members' gazes while appreciating an audiovisual musical ensemble performance, based on evidence of the dominance of musical part in auditory attention when listening to multipart music that contains different melody lines and the joint-attention theory of gaze. We presented singing performances, by a female duo. The main findings were as follows: (1) the melody part (soprano) attracted more visual attention than the accompaniment part (alto) throughout the piece, (2) joint attention emerged when the singers shifted their gazes toward their co-performer, suggesting that inter-performer gazing interactions that play a spotlight role mediated performer-audience visual interaction, and (3) musical part (melody or accompaniment) strongly influenced the total duration of gazes among audiences, while the spotlight effect of gaze was limited to just after the singers' gaze shifts. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Elementary Students' Mathematical Explanations and Attention to Audience with Screencasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Reasoning and constructing mathematical explanations for an audience have become increasingly important activities in elementary classrooms with the implementation of reform-oriented curriculum and standards. Mobile learning tools and applications, such as screencasts, allow students to generate multimedia presentations of their solution…

  3. An expressive virtual audience with flexible behavioral styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kang, N.; Brinkman, W.P.; Riemsdijk, M.B. van; Neerincx, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, expressive virtual humans are used in psychological research, training, and psychotherapy. However, the behavior of these virtual humans is usually scripted and therefore cannot be modified freely at runtime. To address this, we created a virtual audience with parameterized behavioral sty

  4. Red Chamber Charm Classic Chinese romance wows New York audience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Nobody would expect an American audience to understand a dance performance that tries to interpret one of China’s most revered, classic and complicated works of literature. They might, however, have been amazed at the enthusiastic response of the crowd at the Rose Theater at New York City’s Lincoln Center

  5. New Scenarios for Audience Response Systems in University Lectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schön, Daniel; Kopf, Stephan; Klinger, Melanie; Guthier, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Mobile devices like smartphones and tablet PCs are widely used among university students and can be used for audience response systems (clicker systems) to improve teaching. Modern implementations of these systems are no longer limited to plain multiple-choice questions, but enable the lecturers to perform a variety of teaching scenarios. We…

  6. Target Diagnostic Technology Research and Development for the LLNL ICF and HED Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, P; Bennett, C; Holder, J; Kimbrough, J; Landen, O; Lerche, D; Lowry, M; McDonald, J; Perry, T; Turner, B; Weber, F

    2003-08-22

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is under construction at LLNL for the Department of Energy Stockpile Stewardship Program. It will be used for experiments for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Ignition, High Energy Density (HED) science, and basic science. Many issues confront experimentalists who wish to design, fabricate, and install diagnostics on the NIF. To foster this process the ICF and HED programs at LLNL have formed a diagnostic research and development group to look at issues outside the charter of facility diagnostics (core diagnostics). We will present data from instrumentation and associated technology that is being developed by this group. A major portion of our instrumentation work is on improvements for readout systems. We have several efforts related to CCD device development. Work has been done in collaboration with the University of Arizona to backthin a large format CCD device (36mm{sup 2}). This work has shown good results. The device has very high quantum efficiency, low noise readout and high charge transfer efficiency. The device is being fielded in direct optical, direct x-ray and 13-15 RV electron readout applications. In addition to readout device development we have completed work on a CCD readout system. With a commercial vendor we have developed a large format, compact, Ethernet addressable CCD camera system. This system fits in shoebox size volume, is thermal electrically cooled, supports a variety of CCD devices and can be run from remote locations via TCP/IP protocol. We are also doing work to improve streak camera systems. We have coupled our large format CCD system to an MK2 Kentech streak tube. Improvements have been made to the resolution and dynamic range of the system. Similar improvements have been made to the LLNL optical streak camera systems. We will present data from the optical and x-ray streak camera work. In addition we will present data from single shot high-speed, high dynamic range data link work. In

  7. Technology-Based Innovations to Foster Personalized Healthy Lifestyles and Well-Being: A Targeted Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Silvina; Tsiknakis, Manolis; Marias, Kostas; Sakkalis, Vangelis; Teixeira, António; Janssen, Joris H; de Jong, Henri; Tziraki, Chariklia

    2016-01-01

    Background New community-based arrangements and novel technologies can empower individuals to be active participants in their health maintenance, enabling people to control and self-regulate their health and wellness and make better health- and lifestyle-related decisions. Mobile sensing technology and health systems responsive to individual profiles combined with cloud computing can expand innovation for new types of interoperable services that are consumer-oriented and community-based. This could fuel a paradigm shift in the way health care can be, or should be, provided and received, while lessening the burden on exhausted health and social care systems. Objective Our goal is to identify and discuss the main scientific and engineering challenges that need to be successfully addressed in delivering state-of-the-art, ubiquitous eHealth and mHealth services, including citizen-centered wellness management services, and reposition their role and potential within a broader context of diverse sociotechnical drivers, agents, and stakeholders. Methods We review the state-of-the-art relevant to the development and implementation of eHealth and mHealth services in critical domains. We identify and discuss scientific, engineering, and implementation-related challenges that need to be overcome to move research, development, and the market forward. Results Several important advances have been identified in the fields of systems for personalized health monitoring, such as smartphone platforms and intelligent ubiquitous services. Sensors embedded in smartphones and clothes are making the unobtrusive recognition of physical activity, behavior, and lifestyle possible, and thus the deployment of platforms for health assistance and citizen empowerment. Similarly, significant advances are observed in the domain of infrastructure supporting services. Still, many technical problems remain to be solved, combined with no less challenging issues related to security, privacy, trust, and

  8. Research on Key Technologies of Network Centric System Distributed Target Track Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Mao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To realize common tactical picture in network-centered system, this paper proposes a layered architecture for distributed information processing and a method for distributed track fusion on the basis of analyzing the characteristics of network-centered systems. Basing on the noncorrelation of three-dimensional measurement of surveillance and reconnaissance sensors under polar coordinates, it also puts forward an algorithm for evaluating track quality (TQ using statistical decision theory. According to simulation results, the TQ value is associated with the measurement accuracy of sensors and the motion state of targets, which is well matched with the convergence process of tracking filters. Besides, the proposed algorithm has good reliability and timeliness in track quality evaluation.

  9. A new peptide ligand for targeting human carbonic anhydrase IX, identified through the phage display technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Askoxylakis

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX is a transmembrane enzyme found to be overexpressed in various tumors and associated with tumor hypoxia. Ligands binding this target may be used to visualize hypoxia, tumor manifestation or treat tumors by endoradiotherapy. METHODS: Phage display was performed with a 12 amino acid phage display library by panning against a recombinant extracellular domain of human carbonic anhydrase IX. The identified peptide CaIX-P1 was chemically synthesized and tested in vitro on various cell lines and in vivo in Balb/c nu/nu mice carrying subcutaneously transplanted tumors. Binding, kinetic and competition studies were performed on the CAIX positive human renal cell carcinoma cell line SKRC 52, the CAIX negative human renal cell carcinoma cell line CaKi 2, the human colorectal carcinoma cell line HCT 116 and on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC. Organ distribution studies were carried out in mice, carrying SKRC 52 tumors. RNA expression of CAIX in HCT 116 and HUVEC cells was investigated by quantitative real time PCR. RESULTS: In vitro binding experiments of (125I-labeled-CaIX-P1 revealed an increased uptake of the radioligand in the CAIX positive renal cell carcinoma cell line SKRC 52. Binding of the radioligand in the colorectal carcinoma cell line HCT 116 increased with increasing cell density and correlated with the mRNA expression of CAIX. Radioligand uptake was inhibited up to 90% by the unlabeled CaIX-P1 peptide, but not by the negative control peptide octreotide at the same concentration. No binding was demonstrated in CAIX negative CaKi 2 and HUVEC cells. Organ distribution studies revealed a higher accumulation in SKRC 52 tumors than in heart, spleen, liver, muscle, intestinum and brain, but a lower uptake compared to blood and kidney. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that CaIX-P1 is a promising candidate for the development of new ligands targeting human carbonic anhydrase IX.

  10. Treatment of allergic asthma by targeting transcription factors using nucleic-acid based technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sel, Serdar; Henke, Wolfgang; Dietrich, Alexander; Herz, Udo; Renz, Harald

    2006-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that T-helper 2 (Th2) cells play a central role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma, hay fever or food allergy. The differentiation of naïve T cells into Th2 cells producing a specific pattern of cytokines is tightly controlled and regulated by transcription factors. Thus down-regulation of mRNA-levels of a single transcription factor leads to a "knock-down" of several mediators simultaneously, representing an advantage compared to earlier approaches involving down-regulation of one intercellular inflammatory mediator, which is unlikely to influence all pathophysiological aspects of the disease. We review the impact of specific and master transcription factors involved in Th2 cell commitment and evaluate approaches for the down-regulation of these proteins by degradation of their mRNA using nucleic-acid based technologies including antisense oligonucleotides, ribozymes, DNAzymes, decoys oligonucleotides and RNA interference.

  11. Efficient genomic DNA extraction from low target concentration bacterial cultures using SCODA DNA extraction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Austin; Pel, Joel; Rajan, Sweta; Marziali, Andre

    2010-10-01

    Methods for the extraction of nucleic acids are straightforward in instances where there is ample nucleic acid mass in the sample and contamination is minimal. However, applications in areas such as metagenomics, life science research, clinical research, and forensics, that are limited by smaller amounts of starting materials or more dilute samples, require sample preparation methods that are more efficient at extracting nucleic acids. Synchronous coefficient of drag alteration (SCODA) is a novel electrophoretic nucleic acid purification technology that has been tested successfully with both highly contaminated and dilute samples and is a promising candidate for new sample preparation challenges. In this article, as an example of SCODA's performance with limited sample material, we outline a genomic DNA (gDNA) extraction protocol from low abundance cultures of Escherichia coli DH10B. This method is equally well suited to high biomass samples.

  12. Using Deep Learning Neural Networks To Find Best Performing Audience Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Badhe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Finding the appropriate mobile audience for mobile advertising is always challenging since there are many data points that need to be considered and assimilated before a target segment can be created and used in ad serving by any ad server. Deep learning neural networks have been used in machine learning to use multiple processing layers to interpret large datasets with multiple dimensions to come up with a high-level characterization of the data. During a request for an advertisement and subsequently serving of the advertisement on the mobile device there are many trackers that are fired collecting a lot of data points. If the user likes the advertisement and clicks on it another set of trackers give additional information resulting from the click. This information is aggregated by the ad server and shown in its reporting console. The same information can form the basis of machine learning by feeding this information to a deep learning neural network to come up with audiences that can be targeted based on the product that is advertised.

  13. Focusing the EarthScope for a broader audience: Advancing geoscience education with interactive kiosks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Konter, B. R.; Solis, T.

    2012-12-01

    A primary objective of the EarthScope Education and Outreach program is to transform technical science into teachable products for a technologically thriving generation. One of the most challenging milestones of scientific research, however, is often the translation of a technical result into a clear teachable moment that is accessible to a broader audience. As 4D multimedia now dominate most aspects of our social environment, science "teaching" now also requires intervention of visualization technology and animation to portray research results in an inviting and stimulating manner. Following the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS)'s lead in developing interactive Earth science kiosk multimedia (bundled in a free product called Active Earth), we have made a major effort to construct and install customized EarthScope-themed touch screen kiosks in local communities. These kiosks are helping to educate a broader audience about EarthScope's unique instrumentation and observations using interactive animations, games, and virtual field trips. We are also developing new kiosk content that reflect career stories showcasing the personal journeys of EarthScope scientists. To truly bring the interactive aspect of our EarthScope kiosk media into the classroom, we have collaborated with local teachers to develop a one-page EarthScope TerraMap activity worksheet that guides students through kiosk content. These activities are shaping a new pathway for how teachers teach and students learn about planet Earth and its fantastic EarthScope - one click (and touch) at a time.

  14. The Rise of the TV-Cinemaniac. New Audiences for New TV Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cardini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, tv series have become a more and more popular tv genre, not only among tv viewers. Their audience is nowadays composed above all by cinema lovers and scholars, who do not often consider their tv values  and prefer to underline their film and literary components. This essay tries to analyze this phenomenon in the perspective of television studies. First of all, it is necessary to retrace the correct definitions of the tv serial forms, which are often used in an uncorrect way, in academic as well as in common language. Then, the relationship among tv, cinema and literature and their narrative forms  are analyzed, together with the relevance of technological development in influencing tv production values and audience practices. As a consequence, the portrait of a new viewer can be identified: the “Tv-Cinemaniac” comes out of a mix of viewing practices, technological skills, media knowledge and common sense whose pros and cons should  be considered in the framework of Italian television and film studies.

  15. How new online communication tools and the availability of content influence the audiences and the creative process

    OpenAIRE

    Centeno, Maria João Anastácio; Azevedo, Pedro Miguel Henriques

    2013-01-01

    We live in a changing world. At an impressive speed, every day new technological resources appear. We increasingly use the Internet to obtain and share information, and new online communication tools are emerging. Each of them encompasses new potential and creates new audiences. In recent years, we witnessed the emergence of Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and other media platforms. They have provided us with an even greater interactivity between sender and receiver, as well as generated a new sen...

  16. The next generation of target capture technologies - large DNA fragment enrichment and sequencing determines regional genomic variation of high complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapprich, Johannes; Ferriola, Deborah; Mackiewicz, Kate; Clark, Peter M; Rappaport, Eric; D'Arcy, Monica; Sasson, Ariella; Gai, Xiaowu; Schug, Jonathan; Kaestner, Klaus H; Monos, Dimitri

    2016-07-09

    The ability to capture and sequence large contiguous DNA fragments represents a significant advancement towards the comprehensive characterization of complex genomic regions. While emerging sequencing platforms are capable of producing several kilobases-long reads, the fragment sizes generated by current DNA target enrichment technologies remain a limiting factor, producing DNA fragments generally shorter than 1 kbp. The DNA enrichment methodology described herein, Region-Specific Extraction (RSE), produces DNA segments in excess of 20 kbp in length. Coupling this enrichment method to appropriate sequencing platforms will significantly enhance the ability to generate complete and accurate sequence characterization of any genomic region without the need for reference-based assembly. RSE is a long-range DNA target capture methodology that relies on the specific hybridization of short (20-25 base) oligonucleotide primers to selected sequence motifs within the DNA target region. These capture primers are then enzymatically extended on the 3'-end, incorporating biotinylated nucleotides into the DNA. Streptavidin-coated beads are subsequently used to pull-down the original, long DNA template molecules via the newly synthesized, biotinylated DNA that is bound to them. We demonstrate the accuracy, simplicity and utility of the RSE method by capturing and sequencing a 4 Mbp stretch of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Our results show an average depth of coverage of 164X for the entire MHC. This depth of coverage contributes significantly to a 99.94 % total coverage of the targeted region and to an accuracy that is over 99.99 %. RSE represents a cost-effective target enrichment method capable of producing sequencing templates in excess of 20 kbp in length. The utility of our method has been proven to generate superior coverage across the MHC as compared to other commercially available methodologies, with the added advantage of producing longer sequencing

  17. MEANING OF TARGET AMBIGUITY FACTOR IN INTELLECTUAL TECHNOLOGIES OF SCIENTIFIC SEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Коleshko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main peculiar feature of an intellectual system orientated to formulation of original scientific hypothesis, non-trivial technical solutions is an initial target ambiguity of creative search. Process concerning creation of new knowledge in such system presuppose chaotic steps directed on hypothesis synthesis and their improvement, cancellation of non-productive searching methods and advancement of new scientific theories. Formation of new knowledge which generally has random character at the initial stage gradually becomes more ordered, motivated to obtain a concrete result due to development of searching process. Both components of the intellectual medium (a human being and a machine have so to speak an equilibrium in their actions, actively interacting and supplementing each other in the most creative procedures of hypothesis synthesis. Role difference resides in that a computer provides its formal logical and information resource for solution selection, and a researcher is assigned to carry out an additional task that is to take decisions about correctness of scientific hypothesis

  18. Potential therapeutic targets and the role of technology in developing novel cannabinoid drugs from cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, S; Manogar, P; Prabhu, S

    2016-10-01

    Cyanobacteria find several applications in pharmacology as potential candidates for drug design. The need for new compounds that can be used as drugs has always been on the rise in therapeutics. Cyanobacteria have been identified as promising targets of research in the quest for new pharmaceutical compounds as they can produce secondary metabolites with novel chemical structures. Cyanobacteria is now recognized as a vital source of bioactive molecules like Curacin A, Largazole and Apratoxin which have succeeded in reaching Phase II and Phase III into clinical trials. The discovery of several new clinical cannabinoid drugs in the past decade from diverse marine life should translate into a number of new drugs for cannabinoid in the years to come. Conventional cannabinoid drugs have high toxicity and as a result, they affect the efficacy of chemotherapy and patients' life very much. The present review focuses on how potential, safe and affordable drugs used for cannabinoid treatment could be developed from cyanobacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of helmet-mounted display targeting symbology based on eye tracking technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijing; Wen, Fuzhen; Ma, Caixin; Zhao, Shengchu; Liu, Xiaodong

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to find the Target Locator Lines (TLLs) which perform best by contrasting and comparing experiment based on three kinds of TTLs of fighter HMD. 10 university students, male, with an average age of 21-23, corrected visual acuity 1.5, participated in the experiment. In the experiment, head movement data was obtained by TrackIR. The geometric relationship between the coordinates of the real world and coordinates of the visual display was obtained by calculating the distance from viewpoint to midpoint of both eyes and the head movement data. Virtual helmet system simulation experiment environment was created by drawing TLLs of fighter HMD in the flight simulator visual scene. In the experiment, eye tracker was used to record the time and saccade trajectory. The results were evaluated by the duration of the time and saccade trajectory. The results showed that the symbol"locator line with digital vector length indication" cost most time and had the longest length of the saccade trajectory. It is the most ineffective and most unacceptable way. "Locator line with extending head vector length symbol" cost less time and had less length of the saccade trajectory. It is effective and acceptable;"Locator line with reflected vector length symbol" cost the least time and had the least length of the saccade trajectory. It is the most effective and most acceptable way. "Locator line with reflected vector length symbol" performs best. The results will provide reference value for the research of TTLs in future.

  20. Improving medication adherence with a targeted, technology-driven disease management intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David B; Allison, Wanda; Chen, Joyce C; Demand, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Treatment adherence is critical in managing chronic disease, but achieving it remains an elusive goal across many prevalent conditions. As part of its care management strategy, BlueCross BlueShield of South Carolina (BCBSSC) implemented the Longitudinal Adherence Treatment Evaluation program, a behavioral intervention to improve medication adherence among members with cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes. The objectives of this study were to 1) assess the effectiveness of telephonic intervention in influencing reinitiation of medication therapy, and 2) evaluate the rate and timing of medication reinitiation. BCBSSC applied algorithms against pharmacy claims data to identify patients prescribed targeted medications who were 60 or more days overdue for refills. This information was provided to care managers to address during their next patient contact. Care managers received focused training on techniques for medication behavior change, readiness to change, motivational interviewing, and active listening. Training also addressed common barriers to adherence and available resources, including side effect management, mail order benefits, drug assistance programs, medication organizers, and reminder systems. Overdue refills were tracked for 12 months, with medication reinitiation followed for an additional 3 months. In the intervention group, 94 patients were identified with 123 instances of late medication refills. In the age- and gender-matched comparison group, 61 patients were identified with 76 late refills. The intervention group had a significantly higher rate of medication reinitiation (59.3%) than the control group (42.1%; P management intervention promoting patient behavior change increased the number of patients who reinitiated therapy after a period of nonadherence and decreased the time from nonadherence to adherence.

  1. Global Warming’s Six Americas: An Audience Segmentation Analysis (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roser-Renouf, C.; Maibach, E.; Leiserowitz, A.

    2009-12-01

    One of the first rules of effective communication is to “know thy audience.” People have different psychological, cultural and political reasons for acting - or not acting - to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and climate change educators can increase their impact by taking these differences into account. In this presentation we will describe six unique audience segments within the American public that each responds to the issue in its own distinct way, and we will discuss methods of engaging each. The six audiences were identified using a nationally representative survey of American adults conducted in the fall of 2008 (N=2,164). In two waves of online data collection, the public’s climate change beliefs, attitudes, risk perceptions, values, policy preferences, conservation, and energy-efficiency behaviors were assessed. The data were subjected to latent class analysis, yielding six groups distinguishable on all the above dimensions. The Alarmed (18%) are fully convinced of the reality and seriousness of climate change and are already taking individual, consumer, and political action to address it. The Concerned (33%) - the largest of the Six Americas - are also convinced that global warming is happening and a serious problem, but have not yet engaged with the issue personally. Three other Americas - the Cautious (19%), the Disengaged (12%) and the Doubtful (11%) - represent different stages of understanding and acceptance of the problem, and none are actively involved. The final America - the Dismissive (7%) - are very sure it is not happening and are actively involved as opponents of a national effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Mitigating climate change will require a diversity of messages, messengers and methods that take into account these differences within the American public. The findings from this research can serve as guideposts for educators on the optimal choices for reaching and influencing target groups with varied informational needs

  2. Effective Engagement of Hostile Audiences on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, S.

    2012-12-01

    Communicating effectively about climate change can be very frustrating because hostility to climate science is rooted in deeply held beliefs rather than facts. Opposition can be more effectively countered by respecting ideological objections than by aggressive insistence on acceptance of consensus evidence. When presented with a stark choice between sacred beliefs and factual evidence, social science research shows that nearly everyone will choose the latter. Rational argument from authority is often the weakest approach in such situations. Climate change is Simple, Serious, and Solvable. Effective communication of these three key ideas can succeed when the science argument is carefully framed to avoid attack of the audience's ethical identity. Simple arguments from common sense and everyday experience are more successful than data. Serious consequences to values that resonate with the audience can be avoided by solutions that don't threaten those values.

  3. Normative Aesthetics: The Ideal Audience and Art Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunaryono Basuki Ks

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Reader-Response Criticism proposes a new way of looking at literary text. One of the writers of this criticism discusses about 'literary competence' which entails the idea of 'ideal reader'. The writer proposes the idea of 'ideal audience' to work with fields of art other than literature. In an attempt to give the proper appreciation of art, norms are required, and norms in art can be arrived at using the concept of 'ideal audience'. It is a fact that norms are normally contextual, not universal, and change according to the change in the concept of art creation. Then the question is why take the trouble of forming norms if they keep changing?

  4. The Audiences in View of the Changes in Cyber Journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. José Ignacio Armentia Vizuete

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Newspaper in Internet have suffered in the last years a series of changes, in the way towards the acquisition of some own characteristics differentiated with regard to the printed dailys. This evolution also has had his reflex in the audiences. Today Internet isn’t an elitist product and is available for the majority of the population. Nevertheless, the way of measuring the above mentioned audiences constitutes one of the hanging questions for the cybermedia, unlike what it happens in other three big informative supports: press, radio and television, where measurements of reference for each one of the supports exist. As it is exposed in this article, we have a great disparity between the data and methods of measurement of organisms and companies like EGM, OJD, Alexa and others, on the Internet. This text is based on a research about the evolution of the cyberjournalism in Spain financed by the University of the Basque Country.

  5. 超越平凡的DYNAUDIO AUDIENCE 52SE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘志强

    2003-01-01

    @@ 许多年之后,当笔者见到Dynaudio Audience 52 SE音箱时,一定会想起当初迷上书架音箱时的那些日子.丹拿的Audience 5(听众5号)作为我购买的第一款丹拿产品,正是在经历了诸多选择后的一个明智的选择.这是丹拿最廉价的音箱,但它采用的高级单元却让我从此走上了高保真、低音染、大动态的"阳关道".

  6. In vitro comparison of a novel facilitated ultrasound targeting technology vs standard technique for percutaneous renal biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menhadji, Ashleigh; Nguyen, Vien; Cho, Jane; Chu, Ringo; Osann, Kathyrn; Bucur, Philip; Patel, Puja; Lusch, Achim; McDougall, Elspeth; Landman, Jaime

    2013-09-01

    To improve the understanding of the epidemiology of renal cortical neoplasms through pretreatment biopsy, we evaluated a facilitated ultrasound targeting (FUT) technology. The technology allows a needle to be passed through the transducer probe and guided along a virtual dotted line on the monitor. We compared the FUT with standard percutaneous biopsy (PB) technique. Forty-eight participants with various levels of training were recruited. Participants performed ultrasound-guided biopsies on phantom models using FUT and the standard biopsy technique in a randomized sequence. The phantom models consisted of pimento olives embedded in an opaque mold of Metamucil and Knox gelatin. Patients were given up to 10 attempts to achieve 3 complete specimens from the olives. Patients rated each biopsy technique. Results were stratified by level of experience. The mean time to obtain 3 complete biopsy specimens was significantly faster for FUT compared with the standard technique (140 seconds vs 246 seconds, P = .0001). The mean number of attempts needed to obtain 3 specimens was significantly less with FUT compared with the standard technique (4.3 vs 5.6 attempts, P = .0007). Patients reported that FUT was significantly easier to use compared with the standard technique (P = .0005). No significant order effect was observed. In this in vitro comparison, FUT increased the efficiency and efficacy of PB for users of all experience levels. FUT may allow urologists with limited PB experience to perform the procedure reliably and easily. Clinical evaluation of this technology is actively in progress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk perception of festival audience: an application of psychometric paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Ahi, Julide Ceren

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceived risk level indicated by audiences for six contemporary hazards in an open door music festival, seeing as it is an overlooked issue in the literature. In order to measure the risk perceptions of participants The Psychometric Paradigm Model was utilized together with the perceived controllability arguments of Optimism Bias Theory. The data was collected from 230 participants of Landstreff 2013 Stavanger through online survey in coope...

  8. Gender and Sexual Diversity Issues in Physics: The Audience Speaks

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerman, Nicole; Deconinck, Wouter; Falk, Michael L; Garmon, Savannah; Henry, Edward; Long, Elena

    2012-01-01

    An account is presented of the special session on "Gender and Sexual Diversity Issues in Physics" which took place at the American Physical Society March Meeting 2012. The opinions of those who attended this session were solicited via an anonymous survey, the results of which are reported here. Drawing both upon ideas put forward by the speakers and audience from the meeting, a set of recommended actions is proposed for the Physics community to become more inclusive of LGBT+ people.

  9. EMOTIONAL CONTAGION AND MOOD IN CROWD SERVING AS AUDIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The global world is gradually becoming a world of separated crowds despite the artificial wire and wireless connection through television and the Internet. Crowds remain a prevailing subject of research in different social studies, and the research of changes in the psychological structure of crowds and their characteristics is still of primary interest. The main focus of the research is on the interpretation of the results of the research paper about a special separated crowd called audience...

  10. Exploring social and cultural diversity within 'Black British Jazz' audiences

    OpenAIRE

    Wilks, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a recent study which explores the social, economic and cultural characteristics of audiences for performances by black British jazz musicians. It draws on Bourdieu’s theoretical concept of cultural capital, which links social class and educational qualification level to cultural consumption, as well as on Hall’s exploration of ‘new ethnicities’, demonstrating how the two theories are interrelated. The study uses a mixed method approach of observation, quest...

  11. Towards a Cultural Framework of Audience Response and Television Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Császi, Lajos

    2008-01-01

    In his paper "Towards a Cultural Framework of Audience Response and Television Violence" Lajos Császi argues that media violence is not a reification of social violence; rather, a popular ritual allowing contemporary societies to sublimate, to substitute, and to discuss aggression in the public sphere. Császi reviews the central questions of contemporary debates about television violence including Stuart Hall's thought on this topic and introduces the ideas of Elias, Geertz, Turner, Bettelhei...

  12. Multimedia Astronomy Communication: Effectively Communicate Astronomy to the Desired Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Star Cartier, Kimberly Michelle; Wright, Jason

    2017-01-01

    A fundamental aspect of our jobs as scientists is communicating our work to others. In this, the field of astronomy holds the double-edged sword of ubiquitous fascination: the topic has been of interest to nearly the entire global population at some point in their lives, yet the learning curve is steep within any subfield and rife with difficult-to-synthesize details. Compounding this issue is the ever-expanding array of methods to reach people in today's Communications Era. Each communication medium has its own strengths and weaknesses, is appropriate in different situations, and requires its own specific skillset in order to maximize its functionality. Despite this, little attention is given to training astronomers in effective communication techniques, often relying on newcomers to simply pick up the ability by mimicking others and assuming that a firm grasp on the subject matter will make up for deficiencies in communication theory. This can restrict astronomers to a narrow set of communication methods, harming both the communicators and the audience who may struggle to access the information through those media.Whether writing a research paper to academic peers or giving an astronomy talk to a pubic audience, successfully communicating a scientific message requires more than just an expert grasp on the topic. A communicator must understand the makeup and prior knowledge of the desired audience, be able to break down the salient points of the topic into pieces that audience can digest, select and maximize upon a medium to deliver the message, and frame the message in a way that hooks the audience and compels further interest. In this work we synthesize the requirements of effective astronomy communication into a few key questions that every communicator needs to answer. We then discuss some of the most common media currently used to communicate astronomy, give both effective and poor examples of utilizing these media to communicate astronomy, and provide key

  13. Mechanism of sound absorption by seated audience in halls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, N; Hidaka, T; Beranek, L L

    2001-11-01

    Four methods are explored for predicting the reverberation times in fully occupied halls for music as related to the sound absorption by their audiences. The methods for providing audience absorptions include two that use reverberation chambers, namely, the ISO 354 method (and other similar standards) (ISO) and Kath and Kuhl's method (K & K) [Acustica 15, 127-131 (1965)], and two that use average data from halls, i.e., Beranek's method (COH) [Concert and Opera Halls: How They Sound (Acoustical Society of America, Melville, NY, 1996)], and the average audience power-per-seat absorption which in practice is multiplied by the number of seats (AA). These methods are applied to the calculation of reverberation times in six existing halls, fully occupied, and the results were compared with actual measurements. The COH method was best for predictions over the entire frequency range. The K & K method showed the highest accuracy at mid-frequencies. Both the ISO and the K & K methods yielded wide differences for the measurements in the 125- and 250-Hz bands. The AA method was as good as the COH method when the measurements for the six halls were averaged, but showed a wide spread in the predictions around the average because it does not consider the degree of upholstering of the seats. It was hypothecated by the authors that the principal reasons for the ISO and K & K discrepancies at low frequencies were (a) differences between the degree of sound diffusion in actual halls and that in reverberation chambers, and (b) lack of information on the mechanisms of absorption of sound by people seated side-by-side in rows, particularly for near-grazing incidence sound fields. First, this article explores the sound diffusivity in a reverberation chamber and in the halls using CAD models. A probability density function of the incident angles of the sound rays that impinge on the audiences is defined and was measured for each case. Using a unique method, the sound absorption

  14. The Worldviews Network: Digital Planetariums for Engaging Public Audiences in Global Change Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, R. J.; Koontz, K.; Yu, K.; Gardiner, N.; Connolly, R.; Mcconville, D.

    2013-12-01

    Utilizing the capabilities of digital planetariums, the Denver Museum of Nature & Science, the California Academy of Sciences, NOVA/WGBH, The Elumenati, and affiliates of the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration formed the Worldviews Network. The network's mission is to place Earth in its cosmic context to encourage participants to explore connections between social & ecological issues in their backyards. Worldviews launched with informal science institution partners: the American Museum of Natural History, the Perot Museum of Nature & Science, the Journey Museum, the Bell Museum of Natural History, the University of Michigan Natural History Museum, and the National Environmental Modeling & Analysis Center. Worldviews uses immersive visualization technology to engage public audiences on issues of global environmental change at a bioregional level. An immersive planetarium show and dialogue deepens public engagement and awareness of complex human-natural system interactions. People have altered the global climate system. Our communities are increasingly vulnerable to extreme weather events. Land use decisions that people make every day put both human lives and biodiversity at risk through direct and indirect effects. The Worldviews programs demonstrate the complex linkages between Earth's physical and biological systems and their relationship to human health, agriculture, infrastructure, water resources, and energy. We have focused on critical thresholds, such as freshwater use, biodiversity loss, land use change, and anthropogenic changes to the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles. We have been guided by environmental literacy principles to help our audiences understand that humans drive current trends in coupled human-natural systems--and that humans could choose to play an important role in reversing these trends. Museum and planetarium staff members join the Worldviews Network team and external advisers to produce programs that span cosmic, global, and

  15. An Instructional Approach for Minimizing Stage Fright: Insights from Buss' Theory of Audience Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Joseph

    Effective instructional approaches for dealing with stage fright can be developed by examining A. H. Buss's theory of audience anxiety. Buss argues that audience anxiety correlates with feelings of self-consciousness, characteristics of the audience, and the novelty of the speaking role. From his perspective, the experience of anxiety is divided…

  16. The missing link: audience frames in the process model of framing effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drunen, A.S.; Vliegenthart, R.; Boomgaarden, H.G.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2011-01-01

    The process model of framing effects proposes that media frames affect public opinion via audience frames. However, there is a lack of research examining these audience frames. In this investigation we define and subsequently develop an empirical measurement of audience frames, which is applied to t

  17. The Effects of Audience Interest, Responsiveness, and Evaluation on Public Speaking Anxiety and Related Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Thivierge, Kimly A.; MacDonald, J. Renee

    1997-01-01

    Examines potential sources of public-speaking anxiety among undergraduate students stemming from the audience. Identifies three sources of anxiety: degree of formal evaluation, level of audience interest in the topic, and audience's responsiveness to the speaker. Measures willingness to speak and expected speech quality. Finds interest,…

  18. 41 CFR 102-3.20 - How does this part meet the needs of its audience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the needs of its audience? 102-3.20 Section 102-3.20 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.20 How does this part meet the needs of its audience? This Federal Advisory Committee Management part meets the general and specific needs of its audience by addressing the following issues...

  19. Constitutive Rhetoric as an Aspect of Audience Design: The Public Texts of Canadian Suffragists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Katja

    2010-01-01

    This article offers a way of using the theory of audience design--how speakers position different audience groups as main addressees, overhearers, or bystanders--for written discourse. It focuses on main addressees, that is, those audience members who are expected to participate in and respond to a speaker's utterances. The text samples are…

  20. Constitutive Rhetoric as an Aspect of Audience Design: The Public Texts of Canadian Suffragists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Katja

    2010-01-01

    This article offers a way of using the theory of audience design--how speakers position different audience groups as main addressees, overhearers, or bystanders--for written discourse. It focuses on main addressees, that is, those audience members who are expected to participate in and respond to a speaker's utterances. The text samples are…

  1. An Innovative Approach for Community Engagement: Using an Audience Response System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jenna L; McGinnis, Kara E; Walsh, Margaret L; Williams, Coni; Sneed, Kevin B; Baldwin, Julie A; Green, B Lee

    2012-01-01

    Community-based participatory research methods allow for community engagement in the effort to reduce cancer health disparities. Community engagement involves health professionals becoming a part of the community in order to build trust, learn from the community and empower them to reduce disparities through their own initiatives and ideas. Audience Response Systems (ARS) are an innovative and engaging way to involve the community and obtain data for research purposes using keypads to report results via power point. The use of ARS within communities is very limited and serves to widen the disparity gap by not delivering new advances in medical knowledge and technology among all population groups. ARS was implemented at a community town hall event sponsored by a National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities Exploratory Center of Excellence, the Center for Equal Health. Participants appreciated being able to see how everyone else answered and felt included in the research process. ARS is beneficial because the community can answer truthfully and provides instant research results. Additionally, researchers can collect large amounts of data quickly, in a non-threatening way while tracking individual responses anonymously. Audience Response Systems proved to be an effective tool for successfully accomplishing community-based participatory research.

  2. Interactive Panel and Audience Discussion: The Future is Here: Can EPO Navigate the Digital Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, S. S.; Dribin, N.; Gay, P. L.; Stockman, S.

    2010-08-01

    The digital divide refers to the gap between individuals with access to digital technology and those with limited or no access. In the EPO profession there is another digital divide: the divide between EPO practitioners who believe Twitter and other forms of social networking are the downfall of literacy—and perhaps of American society, and those who see boundless potential for engaging a global audience in Earth and space science. One thing is certain: we're not in our parent's world anymore—our's is a world increasingly run by electrons and hand-held devices that inform, entertain, connect, and fragment our audiences into an infinite number of special-interest groups with shortened attention spans that form and reform in nonlinear ways. How does EPO evolve to match the new media and electronic realities? Is there still a place for storytelling, for laddered learning experiences, for traditional methods? How do we adapt? How do we rise to the new challenges of the new media age?

  3. No más audiencias, todos devenimos productores No more audiences, we all become producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Rincón

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Ya no es posible sólo ser consumidores, nos toca ser ciudadanos. En este ensayo se argumenta cómo las audiencias deben convertirse en productoras de mensajes y en culturas de resistencia que desde sus estéticas, narrativas y necesidades encuentren un lugar en el mundo de las pantallas. Las audiencias nuevas dejan de ser consumidoras y pasan a ser productoras de sus propias pantallas; esa es la posibilidad política, comunicativa, cultural y tecnológica. Hoy todos devenimos productores. We can´t only be consumers, we must be citizens. This essay argues how audiences should become producers of messages that represent a culture of resistance, from its narrative and aesthetics needs, in order to find a place of sense in a world of screens. Hence, new audiences stop being just consumers to get the status of producers of their own screens. This is a contemporary, political, cultural, technological and communicative possibility. Today, we all have to become producers.

  4. Training on Transport Security of Nuclear/Radioactive Materials for Key Audiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, Ronald; Liu, Yung; Shuler, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    development of the relevant teaching materials for the course have largely been completed, tailoring the course for targeted audiences becomes a relatively easy task, requiring less effort and providing more flexibility for both the lecturers and future participants. One-day or two-day courses with focus specifically on the U.S. transport security requirements can be delivered, at locations away from Argonne, by one or two principal lecturers to targeted audiences such as regulators, shippers, carriers, state and local law enforcement personnel, and emergency responders. This paper will highlight the lessons learned in hosting previous one-week courses and discuss the development of options for detailed and/or customized courses/workshops for targeted key audiences.

  5. The current status of fluoride salt cooled high temperature reactor (FHR) technology and its overlap with HIF target chamber concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlat, Raluca O.; Peterson, Per F.

    2014-01-01

    The fluoride salt cooled high temperature reactor (FHR) is a class of fission reactor designs that use liquid fluoride salt coolant, TRISO coated particle fuel, and graphite moderator. Heavy ion fusion (HIF) can likewise make use of liquid fluoride salts, to create thick or thin liquid layers to protect structures in the target chamber from ablation by target X-rays and damage from fusion neutron irradiation. This presentation summarizes ongoing work in support of design development and safety analysis of FHR systems. Development work for fluoride salt systems with application to both FHR and HIF includes thermal-hydraulic modeling and experimentation, salt chemistry control, tritium management, salt corrosion of metallic alloys, and development of major components (e.g., pumps, heat exchangers) and gas-Brayton cycle power conversion systems. In support of FHR development, a thermal-hydraulic experimental test bay for separate effects (SETs) and integral effect tests (IETs) was built at UC Berkeley, and a second IET facility is under design. The experiments investigate heat transfer and fluid dynamics and they make use of oils as simulant fluids at reduced scale, temperature, and power of the prototypical salt-cooled system. With direct application to HIF, vortex tube flow was investigated in scaled experiments with mineral oil. Liquid jets response to impulse loading was likewise studied using water as a simulant fluid. A set of four workshops engaging industry and national laboratory experts were completed in 2012, with the goal of developing a technology pathway to the design and licensing of a commercial FHR. The pathway will include experimental and modeling efforts at universities and national laboratories, requirements for a component test facility for reliability testing of fluoride salt equipment at prototypical conditions, requirements for an FHR test reactor, and development of a pre-conceptual design for a commercial reactor.

  6. Integrative production technology theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Özdemir, Denis

    2017-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the research results of the Cluster of Excellence “Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries”, funded by the German Research Society (DFG). The approach to the topic is genuinely interdisciplinary, covering insights from fields such as engineering, material sciences, economics and social sciences. The book contains coherent deterministic models for integrative product creation chains as well as harmonized cybernetic models of production systems. The content is structured into five sections: Integrative Production Technology, Individualized Production, Virtual Production Systems, Integrated Technologies, Self-Optimizing Production Systems and Collaboration Productivity.The target audience primarily comprises research experts and practitioners in the field of production engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students. .

  7. Applying the principles of adult learning to the teaching of psychopharmacology: audience response systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Stephen M; Davis, Richard L

    2009-08-01

    Medical presentations can be enhanced by systematically collecting audience feedback. This is readily accomplished with polling systems, called audience response systems. Several systems are now available that are small, inexpensive, and can be readily integrated into standard powerpoint presentations without the need for a technician. Use of audience response systems has several advantages. These include improving attentiveness, increasing learning, polling anonymously, tracking individual and group responses, gauging audience understanding, adding interactivity and fun, and evaluating both participant learning and instructor teaching. Tips for how to write questions for audience response systems are also included.

  8. Exposing earth surface process model simulations to a large audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, I.; Kettner, A. J.; Borkowski, L.; Russell, E. L.; Peddicord, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System (CSDMS) represents a diverse group of >1300 scientists who develop and apply numerical models to better understand the Earth's surface. CSDMS has a mandate to make the public more aware of model capabilities and therefore started sharing state-of-the-art surface process modeling results with large audiences. One platform to reach audiences outside the science community is through museum displays on 'Science on a Sphere' (SOS). Developed by NOAA, SOS is a giant globe, linked with computers and multiple projectors and can display data and animations on a sphere. CSDMS has developed and contributed model simulation datasets for the SOS system since 2014, including hydrological processes, coastal processes, and human interactions with the environment. Model simulations of a hydrological and sediment transport model (WBM-SED) illustrate global river discharge patterns. WAVEWATCH III simulations have been specifically processed to show the impacts of hurricanes on ocean waves, with focus on hurricane Katrina and super storm Sandy. A large world dataset of dams built over the last two centuries gives an impression of the profound influence of humans on water management. Given the exposure of SOS, CSDMS aims to contribute at least 2 model datasets a year, and will soon provide displays of global river sediment fluxes and changes of the sea ice free season along the Arctic coast. Over 100 facilities worldwide show these numerical model displays to an estimated 33 million people every year. Datasets storyboards, and teacher follow-up materials associated with the simulations, are developed to address common core science K-12 standards. CSDMS dataset documentation aims to make people aware of the fact that they look at numerical model results, that underlying models have inherent assumptions and simplifications, and that limitations are known. CSDMS contributions aim to familiarize large audiences with the use of numerical

  9. The entry to Kolarac foundation: Cultural activity and music audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadžibulić Sabina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Foundation of Ilija Milosavljević Kolarac (also known as Kolarac Foundation; in Serbian: Kolarčeva zadužbina was established simultaneously with the development of the most important modern cultural institutions in Serbia in the 19th century. The quality and diversity of the program, the ability to recognize important topics in the current time, as well as preservation of the old and encouragement of new ideas in almost all domains of art and science have contributed to its unquestionable reputation throughout the region. However, there have been no significant academic attempts to approach its work analytically and, in particular, its audience. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the work of Kolarac Foundation by presenting the origin and history of the institution, followed by an analysis of the program of all its activities in the first ten seasons of the new millennium. The central part of the paper is an analysis of its cultural activity in the given period. Finally, by using empirical data, the music audence of Great Hall (Velika Dvorana of Kolarac Foundation is profiled through its basic socio-demographic characteristics and music practices. The music audience mainly consisted of women, highly educated professionals with a high material standard. The share of the oldest and those from 21 to 30 years old is the highest and, at the same time, equal. This audience is authentically fond of music, with no exceptions at all. Its members listen to music on everyday basis, and they were attending concerts in the year before the investigation. They find music to be an inevitable part of their lives, and cannot imagine emotional expression or making friendships without it. Finally, they sincerely like coming to Kolarac Foundation since they find it to be a place that has all the positive treats of a good cultural institution.

  10. Peer pressure to "Fat talk": Does audience type influence how women portray their body image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Ashley B; Martz, Denise M; Bazzini, Doris G

    2007-04-01

    "Fat talk" describes women discussing their bodies disparangingly for impression management while interacting with one another. This study examined whether college females deliberately alter their self-reported body image according to characteristics of their prospective audience. This study was a mixed experimental design with four audience conditions (private, public, female audience, male audience) as the between-subjects factor and time across trials as the within-subjects factor using college females as participants (N=100). Pre versus posttest changes on the Body Esteem Scale (BES) and the Body Weight Figure Assessment (BWFA) served as the dependent variables. It was hypothesized that body image would decrease to indicate self-derogation (fat talk) in the public audience and female audience conditions, whereas body image would increase in the male audience condition. These hypotheses were not supported using repeated measures ANOVA. Strengths and weaknesses of the study are discussed.

  11. MAIN FEATURES OF VIDEO MEDIA FOR PRESCHOOL AUDIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia GROMOVA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the impact of television on pre-school audience, namely on children from 0 to 6 years in the article. The author carefully analyzed the features of psychological and physical evolution of infantile (early age group (0-3 years and preschool children (3-6 ac-cording to which telecast must be created. The author analyzed program schedules of Russian TV channels with the aim to identify the availability of TV programs relevant to each preschool age group.

  12. Teaching Students how to Analyze and Adapt to Audiences

    OpenAIRE

    Seiter, John S.; Gass, R. H.

    2007-01-01

    Not long ago, one of the author's students told him, “I won't be able to make it to your class today. I have to study for a test in another course. Will I miss anything important?” The author, of course, had heard this excuse before, as many of us probably have. What made this interaction more amusing was what, by coincidence, the student was going to miss that day: a discussion on analyzing and adapting to audiences. Had she attended the class, we wonder if she would understand the negative ...

  13. From everyday communicative figurations to rigorous audience news repertoires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobbernagel, Christian; Schrøder, Kim Christian

    2016-01-01

    In the last couple of decades there has been an unprecedented explosion of news media platforms and formats, as a succession of digital and social media have joined the ranks of legacy media. We live in a ‘hybrid media system’ (Chadwick, 2013), in which people build their cross-media news reperto...... of six audience news repertoires in Denmark, also preserves the qualitative thickness of the participants’ verbal accounts of the communicative figurations of their day-in-the-life with the news media...

  14. Research of Public Opinion: The First Step For Building Audiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmor Rhoden

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article show how the Research of Public Opinion itself presents required for building audiences in potential. It details, to begin with, the delimitation of public opinion concept, articulating it over the social aspects from society over the so called mediatization. After that, it’s presented and analyzed the development, application, description and analyses process’ of data obtained trough opinion research, due to the achievement from Unipampa Fm, an academic radio program, at São Borja-RS. It’s identified that the Public Opinion Research is an important assistance and source for implementation and practice of communication.

  15. Theater Activities for Jung Opera Audience: An Educational Urgency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elita Maule

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Numerous studies have led researchers to conclude that the socio-demographic profile of the public of classical music appears to be quite generalizable. However, the survey of the opera public, a classical music subgenre that is often associated with theater performances, appears to be much more difficult to quantify and has not yet been the subject of specific investigations (1. The drastic decrease in audience attendance, especially among young people, has led to a radical change in the management of all the opera houses in Europe (2. The research here presented has explored, through a representative sample of twenty-four Theatres in twelve different European countries, all practitioners of Opera Education, the complex interaction of personal, social and cultural factors that have led the theatres to interact with the educational system and the school curricula (3. A research on the different methods applied for teaching Opera to young people has led to attention being given especially to what is now called “Dramatic Interpretation of Music Theatre”, a method developed within Germany but now accepted by the majority of Opera Houses in Northern Europe (4. Approach: The research on educational projects for young people was made through the analysis of the web-sites of 24 theatres: 12 of these were members of Reseo, the network of partners involved in opera education that was proposed and promoted by the European Community in 1999; 12 other theatres, although belonging to other such networks were not members of Reseo. Results: (1 Opera seems to attract a rather limited public that occupies, in terms of number, the last places in the classification; the amount of people who listen to classical music is double that of those who listen to opera. (2. Educating the audience and, therefore, organizing also didactic projects for young people, has become for theaters a means to ensure their future survival. (3. The European Opera

  16. Bringing the Great American Eclipse of 2017 to Audiences across the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C. A.; Mayo, L.; Cline, T. D.; Ng, C.; Stephenson, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    The August 21, 2017 eclipse across America will be seen by an estimated 500 million people from northern Canada to South America as well as parts of western Europe and Africa. Through This "Great American Eclipse" NASA in partnership with Google, the American Parks Network, American Astronomical Society, the Astronomical League, and numerous other science, education, outreach, and public communications groups and organizations will develop the approaches, resources, partnerships, and technology applications necessary to bring the excitement and the science of the August 21st, 2017 total solar eclipse across America to formal and informal audiences in the US and around the world. This effort will be supported by the highly visible and successful Sun Earth Days program and will be the main theme for Sun-Earth Days 2017.This presentation will discuss NASA's education and communication plans for the eclipse and will detail a number of specific programs and partnerships being leveraged to enhance our reach and impact.

  17. Opening New Doors: Hands-On Participation Brings a New Audience to the Clay Studio. Wallace Studies in Building Arts Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Bob; Heywood, Tricia

    2015-01-01

    This case study examines how The Clay Studio, a ceramic-arts studio, gallery and shop in Philadelphia, attracted younger audiences to its workshops and exhibits. In 2007, the studio became concerned that its audience was getting older and few newcomers were signing up for classes or making purchases. The studio had to engage younger professionals…

  18. Clearing the fog of anticancer patents from 1993-2013: through an in-depth technology landscape & target analysis from pioneer research institutes and universities worldwide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Dara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a search for an effective anticancer therapy the R&D units from leading universities and institutes reveal numerous technologies in the form of patent documents. The article addressed comparative anticancer patent landscape and technology assessment of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR: India's largest R&D organisation with top twenty international public funded universities and institutes from eight different countries. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The methodology include quantitative and qualitative assessment based on the bibliometric parameters and manual technology categorisation to understand the changing patent trends and recent novel technologies. The research finding analysed 25,254 patent documents from the year 1993 to 2013 and reported the insights of latest anticancer technologies and targets through categorisation studies at the level of drug discovery, development and treatment & diagnosis. The article has reported the technology correlation matrix of twelve secondary class technologies with 34 tertiary sub-class research area to identify the leading technologies and scope of future research through whitespaces analysis. In addition, the results have also addressed the target analysis, leading inventor, assignee, collaboration network, geographical distribution, patent trend analysis, citation maps and technology assessment with respect to international patent classification systems such as CPC, IPC and CPI codes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The result suggested peptide technology as the dominating research area next to gene therapy, vaccine and medical preparation containing organic compounds. The Indian CSIR has ranked itself at seventh position among the top 20 universities. Globally, the anticancer research was focused in the area of genetics and immunology, whereas Indian CSIR reported more patents related to plant extract and organic preparation. The article provided a glimpse of two decade

  19. Question Driven Instruction with Classroom Response Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerace, William; Beatty, Ian

    2007-10-01

    Essentially, a classroom response system is technology that: 1) allows an instructor to present a question or problem to the class; 2) allows students to enter their answers into some kind of device; and 3) instantly aggregates and summarizes students' answers for the instructor, usually as a histogram. Most response systems provide additional functionality. Some additional names for this class of system (or for subsets of the class) are classroom communication system (CCS), audience response system (ARS), voting machine system, audience feedback system, and--most ambitiously--CATAALYST system (for ``Classroom Aggregation Technology for Activating and Assessing Learning and Your Students' Thinking''). UMPERG has been teaching with and researching classroom response systems since 1993. We find that the technology has the potential to transform the way we teach science in large lecture settings. CRSs can serve as catalysts for creating a more interactive, student-centered classroom in the lecture hall, thereby allowing students to become more actively involved in constructing and using knowledge. CRSs not only make it easier to engage students in learning activities during lecture but also enhance the communication among students, and between the students and the instructor. This enhanced communication assists the students and the instructor in assessing understanding during class time, and affords the instructor the opportunity to devise instructional interventions that target students' needs as they arise.

  20. Social facilitation of cognition in rhesus monkeys: audience vs. coaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie J. Reynaud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Social psychology has long established that the mere presence of a conspecific, be it an active co-performer (coaction effect, or a passive spectator (audience effect changes behavior in humans. Yet, the process mediating this fundamental social influence has so far eluded us. Brain research and its nonhuman primate animal model, the rhesus macaque, could shed new light on this long debated issue. For this approach to be fruitful, however, we need to improve our patchy knowledge about social presence influence in rhesus macaques. Here, seven adults (two dyads and one triad performed a simple cognitive task consisting in touching images to obtain food treats, alone versus in presence of a co-performer or a spectator. As in humans, audience sufficed to enhance performance to the same magnitude as coaction. Effect sizes were however 4 times larger than those typically reported in humans in similar tasks. Both findings are an encouragement to pursue brain and behavior research in the rhesus macaque to help solve the riddle of social facilitation mechanisms.

  1. Social Facilitation of Cognition in Rhesus Monkeys: Audience Vs. Coaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Amélie J; Guedj, Carole; Hadj-Bouziane, Fadila; Meunier, Martine; Monfardini, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Social psychology has long established that the mere presence of a conspecific, be it an active co-performer (coaction effect), or a passive spectator (audience effect) changes behavior in humans. Yet, the process mediating this fundamental social influence has so far eluded us. Brain research and its nonhuman primate animal model, the rhesus macaque, could shed new light on this long debated issue. For this approach to be fruitful, however, we need to improve our patchy knowledge about social presence influence in rhesus macaques. Here, seven adults (two dyads and one triad) performed a simple cognitive task consisting in touching images to obtain food treats, alone vs. in presence of a co-performer or a spectator. As in humans, audience sufficed to enhance performance to the same magnitude as coaction. Effect sizes were however four times larger than those typically reported in humans in similar tasks. Both findings are an encouragement to pursue brain and behavior research in the rhesus macaque to help solve the riddle of social facilitation mechanisms.

  2. Captivating Broad Audiences with an Internet-connected Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, K.; Elliott, L.; Gervais, F.; Juniper, K.; Owens, D.; Pirenne, B.

    2012-12-01

    NEPTUNE Canada, a network of Ocean Networks Canada and the first deep water cabled ocean observatory, began operations in December 2009. Located offshore Canada's west coast, the network streams data from passive, active, and interactive sensors positioned at five nodes along its 800 km long looped cable to the Internet. This technically advanced system includes a sophisticated data management and archiving system, which enables the collection of real-time physical, chemical, geological, and biological oceanographic data, including video, at resolutions relevant for furthering our understanding of the dynamics of the earth-ocean system. Scientists in Canada and around the world comprise the primary audience for these data, but NEPTUNE Canada is also serving these data to broader audiences including K-16 students and teachers, informal educators, citizen scientists, the press, and the public. Here we present our engagement tools, approaches, and experiences including electronic books, personal phone apps, Internet-served video, social media, mini-observatory systems, print media, live broadcasting from sea, and a citizen scientist portal.NEPTUNE Canada's ibook available on Apple's iBook store.

  3. MEDIA AND THE AUDIENCE-DRIVEN DISSEMINATION OF NOTHINGNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Petra MARINESCU-NENCIU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available On the one hand, the present paper tries to figure out the premises for the nowadays twisted relationship existing between mass media and audience in times when the televisual message gets continuously adapted in order to fit the needs of a chameleonic globalized audience that contradicts the growing ratings by declaring its discontent regarding the received mediated information. Therefore, the article tries to explain why people keep watching TV and prioritize exactly the media providers that offer them the least of what they supposedly look for. On the other hand, the study intends to shed a new light over the twists that take place in the mass media realm itself. If until recently the media have been known as the best providers of instrumental information that helped the public control the surrounding environment, the lately growing interest in general information may conduct to a change of paradigm in the self-attributed functions of both new and old mass communication media.

  4. Tips for using mobile audience response systems in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gousseau M

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Michael Gousseau, Connor Sommerfeld, Adrian Gooi Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada Background: With growing evidence on the benefits of active learning, audience response systems (ARSs have been increasingly used in conferences, business, and education. With the introduction of mobile ARS as an alternative to physical clickers, there are increasing opportunities to use this tool to improve interactivity in medical education. Aim: The aim of this study is to provide strategies on using mobile ARS in medical education by discussing steps for implementation and pitfalls to avoid. Method: The tips presented reflect our commentary of the literature and our experiences using mobile ARS in medical education. Results: This article offers specific strategies for the preparation, implementation, and assessment of medical education teaching sessions using mobile ARS. Conclusion: We hope these tips will help instructors use mobile ARS as a tool to improve student interaction, teaching effectiveness, and participant enjoyment in medical education. Keywords: mobile audience response systems, active learning, medical education, ARS

  5. Media Text and Audiences: Discursive Constructions of Fandom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Popović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the research findings obtained from a research project investigating media audiences and their reception of a cult-television (Cult TV text, namely Da Ali G Show. The audience research comprises 18 semi-structured interviews conducted in London (the United Kingdom and in Zagreb (Croatia aimed at establishing how fandom is discursively constructed. The analysis of the interpretive community in two distinct socio-cultural contexts showed that there were more similarities than differences overall. The practices engaged in by the interviewees mostly involved making a conscious effort to regularly watch the primary text as well as to show an interest in the future work of the author. The research showed that interviewees typically engaged in a type of ‘moderate’ fandom, whilst strong emotional attachments were seen as negative, as was intrusiveness into people’s privacy. This indicates a split between the signifier and the signified: the term ‘fan’ was readily adopted by interviewees in describing their relationship to the text; however, the meaning was negotiated and carefully constructed so as to disassociate oneself from the extreme, passionate, irrational connotation that the etymology of the term carries.

  6. Science and Faith: Discussing Astronomy Research with Religious Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.

    2006-12-01

    An important component of our outreach as research astronomers involves interaction with the religious community. From my personal perspective, being an active research astronomer who is also a practicing Christian, I am sometimes invited to present the latest astronomical research to church audiences and other religious groups; belonging to both communities thereby provides a valuable means of contributing to the dialogue between science and religion. These opportunities can be used to explain that science and religion are not necessarily in conflict but can be considered to be quite complementary. For instance, an important aspect of religion deals with the purpose of our existence, while science is more focussed on providing physical explanations for what we observe in the world, using a well-defined scientific process. Hence, religious believers need not necessarily abandon their faith in order to accept mainstream scientific research; these address very different and complementary aspects of our existence. Recent ideas such as Intelligent Design attempt to address the scientific method, but do not address the ultimate religious question of purpose and do not contribute towards reconciling science and religion in this sense. Ultimately, every individual arrives at their own understanding of this rather complex interplay; I will present some personal reflections on general approaches for discussing mainstream astronomical research with religious audiences, aimed at helping to advance the dialogue between religion and science in general.

  7. Interface of Linguistic and Visual Information During Audience Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumura, Kumiko

    2015-08-01

    Evidence suggests that speakers can take account of the addressee's needs when referring. However, what representations drive the speaker's audience design has been less clear. This study aims to go beyond previous studies by investigating the interplay between the visual and linguistic context during audience design. Speakers repeated subordinate descriptions (e.g., firefighter) given in the prior linguistic context less and used basic-level descriptions (e.g., man) more when the addressee did not hear the linguistic context than when s/he did. But crucially, this effect happened only when the referent lacked the visual attributes associated with the expressions (e.g., the referent was in plain clothes rather than in a firefighter uniform), so there was no other contextual cue available for the identification of the referent. This suggests that speakers flexibly use different contextual cues to help their addressee map the referring expression onto the intended referent. In addition, speakers used fewer pronouns when the addressee did not hear the linguistic antecedent than when s/he did. This suggests that although speakers may be egocentric during anaphoric reference (Fukumura & Van Gompel, 2012), they can cooperatively avoid pronouns when the linguistic antecedents were not shared with their addressee during initial reference.

  8. Physical activity in the mass media: an audience perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ben J; Bonfiglioli, Catriona M F

    2015-04-01

    Physical activity's role in promoting health is highlighted in public health campaigns, news and current affairs, reality television and other programs. An investigation of audience exposure, beliefs and reactions to media portrayals of physical activity offers insights into the salience and influence of this communication. An audience reception study was conducted involving in-depth interviews with 46 adults in New South Wales, Australia. The sample was stratified by gender, age group, area of residence and body mass index. Most respondents could only recall media coverage of physical activity with prompting. Television was the primary channel of exposure, with reality television the dominant source, followed by news programs and sports coverage. The messages most readily recalled were the health risks of inactivity, especially obesity, and the necessity of keeping active. Physical activity was regarded as a matter of personal volition, or for children, parental responsibility. Respondents believed that the media had given physical activity inadequate attention, focused too heavily on risks and not provided practical advice. In Australia, there is a need to counter the framing of physical activity by reality television, and engage the media to generate understanding of the socioecological determinants of inactivity. Physical activity campaigns should deliver positive and practical messages.

  9. MEDIA AND THE AUDIENCE-DRIVEN DISSEMINATION OF NOTHINGNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Petra MARINESCU-NENCIU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available On the one hand, the present paper tries to figure out the premises for the nowadays twisted relationship existing between mass media and audience in times when the televisual message gets continuously adapted in order to fit the needs of a chameleonic globalized audience that contradicts the growing ratings by declaring its discontent regarding the received mediated information. Therefore, the article tries to explain why people keep watching TV and prioritize exactly the media providers that offer them the least of what they supposedly look for. On the other hand, the study intends to shed a new light over the twists that take place in the mass media realm itself. If until recently the media have been known as the best providers of instrumental information that helped the public control the surrounding environment, the lately growing interest in general information may conduct to a change of paradigm in the self-attributed functions of both new and old mass communication media.

  10. Engaging the audience: developing presentation skills in science students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Ann E

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a graduate class in presentation skills ("PClass") as a model for how a class with similar objectives, expectations and culture might be mounted for undergraduates. The required class is given for students in neuroscience and physiology programs at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; I describe the class in the years I led it, from 2003-2012. The class structure centered on peer rehearsal, critiquing of PowerPoint, and chalk talks by the students; video-recording of student talks for later review by the student with the instructor; and presentation of polished talks in a formal setting. A different faculty visitor to the class each week gave the students a variety of perspectives. The students also gained insight into their own evolving skills by discussing the strengths and weaknesses of seminars given by visitors to the campus. A unique feature of the class was collaboration with a professional actor from the University's Department of Dramatic Arts, who helped the students develop techniques for keeping the attention of an audience, for speaking with confidence, and for controlling nervousness. The undergraduate campus would be expected to lend itself to this sort of interdisciplinary faculty cooperation. In addition, students worked on becoming adept at designing and presenting posters, introducing speakers graciously and taking charge of the speaker's question session, and speaking to a lay audience.

  11. Sex-Specific Audience Effect in the Context of Mate Choice in Zebra Finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Kniel

    Full Text Available Animals observing conspecifics during mate choice can gain additional information about potential mates. However, the presence of an observer, if detected by the observed individuals, can influence the nature of the behavior of the observed individuals, called audience effect. In zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata castanotis, domesticated males show an audience effect during mate choice. However, whether male and female descendants of the wild form show an audience effect during mate choice is unknown. Therefore, we conducted an experiment where male and female focal birds could choose between two distinctive phenotypes of the opposite sex, an artificially adorned stimulus bird with a red feather on the forehead and an unadorned stimulus bird, two times consecutively, once without an audience and once with an audience bird (same sex as test bird. Males showed an audience effect when an audience male was present and spent more time with adorned and less time with unadorned females compared to when there was no audience present. The change in time spent with the respective stimulus females was positively correlated with the time that the audience male spent in front of its cage close to the focal male. Females showed no change in mate choice when an audience female was present, but their motivation to associate with both stimulus males decreased. In a control for mate-choice consistency there was no audience in either test. Here, both focal females and focal males chose consistently without a change in choosing motivation. Our results showed that there is an audience effect on mate choice in zebra finches and that the response to a same-sex audience was sex-specific.

  12. Sex-Specific Audience Effect in the Context of Mate Choice in Zebra Finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniel, Nina; Bender, Stefanie; Witte, Klaudia

    2016-01-01

    Animals observing conspecifics during mate choice can gain additional information about potential mates. However, the presence of an observer, if detected by the observed individuals, can influence the nature of the behavior of the observed individuals, called audience effect. In zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata castanotis), domesticated males show an audience effect during mate choice. However, whether male and female descendants of the wild form show an audience effect during mate choice is unknown. Therefore, we conducted an experiment where male and female focal birds could choose between two distinctive phenotypes of the opposite sex, an artificially adorned stimulus bird with a red feather on the forehead and an unadorned stimulus bird, two times consecutively, once without an audience and once with an audience bird (same sex as test bird). Males showed an audience effect when an audience male was present and spent more time with adorned and less time with unadorned females compared to when there was no audience present. The change in time spent with the respective stimulus females was positively correlated with the time that the audience male spent in front of its cage close to the focal male. Females showed no change in mate choice when an audience female was present, but their motivation to associate with both stimulus males decreased. In a control for mate-choice consistency there was no audience in either test. Here, both focal females and focal males chose consistently without a change in choosing motivation. Our results showed that there is an audience effect on mate choice in zebra finches and that the response to a same-sex audience was sex-specific.

  13. NASA's CSTI Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion Program - On-target technology transfer to advanced space flight programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, William J. D.; Herr, Paul N.; Stephenson, Frank W., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Civil Space Technology Initiative encompasses among its major elements the Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion Program (ETOPP) for future launch vehicles, which is budgeted to the extent of $20-30 million/year for the development of essential technologies. ETOPP technologies include, in addition to advanced materials and processes and design/analysis computational tools, the advanced systems-synthesis technologies required for definition of highly reliable LH2 and hydrocarbon fueled rocket engines to be operated at significantly reduced levels of risk and cost relative to the SSME. Attention is given to the technology-transfer services of ETOPP.

  14. Sun-Earth Connection EPO's with Multiple Uses and Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, S. Q.; Johnson, R. M.; Russell, R.; Lu, G.; Richmond, A.; Maute, A.; Haller, D.; Conery, C.; Bintner, G.; Kiessling, D.; Hughes, W. J.

    2005-05-01

    The three-year life of an EPO grant can be a journey guided by clear goals and enriched by collaborative and outreach opportunities connecting Space sciences to Earth sciences for both K-12 and public audiences. This point is illustrated by two EPO projects funded by NASA Sun-Earth Connection research grants to the High Altitude Observatory (HAO) at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. They are entering their final year coordinated by the Office of Education and Outreach at University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. The content focus of both projects is well aligned with HAO's research mission and the expertise of our scientists, addressing solar dynamics, space weather, and the impacts of solar events on the magnetosphere, as well as societies inhabiting Earth's surface. The first project (Gang Lu, PI) develops presentation resources, inquiry activities, and tips that will help HAO scientists be better prepared to visit K-12 classrooms. Unexpectedly, the simultaneous development of a Teachers' Guide to NCAR's new Climate Discovery exhibit, which takes an Earth system approach to climate and global change, has created a niche for this EPO resource to be revised and repurposed for a needed unit in the guide about the exhibit's graphic panels on Sun-Earth connections. The second project (Art Richmond, PI) engages two high school "Teachers in Residence" to develop resources they can utilize with their students. Excited by exceptional educational graphics and animations in the new Physics of the Aurora: Earth Systems module co-produced by HAO and the COMET Program for advanced undergraduate courses, they chose to adapt appropriate sections of the module to enrich Earth science and math concepts addressed in their 9th and 10th grade astronomy and general physics classes. Simultaneously, the Windows to the Universe web site, which continuously updates space science content and is now developing a new Space Weather section with support from the Center for

  15. Audience Accommodation in Terms of Audience's Wants in English Writings%英语写作中需求方面的读者顺应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昌奇

    2012-01-01

    写作是作者与读者的一种交流,读者在写作过程中占据极其重要的地位。写作中需求层面的读者顺应是指作者从读者入手,正确判断读者的阅读需求,通过语域方面的顺应、得体定位、价值凸显,以促进读者对话语的认同。达到有效交际的目的。%Written text is a way of communication with audience,so audience plays an im- portant role in writing. Audience accommodation in terms of audience' s want in English writ- ings means that the writer, starting from audience,rightly estimating his audience' s wants, pres- ents his ideas by ways of genre analysis, value-bursting and propriety in settings that can best facilitate his audience's identification, by which an effective communication can be achieved.

  16. Framing political messages to fit the audience's regulatory orientation: how to improve the efficacy of the same message content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Mannetti

    Full Text Available This research investigates how the impact of persuasive messages in the political domain can be improved when fit is created by subliminally priming recipients' regulatory focus (either promotion or prevention and by linguistic framing of the message (either strategic approach framing or strategic avoidance framing. Results of two studies show that regulatory fit: a increases the impact of a political message favoring nuclear energy on implicit attitudes of the target audience (Study 1; and b induces a more positive evaluation of, and intentions to vote for, the political candidate who is delivering a message concerning immigration policies (Study 2.

  17. Framing political messages to fit the audience's regulatory orientation: how to improve the efficacy of the same message content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannetti, Lucia; Brizi, Ambra; Giacomantonio, Mauro; Higgins, E Tory

    2013-01-01

    This research investigates how the impact of persuasive messages in the political domain can be improved when fit is created by subliminally priming recipients' regulatory focus (either promotion or prevention) and by linguistic framing of the message (either strategic approach framing or strategic avoidance framing). Results of two studies show that regulatory fit: a) increases the impact of a political message favoring nuclear energy on implicit attitudes of the target audience (Study 1); and b) induces a more positive evaluation of, and intentions to vote for, the political candidate who is delivering a message concerning immigration policies (Study 2).

  18. [Compensatory self-enhancement as a strategy for the multiple audience problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasagi, Yuu; Daibo, Ikuo

    2010-04-01

    This study examined how people can handle the multiple audience problem of self-presentation (Fleming, 1994), when faced with two or more audiences while simultaneously wanting each audience to form or maintain a different impression of the presenter. In the laboratory, female participants had a brief conversation with either an opposite-sex (male) or a same-sex (female) confederate. The results showed that when no one else observed the conversation, the participants presented themselves as physically attractive to the opposite-sex more than to the same-sex audience. On the other hand, when another same-sex individual was observing the conversation, the participants presented themselves to the opposite-sex audience as less physically attractive but more socially desirable and friendly. The importance of this compensatory self-enhancement strategy in the multiple-audience situation is discussed.

  19. The Audience Wheel as a Technic to Create Transformative Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helth, Poula

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this chapter is to document how a new learning technic may create transformative learning in leadership in an organisational practice. Design/methodology/approach: The learning methods developed in the learning in practice (LIP) project include aesthetic performances...... combined with reflections. The intention has been to explore how leadership may be transformed, when leaders work as a collective of leaders. The learning methods developed and tested in the LIP project are art-informed learning methods, concepts of liminality and reflection processes carried out...... in the leaders’ organisational practice. Findings: One of the most important findings in the LIP project in relation to transformative learning is a new learning technique based on guided processes rooted in aesthetic performance combined with reflections and separation of roles as performer and audience...

  20. Receptive Audiences for Climate Change Education: Understanding Attitudes and Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, L. D.; Luebke, J. F.; Clayton, S.; Saunders, C. D.; Matiasek, J.; Grajal, A.

    2012-12-01

    Much effort has been devoted to finding ways to explain climate change to uninterested audiences and encourage mitigation behaviors among dismissive audiences. Most approaches have focused on conveying information about climate change processes or threats. Here we report the results of a national survey designed to characterize the readiness of zoo and aquarium visitors to engage with the issue of climate change. Two survey forms, one focused primarily on attitudes (N=3,594) and another on behaviors (N=3,588), were administered concurrently in summer 2011 at 15 Association of Zoos and Aquariums accredited institutions. The attitudes survey used Global Warming's Six Americas segmentation protocols (climatechangecommunication.org) to compare climate change attitudes of zoo and aquarium visitors with the American public (Leiserowitz et al., 2011). Our results reveal that visitors are receptive audiences for climate change education and want to do more to address climate change. Even these favorable audiences, however, perceive barriers to engaging in the issue, signifying the importance of meeting the learning needs of those who acknowledge anthropogenic climate change, and not only of climate change 'deniers.' While 39% of the general public is 'concerned' or 'alarmed' about global warming, 64% of zoo and aquarium visitors fall into these two "Six Americas" segments. Visitors also differ from the national sample in key attitudinal characteristics related to global warming. For example, nearly two-thirds believe human actions are related to global warming, versus less than one-half of the general public; and approximately 60% think global warming will harm them personally, moderately or a great deal, versus less than 30% of the general public. Moreover, 69% of visitors would like to do more to address climate change. Despite zoo and aquarium visitors' awareness of climate change and motivation to address it, survey results indicate they experience barriers to

  1. Design as co-evolution of problem, solution, and audience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halstrøm, Per Liljenberg; Galle, Per

    2014-01-01

    The meaning of ‘design’ can be captured in a general way by a good definition, but even the best definition cannot provide an understanding sufficiently deep to guide the professional designer or the student of design in the intricate deliberations of doing design in practice. Therefore we explore...... design beyond the level of definitions, reviewing canonical theories about design as a professional enterprise. We find that the well-established theoretical notion of ‘co-evolution’ of problem and solution in design has its merits in regard to understanding design deliberations; but also that existing...... conceptual resources for conceiving of design in terms of such triple co-evolution. For example, many design products may be thought of as offering an audience a ‘subject position’ that hint at whom they should become. In support of the case we make for thinking in terms of constitutive rhetoric in design...

  2. Using Creative Visual Research Methods to Understand Media Audiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gauntlett

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces an emerging area of qualitative media «audience» research, in which individuals are asked to produce media or visual material themselves, as a way of exploring their relationship with particular issues or dimensions of media. The process of making a creative visual artefact – as well as the artefact itself (which may be, for example, a video, drawing, collage, or imagined magazine cover – offers a reflective entry-point into an exploration of individuals» relationships with media culture. This article sets out some of the origins, rationale and philosophy underlying this methodological approach; briefly discusses two example studies (one in which children made videos to consider their relationship with the environment, and one in which young people drew pictures of celebrities as part of an examination of their aspirations and identifications with stars; and finally considers some emerging issues for further development of this method.

  3. Audience, consequence, and journal selection in toxic-exposure epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rier, David A

    2004-10-01

    Even preliminary toxic-exposure epidemiology papers can spark "media scares" and questionable reactions amongst the public. Concerns for the social consequences of publication can lead epidemiologists--despite the advantages of visible publication--to choose a more obscure outlet for potentially sensitive studies. Interviews with 61 US toxic-exposure epidemiologists indicate that investigators generally sought visible journals to transmit their work to the widest relevant audience. Yet up to 36-46% of this sample sometimes have sought or would seek to keep their research from a public who, they feared, might misuse their results. Implications for the boundaries between science and society (including evidence of hidden scientific activism and "inert" public activism) are discussed, and six hypotheses for further research are proposed.

  4. Sequence based polymorphic (SBP marker technology for targeted genomic regions: its application in generating a molecular map of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahu Binod B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular markers facilitate both genotype identification, essential for modern animal and plant breeding, and the isolation of genes based on their map positions. Advancements in sequencing technology have made possible the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for any genomic regions. Here a sequence based polymorphic (SBP marker technology for generating molecular markers for targeted genomic regions in Arabidopsis is described. Results A ~3X genome coverage sequence of the Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype, Niederzenz (Nd-0 was obtained by applying Illumina's sequencing by synthesis (Solexa technology. Comparison of the Nd-0 genome sequence with the assembled Columbia-0 (Col-0 genome sequence identified putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs throughout the entire genome. Multiple 75 base pair Nd-0 sequence reads containing SNPs and originating from individual genomic DNA molecules were the basis for developing co-dominant SBP markers. SNPs containing Col-0 sequences, supported by transcript sequences or sequences from multiple BAC clones, were compared to the respective Nd-0 sequences to identify possible restriction endonuclease enzyme site variations. Small amplicons, PCR amplified from both ecotypes, were digested with suitable restriction enzymes and resolved on a gel to reveal the sequence based polymorphisms. By applying this technology, 21 SBP markers for the marker poor regions of the Arabidopsis map representing polymorphisms between Col-0 and Nd-0 ecotypes were generated. Conclusions The SBP marker technology described here allowed the development of molecular markers for targeted genomic regions of Arabidopsis. It should facilitate isolation of co-dominant molecular markers for targeted genomic regions of any animal or plant species, whose genomic sequences have been assembled. This technology will particularly facilitate the development of high density molecular marker maps, essential for

  5. Traditions of the Sun, One Model for Expanding Audience Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, I.; Paglierani, R.

    2006-12-01

    The Internet is a powerful tool with which to expand audience access, bringing students, teachers and the public to places and resources they might not otherwise visit or make use of. We will present Traditions of the Sun, an experiential Web site that invites exploration of the world's ancient observatories with special emphasis on Chaco Culture National Historic Park in the Four Corners region of the US and several sites in the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico. Traditions of the Sun includes resources in English and Spanish along with a unique trilingual on-line book, "Traditions of the Sun, A Photographic Journal," containing explanatory text in Yucatec Maya as well. Traditions of the Sun offers rich opportunities for virtual visits to ancient sites used for solar observing while learning about current NASA research on the Sun and indigenous solar practices within a larger historical and cultural context. The site contains hundreds of photographs, historic images and rich multimedia to help tell the story of the Sun-Earth Connection. Visitors to the site can zoom in on the great Mayan cities of Chichen Itza, Uxmal, Dzibilchaltun, and Mayapan to learn about Mayan astronomy, history, culture, and science. They can also visit Chaco Canyon to watch sunrise over Pueblo Bonito on the summer solstice, take a virtual reality tour of the great kiva at Casa Rinconada or see panoramic vistas from Fajada Butte, an area which, for preservation purposes, is restricted to the public. Traditions of the Sun provides one model of how exploration and discovery can come to life for both formal and informal audiences via the Internet. Traditions of the Sun is a collaborative project between NASA's Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum, the National Park Service, Instituto National de Antropologia e Historia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, and Ideum.

  6. Development of audience design in children with and without ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumura, Kumiko

    2016-01-01

    We examined 2 hypotheses concerning the development of audience design by contrasting children with and without autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in referential communication. The 2-stage hypothesis predicts that the ability to use contrastive size adjectives for ambiguity avoidance develops separately from and faster than the ability to avoid perspective-inappropriate descriptions for their addressee. The single-stage hypothesis assumes that both abilities reflect speakers' perspective-taking, and they should develop in tandem with each other. Experiment 1 found that 6- to 10-year-olds with and without ASD produced disambiguating size adjectives ("small door") equally often when the size-contrasting competitor (large door) was in the visual context shared with their addressee. When the competitor was hidden from their addressee, that is, it was part of children's privileged context, children with ASD produced more perspective-inappropriate size adjectives than those without ASD, providing support for the 2-stage model. Experiment 2 showed a similar pattern of results with 11- to 16-year-old adolescents. Compared with adults, 6- to 10-year-olds without ASD produced more perspective-inappropriate size adjectives in the privileged context, while producing fewer disambiguating size adjectives in the shared context, demonstrating more "egocentric" behaviors than adults. Importantly, whereas 11- to 16-year-olds without ASD produced disambiguating adjectives nearly as often as adults in the shared context, they produced perspective-inappropriate adjectives more than adults in the privileged context. This indicated that even in non-ASD, the ability to avoid perspective-inappropriate descriptions develops more slowly than the ability to avoid ambiguous descriptions, delaying the onset of adult-like audience design, consistent with the 2-stage hypothesis. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. The Dimensions of Performance Space – A Brief Anatomy of Space for a Moving Audience

    OpenAIRE

    Nyberg, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    This bachelor thesis work aims to identify in what ways the performance space can influence audience behaviour. The text concerns performances where the audience and the actors share the same space and where the audience is free to move in the performance space. Apart from the physical features of space, the social and temporal aspects of space are also considered in the text. The main question of the text is: how does the performance space influence the choices the spectators make when t...

  8. Modelling In-Store Consumer Behaviour Using Machine Learning and Digital Signage Audience Measurement Data

    OpenAIRE

    Ravnik, Robert; Solina, Franc; Žabkar, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Audience adaptive digital signage is a new emerging tech- nology, where public broadcasting displays adapt their content to the audience demographic and temporal features. The collected audience measurement data can be used as a unique basis for statistical analysis of viewing patterns, interactive display applications and also for further research and observer modelling. Here, we use machine learning methods on real-world digital signage viewership data to predict consumer behav- iour in a r...

  9. Victor and Erika Webnovela: An Innovative Generation @ Audience Engagement Strategy for Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Elizabeth L; Evans, W Douglas; Edberg, Marc C; Cleary, Sean D; Villalba, Ricardo; Batista, Idalina Cubilla

    2015-01-01

    Entertainment-education (E-E) approaches for young audiences continue to evolve in order to keep stride with younger generations' affinity for technology. E-E and novelas have been used with a wide variety of audiences in the United States, in particular hard-to-reach Latino populations, and have demonstrated effectiveness in disseminating culturally relevant prevention information for a wide variety of health-related risk factors and behaviors. This study discusses the formative research and active engagement of Latino youth living in Langley Park, Maryland, for the development and filming of an innovative 6-episode webnovela titled Victor and Erika (V&E). V&E is part of a larger branding strategy of the Adelante Positive Youth Development intervention that seeks to prevent substance abuse, sexual risk, and interpersonal violence among Latino youth; V&E is also an intervention component. The V&E webnovela is a dramatic portrayal of the lives of 2 immigrant Latino teenagers that also disseminates risk prevention messages. The storyline represents the turning the corner (to a better life) theme that underlies the Adelante intervention brand. Formative research was conducted for character development (n = 20) and creative development of the episodes (n = 14). Results of the formative research showed that youth recommended inclusion of the following topics in V&E episodes: sex, unintended pregnancy, fidelity, trust, family dynamics, immigration status, violence, school dropout, respect, home life, and poverty. Detailed character and episode descriptions are provided, and the implications of using the V&E series as a tool for in-person and online engagement of youth and the dissemination of prevention messages are also discussed.

  10. Perspective of mathematical modeling and research of targeted formation of disperse phase clusters in working media for the next-generation power engineering technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simos, Theodore E.; Kovalnogov, Vladislav N.; Shevchuk, Igor V.

    2017-07-01

    The perspective of mathematical modeling and research of formation of disperse phase clusters of working media for next-generation technologies of production and transformation of energy on organic and synthetic hydrocarbon fuel is presented. Approach to creation of a problem-oriented complex of the theory, the models, knowledge bases as well as software-and-informational tools providing in total an opportunity for high-precision simulation, working off and prototyping in a computing experiment of the perspective technologies based on optimization and targeted formation of disperse phase clusters of a working media is considered.

  11. Renegotiating GM crop regulation: Targeted gene-modification technology raises new issues for the oversight of genetically modified crops

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Targeted genetic modification, which enables scientists to genetically engineer plants more efficiently and precisely, challenges current process-based regulatory frameworks for genetically modified crops.

  12. Participatory Agricultural Extension from the Prospective of Audience-centered Communication Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Transformation process to Audience-centered Communication Theory is introduced,as well as the basic idea of the theory in China.It is believed that using Audience-centered Communication theory can help to consolidate the theoretical basis of participatory agricultural extension.The communication essence of agricultural extension activity is studied,which is spreaders send information to farmers;then,farmers filter and process the information,transform it into their own experiences and feed back on time.Internal logical relationship between audience-centered communication and participatory agricultural extension is studied.Effects of Audience-centered Communication Theory on participatory agricultural extension are analyzed.One is that the Audience-centered Communication Theory defines the guidance and implementation basis of agricultural extension activities;the other is that bringing Audience-centered Communication Theory into agricultural extension research can help to expend the agricultural extension.Several enlightenments of the theory to participatory agricultural extension are obtained.Firstly,take audience as the orientation and focus on the needs of the audience.Secondly,advocate the participatory approach of process;and emphasize the importance of internal audience participation.Thirdly,establish two-way interaction mechanism;and make the promoters understand the implementation and performance status on time.Fourthly,develop vernacular knowledge;and better integrate the innovation and practice.

  13. Effects of a supportive or an unsupportive audience on biological and psychological responses to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Shelley E; Seeman, Teresa E; Eisenberger, Naomi I; Kozanian, Tamar A; Moore, Amy N; Moons, Wesley G

    2010-01-01

    Although social support is related to substantial benefits for health and well-being, research has uncovered qualifications to its benefits. In a test of the psychological and biological impact of an audience on responses to laboratory stress challenges, 183 participants going through the Trier Social Stress Test experienced either (a) an unsupportive audience, (b) a supportive audience, or (c) no audience. Both audience conditions produced significantly stronger cortisol, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to the stress tasks, relative to the no-audience control, even though the supportive audience was rated as supportive. Contrary to hypotheses offered by several theories, these effects were not moderated by self-esteem, individual differences in psychological resources, or baseline social support. Psychological resources and baseline social support were, however, tied to more beneficial biological and psychological profiles at baseline and at recovery in some cases. It was concluded that when one must perform stressful tasks in front of an audience, evaluative concerns may outweigh the potential benefits of a supportive audience.

  14. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  15. Scientist Participation in Education and Public Outreach - Using Web Tools to Communicate the Scientific Process and Engage an Audience in Understanding Planetary Science: Examples with Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Data (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, N. E.

    2013-12-01

    Scientists often speak to the public about their science and the current state of understanding of their field. While many talks (including those by this author) typically feature static plots, figures, diagrams, and the odd movie/animation/visualization (when technology allows), it is now possible, using the web to guide an audience through the thought process of how a scientist tackles certain questions. The presentation will highlight examples of web tools that effectively illustrate how datasets are used to address questions of lunar science. Why would a scientist use precious time during a talk to interact with data, in real time? Why not just show the results and move on? Through experience it is evident that illustrating how data is analyzed, even in a simple form, engages an audience, and demonstrates the thought process when interacting with data. While it is clear that scientists are unlikely to use such a tool to conduct science, it illustrates how a member of the public can engage with mission data. An example is discussed below. When discussing the geology of the Moon, there is an enormous volume of data that can be used to explain what we know (or think we know) and how we know it. For example, the QuickMap interface (http://www.actgate.com/home/quickmap.htm) enables interaction with a set of data (images, spectral data, topography, radar data) across the entire Moon (http://target.lroc.asu.edu/q3/). This webtool enables a speaker the opportunity (given adequate web connectivity) to talk about features, such as a crater, and show it from multiple perspectives (e.g., plan view, oblique, topographically exaggerated) in a logical flow. The tool enables illustration of topographic profiles, 3-D perspectives, and data overlays. Now, one might ask why doing this demonstration in real time is valuable, over a set of static slides. In some cases static slides are best, and doing any real time demos is unfeasible. However, guiding an engaged audience through

  16. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1997--September 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, J. [ed.

    1998-12-01

    During this period, General Atomics (GA) and their partner Schafer Corporation were assigned 17 formal tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ``On-site Support`` at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). They fabricated and delivered over 1,200 hohlraum mandrels and numerous other micromachined components to LLNL, LANL, and SNLA. They produced more than 1,300 glass and plastic target capsules for LLNL, LANL, SNLA, and the University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). They also delivered nearly 2,000 various target foils and films for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and UR/LLE in FY98. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. During FY98, great progress was made by the GA/Schafer-UR/LLE-LANL team in the design, procurement, installation, and testing of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System (OCTS) that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA. The design phase was concluded for all components of the OCTS and all major components were procured and nearly all were fabricated. Many of the components were assembled and tested, and some have been shipped to UR/LLE. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require targets containing cryogenic layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. They are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program and support experiments at LLNL and LANL to generate and characterize cryogenic layers for these targets. They also contributed cryogenic support and developed concepts for NIF cryogenic targets. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  17. Increasing Enrollment by Better Serving Your Institution's Target Audiences through Benefit Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnow, Betsy

    The marketing technique of benefit segmentation may be effective in increasing enrollment in adult educational programs, according to a study at College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, Illinois. The study was conducted to test applicability of benefit segmentation to enrollment generation. The measuring instrument used in this study--the course improvement…

  18. Audiencing Research: Textual Experimentation and Targeting for Whose Reality? ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Yvonna S.

    Seen from within the discipline of qualitative methods, the move to experimental forms of representation of research is an effort to represent live experience more richly and to connect social science research more closely to literary, poetic, and performance forms that address communities and indigenous discursive structures outside of academe.…

  19. Assessment and Evaluation of the Utah Master Naturalist Program: Implications for Targeting Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larese-Casanova, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The Utah Master Naturalist Program trains citizens who provide education, outreach, and service to promote citizen stewardship of natural resources within their communities. In 2007-2008, the Watersheds module of the program was evaluated for program success, and participant knowledge was assessed. Assessment and evaluation results indicated that…

  20. Identifying Target Audiences for Graduate Programs among Mid-Career Communications Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Debra A.; Rose, Patricia B.

    1994-01-01

    A study of 308 communications professionals in south Florida investigated interest in graduate programs, both formal degree programs and professional continuing education. Results indicate the primary reason for enrollment in a formal degree program is not economic but perceived benefit to the employer. More minority group members wanted formal…

  1. Informing Extension Program Development through Audience Segmentation: Targeting High Water Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pei-wen; Lamm, Alexa J.; Dukes, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Human reliance on water has led to water issues globally. Although extension professionals have made efforts successfully to educate the general public about water conservation to enhance water resource sustainability, difficulty has been found in reaching high water users, defined as residents irrigating excessively to their landscape irrigation…

  2. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support. Annual report, October 1, 1996--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, J. [ed.

    1998-03-01

    This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1996 through September 30, 1997. During this period, GA and their partner Schafer Corporation were assigned 13 formal tasks in support of the ICF program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct {open_quotes}Onsite Support{close_quotes} at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). Over 700 gold-plated hohlraum mandrels were fabricated and delivered to LLNL, LANL and SNLA. More than 1600 glass and plastic target capsules were produced for LLNL, LANL, SNLA and University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). Nearly 2000 various target foils and films were delivered for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and UR/LLE in FY97. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require targets containing cryogenic layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. This project is part of the National Cryogenic Target Program and support experiments at LLNL and LANL to generate and characterize cryogenic layers for these targets. During FY97, significant progress was made in the design and component testing of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA. This included major design changes, reduction in equipment, and process simplifications. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  3. A Business Case Analysis of the Hard Target Void Sensing Fuze (HTVSF) Joint Capability Technology Demonstration (JCTD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Bunker Buster ” was put together in record time to support targeting of the Iraqi hardened command bunkers by adapting existing material. Work on the...precision bombs with penetrating warheads to detonate at a desired point inside buried or reinforced concrete targets, such as underground bunkers and...Guided Bomb Unit missiles (GBU-24 and GBU- 28), with penetrator warheads such as BLU 109 and BLU 113 (Bomb Live Unit) at the desired location by

  4. Subliminal communication technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various types of subliminal communication devices presently in use, the psychological basis for subliminal technology, and the effectiveness of subliminal communication for therapy are examined as well as potentials for abuse. Social, legal, and ethical aspects are considered with respect to the privacy and autonomy of captive audiences. Implications for the regulation of subliminal techniques are reviewed with application to the various media.

  5. Targeted nanoparticles for image-guided treatment of triple-negative breast cancer: clinical significance and technological advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Kleinhenz, Jasmine M; Bozeman, Erica N; Yang, Lily

    2015-01-01

    Effective treatment of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) with its aggressive tumor biology, highly heterogeneous tumor cells, and poor prognosis requires an integrated therapeutic approach that addresses critical issues in cancer therapy. Multifunctional nanoparticles with the abilities of targeted drug delivery and noninvasive imaging for monitoring drug delivery and responses to therapy, such as theranostic nanoparticles, hold great promise toward the development of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of TNBC using a single therapeutic platform. The biological and pathological characteristics of TNBC provide insight into several potential molecular targets for current and future nanoparticle-based therapeutics. Extensive tumor stroma, highly proliferative cells, and a high rate of drug resistance are all barriers that must be appropriately addressed in order for these nanotherapeutic platforms to be effective. Utilization of the enhanced permeability and retention effect coupled with active targeting of cell surface receptors expressed by TNBC cells, and tumor-associated endothelial cells, stromal fibroblasts, and macrophages is likely to overcome such barriers to facilitate more effective drug delivery. An in-depth summary of current studies investigating targeted nanoparticles in preclinical TNBC mouse and human xenograft models is presented. This review aims to outline the current status of nanotherapeutic options for TNBC patients, identification of promising molecular targets, challenges associated with the development of targeted nanotherapeutics, the research done by our group as well as by others, and future perspectives on the nanomedicine field and ways to translate current preclinical studies into the clinic.

  6. Real-time target detection technology of large view-field infrared image based on multicore DSP parallel processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gang; Liu, Songlin; Wang, Weihua; Chen, Zengping

    2013-10-01

    In order to implement real-time detection of hedgehopping target in large view-field infrared (LVIR) image, the paper proposes a fast algorithm flow to extract the target region of interest (ROI). The ground building region was rejected quickly and target ROI was segmented roughly through the background classification. Then the background image containing target ROI was matched with previous frame based on a mean removal normalized product correlation (MRNPC) similarity measure function. Finally, the target motion area was extracted by inter-frame difference in time domain. According to the proposed algorithm flow, this paper designs the high-speed real-time signal processing hardware platform based on FPGA + DSP, and also presents a new parallel processing strategy that called function-level and task-level, which could parallel process LVIR image by multi-core and multi-task. Experimental results show that the algorithm can extract low altitude aero target with complex background in large view effectively, and the new design hardware platform could implement real time processing of the IR image with 50000x288 pixels per second in large view-field infrared search system (LVIRSS).

  7. Audience-Oriented Writing and Peer Evaluation. SCO Cahier No. 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijlaarsdam, G.

    To demonstrate that peer evaluation is an appropriate means of improving written composition, particularly in terms of audience and goal orientation, the use of peer evaluation as a teaching method is discussed and then the connection between peer evaluation and audience awareness is drawn. Based on observation of Dutch 17-year-old students, the…

  8. How are we connected? : Measuring Audience Galvanic Skin Response of Connected Performances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Wang (Chen); X. Zhu (Xintong); E. Geelhoed; I. Biscoe; T. Röggla (Tom); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAccurately measuring the audience response during a performance is a difficult task. This is particularly the case for connected performances. In this paper, we staged a connected performance in which a remote audience enjoyed the performance in real-time. Both objective (galvanic skin

  9. Knowing your audience affects male-male interactions in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, Frédéric; Matos, Ricardo J; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2014-03-01

    Aggressive interactions between animals often occur in the presence of third parties. By observing aggressive signalling interactions, bystanders may eavesdrop and gain relevant information about conspecifics without the costs of interacting. On the other hand, interactants may also adjust their behaviour when an audience is present. This study aimed to test how knowledge about fighting ability of an audience affects aggressive interactions in male Siamese fighting fish. Subjects were positioned between two dyads of non-interacting males and allowed to observe both dyads shortly before the view to one of the dyads was blocked, and the dyads were allowed to interact. Subjects were subsequently exposed to an unknown opponent in the presence of either the winner or the loser of the seen or unseen interaction. The results suggest a complex role of the characteristic of an audience in the agonistic behaviours of a subject engaged in an interaction. The presence of a seen audience elicited more aggressive displays towards the opponent if the audience was a loser. This response was different in the presence of an unseen audience. Subjects then directed a higher aggressiveness against their opponent if the audience was a winner. These results also suggest a potentially more complex and interesting process allowing individuals to gain information about the quality and threat level of an unknown audience while it is interacting with a third party. The importance of information acquisition for an individual to adapt its behaviour and the role of communication networks in shaping social interactions are discussed.

  10. Type of frame dependence: variation in media frames affecting attitudes via audience frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drunen, A.S.; Boomgaarden, H.G.; Vliegenthart, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper two suggested processes of framing theory (Scheufele, 1999) are tested: frame setting (media affecting audience frames) and the individual effects process (audience frames affecting attitudes or behavior). Media frames may affect opinions and behavior, however these effects are not dir

  11. Audience influence on EGM gambling: the protective effects of having others watch you play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockloff, Matthew J; Greer, Nancy

    2011-09-01

    One component of social facilitation on gambling is the potential for an audience of people to observe the play of Electronic Gaming Machine (EGM) gamblers and influence their behaviour without participating directly in gambling themselves. An experiment was conducted with an audience of onlookers, purported to be students of research methods, taking notes while watching the participants play an EGM. Forty-three male and 82 female participants (N = 125), aged 18-79 (M = 49.2, SD = 15.6), played a laptop simulated 3-reel EGM using a $20 stake in three conditions: (1) alone, (2) watched by a simulated audience of six persons, or (3) watched by an audience of 26. Outcomes on the poker machine were rigged with a fixed sequence of five wins in the first 20 spins and indefinite losses thereafter. The results found smaller bet-sizes associated with larger audiences of onlookers, and this outcome is consistent with a hypothesized motivation to display more wins to the audience. Moreover, final payouts were greater in the audience conditions compared to the control, further suggesting that an audience may be a protective factor limiting player losses.

  12. Audience Matters: Teaching Issues of Race and Racism for a Predominantly Minority Student Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybee, Julie E.

    2011-01-01

    Some of the literature about teaching issues of race and racism in classrooms has addressed matters of audience. Zeus Leonardo, for example, has argued that teachers should use the language of white domination, rather than white privilege, when teaching about race and racism because the former language presupposes a minority audience, while the…

  13. Writing an Argument to a Real Audience: Alternative Ways to Motivate Students in Writing about Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chih

    2013-01-01

    Writing for an audience different from teachers motivates students to translate their existing knowledge into audience-appropriate language, in which students explain, elaborate, and integrate their understanding of science concepts using more than just the technical language of the subject. Several studies also have found that students can…

  14. Three Concentric Circles: Young Chinese English Learners' Perceptions of Purposeful Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jack Jinghui

    2015-01-01

    English learners have more access to communicate with different purposeful audiences across the Three Concentric Circles of English (Kachu, 1985): the Inner Circle, the Outer Circle and the Expanding Circle. However, young language learners' purposeful audience as a focus of communication has not been emphasized as much as other linguistic…

  15. Children's Drawings of Significant Figures for a Peer or an Adult Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkitt, Esther; Watling, Dawn; Murray, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    The present study assessed if children would present different information in their drawings of emotion eliciting stimuli when they believed that an adult or a child audience would view their drawings. Seventy-five 6-year-olds (44 boys and 31 girls) were allocated to three groups: the reference group, the child audience group and the adult…

  16. Understanding Audience: Using Online Surveys in First-Year Writing Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutkewitte, Claire

    2009-01-01

    Although students must understand the rhetorical medium that they use to present their proposals to their fellow classmates, they must also understand how audiences shape the rhetorical medium and shape how they create texts. Surveying audience members can help students figure out the best strategies to present their proposals and, in doing so,…

  17. Engaging the d/Deaf Audience in Museums: A Case Study at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Patrícia Roque

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses ways that museums can strengthen programming for d/Deaf audiences. Through the development and study of a tour for a d/Deaf audience conducted through signing and oral translation at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum in Lisbon (Portugal), the author examines issues of language, identity and inclusion. She argues that the use of…

  18. Virtual Focus Groups in Extension: A Useful Approach to Audience Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    As change agents, Extension educators may begin their program planning by identifying the audience's perceived barriers and benefits to adopting some behavior that will benefit the community. Extension professionals and researchers have used in-person focus groups to understand an audience, and they can also administer them as…

  19. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  20. Setting of Russian Sonorant Consonants [L–L'] Pronunciation in a Bulgarian Audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peneva N. D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to compare articulation-acoustic nature of Russian and Bulgarian sounds [l], [l'], to reveal typical difficulties faced by students producing these sounds, and development of some methods of neutralizing accent in Russian speach of Bulgarians. Special attention is paid to the description of articulation peculiarities of sonorant [l], [l'] in Russian and Bulgarian languages, identified both common and specific characteristics of these sounds. In the target audience represented by the Russists-students a listening was held to analyse their perception of hard [l] in identical Russian-Bulgarian lexical parallels, which showed the following results: for almost 68% of the target audience Bulgarian hard [l] sounds softer than Russian, for 22% of students they are identical in acoustic effect, and about 10% of the students could not answer the question. The analysis has revealed the difficulties that may be encountered by Bulgarians in a process of setting/correcting pronouncation of Russian consonants. They are connected primarily with differences of articulation of hard and soft consonants [l], [l'] in compared languages and phonologically undifferentiated Russian sonants [l], [l']. These mistakes are related to the pronunciation mistakes of the mixed type. The author supposes that to remove accent in Russian speech pronouncing fluent consonants [l], [l'], it is necessary to inform students about articulation peculiarities of these sounds in both languages, to make comments about possible deviations of these sounds prononciation, to draw attention to reasons of this deviations. As visual and audial measures of education, articulation schemes, tables and figures in special albums or books should be used as well as audio records of normative Russian speech. In the final the conclusion is made that listening of newscasters' speech, repeating of the examples, recording of own speech with analysis of made mistakes, listening for

  1. Audience effects: what can they tell us about social neuroscience, theory of mind and autism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Antonia F de C; Lind, Frida

    2016-01-01

    An audience effect arises when a person's behaviour changes because they believe someone else is watching them. Though these effects have been known about for over 110 years, the cognitive mechanisms of the audience effect and how it might vary across different populations and cultures remains unclear. In this review, we examine the hypothesis that the audience effect draws on implicit mentalising abilities. Behavioural and neuroimaging data from a number of tasks are consistent with this hypothesis. We further review data suggest that how people respond to audiences may vary over development, personality factors, cultural background and clinical diagnosis including autism and anxiety disorder. Overall, understanding and exploring the audience effect may contribute to our models of social interaction, including reputation management and mentalising.

  2. Adolescents and alcohol: an explorative audience segmentation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathijssen Jolanda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background So far, audience segmentation of adolescents with respect to alcohol has been carried out mainly on the basis of socio-demographic characteristics. In this study we examined whether it is possible to segment adolescents according to their values and attitudes towards alcohol to use as guidance for prevention programmes. Methods A random sample of 7,000 adolescents aged 12 to 18 was drawn from the Municipal Basic Administration (MBA of 29 Local Authorities in the province North-Brabant in the Netherlands. By means of an online questionnaire data were gathered on values and attitudes towards alcohol, alcohol consumption and socio-demographic characteristics. Results We were able to distinguish a total of five segments on the basis of five attitude factors. Moreover, the five segments also differed in drinking behavior independently of socio-demographic variables. Conclusions Our investigation was a first step in the search for possibilities of segmenting by factors other than socio-demographic characteristics. Further research is necessary in order to understand these results for alcohol prevention policy in concrete terms.

  3. Climate Literacy: Climate.gov Follow-Up Evaluation—A Study of the Four NOAA Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepold, F., III; Sullivan, S. B.; Gold, A. U.; Lynds, S. E.; Kirk, K.

    2014-12-01

    NOAA Climate.gov provides science and information for a climate-smart nation. Americans' health, security, and economic well-being are closely linked to climate and weather. NOAA Climate.gov's goals are to promote public understanding of climate science and climate-related events, to make our data products and services easy to access and use, to support educators in improving the nations climate literacy, and to serve people making climate-related decisions with tools and resources that help them answer specific questions.The Climate.Gov Follow-Up Study of the four NOAA Audiences (climate interested public, educators, scientists, policy-makers) built upon the previous literature review and evaluation study conducted by Mooney and Phillips in 2010 and 2012, http://tinyurl.com/ma8vo83. The CIRES Education and Outreach team at the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at University of Colorado at Boulder and the NOAA Climate.gov team will present results of the new study that used the Quality of Relationship index (awareness, trust, satisfaction, usability, and control mutuality). This index was developed in the previous study and places a new emphasis on the experience of individual users from the four audiences in their regular work or home setting. This new evaluation project used mixed methods, including an online survey, usability studies, phone interviews, and web statistics, providing multiple lines of evidence from which to draw conclusion and recommendations.In the session, we will explore how the NOAA Climate.gov teams used the literature review and new CIRES research to address underlying challenges to achieving the portal's goals. The research in these studies finds that people seek information in ways that are complex and that they do so by consulting a vast array of technologies. Improved and different modes of access to information have, throughout history, been led by technological innovation, but human behavior tends to be

  4. Astronomy Outreach for Large, Unique, and Unusual Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald

    2015-08-01

    My successful outreach program venues include: outdoor concerts and festivals; the US National Mall; churches, synagogues, seminaries, or clergy conferences; the Ronald McDonald Houses of Long Island and Chicago; the Winthrop U. Hospital Children’s Medical Center the Fresh Air Fund summer camps (low-income and special needs); a Halloween star party (costumed kids look through telescopes); a Super Bowl Star Party (targeting women); Science Festivals (World, NYC; Princeton U.; the USA Science and Engineering Festival); and the NYC Columbus Day Parade. Information was also provided about local science museums, citizen science projects, astronomy educational sites, and astronomy clubs to encourage lifelong learning. In 2010 I created Astronomy Festival on the National Mall (co-sponsored by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy) with the participation of astronomy clubs, scientific institutions and with Tyco Brahe, Johannes Kepler, and Caroline Herschel making guest appearances. My programs include solar, optical, and radio telescope observations, hands-on activities, a live image projection system; large outdoor posters and banners; videos; hands-on activities, and edible astronomy demonstrations.My NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) program (60 events 2009 - 2013) reached 50,000 music lovers at local parks and the Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Ravinia, or Tanglewood Music Festivals with classical, folk, pop/rock, opera, Caribbean, or county-western concerts assisted by astronomy clubs. Yo-Yo-Ma, the Chicago and Boston Symphony Orchestras, Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Tony Orlando, and Wilco performed at these events. MAUS reached underserved groups and attracted large crowds. Young kids participated in this family learning experience - often the first time they looked through a telescope. While < 50% of the participants took part in a science activity in the past year, they

  5. A potential strategy to treat liver fibrosis : Drug targeting to hepatic stellate cells applying a novel linker technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalo Lázaro, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is the 9th leading cause of death in the world. This chronic disease cannot be treated successfully with conventional antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory drugs currently on the market, because they either lack efficacy or cause too many side-effects. Targeting of antifibrotic agents to

  6. Creation of fragrant rice by targeted knockout of the OsBADH2 gene using TALEN technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Qiwei; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Kunling; Zhang, Kang; Gao, Caixia

    2015-08-01

    Fragrant rice is favoured worldwide because of its agreeable scent. The presence of a defective badh2 allele encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH2) results in the synthesis of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP), which is a major fragrance compound. Here, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) were engineered to target and disrupt the OsBADH2 gene. Six heterozygous mutants (30%) were recovered from 20 transgenic hygromycin-resistant lines. Sanger sequencing confirmed that these lines had various indel mutations at the TALEN target site. All six transmitted the BADH2 mutations to the T1 generation; and four T1 mutant lines tested also efficiently transmitted the mutations to the T2 generation. Mutant plants carrying only the desired DNA sequence change but not the TALEN transgene were obtained by segregation in the T1 and T2 generations. The 2AP content of rice grains of the T1 lines with homozygous mutations increased from 0 to 0.35-0.75 mg/kg, which was similar to the content of a positive control variety harbouring the badh2-E7 mutation. We also simultaneously introduced three different pairs of TALENs targeting three separate rice genes into rice cells by bombardment and obtained lines with mutations in one, two and all three genes. These results indicate that targeted mutagenesis using TALENs is a useful approach to creating important agronomic traits.

  7. Incorporating Cultural Sensitivity into Interactive Entertainment-Education for Diabetes Self-Management Designed for Hispanic Audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Kimberly N; Montealegre, Jane R; Rustveld, Luis O; Glover, Talar L; Chauca, Glori; Reed, Brian C; Jibaja-Weiss, Maria L

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes self-management education can improve outcomes in adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, Hispanics, a group that carries a large burden of disease, may not participate in diabetes education programs. Audience engagement with entertainment-education has been associated with improved health education outcomes and may engage and empower Hispanic users to active self-care. Successful use of entertainment-education relies on the use of characters and situations with whom the viewers can feel some sense of involvement and for Hispanic audiences is encouraged when storylines and characters are culturally sensitive. In this study, we used a mixed methods approach that included descriptive statistics of closed-ended and content analysis of open-ended questions to measure the cultural sensitivity of the telenovela portion of a novel technology-based application called Sugar, Heart, and Life (SHL). Specifically, we analyzed the responses of 123 male and female patients diagnosed with uncontrolled T2DM to determine viewer involvement with characters and situations in the telenovela, viewer perceived self-efficacy in following recommendations, as well as viewer satisfaction with the program. Our findings indicate that the SHL application achieved its goal of creating a user-friendly program that depicted realistic, culturally sensitive characters and storylines that resonated with Hispanic audiences and ultimately fostered perceived self-efficacy related to following recommendations given about healthy lifestyle changes for diabetes self-management. These findings suggest that the SHL application is a culturally sensitive health education intervention for use by Hispanic male and female individuals that may empower them in self-management of T2DM.

  8. Using photographic art to connect researchers with public audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Haren, J. L.; Roberts, E.; Fields, J.; Johnson, B.; Saleska, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    Communication is a process by which information is exchanged between individuals. Before information can be exchanged both or al parties have to be willing to partake in the communication process. Climate change scientists are still struggling to present their message in part because the general public does not want to hear their message and in part of the personality gap between scientists and the general public (Weiler et al. 2011). This demonstrates the need for communication, through a variety of means, with the general public about who climate change researchers are and what they do, besides the message that they have to convey. This ';feeling' type - relying on personal value and impact of decisions on others- of communication, not common in the scientific community that requires facts, has been suggested to be more effective with the general public (Weiler et al. 2011). We created a multimedia exhibition, which aims to put an intimate human face on science with an approach based on the following ideas: 1) Art initiates the connection between researchers and public audiences through visual stimulation, and 2) The one-on-one experience with a researcher through audio-visual means increases public engagement with climate change science. The exhibition implements these ideas by first, building on the core artistic vision of an artist/photographer who has been accompanying us on field courses and expeditions in the Amazon basin, and second, by bringing the personal voice and stories of students and scientists to the images in which they are represented. Our approach expanded on these themes with a unique twist: we use artistic imagery and video to show the personality of researchers and the process of science. After an image has captured the attention of a visitor, they will be engaged by the intimacy of hearing the scientist explaining how they got there, what they were doing at that particular moment, and why it's relevant and important to the visitor's life

  9. An evaluation of learning clinical decision-making for early rehabilitation in the ICU via interactive education with audience response system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonstra, Amy L; Nelliot, Archana; Aronson Friedman, Lisa; Zanni, Jennifer M; Hodgson, Carol; Needham, Dale M

    2017-06-01

    Knowledge-related barriers to safely implement early rehabilitation programs in intensive care units (ICUs) may be overcome via targeted education. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an interactive educational session on short-term knowledge of clinical decision-making for safe rehabilitation of patients in ICUs. A case-based teaching approach, drawing from published safety recommendations for initiation of rehabilitation in ICUs, was used with a multidisciplinary audience. An audience response system was incorporated to promote interaction and evaluate knowledge before vs. after the educational session. Up to 175 audience members, of 271 in attendance (129 (48%) physical therapists, 51 (19%) occupational therapists, 31 (11%) nursing, 14 (5%) physician, 46 (17%) other), completed both the pre- and post-test questions for each of the six unique patient cases. In four of six patient cases, there was a significant (prehabilitation activities. This learning effect was similar irrespective of participants' years of experience and clinical discipline. An interactive, case-based, educational session may be effective for increasing short-term knowledge, and identifying knowledge gaps, regarding clinical decision-making for safe rehabilitation of patients in ICUs. Implications for Rehabilitation Lack of knowledge regarding the safety considerations for early rehabilitation of ICU patients is a barrier to implementing early rehabilitation. Interactive educational formats, such as the use of audience response systems, offer a new method of teaching and instantly assessing learning of clinically important information. In a small study, we have shown that an interactive, case-based educational format may be used to effectively teach clinical decision-making for the safe rehabilitation of ICU patients to a diverse audience of clinicians.

  10. AUDIENCE AWARENESS IN THE WRITTEN DISCOURSE OF SUDANESE EFL UNIVERSITY LEARNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahmed Osman Zakaria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the written discourse of the Sudanese EFL university learners to evaluate and assess their awareness of the audience to whom they write. The analytic descriptive approach is adopted to achieve the aims of the study. The subjects of the study consisted of 50 Sudanese EFL students drawn from Faculty of Arts at Alneelain university. Three tools were employed for data collection: a writing test, a questionnaire and an interview with the students. Results showed that the written discourse produced by Sudanese EFL students did not reveal an awareness of the audience with whom they communicate. The students did not succeed to make assumptions of what their audience already know and what they expect to find in the texts being written. They held fragmentary knowledge on the concept of audience awareness. Accordingly, the students were not able to prepare and edit texts which keep and stimulate their audience – they were not able to depend on lexical and structural variation to produce proper and effective writing. Furthermore, results indicated that students were not able to attach unity and coherence to the texts they produced. Their organizational skills were very poor. To help the students develop the concept they hold on audience awareness, writing instructors and syllabus designers need to put special emphasis on the importance of audience awareness as a factor which is essential for effective writing.

  11. Caching in the presence of competitors: Are Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris) sensitive to audience attentiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Jamie; Manser, Marta B

    2016-01-01

    When social animals cache food close to their burrow, the potential for an audience member to observe the event is significantly increased. As a consequence, in order to reduce theft it may be advantageous for animals to be sensitive to certain audience cues, such as whether they are attentive or not to the cache event. In this study, observations were made on three groups of Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris) in their natural habitat when they cached provisioned food items. When individuals cached within 10 m of conspecifics, we recorded the attentiveness (i.e. whether any audience members were orientated towards the cacher, had direct line of site and were not engaged in other activities) and identity of audience members. Overall, there was a preference to cache when audience members were inattentive rather than attentive. Additionally, we found rank effects related to cache avoidance whereby high-ranked individuals showed less avoidance to cache when audience members were attentive compared to medium- and low-ranked individuals. We suggest this audience sensitivity may have evolved in response to the difference in competitive ability amongst the ranks in how successful individuals are at winning foraging competitions. This study demonstrates that Cape ground squirrels have the ability to not only monitor the presence or absence of conspecifics but also discriminate individuals on the basis of their attentive state.

  12. Effect of media relations on audiences: comparing how editorials and advertising influence behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tkalac Verčič

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A notion, according to which editorials have a bigger communication influence than advertisements, is very common and quite popular in public relations. The said notion is so prevalent (among both public relations and marketing communications experts that it has led to the concept of perceived influence multipliers that point to a stronger editorial influence in comparison to advertising influence (2.5 to 8 times stronger. Based on the described assumption, the aim of this paper was to further explore how the target audience perceives editorial and advertising content. The research problem was to compare the effects of both types of content on behavior and behavioral intent (through four media – Internet, radio, newspapers and television. Respondents were divided into two groups – current users of the service that was in focus (for influence on behavior and potential users (for influence on behavioral intent. Even though current users said that editorials had a bigger influence on their behavior, this difference was not significant. On the other hand, potential users stated that the advertising content shaped their behavioral intent more than did editorials. These results once again show the assumption, according to which editorials have a stronger communication influence than advertisements, to be highly questionable.

  13. Monarchy, jesters, politicians and audiences Comparison of TV satire in UK and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Valhondo Crego, Ph. D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Satire programmes have become a frequent form of political communication on TV. After the liberalisation of media and the globalization of formats, countries like Spain have adopted satirical formats derived from earlier ones, which relied on old traditions from nearly the inception of television similar to the United Kingdom. The goal of this article is to build a definition of the genre, taking into account the examples of the two mentioned countries and, also, referring to both periods, before and after liberalisation. We will use a comparative methodology relative to the profile of the audiences, of the buffoons of satire and the role played by the politicians through the short history of television satire. The results point to an evolution. During the sixties in the past century, the genre targeted the middle classes, writers tried to popularize politics for a society respectful to the Establishment and politicians censored the program in case it created an imbalance between ideological options during elections. In the nineties, satire jesters acquired the main role in the show and the politicians not only immunized themselves against satire but seemed to take advantage of it.

  14. Presidential laugh lines. Candidate display behavior and audience laughter in the 2008 primary debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Patrick A

    2010-09-01

    Political humor has long been used by candidates to mobilize supporters by enhancing status or denigrating the opposition. Research concerning laughter provides insight into the building of social bonds; however, little research has focused on the nonverbal cues displayed by the individual making humorous comments. This study first investigates whether there is a relationship between facial display behavior and the presence and strength of laughter. Next, the analysis explores whether specific candidate displays during a humorous comment depend on the target of the comment. This paper analyzes the use of humor by Republican and Democratic candidates during ten 2008 presidential primary debates. Data analyzed here employs laughter as an indicator of a successful humorous comment and documents candidate display behavior in the seconds immediately preceding and during each laughter event. Findings suggest specific facial displays play an important communication role. Different types of smiles, whether felt, false, or fear-based, are related to who laughs as well as how intensely the audience is judged to laugh.

  15. Preparing for Antibiotic Resistance Campaigns: A Person-Centered Approach to Audience Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel A; Quesnell, Madisen; Glick, Lydia; Hackman, Nicole; M'Ikanatha, Nkuchia M

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing threat to public health that calls for urgent attention. However, creating campaigns to slow the emergence and spread of drug-resistant pathogens is challenging because the goal-antibiotic stewardship-encompasses multiple behaviors. This study provided a novel approach to audience segmentation for a multifaceted goal, by using a person-centered approach to identify profiles of U.S. adults based on shared stewardship intentions. The latent class analysis identified three groups: stewards, stockers, and demanders. The findings suggest campaigns with goals aimed at encouraging stewards to follow through on their intentions, encouraging stockers to dispose of their leftover antibiotics, and convincing demanders to accept providers' evidence-based judgment when a prescription for antibiotics is not indicated. Covariate analysis showed that people who held more inaccurate beliefs about what antibiotics can treat had higher odds of being demanders and stockers instead of stewards. People with stronger health mavenism also had higher odds of being stockers instead of stewards. The covariate analysis provided theoretical insight into the strategies to pursue in campaigns targeting these 3 groups.

  16. Gene targeting technologies in rats: zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashimo, Tomoji

    2014-01-01

    The laboratory rat has been widely used as an animal model in biomedical science for more than 150 years. Applying zinc-finger nucleases or transcription activator-like effector nucleases to rat embryos via microinjection is an efficient genome editing tool for generating targeted knockout rats. Recently, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated endonucleases have been used as an effective tool for precise and multiplex genome editing in mice and rats. In this review, the advantages and disadvantages of these site-specific nuclease technologies for genetic analysis and manipulation in rats are discussed.

  17. Promoting active learning using audience response system in large bioscience classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstathiou, Nikolaos; Bailey, Cara

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the challenges of bioscience teaching and learning in pre-registration nurse education. Effective learning requires active student participation which is problematic when teaching large groups of students. New technologies, such as the audience response system (ARS), have been introduced to increase student participation and support them in the understanding of complex bioscience concepts. Within one university department, an evaluation was undertaken to identify the perceptions of pre-registration nurse students on the use of ARS in the teaching and learning of bioscience. Our findings concur with others that ARS increases student participation and aids in identifying misconceptions and in correcting them. Students found ARS very useful and wanted ARS to be used in additional modules too. Although ARS did not seem to motivate students to study adequately before attending the relevant sessions, it increased discussion among students and awareness of their level of knowledge compared to their peers. Further research is required to identify the effectiveness of ARS in the teaching and learning of bioscience and its impact on the performance of the students in their final assessments.

  18. The MEGAPIE-TEST project: Supporting research and lessons learned in first-of-a-kind spallation target technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazio, C. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)], E-mail: concetta.fazio@nuklear.fzk.de; Groeschel, F.; Wagner, W.; Thomsen, K.; Smith, B.L. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Stieglitz, R. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Zanini, L. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Guertin, A.; Cadiou, A. [SUBATECH Laboratory, CNRS/IN2P3-EMN-University, F-44307 Nantes (France); Henry, J. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Agostini, P. [Ente per le nuove Tecnologie, l' Energia e l' Ambiente, Localita Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano, Bologna (Italy); Dai, Y.; Heyck, H.; Dementjev, S. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Panebianco, S. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Almazouzi, A. [Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Eikenberg, J. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Letourneau, A.; Toussaint, J.C. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Janett, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)] (and others)

    2008-06-15

    The megawatt pilot experiment (MEGAPIE) has been launched by six European institutions (PSI, FZK, CEA, SCK-CEN, ENEA and CNRS), JAEA (Japan), DOE (US) and KAERI (Korea) with the aim to carry out an experiment, in the SINQ target location at PSI (Switzerland), to demonstrate the safe operation of a liquid metal (lead-bismuth eutectic, LBE) spallation target hit by a {approx}1 MW proton beam. The European Commission has joined the MEGAPIE project through the 5-year (2001-2006) project named MEGAPIE-TEST. This project has been formally concluded with an International Workshop, where the results and the lessons learned during the project have been summarised. This work presents a review of the outcome of that Workshop.

  19. Targeted assistance by the state as a factor of stimulation of the development of high technology production in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    O. Salihova

    2011-01-01

    The author interprets the basic concepts of high-tech industrial production sphere, presents the tools to assess it. The dynamics of production and export of Ukrainian high-tech goods are analyzed. The main criteria for the identification of high-tech enterprises are defined. The author demonstrates the relevance of the targeted state regulation and stimulation of national manufacture of high-tech products.

  20. A Model for Advertising Aestheticization: How An Ad is Aesthetically Created and has an Impact on Audience- Product, Pdvertising Pood and Target Audience Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan Öncel Taskiran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to aesthetic components that advertisement texts generally have, advertisements are sometimes perceived as a genre of art by some circles. The study is based upon a perspective presented by an interdisciplinary background and it acknowledges a paradigm that advertising is not a genre of art, it obviously pursues commercial profits and within this context, expolits the created aesthetics in product. The main objective of the study, which focuses advertising aesthetic fundamentally, is to build a scientific model formulating some levels of aestheticisation during its production process. Formulation in question has been reconstructed on theoretical and applied literature.

  1. The development of Advanced robotic technology - Development of target-tracking algorithm for remote-control robot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dong Sun; Lee, Joon Whan; Kim, Hyong Suk; Yoon, Sook; Lee, Jin Ho; Han, Jeong Soo; Baek, Seong Hyun; Choi, Gap Chu [Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    The utilization of remote-control robot system in atomic power plants or nuclear-related facilities grows rapidly, to protect workers from high radiation environments. Such applications require complete stability of the robot system, then precisely tracking the robot is essential for the whole system. This research is to accomplish the goal by developing appropriate algorithms for remote-control robot systems. The research consists of two different approaches: target-tracking systems using kalman filters and neural networks. The tracking system under study uses vision sensors to obtain features of targets. A kalman filter model using the moving-position estimation technique is designed, and tested for tracking an object with a circle movement. Attributions of the tracking object are investigated and best features are extracted from the input imagery for the kalman filter model. A neural network tracking system is designed and experimented to trace a robot endeffector. This model is aimed to utilize the excellent capabilities of neural networks; nonlinear mapping between inputs and outputs, learning capability, and generalization capability. The neural tracker consists of two networks for position detection and prediction. Tracking algorithms are developed and experimented for the two models. Results to the experiments show that both models are promising as real-time target-tracking systems for remote-control robot systems. 20 refs., 34 figs. (author)

  2. [Inventing the audience in the 18(th) century. Art and its use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugère, Fabienne

    2012-01-01

    18(th) century philosophers analyzed art through the aesthetic experience of the audience. By contrast, Adam Smith was interested in the moral judgment that an impartial audience may formulate. How can art and morality, the beautiful and the good, be combined into one analytical framework? Art and morality convey non-transcendental values that are intrinsic to human experience. With the aesthetic experience of the audience, art is used, and ultimately depends on the ways that humans relate to works or art and to the beautiful.

  3. Establishing versus preserving impressions: Predicting success in the multiple audience problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Austin Lee; Cottrell, Catherine A

    2015-12-01

    People sometimes seek to convey discrepant impressions of themselves to different audiences simultaneously. Research suggests people are generally successful in this "multiple audience problem." Adding to previous research, the current research sought to examine factors that may limit this success by measuring social anxiety and placing participants into situations requiring them to either establish or preserve multiple impressions simultaneously. In general, participants were more successful when preserving previously conveyed impressions than when establishing impressions for the first time. In contrast, social anxiety did not affect multiple audience success. In all, this research offers valuable insight into potential challenges that people face in many social situations.

  4. Communicating about microbicides with women in mind: tailoring messages for specific audiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekou Sidibe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Current HIV prevention options are unrealistic for most women; however, HIV prevention research has made important strides, including on-going development of antiretroviral-based vaginal microbicide gels. Nevertheless, social-behavioural research suggests that women's ability to access and use new HIV prevention technologies will be strongly influenced by a range of socio-cultural, gender and structural factors which should be addressed by communications and marketing strategies, so that these products can be positioned in ways that women can use them. Methods: Based on an extensive literature review and in-country policy consultation, consisting of approximately 43 stakeholders, we describe barriers and facilitators to HIV prevention, including potential microbicide use, for four priority audiences of Kenyan women (female sex workers [FSWs], women in stable and discordant relationships, and sexually active single young women. We then describe how messages that position microbicides might be tailored for each audience of women. Results: We reviewed 103 peer-reviewed articles and reports. In Kenya, structural factors and gender inequality greatly influence HIV prevention for women. HIV risk perception and the ability to consistently use condoms and other prevention products often vary by partner type. Women in stable relationships find condom use challenging because they connote a lack of trust. However, women in other contexts are often able to negotiate condom use, though they may face challenges with consistent use. These women include FSWs who regularly use condoms with their casual clients, young women in the initial stages of a sexual relationship and discordant couples. Thus, we consider two approaches to framing messages aimed at increasing general awareness of microbicides – messages that focus strictly on HIV prevention and ones that focus on other benefits of microbicides such as increased pleasure, intimacy or sexual

  5. Sciencetogo.Org: Using Humor to Engage a Public Audience with the Serious Issue of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Chen, R. F.; Rabkin, D.; Wilson, R.

    2014-12-01

    A team of educators, scientists, and communication experts from multiple universities as well as a Science museum will report on the impact of ScienceToGo.org, which is an Out of Home Multi-Media (OHMM) exhibit targeting adults riding a major subway system. The campaign's goal is to design, implement, and study the efficacy of an OHMM model for free choice science learning about our changing climate. Subway riders represent a diverse and captive audience with most of them spending an average of one hour a day in the subway system. Through the use of specially designed OHMM such as train placards, platform posters, and virtual resources the campaign engages a potential audience of 500,000 riders/day with opportunities to learn climate change science informally. The primary goal of the ScienceToGo.org campaign is to engage, entertain, and educate the adult subway riding community in major U.S. city about climate change as a real, relevant, and solvable local challenge. A naturalistic quasi-experimental inquiry employing a mixed methodology approach best describes our research design with half of the subway system exposed to the project signage (experimental group) and the other half not being exposed to the project signage (control group). To identify possible outcomes, data was collected in the several forms: survey, analytic data associated with website, social media, web app, focus groups, and observations. This campaign is an example of how an individual's daily routine may be enhanced with an informal science learning opportunity. We see an urgent need to improve both the public's engagement with climate change science and to the profile of climate change science in formal education settings. The campaign makes deliberate use of humor and fun to engage a public and diverse audience with the serious issue of climate change. The research that will be presented will reveal some of the strengths and weaknesses of this strategy when communicating science to a diverse

  6. CRISPR/Cas基因组靶向编辑技术综述%Review about CRISPR/Cas system as a new targeted genome editing tech-nology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾良杰

    2014-01-01

    CRISPR (clustered, regularly interspaced, short, palindromic repeats)/Cas (CRISPR-associated) systems are a unique prokaryotic defense against foreign genetic elements. It also be considered as a targeted genome editing tool in molecular biology research. Because of its simplicity, high success rate and high efficiency in genome targeting, Cas system became the best genome targeting tools compared with ZFNs (Zinc-finger nucleases) and TALENs (Transcrip-tion activator-like effector nucleases). According to the recent researches, Cas system could be used as an efficient system for site-specific transcriptional repression or activation. Additionally, a specific Cas9 protein has been observed to target an RNA substrate, suggesting that Cas9 may have the same ability as RNAi technology to be programmed to target RNA as well. Overall, the targeted genome editing technology via CRISPR/Cas system has been Widely promot-ed and applied in many field such as the research on gene functions, the the disease model of gene knock-out animal construction and the gene therapy. So it will have significant impact on future advancements in genome engineering.%Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated(Cas)是细菌特有的一种获得性免疫系统,研究人员将其改造成为靶向基因组编辑的工具,由于操作简单、成功率高且效率高,成为了靶向基因组编辑工具中的佼佼者。同时CRISPR/Cas系统也被改造作为一种极为有效的位点特异性的转录抑制/激活的工具而在研究工作中广泛应用,不仅如此,具有靶向细胞转录过程中产生的RNA底物的利用前景,从而起到与RNAi技术相类似的效果。 CRISPR-Cas技术已经在基因功能研究、动物模型建立、基因治疗等领域得到广泛的推广和应用,有力地推动了相关领域的研究进展。

  7. Cell-Based Selection Expands the Utility of DNA-Encoded Small-Molecule Library Technology to Cell Surface Drug Targets: Identification of Novel Antagonists of the NK3 Tachykinin Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zining; Graybill, Todd L; Zeng, Xin; Platchek, Michael; Zhang, Jean; Bodmer, Vera Q; Wisnoski, David D; Deng, Jianghe; Coppo, Frank T; Yao, Gang; Tamburino, Alex; Scavello, Genaro; Franklin, G Joseph; Mataruse, Sibongile; Bedard, Katie L; Ding, Yun; Chai, Jing; Summerfield, Jennifer; Centrella, Paolo A; Messer, Jeffrey A; Pope, Andrew J; Israel, David I

    2015-12-14

    DNA-encoded small-molecule library technology has recently emerged as a new paradigm for identifying ligands against drug targets. To date, this technology has been used with soluble protein targets that are produced and used in a purified state. Here, we describe a cell-based method for identifying small-molecule ligands from DNA-encoded libraries against integral membrane protein targets. We use this method to identify novel, potent, and specific inhibitors of NK3, a member of the tachykinin family of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). The method is simple and broadly applicable to other GPCRs and integral membrane proteins. We have extended the application of DNA-encoded library technology to membrane-associated targets and demonstrate the feasibility of selecting DNA-tagged, small-molecule ligands from complex combinatorial libraries against targets in a heterogeneous milieu, such as the surface of a cell.

  8. Lipid nanoparticles for targeted siRNA delivery – going from bench to bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zatsepin TS

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Timofei S Zatsepin,1–3 Yuri V Kotelevtsev,1 Victor Koteliansky1,2 1Center of Functional Genomics, Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, 2Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 3Production Department, Central Research Institute of Epidemiology, Moscow, Russia Abstract: This review covers the basic aspects of small interfering RNA delivery by lipid nanoparticles (LNPs and elaborates on the current status of clinical trials for these systems. We briefly describe the roles of all LNP components and possible strategies for their improvement. We also focus on the current clinical trials using LNP-formulated RNA and the possible outcomes for therapy in the near future. Also, we present a critical analysis of selected clinical trials that reveals the common logic behind target selection. We address this review to a wide audience, especially to medical doctors who are interested in the application of RNA interference–based treatment platforms. We anticipate that this review may spark interest in this particular audience and generate new ideas in target selection for the disorders they are dealing with. Keywords: RNA therapeutics, siRNA, mRNA, lipid nanoparticle, targeted delivery, clinical trial

  9. State of the drilling technology in the conventional tunelling in the target seam Zollverein 6 at the mine Auguste Victoria; Stand der Bohrtechnik im konventionellen Streckenvortrieb im Floezhorizont Zollverein 6 auf dem Bergwerk Auguste Victoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossbach, Stefan [RAG Deutsche Steinkohle, Herne (Germany). Bergwerk Auguste Victoria; Andrzejewski, Michael [RAG Deutsche Steinkohle, Herne (Germany). Servicebereich Technik und Logistik; Gastberg, Ingolf [DMT GmbH und Co. KG, Essen (Germany). Wettertechnik

    2013-06-15

    The future mining activities and activities of advance at the mine Auguste Victoria mainly concentrate in the level of the target seam Zollverein 6. The achievement of a layer depth of nearly 1,400 m in connection with difficult geological conditions imposed particular demands on the planning, technology, organization and security in mining, so that appropriate adjustments were required in mining technology. The contribution under consideration reports on the process characteristics typical for conventional tunneling in the target seam Zollverein 6.

  10. Targeting cytokines: production and characterization of anti-TNF-α scFvs by phage display technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Nouri, Mohammad; Zolbanin, Jafar Majidi; Barzegari, Abolfazl; Baradaran, Behzad; Barar, Jaleh; Coukos, George; Omidi, Yadollah

    2013-01-01

    The antibody display technology (ADT) such as phage display (PD) has substantially improved the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and Ab fragments through bypassing several limitations associated with the traditional approach of hybridoma technology. In the current study, we capitalized on the PD technology to produce high affinity single chain variable fragment (scFv) against tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- α), which is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine and plays important role in various inflammatory diseases and malignancies. To pursue production of scFv antibody fragments against human TNF- α, we performed five rounds of biopanning using stepwise decreased amount of TNF-α (1 to 0.1 μ g), a semi-synthetic phage antibody library (Tomlinson I + J) and TG1 cells. Antibody clones were isolated and selected through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screening. The selected scFv antibody fragments were further characterized by means of ELISA, PCR, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and Western blot analyses as well as fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Based upon binding affinity to TNF-α , 15 clones were selected out of 50 positive clones enriched from PD in vitro selection. The selected scFvs displayed high specificity and binding affinity with Kd values at nm range to human TNF-α . The immunofluorescence analysis revealed significant binding of the selected scFv antibody fragments to the Raji B lymphoblasts. The effectiveness of the selected scFv fragments was further validated by flow cytometry analysis in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treated mouse fibroblast L929 cells. Based upon these findings, we propose the selected fully human anti-TNF-α scFv antibody fragments as potential immunotherapy agents that may be translated into preclinical/clinical applications.

  11. Targeted technology applications for infield reserve growth: A synopsis of the Secondary Natural Gas Recovery project, Gulf Coast Basin. Topical report, September 1988--April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levey, R.A.; Finley, R.J.; Hardage, B.A.

    1994-06-01

    The Secondary Natural Gas Recovery (SGR): Targeted Technology Applications for Infield Reserve Growth is a joint venture research project sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the State of Texas through the Bureau of Economic Geology at The University of Texas at Austin, with the cofunding and cooperation of the natural gas industry. The SGR project is a field-based program using an integrated multidisciplinary approach that integrates geology, geophysics, engineering, and petrophysics. A major objective of this research project is to develop, test, and verify those technologies and methodologies that have near- to mid-term potential for maximizing recovery of gas from conventional reservoirs in known fields. Natural gas reservoirs in the Gulf Coast Basin are targeted as data-rich, field-based models for evaluating infield development. The SGR research program focuses on sandstone-dominated reservoirs in fluvial-deltaic plays within the onshore Gulf Coast Basin of Texas. The primary project research objectives are: To establish how depositional and diagenetic heterogeneities cause, even in reservoirs of conventional permeability, reservoir compartmentalization and hence incomplete recovery of natural gas. To document examples of reserve growth occurrence and potential from fluvial and deltaic sandstones of the Texas Gulf Coast Basin as a natural laboratory for developing concepts and testing applications. To demonstrate how the integration of geology, reservoir engineering, geophysics, and well log analysis/petrophysics leads to strategic recompletion and well placement opportunities for reserve growth in mature fields.

  12. Demonstration of Advanced Geophysics and Classification Technologies on Munitions Response Sites, Pole Mountain Target and Maneuver Area, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    TECHNOLOGY A Geonics EM61-MK2, paired with a Trimble R8 Real Time Kinetic ( RTK ) Global Positioning System ( GPS ), was used to conduct the DGM survey over...EM61-MK2, paired with a Trimble R8 RTK GPS , and an Allegro CX field computer. The EM61-MK2 system consisted of a 1.0 m by 0.5 m coil containing...point data spacing measured using EM61-MK2 and RTK GPS point positioning.  Data Requirements: Mapped production survey data.  Success Criteria

  13. Interacting with audiences social influences on the production of scientific writing

    CERN Document Server

    Blakeslee, Ann M

    2000-01-01

    This volume examines how scientists learn about and then address their audiences, studying scientific rhetoric in actual practice. For scholars and students in scientific and technical writing, rhetoric, studies of science, and related areas.

  14. Millennial fandom: Television audiences in the transmedia age, by Louisa Ellen Stein [book review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Louise Dare-Edwards

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of Louisa Ellen Stein, Millennial fandom: Television audiences in the transmedia age. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2015, paperback, $24 (224p ISBN 978-1609383558; e-book, $24, ISBN 978-1609383565.

  15. “It really is a craft” Repertoires in journalistic frontrunners’ talk on audience participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borger, M.; Costera Meijer, I.; Hoof, van A.M.J.; Sanders, J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of participatory journalism demonstrate that professional journalism can be resistant to change. Journalists and news organizations do wish to encourage audience contribution and digital innovation, but find it difficult to reconcile traditional journalistic values and practices with more

  16. 'It really is a craft' - Repertoires in journalistic frontrunners' talk on audience participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borger, M.; Costera Meijer, I.; Hoof, A. van; Sanders, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of participatory journalism demonstrate that professional journalism can be resistant to change. Journalists and news organizations do wish to encourage audience contribution and digital innovation, but find it difficult to reconcile traditional journalistic values and practices with more

  17. 'It really is a craft' - Repertoires in journalistic frontrunners' talk on audience participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borger, M.; Costera Meijer, I.; Hoof, A. van; Sanders, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of participatory journalism demonstrate that professional journalism can be resistant to change. Journalists and news organizations do wish to encourage audience contribution and digital innovation, but find it difficult to reconcile traditional journalistic values and practices with more pa

  18. “It really is a craft” Repertoires in journalistic frontrunners’ talk on audience participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borger, M.; Costera Meijer, I.; Hoof, van A.M.J.; Sanders, J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of participatory journalism demonstrate that professional journalism can be resistant to change. Journalists and news organizations do wish to encourage audience contribution and digital innovation, but find it difficult to reconcile traditional journalistic values and practices with more pa

  19. Audience Reaction as a Determinant of the Speaker's Self-Persuasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Alan E.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Paper tests effects of audience feedback on speaker attitudes; subjects who received sincere feedback showed greater change in the direction of their speech than did those who received insincere feedback. (Author)

  20. Give Me a Like: How HIV/AIDS Nonprofit Organizations Can Engage Their Audience on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Chao; Lin, Yi-Pin; Saxton, Gregory D

    2016-12-01

    With the rapid proliferation and adoption of social media among healthcare professionals and organizations, social media-based HIV/AIDS intervention programs have become increasingly popular. However, the question of the effectiveness of the HIV/AIDS messages disseminated on social media has received scant attention in the literature. The current study applies content analysis to examine the relationship between Facebook messaging strategies employed by 110 HIV/AIDS nonprofit organizations and audience reactions in the form of liking, commenting, and sharing behavior. The results reveal that HIV/AIDS nonprofit organizations often use informational messages as one-way communication with their audience instead of dialogic interactions. Some specific types of messages, such as medication-focused messages, engender better audience engagement; in contrast, event-related messages and call-to-action messages appear to translate into lower corresponding audience reactions. The findings provide guidance to HIV/AIDS organizations in developing effective social media communication strategies.