WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology solar telescope

  1. Construction of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmele, T. R.; Keil, S.; McMullin, J.; Knölker, M.; Kuhn, J. R.; Goode, P. R.; Rosner, R.; Casini, R.; Lin, H.; Tritschler, A.; Wöger, F.; ATST Team

    2012-12-01

    The 4m Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the most powerful solar telescope and the world's leading ground-based resource for studying solar magnetism that controls the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and variability in the Sun's output. The project has entered its construction phase. Major subsystems have been contracted. As its highest priority science driver ATST shall provide high resolution and high sensitivity observations of the dynamic solar magnetic fields throughout the solar atmosphere, including the corona at infrared wavelengths. With its 4m aperture, ATST will resolve features at 0.″03 at visible wavelengths and obtain 0.″1 resolution at the magnetically highly sensitive near infrared wavelengths. A high order adaptive optics system delivers a corrected beam to the initial set of state-of-the-art, facility class instrumentation located in the Coudé laboratory facility. The initial set of first generation instruments consists of five facility class instruments, including imagers and spectro-polarimeters. The high polarimetric sensitivity and accuracy required for measurements of the illusive solar magnetic fields place strong constraints on the polarization analysis and calibration. Development and construction of a four-meter solar telescope presents many technical challenges, including thermal control of the enclosure, telescope structure and optics and wavefront control. A brief overview of the science goals and observational requirements of the ATST will be given, followed by a summary of the design status of the telescope and its instrumentation, including design status of major subsystems, such as the telescope mount assembly, enclosure, mirror assemblies, and wavefront correction

  2. Multiple Etalon Systems for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, G. Allen; Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Sigwarth, Michael; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Multiple etalons systems are discussed that meet the 4-meter NSO/Advance Technology Solar Telescope (http://www.nso.edu/ATST/index.html) instrument and science requirements for a narrow bandpass imaging system. A multiple etalon system can provide an imaging interferometer working in four distinct modes: as a spectro-polarimeter, a filter-vector magnetograph, and a wide-band and broad-band high-resolution imager. Specific dual and triple etalon configurations will be described that provides spectrographic passband of 2.0-3.5nm and reduces parasitic light levels to 1/10000 as required by precise polarization measurement, e.g., Zeeman measurements of magnetic sensitive lines. A TESOS-like triple etalon system provides for spectral purity of 100 thousandths. The triple designs have the advantage of reducing the finesse requirement on each etalon, allowing much more stable blocking filters, and can have very high spectral purity. A dual-etalon double-pass Cavallini-like configuration can provide a competing configuration. This design can provide high contrast with only a double etalon. The selection of the final focal plan instrument will depend on a trade-off of the ideal instrument versus reality, the number of etalons, the aperture of etalons, the number of blocking filters the electronic control system and computer interfaces, the temperature control and controllers for the etalons and the electronics. The use of existing experience should provide significant cost savings. The heritage of use of etalons and multiple etalon systems in solar physics come from a number of observatories, which includes MSFC Solar Observatory (NASA), Sac Peak Observatory (NSO), and Kiepenheuer Institute for Solar Physics (Germany), Mees Solar Observatory (University of Hawaii), and Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory (Italy). The design of the ATST multiple etalon system will reply on the existing experience from these observatories.

  3. Multiple-etalon systems for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, G. Allen; Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Sigwarth, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Multiple etalon systems are discussed that meet the science requirements for a narrow-passband imaging system for the 4-meter National Solar Observatory (NSO)/Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST). A multiple etalon system can provide an imaging interferometer that works in four distinct modes: as a spectro-polarimeter, a filter-vector magnetograph, an intermediate-band imager, and broadband high-resolution imager. Specific dual and triple etalon configurations are described that provide a spectrographic passband of 2.0-3.5 micron and reduce parasitic light levels to 10(exp -4) as required for precise polarization measurement, e.g., Zeeman measurements of magnetic sensitive lines. A TESOS-like (Telecentric Etalon SOlar Spectrometer) triple etalon system provides a spectral purity of 10(exp -5). The triple designs have the advantage of reducing the finesse requirement on each etalon; allow the use of more stable blocking filters, and have very high spectral purity. A dual-etalon double-pass (Cavallini-like) system can provide a competing configuration. Such a dual-etalon design can provide high contrast. The selection of the final focal plane instrument will depend on a trade-off between an ideal instrument and practical reality. The trade study will include the number of etalons, their aperture sizes, complexities of the optical train, number of blocking filters, configuration of the electronic control system, computer interfaces, temperature controllers, etalon controllers, and their associated feedback electronics. The heritage of single and multiple etalon systems comes from their use in several observatories, including the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Solar Observatory, Sacramento Peak Observatory (NSO), and Kiepenheuer-Institut fur Sonnenphysik (KIS, Germany), Mees Solar Observatory (University of Hawaii), and Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory (Italy). The design of the ATST multiple etalon system will benefit from the experience gained at these

  4. Simultaneous control of multiple instruments at the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Erik M.; Goodrich, Bret

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) is a 4-meter solar observatory under construction at Haleakala, Hawaii. The simultaneous use of multiple instruments is one of the unique capabilities that makes the ATST a premier ground based solar observatory. Control of the instrument suite is accomplished by the Instrument Control System (ICS), a layer of software between the Observatory Control System (OCS) and the instruments. The ICS presents a single narrow interface to the OCS and provides a standard interface for the instruments to be controlled. It is built upon the ATST Common Services Framework (CSF), an infrastructure for the implementation of a distributed control system. The ICS responds to OCS commands and events, coordinating and distributing them to the various instruments while monitoring their progress and reporting the status back to the OCS. The ICS requires no specific knowledge about the instruments. All information about the instruments used in an experiment is passed by the OCS to the ICS, which extracts and forwards the parameters to the appropriate instrument controllers. The instruments participating in an experiment define the active instrument set. A subset of those instruments must complete their observing activities in order for the experiment to be considered complete and are referred to as the must-complete instrument set. In addition, instruments may participate in eavesdrop mode, outside of the control of the ICS. All instrument controllers use the same standard narrow interface, which allows new instruments to be added without having to modify the interface or any existing instrument controllers.

  5. Progress making the top end optical assembly (TEOA) for the 4-meter Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canzian, Blaise; Barentine, J.; Arendt, J.; Bader, S.; Danyo, G.; Heller, C.

    2012-09-01

    L-3 Integrated Optical Systems (IOS) Division has been selected by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) to design and produce the Top End Optical Assembly (TEOA) for the 4-meter Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) to operate at Haleakal', Maui. ATST will perform to a very high optical performance level in a difficult thermal environment. The TEOA, containing the 0.65-meter silicon carbide secondary mirror and support, mirror thermal management system, mirror positioning and fast tip-tilt system, field stop with thermally managed heat dump, thermally managed Lyot stop, safety interlock and control system, and support frame, operates in the "hot spot" at the prime focus of the ATST and so presents special challenges. In this paper, we describe progress in the L-3 technical approach to meeting these challenges, including silicon carbide off-axis mirror design, fabrication, and high accuracy figuring and polishing all within L-3; mirror support design; the design for stray light control; subsystems for opto-mechanical positioning and high accuracy absolute mirror orientation sensing; Lyot stop design; and thermal management of all design elements to remain close to ambient temperature despite the imposed solar irradiance load.

  6. GISOT: a giant solar telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschlag, Robert H.; von der Lühe, Oskar F.; Bettonvil, Felix C.; Jägers, Aswin P.; Snik, Frans

    2004-10-01

    A concept is presented for an extremely large high-resolution solar telescope with an aperture of 11 m and diffraction limited for visual wavelengths. The structure of GISOT will be transparent to wind and placed on a transparent stiff tower. For efficient wind flushing, all optics, including the primary mirror, will be located above the elevation axis. The aperture will be of the order of 11 m, not rotatively symmetrical, but of an elongated shape with dimensions 11 x 4 m. It consists of a central on-axis 4 m mirror with on both sides 3 pieces of 2 m mirrors. The optical layout will be kept simple to guarantee quality and minimize stray light. A Coudé room for instruments is planned below the telescope. The telescope will not be housed in a dome-like construction, which interferes with the open principle. Instead the telescope will be protected by a foldable tent construction with a diameter of the order of 30 m, which doesn"t form any obstruction during observations, but can withstand the severe weather circumstances on mountain sites. Because of the nature of the solar scene, extremely high resolution in only one dimension is sufficient to solve many exciting problems in solar physics and in this respect the concept of GISOT is very promising.

  7. Challenges and Approach for Making the Top End Optical Assembly for the 4-meter Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canzian, Blaise; Barentine, J.; Hull, T.

    2012-01-01

    L-3 Integrated Optical Systems (IOS) Division has been selected by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) to make the Top End Optical Assembly (TEOA) for the 4-meter Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) to operate at Haleakala, Maui. ATST will perform to a very high optical performance level in a difficult thermal environment. The TEOA, containing the 0.65-meter silicon carbide secondary mirror and support, mirror thermal management system, mirror positioning and fast tip-tilt system, field stop with thermally managed heat dump, thermally managed Lyot stop, safety interlock and control system, and support frame, operates in the "hot spot” at the prime focus of the ATST and so presents special challenges. In this paper, we will describe the L-3 IOS technical approach to meet these challenges, including subsystems for opto-mechanical positioning, rejected and stray light control, wavefront tip-tilt compensation, and thermal management. Key words: ATST, TEOA, L-3 IOS, thermal management, silicon carbide (SiC) mirrors, hexapods, solar astronomy

  8. Science with the solar optical telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, S. D.; Hogan, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    The Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) is designed to provide the solar physics community with the data necessary for solving several fundamental problems in the energetics and dynamics of the solar atmosphere. Among these problems are questions on the origin and evolution of the sun's magnetic field, heating of the outer solar atmosphere, and sources of the solar wind in the lower lying regions of the outer atmosphere. The SOT will be built under the management of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, with science instruments provided by teams led by Principal Investigators. The telescope will be built by the Perkin-Elmer Corporation, and the science instruments selected for the first flight will be provided by the Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory (LPARL) and the California Institute of Technology, with actual construction of a combined science instrument taking place at the LPARL. The SOT has a 1.3-meter-diameter primary mirror that will be capable of achieving diffraction-limited viewing in the visible of 0.1 arc-second. This dimension is less than a hydrodynamic scale-height or a mean-free-path of a continuum photon in the solar atmosphere. Image stability will be achieved by a control system in the telescope, which moves both the primary and tertiary mirrors in tandem, and will be further enhanced by a correlation tracker in the combined science instrument. The SOT Facility is currently scheduled for its first flight on Spacelab at the beginning of the 1990's.

  9. Proposed National Large Solar Telescope Jagdev Singh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    proposed to design, fabricate and install a 2-meter class solar telescope at a suitable site in India to ... which can facilitate simultaneous measurements of the solar atmospheric parameters and of the vector ... Intensity variation of. 1% or less.

  10. Chinese large solar telescopes site survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu

    2017-04-01

    In order to observe the solar surface with unprecedentedly higher resolution, Chinse solar physics society decided to launch their solar site survey project in 2010 as the first step to look for the best candidate sites for the Chinese next-generation large-aperture solar telescopes, i.e., the 5-8 meter Chinese Giant Solar Telescope, and the 1 meter level coronagraph. We have built two long-term monitoring sites in Daocheng, with altitudes of around 4800 meters above the sea level located in the large Shangri-La mountain area, and we have collected systematic site data since 2014. Clear evidence, including the key parameters of seeing factor, sky brightness and water vapor content, has indicated that the large Shangri-La area owns the potential conditions of excellent seeing level and sufficient amount of clear-sky hours suitable for developing large solar telescopes. We will review the site survey progress and present the preliminary statistical results in this talk.

  11. Open principle for large high-resolution solar telescopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammerschlag, R.H.; Bettonvil, F.C.M.; Jägers, A.P.L.; Sliepen, G.

    2009-01-01

    Vacuum solar telescopes solve the problem of image deterioration inside the telescope due to refractive index fluctuations of the air heated by the solar light. However, such telescopes have a practical diameter limit somewhat over 1 m. The Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) was the pioneering demonstrator

  12. Adaptive optics system application for solar telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, V. P.; Grigor'ev, V. M.; Antoshkin, L. V.; Botugina, N. N.; Emaleev, O. N.; Konyaev, P. A.; Kovadlo, P. G.; Krivolutskiy, N. P.; Lavrionova, L. N.; Skomorovski, V. I.

    2008-07-01

    The possibility of applying adaptive correction to ground-based solar astronomy is considered. Several experimental systems for image stabilization are described along with the results of their tests. Using our work along several years and world experience in solar adaptive optics (AO) we are assuming to obtain first light to the end of 2008 for the first Russian low order ANGARA solar AO system on the Big Solar Vacuum Telescope (BSVT) with 37 subapertures Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor based of our modified correlation tracker algorithm, DALSTAR video camera, 37 elements deformable bimorph mirror, home made fast tip-tip mirror with separate correlation tracker. Too strong daytime turbulence is on the BSVT site and we are planning to obtain a partial correction for part of Sun surface image.

  13. The CERN axion solar telescope (CAST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalseth, C.E.; Arik, E.; Autiero, D.; Avignone, F.T.; Barth, K.; Bowyer, S.M.; Brauninger, H.; Brodzinski, R.L.; Carmona, J.M.; Cebrian, S.; Celebi, G.; Cetin, S.; Collar, J.I.; Creswick, R.; Delbart, A.; Delattre, M.; DiLella, L.; De Oliveira, R.; Eleftheriadis, Ch.; Erdutan, N.; Fanourakis, G.; Farach, H.A.; Fiorini, C.; Geralis, Th.; Giomataris, I.; Girard, T.A.; Gninenko, S.N.; Golubev, N.A.; Hasinoff, M.; Hoffmann, D.; Irastorza, I.G.; Jacoby, J.; Jeanneau, F.; Knopf, M.A.; Kovzelev, A.V.; Kotthaus, R.; Krcmar, M.; Krecak, Z.; Lakic, B.; Liolios, A.; Ljubicic, A.; Lutz, G.; Longoni, A.; Luzon, G.; Mailov, A.; Matveev, V.A.; Miley, H.S.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Mutterer, M.; Nikolaidis, A.; Nussinov, S.; Ortiz, A.; Pitts, W.K.; Placci, A.; Postoev, V.E.; Raffelt, G.G.; Riege, H.; Sampieto, M.; Sarsa, M.; Savvidis, I.; Stipcevic, M.; Thomas, C.W.; Thompson, R.C.; Valco, P.; Villar, J.A.; Villierme, B.; Walckiers, L.; Wilcox, W.; Zachariadou, K.; Zioutas, K.

    2002-01-01

    A decommissioned LHC test magnet is being prepared as the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment. The magnet has a field of 9.6 Tesla and length of 10 meters. It is being mounted on a platform to track the sun over ±8 deg. vertically and ±45 deg. , horizontally. A sensitivity in axion-photon coupling gαγγ -11 GeV -1 can be reached for m α ≤ 10 -2 eV, and with a gas filled tube-can reach gαγγ ≤ 10 -10 GeV -1 for axion masses m α < 2eV

  14. Design review of the Brazilian Experimental Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Lago, A.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Albuquerque, B.; Castilho, B.; Guarnieri, F. L.; Cardoso, F. R.; Guerrero, G.; Rodríguez, J. M.; Santos, J.; Costa, J. E. R.; Palacios, J.; da Silva, L.; Alves, L. R.; Costa, L. L.; Sampaio, M.; Dias Silveira, M. V.; Domingues, M. O.; Rockenbach, M.; Aquino, M. C. O.; Soares, M. C. R.; Barbosa, M. J.; Mendes, O., Jr.; Jauer, P. R.; Branco, R.; Dallaqua, R.; Stekel, T. R. C.; Pinto, T. S. N.; Menconi, V. E.; Souza, V. M. C. E. S.; Gonzalez, W.; Rigozo, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Brazilian's National Institute for Space Research (INPE), in collaboration with the Engineering School of Lorena/University of São Paulo (EEL/USP), the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), and the Brazilian's National Laboratory for Astrophysics (LNA), is developing a solar vector magnetograph and visible-light imager to study solar processes through observations of the solar surface magnetic field. The Brazilian Experimental Solar Telescope is designed to obtain full disk magnetic field and line-of-sight velocity observations in the photosphere. Here we discuss the system requirements and the first design review of the instrument. The instrument is composed by a Ritchey-Chrétien telescope with a 500 mm aperture and 4000 mm focal length. LCD polarization modulators will be employed for the polarization analysis and a tuning Fabry-Perot filter for the wavelength scanning near the Fe II 630.25 nm line. Two large field-of-view, high-resolution 5.5 megapixel sCMOS cameras will be employed as sensors. Additionally, we describe the project management and system engineering approaches employed in this project. As the magnetic field anchored at the solar surface produces most of the structures and energetic events in the upper solar atmosphere and significantly influences the heliosphere, the development of this instrument plays an important role in advancing scientific knowledge in this field. In particular, the Brazilian's Space Weather program will benefit most from the development of this technology. We expect that this project will be the starting point to establish a strong research program on Solar Physics in Brazil. Our main aim is to progressively acquire the know-how to build state-of-art solar vector magnetograph and visible-light imagers for space-based platforms.

  15. Enabling Telescopes of the Future: Long-Range Technology Investing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley

    2004-01-01

    The Office of Space Science at NASA Headquarters has a current staff of about 60 professionals (aka, scientists, engineers, budget analysts) and an annual budget of $2.5 B out of NASA s $15.0 B. About 35 missions or programs in various stages of development or operation are managed by OSS, notable among them are Hubble Space Telescope, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars 2001 Odyssey, Chandra X-ray Observatory, TRACE (solar observatory), Cassini (mission to Saturn), Galileo (mission at Jupiter), and Next Generation Space Telescope. OSS has an annual technology budget of several hundred million dollars. So, what is it that we are doing?

  16. Active control of the Chinese Giant Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yichun; Yang, Dehua; Jin, Zhenyu; Liu, Zhong; Qin, Wei

    2014-07-01

    The Chinese Giant Solar Telescope (CGST) is the next generation solar telescope of China with diameter of 8 meter. The unique feature of CGST is that its primary is a ring, which facilitates the polarization detection and thermal control. In its present design and development phase, two primary mirror patterns are considered. For one thing, the primary mirror is expected to construct with mosaic mirror with 24 trapezoidal (or petal) segments, for another thing, a monolithic mirror is also a candidate for its primary mirror. Both of them depend on active control technique to maintain the optical quality of the ring mirror. As a solar telescope, the working conditions of the CGST are quite different from those of the stellar telescopes. To avoid the image deterioration due to the mirror seeing and dome seeing, especially in the case of the concentration of flux in a solar telescope, large aperture solar projects prefer to adopt open telescopes and open domes. In this circumstance, higher wind loads act on the primary mirror directly, which will cause position errors and figure errors of the primary with matters worse than those of the current 10-meter stellar telescopes with dome protect. Therefore, it gives new challenges to the active control capability, telescope structure design, and wind shielding design. In this paper, the study progress of active control of CGST for its mosaic and monolithic mirror are presented, and the wind effects on such two primary mirrors are also investigated.

  17. Solar Hα and white light telescope at Hvar Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čalogovic, J.; Dumbovic, M.; Novak, S.; Vršnak, B.; Brajša, R.; Pötzi, W.; Hirtenfellner-Polanec, W.; Veronig, A.; Hanslmeier, A.; Klvaňa, Miroslav; Ambrož, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 2012 (2012), s. 83-88 ISSN 1845-8319 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : solar observations * telescope * photosphere Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  18. A retrospective of the GREGOR solar telescope in scientific literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, C.; von der Lühe, O.; Feller, A.; Arlt, K.; Balthasar, H.; Bauer, S.-M.; Bello González, N.; Berkefeld, Th.; Caligari, P.; Collados, M.; Fischer, A.; Granzer, T.; Hahn, T.; Halbgewachs, C.; Heidecke, F.; Hofmann, A.; Kentischer, T.; Klva{ňa, M.; Kneer, F.; Lagg, A.; Nicklas, H.; Popow, E.; Puschmann, K. G.; Rendtel, J.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Sobotka, M.; Solanki, S. K.; Soltau, D.; Staude, J.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Volkmer, R.; Waldmann, T.; Wiehr, E.; Wittmann, A. D.; Woche, M.

    2012-11-01

    In this review, we look back upon the literature, which had the GREGOR solar telescope project as its subject including science cases, telescope subsystems, and post-focus instruments. The articles date back to the year 2000, when the initial concepts for a new solar telescope on Tenerife were first presented at scientific meetings. This comprehensive bibliography contains literature until the year 2012, i.e., the final stages of commissioning and science verification. Taking stock of the various publications in peer-reviewed journals and conference proceedings also provides the ``historical'' context for the reference articles in this special issue of Astronomische Nachrichten/Astronomical Notes.

  19. Secondary mirror system for the European Solar Telescope (EST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaller, L.; Siegel, B.; Prieto, G.; Hernandez, E.; Casalta, J. M.; Mercader, J.; Barriga, J.

    2010-07-01

    The European Solar Telescope (EST) is a European collaborative project to build a 4m class solar telescope in the Canary Islands, which is now in its design study phase. The telescope will provide diffraction limited performance for several instruments observing simultaneously at the Coudé focus at different wavelengths. A multi-conjugated adaptive optics system composed of a tip-tilt mirror and several deformable mirrors will be integrated in the telescope optical path. The secondary mirror system is composed of the mirror itself (Ø800mm), the alignment drives and the cooling system needed to remove the solar heat load from the mirror. During the design study the feasibility to provide fast tip-tilt capabilities at the secondary mirror to work as the adaptive optics tip-tilt mirror is also being evaluated.

  20. Solar Cooker Technological Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Bashir

    1997-01-01

    The challenges which solar cooking technology is facing right now is discussed. Based on a field study in Madras and Gujarat, it is asserted that there is an important incompatibility between the technology and the every day real-life conditions of the "users" of solar cooker. An evaluation report...... on a solar cooker technology in Burkina Faso supports the findings of the study. It is concluded that the users and other important actors have to be incorporated in the technological development process of solar cookers in the future....

  1. Using ISS to develop telescope technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz-Otero, Alvar; Miller, David W.

    2005-08-01

    Future space telescope missions concepts have introduced new technologies such as precision formation flight, optical metrology, and segmented mirrors. These new technologies require demonstration and validation prior to deployment in final missions such as the James Webb Space Telescope, Terrestrial Planet Finder, and Darwin. Ground based demonstrations do not provide the precision necessary to obtain a high level of confidence in the technology; precursor free flyer space missions suffer from the same problems as the final missions. Therefore, this paper proposes the use of the International Space Station as an intermediate research environment where these technologies can be developed, demonstrated, and validated. The ISS provides special resources, such as human presence, communications, power, and a benign atmosphere which directly reduce the major challenges of space technology maturation: risk, complexity, cost, remote operations, and visibility. Successful design of experiments for use aboard the space station, by enabling iterative research and supporting multiple scientists, can further reduce the effects of these challenges of space technology maturation. This paper presents results of five previous MIT Space Systems Laboratory experiments aboard the Space Shuttle, MIR, and the ISS to illustrate successful technology maturation aboard these facilities.

  2. NST: Thermal Modeling for a Large Aperture Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Roy

    2011-05-01

    Late in the 1990s the Dutch Open Telescope demonstrated that internal seeing in open, large aperture solar telescopes can be controlled by flushing air across the primary mirror and other telescope structures exposed to sunlight. In that system natural wind provides a uniform air temperature throughout the imaging volume, while efficiently sweeping heated air away from the optics and mechanical structure. Big Bear Solar Observatory's New Solar Telescope (NST) was designed to realize that same performance in an enclosed system by using both natural wind through the dome and forced air circulation around the primary mirror to provide the uniform air temperatures required within the telescope volume. The NST is housed in a conventional, ventilated dome with a circular opening, in place of the standard dome slit, that allows sunlight to fall only on an aperture stop and the primary mirror. The primary mirror is housed deep inside a cylindrical cell with only minimal openings in the side at the level of the mirror. To date, the forced air and cooling systems designed for the NST primary mirror have not been implemented, yet the telescope regularly produces solar images indicative of the absence of mirror seeing. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of the NST primary mirror system along with measurements of air flows within the dome, around the telescope structure, and internal to the mirror cell are used to explain the origin of this seemingly incongruent result. The CFD analysis is also extended to hypothetical systems of various scales. We will discuss the results of these investigations.

  3. Passive solar technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D

    1981-04-01

    The present status of passive solar technology is summarized, including passive solar heating, cooling and daylighting. The key roles of the passive solar system designer and of innovation in the building industry are described. After definitions of passive design and a summary of passive design principles are given, performance and costs of passive solar technology are discussed. Passive energy design concepts or methods are then considered in the context of the overall process by which building decisions are made to achieve the integration of new techniques into conventional design. (LEW).

  4. Solar System Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; Ferruit, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid-infrared, with sensitivity and spatial/spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar...

  5. The 1.5 meter solar telescope GREGOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, W.; von der Lühe, O.; Volkmer, R.; Denker, C.; Solanki, S. K.; Balthasar, H.; Bello Gonzalez, N.; Berkefeld, Th.; Collados, M.; Fischer, A.; Halbgewachs, C.; Heidecke, F.; Hofmann, A.; Kneer, F.; Lagg, A.; Nicklas, H.; Popow, E.; Puschmann, K. G.; Schmidt, D.; Sigwarth, M.; Sobotka, M.; Soltau, D.; Staude, J.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Waldmann , T. A.

    2012-11-01

    The 1.5 m telescope GREGOR opens a new window to the understanding of solar small-scale magnetism. The first light instrumentation includes the Gregor Fabry Pérot Interferometer (GFPI), a filter spectro-polarimeter for the visible wavelength range, the GRating Infrared Spectro-polarimeter (GRIS) and the Broad-Band Imager (BBI). The excellent performance of the first two instruments has already been demonstrated at the Vacuum Tower Telescope. GREGOR is Europe's largest solar telescope and number 3 in the world. Its all-reflective Gregory design provides a large wavelength coverage from the near UV up to at least 5 microns. The field of view has a diameter of 150 arcsec. GREGOR is equipped with a high-order adaptive optics system, with a subaperture size of 10 cm, and a deformable mirror with 256 actuators. The science goals are focused on, but not limited to, solar magnetism. GREGOR allows us to measure the emergence and disappearance of magnetic flux at the solar surface at spatial scales well below 100 km. Thanks to its spectro-polarimetric capabilities, GREGOR will measure the interaction between the plasma flows, different kinds of waves, and the magnetic field. This will foster our understanding of the processes that heat the chromosphere and the outer layers of the solar atmosphere. Observations of the surface magnetic field at very small spatial scales will shed light on the variability of the solar brightness.

  6. Design progress of the solar UV-Vis-IR telescope (SUVIT) aboard SOLAR-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsukawa, Y.; Ichimoto, K.; Suematsu, Y.; Hara, H.; Kano, R.; Shimizu, T.; Matsuzaki, K.

    2013-09-01

    We present a design progress of the Solar UV-Vis-IR Telescope (SUVIT) aboard the next Japanese solar mission SOLAR-C. SUVIT has an aperture diameter of ~1.4 m for achieving spectro-polarimetric observations with spatial and temporal resolution exceeding the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT). We have studied structural and thermal designs of the optical telescope as well as the optical interface between the telescope and the focal plane instruments. The focal plane instruments are installed into two packages, filtergraph and spectrograph packages. The spectropolarimeter is the instrument dedicated to accurate polarimetry in the three spectrum windows at 525 nm, 854 nm, and 1083 nm for observing magnetic fields at both the photospheric and chromospheric layers. We made optical design of the spectrograph accommodating the conventional slit spectrograph and the integral field unit (IFU) for two-dimensional coverage. We are running feasibility study of the IFU using fiber arrays consisting of rectangular cores.

  7. A 16-m Telescope for the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Telescope (ATLAST) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillie, Charles F.; Dailey, D. R.; Polidan, R. S.

    2010-01-01

    Future space observatories will require increasingly large telescopes to study the earliest stars and galaxies, as well as faint nearby objects. Technologies now under development will enable telescopes much larger than the 6.5-meter diameter James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) to be developed at comparable costs. Current segmented mirror and deployable optics technology enables the 6.5 meter JWST telescope to be folded for launch in the 5-meter diameter Ariane 5 payload fairing, and deployed autonomously after reaching orbit. Late in the next decade, when the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle payload fairing becomes operational, even larger telescope can be placed in orbit. In this paper we present our concept for a 16-meter JWST derivative, chord-fold telescope which could be stowed in the 10-m diameter Ares V fairing, plus a description of the new technologies that enable ATLAST to be developed at an affordable price.

  8. Telescopic Partial Dentures-Concealed Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Tushar Vitthalrao; Walke, Ashwini Nareshchandra

    2015-09-01

    The ideal goal of good dentist is to restore the missing part of oral structure, phonetics, his look and the most important is restored the normal health of the patient, which is hampered due to less or insufficient intake of food. Removable partial denture (RPD) treatment option is considered as a notion, which precludes the inevitability of "floating plastic" in edentulous mouth, that many times fail to fulfill the above essential of the patients. In modern dentistry, though the dental implants or fixed partial denture is the better options, but they have certain limitations. However, overdentures and particularly telescopic denture is the overlooked technology in dentistry that would be a boon for such needy patients. Telescopic denture is especially indicated in the distal edentulous area with minimum two teeth bilaterally present with a good amount of periodontal support. This treatment modality is sort of preventive prosthodontics remedy, which in a conservative manner preserve the remaining teeth and helps in conservation of alveolar bone ultimately. There are two tenets related to this option, one is constant conservation edentulous ridge around the retained tooth and the most important is the endless existence of periodontal sensory action that directs and monitor gnathodynamic task. In this option the primary coping or inner coping are cemented on the prepared tooth, and a similar removable outer or inner telescopic crown placed tightly by using a mechanism of tenso-friction, this is firmly attached to a removable RPD in place without moving or rocking of the prosthesis, which is the common compliant of almost all patients of RPD. Copings are also protecting the abutment from tooth decay and also offers stabilization and maintaining of the outer crown. The outer crown engages the inner coping and gives as an anchor for the remainder of the dentition. This work is the review of telescopic prosthesis which is well supported by the case discussion, and

  9. Modeling the electron-proton telescope on Solar Orbiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, Sebastian; Steinhagen, Jan; Kulkarni, S.R.; Tammen, Jan; Elftmann, Robert; Martin, Cesar; Ravanbakhsh, Ali; Boettcher, Stephan; Seimetz, Lars; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F. [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet, Kiel (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The Electron Proton Telescope (EPT) is one of four sensors in the Energetic Particle Detector suite for Solar Orbiter. It investigates low energy electrons and protons of solar events in an energy range from 20 - 400 keV for electrons and 20 keV - 7 MeV for protons. It distinguishes electrons from protons using a magnet/foil technique with silicon detectors. There will be two EPT units, each with double-barreled telescopes, one looking sunwards/antisunwards and the other north/south. We set up a Monte Carlo model of EPT using the GEANT4 framework, which we can use to simulate interactions of energetic particles in the sensor. Here we present simulation results of the energy coverage for different ion species, and we study how it is possible to distinguish between them.

  10. Solar System Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; hide

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid-infrared, with sensitivity and spatial/spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar System targets to illustrate the potential of JWST science to the Solar System community. This paper updates and supersedes the Solar System white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010. It is based both on that paper and on a workshop held at the annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences in Reno, NV, in 2012.

  11. The Solar-A soft X-ray telescope experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, L.; Bruner, M.; Brown, W.; Lemen, J.; Hirayama, T.

    1988-01-01

    The Japanese Solar-A mission for the study of high energy solar physics is timed to observe the sun during the next activity maximum. This small spacecraft includes a carefully coordinated complement of instruments for flare studies. In particular, the soft X-ray telescope (SXT) will provide X-ray images of flares with higher sensitivity and time resolution than have been available before. This paper describes the scientific capabilities of the SXT and illustrates its application to the study of an impulsive compact flare.

  12. Harnessing solar pressure to slew and point large infrared space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errico, Simona; Angel, Roger P.; Calvert, Paul D.; Woof, Neville

    2003-03-01

    Large astronomical Gossamer telescopes in space will need to employ large solar shields to safeguard the optics from solar radiation. These types of telescopes demand accurate controls to maintain telescope pointing over long integration periods. We propose an active solar shield system that harnesses radiation pressure to accurately slew and acquire new targets without the need for reaction wheels or thrusters. To provide the required torques, the solar shield is configured as an inverted, 4-sided pyramidal roof. The sloped roof interior surfaces are covered with hinged “tiles” made from piezoelectric film bimorphs with specular metallized surfaces. Nominally, the tiles lie flat against the roof and the sunlight is reflected outward equally from all sloped surfaces. However, when the tiles on one roof pitch are raised, the pressure balance is upset and the sunshade is pushed to one side. By judicious selection of the tiles and control of their lift angle, the solar pressure can be harvested to stabilize the spacecraft orientation or to change its angular momentum. A first order conceptual design performance analysis and the results from the experimental design, fabrication and testing of piezoelectric bimorph hinge elements will be presented. Next phase challenges in engineering design, materials technology, and systems testing will be discussed.

  13. On the co-alignment of solar telescopes. A new approach to solar pointing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staiger, J

    2013-01-01

    Helioseismological measurements require long observing times and thus may be adversely affected by lateral image drifts as caused by pointing instabilities. At the Vacuum Tower Telescope VTT, Tenerife we have recorded drift values of up to 5'' per hour under unstable thermal conditions (dome opening, strong day-to-day thermal gradients). Typically drifts of 0.5'' – 1.0'' per hour may be encountered under more favorable conditions. Past experience has shown that most high-resolution solar telescopes may be affected by this problem to some degree. This inherent shortcoming of solar pointing is caused by the fact that the guiding loop can be closed only within the guiding beam but not within the telescope's main beam. We have developed a new approach to this problem. We correlate continuum brightness patterns observed from within the telescope main beam with patterns originating from a full disk telescope. We show that brightness patterns of sufficient size are unique with respect to solar location at any instant of time and may serve as a location identifier. We make use of the fact that averaged location information of solar structures is invariant with respect to telescope resolution. We have carried out tests at the VTT together with SDO. We have used SDO as a full disk reference. We were able to reduce lateral image drifts by an order of magnitude.

  14. Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photovoltaic Technology Basics Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics Solar cells, also called found in sand) created an electric charge when exposed to sunlight. Soon solar cells were being used to power space satellites and smaller items like calculators and watches. Photo of a large silicon solar

  15. Adaptation of Dunn Solar Telescope for Jovian Doppler spectro imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Thomas A.; Voelz, David; Schmider, François-Xavier; Jackiewicz, Jason; Dejonghe, Julien; Bresson, Yves; Hull, Robert; Goncalves, Ivan; Gualme, Patrick; Morand, Frédéric; Preis, Olivier

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes instrumentation used to adapt the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST) located on Sacramento Peak in Sunspot, NM for observations using the Doppler Spectro Imager (DSI). The DSI is based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and measures the Doppler shift of solar lines allowing for the study of atmospheric dynamics of giant planets and the detection of their acoustic oscillations. The instrumentation is being designed and built through a collaborative effort between a French team from the Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur (OCA) that designed the DSI and a US team at New Mexico State University (NMSU). There are four major components that couple the DSI to the DST: a guider/tracker, fast steering mirror (FSM), pupil stabilizer and transfer optics. The guider/tracker processes digital video to centroid-track the planet and outputs voltages to the DST's heliostat controls. The FSM removes wavefront tip/tilt components primarily due to turbulence and the pupil stabilizer removes any slow pupil "wander" introduced by the telescope's heliostat/turret arrangement. The light received at a science port of the DST is sent through the correction and stabilization components and into the DSI. The FSM and transfer optics designs are being provided by the OCA team and serve much the same functions as they do for other telescopes at which DSI observations have been conducted. The pupil stabilization and guider are new and are required to address characteristics of the DST.

  16. The soft x ray telescope for Solar-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W. A.; Acton, L. W.; Bruner, M. E.; Lemen, J. R.; Strong, K. T.

    1989-01-01

    The Solar-A satellite being prepared by the Institute for Sapce and Astronautical Sciences (ISAS) in Japan is dedicated to high energy observations of solar flares. The Soft X Ray Telescope (SXT) is being prepared to provide filtered images in the 2 to 60 A interval. The flight model is now undergoing tests in the 1000 foot tunnel at MSFC. Launch will be in September 1991. Earlier resolution and efficiency tests on the grazing incidence mirror have established its performance in soft x rays. The one-piece, two mirror grazing incidence telescope is supported in a strain free mount separated from the focal plane assembly by a carbon-epoxy metering tube whose windings and filler are chosen to minimize thermal and hygroscopic effects. The CCD detector images both the x ray and the concentric visible light aspect telescope. Optical filters provide images at 4308 and 4700 A. The SXT will be capable of producing over 8000 of the smallest partial frame images per day, or fewer but larger images, up to 1024 x 1024 pixel images. Image sequence with two or more of the five x ray analysis filters, with automatic exposure compensation to optimize the charge collection by the CCD detector, will be used to provide plasma diagnostics. Calculations using a differential emission measure code were used to optimize filter selection over the range of emission measure variations and to avoid redundancy, but the filters were chosen primarily to give ratios that are monotonic in plasma temperature.

  17. The soft x ray telescope for Solar-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.A.; Acton, L.W.; Bruner, M.E.; Lemen, J.R.; Strong, K.T.

    1989-01-01

    The Solar-A satellite being prepared by the Institute for Sapce and Astronautical Sciences (ISAS) in Japan is dedicated to high energy observations of solar flares. The Soft X Ray Telescope (SXT) is being prepared to provide filtered images in the 2 to 60 A interval. The flight model is now undergoing tests in the 1000 foot tunnel at MSFC. Launch will be in September 1991. Earlier resolution and efficiency tests on the grazing incidence mirror have established its performance in soft x rays. The one-piece, two mirror grazing incidence telescope is supported in a strain free mount separated from the focal plane assembly by a carbon-epoxy metering tube whose windings and filler are chosen to minimize thermal and hygroscopic effects. The CCD detector images both the x ray and the concentric visible light aspect telescope. Optical filters provide images at 4308 and 4700 A. The SXT will be capable of producing over 8000 of the smallest partial frame images per day, or fewer but larger images, up to 1024 x 1024 pixel images. Image sequence with two or more of the five x ray analysis filters, with automatic exposure compensation to optimize the charge collection by the CCD detector, will be used to provide plasma diagnostics. Calculations using a differential emission measure code were used to optimize filter selection over the range of emission measure variations and to avoid redundancy, but the filters were chosen primarily to give ratios that are monotonic in plasma temperature

  18. Correlation tracking study for meter-class solar telescope on space shuttle. [solar granulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, R. C.; Tarbell, T. D.

    1977-01-01

    The theory and expected performance level of correlation trackers used to control the pointing of a solar telescope in space using white light granulation as a target were studied. Three specific trackers were modeled and their performance levels predicted for telescopes of various apertures. The performance of the computer model trackers on computer enhanced granulation photographs was evaluated. Parametric equations for predicting tracker performance are presented.

  19. Solar Preheated Ventilation - Innovative Solar Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gaberson, Howard

    1999-01-01

    .... This innovative technology applies to both new construction or rehabilitation projects. This TDS introduces this low maintenance solar technology for consideration in all future industrial ventilation or HVAC projects...

  20. Implementing Solar Technologies at Airports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, A.; Romero, R.

    2014-07-01

    Federal agencies, such as the Department of Defense and Department of Homeland Security, as well as numerous private entities are actively pursuing the installation of solar technologies to help reduce fossil fuel energy use and associated emissions, meet sustainability goals, and create more robust or reliable operations. One potential approach identified for siting solar technologies is the installation of solar energy technologies at airports and airfields, which present a significant opportunity for hosting solar technologies due to large amounts of open land. This report focuses largely on the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA's) policies toward siting solar technologies at airports.

  1. Technological Aspects of Creating Large-size Optical Telescopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Sychev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A concept of the telescope creation, first of all, depends both on a choice of the optical scheme to form optical radiation and images with minimum losses of energy and information and on a choice of design to meet requirements for strength, stiffness, and stabilization characteristics in real telescope operation conditions. Thus, the concept of creating large-size telescopes, certainly, involves the use of adaptive optics methods and means.The level of technological capabilities to realize scientific and engineering ideas define a successful development of large-size optical telescopes in many respects. All developers pursue the same aim that is to raise an amount of information by increasing a main mirror diameter of the telescope.The article analyses the adaptive telescope designs developed in our country. Using a domestic ACT-25 telescope as an example, it considers creation of large-size optical telescopes in terms of technological aspects. It also describes the telescope creation concept features, which allow reaching marginally possible characteristics to ensure maximum amount of information.The article compares a wide range of large-size telescopes projects. It shows that a domestic project to create the adaptive ACT-25 super-telescope surpasses its foreign counterparts, and there is no sense to implement Euro50 (50m and OWL (100m projects.The considered material gives clear understanding on a role of technological aspects in development of such complicated optic-electronic complexes as a large-size optical telescope. The technological criteria of an assessment offered in the article, namely specific informational content of the telescope, its specific mass, and specific cost allow us to reveal weaknesses in the project development and define a reserve regarding further improvement of the telescope.The analysis of results and their judgment have shown that improvement of optical largesize telescopes in terms of their maximum

  2. 2010 Solar Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 2010 Solar Technologies Market Report details the market conditions and trends for photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. Produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the report provides a comprehensive overview of the solar electricity market and identifies successes and trends within the market from both global and national perspectives.

  3. Solar Technology Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Bob

    2011-04-27

    The Department of Energy, Golden Field Office, awarded a grant to the UNLV Research Foundation (UNLVRF) on August 1, 2005 to develop a solar and renewable energy information center. The Solar Technology Center (STC) is to be developed in two phases, with Phase I consisting of all activities necessary to determine feasibility of the project, including design and engineering, identification of land access issues and permitting necessary to determine project viability without permanently disturbing the project site, and completion of a National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Environmental Assessment. Phase II is the installation of infrastructure and related structures, which leads to commencement of operations of the STC. The STC is located in the Boulder City designated 3,000-acre Eldorado Valley Energy Zone, approximately 15 miles southwest of downtown Boulder City and fronting on Eldorado Valley Drive. The 33-acre vacant parcel has been leased to the Nevada Test Site Development Corporation (NTSDC) by Boulder City to accommodate a planned facility that will be synergistic with present and planned energy projects in the Zone. The parcel will be developed by the UNLVRF. The NTSDC is the economic development arm of the UNLVRF. UNLVRF will be the entity responsible for overseeing the lease and the development project to assure compliance with the lease stipulations established by Boulder City. The STC will be operated and maintained by University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) and its Center for Energy Research (UNLV-CER). Land parcels in the Eldorado Valley Energy Zone near the 33-acre lease are committed to the construction and operation of an electrical grid connected solar energy production facility. Other projects supporting renewable and solar technologies have been developed within the energy zone, with several more developments in the horizon.

  4. Telescoping Solar Array Concept for Achieving High Packaging Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulas, Martin; Pappa, Richard; Warren, Jay; Rose, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight, high-efficiency solar arrays are required for future deep space missions using high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). Structural performance metrics for state-of-the art 30-50 kW flexible blanket arrays recently demonstrated in ground tests are approximately 40 kW/cu m packaging efficiency, 150 W/kg specific power, 0.1 Hz deployed stiffness, and 0.2 g deployed strength. Much larger arrays with up to a megawatt or more of power and improved packaging and specific power are of interest to mission planners for minimizing launch and life cycle costs of Mars exploration. A new concept referred to as the Compact Telescoping Array (CTA) with 60 kW/cu m packaging efficiency at 1 MW of power is described herein. Performance metrics as a function of array size and corresponding power level are derived analytically and validated by finite element analysis. Feasible CTA packaging and deployment approaches are also described. The CTA was developed, in part, to serve as a NASA reference solar array concept against which other proposed designs of 50-1000 kW arrays for future high-power SEP missions could be compared.

  5. Performance of the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array. III - Optical characteristics of the Ritchey-Chretien and Cassegrain telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Baker, Phillip C.; Hadaway, James B.; Johnson, R. B.; Peterson, Cynthia; Gabardi, David R.; Walker, Arthur B., Jr.; Lindblom, J. F.; Deforest, Craig; O'Neal, R. H.

    1991-12-01

    The Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA), which is a sounding-rocket-borne observatory for investigating the sun in the soft X-ray/EUV and FUV regimes of the electromagnetic spectrum, utilizes single reflection multilayer coated Herschelian telescopes for wavelengths below 100 A, and five doubly reflecting multilayer coated Ritchey-Chretien and two Cassegrain telescopes for selected wavelengths in the EUV region between 100 and 1000 A. The paper discusses the interferometric alignment, testing, focusing, visible light testing, and optical performance characteristics of the Ritchey-Chretien and Cassegrain telescopes of MSSTA. A schematic diagram of the MSSTA Ritchey-Chretien telescope is presented together with diagrams of the system autocollimation testing.

  6. Potential of the McMath-Pierce 1.6-Meter Solar Telescope for Speckle Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshaw, Richard; Jones, Gregory; Wiley, Edward; Boyce, Patrick; Branston, Detrick; Rowe, David; Genet, Russell

    2015-09-01

    We explored the aiming and tracking accuracy of the McMath-Pierce 1.6 m solar telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory as part of an investigation of using this telescope for speckle interferometry of close visual double stars. Several slews of various lengths looked for hysteresis in the positioning system (we found none of significance) and concluded that the 1.6 m telescope would make a useful telescope for speckle interferometry.

  7. Emerging Solar Technologies: Perovskite Solar Cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    energy technologies and ... cost-effective and feasible non-silicon solar cell technologies. ..... storing in the air for long periods, and the stability reached up to .... [12] Y Liu, L A Renna, M Bag, Z A Page, P Kim, J Choi, T Emrick, D Venkatara-.

  8. Focal plane instrument for the Solar UV-Vis-IR Telescope aboard SOLAR-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsukawa, Yukio; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Shimizu, Toshifumi; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Takeyama, Norihide

    2011-10-01

    It is presented the conceptual design of a focal plane instrument for the Solar UV-Vis-IR Telescope (SUVIT) aboard the next Japanese solar mission SOLAR-C. A primary purpose of the telescope is to achieve precise as well as high resolution spectroscopic and polarimetric measurements of the solar chromosphere with a big aperture of 1.5 m, which is expected to make a significant progress in understanding basic MHD processes in the solar atmosphere. The focal plane instrument consists of two packages: A filtergraph package is to get not only monochromatic images but also Dopplergrams and magnetograms using a tunable narrow-band filter and interference filters. A spectrograph package is to perform accurate spectro-polarimetric observations for measuring chromospheric magnetic fields, and is employing a Littrow-type spectrograph. The most challenging aspect in the instrument design is wide wavelength coverage from 280 nm to 1.1 μm to observe multiple chromospheric lines, which is to be realized with a lens unit including fluoride glasses. A high-speed camera for correlation tracking of granular motion is also implemented in one of the packages for an image stabilization system, which is essential to achieve high spatial resolution and high polarimetric accuracy.

  9. The 2016 Transit of Mercury Observed from Major Solar Telescopes and Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Schneider, Glenn; Gary, Dale; Chen, Bin; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Reardon, Kevin P.; Dantowitz, Ronald; Kopp, Greg A.

    2016-10-01

    We report observations from the ground and space of the 9 May 2016 transit of Mercury. We build on our explanation of the black-drop effect in transits of Venus based on spacecraft observations of the 1999 transit of Mercury (Schneider, Pasachoff, and Golub, Icarus 168, 249, 2004). In 2016, we used the 1.6-m New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory with active optics to observe Mercury's transit at high spatial resolution. We again saw a small black-drop effect as 3rd contact neared, confirming the data that led to our earlier explanation as a confluence of the point-spread function and the extreme solar limb darkening (Pasachoff, Schneider, and Golub, in IAU Colloq. 196, 2004). We again used IBIS on the Dunn Solar Telescope of the Sacramento Peak Observatory, as A. Potter continued his observations, previously made at the 2006 transit of Mercury, at both telescopes of the sodium exosphere of Mercury (Potter, Killen, Reardon, and Bida, Icarus 226, 172, 2013). We imaged the transit with IBIS as well as with two RED Epic IMAX-quality cameras alongside it, one with a narrow passband. We show animations of our high-resolution ground-based observations along with observations from XRT on JAXA's Hinode and from NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory. Further, we report on the limit of the transit change in the Total Solar Irradiance, continuing our interest from the transit of Venus TSI (Schneider, Pasachoff, and Willson, ApJ 641, 565, 2006; Pasachoff, Schneider, and Willson, AAS 2005), using NASA's SORCE/TIM and the Air Force's TCTE/TIM. See http://transitofvenus.info and http://nicmosis.as.arizona.edu.Acknowledgments: We were glad for the collaboration at Big Bear of Claude Plymate and his colleagues of the staff of the Big Bear Solar Observatory. We also appreciate the collaboration on the transit studies of Robert Lucas (Sydney, Australia) and Evan Zucker (San Diego, California). JMP appreciates the sabbatical hospitality of the Division of Geosciences and

  10. Solar System science with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lynne; Brown, Mike; Ivezić, Zeljko; Jurić, Mario; Malhotra, Renu; Trilling, David

    2015-11-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST; http://lsst.org) will be a large-aperture, wide-field, ground-based telescope that will survey half the sky every few nights in six optical bands from 320 to 1050 nm. It will explore a wide range of astrophysical questions, ranging from performing a census of the Solar System, to examining the nature of dark energy. It is currently in construction, slated for first light in 2019 and full operations by 2022.The LSST will survey over 20,000 square degrees with a rapid observational cadence, to typical limiting magnitudes of r~24.5 in each visit (9.6 square degree field of view). Automated software will link the individual detections into orbits; these orbits, as well as precisely calibrated astrometry (~50mas) and photometry (~0.01-0.02 mag) in multiple bandpasses will be available as LSST data products. The resulting data set will have tremendous potential for planetary astronomy; multi-color catalogs of hundreds of thousands of NEOs and Jupiter Trojans, millions of asteroids, tens of thousands of TNOs, as well as thousands of other objects such as comets and irregular satellites of the major planets.LSST catalogs will increase the sample size of objects with well-known orbits 10-100 times for small body populations throughout the Solar System, enabling a major increase in the completeness level of the inventory of most dynamical classes of small bodies and generating new insights into planetary formation and evolution. Precision multi-color photometry will allow determination of lightcurves and colors, as well as spin state and shape modeling through sparse lightcurve inversion. LSST is currently investigating survey strategies to optimize science return across a broad range of goals. To aid in this investigation, we are making a series of realistic simulated survey pointing histories available together with a Python software package to model and evaluate survey detections for a user-defined input population. Preliminary

  11. Cooling a solar telescope enclosure: plate coil thermal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Michael; Galapon, Chriselle; Montijo, Guillermo; Phelps, LeEllen; Murga, Gaizka

    2016-08-01

    The climate of Haleakalā requires the observatories to actively adapt to changing conditions in order to produce the best possible images. Observatories need to be maintained at a temperature closely matching ambient or the images become blurred and unusable. The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope is a unique telescope as it will be active during the day as opposed to the other night-time stellar observatories. This means that it will not only need to constantly match the ever-changing temperature during the day, but also during the night so as not to sub-cool and affect the view field of other telescopes while they are in use. To accomplish this task, plate coil heat exchanger panels will be installed on the DKIST enclosure that are designed to keep the temperature at ambient temperature +0°C/-4°C. To verify the feasibility of this and to validate the design models, a test rig has been installed at the summit of Haleakalā. The project's purpose is to confirm that the plate coil panels are capable of maintaining this temperature throughout all seasons and involved collecting data sets of various variables including pressures, temperatures, coolant flows, solar radiations and wind velocities during typical operating hours. Using MATLAB, a script was written to observe the plate coil's thermal performance. The plate coil did not perform as expected, achieving a surface temperature that was generally 2ºC above ambient temperature. This isn't to say that the plate coil does not work, but the small chiller used for the experiment was undersized resulting in coolant pumped through the plate coil that was not supplied at a low enough temperature. Calculated heat depositions were about 23% lower than that used as the basis of the design for the hillers to be used on the full system, a reasonable agreement given the fact that many simplifying assumptions were used in the models. These were not carried over into the testing. The test rig performance showing a 23% margin

  12. Solar Technology Curriculum, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward County Community Coll., Liberal, KS.

    This curriculum guide contains lecture outlines and handouts for training solar technicians in the installation, maintenance, and repair of solar energy hot water and space heating systems. The curriculum consists of four modular units developed to provide a model through which community colleges and area vocational/technical schools can respond…

  13. Vibration measurements of the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope mount, Coudé rotator, and enclosure assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, William R.; McBride, Daniel R.

    2016-08-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, with a 4-meter off-axis primary mirror and 16 meter rotating Coudé laboratory within the telescope pier. The off-axis design requires a mount similar to an 8-meter on-axis telescope. Both the telescope mount and the Coudé laboratory utilize a roller bearing technology in place of the more commonly used hydrostatic bearings. The telescope enclosure utilizes a crawler mechanism for the altitude axis. As these mechanisms have not previously been used in a telescope, understanding the vibration characteristics and the potential impact on the telescope image is important. This paper presents the methodology used to perform jitter measurements of the enclosure and the mount bearings and servo system in a high-noise environment utilizing seismic accelerometers and high dynamic-range data acquisition equipment, along with digital signal processing (DSP) techniques. Data acquisition and signal processing were implemented in MATLAB. In the factory acceptance testing of the telescope mount, multiple accelerometers were strategically located to capture the six axes-of-motion of the primary and secondary mirror dummies. The optical sensitivity analysis was used to map these mirror mount displacements and rotations into units of image motion on the focal plane. Similarly, tests were done with the Coudé rotator, treating the entire rotating instrument lab as a rigid body. Testing was performed by recording accelerometer data while the telescope control system performed tracking operations typical of various observing scenarios. The analysis of the accelerometer data utilized noise-averaging fast Fourier transform (FFT) routines, spectrograms, and periodograms. To achieve adequate dynamic range at frequencies as low as 3Hz, the use of special filters and advanced windowing functions were necessary. Numerous identical automated tests were compared to identify and select the data sets

  14. WILL THE LARGE SYNOPTIC SURVEY TELESCOPE DETECT EXTRA-SOLAR PLANETESIMALS ENTERING THE SOLAR SYSTEM?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moro-Martin, Amaya; Turner, Edwin L.; Loeb, Abraham

    2009-01-01

    Planetesimal formation is a common by-product of the star formation process. Taking the dynamical history of the solar system as a guideline-in which the planetesimal belts were heavily depleted due to gravitational perturbation with the giant planets-and assuming similar processes have taken place in other planetary systems, one would expect the interstellar space to be filled with extra-solar planetesimals. However, not a single one of these objects has been detected so far entering the solar system, even though it would clearly be distinguishable from a solar system comet due to its highly hyperbolic orbit. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will provide wide coverage maps of the sky to a very high sensitivity, ideal to detect moving objects like comets, both active and inactive. In anticipation of these observations, we estimate how many inactive 'interstellar comets' might be detected during the duration of the survey. The calculation takes into account estimates (from observations and models) of the number density of stars, the amount of solids available to form planetesimals, the frequency of planet and planetesimal formation, the efficiency of planetesimal ejection, and the possible size distribution of these small bodies.

  15. Solar Energy Technologies Office Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2018-03-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Office (SETO) supports early-stage research and development to improve the affordability, reliability, and performance of solar technologies on the grid. The office invests in innovative research efforts that securely integrate more solar energy into the grid, enhance the use and storage of solar energy, and lower solar electricity costs.

  16. The 1.5 meter solar telescope GREGOR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schmidt, W.; von der Lühe, O.; Volkmer, R.; Denker, C.; Solanki, S.K.; Balthasar, H.; Bello González, N.; Berkefeld, T.; Collados Vera, M.; Fischer, A.; Halbgewachs, C.; Heidecke, F.; Hofmann, A.; Kneer, F.; Lagg, A.; Nicklas, H.; Popow, E.; Puschmann, K.G.; Schmidt, D.; Sigwarth, M.; Sobotka, Michal; Soltau, D.; Staude, J.; Strassmeier, K.G.; Waldmann, T.A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 333, č. 9 (2012), s. 796-809 ISSN 0004-6337 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : high angular resolution * magnetic fields * telescopes Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.399, year: 2012

  17. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-01-29

    The focus of this report is the U.S. solar electricity market, including photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. The report is organized into five chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of global and U.S. installation trends. Chapter 2 presents production and shipment data, material and supply chain issues, and solar industry employment trends. Chapter 3 presents cost, price, and performance trends. Chapter 4 discusses policy and market drivers such as recently passed federal legislation, state and local policies, and developments in project financing. Chapter 5 provides data on private investment trends and near-term market forecasts.

  18. Solar cooker effect test and temperature field simulation of radio telescope subreflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Deshen; Wang, Huajie; Qian, Hongliang; Zhang, Gang; Shen, Shizhao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar cooker effect test of a telescope subreflector is conducted for the first time. • The cause and temperature distribution regularities are analyzed contrastively. • Simulation methods are proposed using light beam segmentation and tracking methods. • The validity of simulation methods is evaluated using the test results. - Abstract: The solar cooker effect can cause a local high temperature of the subreflector and can directly affect the working performance of the radio telescope. To study the daily temperature field and solar cooker effect of a subreflector, experimental studies are carried out with a 3-m-diameter radio telescope model for the first time. Initially, the solar temperature distribution rules, especially the solar cooker effect, are summarized according to the field test results under the most unfavorable conditions. Then, a numerical simulation for the solar temperature field of the subreflector is studied by light beam segmentation and tracking methods. Finally, the validity of the simulation methods is evaluated using the test results. The experimental studies prove that the solar cooker effect really exists and should not be overlooked. In addition, simulation methods for the subreflector temperature field proposed in this paper are effective. The research methods and conclusions can provide valuable references for thermal design, monitoring and control of similar high-precision radio telescopes.

  19. Spacecraft Conceptual Design for the 8-Meter Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Randall C.; Capizzo, Peter; Fincher, Sharon; Hornsby, Linda S.; Jones, David

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at Marshall Space Flight Center completed a brief spacecraft design study for the 8-meter monolithic Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST-8m). This spacecraft concept provides all power, communication, telemetry, avionics, guidance and control, and thermal control for the observatory, and inserts the observatory into a halo orbit about the second Sun-Earth Lagrange point. The multidisciplinary design team created a simple spacecraft design that enables component and science instrument servicing, employs articulating solar panels for help with momentum management, and provides precise pointing control while at the same time fast slewing for the observatory.

  20. Paraboloidal X-ray telescope mirror for solar coronal spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W. A.; Bruner, E. C., Jr.; Acton, L. W.; Franks, A.; Stedman, M.; Speer, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The telescope mirror for the X-ray Spectrograph Spectrometer Telescope System is a sixty degree sector of an extreme off-axis paraboloid of revolution. It was designed to focus a coronal region 1 by 10 arc seconds in size on the entrance slit of the spectrometer after reflection from the gold surface. This paper discusses the design, manufacture, and metrology of the mirror, the methods of precision mechanical metrology used to focus the system, and the mounting system which locates the mirror and has proven itself through vibration tests. In addition, the results of reflection efficiency measurements, alignment tolerances, and ray trace analysis of the effects of misalignment are considered.

  1. Instrument Design of the Large Aperture Solar UV Visible and IR Observing Telescope (SUVIT) for the SOLAR-C Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Y.; Katsukawa, Y.; Shimizu, T.; Ichimoto, K.; Takeyama, N.

    2012-12-01

    We present an instrumental design of one major solar observation payload planned for the SOLAR-C mission: the Solar Ultra-violet Visible and near IR observing Telescope (SUVIT). The SUVIT is designed to provide high-angular-resolution investigation of the lower solar atmosphere, from the photosphere to the uppermost chromosphere, with enhanced spectroscopic and spectro-polarimetric capability in wide wavelength regions from 280 nm (Mg II h&k lines) to 1100 nm (He I 1083 nm line) with 1.5 m class aperture and filtergraphic and spectrographic instruments.

  2. Household appliances using solar energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, H.

    2000-01-01

    Many solar energy technologies are now sufficiently developed to make it possible to use these to replace some of our conventional energy sources, but still need improvement and reduction in cost. It is, therefore, necessary to focus attention on household uses of solar energy. This paper describes the recent developments and current position in respect of several such devices, which include; solar cooker, with curved concentrator, Panel Cooker, Solar Dryer, solar water heater, Solar Still, Solar Water Pump, Solar Water Disinfection, Solar space Heating and greenhouse solar Reflectors, Development and Extension activities on these should be taken up at various levels. (author)

  3. Solar synoptic telescope. Characteristics, possibilities, and limits of design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klvaňa, Miroslav; Sobotka, Michal; Švanda, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 2 (2011), s. 92-98 ISSN 1335-1842 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300030808 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Sun * telescopes Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.152, year: 2011

  4. Parameterization models for solar radiation and solar technology applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Samy A.

    2008-01-01

    Solar radiation is very important for the evaluation and wide use of solar renewable energy systems. The development of calibration procedures for broadband solar radiation photometric instrumentation and the improvement of broadband solar radiation measurement accuracy have been done. An improved diffuse sky reference and photometric calibration and characterization software for outdoor pyranometer calibrations are outlined. Parameterizations for direct beam, total hemispherical and diffuse sky radiation and solar radiation technology are briefly reviewed. The uncertainties for various broadband solar radiations of solar energy and atmospheric effects are discussed. The varying responsivities of solar radiation with meteorological, statistical and climatological parameters and possibility atmospheric conditions was examined

  5. Parameterization models for solar radiation and solar technology applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Samy A. [National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Solar and Space Department, Marsed Street, Helwan, 11421 Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-08-15

    Solar radiation is very important for the evaluation and wide use of solar renewable energy systems. The development of calibration procedures for broadband solar radiation photometric instrumentation and the improvement of broadband solar radiation measurement accuracy have been done. An improved diffuse sky reference and photometric calibration and characterization software for outdoor pyranometer calibrations are outlined. Parameterizations for direct beam, total hemispherical and diffuse sky radiation and solar radiation technology are briefly reviewed. The uncertainties for various broadband solar radiations of solar energy and atmospheric effects are discussed. The varying responsivities of solar radiation with meteorological, statistical and climatological parameters and possibility atmospheric conditions was examined. (author)

  6. The soft X-ray telescope for the SOLAR-A mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuneta, S.; Acton, L.; Bruner, M.; Lemen, J.; Brown, W.; Caravalho, R.; Catura, R.; Freeland, S.; Jurcevich, B.; Owens, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) of the SOLAR-A mission is designed to produce X-ray movies of flares with excellent angular and time resolution as well as full-disk X-ray images for general studies. A selection of thin metal filters provide a measure of temperature discrimination and aid in obtaining the wide dynamic range required for solar observing. The co-aligned SXT aspect telescope will yield optical images for aspect reference, white-light flare and sunspot studies, and, possibly, helioseismology. This paper describes the capabilities and characteristics of the SXT for scientific observing.

  7. Cross-Calibrating Sunspot Magnetic Field Strength Measurements from the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Dunn Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Fraser T.; Beck, Christian; Penn, Matthew J.; Tritschler, Alexandra; Pillet, Valentín Martinez; Livingston, William C.

    2015-11-01

    In this article we describe a recent effort to cross-calibrate data from an infrared detector at the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Facility InfraRed Spectropolarimeter (FIRS) at the Dunn Solar Telescope. A synoptic observation program at the McMath-Pierce has measured umbral magnetic field strengths since 1998, and this data set has recently been compared with umbral magnetic field observations from SOHO/MDI and SDO/HMI. To further improve on the data from McMath-Pierce, we compared the data with measurements taken at the Dunn Solar Telescope with far greater spectral resolution than has been possible with space instrumentation. To minimise potential disruption to the study, concurrent umbral measurements were made so that the relationship between the two datasets can be most accurately characterised. We find that there is a strong agreement between the umbral magnetic field strengths recorded by each instrument, and we reduced the FIRS data in two different ways to successfully test this correlation further.

  8. Advanced Mirror Technology Development for Very Large Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. P.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) is a NASA Strategic Astrophysics Technology project to mature to TRL-6 the critical technologies needed to produce 4-m or larger flight-qualified UVOIR mirrors by 2018 so that a viable mission can be considered by the 2020 Decadal Review. The developed mirror technology must enable missions capable of both general astrophysics & ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets. Just as JWST’s architecture was driven by launch vehicle, a future UVOIR mission’s architectures (monolithic, segmented or interferometric) will depend on capacities of future launch vehicles (and budget). Since we cannot predict the future, we must prepare for all potential futures. Therefore, to provide the science community with options, we are pursuing multiple technology paths. AMTD uses a science-driven systems engineering approach. We derived engineering specifications for potential future monolithic or segmented space telescopes based on science needs and implement constraints. And we are maturing six inter-linked critical technologies to enable potential future large aperture UVOIR space telescope: 1) Large-Aperture, Low Areal Density, High Stiffness Mirrors, 2) Support Systems, 3) Mid/High Spatial Frequency Figure Error, 4) Segment Edges, 5) Segment-to-Segment Gap Phasing, and 6) Integrated Model Validation Science Advisory Team and a Systems Engineering Team. We are maturing all six technologies simultaneously because all are required to make a primary mirror assembly (PMA); and, it is the PMA’s on-orbit performance which determines science return. PMA stiffness depends on substrate and support stiffness. Ability to cost-effectively eliminate mid/high spatial figure errors and polishing edges depends on substrate stiffness. On-orbit thermal and mechanical performance depends on substrate stiffness, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and thermal mass. And, segment-to-segment phasing depends on substrate & structure stiffness

  9. Solar based water treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Hyder, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    In developing countries, the quality of drinking water is so poor that reports of 80% diseases from water-related causes is no surprise (Tebbet, 90). Frequently, there are reports in press of outbreak of epidemics in cities due to the unhygienic drinking-water. The state of affairs in the rural areas can be well imagined, where majority of the people live with no piped water. This paper describes the solar-based methods of removing organic pollutants from waste-water (also called Advanced Oxidation Technologies) and solar desalination. Experimental results of a simple solar water-sterilization technique have been discussed, along with suggestions to enhance the performance of this technique. (author)

  10. Progress of site survey for large solar telescopes in western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Song, Tengfei; Zhang, Xuefei; Liu, Shunqing; Zhao, Mingyu; Tian, Zhanjun; Miao, Yuhu; Li, Hongbo; Huang, Jing; Su, Baoyu; Lu, Yongyin; Li, Xiaobo; Song, Qiwu

    Excellent sites are necessary for developing and installing ground-based large telescopes. For very-high-resolution solar observations, it had been unclear whether there exist good candidate sites in the west areas in China, including the Tibetan Plateau and the Pamirs Plateau. The project of solar site survey for the next-generation large solar telescopes, i.e., the Chinese Giant Solar Telescope (CGST) and the large coronagraph, has been launched since 2011. Based on the close collaboration among Chinese solar society and the scientists from NSO, HAO and other institutes, we have successfully developed the standard instruments for solar site survey and applied them to more than 50 different sites distributed in Xinjiang, Tibet, Qinghai, Sichuan, Yunnan and Ningxia provinces. We have built two long-term monitoring sites in Tibet and the large Shangri-La to take systematic site data. Clear evidence, including the key parameters of seeing factor, sky brightness and water vapor content, has indicated that a few potential sites in the large Tibetan areas should obtain the excellent astronomical conditions for our purpose to develop CGST and large coronagraph. We introduce the fresh site survey results in this report.

  11. Solar observations with a low frequency radio telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myserlis, I.; Seiradakis, J.; Dogramatzidis, M.

    2012-01-01

    We have set up a low frequency radio monitoring station for solar bursts at the Observatory of the Aristotle University in Thessaloniki. The station consists of a dual dipole phased array, a radio receiver and a dedicated computer with the necessary software installed. The constructed radio receiver is based on NASA's Radio Jove project. It operates continuously, since July 2010, at 20.1 MHz (close to the long-wavelength ionospheric cut-off of the radio window) with a narrow bandwidth (~5 kHz). The system is properly calibrated, so that the recorded data are expressed in antenna temperature. Despite the high interference level of an urban region like Thessaloniki (strong broadcasting shortwave radio stations, periodic experimental signals, CBs, etc), we have detected several low frequency solar radio bursts and correlated them with solar flares, X-ray events and other low frequency solar observations. The received signal is monitored in ordinary ASCII format and as audio signal, in order to investigate and exclude man-made radio interference. In order to exclude narrow band interference and calculate the spectral indices of the observed events, a second monitoring station, working at 36 MHz, is under construction at the village of Nikiforos near the town of Drama, about 130 km away of Thessaloniki. Finally, we plan to construct a third monitoring station at 58 MHz, in Thessaloniki. This frequency was revealed to be relatively free of interference, after a thorough investigation of the region.

  12. In the world of solar technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomson, T.

    1993-01-01

    The paper gives a short survey of the development of solar electrical and thermal technologies. The thermal solar technology is also applicable in Estonia with the view of using our local industrial potential. The theoretical solar resource in Estonia is 977 kWh/m 2 per year, which will make it possible to build (central) heating systems with partial solar fraction by using the method of seasonal storage. The technological solar resource can be improved by using an inter medial storage and heat pump between the solar collector and the main storage in the process of charging. (author). fig., 2 refs

  13. New solar axion search using the CERN Axion Solar Telescope with 4He filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arik, M.; Aune, S.; Barth, K.; Belov, A.; Bräuninger, H.; Bremer, J.; Burwitz, V.; Cantatore, G.; Carmona, J. M.; Cetin, S. A.; Collar, J. I.; Da Riva, E.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Dermenev, A.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elias, N.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galán, J.; García, J. A.; Gardikiotis, A.; Garza, J. G.; Gazis, E. N.; Geralis, T.; Georgiopoulou, E.; Giomataris, I.; Gninenko, S.; Gómez Marzoa, M.; Hasinoff, M. D.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Jacoby, J.; Jakovčić, K.; Karuza, M.; Kavuk, M.; Krčmar, M.; Kuster, M.; Lakić, B.; Laurent, J. M.; Liolios, A.; Ljubičić, A.; Luzón, G.; Neff, S.; Niinikoski, T.; Nordt, A.; Ortega, I.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Raffelt, G.; Rodríguez, A.; Rosu, M.; Ruz, J.; Savvidis, I.; Shilon, I.; Solanki, S. K.; Stewart, L.; Tomás, A.; Vafeiadis, T.; Villar, J.; Vogel, J. K.; Yildiz, S. C.; Zioutas, K.; CAST Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) searches for a →γ conversion in the 9 T magnetic field of a refurbished LHC test magnet that can be directed toward the Sun. Two parallel magnet bores can be filled with helium of adjustable pressure to match the x-ray refractive mass mγ to the axion search mass ma. After the vacuum phase (2003-2004), which is optimal for ma≲0.02 eV , we used 4He in 2005-2007 to cover the mass range of 0.02-0.39 eV and 3He in 2009-2011 to scan from 0.39 to 1.17 eV. After improving the detectors and shielding, we returned to 4He in 2012 to investigate a narrow ma range around 0.2 eV ("candidate setting" of our earlier search) and 0.39-0.42 eV, the upper axion mass range reachable with 4He, to "cross the axion line" for the KSVZ model. We have improved the limit on the axion-photon coupling to ga γ<1.47 ×10-10 GeV-1 (95% C.L.), depending on the pressure settings. Since 2013, we have returned to the vacuum and aim for a significant increase in sensitivity.

  14. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, S.; Margolis, R.; Barbose, G.; Bartlett, J.; Cory, K.; Couture, T.; DeCesaro, J.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Frickel, M.; Hemmeline, C.; Mendelsohn, T.; Ong, S.; Pak, A.; Poole, L.; Peterman, C.; Schwabe, P.; Soni, A.; Speer, B.; Wiser, R.; Zuboy, J.; James, T.

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this report is the U.S. solar electricity market, including photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. The report is organized into five chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of global and U.S. installation trends. Chapter 2 presents production and shipment data, material and supply chain issues, and solar industry employment trends. Chapter 3 presents cost, price, and performance trends. Chapter 4 discusses policy and market drivers such as recently passed federal legislation, state and local policies, and developments in project financing. Chapter 5 provides data on private investment trends and near-term market forecasts. Highlights of this report include: (1) The global PV industry has seen impressive growth rates in cell/module production during the past decade, with a 10-year compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 46% and a 5-year CAGR of 56% through 2008. (2) Thin-film PV technologies have grown faster than crystalline silicon over the past 5 years, with a 10-year CAGR of 47% and a 5-year CAGR of 87% for thin-film shipments through 2008. (3) Global installed PV capacity increased by 6.0 GW in 2008, a 152% increase over 2.4 GW installed in 2007. (4) The United States installed 0.34 GW of PV capacity in 2008, a 63% increase over 0.21 GW in 2007. (5) Global average PV module prices dropped 23% from $4.75/W in 1998 to $3.65/W in 2008. (6) Federal legislation, including the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (EESA, October 2008) and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA, February 2009), is providing unprecedented levels of support for the U.S. solar industry. (7) In 2008, global private-sector investment in solar energy technology topped $16 billion, including almost $4 billion invested in the United States. (8) Solar PV market forecasts made in early 2009 anticipate global PV production and demand to increase fourfold between 2008 and 2012, reaching roughly 20 GW of production and demand by 2012. (9

  15. EIT: Solar corona synoptic observations from SOHO with an Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaboudiniere, J. P.; Gabriel, A. H.; Artzner, G. E.; Michels, D. J.; Dere, K. P.; Howard, R. A.; Catura, R.; Stern, R.; Lemen, J.; Neupert, W.

    1988-01-01

    The Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) of SOHO (solar and heliospheric observatory) will provide full disk images in emission lines formed at temperatures that map solar structures ranging from the chromospheric network to the hot magnetically confined plasma in the corona. Images in four narrow bandpasses will be obtained using normal incidence multilayered optics deposited on quadrants of a Ritchey-Chretien telescope. The EIT is capable of providing a uniform one arc second resolution over its entire 50 by 50 arc min field of view. Data from the EIT will be extremely valuable for identifying and interpreting the spatial and temperature fine structures of the solar atmosphere. Temporal analysis will provide information on the stability of these structures and identify dynamical processes. EIT images, issued daily, will provide the global corona context for aid in unifying the investigations and in forming the observing plans for SOHO coronal instruments.

  16. Solar Energy Technologies Program Newsletter - July 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-07-01

    This quarterly newsletter is intended for participants and stakeholders in the DOE Solar Program. The content includes features on technology development, market transformation, and policy analysis for solar. Highlights include solar industry updates, DOE funding opportunity announcements and awards, and national laboratory technology developments.

  17. Development of technologies for solar energy utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    With relation to the development of photovoltaic power systems for practical use, studies were made on thin-substrate polycrystalline solar cells and thin-film solar cells as manufacturing technology for solar cells for practical use. The technological development for super-high efficiency solar cells was also being advanced. Besides, the research and development have been conducted of evaluation technology for photovoltaic power systems and systems to utilize the photovoltaic power generation and peripheral technologies. The demonstrative research on photovoltaic power systems was continued. The international cooperative research on photovoltaic power systems was also made. The development of a manufacturing system for compound semiconductors for solar cells was carried out. As to the development of solar energy system technologies for industrial use, a study of elemental technologies was first made, and next the development of an advanced heat process type solar energy system was commenced. In addition, the research on passive solar systems was made. An investigational study was carried out of technologies for solar cities and solar energy snow melting systems. As international joint projects, studies were made of solar heat timber/cacao drying plants, etc. The paper also commented on projects for international cooperation for the technological development of solar energy utilization systems. 26 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Infrastructure for the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, F.; Tacchini, A.; Leto, G.; Martinetti, E.; Bruno, P.; Bellassai, G.; Conforti, V.; Gallozzi, S.; Mastropietro, M.; Tanci, C.; Malaguti, G.; Trifoglio, M.

    2016-08-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) represents the next generation of ground-based observatories for very high energy gamma-ray astronomy. The CTA will consist of two arrays at two different sites, one in the northern and one in the southern hemisphere. The current CTA design foresees, in the southern site, the installation of many tens of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes of three different classes, namely large, medium and small, so defined in relation to their mirror area; the northern hemisphere array would consist of few tens of the two larger telescope types. The Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF) is developing the Cherenkov Small Size Telescope ASTRI SST- 2M end-to-end prototype telescope within the framework of the International Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project. The ASTRI prototype has been installed at the INAF observing station located in Serra La Nave on Mt. Etna, Italy. Furthermore a mini-array, composed of nine of ASTRI telescopes, has been proposed to be installed at the Southern CTA site. Among the several different infrastructures belonging the ASTRI project, the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment is dedicated to operations of computing and data storage, as well as the control of the entire telescope, and it is designed to achieve the maximum efficiency for all performance requirements. Thus a complete and stand-alone computer centre has been designed and implemented. The goal is to obtain optimal ICT equipment, with an adequate level of redundancy, that might be scaled up for the ASTRI mini-array, taking into account the necessary control, monitor and alarm system requirements. In this contribution we present the ICT equipment currently installed at the Serra La Nave observing station where the ASTRI SST-2M prototype will be operated. The computer centre and the control room are described with particular emphasis on the Local Area Network scheme, the computing and data storage system, and the

  19. Deep Sky Diving with the ESO New Technology Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Preparations for future cosmological observations with the VLT Within a few months, the first 8.2-meter Unit Telescope of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) array will open its eye towards the sky above the Atacama desert. As documented by recent Press Photos from ESO, the construction work at the Paranal VLT Observatory is proceeding rapidly. Virtually all of the telescope components, including the giant Zerodur mirror (cf. ESO PR Photos 35a-l/97 ), are now on the mountain. While the integration of the telescope and its many optical, mechanical and electronic components continues, astronomers in the ESO member countries and at ESO are now busy defining the observing programmes that will be carried out with the new telescope, soon after it enters into operation. In this context, new and exciting observations have recently been obtained with the 3.5-m New Technology Telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory, 600 km to the south of Paranal. How to record the faintest and most remote astronomical objects With its very large mirror surface (and correspondingly great light collecting power), as well as an unsurpassed optical quality, the VLT will be able to look exceedingly far out into the Universe, well beyond current horizons. The best technique to record the faintest possible light and thus the most remote celestial objects, is to combine large numbers of exposures of the same field with slightly different telescope pointing. This increases the total number of photons recorded and by imaging the stars and galaxies on different areas (pixels) of the detector, the signal-to-noise ratio and hence the visibility of the faintest objects is improved. The famous Hubble Deep Field Images were obtained in this way by combining over 300 single exposures and they show myriads of faint galaxies in the distant realms of the Universe. The NTT as test bench for the VLT ESO is in the fortunate situation of possessing a `prototype' model of the Very Large Telescope, the 3.5-m New

  20. Structural mechanics of the solar-A Soft X-ray Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurcevich, B. K.; Bruner, M. E.; Gowen, K. F.

    1992-01-01

    The Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) is one of four major instruments that constitute the payload of the NASA-Japanese mission YOHKOH (formerly known as Solar-A), scheduled to be launched in August, 1991. This paper describes the design of the SXT, the key system requirements, and the SXT optical and structural systems. Particular attention is given to the design considerations for stiffness and dimensional stability, temperature compensation, and moisture sensitivyty control. Consideration is also given to the X-ray mirror, the aspect telescope, the entrance filters, the mechanical structure design, the aft support plate and mount, the SXT finite element model, and other subsystems.

  1. The Soft X-ray Telescope for Solar-A - Design evolution and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Marilyn E.

    1992-01-01

    The Japanese Solar-A satellite mission's Soft X-ray Telescope uses grazing-incidence optics, a CCD detector, and a pair of filter wheels for wavelength selection. A coaxially-mounted visible-light lens furnished sunspot and magnetic plage images, together with aspect information which aids in aligning the soft X-ray images with those from the satellite's Hard X-ray Telescope. Instrument electronics are microprocessor-based, and imbedded in a tightly integrated distributed system. Control software is divided between the instrument microprocessor and the spacecraft control computer.

  2. Solar orbiter/PHI full disk telescope entrance window mechanical mount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barandiaran, J.; Zuluaga, P.; Fernandez, A. B.; Vera, I.; Garranzo, D.; Nuñez, A.; Bastide, L.; Royo, M. T.; Alvarez, A.

    2017-11-01

    PHI is a diffraction limited, wavelength tunable, quasi-monochromatic, and polarization sensitive imager. These capabilities are needed to infer the magnetic field and line-of-sight (LOS) velocity of the region targeted by the spacecraft (spacecraft (S/C)). PHI will consist of two telescopes: The High Resolution Telescope (HRT)[1] and the Full Disk Telescope (FDT). The HRT and the FDT will view the Sun through entrance windows located in the S/C heat shield. These windows act as heat rejecting filters with a transmission band of about 30 nm width centered on the science wavelength, such that the total transmittance (integral over the filter curve weighted with solar spectrum, including white leakage plus transmission profile of the pass band) does not exceed 4% of the total energy falling onto the window [2][3]. The HREW filter has been designed by SELEX in the framework of an ESA led technology development activity under original ESTEC contract No. 20018/06/NL/CP[4], and extensions thereof. For FDT HREW SLEX will provide the windows and it coatings. The HREW consists of two parallel-plane substrate plates (window 1 & window 2)[5] made of SUPRASIL 300 with a central thickness of 9 mm and a wedge of 30 arcsec each. These two substrates are each coated on both sides with four different coatings. These coatings and the choice of SUPRASIL help to minimize the optical absorptivity in the substrate and to radiatively decouple the HREW, which is expected to run at high temperatures during perihelion passages, from the PHI instrument cavity. The temperature distribution of the HREW is driven by two main factors: the mechanical mounting of the substrates to the feedthrough, and the radiative environment within the heat-shield/feedthrough assembly. The mechanical mount must ensure the correct integration of both suprasil substrates in its correct position and minimize the loads in windows due to thermal induced deformations and launching vibration environment. All the

  3. Technology Roadmaps: Concentrating Solar Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The emerging technology known as concentrating solar power, or CSP, holds much promise for countries with plenty of sunshine and clear skies. Its electrical output matches well the shifting daily demand for electricity in places where airconditioning systems are spreading. When backed up by thermal storage facilities and combustible fuel, it offers utilities electricity that can be dispatched when required, enabling it to be used for base, shoulder and peak loads. Within about one to two decades, it will be able to compete with coal plants that emit high levels of CO2. The sunniest regions, such as North Africa, may be able to export surplus solar electricity to neighbouring regions, such as Europe, where demand for electricity from renewable sources is strong. In the medium-to-longer term, concentrating solar facilities can also produce hydrogen, which can be blended with natural gas, and provide low-carbon liquid fuels for transport and other end-use sectors. For CSP to claim its share of the coming energy revolution, concerted action is required over the next ten years by scientists, industry, governments, financing institutions and the public. This roadmap is intended to help drive these indispensable developments.

  4. New solar telescope in Big Bear: evidence for super-diffusivity and small-scale solar dynamos?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goode, Philip R; Abramenko, Valentyna; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl

    2012-01-01

    The 1.6 m clear aperture New Solar Telescope (NST) in Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) is now providing the highest resolution solar data ever. These data have revealed surprises about the Sun on small-scales including the observation that bright points (BPs), which can be used as proxies for the intense, compact magnetic elements that are apparent in photospheric intergranular lanes. The BPs are ever more numerous on ever smaller spatial scales as though there were no limit to how small the BPs can be. Here we discuss high resolution NST data on BPs that provide support for the ideas that a turbulent regime of super-diffusivity dominates in the quiet Sun, and there are local dynamos operating near the solar surface. (comment)

  5. The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST): Status and Prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irastorza, I. G.(Universidad de Zaragoza); Andriamonje, S (DAPNIA, Centre d' Etudes de Saclay); Arik, E (Bogazici Universitesi); Autiero, D (European Organization for Nuclear Research); Avignone, F T.(South Carolina, Univ Of); Barth, K (European Organization for Nuclear Research); Brauninger, H (Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik); Brodzinski, Ronald L.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Carmona, J. M.(Universidad de Zaragoza); Cebrian, S (Unknown); Cetin, S (Bogazici Universitesi); Collar, J I.(Chicago, University Of); Creswick, R (South Carolina, Univ Of); De Oliveira, R (European Organization for Nuclear Research); Delbart, A (Centre d' Etudes de Saclay); Di Lella, L (European Organization for Nuclear Research); Eleftheriadis, Ch (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki); Fanourakis, G (National Research Center for Physical Sciences, Demokritos, Greece); Farach, H A.(South Carolina, Univ Of); Fischer, H (Albert-Ludwigs-Universitat Freiburg); Formenti, F (European Org for Nuclear Research); Geralis, Th. (National Research Center for Physical Sciences, Demokritos, Greece); Giomataris, I (Centre d' Etudes de Saclay, Gif-Sur-Yvette, France); Gninenko, S. N.(Institue for Nuclear Research, Moscow, Russia); Goloubev, N (Institute for Nuclear Research); Hartman, R (Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik); Hasinoff, M (British Columbia,University of); Hoffmann, D (Technische Universitat Darmstadt); Jacoby, J (Technische Universitat Darmstadt); Kang, D (Albert-Ludwigs-Universitat Freiburg); Konigsmann, K (Albert-Ludwigs-Universitat Freiburg); Kotthaus, R (Max-Planck-Institut fur Physik, Muenchen, Germany); Krcmar, M (Ruder Boskovic Institute); Kuster, M (Max-Planck-Institute fur Extraterrestrische Physik); Lakic, B (Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia); Liolios, A (Universidade de Lisboa); Ljubicic, A (Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia); Lutz, G (Max-Planck-Institut fur Physik, Muenchen, Germany); Luzon, G (Universidad de Zaragoza); Miley, Harr

    2003-02-10

    The CAST experiment is being mounted at CERN. It will make use of a decommissioned LHC test magnet to look for solar axions through its conversion into Photons inside the magnetic field. The magnet has a field of 9.6 Tesla and length of 10 m and is installed in a platform which allows to move it+ or - 8 degrees vertically and+ or - 10 to the 11th power horizontally. According to these numbers we expect a sensitivity in axion-photon coupling gaT"~ ,~< 5 10 -11 GeV -1 for ma~< 0.02 eV, and with a gas filled tube ga~~< 10 -l GeV -a for ma~< 1 eV.

  6. CrossRef The CERN Axion Solar Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Hasinoff, M D; Arik, E; Autiero, D; Avignone, F; Barth, K; Bingol, E; Brauninger, H; Brodzinski, R; Carmona, J; Chesi, E; Cebrian, S; Cetin, S; Collar, J; Creswick, R; Dafni, T; De Oliveira, R; Dedoussis, S; Delbart, A; Di Lella, L; Eleftheriadis, C; Fanourakis, G; Farach, H; Fischer, H; Formenti, F; Geralis, T; Giomataris, I; Gninenko, S; Goloubev, N; Hartmann, R; Hoffmann, D; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; Kang, D; Konigsmann, K; Kotthaus, R; Krcmar, M; Kuster, M; Lakic, B; Liolios, A; LJubicic, A; Lutz, G; Luzon, G; Miley, H; Morales, A; Morales, J; Mutterer, M; Nikolaidis, A; Ortiz, A; Papaevangelou, T; Placci, A; Raffelt, G; Riege, H; Sarsa, M; Savvidis, I; Schopper, R; Semertzidis, I; Spano, C; Villar, J; Vullierme, B; Walckiers, L; Zachariadou, K; Zioutas, K

    2003-01-01

    The CAST experiment at CERN is using a decommissioned LHC prototype magnet to search for solar axions through their Primakoff conversion into x-ray photons. The magnet (B = 9.0 Tesla, L = 10 m) can track the sun each day for a total exposure time of ~180 minutes (sunrise + sunset). We expect to reach a sensitivity in axion-photon coupling, gaγγ ≲ 5 × 10-11 GeV-1 for ma ≲ 10-2 eV after ˜1 year's running time. By filling the beam tube with 4He or 3He gas we should be able to extend the sensitive axion mass region into the eV mass range.

  7. Biomass and Solar Technologies Lauded | News | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    4 » Biomass and Solar Technologies Lauded News Release: Biomass and Solar Technologies Lauded July security and reduce our reliance on foreign sources of oil." The Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Biomass Cellulose to Sugars technology is expected to allow a wide range of biomass resources to be used to produce

  8. Technology assessment of solar energy utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, F.

    1985-11-01

    The general objectives and methods of Technology Assessment (TA) are outlined. Typical analysis steps of a TA for solar energy are reviewed: description of the technology and its further development; identification of impact areas; analysis of boundary conditions and definition of scenarios; market penetration of solar technologies; projection of consequences in areas of impact; and assessment of impacts and identification of options for action.

  9. From Solar Cookers Towards Viable Solar Cooking Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Bashir

    1997-01-01

    A broader concept of technology encompassing the technical and the societal aspects is introduced. Viability of technology and technological development process from a socio-technical view- point is discussed. Based on the above, the question of securing viability of solar cooking technology...... is taken up. It is discussed that actor- approach can operationally relate the abstract societal factors with those of technical aspects. Some concrete measures regarding application of solar cooker projects are drawn from the discussion: solar cooking projects should a) be based on user and producer...

  10. Introduction to the study of solar technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touchais, M

    1979-01-01

    The conversion of solar energy to meet the world's energy requirements by means of solar technology is discussed as preface to an introductory course in solar technology. The significance of the energy crisis of 1973 to the development of alternative sources of energy, primarily solar, is considered, and the amount of recoverable solar energy incident on the earth is estimated to be able to supply the world's energy demand. The various means of solar energy conversion, including thermal, chemical in the form of hydrogen or methane, and direct or thermal electrical, are examined, and areas of these technologies requiring further experimental investigation are indicated. Solar technology is presented as the science of the artificial applications of solar energy, with mention of its associated disciplines, and the deficiencies of the solar technology developed prior to the energy crisis are exposed. Goals for contemporary instruction in solar technology are then derived, the introductory course is outlined, and bibliographic references are presented. Differences between the sources of solar and traditional energies are also discussed.

  11. ATST telescope mount: telescope of machine tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Paul; Stolz, Günter; Bonomi, Giovanni; Dreyer, Oliver; Kärcher, Hans

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, and will be able to provide the sharpest views ever taken of the solar surface. The telescope has a 4m aperture primary mirror, however due to the off axis nature of the optical layout, the telescope mount has proportions similar to an 8 meter class telescope. The technology normally used in this class of telescope is well understood in the telescope community and has been successfully implemented in numerous projects. The world of large machine tools has developed in a separate realm with similar levels of performance requirement but different boundary conditions. In addition the competitive nature of private industry has encouraged development and usage of more cost effective solutions both in initial capital cost and thru-life operating cost. Telescope mounts move relatively slowly with requirements for high stability under external environmental influences such as wind buffeting. Large machine tools operate under high speed requirements coupled with high application of force through the machine but with little or no external environmental influences. The benefits of these parallel development paths and the ATST system requirements are being combined in the ATST Telescope Mount Assembly (TMA). The process of balancing the system requirements with new technologies is based on the experience of the ATST project team, Ingersoll Machine Tools who are the main contractor for the TMA and MT Mechatronics who are their design subcontractors. This paper highlights a number of these proven technologies from the commercially driven machine tool world that are being introduced to the TMA design. Also the challenges of integrating and ensuring that the differences in application requirements are accounted for in the design are discussed.

  12. Simulation results of the electron-proton telescope for Solar Orbiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, Sebastian; Steinhagen, Jan; Kulkarni, Shrinivasrao; Grunau, Jan; Paspirgilis, Rolf; Martin, Cesar; Boettcher, Stephan; Seimetz, Lars; Schuster, Bjoern; Kulemzin, Alexander; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F. [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet Kiel (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The Electron Proton Telescope (EPT) is one of five instruments in the Energetic Particle Detector suite for Solar Orbiter. It investigates low energy electrons and protons of solar events. EPT covers an energy range from 20400 keV for electrons and 20 keV-7 MeV for protons and distinguishes electrons from protons using a magnet/foil technique with silicon detectors. There will be two EPT units, each with double-barreled telescopes, one looking sunwards/antisunwards and the other north/south. EPT is designed using the GEometry ANd Tracking (GEANT) simulation toolkit developed by CERN for Monte Carlo calculations. Here we present the details of our simulations and the simulation results with respect to energy coverage and the geometrical factor of the EPT instrument. We also look at the far-field of the EPT magnets, which is important for electromagnetic cleanliness considerations.

  13. Commissioning and First Operation of the Cryogenics for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST)

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, K; Passardi, Giorgio; Pezzetti, M; Pirotte, O; Stewart, L; Vullierme, B; Walckiers, L; Zioutas, Konstantin

    2004-01-01

    A new experiment, the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) was installed and commissioned in 2002. Its aim is to experimentally prove the existence of an as yet hypothetical particle predicted by theory as a solution of the strong CP problem and possible candidate for galactic dark matter. The heart of the detector consists of a decommissioned 10-m long LHC superconducting dipole prototype magnet, providing a magnetic field of up to 9.5 T. The whole telescope assembly is aligned with high precision to the core of the sun. If they exist, axions could be copiously produced in the core of the sun and converted into photons within the transverse magnetic field of the telescope. The converted low-energy solar axion spectrum, peaked around a mean energy of 4.4 keV, can then be focused by a special x-ray mirror system and detected by low-background photon detectors, installed on each end of the telescopes twin beam pipes. This paper describes the external and proximity cryogenic system and magnet commissioning as well ...

  14. Atomic Layer Deposition Re Ective Coatings For Future Astronomical Space Telescopes And The Solar Corona Viewed Through The Minxss (Miniature X-Ray Solar Spectrometer) Cubesats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Christopher Samuel

    2017-11-01

    Advances in technology and instrumentation open new windows for observing astrophysical objects. The first half of my dissertation involves the development of atomic layer deposition (ALD) coatings to create high reflectivity UV mirrors for future satellite astronomical telescopes. Aluminum (Al) has intrinsic reflectance greater than 80% from 90 – 2,000 nm, but develops a native aluminum oxide (Al2O3) layer upon exposure to air that readily absorbs light below 250 nm. Thus, Al based UV mirrors must be protected by a transmissive overcoat. Traditionally, metal-fluoride overcoats such as MgF2 and LiF are used to mitigate oxidation but with caveats. We utilize a new metal fluoride (AlF3) to protect Al mirrors deposited by ALD. ALD allows for precise thickness control, conformal and near stoichiometric thin films. We prove that depositing ultra-thin ( 3 nm) ALD ALF3 to protect Al mirrors after removing the native oxide layer via atomic layer etching (ALE) enhances the reflectance near 90 nm from 5% to 30%.X-ray detector technology with high readout rates are necessary for the relatively bright Sun, particularly during large flares. The hot plasma in the solar corona generates X-rays, which yield information on the physical conditions of the plasma. The second half of my dissertation includes detector testing, characterization and solar science with the Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSats. The MinXSS CubeSats employ Silicon Drift Diode (SDD) detectors called X123, which generate full sun spectrally resolved ( 0.15 FWHM at 5.9 keV) measurements of the sparsely measured, 0.5 – 12 keV range. The absolute radiometric calibration of the MinXSS instrument suite was performed at the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF) and spectral resolution determined from radioactive sources. I used MinXSS along with data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES), Reuven Ramaty

  15. X-ray photographs of a solar active region with a multilayer telescope at normal incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, J. H.; Bruner, M. E.; Haisch, B. M.; Brown, W. A.; Acton, L. W.

    1987-01-01

    An astronomical photograph was obtained with a multilayer X-ray telescope. A 4-cm tungsten-carbon multilayer mirror was flown as part of an experimental solar rocket payload, and successful images were taken of the sun at normal incidence at a wavelength of 44 A. Coronal Si XII emission from an active region was recorded on film; as expected, the structure is very similar to that observed at O VIII wavelengths by the Solar Maximum Mission flat-crystal spectrometer at the same time. The small, simple optical system used in this experiment appears to have achieved a resolution of 5 to 10 arcsec.

  16. Search for solar axions with the X-ray telescope of the CAST experiment (phase II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordt, Annika

    2009-01-01

    The CAST (CERN Solar Axion Telescope) experiment is searching for solar axions by their conversion into photons inside a transverse magnetic field. So far, no solar axionsignal has been detected, but a new upper limit could be given (CAST Phase I). Since 2005, CAST entered in its second phase where it operates with a buffer gas ( 4 He) in the conversion region to extend the sensitivity of the experiment to higher axionmasses. For the first time it is possible to enter the theoretically favored axion massrange and to give an upper limit for this solar axion mass-range (>0.02 eV). This thesis is about the analysis of the X-ray telescope data Phase II with 4 He inside the magnet. The result for the coupling constant of axions to photons is: g αγγ -10 GeV -1 (95%C.L.) for m a =0.02-0.4 eV. (2) This result is better than any result that has been given before in this mass range for solar axions. (orig.)

  17. Challenges in amorphous silicon solar cell technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaaij, van R.A.C.M.M.; Zeman, M.; Korevaar, B.A.; Smit, C.; Metselaar, J.W.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon is nowadays extensively used for a range of devices, amongst others solar cells, Solar cell technology has matured over the last two decades and resulted in conversion efficiencies in excess of 15%. In this paper the operation of amorphous silicon solar cells is

  18. MuSICa image slicer prototype at 1.5-m GREGOR solar telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcines, A.; López, R. L.; Collados, M.; Vega Reyes, N.

    2014-07-01

    Integral Field Spectroscopy is an innovative technique that is being implemented in the state-of-the-art instruments of the largest night-time telescopes, however, it is still a novelty for solar instrumentation. A new concept of image slicer, called MuSICa (Multi-Slit Image slicer based on collimator-Camera), has been designed for the integral field spectrograph of the 4-m European Solar Telescope. This communication presents an image slicer prototype of MuSICa for GRIS, the spectrograph of the 1.5-m GREGOR solar telescope located at the Observatory of El Teide. MuSICa at GRIS reorganizes a 2-D field of view of 24.5 arcsec into a slit of 0.367 arcsec width by 66.76 arcsec length distributed horizontally. It will operate together with the TIP-II polarimeter to offer high resolution integral field spectropolarimetry. It will also have a bidimensional field of view scanning system to cover a field of view up to 1 by 1 arcmin.

  19. Technology Advances at the NRAO Green Bank Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockman, Felix James

    2015-08-01

    The 100 meter diameter Green Bank Telescope, with its large frequency coverage, great sensitivity, all-sky tracking, and location at a protected, radio-quiet site, offers a unique platform for technological advances in astronomical instrumentation that can yield an immediate scientific payoff.MUSTANG-1.5 is a feedhorn-coupled bolometer array for 3mm that has recently been installed on the telescope. It has 64 pixels (expandable to 223) and offers sensitivity to angular scales from 9" to more than 3' over a band from 75 GHz to 105 GHz. Its capabilities for science at 3mm are complimentary to, and in some cases superior to, those offered by ALMA. MUSTANG-1.5 is a collaboration between UPenn., NIST, NRAO, and other institutions.ARGUS is a 16-pixel focal plane array for millimeter spectroscopy that will be in use on the GBT in 2015. The array architecture is designed as a scalable technology pathfinder for larger arrays, but by itself it will provide major capabilities for spectroscopy from 75-107 GHz with 8" angular resolution over a wide field-of-view. It is a collaboration between Stanford Univ., Caltech, JPL, Univ. Maryland, Univ. Miami, and NRAO.FLAG is a prototype phased array receiver operating at 21cm wavelength that is under development for the GBT. It will produce multiple beams over a wide field of view with a sensitivity competitive with that of single-pixel receivers, allowing rapid astronomical surveys. FLAG is a collaboration between BYU, WVU, and NRAO.Also under development is a mm-wave phased array receiver for the GBT, designed to operate near 90 GHz as a prototype for very large format phased array receivers in the 3mm band. It is a collaboration between UMass and BYU.VEGAS is the new spectrometer for the GBT, offering multiple configurations well matched to GBT receivers from 1 to 100 GHz and suitable for use with focal plane arrays. It is a collaboration between UCal (Berkeley) and NRAO.The new receivers and spectrometers create extremely big data

  20. The export of Dutch solar energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The use of solar energy technology is on the up. In 1997 circa 8000 solar energy systems were installed in the Netherlands, compared to 100 systems in 1988. Solar energy installations, manufactured in the Netherlands, are also sold and installed in other European countries. The market grows by 55% per year. An overview is given of the principles and components of installed and exported solar heating systems, with special attention for the drain-back system

  1. Concentrating Solar Power. Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    Concentrating solar power can contribute significantly to the world's energy supply. As shown in this roadmap, this decade is a critical window of opportunity during which CSP could become a competitive source of electrical power to meet peak and intermediate loads in the sunniest parts of the world. This roadmap identifies technology, economy and policy goals and milestones needed to support the development and deployment of CSP, as well as ongoing advanced research in CSF. It also sets out the need for governments to implement strong, balanced policies that favour rapid technological progress, cost reductions and expanded industrial manufacturing of CSP equipment to enable mass deployment. Importantly, this roadmap also establishes a foundation for greater international collaboration. The overall aim of this roadmap is to identify actions required - on the part of all stakeholders - to accelerate CSP deployment globally. Many countries, particularly in emerging regions, are only just beginning to develop CSP. Accordingly, milestone dates should be considered as indicative of urgency, rather than as absolutes. This roadmap is a work in progress. As global CSP efforts advance and an increasing number of CSP applications are developed, new data will provide the basis for updated analysis. The IEA will continue to track the evolution of CSP technology and its impacts on markets, the power sector and regulatory environments, and will update its analysis and set additional tasks and milestones as new learning comes to light.

  2. Applications of solar reforming technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiewak, I. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel); Tyner, C.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Langnickel, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany)

    1993-11-01

    Research in recent years has demonstrated the efficient use of solar thermal energy for driving endothermic chemical reforming reactions in which hydrocarbons are reacted to form synthesis gas (syngas). Closed-loop reforming/methanation systems can be used for storage and transport of process heat and for short-term storage for peaking power generation. Open-loop systems can be used for direct fuel production; for production of syngas feedstock for further processing to specialty chemicals and plastics and bulk ammonia, hydrogen, and liquid fuels; and directly for industrial processes such as iron ore reduction. In addition, reforming of organic chemical wastes and hazardous materials can be accomplished using the high-efficiency destruction capabilities of steam reforming. To help identify the most promising areas for future development of this technology, we discuss in this paper the economics and market potential of these applications.

  3. The current status of development of the electron and proton telescope for Solar Orbiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhagen, Jan; Kulkarni, Shrinivasrao; Boden, Sebastian; Martin-Garcia, Cesar; Boettcher, Stephan; Schuster, Bjoern; Seimetz, Lars; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F. [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    ESA's Solar Orbiter mission, scheduled for launch in January 2017, will study how the sun creates the inner heliosphere. Therefore, the spacecraft will perform in situ and remote sensing measurements of the sun on a high inclination orbit with a perihelion of about 60 solar radii, making it possible to observe the poles of the sun from nearby. The Energetic Particle Detector suite on-board of Solar Orbiter will measure particles of a wide energy range and from multiple directions. One of the important sensors of the EPD suite is the Electron and Proton Telescope. It consists of two antiparallel telescopes with two silicon detectors respectively and is designed to detect electrons between 20 - 400 keV and protons from 20 keV to 7 MeV. EPT relies on a magnet/foil technique to discriminate between electrons and protons. Its design is driven by mass allocation, the thermal environment, power consumption and electronic noise; especially the magnet system must guarantee stray fields low enough to be compliant with the Solar Orbiter EMC requirements. Here, we present the current status of the Structural/Thermal Model and Engineering Model assembly as well as the integration and testing of the prototype.

  4. Technology Roadmaps: Solar photovoltaic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Solar PV power is a commercially available and reliable technology with a significant potential for long-term growth in nearly all world regions. This roadmap estimates that by 2050, PV will provide around 11% of global electricity production and avoid 2.3 gigatonnes (Gt) of CO2 emissions per year. Achieving this roadmap's vision will require an effective, long-term and balanced policy effort in the next decade to allow for optimal technology progress, cost reduction and ramp-up of industrial manufacturing for mass deployment. Governments will need to provide long-term targets and supporting policies to build confidence for investments in manufacturing capacity and deployment of PV systems. PV will achieve grid parity -- i.e. competitiveness with electricity grid retail prices -- by 2020 in many regions. As grid parity is achieved, the policy framework should evolve towards fostering self-sustained markets, with the progressive phase-out of economic incentives, but maintaining grid access guarantees and sustained R&D support.

  5. Technology Roadmaps: Solar photovoltaic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Solar PV power is a commercially available and reliable technology with a significant potential for long-term growth in nearly all world regions. This roadmap estimates that by 2050, PV will provide around 11% of global electricity production and avoid 2.3 gigatonnes (Gt) of CO2 emissions per year. Achieving this roadmap's vision will require an effective, long-term and balanced policy effort in the next decade to allow for optimal technology progress, cost reduction and ramp-up of industrial manufacturing for mass deployment. Governments will need to provide long-term targets and supporting policies to build confidence for investments in manufacturing capacity and deployment of PV systems. PV will achieve grid parity -- i.e. competitiveness with electricity grid retail prices -- by 2020 in many regions. As grid parity is achieved, the policy framework should evolve towards fostering self-sustained markets, with the progressive phase-out of economic incentives, but maintaining grid access guarantees and sustained R&D support.

  6. Construction Status and Early Science with the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullin, Joseph P.; Rimmele, Thomas R.; Warner, Mark; Martinez Pillet, Valentin; Craig, Simon; Woeger, Friedrich; Tritschler, Alexandra; Berukoff, Steven J.; Casini, Roberto; Goode, Philip R.; Knoelker, Michael; Kuhn, Jeffrey Richard; Lin, Haosheng; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Reardon, Kevin P.; Rosner, Robert; Schmidt, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    The 4-m Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) is in its seventh year of overall development and its fourth year of site construction on the summit of Haleakala, Maui. The Site Facilities (Utility Building and Support & Operations Building) are in place with ongoing construction of the Telescope Mount Assembly within. Off-site the fabrication of the component systems is completing with early integration testing and verification starting.Once complete this facility will provide the highest sensitivity and resolution for study of solar magnetism and the drivers of key processes impacting Earth (solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections, and variability in solar output). The DKIST will be equipped initially with a battery of first light instruments which cover a spectral range from the UV (380 nm) to the near IR (5000 nm), and capable of providing both imaging and spectro-polarimetric measurements throughout the solar atmosphere (photosphere, chromosphere, and corona); these instruments are being developed by the National Solar Observatory (Visible Broadband Imager), High Altitude Observatory (Visible Spectro-Polarimeter), Kiepenheuer Institute (Visible Tunable Filter) and the University of Hawaii (Cryogenic Near-Infrared Spectro-Polarimeter and the Diffraction-Limited Near-Infrared Spectro-Polarimeter). Further, a United Kingdom consortium led by Queen's University Belfast is driving the development of high speed cameras essential for capturing the highly dynamic processes measured by these instruments. Finally, a state-of-the-art adaptive optics system will support diffraction limited imaging capable of resolving features approximately 20 km in scale on the Sun.We present the overall status of the construction phase along with the current challenges as well as a review of the planned science testing and the transition into early science operations.

  7. Direct imaging of extra-solar planetary systems with the Circumstellar Imaging Telescope (CIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrile, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    In a joint study conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Perkin-Elmer Corporation it was found that an earth orbital, 1.5 meter diameter low scattered light coronagraphic telescope can achieve a broad range of scientific objectives including the direct detection of Jupiter-sized planets around the nearby stars. Recent major advances in the understanding of coronagraphic performance and in the field of super smooth mirror fabrication allow such an instrument to be designed and built within current technology. Such a project, called the Circumstellar Imaging Telescope (CIT), is currently being proposed. 10 references

  8. Summary of solar energy technology characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alessio, Dr., Gregory J.; Blaunstein, Dr., Robert R.

    1980-09-01

    This report summarizes the design, operating, energy, environmental, and economic characteristics of 38 model solar systems used in the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems Project including solar heating and cooling of buildings, agricultural and industrial process heat, solar electric conversion, and industrial biomass systems. The generic systems designs utilized in this report were based on systems studies and mission analyses performed by the DOE National Laboratories and the MITRE Corporation. The purpose of those studies were to formulate materials and engineering cost data and performance data of solar equipment once mass produced.

  9. Solar energy: Technology and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    It is pointed out that in 1970 the total energy consumed in the U.S. was equal to the energy of sunlight received by only 0.15% of the land area of the continental U.S. The utilization of solar energy might, therefore, provide an approach for solving the energy crisis produced by the consumption of irreplaceable fossil fuels at a steadily increasing rate. Questions regarding the availability of solar energy are discussed along with the design of solar energy collectors and various approaches for heating houses and buildings by utilizing solar radiation. Other subjects considered are related to the heating of water partly or entirely with solar energy, the design of air conditioning systems based on the use of solar energy, electric power generation by a solar thermal and a photovoltaic approach, solar total energy systems, industrial and agricultural applications of solar energy, solar stills, the utilization of ocean thermal power, power systems based on the use of wind, and solar-energy power systems making use of geosynchronous power plants.

  10. Rocket studies of solar corona and transition region. [X-Ray spectrometer/spectrograph telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, L. W.; Bruner, E. C., Jr.; Brown, W. A.; Nobles, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    The XSST (X-Ray Spectrometer/Spectrograph Telescope) rocket payload launched by a Nike Boosted Black Brant was designed to provide high spectral resolution coronal soft X-ray line information on a spectrographic plate, as well as time resolved photo-electric records of pre-selected lines and spectral regions. This spectral data is obtained from a 1 x 10 arc second solar region defined by the paraboloidal telescope of the XSST. The transition region camera provided full disc images in selected spectral intervals originating in lower temperature zones than the emitting regions accessible to the XSST. A H-alpha camera system allowed referencing the measurements to the chromospheric temperatures and altitudes. Payload flight and recovery information is provided along with X-ray photoelectric and UV flight data, transition camera results and a summary of the anomalies encountered. Instrument mechanical stability and spectrometer pointing direction are also examined.

  11. Selling the Space Telescope - The interpenetration of science, technology, and politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    Attention is given to the politics of initiating the Space Telescope program and to the manner in which the coalition, or working consensus, for the Telescope was assembled, in particular, the role played by astronomers. It is contended that what ensued was a case study in the influence of government patronage on a large-scale scientific and technological program. It is concluded that while a politically feasible Space Telescope did result, in the selling process the Telescope had been both oversold and underfunded.

  12. The current status of model development of the electron and proton telescope for Solar Orbiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhagen, Jan; Kulkarni, S.R.; Tammen, Jan; Boden, Sebastian; Elftmann, Robert; Martin, Cesar; Ravanbakhsh, Ali; Boettcher, Stephan I.; Seimetz, Lars; Schuster, Bjoern; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert [Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics, University of Kiel (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    ESA's Solar Orbiter mission, scheduled for launch in January 2017, will study how the sun creates the inner heliosphere. Therefore, the spacecraft will perform in situ and remote sensing measurements of the sun on a high inclination orbit with a perihelion of about 60 solar radii, making it possible to observe the poles of the sun from nearby. The Energetic Particle Detector suite on-board of Solar Orbiter will measure particles of a wide energy range and from multiple directions. One of the important sensors of the EPD suite is the Electron Proton Telescope. It consists of two antiparallel telescopes with two silicon detectors respectively and is designed to detect electrons between 20 - 400 keV and protons from 20 keV to 7 MeV. EPT relies on a magnet/foil technique to discriminate between electrons and protons. Here, we present the testing of the Structural and Thermal Model, which has already been delivered to ASTRIUM for spacecraft level tests as well as the integration and testing of the Engineering Model, which already provides full electrical functionality.

  13. Observing the Sun with Coronado telescopes telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Pugh, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The Sun provides amateur astronomers with one of the few opportunities for daytime astronomy. In order to see the major features of our nearest star, special telescopes that have a very narrow visible bandwidth are essential. The bandwidth has to be as narrow as 1 A- 10-10 m (1 Angstrom) and centred on the absorption line of neutral hydrogen. This makes many major features of the Suna (TM)s chromosphere visible to the observer. Such narrow-band "Fabry-Perot etalon filters" are high technology, and until the introduction of the Coronado range of solar telescopes, were too expensive for amateur use. The entry-level Coronado telescope, the PST (Personal Solar Telescope) costs under 500. Solar prominences (vast columns of plasma, best seen at the edge of the solar disk), filaments, flares, sunspots, plage and active regions are all visible and can be imaged to produce spectacular solar photographs. Philip Pugh has assembled a team of contributors who show just how much solar work can be done with Coronado telesco...

  14. Extra Solar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph and Science Requirements for the James Webb Telescope Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clampin, Mark

    2004-01-01

    1) Extra solar planetary imaging coronagraph. Direct detection and characterization of Jovian planets, and other gas giants, in orbit around nearby stars is a necessary precursor to Terrestrial Planet Finder 0 in order to estimate the probability of Terrestrial planets in our stellar neighborhood. Ground based indirect methods are biased towards large close in Jovian planets in solar systems unlikely io harbor Earthlike planets. Thus to estimate the relative abundances of terrestrial planets and to determine optimal observing strategies for TPF a pathfinder mission would be desired. The Extra-Solar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC) is such a pathfinder mission. Upto 83 stellar systems are accessible with a 1.5 meter unobscured telescope and coronagraph combination located at the Earth-Sun L2 point. Incorporating radiometric and angular resolution considerations show that Jovians could be directly detected (5 sigma) in the 0.5 - 1.0 micron band outside of an inner working distance of 5/D with integration times of -10 - 100 hours per observation. The primary considerations for a planet imager are optical wavefront quality due to manufacturing, alignment, structural and thermal considerations. pointing stability and control, and manufacturability of coronagraphic masks and stops to increase the planetary-to- stellar contrast and mitigate against straylight. Previously proposed coronagraphic concepts are driven to extreme tolerances. however. we have developed and studied a mission, telescope and coronagraphic detection concept, which is achievable in the time frame of a Discovery class NASA mission. 2) Science requirements for the James Webb Space Telescope observatory. The James Webb Space Observatory (JWST) is an infrared observatory, which will be launched in 201 1 to an orbit at L2. JWST is a segmented, 18 mirror segment telescope with a diameter of 6.5 meters, and a clear aperture of 25 mA2. The telescope is designed to conduct imaging and spectroscopic

  15. Solar photovoltaic markets, economics, technology, and potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blais, J.M.J.; Molinski, T.S. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)]|[Emerging Energy Systems, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2008-07-01

    Solar Photovoltaics (PV) are solid state semiconductor electronic devices that transform infrared, visible, or ultraviolet light energy from the sun directly into electrical energy. Selenium was used to create the first solar cell in 1883. In 1954, Bell Laboratories developed the modern day silicon solar cell, whereby impurities were added to silicon through a process called doping. Silicon doped with boron results in a positive electrical charge, while silicon doped with phosphorous results in a negative electrical charge. The atom collision from photons in sunlight provides the necessary energy to free a trapped electron in the doped silicon, which then may flow through a wire creating an electric current. Many different materials besides silicon are used to create solar cells, such as plastics, organic compounds, and theoretically even special paints, while other doping agents besides boron and phosphorous are also used, such as arsenic and gallium. This paper provided an introduction to solar PV and world solar PV growth and markets. A review of solar PV economics was also included. In 2008, the total installed costs of solar photovoltaic cells were in the range of 7 to 10 Canadian dollars. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of solar PV were presented. Solar technologies under research and development were also discussed and assessed. It was concluded that although solar PV was one of the most expensive forms of renewable generation, there is great potential for solar PV to gain broader based application as costs continue to drop. 11 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  16. Solar cell materials developing technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Conibeer, Gavin J

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a comparison of solar cell materials, including both new materials based on organics, nanostructures and novel inorganics and developments in more traditional photovoltaic materials. It surveys the materials and materials trends in the field including third generation solar cells (multiple energy level cells, thermal approaches and the modification of the solar spectrum) with an eye firmly on low costs, energy efficiency and the use of abundant non-toxic materials.

  17. Solar energy – new photovoltaic technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer-Larsen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Solar energy technologies directly convert sunlight into electricity and heat, or power chemical reactions that convert simple molecules into synthetic chemicals and fuels. The sun is by far the most abundant source of energy, and a sustainable society will need to rely on solar energy as one...... of its major energy sources. Solar energy is a focus point in many strategies for a sustainable energy supply. The European Commission’s Strategic Energy Plan (SET-plan) envisages a Solar Europe Initiative, where photovoltaics and concentrated solar power (CSP) supply as much power as wind mills...... in the future. Much focus is directed towards photovoltaics presently. Installation of solar cell occurs at an unprecedented pace and the expectations of the photovoltaics industry are high: a total PV capacity of 40 GW by 2012 as reported by a recent study. The talk progresses from general solar energy topics...

  18. Material Technologies Developments for Solar Hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrafiotis, C.; Pagkoura, C.; Lorentzou, S.; Hoguet, J.C.; Konstandopoulos, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    The present work presents recent activities of our Laboratory in the field of solar-aided hydrogen production materials and reactor technologies that can be fully integrated into solar thermal power plants. Emphasis is given on structured monolithic solar reactors where ceramic supports optimized to absorb solar radiation and develop sufficiently high temperatures, are coated with active materials to perform a variety of 'solar-aided' reactions such as water splitting or natural gas reforming. Particular examples discussed include properties'' assessment of monolithic ceramic honeycombs used as volumetric solar thermal reactors/receivers, synthesis of active water-splitting redox materials for the production of hydrogen and their tailored deposition upon porous supports and design, operation simulation and performance optimization of structured monolithic solar hydrogen production reactors. (authors)

  19. Search for Solar Axions with the CCD Detector and X-ray Telescope at CAST Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Rosu, Madalin Mihai; Zioutas, Konstantin

    2015-06-09

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is an experiment that uses the world’s highest sensitivity Helioscope to date for solar Axions searches. Axions are weakly interacting pseudoscalar particles proposed to solve the so-called Strong Charge-Parity Problem of the Standard Model. The principle of detection is the inverse Primakoff Effect, which is a mechanism for converting the Axions into easily detectable X-ray photons in a strong transverse magnetic field. The solar Axions are produced due to the Primakoff effect in the hot and dense core of from the coupling of a real and a virtual photon. The solar models predict a peak Axion luminosity at an energy of 3 keV originating mostly from the inner 20% of the solar radius. Thus an intensity peak at an energy of 3 keV is also expected in the case of the X-ray radiation resulting from Axion conversion. CAST uses a high precision movement system for tracking the Sun twice a day with a LHC dipole twin aperture prototype magnet, 9.26 meters long and with a field of...

  20. Extended Temperature Solar Cell Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Jenkins, Phillip; Scheiman, David; Rafaelle, Ryne

    2004-01-01

    Future NASA missions will require solar cells to operate both in regimes closer to the sun, and farther from the sun, where the operating temperatures will be higher and lower than standard operational conditions. NASA Glenn is engaged in testing solar cells under extended temperature ranges, developing theoretical models of cell operation as a function of temperature, and in developing technology for improving the performance of solar cells for both high and low temperature operation.

  1. The thermal environment of the fiber glass dome for the new solar telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdoni, A. P.; Denker, C.; Varsik, J. R.; Shumko, S.; Nenow, J.; Coulter, R.

    2007-09-01

    The New Solar Telescope (NST) is a 1.6-meter off-axis Gregory-type telescope with an equatorial mount and an open optical support structure. To mitigate the temperature fluctuations along the exposed optical path, the effects of local/dome-related seeing have to be minimized. To accomplish this, NST will be housed in a 5/8-sphere fiberglass dome that is outfitted with 14 active vents evenly spaced around its perimeter. The 14 vents house louvers that open and close independently of one another to regulate and direct the passage of air through the dome. In January 2006, 16 thermal probes were installed throughout the dome and the temperature distribution was measured. The measurements confirmed the existence of a strong thermal gradient on the order of 5° Celsius inside the dome. In December 2006, a second set of temperature measurements were made using different louver configurations. In this study, we present the results of these measurements along with their integration into the thermal control system (ThCS) and the overall telescope control system (TCS).

  2. Using frequency response functions to manage image degradation from equipment vibration in the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, William R.; McBride, Daniel R.

    2016-08-01

    The Daniel K Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, providing a significant increase in the resolution of solar data available to the scientific community. Vibration mitigation is critical in long focal-length telescopes such as the Inouye Solar Telescope, especially when adaptive optics are employed to correct for atmospheric seeing. For this reason, a vibration error budget has been implemented. Initially, the FRFs for the various mounting points of ancillary equipment were estimated using the finite element analysis (FEA) of the telescope structures. FEA analysis is well documented and understood; the focus of this paper is on the methods involved in estimating a set of experimental (measured) transfer functions of the as-built telescope structure for the purpose of vibration management. Techniques to measure low-frequency single-input-single-output (SISO) frequency response functions (FRF) between vibration source locations and image motion on the focal plane are described. The measurement equipment includes an instrumented inertial-mass shaker capable of operation down to 4 Hz along with seismic accelerometers. The measurement of vibration at frequencies below 10 Hz with good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) requires several noise reduction techniques including high-performance windows, noise-averaging, tracking filters, and spectral estimation. These signal-processing techniques are described in detail.

  3. Solar Sail Propulsion Technology at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Charles Les

    2007-01-01

    NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program developed the first generation of solar sail propulsion systems sufficient to accomplish inner solar system science and exploration missions. These first generation solar sails, when operational, will range in size from 40 meters to well over 100 meters in diameter and have an area density of less than 13 grams per square meter. A rigorous, multi-year technology development effort culminated in 2005 with the testing of two different 20-m solar sail systems under thermal vacuum conditions. This effort provided a number of significant insights into the optimal design and expected performance of solar sails as well as an understanding of the methods and costs of building and using them. In addition, solar sail orbital analysis tools for mission design were developed and tested. Laboratory simulations of the effects of long-term space radiation exposure were also conducted on two candidate solar sail materials. Detailed radiation and charging environments were defined for mission trajectories outside the protection of the earth's magnetosphere, in the solar wind environment. These were used in other analytical tools to prove the adequacy of sail design features for accommodating the harsh space environment. The presentation will describe the status of solar sail propulsion within NASA, near-term solar sail mission applications, and near-term plans for further development.

  4. Prospects for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope Sensitivity to 14.4 keV Axions

    CERN Document Server

    Jakovcic, K; Aune, S; Avignone, F T; Barth, K; Belov, A; Beltrn, B; Bruninger, H; Carmona, J M; Cebrin, S; Collar, J I; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Di Lella, L; Eleftheriadis, C; Fanourakis, G K; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Fischer, H; Franz, J; Friedrich, P; Geralis, T; Giomataris, Ioanis; Gninenko, S; Hasinoff, M D; Heinsius, F H; Hoffmann, Dieter H H; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; Kang, D; Knigsmann, K; Kotthaus, R; Krcmar, M; Kousouris, a K; Kuster, M; Laki, B; Lasseur, C; Liolios, A; Ljubici, A; Lutz, G; Luzn, G; Miller, D W; Morales, A; Morales, J; Ortiz, A; Papaevangelou, T; Placci, A; Raffelt, G; Ruz, J; Riege, H; Semertzidis, Y K; Serpico, Pasquale Dario; Stewart, o L; Vieira, J D; Villar, J; Vogel, J; Walckiers, L; Zioutas, K; Jakovcic, Kresimir

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is searching for solar axions using the 9.0 T strong and 9.26 m long transverse magnetic field of a twin aperture LHC test magnet, where axions could be converted into X-rays via reverse Primakoff process. Here we explore the potential of CAST to search for 14.4 keV axions that could be emitted from the Sun in M1 nuclear transition between the first, thermally excited state, and the ground state of 57Fe nuclide. Calculations of the expected signals, with respect to the axion-photon coupling, axion-nucleon coupling and axion mass, are presented in comparison with the experimental sensitivity.

  5. Solar Energy: Its Technologies and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auh, P. C.

    1978-06-01

    Solar heat, as a potential source of clean energy, is available to all of us. Extensive R and D efforts are being made to effectively utilize this renewable energy source. A variety of different technologies for utilizing solar energy have been proven to be technically feasible. Here, some of the most promising technologies and their applications are briefly described. These are: Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings (SHACOB), Solar Thermal Energy Conversion (STC), Wind Energy Conversion (WECS), Bioconversion to Fuels (BCF), Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), and Photovoltaic Electric Power Systems (PEPS). Special emphasis is placed on the discussion of the SHACOB technologies, since the technologies are being expeditiously developed for the near commercialization.

  6. Method of composing two-dimensional scanned spectra observed by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yun-Fang; Xu, Zhi; Chen, Yu-Chao; Xu, Jun; Li, Zheng-Gang; Fu, Yu; Ji, Kai-Fan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we illustrate the technique used by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) to increase the spatial resolution of two-dimensional (2D) solar spectroscopy observations involving two dimensions of space and one of wavelength. Without an image stabilizer at the NVST, large scale wobble motion is present during the spatial scanning, whose instantaneous amplitude can reach 1.3″ due to the Earth’s atmosphere and the precision of the telescope guiding system, and seriously decreases the spatial resolution of 2D spatial maps composed with scanned spectra. We make the following effort to resolve this problem: the imaging system (e.g., the TiO-band) is used to record and detect the displacement vectors of solar image motion during the raster scan, in both the slit and scanning directions. The spectral data (e.g., the Hα line) which are originally obtained in time sequence are corrected and re-arranged in space according to those displacement vectors. Raster scans are carried out in several active regions with different seeing conditions (two rasters are illustrated in this paper). Given a certain spatial sampling and temporal resolution, the spatial resolution of the composed 2D map could be close to that of the slit-jaw image. The resulting quality after correction is quantitatively evaluated with two methods. A physical quantity, such as the line-of-sight velocities in multiple layers of the solar atmosphere, is also inferred from the re-arranged spectrum, demonstrating the advantage of this technique.

  7. Status of the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope: unraveling the mysteries the Sun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmele, Thomas R.; Pillet, Valentin; Goode, Philip R.; Knoelker, Michael; Kuhn, Jeffrey Richard; Rosner, Robert; Casini, Roberto; Lin, Haosheng; von der Luehe, Oskar; Woeger, Friedrich; Tritschler, Alexandra; Fehlmann, Andre; Jaeggli, Sarah A.; Schmidt, Wolfgang; De Wijn, Alfred; Rast, Mark; Harrington, David M.; Sueoka, Stacey R.; Beck, Christian; Schad, Thomas A.; Warner, Mark; McMullin, Joseph P.; Berukoff, Steven J.; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; DKIST Team

    2018-06-01

    The 4m Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) currently under construction on Haleakala, Maui will be the world’s largest solar telescope. Designed to meet the needs of critical high resolution and high sensitivity spectral and polarimetric observations of the sun, this facility will perform key observations of our nearest star that matters most to humankind. DKIST’s superb resolution and sensitivity will enable astronomers to address many of the fundamental problems in solar and stellar astrophysics, including the origin of stellar magnetism, the mechanisms of coronal heating and drivers of the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and variability in solar and stellar output. DKIST will also address basic research aspects of Space Weather and help improve predictive capabilities. In combination with synoptic observations and theoretical modeling DKIST will unravel the many remaining mysteries of the Sun.The construction of DKIST is progressing on schedule with 80% of the facility complete. Operations are scheduled to begin early 2020. DKIST will replace the NSO facilities on Kitt Peak and Sac Peak with a national facility with worldwide unique capabilities. The design allows DKIST to operate as a coronagraph. Taking advantage of its large aperture and infrared polarimeters DKIST will be capable to routinely measure the currently illusive coronal magnetic fields. The state-of-the-art adaptive optics system provides diffraction limited imaging and the ability to resolve features approximately 20 km on the Sun. Achieving this resolution is critical for the ability to observe magnetic structures at their intrinsic, fundamental scales. Five instruments will be available at the start of operations, four of which will provide highly sensitive measurements of solar magnetic fields throughout the solar atmosphere – from the photosphere to the corona. The data from these instruments will be distributed to the world wide community via the NSO/DKIST data center

  8. Overview and Recent Accomplishments of the Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) for Large Aperture UVOIR Space Telescopes Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2013-01-01

    Per Astro2010, a new, larger UVO telescope is needed to answer fundamental scientific questions, such as: is there life on Earth-like exoplanets; how galaxies assemble stellar populations; how baryonic matter interacts with intergalactic medium; and how solar systems form and evolve. And, present technology is not mature enough to affordably build and launch any potential UVO concept. Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) is a funded SAT project. Our objective is to mature to TRL-6 the critical technologies needed to produce 4-m or larger flight-qualified UVOIR mirrors by 2018 so that a viable mission can be considered by the 2020 Decadal Review. AMTD uses a science-driven systems engineering approach. We mature technologies required to enable the highest priority science AND result in a high-performance low-cost low-risk system. To provide the science community with options, we are pursuing multiple technology paths. We have assembled an outstanding team from academia, industry, and government with extensive expertise in astrophysics and exoplanet characterization, and in the design/manufacture of monolithic and segmented space telescopes. One of our key accomplishments is that we have derived engineering specifications for advanced normal-incidence monolithic and segmented mirror systems needed to enable both general astrophysics and ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets missions as a function of potential launch vehicle and its inherent mass and volume constraints. We defined and initiated a program to mature 6 key technologies required to fabricate monolithic and segmented space mirrors.

  9. SOLAR-LIKE OSCILLATIONS IN A METAL-POOR GLOBULAR CLUSTER WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stello, Dennis; Gilliland, Ronald L.

    2009-01-01

    We present analyses of variability in the red giant stars in the metal-poor globular cluster NGC 6397, based on data obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. We use a nonstandard data reduction approach to turn a 23 day observing run originally aimed at imaging the white dwarf population, into time-series photometry of the cluster's highly saturated red giant stars. With this technique we obtain noise levels in the final power spectra down to 50 parts per million, which allows us to search for low-amplitude solar-like oscillations. We compare the observed excess power seen in the power spectra with estimates of the typical frequency range, frequency spacing, and amplitude from scaling the solar oscillations. We see evidence that the detected variability is consistent with solar-like oscillations in at least one and perhaps up to four stars. With metallicities 2 orders of magnitude lower than those of the Sun, these stars present so far the best evidence of solar-like oscillations in such a low-metallicity environment.

  10. NASA Solar Sail Propulsion Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Montgomery, Edward E.; Young, Roy; Adams, Charles

    2007-01-01

    NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program has developed the first generation of solar sail propulsion systems sufficient to accomplish inner solar system science and exploration missions. These first generation solar sails, when operational, will range in size from 40 meters to well over 100 meters in diameter and have an areal density of less than 13 grams per square meter. A rigorous, multi-year technology development effort culminated in 2005 with the testing of two different 20-m solar sail systems under thermal vacuum conditions. The first system, developed by ATK Space Systems of Goleta, California, uses rigid booms to deploy and stabilize the sail. In the second approach, L'Garde, Inc. of Tustin, California uses inflatable booms that rigidize in the coldness of space to accomplish sail deployment. This effort provided a number of significant insights into the optimal design and expected performance of solar sails as well as an understanding of the methods and costs of building and using them. In a separate effort, solar sail orbital analysis tools for mission design were developed and tested. Laboratory simulations of the effects of long-term space radiation exposure were also conducted on two candidate solar sail materials. Detailed radiation and charging environments were defined for mission trajectories outside the protection of the earth's magnetosphere, in the solar wind environment. These were used in other analytical tools to prove the adequacy of sail design features for accommodating the harsh space environment. Preceding and in conjunction with these technology efforts, NASA sponsored several mission application studies for solar sails. Potential missions include those that would be flown in the near term to study the sun and be used in space weather prediction to one that would use an evolved sail capability to support humanity's first mission into nearby interstellar space. This paper will describe the status of solar sail propulsion within

  11. Piecewise mass flows within a solar prominence observed by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbo; Liu, Yu; Tam, Kuan Vai; Zhao, Mingyu; Zhang, Xuefei

    2018-06-01

    The material of solar prominences is often observed in a state of flowing. These mass flows (MF) are important and useful for us to understand the internal structure and dynamics of prominences. In this paper, we present a high resolution Hα observation of MFs within a quiescent solar prominence. From the observation, we find that the plasma primarily has a circular motion and a downward motion separately in the middle section and legs of the prominence, which creates a piecewise mass flow along the observed prominence. Moreover, the observation also shows a clear displacement of MF's velocity peaks in the middle section of the prominence. All of these provide us with a detailed record of MFs within a solar prominence and show a new approach to detecting the physical properties of prominence.

  12. Thermal Analysis of the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) 8 Meter Primary Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsby, Linda; Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) preliminary design concept consists of an 8 meter diameter monolithic primary mirror enclosed in an insulated, optical tube with stray light baffles and a sunshade. ATLAST will be placed in orbit about the Sun-Earth L2 and will experience constant exposure to the sun. The insulation on the optical tube and sunshade serve to cold bias the telescope which helps to minimize thermal gradients. The primary mirror will be maintained at 280K with an active thermal control system. The geometric model of the primary mirror, optical tube, sun baffles, and sunshade was developed using Thermal Desktop(R) SINDA/FLUINT(R) was used for the thermal analysis and the radiation environment was analyzed using RADCAD(R). A XX node model was executed in order to characterize the static performance and thermal stability of the mirror during maneuvers. This is important because long exposure observations, such as extra-solar terrestrial planet finding and characterization, require a very stable observatory wave front. Steady state thermal analyses served to predict mirror temperatures for several different sun angles. Transient analyses were performed in order to predict thermal time constant of the primary mirror for a 20 degree slew or 30 degree roll maneuver. This paper describes the thermal model and provides details of the geometry, thermo-optical properties, and the environment which influences the thermal performance. All assumptions that were used in the analysis are also documented. Parametric analyses are summarized for design parameters including primary mirror coatings and sunshade configuration. Estimates of mirror heater power requirements are reported. The thermal model demonstrates results for the primary mirror heated from the back side and edges using a heater system with multiple independently controlled zones.

  13. Thin film solar cell technology in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, W.; Sittinger, V.; Szyszka, B.

    2005-01-01

    Within the scope of limited nonrenewable energy resources and the limited capacity of the ecosystem for greenhouse gases and nuclear waste, sustainability is one important target in the future. Different energy scenarios showed the huge potential for photovoltaics (PV) to solve this energy problem. Nevertheless, in the last decade, PV had an average growth rate of over 20% per year. In 2002, the solar industry delivered more than 500 MWp/year of photovoltaic generators [A. Jaeger-Waldau, A European Roadmap for PV R and D, E-MRS Spring Meeting, (2003)]. More than 85% of the current production involves crystalline silicon technologies. These technologies still have a high cost reduction potential, but this will be limited by the silicon feedstock. On the other hand the so-called second generation thin film solar cells based on a-Si, Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S 2 (CIGS) or CdTe have material thicknesses of a few microns as a result of their direct band gap. Also, the possibility of circuit integration offers an additional cost reduction potential. Especially in Germany, there are a few companies who focus on thin film solar cells. Today, there are two manufacturers with production lines: the Phototronics (PST) division of RWE-Schott Solar with a-Si thin film technology and the former Antec Solar GmbH (now Antec Solar Energy GmbH) featuring the CdTe technology. A pilot line based on CIGS technology is run by Wuerth Solar GmbH. There is also a variety of research activity at other companies, namely, at Shell Solar, Sulfurcell Solartechnik GmbH, Solarion GmbH and the CIS-Solartechnik GmbH. We will give an overview on research activity on various thin film technologies, as well as different manufacturing and production processes in the companies mentioned above. (Author)

  14. Search for sub-eV mass solar axions by the CERN Axion Solar Telescope with 3He buffer gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arik, M; Aune, S; Barth, K; Belov, A; Borghi, S; Bräuninger, H; Cantatore, G; Carmona, J M; Cetin, S A; Collar, J I; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Eleftheriadis, C; Elias, N; Ezer, C; Fanourakis, G; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Friedrich, P; Galán, J; García, J A; Gardikiotis, A; Gazis, E N; Geralis, T; Giomataris, I; Gninenko, S; Gómez, H; Gruber, E; Guthörl, T; Hartmann, R; Haug, F; Hasinoff, M D; Hoffmann, D H H; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; Jakovčić, K; Karuza, M; Königsmann, K; Kotthaus, R; Krčmar, M; Kuster, M; Lakić, B; Laurent, J M; Liolios, A; Ljubičić, A; Lozza, V; Lutz, G; Luzón, G; Morales, J; Niinikoski, T; Nordt, A; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M J; Raffelt, G; Rashba, T; Riege, H; Rodríguez, A; Rosu, M; Ruz, J; Savvidis, I; Silva, P S; Solanki, S K; Stewart, L; Tomás, A; Tsagri, M; van Bibber, K; Vafeiadis, T; Villar, J A; Vogel, J K; Yildiz, S C; Zioutas, K

    2011-12-23

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) has extended its search for solar axions by using (3)He as a buffer gas. At T=1.8 K this allows for larger pressure settings and hence sensitivity to higher axion masses than our previous measurements with (4)He. With about 1 h of data taking at each of 252 different pressure settings we have scanned the axion mass range 0.39 eV≲m(a)≲0.64 eV. From the absence of excess x rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun we set a typical upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of g(aγ)≲2.3×10(-10) GeV(-1) at 95% C.L., the exact value depending on the pressure setting. Kim-Shifman-Vainshtein-Zakharov axions are excluded at the upper end of our mass range, the first time ever for any solar axion search. In the future we will extend our search to m(a)≲1.15 eV, comfortably overlapping with cosmological hot dark matter bounds.

  15. Ellerman bombs observed with the new vacuum solar telescope and the atmospheric imaging assembly onboard the solar dynamics observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yajie; Tian, Hui; Xu, Zhi; Xiang, Yongyuan; Fang, Yuliang; Yang, Zihao

    2017-12-01

    Ellerman bombs (EBs) are believed to be small-scale reconnection events occurring around the temperature minimum region in the solar atmosphere. They are often identified as significant enhancements in the extended Hα wings without obvious signatures in the Hα core. Here we explore the possibility of using the 1700 Å images taken by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to study EBs. From the Hα wing images obtained with the New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) on 2015 May 2, we have identified 145 EBs and 51% of them clearly correspond to the bright points (BPs) in the AIA 1700 Å images. If we resize the NVST images using a linear interpolation to make the pixel sizes of the AIA and NVST images the same, some previously identified EBs disappear and about 71% of the remaining EBs are associated with BPs. Meanwhile, 66% of the compact brightenings in the AIA 1700 Å images can be identified as EBs in the Hα wings. The intensity enhancements of the EBs in the Hα wing images reveal a linear correlation with those of the BPs in the AIA 1700 Å images. Our study suggests that a significant fraction of EBs can be observed with the AIA 1700 Å filter, which is promising for large-sample statistical study of EBs as the seeing-free and full-disk SDO/AIA data are routinely available.

  16. Building Design Guidelines for Solar Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givoni, B.

    1989-01-01

    There are two main objectives to this publication. The first is to find out the communalities in the experience gained in previous studies and in actual applications of solar technologies in buildings, residential as well as nonresidential. The second objective is to review innovative concepts and products which may have an impact on future developments and applications of solar technologies in buildings. The available information and common lessons were collated and presented in a form which, hopefully, is useful for architects and solar engineers, as well as for teachers of "solar architecture" and students in Architectural Schools. The publication is based mainly on the collection and analysis of relevant information. The information included previous studies in which the performance of solar buildings was evaluated, as well as the personal experience of the Author and the research consultants. The state of the art, as indicated by these studies and personal experience, was summarized and has served as basis for the development of the Design Guidelines. In addition to the summary of the state of the art, as was already applied in solar buildings, an account was given of innovative concepts and products. Such innovations have occurred in the areas of thermal storage by Phase Change Materials (PCM) and in glazing with specialized or changeable properties. Interesting concepts were also developed for light transfer, which may enable to transfer sunlight to the core areas of large multi story nonresidential buildings. These innovations may have a significant impact on future developments of solar technologies and their applications in buildings.

  17. Status of Solar Sail Technology Within NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Young, Roy; Montgomery, Edward; Alhorn, Dean

    2010-01-01

    In the early 2000s, NASA made substantial progress in the development of solar sail propulsion systems for use in robotic science and exploration of the solar system. Two different 20-m solar sail systems were produced and they successfully completed functional vacuum testing in NASA Glenn Research Center's (GRC's) Space Power Facility at Plum Brook Station, Ohio. The sails were designed and developed by ATK Space Systems and L Garde, respectively. The sail systems consist of a central structure with four deployable booms that support the sails. These sail designs are robust enough for deployment in a one-atmosphere, one-gravity environment and were scalable to much larger solar sails perhaps as large as 150 m on a side. Computation modeling and analytical simulations were also performed to assess the scalability of the technology to the large sizes required to implement the first generation of missions using solar sails. Life and space environmental effects testing of sail and component materials were also conducted. NASA terminated funding for solar sails and other advanced space propulsion technologies shortly after these ground demonstrations were completed. In order to capitalize on the $30M investment made in solar sail technology to that point, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) funded the NanoSail-D, a subscale solar sail system designed for possible small spacecraft applications. The NanoSail-D mission flew on board the ill-fated Falcon-1 Rocket launched August 2, 2008, and due to the failure of that rocket, never achieved orbit. The NanoSail-D flight spare will be flown in the Fall of 2010. This paper will summarize NASA's investment in solar sail technology to-date and discuss future opportunities

  18. Status of solar sail technology within NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Young, Roy; Montgomery, Edward; Alhorn, Dean

    2011-12-01

    In the early 2000s, NASA made substantial progress in the development of solar sail propulsion systems for use in robotic science and exploration of the solar system. Two different 20-m solar sail systems were produced. NASA has successfully completed functional vacuum testing in their Glenn Research Center's Space Power Facility at Plum Brook Station, Ohio. The sails were designed and developed by Alliant Techsystems Space Systems and L'Garde, respectively. The sail systems consist of a central structure with four deployable booms that support each sail. These sail designs are robust enough for deployment in a one-atmosphere, one-gravity environment and are scalable to much larger solar sails - perhaps as large as 150 m on a side. Computation modeling and analytical simulations were performed in order to assess the scalability of the technology to the larger sizes that are required to implement the first generation of missions using solar sails. Furthermore, life and space environmental effects testing of sail and component materials was also conducted.NASA terminated funding for solar sails and other advanced space propulsion technologies shortly after these ground demonstrations were completed. In order to capitalize on the $30 M investment made in solar sail technology to that point, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center funded the NanoSail-D, a subscale solar sail system designed for possible small spacecraft applications. The NanoSail-D mission flew on board a Falcon-1 rocket, launched August 2, 2008. As a result of the failure of that rocket, the NanoSail-D was never successfully given the opportunity to achieve orbit. The NanoSail-D flight spare was flown in the Fall of 2010. This review paper summarizes NASA's investment in solar sail technology to date and discusses future opportunities.

  19. Solar Sail Propulsion Technology Readiness Level Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Charles L.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Projects Office has been sponsoring 2 solar sail system design and development hardware demonstration activities over the past 20 months. Able Engineering Company (AEC) of Goleta, CA is leading one team and L Garde, Inc. of Tustin, CA is leading the other team. Component, subsystem and system fabrication and testing has been completed successfully. The goal of these activities is to advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of solar sail propulsion from 3 towards 6 by 2006. These activities will culminate in the deployment and testing of 20-meter solar sail system ground demonstration hardware in the 30 meter diameter thermal-vacuum chamber at NASA Glenn Plum Brook in 2005. This paper will describe the features of a computer database system that documents the results of the solar sail development activities to-date. Illustrations of the hardware components and systems, test results, analytical models, relevant space environment definition and current TRL assessment, as stored and manipulated within the database are presented. This database could serve as a central repository for all data related to the advancement of solar sail technology sponsored by the ISPT, providing an up-to-date assessment of the TRL of this technology. Current plans are to eventually make the database available to the Solar Sail community through the Space Transportation Information Network (STIN).

  20. DETECTION OF SMALL-SCALE GRANULAR STRUCTURES IN THE QUIET SUN WITH THE NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramenko, V. I.; Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Goode, P. R.; Kitiashvili, I. N.; Kosovichev, A. G.

    2012-01-01

    Results of a statistical analysis of solar granulation are presented. A data set of 36 images of a quiet-Sun area on the solar disk center was used. The data were obtained with the 1.6 m clear aperture New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory and with a broadband filter centered at the TiO (705.7 nm) spectral line. The very high spatial resolution of the data (diffraction limit of 77 km and pixel scale of 0.''0375) augmented by the very high image contrast (15.5% ± 0.6%) allowed us to detect for the first time a distinct subpopulation of mini-granular structures. These structures are dominant on spatial scales below 600 km. Their size is distributed as a power law with an index of –1.8 (which is close to the Kolmogorov's –5/3 law) and no predominant scale. The regular granules display a Gaussian (normal) size distribution with a mean diameter of 1050 km. Mini-granular structures contribute significantly to the total granular area. They are predominantly confined to the wide dark lanes between regular granules and often form chains and clusters, but different from magnetic bright points. A multi-fractality test reveals that the structures smaller than 600 km represent a multi-fractal, whereas on larger scales the granulation pattern shows no multi-fractality and can be considered as a Gaussian random field. The origin, properties, and role of the population of mini-granular structures in the solar magnetoconvection are yet to be explored.

  1. Hubble Space Telescope - Scientific, Technological and Social Contributions to the Public Discourse on Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope has unified the world with a sense of awe and wonder for 2 I years and is currently more scientifically powerful than ever. I will present highlights of discoveries made with the Hubble Space Telescope, including details of planetary weather, star formation, extra-solar planets, colliding galaxies, and a universe expanding with the acceleration of dark energy. I will also present the unique technical challenges and triumphs of this phenomenal observatory, and discuss how our discoveries in the cosmos affect our sense of human unity, significance, and wonder.

  2. Suche nach solaren Axionen mit dem CCD-Detektor in CAST (CERN Axion Solar Telescope)

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Donghwa

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment at CERN searches for solar axions with energies in the keV range. Axions could be produced in the Sun's core by the interaction of thermal photons with virtual photons of the strong electromagnetic field. In this experiment, the solar axions can be converted to photons in the field of a 9 Tesla superconducting magnet. At both ends of the 10 m long dipole magnet, three different X-ray detectors were installed, which are sensitive in the interesting photon energy range. This thesis is devoted to the determination of an upper limit on the axion-photon coupling constant g$_{a\\gamma}$. The analysis is based on the data taken by the CCD detector in the CAST experiment during the years 2003 and 2004. First results of the 2003 data taking were published showing no significant signal above background. However, these results constrain the upper limit of the axion-photon coupling constant by a factor 5 compared to previous axion search experiments. Moreover, the result of...

  3. Environmental impacts from the solar energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Frantzeskaki, Niki; Gekas, Vassilis

    2005-01-01

    Solar energy systems (photovoltaics, solar thermal, solar power) provide significant environmental benefits in comparison to the conventional energy sources, thus contributing, to the sustainable development of human activities. Sometimes however, their wide scale deployment has to face potential negative environmental implications. These potential problems seem to be a strong barrier for a further dissemination of these systems in some consumers. To cope with these problems this paper presents an overview of an Environmental Impact Assessment. We assess the potential environmental intrusions in order to ameliorate them with new technological innovations and good practices in the future power systems. The analysis provides the potential burdens to the environment, which include - during the construction, the installation and the demolition phases, as well as especially in the case of the central solar technologies - noise and visual intrusion, greenhouse gas emissions, water and soil pollution, energy consumption, labour accidents, impact on archaeological sites or on sensitive ecosystems, negative and positive socio-economic effects

  4. Solar Environmental Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Astronomische Nachrichten 324, 303-304: Design and Development of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope Keller, C.U., Rimmele, T.R., Hill, F...Keil, S.L., Oschmann, J.M., and the ATST Team 2002, Astronomische Nachrichten 323, 294-298: The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope Mozer, J.B

  5. OUT Success Stories: Solar Hot Water Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clyne, R.

    2000-01-01

    Solar hot water technology was made great strides in the past two decades. Every home, commercial building, and industrial facility requires hot water. DOE has helped to develop reliable and durable solar hot water systems. For industrial applications, the growth potential lies in large-scale systems, using flat-plate and trough-type collectors. Flat-plate collectors are commonly used in residential hot water systems and can be integrated into the architectural design of the building

  6. OUT Success Stories: Solar Hot Water Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyne, R.

    2000-08-01

    Solar hot water technology was made great strides in the past two decades. Every home, commercial building, and industrial facility requires hot water. DOE has helped to develop reliable and durable solar hot water systems. For industrial applications, the growth potential lies in large-scale systems, using flat-plate and trough-type collectors. Flat-plate collectors are commonly used in residential hot water systems and can be integrated into the architectural design of the building.

  7. Advanced UVOIR Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) for Very Large Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Smith, W. Scott; Mosier, Gary; Abplanalp, Laura; Arnold, William

    2014-01-01

    ASTRO2010 Decadal stated that an advanced large-aperture ultraviolet, optical, near-infrared (UVOIR) telescope is required to enable the next generation of compelling astrophysics and exoplanet science; and, that present technology is not mature enough to affordably build and launch any potential UVOIR mission concept. AMTD builds on the state of art (SOA) defined by over 30 years of monolithic & segmented ground & space-telescope mirror technology to mature six key technologies. AMTD is deliberately pursuing multiple design paths to provide the science community with op-tions to enable either large aperture monolithic or segmented mirrors with clear engineering metrics traceable to science requirements.

  8. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report: January 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-01-01

    This report focuses on the U.S. solar electricity market, including photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. The report provides an overview of global and U.S. installation trends. It also presents production and shipment data, material and supply chain issues, and solar industry employment trends. It also presents cost, price, and performance trends; and discusses policy and market drivers such as recently passed federal legislation, state and local policies, and developments in project financing. The final chapter provides data on private investment trends and near-term market forecasts.

  9. Close Binary Star Speckle Interferometry on the McMath-Pierce 0.8-Meter Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Edward; Harshaw, Richard; Jones, Gregory; Branston, Detrick; Boyce, Patrick; Rowe, David; Ridgely, John; Estrada, Reed; Genet, Russell

    2015-09-01

    Observations were made in April 2014 to assess the utility of the 0.8-meter solar telescope at the McMath-Pierce Solar Observatory at Kitt Peak National Observatory for performing speckle interferometry observations of close binary stars. Several configurations using science cameras, acquisition cameras, eyepieces, and flip mirrors were evaluated. Speckle images were obtained and recommendations for further improvement of the acquisition system are presented.

  10. James Webb Space Telescope Observations of Stellar Occultations by Solar System Bodies and Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Sanz, P.; French, R. G.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Stansberry, J.; Lin, Z-Y.; Zhang, Z-W.; Vilenius, E.; Mueller, Th.; Ortiz, J. L.; Braga-Ribas, F.; hide

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the opportunities provided by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) for significant scientific advances in the study of Solar System bodies and rings using stellar occultations. The strengths and weaknesses of the stellar occultation technique are evaluated in light of JWST's unique capabilities. We identify several possible JWST occultation events by minor bodies and rings and evaluate their potential scientific value. These predictions depend critically on accurate a priori knowledge of the orbit of JWST near the Sun–Earth Lagrange point 2 (L2). We also explore the possibility of serendipitous stellar occultations by very small minor bodies as a byproduct of other JWST observing programs. Finally, to optimize the potential scientific return of stellar occultation observations, we identify several characteristics of JWST's orbit and instrumentation that should be taken into account during JWST's development.

  11. Suppression of Astronomical Sources Using Starshades and the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novicki, Megan; Warwick, Steve; Smith, Daniel; Richards, Michael; Harness, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The external starshade is a method for the direct detection and spectral characterization of terrestrial planets around other stars, a key goal identified in ASTRO2010. Tests of this approach have been and continue to be conducted in the lab and in the field (Samuele et al., 2010, Glassman et al., 2014) using non-collimated light sources with a spherical wavefront. We extend the current approach to performing night-time observations of astronomical objects using small-scale (approximately 1/300th) starshades and the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. We placed a starshade directly in the path of the beam from an astronomical object in front of the main heliostat. Using only flat mirrors, we then directed the light through the observatory path and reflected it off the West heliostat to an external telescope located approximately 270m away, for an effective baseline of 420m.This configuration allowed us to make measurements of flat wavefront sources with a Fresnel number close to those expected in proposed full-scale space configurations. We present the results of our engineering runs conducted in 2015.

  12. Solar driven technologies for hydrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medojević Milovan M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind that the production of hydrogen based on renewable energy sources, without doubt, is an important aspect to be taken into account when considering the potential of this gas, where as particularly interesting technologies stand out the ones which are based on the use of solar energy to produce hydrogen. The goal of this paper provides basic technological trajectories, with the possibility of combining, for solar driven hydrogen production, such as: electrochemical, photochemical and thermochemical process. Furthermore, the paper presents an analysis of those technologies from a technical as well as economic point of view. In addition, the paper aims to draw attention to the fact that the generation of hydrogen using renewable energy should be imposed as a logical and proper way to store solar energy in the form of chemical energy.

  13. A Design of Solar Proton Telescope for Next Generation Small Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongdae Sohn

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The solar proton telescope (SPT is considered as one of the scientific instruments to be installed in instruments for the study of space storm (ISSS which is determined for next generation small satellite-1 (NEXTSat-1. The SPT is the instrument that acquires the information on energetic particles, especially the energy and flux of proton, according to the solar activity in the space radiation environment. We performed the simulation to determine the specification of the SPT using geometry and tracking 4 (GEANT4. The simulation was performed in the range of 0.6-1,000 MeV considering that the proton, which is to be detected, corresponds to the high energy region according to the solar activity in the space radiation environment. By using aluminum as a blocking material and adjusting the energy detection range, we determined total 7 channels (0.6~5, 5~10, 10~20, 20~35, 35~52, 52~72, and >72 MeV for the energy range of SPT. In the SPT, the proton energy was distinguished using linear energy transfer to compare with or discriminate from relativistic electron for the channels P1-P3 which are the range of less than 20 MeV, and above those channels, the energy was determined on the basis of whether silicon semiconductor detector (SSD signal can pass or not. To determine the optimal channel, we performed the conceptual design of payload which uses the SSD. The designed SPT will improve the understanding on the capture and decline of solar energetic particles at the radiation belt by measuring the energetic proton.

  14. Solar Effects on Tensile and Optical Properties of Hubble Space Telescope Silver-Teflon(Registered Trademark) Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroh, Kim, K.; Dever, Joyce A.; Snyder, Aaron; Kaminski, Sharon; McCarthy, Catherine E.; Rapoport, Alison L.; Rucker, Rochelle N.

    2006-01-01

    A section of the retrieved Hubble Space Telescope (HST) solar array drive arm (SADA) multilayer insulation (MLI), which experienced 8.25 years of space exposure, was analyzed for environmental durability of the top layer of silver-Teflon (DuPont) fluorinated ethylene propylene (Ag-FEP). Because the SADA MLI had solar and anti-solar facing surfaces and was exposed to the space environment for a long duration, it provided a unique opportunity to study solar effects on the environmental degradation of Ag-FEP, a commonly used spacecraft thermal control material. Data obtained included tensile properties, solar absorptance, surface morphology and chemistry. The solar facing surface was found to be extremely embrittled and contained numerous through-thickness cracks. Tensile testing indicated that the solar facing surface lost 60% of its mechanical strength and 90% of its elasticity while the anti-solar facing surface had ductility similar to pristine FEP. The solar absorptance of both the solar facing surface (0.155 plus or minus 0.032) and the anti-solar facing surface (0.208 plus or minus 0.012) were found to be greater than pristine Ag-FEP (0.074). Solar facing and anti-solar facing surfaces were microscopically textured, and locations of isolated contamination were present on the anti-solar surface resulting in increased localized texturing. Yet, the overall texture was significantly more pronounced on the solar facing surface indicating a synergistic effect of combined solar exposure and increased heating with atomic oxygen erosion. The results indicate a very strong dependence of degradation, particularly embrittlement, upon solar exposure with orbital thermal cycling having a significant effect.

  15. The space telescope: A study of NASA, science, technology, and politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert William

    1989-01-01

    Scientific, technological, economic, and political aspects of NASA efforts to orbit a large astronomical telescope are examined in a critical historical review based on extensive interviews with participants and analysis of published and unpublished sources. The scientific advantages of large space telescopes are explained; early plans for space observatories are summarized; the history of NASA and its major programs is surveyed; the redesign of the original Large Space Telescope for Shuttle deployability is discussed; the impact of the yearly funding negotiations with Congress on the development of the final Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is described; and the implications of the HST story for the future of large space science projects are explored. Drawings, photographs, a description of the HST instruments and systems, and lists of the major contractors and institutions participating in the HST program are provided.

  16. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program: Overview and Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-05-01

    A non-technical overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technologies Program, including sections on photovoltaics (PV), concentrating solar power, and solar heating and lighting R&D.

  17. Test results, Industrial Solar Technology parabolic trough solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudley, V.E. [EG and G MSI, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evans, L.R.; Matthews, C.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Industrial Solar Technology are cost-sharing development of advanced parabolic trough technology. As part of this effort, several configurations of an IST solar collector were tested to determine the collector efficiency and thermal losses with black chrome and black nickel receiver selective coatings, combined with aluminized film and silver film reflectors, using standard Pyrex{reg_sign} and anti-reflective coated Pyrex{reg_sign} glass receiver envelopes. The development effort has been successful, producing an advanced collector with 77% optical efficiency, using silver-film reflectors, a black nickel receiver coating, and a solgel anti-reflective glass receiver envelope. For each receiver configuration, performance equations were empirically derived relating collector efficiency and thermal losses to the operating temperature. Finally, equations were derived showing collector performance as a function of input insolation value, incident angle, and operating temperature.

  18. Infrared spectro-polarimeter on the Solar Flare Telescope at NAOJ/Mitaka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Takashi; Hanaoka, Yoichiro; Arai, Takehiko; Hagino, Masaoki; Kawate, Tomoko; Kitagawa, Naomasa; Kobiki, Toshihiko; Miyashita, Masakuni; Morita, Satoshi; Otsuji, Ken'ichi; Shinoda, Kazuya; Suzuki, Isao; Yaji, Kentaro; Yamasaki, Takayuki; Fukuda, Takeo; Noguchi, Motokazu; Takeyama, Norihide; Kanai, Yoshikazu; Yamamuro, Tomoyasu

    2018-05-01

    An infrared spectro-polarimeter installed on the Solar Flare Telescope at the Mitaka headquarters of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan is described. The new spectro-polarimeter observes the full Sun via slit scans performed at two wavelength bands, one near 1565 nm for a Zeeman-sensitive spectral line of Fe I and the other near 1083 nm for He I and Si I lines. The full Stokes profiles are recorded; the Fe I and Si I lines give information on photospheric vector magnetic fields, and the helium line is suitable for deriving chromospheric magnetic fields. The infrared detector we are using is an InGaAs camera with 640 × 512 pixels and a read-out speed of 90 frames s-1. The solar disk is covered by two swaths (the northern and southern hemispheres) of 640 pixels each. The final magnetic maps are made of 1200 × 1200 pixels with a pixel size of 1{^''.}8. We have been carrying out regular observations since 2010 April, and have provided full-disk, full-Stokes maps, at the rate of a few maps per day, on the internet.

  19. Non-uniform Solar Temperature Field on Large Aperture, Fully-Steerable Telescope Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a 110-m fully steerable radio telescope was used as an analysis platform and the integral parametric finite element model of the antenna structure was built in the ANSYS thermal analysis module. The boundary conditions of periodic air temperature, solar radiation, long-wave radiation shadows of the surrounding environment, etc. were computed at 30 min intervals under a cloudless sky on a summer day, i.e., worstcase climate conditions. The transient structural temperatures were then analyzed under a period of several days of sunshine with a rational initial structural temperature distribution until the whole set of structural temperatures converged to the results obtained the day before. The non-uniform temperature field distribution of the entire structure and the main reflector surface RMS were acquired according to changes in pitch and azimuth angle over the observation period. Variations in the solar cooker effect over time and spatial distributions in the secondary reflector were observed to elucidate the mechanism of the effect. The results presented here not only provide valuable realtime data for the design, construction, sensor arrangement and thermal deformation control of actuators but also provide a troubleshooting reference for existing actuators.

  20. PROPERTIES OF UMBRAL DOTS AS MEASURED FROM THE NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE DATA AND MHD SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcik, A.; Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Abramenko, V.; Goode, P. R.; Cao, W.; Rempel, M.; Kitai, R.; Watanabe, H.

    2012-01-01

    We studied bright umbral dots (UDs) detected in a moderate size sunspot and compared their statistical properties to recent MHD models. The study is based on high-resolution data recorded by the New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory and three-dimensional (3D) MHD simulations of sunspots. Observed UDs, living longer than 150 s, were detected and tracked in a 46 minute long data set, using an automatic detection code. A total of 1553 (620) UDs were detected in the photospheric (low chromospheric) data. Our main findings are (1) none of the analyzed UDs is precisely circular, (2) the diameter-intensity relationship only holds in bright umbral areas, and (3) UD velocities are inversely related to their lifetime. While nearly all photospheric UDs can be identified in the low chromospheric images, some small closely spaced UDs appear in the low chromosphere as a single cluster. Slow-moving and long-living UDs seem to exist in both the low chromosphere and photosphere, while fast-moving and short-living UDs are mainly detected in the photospheric images. Comparison to the 3D MHD simulations showed that both types of UDs display, on average, very similar statistical characteristics. However, (1) the average number of observed UDs per unit area is smaller than that of the model UDs, and (2) on average, the diameter of model UDs is slightly larger than that of observed ones.

  1. Comparison of Different Technologies for Integrated Solar Combined Cycles: Analysis of Concentrating Technology and Solar Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rovira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the annual performance of Integrated Solar Combined Cycles (ISCCs using different solar concentration technologies: parabolic trough collectors (PTC, linear Fresnel reflectors (LFR and central tower receiver (CT. Each solar technology (i.e. PTC, LFR and CT is proposed to integrate solar energy into the combined cycle in two different ways. The first one is based on the use of solar energy to evaporate water of the steam cycle by means of direct steam generation (DSG, increasing the steam production of the high pressure level of the steam generator. The other one is based on the use of solar energy to preheat the pressurized air at the exit of the gas turbine compressor before it is introduced in the combustion chamber, reducing the fuel consumption. Results show that ISCC with DSG increases the yearly production while solar air heating reduces it due to the incremental pressure drop. However, air heating allows significantly higher solar-to-electricity efficiencies and lower heat rates. Regarding the solar technologies, PTC provides the best thermal results.

  2. Last results of technological developments for ultra-lightweight, large aperture, deployable mirror for space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambicorti, Lisa; D'Amato, Francesco; Vettore, Christian; Duò, Fabrizio; Guercia, Alessio; Patauner, Christian; Biasi, Roberto; Lisi, Franco; Riccardi, Armando; Gallieni, Daniele; Lazzarini, Paolo; Tintori, Matteo; Zuccaro Marchi, Alessandro; Pereira do Carmo, Joao

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this work is to describe the latest results of new technological concepts for Large Aperture Telescopes Technology (LATT) using thin deployable lightweight active mirrors. This technology is developed under the European Space Agency (ESA) Technology Research Program and can be exploited in all the applications based on the use of primary mirrors of space telescopes with large aperture, segmented lightweight telescopes with wide Field of View (FOV) and low f/#, and LIDAR telescopes. The reference mission application is a potential future ESA mission, related to a space borne DIAL (Differential Absorption Lidar) instrument operating around 935.5 nm with the goal to measure water vapor profiles in atmosphere. An Optical BreadBoard (OBB) for LATT has been designed for investigating and testing two critical aspects of the technology: 1) control accuracy in the mirror surface shaping. 2) mirror survivability to launch. The aim is to evaluate the effective performances of the long stroke smart-actuators used for the mirror control and to demonstrate the effectiveness and the reliability of the electrostatic locking (EL) system to restraint the thin shell on the mirror backup structure during launch. The paper presents a comprehensive vision of the breadboard focusing on how the requirements have driven the design of the whole system and of the various subsystems. The manufacturing process of the thin shell is also presented.

  3. Required Technologies for A 10-16 m UV-Visible-IR Telescope on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Wetzel, John P.

    1989-01-01

    A successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, incorporating a 10 to 16 meter mirror, and operating in the UV-Visible-IR is being considered for emplacement on the Moon in the 21st Century. To take advantage of the characteristics of the lunar environment, such a telescope requires appropriate advances in technology. These technologies are in the areas of contamination/interference control, test and evaluation, manufacturing, construction, autonomous operations and maintenance, power and heating/cooling, stable precision structures, optics, parabolic antennas, and communications/control. This telescope for the lunar surface needs to be engineered to operate for long periods with minimal intervention by humans or robots. What is essential for lunar observatory operation is enforcement of a systems engineering approach that makes compatible all lunar operations associated with habitation, resource development, and science.

  4. Recent advances in solar photovoltaic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshihiro Hamakawa

    2000-01-01

    The current state of the art in recent progress of Japanese photovoltaic activities are overviewed. Firstly, a new strategy for the renewable energy promotion so called Fundamental Principle to promote New Energy Developments and Utilization, and its action planning for PV technology up to year of 2010 are introduced. The program structure and some tangible actions such as tax reduction for investment in the renewable energy plants, government financial support of 2/3 subsidy of PV system developments for public facilities namely as PV Field Test Experiments, and a 1/2 subsidy for the private solar house as PV House Monitor Plan are presented. Secondly, some new topics in the field of solar cell production technology in Japan and also statistics of the solar cell module productions for three kinds of silicon basis solar cells are summarized. Progress of the conversion efficiency in various types of solar cells are also surveyed. In the final part of paper possible new roles to contribute to the global environmental issues by the PV system developments are proposed. (Author)

  5. Optical and thermal design of 1.5-m aperture solar UV visible and IR observing telescope for Solar-C mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Y.; Katsukawa, Y.; Shimizu, T.; Ichimoto, K.; Horiuchi, T.; Matsumoto, Y.; Takeyama, N.

    2017-11-01

    The next Japanese solar mission, SOLAR-C, which has been envisaged after successful science operation of Hinode (SOLAR-B) mission, is perusing two plans: plan-A and plan-B, and under extensive study from science objectives as well as engineering point of view. The plan-A aims at performing out-of-ecliptic observations for investigating, with helioseismic approach, internal structure and dynamo mechanisms of the Sun. It also explores polar regions where fast solar wind is believed to originate. A baseline orbit for plan-A is a circular orbit of 1 AU distance from the Sun with its inclination at around or greater than 40 degrees. The plan-B aims to study small-scale plasma processes and structures in the solar atmosphere which attract researchers' growing interest, followed by many Hinode discoveries [1], for understanding fully dynamism and magnetic nature of the atmosphere. With plan-B, high-angular-resolution investigation of the entire solar atmosphere (from the photosphere to the corona, including their interface layers, i.e., chromosphere and transition region) is to be performed with enhanced spectroscopic and spectro-polarimetric capability as compared with Hinode, together with enhanced sensitivity towards ultra-violet wavelengths. The orbit of plan-B is either a solar synchronous polar orbit of altitude around 600 km or a geosynchronous orbit to ensure continuous solar observations. After the decision of any one of the two plans, the SOLAR-C will be proposed for launch in mid-2010s. In this paper, we will present a basic design of one of major planned instrumental payload for the plan-B: the Solar Ultra-violet Visible and near IR observing Telescope (hereafter referred to as SUVIT). The basic concept in designing the SUVIT is to utilize as much as possible a heritage of successful telescope of the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) aboard Hinode [2]. Major differences of SUVIT from SOT are the three times larger aperture of 1.5 m, which enables to collect one

  6. A balloon borne telescope for planetary observations with a fine pointing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Yasuhiro; Onishi, Tomoya; Battazzo, Steve; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Yuji; Yoshida, Kazuya; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Taguchi, Makoto

    A balloon borne telescope is one of the effective observation methods for planets under space environment. A telescope is carried up to the stratosphere at an altitude of higher than 32 km where the air density is as thin as 1/100 of that at the ground. The thin atmosphere gives a telescope better observation conditions: fine seeing, stable weather, and high transmittance especially in the infrared region. Moreover there is a chance that a planet can be continuously seen for a window longer than 24 hours from the polar stratosphere. The authors have been developing a balloon borne telescope system for years to take finer images of planets in the solar system., The first object is Venus, of which atmospheric motions are derived by tracking the changes of cloud patterns with bands of UV, visible and NIR. Highly precise pointing control within the error of sub-arcseconds is required so that the balloon borne telescope achieves its diffraction-limited spatial resolution. The flight system is equipped with a three-stage attitude and pointing control system in order to realize the desired pointing control precision. In 2009, the flight system was built and tested in various ground tests and an actual balloon flight. Although the balloon experiment failed due to trouble with an onboard computer, the ground tests before the flight operation have verified that the pointing control system can achieve pointing error of less than 0.2 arcseconds. The balloon borne telescope is being redesigned for a sequential observation of Venus, Mars and Jupiter in the summer of 2011. This flight will be a step for a long-duration observation in the polar stratosphere. Additionally, an observation of the sodium tail of Mercury with a small telescope and a wide field of view has been under consideration. Mercury has very thin atmosphere called a surface-bounded exosphere. Past observations by spacecraft and ground-based telescopes revealed that one of the atmospheric components, gaseous

  7. Solar energy photovoltaic technology: proficiency and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Total is committed to making the best possible of the planet's fossil fuel reserves while fostering the emergence of other solutions, notably by developing effective alternatives. Total involves in photovoltaics when it founded in 1983 Total Energies, renamed Tenesol in 2005, a world leader in the design and installation of photovoltaic solar power systems. This document presents Total's activities in the domain: the global challenge of energy sources and the environment, the energy collecting by photovoltaic electricity, the silicon technology for cell production, solar panels and systems to distribute energy, research and development to secure the future. (A.L.B.)

  8. Development of a Lyman-α Imaging Solar Telescope for the Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jang

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Long term observations of full-disk Lyman-α irradiance have been made by the instruments on various satellites. In addition, several sounding rockets dating back to the 1950s and up through the present have measured the Lyman-α irradiance. Previous full disk Lyman-α images of the sun have been very interesting and useful scientifically, but have been only five-minute ``snapshots" obtained on sounding rocket flights. All of these observations to date have been snapshots, with no time resolution to observe changes in the chromospheric structure as a result of the evolving magnetic field, and its effect on the Lyman-α intensity. The Lyman-α Imaging Solar Telescope(LIST can provide a unique opportunity for the study of the sun in the Lyman-α region with the high time and spatial resolution for the first time. Up to the 2nd year development, the preliminary design of the optics, mechanical structure and electronics system has been completed. Also the mechanical structure analysis, thermal analysis were performed and the material for the structure was chosen as a result of these analyses. And the test plan and the verification matrix were decided. The operation systems, technical and scientific operation, were studied and finally decided. Those are the technical operation, mechanical working modes for the observation and safety, the scientific operation and the process of the acquired data. The basic techniques acquired through the development of satellite based solar telescope are essential for the construction of space environment forecast system in the future. The techniques which we developed through this study, like mechanical, optical and data processing techniques, could be applied extensively not only to the process of the future production of flight models of this kind, but also to the related industries. Also, we can utilize the scientific achievements which are obtained throughout the project. And these can be utilized to build a high

  9. Sustained orderly development of the solar electric technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the need of electric utilities to support the commercialization of solar electric technologies now in order to have the technology available for future energy resources. The topics of the article include deteriorating opportunities, sustained orderly development of solar electric technologies, historical aspects, and market forces in the solar electric industry

  10. Oxygenic photosynthesis: translation to solar fuel technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian David Janna Olmos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mitigation of man-made climate change, rapid depletion of readily available fossil fuel reserves and facing the growing energy demand that faces mankind in the near future drive the rapid development of economically viable, renewable energy production technologies. It is very likely that greenhouse gas emissions will lead to the significant climate change over the next fifty years. World energy consumption has doubled over the last twenty-five years, and is expected to double again in the next quarter of the 21st century. Our biosphere is at the verge of a severe energy crisis that can no longer be overlooked. Solar radiation represents the most abundant source of clean, renewable energy that is readily available for conversion to solar fuels. Developing clean technologies that utilize practically inexhaustible solar energy that reaches our planet and convert it into the high energy density solar fuels provides an attractive solution to resolving the global energy crisis that mankind faces in the not too distant future. Nature’s oxygenic photosynthesis is the most fundamental process that has sustained life on Earth for more than 3.5 billion years through conversion of solar energy into energy of chemical bonds captured in biomass, food and fossil fuels. It is this process that has led to evolution of various forms of life as we know them today. Recent advances in imitating the natural process of photosynthesis by developing biohybrid and synthetic “artificial leaves” capable of solar energy conversion into clean fuels and other high value products, as well as advances in the mechanistic and structural aspects of the natural solar energy converters, photosystem I and photosystem II, allow to address the main challenges: how to maximize solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency, and most importantly: how to store the energy efficiently and use it without significant losses. Last but not least, the question of how to make the process of solar

  11. UPDATED ANALYSIS OF THE UPWIND INTERPLANETARY HYDROGEN VELOCITY AS OBSERVED BY THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE DURING SOLAR CYCLE 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, Frederic E.; Ben-Jaffel, Lotfi; Harris, Walter M.

    2011-01-01

    The interplanetary hydrogen (IPH), a population of neutrals that fill the space between planets inside the heliosphere, carries the signature of the interstellar medium (ISM) and the heliospheric interface. As the incoming ISM-ionized component deflects at the heliopause, charge exchange reactions decelerate the bulk motion of the neutrals that penetrate the heliosphere. Inside the heliosphere, the IPH bulk velocity is further affected by solar gravity, radiation pressure, and ionization processes, with the latter two processes dependent on solar activity. Solar cycle 23 provided the first partial temporal map of the IPH velocity, including measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) spectrometers (Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) and Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS)) and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar Wind ANisotropies (SWAN) instrument. We present an updated analysis of IPH velocity measurements from GHRS and STIS and compare these results with those of SWAN and two different time-dependent models. Our reanalysis of STIS data reveals a significant change in IPH velocity relative to earlier reports, because of the contamination by geocoronal oxygen that was not accounted for. While current models of the heliospheric interface predict the observed IPH velocity for solar maximum, they are not consistent with data covering solar minimum. With updates to the HST data points, we now find that all data can be fit by the existing models to within 1σ, with the exception of SWAN observations taken at solar minimum (1997/1998). We conclude that the current data lack the temporal coverage and/or precision necessary to determine the detailed characteristics of the solar cycle dependence. Hence, new observations are merited.

  12. DYNAMICS IN SUNSPOT UMBRA AS SEEN IN NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE AND INTERFACE REGION IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurchyshyn, V.; Abramenko, V. [Big Bear Solar Observatory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States); Kilcik, A. [Department of Space Science and Technologies, Akdeniz University, 07058 Antalya (Turkey)

    2015-01-10

    We analyze sunspot oscillations using Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) slit-jaw and spectral data and narrow-band chromospheric images from the New Solar Telescope (NST) for the main sunspot in NOAA AR 11836. We report that the difference between the shock arrival times as measured by the Mg II k 2796.35 Å and Si IV 1393.76 Å line formation levels changes during the observed period, and peak-to-peak delays may range from 40 s to zero. The intensity of chromospheric shocks also displays long-term (about 20 min) variations. NST's high spatial resolution Hα data allowed us to conclude that, in this sunspot, umbral flashes (UFs) appeared in the form of narrow bright lanes stretched along the light bridges and around clusters of umbral bright points. The time series also suggested that UFs preferred to appear on the sunspot-center side of light bridges, which may indicate the existence of a compact sub-photospheric driver of sunspot oscillations. The sunspot's umbra as seen in the IRIS chromospheric and transition region data appears bright above the locations of light bridges and the areas where the dark umbra is dotted with clusters of umbral dots. Co-spatial and co-temporal data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory showed that the same locations were associated with bright footpoints of coronal loops suggesting that the light bridges may play an important role in heating the coronal sunspot loops. Finally, the power spectra analysis showed that the intensity of chromospheric and transition region oscillations significantly vary across the umbra and with height, suggesting that umbral non-uniformities and the structure of sunspot magnetic fields may play a role in wave propagation and heating of umbral loops.

  13. Solar thermal collectors at design and technology activity days

    OpenAIRE

    Petrina, Darinka

    2016-01-01

    Thesis encompases usage of renewable resources of energy, especially solar energy, which is essential for our future. On one hand, certain ways of exploiting solar energy (with solar cells) have been well established and is included in the Design and technology curriculum, on the other hand however, solar thermal collectors have not been recognized enough in spite of their distribution, applicability and environmentally friendly technology. Consequently thesis emphasizes the usage of solar en...

  14. Background study for the pn-CCD detector of CERN Axion Solar Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Cebrián, S; Kuster, M.; Beltran, B.; Gomez, H.; Hartmann, R.; Irastorza, I. G.; Kotthaus, R.; Luzon, G.; Morales, J.; Ruz, J.; Struder, L.; Villar, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment searches for axions from the Sun converted into photons with energies up to around 10 keV via the inverse Primakoff effect in the high magnetic field of a superconducting Large Hadron Collider (LHC) prototype magnet. A backside illuminated pn-CCD detector in conjunction with an X-ray mirror optics is one of the three detectors used in CAST to register the expected photon signal. Since this signal is very rare and different background components (environmental gamma radiation, cosmic rays, intrinsic radioactive impurities in the set-up, ...) entangle it, a detailed study of the detector background has been undertaken with the aim to understand and further reduce the background level of the detector. The analysis is based on measured data taken during the Phase I of CAST and on Monte Carlo simulations of different background components. This study will show that the observed background level (at a rate of (8.00+-0.07)10^-5 counts/cm^2/s/keV between 1 and 7 keV) s...

  15. Measurement of the point spread function and effective area of the Solar-A Soft X-ray Telescope mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemen, J. R.; Claflin, E. S.; Brown, W. A.; Bruner, M. E.; Catura, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    A grazing incidence solar X-ray telescope, Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT), will be flown on the Solar-A satellite in 1991. Measurements have been conducted to determine the focal length, Point Spread Function (PSF), and effective area of the SXT mirror. The measurements were made with pinholes, knife edges, a CCD, and a proportional counter. The results show the 1/r character of the PSF, and indicate a half power diameter of 4.9 arcsec and an effective area of 1.33 sq cm at 13.3 A (0.93 keV). The mirror was found to provide a high contrast image with very little X-ray scattering.

  16. Impacts on Hubble Space Telescope solar arrays: discrimination between natural and man-made particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearsley, A. T.; Drolshagen, G.; McDonnell, J. A. M.; Mandeville, J.-C.; Moussi, A.

    A Post-Flight Investigation was initiated by the European Space Agency to analyze impact fluxes on solar arrays of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), exposed to space for 8.25 years at approximately 600 km altitude. The solar cells were deployed during servicing mission SM-1 (December 1993), and retrieved by shuttle orbiter Columbia in March 2002 (SM-3B). A sub-panel of 2 m2 was cut from the --V2 wing and cells were selected for in-depth analysis. Twelve cells (9.6x10-3 m2) were surveyed for flux of all craters of sizes greater than 5 microns Dco; six at the NHM, and six at ONERA. Cumulative flux plots reveal slightly greater abundance of very small craters than in a comparable survey of SM-1 cells. Analytical scanning electron microscopy was used to locate impact features and to analyse residues at the NHM. 103 features of 3 -- 4000 micron conchoidal detachment diameter (Dco) were located on a total of 17 solar cells. 78 features show identifiable residue: 36 are Space Debris impacts and 42 Micrometeoroid impacts. Of the remaining 25: 4 contain residue of ambiguous origin, 1 is a minor manufacturing flaw, 1 is obscured by contamination, and 19 are unresolved, lacking recognizable residue. Space debris impacts on the SM-3B cells are all less than 80 microns Dco, dominated by Al- rich residue, probably of solid rocket motor origin, some may be unburnt fuel. Three craters may be sodium metal droplet impacts. No residues from paint pigment, aluminium or ferrous alloys, or copper- and tin-bearing metal were found. All craters larger than 100 microns are of micrometeoroid origin, or unresolved. Most residues are magnesium-iron silicate or iron sulfide. A few craters show vesicular Mg, S, Fe and Ni residue. A single Fe Ni metal residue was found, as well as enigmatic Mg- and S-bearing residues, all considered of micrometeoroid origin. A few Fe-, O- and C-bearing residues were classified as of ambiguous origin. The quality and quantity of residue is clearly linked to the

  17. NREL Solar Cell Wins Federal Technology Transfer Prize | News | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar Cell Wins Federal Technology Transfer Prize News Release: NREL Solar Cell Wins Federal Technology Transfer Prize May 7, 2009 A new class of ultra-light, high-efficiency solar cells developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory has been awarded a national prize

  18. Solar thermal technology report, FY 1981. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The activities of the Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Technology Program are discussed. Highlights of technical activities and brief descriptions of each technology are given. Solar thermal conversion concepts are discussed in detail, particularily concentrating collectors and salt-gradient solar ponds.

  19. In-Space Propulsion Technology Program Solar Electric Propulsion Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's In-space Propulsion (ISP) Technology Project is developing new propulsion technologies that can enable or enhance near and mid-term NASA science missions. The Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) technology area has been investing in NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAC), lightweight reliable feed systems, wear testing, and thruster modeling. These investments are specifically targeted to increase planetary science payload capability, expand the envelope of planetary science destinations, and significantly reduce the travel times, risk, and cost of NASA planetary science missions. Status and expected capabilities of the SEP technologies are reviewed in this presentation. The SEP technology area supports numerous mission studies and architecture analyses to determine which investments will give the greatest benefit to science missions. Both the NEXT and HiVHAC thrusters have modified their nominal throttle tables to better utilize diminished solar array power on outbound missions. A new life extension mechanism has been implemented on HiVHAC to increase the throughput capability on low-power systems to meet the needs of cost-capped missions. Lower complexity, more reliable feed system components common to all electric propulsion (EP) systems are being developed. ISP has also leveraged commercial investments to further validate new ion and hall thruster technologies and to potentially lower EP mission costs.

  20. An application of space technology to the terrestrial search for axions The X-ray mirror telescope at CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Gerhard; Englhauser, J; Hartmann, R; Kang, D; Kotthaus, R; Kuster, M; Serber, W; Strüder, L

    2004-01-01

    An X-ray mirror telescope consisting of a Wolter I type mirror assembly as used in X-ray astronomy and a new type X-ray CCD has been added to the CERN Axion Solar Telescope experiment. It will strongly improve the sensitivity in the search for axions, a so far elusive particle. The axion is predicted in order to explain the observed CP conservation in strong interaction which is not expected within the generally accepted "standard model". Construction and performance of the X-ray telescope are described. An improvement by two orders of magnitude in the signal over background S/B event ratio is estimated.

  1. Support optimization of the ring primary mirror of a 2m solar telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dehua; Jin, Zhenyu; Liu, Zhong

    2016-08-01

    A special 2-m Ring Solar Telescope (2-m RST) is to be built by YNAO-Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, Kunming, China. Its distinct primary mirror is distinctively shaped in a ring with an outer diameter of 2.02 m and a ring width of 0.35 m. Careful calculation and optimization of the mirror support pattern have been carried out first of all to define optimum blank parameters in view of performance balance of support design, fabrication and cost. This paper is to review the special consideration and optimization of the support design for the unique ring mirror. Schott zerodur is the prevailing candidate for the primary mirror blank. Diverse support patterns with various blank thicknesses have been discussed by extensive calculation of axial support pattern of the mirror. We reached an optimum design of 36 axial supports for a blank thickness of 0.15 m with surface error of 5 nm RMS. Afterwards, lateral support scheme was figured out for the mirror with settled parameters. A classical push-and-pull scheme was used. Seeing the relative flexibility of the ring mirror, special consideration was taken to unusually set the acting direction of the support forces not in the mirror gravity plane, but along the gravity of the local virtual slices of the mirror blank. Nine couples of the lateral push-pull force are considered. When pointing to horizon, the mirror surface exhibits RMS error of 5 nm with three additional small force couples used to compensate for the predominant astigmatism introduced by lateral supports. Finally, error estimation has been performed to evaluate the surface degradation with introduced errors in support force and support position, respectively, for both axial and lateral supports. Monte Carlo approach was applied using unit seeds for amplitude and position of support forces. The comprehensive optimization and calculation suggests the support systems design meet the technic requirements of the ring mirror of the 2-m RST.

  2. HOT PLASMA FROM SOLAR ACTIVE-REGION CORES: CONSTRAINTS FROM THE HINODE X-RAY TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmelz, J. T. [USRA, 7178 Columbia Gateway Drive, Columbia, MD 21046 (United States); Christian, G. M.; Matheny, P. O., E-mail: jschmelz@usra.edu [Physics Department, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    Mechanisms invoked to heat the solar corona to millions of degrees kelvin involve either magnetic waves or magnetic reconnections. Turbulence in the convection zone produces MHD waves, which travel upward and dissipate. Photospheric motions continuously build up magnetic energy, which is released through magnetic reconnection. In this paper, we concentrate on hot non-flaring plasma with temperatures of 5 MK <  T  < 10 MK because it is one of the few observables for which wave and reconnection models make different predictions. Wave models predict no (or little) hot plasma, whereas reconnection models predict it, although in amounts that are challenging to detect with current instrumentation. We used data from the X-ray Telescope (XRT) and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA). We requested a special XRT observing sequence, which cycled through the thickest XRT filter several times per hour so we could average these images and improve the signal-to-noise. We did differential emission measure (DEM) analysis using the time-averaged thick-filter data as well as all available channels from both the XRT and AIA for regions observed on 2014 December 11. Whereas our earlier work was only able to determine that plasma with a temperature greater than 5 MK was present , we are now able to find a well-constrained DEM distribution. We have therefore added a strong observational constraint that must be explained by any viable coronal heating model. Comparing state-of-the-art wave and reconnection model predictions, we can conclude that reconnection is heating the hot plasma in these active regions.

  3. Solar energy utilizing technology for future cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Kei

    1987-11-20

    This report proposes solar energy utilizing technologies for future cities, centering on a system that uses Fresnel lenses and optical fiber cables. This system selects out beams in the visible range and the energy can be sent to end terminals constantly as long as sunlight is available. Optical energy is concentrated 4,000-fold. The system can provide long-distance projection of parallel rays. It will be helpful for efficient utilization of light in cities and can increase the degree of freedom in carrying out urban development. The total efficiency for the introduction into optical fiber can be up to 40 percent. With no heating coil incorporated, there is no danger of fire. The standard size of a light condenser is 2 m in dome diameter and 2.5 m in height. Auxiliary artificial light is used for backup purposes when it is cloudy. Heat pumps operating on solar thermal energy are employed to maintain air conditioning for 24 hours a day in order to ensure the establishment of an environment where residential areas exist in the neighborhood of office areas. Seven automatic solar light collection and transfer systems are currently in practical use at the Arc Hills building. The combination of Fresnel lens and optical fiber is more than six times as high in efficiency as a reflecting mirror. (5 figs, 3 tabs, 8 photos, 6 refs)

  4. Thin Mirror Shaping Technology for High-Throughput X-ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattenburg, Mark

    This proposal is submitted to the NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences program (ROSES-2012) in response to NASA Research Announcement NNH12ZDA001N- APRA. It is targeted to the Astronomy and Astrophysics Research and Analysis (APRA) program element under the Supporting Technology category. Powerful x-ray telescope mirrors are critical components of a raft of small-to-large mission concepts under consideration by NASA. The science questions addressed by these missions have certainly never been more compelling and the need to fulfill NASA s core missions of exploring the universe and strengthening our nation s technology base has never been greater. Unfortunately, budgetary constraints are driving NASA to consider the cost/benefit and risk factors of new missions more carefully than ever. New technology for producing x-ray telescopes with increased resolution and collecting area, while holding down cost, are key to meeting these goals and sustaining a thriving high-energy astrophysics enterprise in the US. We propose to develop advanced technology which will lead to thin-shell x-ray telescope mirrors rivaling the Chandra x-ray telescope in spatial resolution but with 10-100X larger area all at significantly reduced weight, risk and cost. The proposed effort builds on previous research at MIT and complements NASA-supported research at other institutions. We are currently pursuing two thin-mirror technology development tracks which we propose to extend and accelerate with NASA support. The first research track utilizes rapidly-maturing thermal glass slumping technology which uses porous ceramic air-bearing mandrels to shape glass mirrors without touching, thus avoiding surface-induced mid-range spatial frequency ripples. A second research track seeks to remove any remaining mid- to long-range errors in mirrors by using scanning ion-beam implant to impart small, highly deterministic and very stable amounts of stress into thin glass, utilizing local

  5. Search for solar axions by the CERN axion solar telescope with 3He buffer gas: closing the hot dark matter gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arik, M; Aune, S; Barth, K; Belov, A; Borghi, S; Bräuninger, H; Cantatore, G; Carmona, J M; Cetin, S A; Collar, J I; Da Riva, E; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Eleftheriadis, C; Elias, N; Fanourakis, G; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Friedrich, P; Galán, J; García, J A; Gardikiotis, A; Garza, J G; Gazis, E N; Geralis, T; Georgiopoulou, E; Giomataris, I; Gninenko, S; Gómez, H; Gómez Marzoa, M; Gruber, E; Guthörl, T; Hartmann, R; Hauf, S; Haug, F; Hasinoff, M D; Hoffmann, D H H; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; Jakovčić, K; Karuza, M; Königsmann, K; Kotthaus, R; Krčmar, M; Kuster, M; Lakić, B; Lang, P M; Laurent, J M; Liolios, A; Ljubičić, A; Luzón, G; Neff, S; Niinikoski, T; Nordt, A; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M J; Raffelt, G; Riege, H; Rodríguez, A; Rosu, M; Ruz, J; Savvidis, I; Shilon, I; Silva, P S; Solanki, S K; Stewart, L; Tomás, A; Tsagri, M; van Bibber, K; Vafeiadis, T; Villar, J; Vogel, J K; Yildiz, S C; Zioutas, K

    2014-03-07

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope has finished its search for solar axions with (3)He buffer gas, covering the search range 0.64 eV ≲ ma ≲ 1.17 eV. This closes the gap to the cosmological hot dark matter limit and actually overlaps with it. From the absence of excess x rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun we set a typical upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of gaγ ≲ 3.3 × 10(-10)  GeV(-1) at 95% C.L., with the exact value depending on the pressure setting. Future direct solar axion searches will focus on increasing the sensitivity to smaller values of gaγ, for example by the currently discussed next generation helioscope International AXion Observatory.

  6. Search for Solar Axions by the CERN Axion Solar Telescope with 3 He Buffer Gas: Closing the Hot Dark Matter Gap

    CERN Document Server

    Arik, M.; Barth, K.; Belov, A.; Borghi, S.; Bräuninger, H.; Cantatore, G.; Carmona, J.M.; Cetin, S.A.; Collar, J.I.; Da Riva, E.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elias, N.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Friedrich, P.; Galán, J.; García, J.A.; Gardikiotis, A.; Garza, J.G.; Gazis, E.N.; Geralis, T.; Georgiopoulou, E.; Giomataris, I.; Gninenko, S.; Gómez, H.; Gómez Marzoa, M.; Gruber, E.; Guthörl, T.; Hartmann, R.; Hauf, S.; Haug, F.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Iguaz, F.J.; Irastorza, I.G.; Jacoby, J.; Jakovčić, K.; Karuza, M.; Königsmann, K.; Kotthaus, R.; Krčmar, M.; Kuster, M.; Lakić, B.; Lang, P.M.; Laurent, J.M.; Liolios, A.; Ljubičić, A.; Lozza, V.; Luzón, G.; Neff, S.; Niinikoski, T.; Nordt, A.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M.J.; Raffelt, G.; Riege, H.; Rodríguez, A.; Rosu, M.; Ruz, J.; Savvidis, I.; Shilon, I.; Silva, P.S.; Solanki, S.K.; Stewart, L.; Tomás, A.; Tsagri, M.; van Bibber, K.; Vafeiadis, T.; Villar, J.; Vogel, J.K.; Yildiz, S.C.; Zioutas, K.

    2014-01-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) has finished its search for solar axions with 3^He buffer gas, covering the search range 0.64 eV < m_a <1.17 eV. This closes the gap to the cosmological hot dark matter limit and actually overlaps with it. From the absence of excess X-rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun we set a typical upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of g_ag < 3.3 x 10^{-10} GeV^{-1} at 95% CL, with the exact value depending on the pressure setting. Future direct solar axion searches will focus on increasing the sensitivity to smaller values of g_a, for example by the currently discussed next generation helioscope IAXO.

  7. Search for Solar Axions by the CERN Axion Solar Telescope with He3 Buffer Gas: Closing the Hot Dark Matter Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arik, M.; Aune, S.; Barth, K.; Belov, A.; Borghi, S.; Bräuninger, H.; Cantatore, G.; Carmona, J. M.; Cetin, S. A.; Collar, J. I.; Da Riva, E.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elias, N.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Friedrich, P.; Galán, J.; García, J. A.; Gardikiotis, A.; Garza, J. G.; Gazis, E. N.; Geralis, T.; Georgiopoulou, E.; Giomataris, I.; Gninenko, S.; Gómez, H.; Gómez Marzoa, M.; Gruber, E.; Guthörl, T.; Hartmann, R.; Hauf, S.; Haug, F.; Hasinoff, M. D.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Jacoby, J.; Jakovčić, K.; Karuza, M.; Königsmann, K.; Kotthaus, R.; Krčmar, M.; Kuster, M.; Lakić, B.; Lang, P. M.; Laurent, J. M.; Liolios, A.; Ljubičić, A.; Luzón, G.; Neff, S.; Niinikoski, T.; Nordt, A.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Raffelt, G.; Riege, H.; Rodríguez, A.; Rosu, M.; Ruz, J.; Savvidis, I.; Shilon, I.; Silva, P. S.; Solanki, S. K.; Stewart, L.; Tomás, A.; Tsagri, M.; van Bibber, K.; Vafeiadis, T.; Villar, J.; Vogel, J. K.; Yildiz, S. C.; Zioutas, K.; CAST Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope has finished its search for solar axions with He3 buffer gas, covering the search range 0.64 eV≲ma≲1.17 eV. This closes the gap to the cosmological hot dark matter limit and actually overlaps with it. From the absence of excess x rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun we set a typical upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of gaγ≲3.3×10-10 GeV-1 at 95% C.L., with the exact value depending on the pressure setting. Future direct solar axion searches will focus on increasing the sensitivity to smaller values of gaγ, for example by the currently discussed next generation helioscope International AXion Observatory.

  8. RE-EVALUATION OF THE NEUTRON EMISSION FROM THE SOLAR FLARE OF 2005 SEPTEMBER 7, DETECTED BY THE SOLAR NEUTRON TELESCOPE AT SIERRA NEGRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, L. X. [SCiESMEX, Instituto de Geofísica Unidad Michoacán, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 58190, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Musalem, O.; Hurtado, A. [Instituto de Geofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, 04510, D. F. Mexico (Mexico); Sánchez, F. [Instituto de Tecnologías en Detección de Astropartículas, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, 1429, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Muraki, Y.; Sako, T.; Matsubara, Y.; Nagai, Y. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Watanabe, K. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Yoshinodai, chuo-ku, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Shibata, S. [College of Engineering, Chubu University, Kasugai, Aichi 487-8501 (Japan); Sakai, T. [College of Industrial Technologies, Nihon University, Narashino 275-0005 (Japan)

    2015-12-01

    The X17.0 solar flare of 2005 September 7 released high-energy neutrons that were detected by the Solar Neutron Telescope (SNT) at Sierra Negra, Mexico. In three separate and independent studies of this solar neutron event, several of its unique characteristics were studied; in particular, a power-law energy spectra was estimated. In this paper, we present an alternative analysis, based on improved numerical simulations of the detector using GEANT4, and a different technique for processing the SNT data. The results indicate that the spectral index that best fits the neutron flux is around 3, in agreement with previous works. Based on the numerically calculated neutron energy deposition on the SNT, we confirm that the detected neutrons might have reached an energy of 1 GeV, which implies that 10 GeV protons were probably produced; these could not be observed at Earth, as their parent flare was an east limb event.

  9. Detection of zero anisotropy at 5.2 AU during the November 1998 solar particle event: Ulysses Anisotropy Telescopes observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dalla

    Full Text Available For the first time during the mission, the Anisotropy Telescopes instrument on board the Ulysses spacecraft measured constant zero anisotropy of protons in the 1.3-2.2 MeV energy range, for a period lasting more than three days. This measurement was made during the energetic particle event taking place at Ulysses between 25 November and 15 December 1998, an event characterised by constant high proton fluxes within a region delimited by two interplanetary forward shocks, at a distance of 5.2 AU from the Sun and heliographic latitude of 17°S. We present the ATs results for this event and discuss their possible interpretation and their relevance to the issue of intercalibration of the two telescopes.

    Key words: Interplanetary physics (energetic particles - Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy (energetic particles - Space plasma physics (instruments and techniques

  10. The James Webb Space Telescope's Plan for Operations and Instrument Capabilities for Observations in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, Stefanie N.; Stansberry, John A.; Sonneborn, George; Thomas, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is optimized for observations in the near- and mid-infrared and will provide essential observations for targets that cannot be conducted from the ground or other missions during its lifetime. The state-of-the-art science instruments, along with the telescope's moving target tracking, will enable the infrared study, with unprecedented detail, for nearly every object (Mars and beyond) in the Solar System. The goals of this special issue are to stimulate discussion and encourage participation in JWST planning among members of the planetary science community. Key science goals for various targets, observing capabilities for JWST, and highlights for the complementary nature with other missions/observatories are described in this paper.

  11. Performance of the SciBar cosmic ray telescope (SciCRT) toward the detection of high-energy solar neutrons in solar cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai, Yoshinori; Nagai, Yuya; Itow, Yoshitaka; Matsubara, Yutaka; Sako, Takashi; Lopez, Diego; Itow, Tsukasa; Munakata, Kazuoki; Kato, Chihiro; Kozai, Masayoshi; Miyazaki, Takahiro; Shibata, Shoichi; Oshima, Akitoshi; Kojima, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Harufumi; Watanabe, Kyoko; Koi, Tatsumi; Valdés-Galicia, Jose Francisco; González, Luis Xavier; Ortiz, Ernesto; Musalem, Octavio; Hurtado, Alejandro; Garcia, Rocio; Anzorena, Marcos

    2014-12-01

    We plan to observe solar neutrons at Mt. Sierra Negra (4,600 m above sea level) in Mexico using the SciBar detector. This project is named the SciBar Cosmic Ray Telescope (SciCRT). The main aims of the SciCRT project are to observe solar neutrons to study the mechanism of ion acceleration on the surface of the sun and to monitor the anisotropy of galactic cosmic-ray muons. The SciBar detector, a fully active tracker, is composed of 14,848 scintillator bars, whose dimension is 300 cm × 2.5 cm × 1.3 cm. The structure of the detector enables us to obtain the particle trajectory and its total deposited energy. This information is useful for the energy reconstruction of primary neutrons and particle identification. The total volume of the detector is 3.0 m × 3.0 m × 1.7 m. Since this volume is much larger than the solar neutron telescope (SNT) in Mexico, the detection efficiency of the SciCRT for neutrons is highly enhanced. We performed the calibration of the SciCRT at Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE) located at 2,150 m above sea level in Mexico in 2012. We installed the SciCRT at Mt. Sierra Negra in April 2013 and calibrated this detector in May and August 2013. We started continuous observation in March 2014. In this paper, we report the detector performance as a solar neutron telescope and the current status of the SciCRT.

  12. Use of graphite epoxy composites in the Solar-A Soft X-Ray Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurcevich, B. K.; Bruner, M. E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the use of composite materials in the Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT). One of the primary structural members of the telescope is a graphite epoxy metering tube. The metering tube maintains the structural stability of the telescope during launch as well as the focal length through various environmental conditions. The graphite epoxy metering tube is designed to have a negative coefficient of thermal expansion to compensate for the positive expansion of titanium structural supports. The focus is maintained to + or - 0.001 inch by matching the CTE of the composite tube to the remaining structural elements.

  13. Gregor@night: The future high-resolution stellar spectrograph for the GREGOR solar telescope

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strassmeier, K.G.; Ilyin, I.V.; Woche, M.; Granzer, T.; Weber, M.; Weingrill, J.; Bauer, S.-M.; Popow, E.; Denker, C.; Schmidt, W.; von der Lühe, O.; Berdyugina, S.; Collados Vera, M.; Koubský, Pavel; Hackman, T.; Mantere, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 333, č. 9 (2012), s. 901-910 ISSN 0004-6337 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : spesctrographs * telescope Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.399, year: 2012

  14. US Participation in the Solar Orbiter Multi Element Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy (METIS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Multi Element Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy, METIS, investigation has been conceived to perform off-limb and near-Sun coronagraphy and is motivated by...

  15. QUIESCENT PROMINENCE DYNAMICS OBSERVED WITH THE HINODE SOLAR OPTICAL TELESCOPE. I. TURBULENT UPFLOW PLUMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Thomas E.; Slater, Gregory; Hurlburt, Neal; Shine, Richard; Tarbell, Theodore; Title, Alan; Lites, Bruce W.; Okamoto, Takenori J.; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Katsukawa, Yukio; Magara, Tetsuya; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Shimizu, Toshifumi

    2010-01-01

    Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) observations reveal two new dynamic modes in quiescent solar prominences: large-scale (20-50 Mm) 'arches' or 'bubbles' that 'inflate' from below into prominences, and smaller-scale (2-6 Mm) dark turbulent upflows. These novel dynamics are related in that they are always dark in visible-light spectral bands, they rise through the bright prominence emission with approximately constant speeds, and the small-scale upflows are sometimes observed to emanate from the top of the larger bubbles. Here we present detailed kinematic measurements of the small-scale turbulent upflows seen in several prominences in the SOT database. The dark upflows typically initiate vertically from 5 to 10 Mm wide dark cavities between the bottom of the prominence and the top of the chromospheric spicule layer. Small perturbations on the order of 1 Mm or less in size grow on the upper boundaries of cavities to generate plumes up to 4-6 Mm across at their largest widths. All plumes develop highly turbulent profiles, including occasional Kelvin-Helmholtz vortex 'roll-up' of the leading edge. The flows typically rise 10-15 Mm before decelerating to equilibrium. We measure the flowfield characteristics with a manual tracing method and with the Nonlinear Affine Velocity Estimator (NAVE) 'optical flow' code to derive velocity, acceleration, lifetime, and height data for several representative plumes. Maximum initial speeds are in the range of 20-30 km s -1 , which is supersonic for a ∼10,000 K plasma. The plumes decelerate in the final few Mm of their trajectories resulting in mean ascent speeds of 13-17 km s -1 . Typical lifetimes range from 300 to 1000 s (∼5-15 minutes). The area growth rate of the plumes (observed as two-dimensional objects in the plane of the sky) is initially linear and ranges from 20,000 to 30,000 km 2 s -1 reaching maximum projected areas from 2 to 15 Mm 2 . Maximum contrast of the dark flows relative to the bright prominence plasma in

  16. Quiescent Prominence Dynamics Observed with the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope. I. Turbulent Upflow Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Thomas E.; Slater, Gregory; Hurlburt, Neal; Shine, Richard; Tarbell, Theodore; Title, Alan; Lites, Bruce W.; Okamoto, Takenori J.; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Katsukawa, Yukio; Magara, Tetsuya; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Shimizu, Toshifumi

    2010-06-01

    Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) observations reveal two new dynamic modes in quiescent solar prominences: large-scale (20-50 Mm) "arches" or "bubbles" that "inflate" from below into prominences, and smaller-scale (2-6 Mm) dark turbulent upflows. These novel dynamics are related in that they are always dark in visible-light spectral bands, they rise through the bright prominence emission with approximately constant speeds, and the small-scale upflows are sometimes observed to emanate from the top of the larger bubbles. Here we present detailed kinematic measurements of the small-scale turbulent upflows seen in several prominences in the SOT database. The dark upflows typically initiate vertically from 5 to 10 Mm wide dark cavities between the bottom of the prominence and the top of the chromospheric spicule layer. Small perturbations on the order of 1 Mm or less in size grow on the upper boundaries of cavities to generate plumes up to 4-6 Mm across at their largest widths. All plumes develop highly turbulent profiles, including occasional Kelvin-Helmholtz vortex "roll-up" of the leading edge. The flows typically rise 10-15 Mm before decelerating to equilibrium. We measure the flowfield characteristics with a manual tracing method and with the Nonlinear Affine Velocity Estimator (NAVE) "optical flow" code to derive velocity, acceleration, lifetime, and height data for several representative plumes. Maximum initial speeds are in the range of 20-30 km s-1, which is supersonic for a ~10,000 K plasma. The plumes decelerate in the final few Mm of their trajectories resulting in mean ascent speeds of 13-17 km s-1. Typical lifetimes range from 300 to 1000 s (~5-15 minutes). The area growth rate of the plumes (observed as two-dimensional objects in the plane of the sky) is initially linear and ranges from 20,000 to 30,000 km2 s-1 reaching maximum projected areas from 2 to 15 Mm2. Maximum contrast of the dark flows relative to the bright prominence plasma in SOT images

  17. Solar array technology evaluation program for SEPS (Solar Electrical Propulsion Stage)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of the technology and the development of a preliminary design for a 25 kilowatt solar array system for solar electric propulsion are discussed. The solar array has a power to weight ratio of 65 watts per kilogram. The solar array system is composed of two wings. Each wing consists of a solar array blanket, a blanket launch storage container, an extension/retraction mast assembly, a blanket tensioning system, an array electrical harness, and hardware for supporting the system for launch and in the operating position. The technology evaluation was performed to assess the applicable solar array state-of-the-art and to define supporting research necessary to achieve technology readiness for meeting the solar electric propulsion system solar array design requirements.

  18. Thermally Induced Vibrations of the Hubble Space Telescope's Solar Array 3 in a Test Simulated Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Derrick A.; Haile, William B.; Turczyn, Mark T.; Griffin, Thomas J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) conducted a disturbance verification test on a flight Solar Array 3 (SA3) for the Hubble Space Telescope using the ESA Large Space Simulator (LSS) in Noordwijk, the Netherlands. The LSS cyclically illuminated the SA3 to simulate orbital temperature changes in a vacuum environment. Data acquisition systems measured signals from force transducers and accelerometers resulting from thermally induced vibrations of the SAI The LSS with its seismic mass boundary provided an excellent background environment for this test. This paper discusses the analysis performed on the measured transient SA3 responses and provides a summary of the results.

  19. Here comes the sun. Solar energy technology in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Wees, G.

    1998-01-01

    An overview is given of the energy policy in the USA with respect to solar energy technology and the marketing of solar energy applications. In particular, attention is paid to the Million Solar Roofs programme, small-scale and medium-scale photovoltaic (PV) systems (Residential PV and Utility Scale PV), solar thermal systems (Parabolic Trough, Power tower, and Solar Dish/Engine). Also examples of passive solar systems are given. Finally, a number of aspects with regard to market implementation, e.g. net-metering. 9 refs

  20. Search for interplanetary shock signals using the Tupi telescope at the ascending phase of the solar cycle 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augusto, C.R.A.; Kopenkin, V.; Navia, C.E.; Tsui, K.H.; Shigueoka, H.; Fauth, A.C.; Kemp, E.; Manganote, E.J.T.; Oliveira, M.A. Leigui de; Miranda, P.; Ticona, R.; Velarde, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: This paper presents the results of an on-going survey on the association between the muon flux variation at ground level registered by the Tupi telescopes (Niteroi-Brazil, 22.9 deg S; 43.2 deg W, 3 m above sea level) in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region and interplanetary shocks detected by space-borne detectors (SOHO, ACE, GOES). The SAA provides favorable conditions for observation of shock driven geomagnetic storms, including those of very small scale. Geomagnetic storms are usually originated by the transient events such as solar flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and corotating interaction regions (CIRs). In most cases scientific research showed variation in the cosmic particle flux at ground level in correlation with large scale CMEs solar flares characterized by high absolute values of geomagnetic activity Kp index. In our analysis we found that the muon flux associated with the interplanetary shock signals changes also in response to low solar activity and to fast rise in Kp index. We report experimental data obtained by the Tupi telescopes in the period from June 2010 to December 2011. This time period corresponds to the rising phase of the solar cycle 24. These observations are compared with publicly available observations from the CELIAS/MTOF Proton Monitor on SOHO satellite in order to study the origin of the shocks. Among 28 interplanetary shocks reported in present analysis, there are 12 possibly associated with the CMEs and solar flares, 2 events - with the CIR related shocks (forward or reverse shocks), and the origin of the remaining 13 events has not been determined by the satellite detectors. By comparing the observed time (delayed or anticipated) of the shock related signal on Earth (the Tupi telescopes) with the trigger time of the shock registered by satellites located at the Lagrange point L1 (SOHO, ACE), we find that it is possible to estimate the type of the shock (forward or reverse). This method can be useful in

  1. Search for interplanetary shock signals using the Tupi telescope at the ascending phase of the solar cycle 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusto, C.R.A.; Kopenkin, V.; Navia, C.E.; Tsui, K.H.; Shigueoka, H. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Fauth, A.C.; Kemp, E.; Manganote, E.J.T. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IFGW/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin; Oliveira, M.A. Leigui de [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas; Miranda, P.; Ticona, R.; Velarde, A. [Universidad Mayor de San Andres (UMSA), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of). Inst. de Investigaciones Fisicas

    2012-07-01

    Full text: This paper presents the results of an on-going survey on the association between the muon flux variation at ground level registered by the Tupi telescopes (Niteroi-Brazil, 22.9 deg S; 43.2 deg W, 3 m above sea level) in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region and interplanetary shocks detected by space-borne detectors (SOHO, ACE, GOES). The SAA provides favorable conditions for observation of shock driven geomagnetic storms, including those of very small scale. Geomagnetic storms are usually originated by the transient events such as solar flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and corotating interaction regions (CIRs). In most cases scientific research showed variation in the cosmic particle flux at ground level in correlation with large scale CMEs solar flares characterized by high absolute values of geomagnetic activity Kp index. In our analysis we found that the muon flux associated with the interplanetary shock signals changes also in response to low solar activity and to fast rise in Kp index. We report experimental data obtained by the Tupi telescopes in the period from June 2010 to December 2011. This time period corresponds to the rising phase of the solar cycle 24. These observations are compared with publicly available observations from the CELIAS/MTOF Proton Monitor on SOHO satellite in order to study the origin of the shocks. Among 28 interplanetary shocks reported in present analysis, there are 12 possibly associated with the CMEs and solar flares, 2 events - with the CIR related shocks (forward or reverse shocks), and the origin of the remaining 13 events has not been determined by the satellite detectors. By comparing the observed time (delayed or anticipated) of the shock related signal on Earth (the Tupi telescopes) with the trigger time of the shock registered by satellites located at the Lagrange point L1 (SOHO, ACE), we find that it is possible to estimate the type of the shock (forward or reverse). This method can be useful in

  2. Distributed Solar Photovoltaic Power Production - Technology and Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Al [PSE& G; Stuby, Rick [Petra Solar

    2011-11-02

    As part of its nationally recognized Solar 4 All program, PSE&G has partnered with Petra Solar to deploy the world’s first and largest pole attached solar project. The project, based on Petra Solar’s distributed Smart Solar solution, will create a 40 megawatt solar “virtual power plant.” In deployment as 200,000 individual grid-connected solar power producers on utility poles in PSE&G territory, Petra Solar SunWave® solutions leverage Smart Grid communications and high-tech panel-level inverters to implement a robust system with many technical benefits over traditional solar photovoltaic solutions. The program overview, deployment model, smart grid communications and enabling inverter technology and safety features will be presented, as well the future challenges of, and solutions for, solar power intermittency as photovoltaic penetration on the electric grid increases.

  3. Off-limb EUV observations of the solar corona and transients with the CORONAS-F/SPIRIT telescope-coronagraph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Slemzin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The SPIRIT telescope aboard the CORONAS-F satellite (in orbit from 26 July 2001 to 5 December 2005, observed the off-limb solar corona in the 175 Å (Fe IX, X and XI lines and 304 Å (He II and Si XI lines bands. In the coronagraphic mode the mirror was tilted to image the corona at the distance of 1.1...5 Rsun from the solar center, the outer occulter blocked the disk radiation and the detector sensitivity was enhanced. This intermediate region between the fields of view of ordinary extreme-ultraviolet (EUV telescopes and most of the white-light (WL coronagraphs is responsible for forming the streamer belt, acceleration of ejected matter and emergence of slow and fast solar wind. We present here the results of continuous coronagraphic EUV observations of the solar corona carried out during two weeks in June and December 2002. The images showed a "diffuse" (unresolved component of the corona seen in both bands, and non-radial, ray-like structures seen only in the 175 Å band, which can be associated with a streamer base. The correlations between latitudinal distributions of the EUV brightness in the corona and at the limb were found to be high in 304 Å at all distances and in 175 Å only below 1.5 Rsun. The temporal correlation of the coronal brightness along the west radial line, with the brightness at the underlying limb region was significant in both bands, independent of the distance. On 2 February 2003 SPIRIT observed an expansion of a transient associated with a prominence eruption seen only in the 304 Å band. The SPIRIT data have been compared with the corresponding data of the SOHO LASCO, EIT and UVCS instruments.

  4. Modeling and verification of the diffraction-limited visible light telescope aboard the solar observing satellite HINODE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsukawa, Y.; Suematsu, Y.; Tsuneta, S.; Ichimoto, K.; Shimizu, T.

    2011-09-01

    HINODE, Japanese for "sunrise", is a spacecraft dedicated for observations of the Sun, and was launched in 2006 to study the Sun's magnetic fields and how their explosive energies propagate through the different atmospheric layers. The spacecraft carries the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), which has a 50 cm diameter clear aperture and provides a continuous series of diffraction-limited visible light images from space. The telescope was developed through international collaboration between Japan and US. In order to achieve the diffraction-limited performance, thermal and structural modeling of the telescope was extensively used in its development phase to predict how the optical performance changes dependent on the thermal condition in orbit. Not only the modeling, we devoted many efforts to verify the optical performance in ground tests before the launch. The verification in the ground tests helped us to find many issues, such as temperature dependent focus shifts, which were not identified only through the thermal-structural modeling. Another critical issue was micro-vibrations induced by internal disturbances of mechanical gyroscopes and momentum wheels for attitude control of the spacecraft. Because the structural modeling was not accurate enough to predict how much the image quality was degraded by the micro-vibrations, we measured their transmission in a spacecraft-level test.

  5. Comparison of thermal solar collector technologies and their applications

    OpenAIRE

    Alarcón Villamil, Alexander; Hortúa, Jairo Eduardo; López, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the operation of different thermal solar collector technologies and their main characteristics. It starts by providing a brief description of the importance of using solar collectors as an alternative to reduce the environmental impact caused by the production of non-renewable sources like coal and oil. Subsequently, it focuses on each solar concentrator technology and finishes with a theoretical analysis hub application in different industrial processes. En este artícu...

  6. ULTRA-NARROW NEGATIVE FLARE FRONT OBSERVED IN HELIUM-10830 Å USING THE 1.6 m NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yan; Liu, Chang; Jing, Ju; Wang, Haimin [Space Weather Research Lab, Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Blvd, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Cao, Wenda; Gary, Dale [Big Bear Solar Observatory, New Jersey Institute of Technology 323 Martin Luther King Blvd, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Ding, Mingde [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Kleint, Lucia [Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz (FHNW), Institute of 4D technologies Bahnhofstr. 6, CH-5210 Windisch (Switzerland); Su, Jiangtao [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Ji, Haisheng [Purple Mountain Observatory, 2 Beijing Xi Lu, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Chae, Jongchul; Cho, Kyuhyoun [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyungsuk [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daedeokdae-ro 776, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-10

    Solar flares are sudden flashes of brightness on the Sun and are often associated with coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particles that have adverse effects on the near-Earth environment. By definition, flares are usually referred to as bright features resulting from excess emission. Using the newly commissioned 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory, we show a striking “negative” flare with a narrow but unambiguous “dark” moving front observed in He i 10830 Å, which is as narrow as 340 km and is associated with distinct spectral characteristics in Hα and Mg ii lines. Theoretically, such negative contrast in He i 10830 Å can be produced under special circumstances by nonthermal electron collisions or photoionization followed by recombination. Our discovery, made possible due to unprecedented spatial resolution, confirms the presence of the required plasma conditions and provides unique information in understanding the energy release and radiative transfer in astronomical objects.

  7. ULTRA-NARROW NEGATIVE FLARE FRONT OBSERVED IN HELIUM-10830 Å USING THE 1.6 m NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yan; Liu, Chang; Jing, Ju; Wang, Haimin; Cao, Wenda; Gary, Dale; Ding, Mingde; Kleint, Lucia; Su, Jiangtao; Ji, Haisheng; Chae, Jongchul; Cho, Kyuhyoun; Cho, Kyungsuk

    2016-01-01

    Solar flares are sudden flashes of brightness on the Sun and are often associated with coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particles that have adverse effects on the near-Earth environment. By definition, flares are usually referred to as bright features resulting from excess emission. Using the newly commissioned 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory, we show a striking “negative” flare with a narrow but unambiguous “dark” moving front observed in He i 10830 Å, which is as narrow as 340 km and is associated with distinct spectral characteristics in Hα and Mg ii lines. Theoretically, such negative contrast in He i 10830 Å can be produced under special circumstances by nonthermal electron collisions or photoionization followed by recombination. Our discovery, made possible due to unprecedented spatial resolution, confirms the presence of the required plasma conditions and provides unique information in understanding the energy release and radiative transfer in astronomical objects

  8. NEAT: an astrometric space telescope to search for habitable exoplanets in the solar neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzier, A.; Malbet, F.; Kern, P.; Feautrier, P.; Preiss, O.; Martin, G.; Henault, F.; Stadler, E.; Lafrasse, S.; Behar, E.; Saintpe, M.; Dupont, J.; Potin, S.; Lagage, P.-O.; Cara, C.; Leger, A.; Leduigou, J.-M.; Shao, M.; Goullioud, R.

    2014-03-01

    The last decade has witnessed a spectacular development of exoplanet detection techniques, which led to an exponential number of discoveries and a great diversity of known exoplanets. However, it must be noted that the quest for the holy grail of astrobiology, i.e. a nearby terrestrial exoplanet in habitable zone around a solar type star, is still ongoing and proves to be very hard. Radial velocities will have to overcome stellar noise if there are to discover habitable planets around stars more massive than M ones. For very close systems, transits are impeded by their low geometrical probability. Here we present an alternative concept: space astrometry. NEAT (Nearby Earth Astrometric Telescope) is a concept of astrometric mission proposed to ESA which goal is to make a whole sky survey of close (less then 20 pc) planetary systems. The detection limit required for the instrument is the astrometric signal of an Earth analog (at 10 pc). Differential astrometry is a very interesting tool to detect nearby habitable exoplanets. Indeed, for F, G and K main sequence stars, the astrophysical noise is smaller than the astrometric signal, contrary to the case for radial velocities. The difficulty lies in the fact that the signal of an exo-Earth around a G type star at 10 pc is a tiny 0.3 micro arc sec, which is equivalent to a coin on the moon, seen from the Earth: the main challenge is related to instrumentation. In order to reach this specification, NEAT consists of two formation flying spacecraft at a 40m distance, one carries the mirror and the other one the focal plane. Thus NEAT has a configuration with only one optical surface: an off-axis parabola. Consequently, beamwalk errors are common to the whole field of view and have a small effect on differential astrometry. Moreover a metrology system projects young fringes on the focal plane, which can characterize the pixels whenever necessary during the mission. NEAT has two main scientific objectives: combined with

  9. High-power, ultralow-mass solar arrays: FY-77 solar arrays technology readiness assessment report, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costogue, E. N.; Young, L. E.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Development efforts are reported in detail for: (1) a lightweight solar array system for solar electric propulsion; (2) a high efficiency thin silicon solar cell; (3) conceptual design of 200 W/kg solar arrays; (4) fluorocarbon encapsulation for silicon solar cell array; and (5) technology assessment of concentrator solar arrays.

  10. A development roadmap for critical technologies needed for TALC: a deployable 20m annular space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, Marc; Amiaux, Jérome; Austin, James; Bello, Mara; Bianucci, Giovanni; Chesné, Simon; Citterio, Oberto; Collette, Christophe; Correia, Sébastien; Durand, Gilles A.; Molinari, Sergio; Pareschi, Giovanni; Penfornis, Yann; Sironi, Giorgia; Valsecchi, Giuseppe; Verpoort, Sven; Wittrock, Ulrich

    2016-07-01

    Astronomy is driven by the quest for higher sensitivity and improved angular resolution in order to detect fainter or smaller objects. The far-infrared to submillimeter domain is a unique probe of the cold and obscured Universe, harboring for instance the precious signatures of key elements such as water. Space observations are mandatory given the blocking effect of our atmosphere. However the methods we have relied on so far to develop increasingly larger telescopes are now reaching a hard limit, with the JWST illustrating this in more than one way (e.g. it will be launched by one of the most powerful rocket, it requires the largest existing facility on Earth to be qualified). With the Thinned Aperture Light Collector (TALC) project, a concept of a deployable 20 m annular telescope, we propose to break out of this deadlock by developing novel technologies for space telescopes, which are disruptive in three aspects: • An innovative deployable mirror whose topology, based on stacking rather than folding, leads to an optimum ratio of collecting area over volume, and creates a telescope with an eight times larger collecting area and three times higher angular resolution compared to JWST from the same pre-deployed volume; • An ultra-light weight segmented primary mirror, based on electrodeposited Nickel, Composite and Honeycomb stacks, built with a replica process to control costs and mitigate the industrial risks; • An active optics control layer based on piezo-electric layers incorporated into the mirror rear shell allowing control of the shape by internal stress rather than by reaction on a structure. We present in this paper the roadmap we have built to bring these three disruptive technologies to technology readiness level 3. We will achieve this goal through design and realization of representative elements: segments of mirrors for optical quality verification, active optics implemented on representative mirror stacks to characterize the shape correction

  11. Assessing Rare Metal Availability Challenges for Solar Energy Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Grandell

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is commonly seen as a future energy source with significant potential. Ruthenium, gallium, indium and several other rare elements are common and vital components of many solar energy technologies, including dye-sensitized solar cells, CIGS cells and various artificial photosynthesis approaches. This study surveys solar energy technologies and their reliance on rare metals such as indium, gallium, and ruthenium. Several of these rare materials do not occur as primary ores, and are found as byproducts associated with primary base metal ores. This will have an impact on future production trends and the availability for various applications. In addition, the geological reserves of many vital metals are scarce and severely limit the potential of certain solar energy technologies. It is the conclusion of this study that certain solar energy concepts are unrealistic in terms of achieving TW scales.

  12. Effects of solar photovoltaic technology on the environment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Liqiang; Zhang, Yajuan

    2017-10-01

    Among the various types of renewable energy, solar photovoltaic has elicited the most attention because of its low pollution, abundant reserve, and endless supply. Solar photovoltaic technology generates both positive and negative effects on the environment. The environmental loss of 0.00666 yuan/kWh from solar photovoltaic technology is lower than that from coal-fired power generation (0.05216 yuan/kWh). The negative effects of solar photovoltaic system production include wastewater and waste gas pollutions, the representatives of which contain fluorine, chromium with wastewater and hydrogen fluoride, and silicon tetrachloride gas. Solar panels are also a source of light pollution. Improper disposal of solar cells that have reached the end of their service life harms the environment through the stench they produce and the damage they cause to the soil. So, the positive and negative effects of green energy photovoltaic power generation technology on the environment should be considered.

  13. The Engineering Development Array: A Low Frequency Radio Telescope Utilising SKA Precursor Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayth, Randall; Sokolowski, Marcin; Booler, Tom; Crosse, Brian; Emrich, David; Grootjans, Robert; Hall, Peter J.; Horsley, Luke; Juswardy, Budi; Kenney, David; Steele, Kim; Sutinjo, Adrian; Tingay, Steven J.; Ung, Daniel; Walker, Mia; Williams, Andrew; Beardsley, A.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Morales, M. F.; Pallot, D.; Trott, C. M.; Wu, C.

    2017-08-01

    We describe the design and performance of the Engineering Development Array, which is a low-frequency radio telescope comprising 256 dual-polarisation dipole antennas working as a phased array. The Engineering Development Array was conceived of, developed, and deployed in just 18 months via re-use of Square Kilometre Array precursor technology and expertise, specifically from the Murchison Widefield Array radio telescope. Using drift scans and a model for the sky brightness temperature at low frequencies, we have derived the Engineering Development Array's receiver temperature as a function of frequency. The Engineering Development Array is shown to be sky-noise limited over most of the frequency range measured between 60 and 240 MHz. By using the Engineering Development Array in interferometric mode with the Murchison Widefield Array, we used calibrated visibilities to measure the absolute sensitivity of the array. The measured array sensitivity matches very well with a model based on the array layout and measured receiver temperature. The results demonstrate the practicality and feasibility of using Murchison Widefield Array-style precursor technology for Square Kilometre Array-scale stations. The modular architecture of the Engineering Development Array allows upgrades to the array to be rolled out in a staged approach. Future improvements to the Engineering Development Array include replacing the second stage beamformer with a fully digital system, and to transition to using RF-over-fibre for the signal output from first stage beamformers.

  14. Public acceptance of residential solar photovoltaic technology in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Gaining independence from fossil fuels and combating climate change are the main factors to increase the generation of electricity from renewable fuels. Amongst the renewable technologies, solar photovoltaic (PV is believed to have the largest potential. However, the number of people adopting solar PV technologies is still relatively low. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to examine the household consumers’ acceptance of solar PV technology being installed on their premises. Design/methodology/approach – To examine the solar PV technology acceptance, this study uses technology acceptance model (TAM as a reference framework. A survey was conducted to gather data and to validate the research model. Out of 780 questionnaires distributed across Malaysia, 663 were returned and validated. Findings – The analysis revealed that perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and attitude to use significantly influenced behavioural intention to use solar PV technology. Research limitations/implications – This study contributes by extending the understanding of public inclination towards the adoption of solar PV technology. Also, this study contributes in identifying the areas which need to be examined further. However, collecting data from urban peninsular Malaysian respondents only limits the generalization of the results. Practical implications – On the policy front, this study reveals that governmental support is needed to trigger PV acceptance. Originality/value – This paper uses TAM to analyse the uptake of solar PV technology in Malaysian context.

  15. SolarProTeam - Appendix; Solar production technology melts architects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The goal of the project was to provide the basis for eliminating the multiplication costs for specialised solar cell modules. The appendix presents examples of architectural designs for multiple function modules for use in a city. (ln)

  16. Solar Cell and Array Technology Development for NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczor, Michael; McNatt, Jeremiah; Mercer, Carolyn; Kerslake, Tom; Pappa, Richard

    2012-01-01

    NASA is currently developing advanced solar cell and solar array technologies to support future exploration activities. These advanced photovoltaic technology development efforts are needed to enable very large (multi-hundred kilowatt) power systems that must be compatible with solar electric propulsion (SEP) missions. The technology being developed must address a wide variety of requirements and cover the necessary advances in solar cell, blanket integration, and large solar array structures that are needed for this class of missions. Th is paper will summarize NASA's plans for high power SEP missions, initi al mission studies and power system requirements, plans for advanced photovoltaic technology development, and the status of specific cell and array technology development and testing that have already been conducted.

  17. An application of space technology to the terrestrial search for axions: the X-ray mirror telescope at CAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, Gerhard E-mail: gerhard.lutz@cern.ch; Braeuninger, H.; Englhauser, J.; Hartmann, R.; Kang, D.; Kotthaus, R.; Kuster, M.; Serber, W.; Strueder, L

    2004-02-01

    An X-ray mirror telescope consisting of a Wolter I type mirror assembly as used in X-ray astronomy and a new type X-ray CCD has been added to the CERN Axion Solar Telescope experiment. It will strongly improve the sensitivity in the search for axions, a so far elusive particle. The axion is predicted in order to explain the observed CP conservation in strong interaction which is not expected within the generally accepted 'standard model'. Construction and performance of the X-ray telescope are described. An improvement by two orders of magnitude in the signal over background S/B event ratio is estimated.

  18. Mg IX emission lines in an active region spectrum obtained with the Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, F. P.; Thomas, R. J.; Neupert, W. M.; Conlon, E. S.

    1994-01-01

    Theoretical electron-temperature-sensitive Mg IX emission line ratios are presented for R(sub 1) = I(443.96 A)/I(368.06 A), R(sub 2) = I(439.17 A)/I(368.06 A), R(sub 3) = I(443.37 A)/I(368.06 A), R(sub 4) = I(441.22 A)/I(368.06 A), and R(sub 5) = I(448.28 A)/I(368.06 A). A comparison of these with observational data for a solar active region, obtained during a rocket flight by the Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS), reveals excellent agreement between theory and observation for R(sub 1) through R(sub 4), with discrepancies that average only 9%. This provides experimental support for the accuracy of the atomic data adopted in the line ratio calculations, and also resolves discrepancies found previously when the theoretical results were compared with solar data from the S082A instrument on board Skylab. However in the case of R(sub 5), the theoretical and observed ratios differ by almost a factor of 2. This may be due to the measured intensity of the 448.28 A line being seriously affected by instrumental effects, as it lies very close to the long wavelength edge of the SERTS spectral coverage (235.46-448.76 A).

  19. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: prototype technologies goals and strategies for the future SST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, Gianpietro; Busatta, Andrea; Giacomel, Stefano; Folla, Ivan; Valsecchi, Marco; Canestrari, Rodolfo; Bonnoli, Giacomo; Cascone, Enrico; Conconi, Paolo; Fiorini, Mauro; Giro, Enrico; La Palombara, Nicola; Pareschi, Giovanni; Perri, Luca; Rodeghiero, Gabriele; Sironi, Giorgia; Stringhetti, Luca; Toso, Giorgio; Tosti, Gino; Pellicciari, Carlo

    2014-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory will represent the next generation of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope. Using a combination of large-, medium-, and small-scale telescopes (LST, MST, SST, respectively), it will explore the Very High Energy domain from a few tens of GeVup to about few hundreds of TeV with unprecedented sensitivity, angular resolution and imaging quality. In this framework, the Italian ASTRI program, led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF) developed a 4-meter class telescope, which will adopt an aplanatic, wide-field, double-reflection optical layout in a Schwarzschild- Couder configuration. Within this program INAF assigned to the consortium between Galbiati Group and EIE Group the construction, assembly and tests activities of the prototype named ASTRI SST-2M. On the basis of the lesson learnt from the prototype, other telescopes will be produced, starting from a re-design phase, in order to optimize performances and the overall costs and production schedule for the CTA-SST telescope. This paper will firstly give an overview of the concept for the SST prototype mount structure. In this contest, the technologies adopted for the design, manufacturing and tests of the entire system will be presented. Moreover, a specific focus on the challenges of the prototype and the strategies associated with it will be provided, in order to outline the near future performance goals for this type of Cherenkov telescopes employed for Gamma ray science.

  20. Cyclotron Line in Solar Microwave Radiation by Radio Telescope RATAN-600 Observations of the Solar Active Region NOAA 12182

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterova, N. G.; Topchilo, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the results of observation of a rare phenomenon—a narrowband increase in the brightness of cyclotron radiation of one of the structural details of a radio source located in the solar corona above the solar active region NOAA 12182 in October 2014 at a frequency of 4.2 ± 0.1 GHz. The brightness of radiation in the maximum of the phenomenon has reached 10 MK; its duration was equal to 3 s. The exact location of the source of the narrowband cyclotron radiation is indicated: it is a corona above a fragmented (4-nuclear) sunspot, on which a small UV flare loop was closed.

  1. Recent progress in Si thin film technology for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwano, Yukinori; Nakano, Shoichi; Tsuda, Shinya

    1991-11-01

    Progress in Si thin film technology 'specifically amorphous Si (a-Si) and polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) thin film' for solar cells is summarized here from fabrication method, material, and structural viewpoints. In addition to a-Si, primary results on poly-Si thin film research are discussed. Various applications for a-Si solar cells are mentioned, and consumer applications and a-Si solar cell photovoltaic systems are introduced. New product developments include see-through solar cells, solar cell roofing tiles, and ultra-light flexible solar cells. As for new systems, air conditioning equipment powered by solar cells is described. Looking to the future, the proposed GENESIS project is discussed.

  2. Flexible Assembly Solar Technology (FAST) Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toister, Elad [BrightSource Energy Inc., Jerusalem (Israel)

    2014-11-06

    The Flexible Assembly Solar Technology (FAST) project was initiated by BrightSource in an attempt to provide potential solar field EPC contractors with an effective set of tools to perform specific construction tasks. These tasks are mostly associated with heliostat assembly and installation, and require customized non-standard tools. The FAST concept focuses on low equipment cost, reduced setup time and increased assembly throughput as compared to the Ivanpah solar field construction tools.

  3. Development of Non-Tracking Solar Thermal Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland; Johnston, Bruce; Balkowski, Kevin

    2011-11-01

    The aims of this research is to develop high temperature solar thermal collectors that do not require complex solar tracking devices to maintain optimal performance. The collector technology developed through these efforts uses non-imaging optics and is referred to as an external compound parabolic concentrator. It is able to operate with a solar thermal efficiency of approximately 50% at a temperature of 200 ° C and can be readily manufactured at a cost between 15 and 18 per square foot.

  4. A sunny future: expert elicitation of China's solar photovoltaic technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Long T.; Branstetter, Lee; Azevedo, Inês L.

    2018-03-01

    China has emerged as the global manufacturing center for solar photovoltaic (PV) products. Chinese firms have entered all stages of the supply chain, producing most of the installed solar modules around the world. Meanwhile, production costs are at record lows. The decisions that Chinese solar producers make today will influence the path for the solar industry and its role towards de-carbonization of global energy systems in the years to come. However, to date, there have been no assessments of the future costs and efficiency of solar PV systems produced by the Chinese PV industry. We perform an expert elicitation to assess the technological and non-technological factors that led to the success of China’s silicon PV industry as well as likely future costs and performance. Experts evaluated key metrics such as efficiency, costs, and commercial viability of 17 silicon and non-silicon solar PV technologies by 2030. Silicon-based technologies will continue to be the mainstream product for large-scale electricity generation application in the near future, with module efficiency reaching as high as 23% and production cost as low as 0.24/W. The levelized cost of electricity for solar will be around 34/MWh, allowing solar PV to be competitive with traditional energy resources like coal. The industry’s future developments may be affected by overinvestment, overcapacity, and singular short-term focus.

  5. Fine-scale structures and material flows of quiescent filaments observed by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Li; Xue, Zhi-Ke; Xiang, Yong-Yuan; Yang, Li-Heng

    2015-10-01

    Study of the small-scale structures and material flows associated with solar quiescent filaments is very important for understanding the formation and equilibrium of solar filaments. Using high resolution Hα data observed by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope, we present the structures of barbs and material flows along the threads across the spine in two quiescent filaments on 2013 September 29 and on 2012 November 2, respectively. During the evolution of the filament barb, several parallel tube-shaped structures formed and the width of the structures ranged from about 2.3 Mm to 3.3 Mm. The parallel tube-shaped structures merged together accompanied by material flows from the spine to the barb. Moreover, the boundary between the barb and surrounding atmosphere was very neat. The counter-streaming flows were not found to appear alternately in the adjacent threads of the filament. However, the large-scale patchy counter-streaming flows were detected in the filament. The flows in one patch of the filament have the same direction but flows in the adjacent patch have opposite direction. The patches of two opposite flows with a size of about 10″ were alternately exhibited along the spine of the filament. The velocity of these material flows ranged from 5.6 km s-1 to 15.0 km s-1. The material flows along the threads of the filament did not change their direction for about two hours and fourteen minutes during the evolution of the filament. Our results confirm that the large-scale counter-streaming flows with a certain width along the threads of solar filaments exist and are coaligned well with the threads.

  6. A Feasibility Study for Solar Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Technical Inst., Waco. Research Div.

    Job opportunities in the field of solar energy will increase steadily in Texas during the next few years as indicated by a survey of ninety-nine businesses currently involved in the solar industry. In 1979 the industry will need 108 installers/repairman and 17 technicians, while by 1983 it will need 260 installers/repairmen and 114 technicians.…

  7. Technology Roadmaps: Solar Heating and Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    The solar heating and cooling (SHC) roadmap outlines a pathway for solar energy to supply almost one sixth (18 EJ) of the world's total energy use for both heating and cooling by 2050. This would save some 800 megatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year; more than the total CO2 emissions in Germany in 2009. While solar heating and cooling today makes a modest contribution to world energy demand, the roadmap envisages that if concerted action is taken by governments and industry, solar energy could annually produce more than 16% of total final energy use for low temperature heat and nearly 17% for cooling. Given that global energy demand for heat represents almost half of the world's final energy use -- more than the combined global demand for electricity and transport -- solar heat can make a significant contribution in both tackling climate change and strengthening energy security.

  8. Technology Roadmaps: Solar Heating and Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The solar heating and cooling (SHC) roadmap outlines a pathway for solar energy to supply almost one sixth (18 EJ) of the world’s total energy use for both heating and cooling by 2050. This would save some 800 megatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year; more than the total CO2 emissions in Germany in 2009. While solar heating and cooling today makes a modest contribution to world energy demand, the roadmap envisages that if concerted action is taken by governments and industry, solar energy could annually produce more than 16% of total final energy use for low temperature heat and nearly 17% for cooling. Given that global energy demand for heat represents almost half of the world’s final energy use – more than the combined global demand for electricity and transport – solar heat can make a significant contribution in both tackling climate change and strengthening energy security.

  9. Solar Energy Technologies Program Newsletter - Fourth Quarter 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2009-12-31

    The Fourth Quarter 2009 edition of the Solar Energy Technologies Program newsletter summarizes the activities for the past three months, funding opportunities, highlights from the national labs, and upcoming events.

  10. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program: FY 2004 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-10-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2004 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2004. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  11. Proceedings of the solar thermal concentrating collector technology symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, B.P.; Kreith, F. (eds.)

    1978-08-01

    The purpose of the symposium was to review the current status of the concentrating collector technology, to disseminate the information gained from experience in operating solar systems, and to highlight the significant areas of technology development that must be vigorously pursued to foster early commercialization of concentrating solar collectors. Separate abstracts were prepared for thirteen invited papers and working group summaries. Two papers were previously abstracted for EDB.

  12. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2006 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2006 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2005. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  13. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program 2007 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2007 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program from October 2006 to September 2007. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  14. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-03-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2005. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program?s national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  15. Barriers to the Diffusion of Solar Thermal Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Despite its considerable potential in household, domestic and industry sectors, the possible contribution of solar heat is often neglected in many academic and institutional energy projections and scenarios. This is best explained by the frequent failure to distinguish heat and work as two different forms of energy transfers. As a result, policy makers in many countries or States have tended to pay lesser attention to solar thermal technologies than to other renewable energy technologies.

  16. Applications of Laser Precisely Processing Technology in Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    According to the design method of laser resonator cavity, we optimized the primary parameters of resonator and utilized LD arrays symmetrically pumping manner to implementing output of the high-brightness laser in our laser cutter, then which was applied to precisely cutting the conductive film of CuInSe2 solar cells, the buried contact silicon solar cells' electrode groove, and perforating in wafer which is used to the emitter wrap through silicon solar cells. Laser processing precision was less than 40μm, the results have met solar cell's fabrication technology, and made finally the buried cells' conversion efficiency be improved from 18% to 21% .

  17. High resolution solar observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Title, A.

    1985-01-01

    Currently there is a world-wide effort to develop optical technology required for large diffraction limited telescopes that must operate with high optical fluxes. These developments can be used to significantly improve high resolution solar telescopes both on the ground and in space. When looking at the problem of high resolution observations it is essential to keep in mind that a diffraction limited telescope is an interferometer. Even a 30 cm aperture telescope, which is small for high resolution observations, is a big interferometer. Meter class and above diffraction limited telescopes can be expected to be very unforgiving of inattention to details. Unfortunately, even when an earth based telescope has perfect optics there are still problems with the quality of its optical path. The optical path includes not only the interior of the telescope, but also the immediate interface between the telescope and the atmosphere, and finally the atmosphere itself

  18. Spectropolarimetric observations of an arch filament system with the GREGOR solar telescope

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balthasar, H.; Gömöry, P.; Gonzalez Manrique, S. J.; Kuckein, C.; Kavka, J.; Kučera, A.; Schwartz, P.; Vašková, R.; Berkefeld, T.; Collados Vera, M.; Denker, C.; Feller, A.; Hofmann, A.; Lagg, A.; Nicklas, H.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Pastor Yabar, A.; Schlichenmaier, R.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Sigwarth, M.; Sobotka, Michal; Solanki, S.K.; Soltau, D.; Staude, J.; Strassmeier, K.G.; Volkmer, R.; von der Lühe, O.; Waldmann, T.A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 337, č. 10 (2016), s. 1050-1056 ISSN 0004-6337. [Dynamic Sun - Exploring the Many Facets of Solar Eruptive Events. Potsdam, 26.10.2015-29.10.2015] Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun * filaments * photosphere Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.916, year: 2016

  19. The spectrometer/telescope for imaging X-rays on board the ESA Solar Orbiter spacecraft

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krucker, S.; Benz, A. O.; Hurford, G.J.; Arnold, N.G.; Orleanski, P.; Groebelbauer, H.-P.; Casadei, D.; Kobler, S.; Iseli, L.; Wiehl, H.J.; Fárník, František

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 732, December (2013), s. 295-298 ISSN 0168-9002. [Vienna Conference on Instrumentation /13./. Vienna, 11.02.2013-15.02.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Fourier optics * X-ray imaging * solar flares Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 1.316, year: 2013

  20. Facing technological challenges of Solar Updraft Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, F.; Borri, C.; Harte, R.; Krätzig, W. B.; Niemann, H.-J.

    2015-01-01

    The Solar Updraft Power Plant technology addresses a very challenging idea of combining two kinds of renewable energy: wind and solar. The working principle is simple: a Solar Updraft Power Plant (SUPP) consists of a collector area to heat the air due to the wide-banded ultra-violet solar radiation, the high-rise solar tower to updraft the heated air to the atmosphere, and in between the power conversion unit, where a system of coupled turbines and generators transforms the stream of heated air into electric power. A good efficiency of the power plant can only be reached with extra-large dimensions of the tower and/or the collector area. The paper presents an up-to-date review of the SUPP technology, focusing on the multi-physics modeling of the power plant, on the structural behavior of the tower and, last but not least, on the modeling of the stochastic wind loading process.

  1. In-Space Propulsion (ISP) Solar Sail Propulsion Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Edward E., IV

    2004-01-01

    An overview of the rationale and content for Solar Sail Propulsion (SSP), the on-going project to advance solar technology from technology readiness level 3 to 6 will be provided. A descriptive summary of the major and minor component efforts underway will include identification of the technology providers and a listing of anticipated products Recent important results from major system ground demonstrators will be provided. Finally, a current status of all activities will provided along with the most recent roadmap for the SSP technology development program.

  2. Solar thermal technology and market in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabba, S.

    2000-01-01

    The solar heating industry in Europe has reached maturity after more than two decades of technical development. High quality systems are now available with reliability and durability of the products being assured. The European solar market, now the world's largest, has been growing since the late 1980s, despite the fact that conventional energy sources are usually available and inexpensive. This is a new phenomenon and marks the beginning of changes in energy supply and consumption that will be experienced throughout the world in this new century. Almost 10 million square metres of solar thermal collectors now exist in Europe saving more than 1.5 million tonnes of CO 2 emissions and about 500,000 tonnes of oil. The solar heating industry has created some 10,000 jobs. (author)

  3. Our prodigal sun. [solar energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Characteristics of the sun are reported indicating it as a source of energy. Data from several space missions are discussed, and the solar activity cycle is presented. The corona, flares, prominences, spots, and wind of the sun are also discussed.

  4. National solar technology roadmap: Organic PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginley, Dave [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2007-06-01

    This roadmap addresses all forms of solar cells that use organic molecules—including polymers, dendrimers, small molecules, and dyes—as absorbers or transporters, either in fully organic devices or in devices that also contain inorganic nanostructures.

  5. CHROMOSPHERIC SIGNATURES OF SMALL-SCALE FLUX EMERGENCE AS OBSERVED WITH NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE AND HINODE INSTRUMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Goode, P. R.; Abramenko, V. I.; Chae, J.; Cao, W.; Andic, A.; Ahn, K.

    2010-01-01

    With the ever-increasing influx of high-resolution images of the solar surface obtained at a multitude of wavelengths, various processes occurring at small spatial scales have become a greater focus of our attention. Complex small-scale magnetic fields have been reported that appear to have enough stored energy to heat the chromosphere. While significant progress has been made in understanding small-scale phenomena, many specifics remain elusive. We present here a detailed study of a single event of disappearance of a magnetic dipole and associated chromospheric activity. Based on New Solar Telescope Hα data and Hinode photospheric line-of-sight magnetograms and Ca II H images, we report the following. (1) Our analysis indicates that even very small dipoles (elements separated by about 0.''5 or less) may reach the chromosphere and trigger non-negligible chromospheric activity. (2) Careful consideration of the magnetic environment where the new flux is deposited may shed light on the details of magnetic flux removal from the solar surface. We argue that the apparent collision and disappearance of two opposite polarity elements may not necessarily indicate their cancellation (i.e., reconnection, emergence of a 'U' tube, or submergence of Ω loops). In our case, the magnetic dipole disappeared by reconnecting with overlying large-scale inclined plage fields. (3) Bright points (BPs) seen in off-band Hα images are very well correlated with the Ca II H BPs, which in turn are cospatial with G-band BPs. We further speculate that, in general, Hα BPs are expected to be cospatial with photospheric BPs; however, a direct comparison is needed to refine their relationship.

  6. The spectrometer/telescope for imaging X-rays on board the ESA Solar Orbiter spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krucker, S.; Benz, A.O.; Hurford, G.J.; Arnold, N.G.; Orleański, P.; Gröbelbauer, H.-P.; Casadei, D.; Kobler, S.; Iseli, L.; Wiehl, H.J.; Csillaghy, A.; Etesi, L.; Hochmuth, N.; Battaglia, M.; Bednarzik, M.; Resanovic, R.; Grimm, O.; Viertel, G.; Commichau, V.; Howard, A.

    2013-01-01

    Solar Orbiter is a Sun-observing mission led by the European Space Agency, addressing the interaction between the Sun and the heliosphere. It will carry ten instruments, among them the X-ray imaging spectrometer STIX. STIX will determine the intensity, spectrum, timing, and location of thermal and accelerated electrons near the Sun through their bremsstrahlung X-ray emission. This report gives a brief overview of the STIX scientific goals and covers in more detail the instrument design and challenges

  7. Solar Cooking Technology - How Far are Technology Promoters and Users from Each Other?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Bashir

    1999-01-01

    encounter when they practice solar cooking. In this way on the one hand some facts which have been instrumental for developing of technology on the side of technology developers are opened up. And on the other hand related practical aspects of use and disuse such as place and time for solar cooking...

  8. WorldWide Telescope and Google Sky: New Technologies to Engage Students and the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberg, R. H.; Subbarao, M. U.; Dettloff, L.

    2010-08-01

    New, visually rich, astronomical software environments coupled with large web-accessible data sets hold the promise of new and exciting ways to teach, collaborate, and explore the universe. These freeware tools provide contextual views of astronomical objects, real time access to multi-wavelength sky surveys, and, most importantly, the ability to incorporate new data and to produce user created content. This interactive panel examined the capabilities of Google Sky and WorldWide Telescope, and explored case studies of how these tools have been used to create compelling and participatory educational experiences in both formal (i.e., K-12 and undergraduate non-science majors classrooms), and informal (e.g., museum) settings. The overall goal of this session was to stimulate a discussion about future uses of these technologies. Substantial time was allotted for participants to create conceptual designs of learning experiences for use at their home institutions, with feedback provided by the panel members. Activities included technical discussions (e.g., mechanisms for incorporating new data and dissemination tools), exercises in narrative preparation, and a brainstorming session to identify potential future uses of these technologies.

  9. Overview of diffraction gratings technologies for spaceflight satellites and ground-based telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotel, A.; Liard, A.; Desserouer, F.; Pichon, P.

    2017-11-01

    The diffraction gratings are widely used in Space-flight satellites for spectrograph instruments or in ground-based telescopes in astronomy. The diffraction gratings are one of the key optical components of such systems and have to exhibit very high optical performances. HORIBA Jobin Yvon S.A.S. (part of HORIBA Group) is in the forefront of such gratings development for more than 40 years. During the past decades, HORIBA Jobin Yvon (HJY) has developed a unique expertise in diffraction grating design and manufacturing processes for holographic, ruled or etched gratings. We will present in this paper an overview of diffraction grating technologies especially designed for space and astronomy applications. We will firstly review the heritage of the company in this field with the space qualification of different grating types. Then, we will describe several key grating technologies developed for specific space or astronomy projects: ruled blazed low groove density plane reflection grating, high-groove density holographic toroidal and spherical grating, and finally transmission Fused Silica Etched (FSE) grism-assembled grating. We will not present the Volume Phase Holographic (VPHG) grating type which is used in Astronomy.

  10. Development of the Phase-up Technology of the Radio Telescopes: 6.7 GHz Methanol Maser Observations with Phased Hitachi 32 m and Takahagi 32 m Radio Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takefuji, K.; Sugiyama, K.; Yonekura, Y.; Saito, T.; Fujisawa, K.; Kondo, T.

    2017-11-01

    For the sake of high-sensitivity 6.7 GHz methanol maser observations, we developed a new technology for coherently combining the two signals from the Hitachi 32 m radio telescope and the Takahagi 32 m radio telescope of the Japanese Very long baseline interferometer Network (JVN), where the two telescopes were separated by about 260 m. After the two telescopes were phased as a twofold larger single telescope, the mean signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the 6.7 GHz methanol masers observed by the phased telescopes was improved to 1.254-fold higher than that of the single dish, through a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) experiment on the 50 km baseline of the Kashima 34 m telescope and the 1000 km baseline of the Yamaguchi 32 m telescope. Furthermore, we compared the S/Ns of the 6.7 GHz maser spectra for two methods. One is a VLBI method and the other is the newly developed digital position switching that is a similar technology to that used in noise-canceling headphones. Finally, we confirmed that the mean S/N of method of the digital position switching (ON-OFF) was 1.597-fold higher than that of the VLBI method.

  11. RESOLVING THE FAN-SPINE RECONNECTION GEOMETRY OF A SMALL-SCALE CHROMOSPHERIC JET EVENT WITH THE NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Zhicheng; Chen, Bin; Goode, Philip R.; Cao, Wenda [Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Boulevard, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Ji, Haisheng [Big Bear Solar Observatory, 40386 North Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Jets are ubiquitously present in both quiet and active regions on the Sun. They are widely believed to be driven by magnetic reconnection. A fan-spine structure has been frequently reported in some coronal jets and flares, and has been regarded as a signature of ongoing magnetic reconnection in a topology consisting of a magnetic null connected by a fan-like separatrix surface and a spine. However, for small-scale chromospheric jets, clear evidence of such structures is rather rare, although it has been implied in earlier works that showed an inverted-Y-shaped feature. Here we report high-resolution (0.″16) observations of a small-scale chromospheric jet obtained by the New Solar Telescope (NST) using 10830 Å filtergrams. Bi-directional flows were observed across the separatrix regions in the 10830 Å images, suggesting that the jet was produced due to magnetic reconnection. At the base of the jet, a fan-spine structure was clearly resolved by the NST, including the spine and the fan-like surface, as well as the loops before and after the reconnection. A major part of this fan-spine structure, with the exception of its bright footpoints and part of the base arc, was invisible in the extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray images (observed by the Atmosphere Imaging Assembly and the X-Ray Telescope, respectively), indicating that the reconnection occurred in the upper chromosphere. Our observations suggest that the evolution of this chromospheric jet is consistent with a two-step reconnection scenario proposed by Török et al.

  12. RESOLVING THE FAN-SPINE RECONNECTION GEOMETRY OF A SMALL-SCALE CHROMOSPHERIC JET EVENT WITH THE NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Zhicheng; Chen, Bin; Goode, Philip R.; Cao, Wenda; Ji, Haisheng

    2016-01-01

    Jets are ubiquitously present in both quiet and active regions on the Sun. They are widely believed to be driven by magnetic reconnection. A fan-spine structure has been frequently reported in some coronal jets and flares, and has been regarded as a signature of ongoing magnetic reconnection in a topology consisting of a magnetic null connected by a fan-like separatrix surface and a spine. However, for small-scale chromospheric jets, clear evidence of such structures is rather rare, although it has been implied in earlier works that showed an inverted-Y-shaped feature. Here we report high-resolution (0.″16) observations of a small-scale chromospheric jet obtained by the New Solar Telescope (NST) using 10830 Å filtergrams. Bi-directional flows were observed across the separatrix regions in the 10830 Å images, suggesting that the jet was produced due to magnetic reconnection. At the base of the jet, a fan-spine structure was clearly resolved by the NST, including the spine and the fan-like surface, as well as the loops before and after the reconnection. A major part of this fan-spine structure, with the exception of its bright footpoints and part of the base arc, was invisible in the extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray images (observed by the Atmosphere Imaging Assembly and the X-Ray Telescope, respectively), indicating that the reconnection occurred in the upper chromosphere. Our observations suggest that the evolution of this chromospheric jet is consistent with a two-step reconnection scenario proposed by Török et al

  13. Research and Development Needs for Building-Integrated Solar Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-01-01

    The Building Technologies Office (BTO) has identified Building Integrated Solar Technologies (BIST) as a potentially valuable piece of the comprehensive pathway to help achieve its goal of reducing energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings by 50% by the year 2030. This report helps to identify the key research and development (R&D) needs that will be required for BIST to make a substantial contribution toward that goal. BIST include technologies for space heating and cooling, water heating, hybrid photovoltaic-thermal systems (PV/T), active solar lighting, and building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV).

  14. Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Development for Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Woodworth, Andrew A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing technologies to prepare for human exploration missions to Mars. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) systems are expected to enable a new cost effective means to deliver cargo to the Mars surface. Nearer term missions to Mars moons or near-Earth asteroids can be used to both develop and demonstrate the needed technology for these future Mars missions while demonstrating new capabilities in their own right. This presentation discusses recent technology development accomplishments for high power, high voltage solar arrays and power management that enable a new class of SEP missions.

  15. THERMAL PROPERTIES OF A SOLAR CORONAL CAVITY OBSERVED WITH THE X-RAY TELESCOPE ON HINODE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Katharine K. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St. MS 58, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gibson, Sarah E. [HAO/NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Kucera, Therese A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Hudson, Hugh S. [Space Sciences Laboratories, University of California, Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kano, Ryouhei, E-mail: kreeves@cfa.harvard.edu [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2012-02-20

    Coronal cavities are voids in coronal emission often observed above high latitude filament channels. Sometimes, these cavities have areas of bright X-ray emission in their centers. In this study, we use data from the X-ray Telescope (XRT) on the Hinode satellite to examine the thermal emission properties of a cavity observed during 2008 July that contains bright X-ray emission in its center. Using ratios of XRT filters, we find evidence for elevated temperatures in the cavity center. The area of elevated temperature evolves from a ring-shaped structure at the beginning of the observation, to an elongated structure two days later, finally appearing as a compact round source four days after the initial observation. We use a morphological model to fit the cavity emission, and find that a uniform structure running through the cavity does not fit the observations well. Instead, the observations are reproduced by modeling several short cylindrical cavity 'cores' with different parameters on different days. These changing core parameters may be due to some observed activity heating different parts of the cavity core at different times. We find that core temperatures of 1.75 MK, 1.7 MK, and 2.0 MK (for July 19, July 21, and July 23, respectively) in the model lead to structures that are consistent with the data, and that line-of-sight effects serve to lower the effective temperature derived from the filter ratio.

  16. PEPSI-feed: linking PEPSI to the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope using a 450m long fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablowski, D. P.; Weber, M.; Woche, M.; Ilyin, I.; Järvinen, A.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Gabor, P.

    2016-07-01

    Limited observing time at large telescopes equipped with the most powerful spectrographs makes it almost impossible to gain long and well-sampled time-series observations. Ditto, high-time-resolution observations of bright targets with high signal-to-noise are rare. By pulling an optical fibre of 450m length from the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT) to the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) to connect the Potsdam Echelle Polarimetric and Spectroscopic Instrument (PEPSI) to the VATT, allows for ultra-high resolution time-series measurements of bright targets. This article presents the fibre-link in detail from the technical point-of-view, demonstrates its performance from first observations, and sketches current applications.

  17. Discovery of Finely Structured Dynamic Solar Corona Observed in the Hi-C Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Golub, L.; DeLuca, E.; Savage, S.; Alexander, C.; Schuler, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the summer of 2012, the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew aboard a NASA sounding rocket and collected the highest spatial resolution images ever obtained of the solar corona. One of the goals of the Hi-C flight was to characterize the substructure of the solar corona. We therefore examine how the intensity scales from AIA resolution to Hi-C resolution. For each low-resolution pixel, we calculate the standard deviation in the contributing high-resolution pixel intensities and compare that to the expected standard deviation calculated from the noise. If these numbers are approximately equal, the corona can be assumed to be smoothly varying, i.e. have no evidence of substructure in the Hi-C image to within Hi-C's ability to measure it given its throughput and readout noise. A standard deviation much larger than the noise value indicates the presence of substructure. We calculate these values for each low-resolution pixel for each frame of the Hi-C data. On average, 70 percent of the pixels in each Hi-C image show no evidence of substructure. The locations where substructure is prevalent is in the moss regions and in regions of sheared magnetic field. We also find that the level of substructure varies significantly over the roughly 160 s of the Hi-C data analyzed here. This result indicates that the finely structured corona is concentrated in regions of heating and is highly time dependent.

  18. The Substructure of the Solar Corona Observed in the Hi-C Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Golub, L.; DeLuca, E.; Savage, S.; Alexander, C.; Schuler, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the summer of 2012, the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew aboard a NASA sounding rocket and collected the highest spatial resolution images ever obtained of the solar corona. One of the goals of the Hi-C flight was to characterize the substructure of the solar corona. We therefore calculate how the intensity scales from a low-resolution (AIA) pixels to high-resolution (Hi-C) pixels for both the dynamic events and "background" emission (meaning, the steady emission over the 5 minutes of data acquisition time). We find there is no evidence of substructure in the background corona; the intensity scales smoothly from low-resolution to high-resolution Hi-C pixels. In transient events, however, the intensity observed with Hi-C is, on average, 2.6 times larger than observed with AIA. This increase in intensity suggests that AIA is not resolving these events. This result suggests a finely structured dynamic corona embedded in a smoothly varying background.

  19. DEBRIS DISKS AROUND SOLAR-TYPE STARS: OBSERVATIONS OF THE PLEIADES WITH THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierchio, J. M.; Rieke, G. H.; Su, K. Y. L.; Plavchan, P.; Stauffer, J. R.; Gorlova, N. I.

    2010-01-01

    We present Spitzer MIPS observations at 24 μm of 37 solar-type stars in the Pleiades and combine them with previous observations to obtain a sample of 71 stars. We report that 23 stars, or 32% ± 6.8%, have excesses at 24 μm at least 10% above their photospheric emission. We compare our results with studies of debris disks in other open clusters and with a study of A stars to show that debris disks around solar-type stars at 115 Myr occur at nearly the same rate as around A-type stars. We analyze the effects of binarity and X-ray activity on the excess flux. Stars with warm excesses tend not to be in equal-mass binary systems, possibly due to clearing of planetesimals by binary companions in similar orbits. We find that the apparent anti-correlations in the incidence of excess and both the rate of stellar rotation and also the level of activity as judged by X-ray emission are statistically weak.

  20. Solar parabolic dish technology evaluation report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    The activities of the JPL Solar Thermal Power Systems Parabolic Dish Project for FY 1983 are summarized. Included are discussions on designs of module development including concentrator, receiver, and power conversion subsystems together with a separate discussion of field tests, Small Community Experiment system development, and tests at the Parabolic Dish Test Site.

  1. High temperature solar thermal technology: The North Africa Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    High temperature solar thermal (HTST) technology offers an attractive option for both industrialized and non-industrialized countries to generate electricity and industrial process steam. The purpose of this report is to assess the potential market for solar thermal applications in the North African countries of Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. North Africa was selected because of its outstanding solar resource base and the variety of applications to be found there. Diminishing oil and gas resources, coupled with expanding energy needs, opens a large potential market for the US industry. The US high temperature solar trough industry has little competition globally and could build a large market in these areas. The US is already familiar with certain solar markets in North Africa due to the supplying of substantial quantities of US-manufactured flat plate collectors to this region.

  2. New technology allows closer study of neutrinos; researchers credit specialized telescope

    CERN Multimedia

    Huang, N

    2002-01-01

    With the help of a newly designed telescope, University of California-Berkeley scientists and an international team of researchers have made a recent breakthrough in the study of neutrino emissions from the sun. The turning point is the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory in Canada. This telescope is the first of its kind to be sensitive enough to detect all types of neutrinos (1 page).

  3. Advances in Telescope and Detector Technologies - Impacts on the Study and Understanding of Binary Star and Exoplanet Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, Edward F.; Engle, Scott; Devinney, Edward J.

    2012-04-01

    Current and planned telescope systems (both on the ground and in space) as well as new technologies will be discussed with emphasis on their impact on the studies of binary star and exoplanet systems. Although no telescopes or space missions are primarily designed to study binary stars (what a pity!), several are available (or will be shortly) to study exoplanet systems. Nonetheless those telescopes and instruments can also be powerful tools for studying binary and variable stars. For example, early microlensing missions (mid-1990s) such as EROS, MACHO and OGLE were initially designed for probing dark matter in the halos of galaxies but, serendipitously, these programs turned out to be a bonanza for the studies of eclipsing binaries and variable stars in the Magellanic Clouds and in the Galactic Bulge. A more recent example of this kind of serendipity is the Kepler Mission. Although Kepler was designed to discover exoplanet transits (and so far has been very successful, returning many planetary candidates), Kepler is turning out to be a ``stealth'' stellar astrophysics mission returning fundamentally important and new information on eclipsing binaries, variable stars and, in particular, providing a treasure trove of data of all types of pulsating stars suitable for detailed Asteroseismology studies. With this in mind, current and planned telescopes and networks, new instruments and techniques (including interferometers) are discussed that can play important roles in our understanding of both binary star and exoplanet systems. Recent advances in detectors (e.g. laser frequency comb spectrographs), telescope networks (both small and large - e.g. Super-WASP, HAT-net, RoboNet, Las Combres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) Network), wide field (panoramic) telescope systems (e.g. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and Pan-Starrs), huge telescopes (e.g. the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), the Overwhelming Large Telescope (OWL) and the Extremely Large Telescope (ELT

  4. Solar pumped laser technology options for space power transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, E. J.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of long-range options for in-space laser power transmission is presented. The focus is on the new technology and research status of solar-pumped lasers and their solar concentration needs. The laser options include gas photodissociation lasers, optically-pumped solid-state lasers, and blackbody-pumped transfer lasers. The paper concludes with a summary of current research thrusts.

  5. Economics of household technology adoption in developing countries: evidence from solar technology adoption in rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Aklin, M.; Bayer, P.; Harish, S.P.; Urpelainen, J.

    2018-01-01

    Innovation is one of the most important drivers of economic development. Even in developing countries, households have access to a wide array of new technologies. However, factors affecting households’ technology adoption decisions remain poorly understood. Using data on solar microgrid adoption from rural India, we investigate the determinants of household technology adoption. We offer all households identical solar products to avoid bias from product differentiation. Households pay a monthl...

  6. X-ray spectrometer spectrograph telescope system. [for solar corona study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, E. C., Jr.; Acton, L. W.; Brown, W. A.; Salat, S. W.; Franks, A.; Schmidtke, G.; Schweizer, W.; Speer, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A new sounding rocket payload that has been developed for X-ray spectroscopic studies of the solar corona is described. The instrument incorporates a grazing incidence Rowland mounted grating spectrograph and an extreme off-axis paraboloic sector feed system to isolate regions of the sun of order 1 x 10 arc seconds in size. The focal surface of the spectrograph is shared by photographic and photoelectric detection systems, with the latter serving as a part of the rocket pointing system control loop. Fabrication and alignment of the optical system is based on high precision machining and mechanical metrology techniques. The spectrograph has a resolution of 16 milliangstroms and modifications planned for future flights will improve the resolution to 5 milliangstroms, permitting line widths to be measured.

  7. 8 Meter Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST-8m)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2010-01-01

    ATLAST-8m (Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope) is a proposed 8-meter monolithic UV/optical/NIR space observatory (wavelength range 110 to 2500 nm) to be placed in orbit at Sun-Earth L2 by NASA's planned Ares V heavy lift vehicle. Given its very high angular resolution (15 mas @ 500 nm), sensitivity and performance stability, ATLAST-8m is capable of achieving breakthroughs in a broad range of astrophysics including: Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy? An 8-meter UVOIR observatory has the performance required to detect habitability (H2O, atmospheric column density) and biosignatures (O2, O3, CH4) in terrestrial exoplanet atmospheres, to reveal the underlying physics that drives star formation, and to trace the complex interactions between dark matter, galaxies, and intergalactic medium. The ATLAST Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study developed a detailed point design for an 8-m monolithic observatory including optical design; structural design/analysis including primary mirror support structure, sun shade and secondary mirror support structure; thermal analysis; spacecraft including structure, propulsion, GN&C, avionics, power systems and reaction wheels; mass and power budgets; and system cost. The results of which were submitted by invitation to NRC's 2010 Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal Survey.

  8. DISCOVERY OF FINELY STRUCTURED DYNAMIC SOLAR CORONA OBSERVED IN THE Hi-C TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Cirtain, Jonathan; Savage, Sabrina; Alexander, Caroline [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Golub, Leon; DeLuca, Edward [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Schuler, Timothy, E-mail: amy.r.winebarger@nasa.gov [State University of New York College at Buffalo, 1300 Elmwood Avenue, Buffalo, NY 14222 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    In the Summer of 2012, the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew on board a NASA sounding rocket and collected the highest spatial resolution images ever obtained of the solar corona. One of the goals of the Hi-C flight was to characterize the substructure of the solar corona. We therefore examine how the intensity scales from AIA resolution to Hi-C resolution. For each low-resolution pixel, we calculate the standard deviation in the contributing high-resolution pixel intensities and compare that to the expected standard deviation calculated from the noise. If these numbers are approximately equal, the corona can be assumed to be smoothly varying, i.e., have no evidence of substructure in the Hi-C image to within Hi-C's ability to measure it given its throughput and readout noise. A standard deviation much larger than the noise value indicates the presence of substructure. We calculate these values for each low-resolution pixel for each frame of the Hi-C data. On average, 70% of the pixels in each Hi-C image show no evidence of substructure. The locations where substructure is prevalent is in the moss regions and in regions of sheared magnetic field. We also find that the level of substructure varies significantly over the roughly 160 s of the Hi-C data analyzed here. This result indicates that the finely structured corona is concentrated in regions of heating and is highly time dependent.

  9. DISCOVERY OF FINELY STRUCTURED DYNAMIC SOLAR CORONA OBSERVED IN THE Hi-C TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Cirtain, Jonathan; Savage, Sabrina; Alexander, Caroline; Golub, Leon; DeLuca, Edward; Schuler, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    In the Summer of 2012, the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew on board a NASA sounding rocket and collected the highest spatial resolution images ever obtained of the solar corona. One of the goals of the Hi-C flight was to characterize the substructure of the solar corona. We therefore examine how the intensity scales from AIA resolution to Hi-C resolution. For each low-resolution pixel, we calculate the standard deviation in the contributing high-resolution pixel intensities and compare that to the expected standard deviation calculated from the noise. If these numbers are approximately equal, the corona can be assumed to be smoothly varying, i.e., have no evidence of substructure in the Hi-C image to within Hi-C's ability to measure it given its throughput and readout noise. A standard deviation much larger than the noise value indicates the presence of substructure. We calculate these values for each low-resolution pixel for each frame of the Hi-C data. On average, 70% of the pixels in each Hi-C image show no evidence of substructure. The locations where substructure is prevalent is in the moss regions and in regions of sheared magnetic field. We also find that the level of substructure varies significantly over the roughly 160 s of the Hi-C data analyzed here. This result indicates that the finely structured corona is concentrated in regions of heating and is highly time dependent

  10. Solar Energy Technologies and the Utilization on Native American Tribal Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Kathryn [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    2017-08-31

    As an undergraduate researcher, I worked on a new technology called nanofluid-based direct absorption solar collectors (DASC) which is a type of solar water heater that has the potential to be more efficient than traditional solar water heaters. Because of my experience with this type of technology, I decided to look into other types of solar energy technologies which could be used on Native American tribal lands. Some types of solar energy technologies that I wanted to focus on are photovoltaic solar energy systems, passive solar design, and solar water heaters.

  11. Advances in solar cell welding technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidester, L.G.; Lott, D.R.

    1982-09-01

    In addition to developing the rigid substrate welded conventional cell panels for an earlier U.S. flight program, LMSC recently demonstrated a welded lightweight array system using both 2 x 4 and 5.9 x 5.9 cm wraparound solar cells. This weld system uses infrared sensing of weld joint temperature at the cell contact metalization interface to precisely control weld energy on each joint. Modules fabricated using this weld control system survived lowearth-orbit simulated 5-year tests (over 30,000 cycles) without joint failure. The data from these specifically configured modules, printed circuit substrate with copper interconnect and dielectric wraparound solar cells, can be used as a basis for developing weld schedules for additional cell array panel types.

  12. Rapid thermal cycling of new technology solar array blanket coupons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiman, David A.; Smith, Bryan K.; Kurland, Richard M.; Mesch, Hans G.

    1990-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center is conducting thermal cycle testing of a new solar array blanket technologies. These technologies include test coupons for Space Station Freedom (SSF) and the advanced photovoltaic solar array (APSA). The objective of this testing is to demonstrate the durability or operational lifetime of the solar array interconnect design and blanket technology within a low earth orbit (LEO) or geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) thermal cycling environment. Both the SSF and the APSA array survived all rapid thermal cycling with little or no degradation in peak performance. This testing includes an equivalent of 15 years in LEO for SSF test coupons and 30 years of GEO plus ten years of LEO for the APSA test coupon. It is concluded that both the parallel gap welding of the SSF interconnects and the soldering of the APSA interconnects are adequately designed to handle the thermal stresses of space environment temperature extremes.

  13. Innovation in concentrating solar power technologies: A study drawing on patent data

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Frauke G.; Hooper, Elizabeth; Wand, Robert; Zloczysti, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Better understanding the innovative process of renewable energy technologies is important for tackling climate change. Though concentrating solar power is receiving growing interest, innovation studies so far have explored innovative activity in solar technologies in general, ignoring the major differences between solar photovoltaic and solar thermal technologies. This study relies on patent data to examine international innovative activity in concentrating solar power technologies. Our uniqu...

  14. Development of technology for lightweight Beryllium Cassegrain Telescope for space applications and lessons learnt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greger, R.; Rugi, E.; Hausner, Th.; Jahnen, W.; Frei, S.; Pellaton, D.; Mueller, P.; Hollenbach, I.

    2017-11-01

    This paper gives an overview on the development of a light weighted Cassegrain telescope with a 200 mm optical aperture as one key element of the Laser Altimeter which will fly on the BepiColombo mission to Mercury (BELA).The Receiver Telescope (RTL) collects the light pulse transmitted to Mercury and reflected from the planet's surface. Mercury's challenging thermal environment, the thermo-mechanical stability of the telescope and the stringent instrument's mass budget require the implementation of an innovative design solution to achieve the requested optical performance over an extended temperature range.

  15. Frameworks for Understanding and Promoting Solar Energy Technology Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Schelly

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the contrasting theories of metabolic rift and ecological modernization theory (EMT are applied to the same empirical phenomenon. Metabolic rift argues that the natural metabolic relationship between humans and nature has been fractured through modernization, industrialization and urbanization. EMT, in contrast, argues that societies in an advanced state of industrialization adopt ecologically benign production technologies and political policies, suggesting that modern societies could be on course to alleviate the ecological damage caused by capitalism. These two theories are fundamentally different in their assumptions about modern economies and technologies, yet both can be used as a theoretical lens to examine the phenomenon of solar energy technology adoption. Furthermore, both theories shed light on the increasing adoption of solar energy technologies in both “developing” and “developed” regions and the potential social conditions for promoting renewable energy technology adoption.

  16. Technology development for the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) as a candidate large UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie; Feinberg, Lee; Postman, Marc; Quijada, Manuel; Rauscher, Bernard; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Shaklan, Stuart; Stahl, H. Philip; Stahle, Carl; Thronson, Harley

    2015-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) team has identified five key technologies to enable candidate architectures for the future large-aperture ultraviolet/optical/infrared (LUVOIR) space observatory envisioned by the NASA Astrophysics 30-year roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions. The science goals of ATLAST address a broad range of astrophysical questions from early galaxy and star formation to the processes that contributed to the formation of life on Earth, combining general astrophysics with direct-imaging and spectroscopy of habitable exoplanets. The key technologies are: internal coronagraphs, starshades (or external occulters), ultra-stable large-aperture telescopes, detectors, and mirror coatings. Selected technology performance goals include: 1x10-10 raw contrast at an inner working angle of 35 milli-arcseconds, wavefront error stability on the order of 10 pm RMS per wavefront control step, autonomous on-board sensing and control, and zero-read-noise single-photon detectors spanning the exoplanet science bandpass between 400 nm and 1.8 μm. Development of these technologies will provide significant advances over current and planned observatories in terms of sensitivity, angular resolution, stability, and high-contrast imaging. The science goals of ATLAST are presented and flowed down to top-level telescope and instrument performance requirements in the context of a reference architecture: a 10-meter-class, segmented aperture telescope operating at room temperature (~290 K) at the sun-Earth Lagrange-2 point. For each technology area, we define best estimates of required capabilities, current state-of-the-art performance, and current Technology Readiness Level (TRL) - thus identifying the current technology gap. We report on current, planned, or recommended efforts to develop each technology to TRL 5.

  17. Desalination with thermal solar systems: technology assessment and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajona, J.I.

    1992-01-01

    Solar desalination is among the most promising alternatives to apply solar energy as solar availability and the load requirements use to be matched. Solar thermal energy offers a full set of alternatives to desalt water, being the main difference among them the temperature range at which the load has to be fed. Solar technologies for the low temperature range (solar stills, plastic collectors,...) are quite suited for small loads in isolated placed or whenever the main constrain is to indigenize technology and to perform the operation and maintenance work with low qualified local labor, such as in less developed countries. The main drawback of this low temperature use of solar energy is that it is not possible to recover neither the heat of condensation of the water vapor, nor from the reject brine, to warm up the feed saline water. Higher temperature collectors, such as flat plate collectors with transparent insulation material and evacuated tubes, allow to work with conventional desalination units fed at 60-90C, as Multiple Effect Units or Multistage Flash Units, which get a performance ratio (quotient between heat required without recovery and with heat recovery) between 5 and 10. To further increase the performance ratio it is necessary to work with vapor in the 200C range. To attain this temperature range the solar option is based on the Parabolic Trough collector. This has been the line we have followed in our STD project in the Plataforma Solar in Almeria (Spain) when we have run a Multiple Effect Unit with an Absorption Heat Pump able to attain a performance ratio of 20. In this report, included within the STD project activities, we assess the potential of the solar thermal technology to desalt water in all the above mentioned temperature ranges. Beside the technology description and some characteristics results, we present a set of tool that, as the final result is dramatically dependent on the technical and economical scenario selected, will allow to

  18. Technological developments for ultra-lightweight, large aperture, deployable mirror for space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccaro Marchi, Alessandro; D'Amato, Francesco; Gallieni, Daniele; Biasi, Roberto; Molina, Marco; Duò, Fabrizio; Ruder, Nikolaus; Salinari, Piero; Lisi, Franco; Riccardi, Armando; Gambicorti, Lisa; Simonetti, Francesca; Pereira do Carmo, Joao Pedro N.

    2017-11-01

    The increasing interest on space telescopes for scientific applications leads to implement the manufacturing technology of the most critical element, i.e. the primary mirror: being more suitable a large aperture, it must be lightweight and deployable. The presented topic was originally addressed to a spaceborne DIAL (Differential Absorption LIDAR) mission operating at 935.5 nm for the measurement of water vapour profile in atmosphere, whose results were presented at ICSO 2006 and 2008. Aim of this paper is to present the latest developments on the main issues related to the fabrication of a breadboard, covering two project critical areas identified during the preliminary studies: the design and performances of the long-stroke actuators used to implement the mirror active control and the mirror survivability to launch via Electrostatic Locking (EL) between mirror and backplane. The described work is developed under the ESA/ESTEC contract No. 22321/09/NL/RA. The lightweight mirror is structured as a central sector surrounded by petals, all of them actively controlled to reach the specified shape after initial deployment and then maintained within specs for the entire mission duration. The presented study concerns: a) testing the Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) backplane manufacturing and EL techniques, with production of suitable specimens; b) actuator design optimisation; c) design of the deployment mechanism including a high precision latch; d) the fabrication of thin mirrors mock-ups to validate the fabrication procedure for the large shells. The current activity aims to the construction of an optical breadboard capable of demonstrating the achievement of all these coupled critical aspects: optical quality of the thin shell mirror surface, actuators performances and back-plane - EL subsystem functionality.

  19. Efficiency Enhancement of Silicon Solar Cells by Porous Silicon Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenijus SHATKOVSKIS

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Silicon solar cells produced by a usual technology in p-type, crystalline silicon wafer were investigated. The manufactured solar cells were of total thickness 450 mm, the junction depth was of 0.5 mm – 0.7 mm. Porous silicon technologies were adapted to enhance cell efficiency. The production of porous silicon layer was carried out in HF: ethanol = 1 : 2 volume ratio electrolytes, illuminating by 50 W halogen lamps at the time of processing. The etching current was computer-controlled in the limits of (6 ÷ 14 mA/cm2, etching time was set in the interval of (10 ÷ 20 s. The characteristics and performance of the solar cells samples was carried out illuminating by Xenon 5000 K lamp light. Current-voltage characteristic studies have shown that porous silicon structures produced affect the extent of dark and lighting parameters of the samples. Exactly it affects current-voltage characteristic and serial resistance of the cells. It has shown, the formation of porous silicon structure causes an increase in the electric power created of solar cell. Conversion efficiency increases also respectively to the initial efficiency of cell. Increase of solar cell maximum power in 15 or even more percent is found. The highest increase in power have been observed in the spectral range of Dl @ (450 ÷ 850 nm, where ~ 60 % of the A1.5 spectra solar energy is located. It has been demonstrated that porous silicon technology is effective tool to improve the silicon solar cells performance.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.3.2428

  20. Federal technology alert. Parabolic-trough solar water heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    Parabolic-trough solar water heating is a well-proven renewable energy technology with considerable potential for application at Federal facilities. For the US, parabolic-trough water-heating systems are most cost effective in the Southwest where direct solar radiation is high. Jails, hospitals, barracks, and other facilities that consistently use large volumes of hot water are particularly good candidates, as are facilities with central plants for district heating. As with any renewable energy or energy efficiency technology requiring significant initial capital investment, the primary condition that will make a parabolic-trough system economically viable is if it is replacing expensive conventional water heating. In combination with absorption cooling systems, parabolic-trough collectors can also be used for air-conditioning. Industrial Solar Technology (IST) of Golden, Colorado, is the sole current manufacturer of parabolic-trough solar water heating systems. IST has an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract with the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to finance and install parabolic-trough solar water heating on an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) basis for any Federal facility that requests it and for which it proves viable. For an ESPC project, the facility does not pay for design, capital equipment, or installation. Instead, it pays only for guaranteed energy savings. Preparing and implementing delivery or task orders against the IDIQ is much simpler than the standard procurement process. This Federal Technology Alert (FTA) of the New Technology Demonstration Program is one of a series of guides to renewable energy and new energy-efficient technologies.

  1. Passive and hybrid solar technologies program summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    The goal of the national energy policy is to foster an adequate supply of energy at reasonable prices. This policy recognizes that adequate supply requires flexibility, with no undue reliance on any single source of supply. The goal of reasonable prices suggests economic efficiency so that consumers, individuals, commercial and industrial users alike, are not penalized by government regulation or subside. The strategies for achieving this energy policy goal are: (1) to minimize federal regulation in energy pricing while maintaining public health and safety and environmental quality, and (2) to promote a balanced and mixed energy resource system through research and development. One of the keys to energy sufficiently is the scientific application of passive solar energy techniques.

  2. Effective use of solar and biogas energy technology in companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerr-Pucher, J. [Clean Energy, Radolfzell (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Summary: In Germany and Europe the use of biogas and solar energy technology in enterprises is still in its infancy. The high growth rate of biogas and solar energy power is due to investments made by private households and agriculture. For medium-sized enterprises and large-scale enterprises the investment conditions obviously are not attractive enough, with one exception: enterprises that are manufacturing solar installations and offer, as a second pillar, concepts for their economical operation. Since the amendment of the EEG the demand for biogas installations considerably increased - exclusively in the agricultural sector. Enterprises from the food and beverage sector for instance only slowly discover this market. In the photovoltaic sector the situation is quite different. A real boom started 1998 in Germany. Main investors are farmers just as in the biogas area because their houses often have large roof surfaces and they can purchase via special associations large quantities of solar modules. The second important factor is the demand of ecologically oriented private households for small installations. Very seldom it is possible to motivate enterprises to equip the roofs of their plants with photovoltaic cells. It depends on the ecological orientation of enterprises and on communicative aspects. An early example is Mercedes-Benz. In 1995, world's largest photovoltaic solar power plant was installed in Untertuerkheim. Currently there are only a few industrial solar thermal model projects. In 2006, a medium-sized brewery has set up world's first 'solar' brewing plant. Contrary to the photovoltaic sector manufacturers of solar thermal systems must at first develop sustainable concepts. In contrast to the EEG (Renewable Energy Sources Act) for electricity generation there is no legal basis for solar thermal systems. Many European countries (Spain, Italy, Greece) have adopted regulations similarly to EEG. An expansion of the use of regenerative

  3. Concept designs for NASA's Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcguire, Melissa L.; Hack, Kurt J.; Manzella, David H.; Herman, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission were developed to assess vehicle performance and estimated mission cost. Concepts ranged from a 10,000 kilogram spacecraft capable of delivering 4000 kilogram of payload to one of the Earth Moon Lagrange points in support of future human-crewed outposts to a 180 kilogram spacecraft capable of performing an asteroid rendezvous mission after launched to a geostationary transfer orbit as a secondary payload. Low-cost and maximum Delta-V capability variants of a spacecraft concept based on utilizing a secondary payload adapter as the primary bus structure were developed as were concepts designed to be co-manifested with another spacecraft on a single launch vehicle. Each of the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission concepts developed included an estimated spacecraft cost. These data suggest estimated spacecraft costs of $200 million - $300 million if 30 kilowatt-class solar arrays and the corresponding electric propulsion system currently under development are used as the basis for sizing the mission concept regardless of launch vehicle costs. The most affordable mission concept developed based on subscale variants of the advanced solar arrays and electric propulsion technology currently under development by the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate has an estimated cost of $50M and could provide a Delta-V capability comparable to much larger spacecraft concepts.

  4. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutula, Raymond A. [DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2006-03-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the program for fiscal year 2005. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program’s national laboratories and university and industry partners.

  5. The Physics and Technology of Solar Sail Spacecraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, B. N.; McInnes, C. R.

    1991-01-01

    Various aspects of the solar sail spacecraft such as solar sailing, solar sail design, navigation with solar sails, solar sail mission applications and future prospects for solar sailing are described. Several possible student projects are suggested. (KR)

  6. Solar technology assessment project. Volume 6: Photovoltaic technology assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, C. E.

    1981-04-01

    Industrial production of photovoltaic systems and volume of sales are reviewed. Low cost silicon production techniques are reviewed, including the Czochralski process, heat exchange method, edge defined film fed growth, dentritic web growth, and silicon on ceramic process. Semicrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, and low cost poly-silicon are discussed as well as advanced materials and concentrator systems. Balance of system components beyond those needed to manufacture the solar panels are included. Nontechnical factors are assessed. The 1986 system cost goals are briefly reviewed.

  7. Utilizing Solar Power Technologies for On-Orbit Propellant Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, John C.; Howell, Joe T.; Henley, Mark W.

    2006-01-01

    The cost of access to space beyond low Earth orbit may be reduced if vehicles can refuel in orbit. The cost of access to low Earth orbit may also be reduced by launching oxygen and hydrogen propellants in the form of water. To achieve this reduction in costs of access to low Earth orbit and beyond, a propellant depot is considered that electrolyzes water in orbit, then condenses and stores cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen. Power requirements for such a depot require Solar Power Satellite technologies. A propellant depot utilizing solar power technologies is discussed in this paper. The depot will be deployed in a 400 km circular equatorial orbit. It receives tanks of water launched into a lower orbit from Earth, converts the water to liquid hydrogen and oxygen, and stores up to 500 metric tons of cryogenic propellants. This requires a power system that is comparable to a large Solar Power Satellite capable of several 100 kW of energy. Power is supplied by a pair of solar arrays mounted perpendicular to the orbital plane, which rotates once per orbit to track the Sun. The majority of the power is used to run the electrolysis system. Thermal control is maintained by body-mounted radiators; these also provide some shielding against orbital debris. The propellant stored in the depot can support transportation from low Earth orbit to geostationary Earth orbit, the Moon, LaGrange points, Mars, etc. Emphasis is placed on the Water-Ice to Cryogen propellant production facility. A very high power system is required for cracking (electrolyzing) the water and condensing and refrigerating the resulting oxygen and hydrogen. For a propellant production rate of 500 metric tons (1,100,000 pounds) per year, an average electrical power supply of 100 s of kW is required. To make the most efficient use of space solar power, electrolysis is performed only during the portion of the orbit that the Depot is in sunlight, so roughly twice this power level is needed for operations in sunlight

  8. Developments in fiber-positioning technology for the WEAVE instrument at the William Herschel Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schallig, Ellen; Lewis, Ian J.; Gilbert, James; Dalton, Gavin; Brock, Matthew; Abrams, Don Carlos; Middleton, Kevin; Aguerri, J. Alfonso L.; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Carrasco, Esperanza; Trager, Scott C.; Vallenari, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    WEAVE is the next-generation wide-field optical spectroscopy facility for the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) on La Palma in the Canary Islands, Spain. It is a multi-object "pick-and-place" fibre-fed spectrograph with a 1000 fibre multiplex behind a new dedicated 2° prime focus corrector. The WEAVE

  9. System technology improves the chances of solar cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, W.

    2008-01-01

    This article takes a look at the increasing range of products on offer in the solar cooling area. Such an increase applies in particular to products in the low and medium power ranges under 30 kilowatts. Several hindrances to the expansion of the solar air-conditioning (SAC) market are named, both in the technological as well as in the operational area. The author states that a considerable amount of optimisation work is still to be done. Market offerings using absorption and adsorption techniques are examined, as are silica gel-based systems. Companies in the German-speaking parts of Europe active in the area are listed and their work is reviewed. The opinions of various experts that were presented at a congress on the subject are noted. Planning tools made available by the International Energy Agency's Task 38 'Solar air-conditioning and refrigeration' are mentioned.

  10. A strategic research agenda for photovoltaic solar energy technology : report of the EU PV technology platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinke, W.C.; Zolingen, van R.J.C.; Ballif, C.; Bett, A.; Dimmler, B.; Dimova-Malinovska, D.; Fath, P.; Ferrazza, F.; Gabler, H.-J.; Hall, M.; Marti, A.; Mason, N.; Mellikov, E.; Milner, A.; Mogensen, P.; Panhuber, C.; Pearsall, N.; Poortmans, J.; Protogeropoulos, C.; Sarre, G.; Sarti, D.; Strauss, P.; Topic, M.; Zdanowicz, T.

    2007-01-01

    The EU PV Technology Platform [1] aims at joining forces on a European level to contribute to the further development of photovoltaic solar energy into a competitive technology that can be applied on a large scale and to the strengthening of the position of the European PV industry on the global

  11. Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiment First On-Orbit Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, R. J.; Garner, J. C.; Lam, S. N.; Vazquez, J. A.; Braun, W. R.; Ruth, R. E.; Warner, J. H.; Lorentzen, J. R.; Messenger, S. R.; Bruninga, R.; hide

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents first on orbit measured data from the Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiment (FTSCE). FTSCE is a space experiment housed within the 5th Materials on the International Space Station Experiment (MISSE-5). MISSE-5 was launched aboard the Shuttle return to flight mission (STS-114) on July 26, 2005 and deployed on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). The experiment will remain in orbit for nominally one year, after which it will be returned to Earth for post-flight testing and analysis. While on orbit, the experiment is designed to measure a 36 point current vs. voltage (IV) curve on each of the experimental solar cells, and the data is continuously telemetered to Earth. The experiment also measures the solar cell temperature and the orientation of the solar cells to the sun. A range of solar cell technologies are included in the experiment including state-of-the-art triple junction InGaP/GaAs/Ge solar cells from several vendors, thin film amorphous Si and CuIn(Ga)Se2 cells, and next-generation technologies like single-junction GaAs cells grown on Si wafers and metamorphic InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction cells. In addition to FTSCE, MISSE-5 also contains a Thin-Film Materials experiment. This is a passive experiment that will provide data on the effect of the space environment on more than 200 different materials. FTSCE was initially conceived in response to various on-orbit and ground test anomalies associated with space power systems. The Department of Defense (DoD) required a method of rapidly obtaining on orbit validation data for new space solar cell technologies, and NRL was tasked to devise an experiment to meet this requirement. Rapid access to space was provided by the MISSE Program which is a NASA Langley Research Center program. MISSE-5 is a completely self-contained experiment system with its own power generation and storage system and communications system. The communications system, referred to as PCSat, transmits

  12. In-Space Propulsion Technologies for Robotic Exploration of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Meyer, Rae Ann; Frame, Kyle

    2006-01-01

    Supporting NASA's Science Mission Directorate, the In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is developing the next generation of space propulsion technologies for robotic, deep-space exploration. Recent technological advancements and demonstrations of key, high-payoff propulsion technologies have been achieved and will be described. Technologies under development and test include aerocapture, solar electric propulsion, solar sail propulsion, and advanced chemical propulsion.

  13. Technology of solar cells of CuInSe-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordillo, Gerardo; Rodriguez, Jairo A

    1993-01-01

    The energetic problem in the World is at the present time one of the topics of more interest; for that reason the study of the transformation of the solar energy in electric power, using photovoltaic devices, it is a field of great priority in the investigation. The direct conversion of the solar energy in electric power, using solar cells, it represents an interesting alternative to replace a fraction of the energy deficit that will present as consequence of the limited reservations of hydrocarbons. At the present time they are had in experimentation plants lots of megawatts based on cells of silicon mono-crystalline. The solar cell technologically more developed it is that of silicon mono-crystalline; however their production cost is too high and difficultly it could compete economically with the traditional forms of generating energy; for this reason they are becoming big efforts and economic investments to develop solar cells of high efficiency and stability with base in thin movies whose production costs are much lower compared with those of cells of crystalline silicon

  14. Multijunction Solar Cell Technology for Mars Surface Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Paul M.; Mardesich, Nick; Ewell, Richard C.; Mueller, Robert L.; Endicter, Scott; Aiken, Daniel; Edmondson, Kenneth; Fetze, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Solar cells used for Mars surface applications have been commercial space qualified AM0 optimized devices. Due to the Martian atmosphere, these cells are not optimized for the Mars surface and as a result operate at a reduced efficiency. A multi-year program, MOST (Mars Optimized Solar Cell Technology), managed by JPL and funded by NASA Code S, was initiated in 2004, to develop tools to modify commercial AM0 cells for the Mars surface solar spectrum and to fabricate Mars optimized devices for verification. This effort required defining the surface incident spectrum, developing an appropriate laboratory solar simulator measurement capability, and to develop and test commercial cells modified for the Mars surface spectrum. This paper discusses the program, including results for the initial modified cells. Simulated Mars surface measurements of MER cells and Phoenix Lander cells (2007 launch) are provided to characterize the performance loss for those missions. In addition, the performance of the MER rover solar arrays is updated to reflect their more than two (2) year operation.

  15. Solar sorptive cooling. Technologies, user requirements, practical experience, future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treffinger, P. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Hardthausen (Germany); Hertlein, H.P. [eds.] [Forschungsverbund Sonnenenergie, Koeln (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Sorptive cooling techniques permit the use of low-temperature solar heat, i.e. a renewable energy of low cost and world-wide availability. The Forschungsverbund Sonnenenergie intends to develop solar sorptive cooling technologies to the prototype stage and, in cooperation with the solar industry and its end users, to promote practical application in air conditioning of buildings and cold storage of food. The workshop presents an outline of the state of development of solar sorptive cooling from the view of users and developers. Exemplary solar cooling systems are described, and the potential of open and closed sorptive processes is assessed. Future central activities will be defined in an intensive discussion between planners, producers, users and developers. [German] Der Einsatz von Sorptionstechniken zur Kaelteerzeugung erlaubt es, als treibende Solarenergie Niedertemperatur-Solarwaerme einzusetzen, also eine regenerative Energie mit sehr geringen Kosten und weltweiter Verfuegbarkeit. Der Forschungsverbund Sonnenenergie hat sich als Aufgabe gestellt, die Techniken der solaren Sorptionskuehlung bis zum Prototyp zu entwickeln und mit Industrie und Nutzern die praktische Anwendung voranzubringen. Die Anwendungsfelder sind die Klimatisierung von Gebaeuden und die Kaltlagerung von Lebensmitteln. Der Workshop gibt einen Ueberblick zum Entwicklungsstand der solaren Sorptionskuehlung aus der Sicht der Anwender und Entwickler. Bereits ausgefuehrte Beispiele zur solaren Kuehlung werden vorgestellt und das Potential geschlossener und offener Sorptionsverfahren angegeben. In intensiver Diskussion zwischen Planern, Herstellern, Nutzern und Entwicklern sollen kuenftige Arbeitsschwerpunkte herausgearbeitet werden. (orig.)

  16. Surface etching technologies for monocrystalline silicon wafer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Muzhi

    With more than 200 GW of accumulated installations in 2015, photovoltaics (PV) has become an important green energy harvesting method. The PV market is dominated by solar cells made from crystalline silicon wafers. The engineering of the wafer surfaces is critical to the solar cell cost reduction and performance enhancement. Therefore, this thesis focuses on the development of surface etching technologies for monocrystalline silicon wafer solar cells. It aims to develop a more efficient alkaline texturing method and more effective surface cleaning processes. Firstly, a rapid, isopropanol alcohol free texturing method is successfully demonstrated to shorten the process time and reduce the consumption of chemicals. This method utilizes the special chemical properties of triethylamine, which can form Si-N bonds with wafer surface atoms. Secondly, a room-temperature anisotropic emitter etch-back process is developed to improve the n+ emitter passivation. Using this method, 19.0% efficient screen-printed aluminium back surface field solar cells are developed that show an efficiency gain of 0.15% (absolute) compared with conventionally made solar cells. Finally, state-of-the-art silicon surface passivation results are achieved using hydrogen plasma etching as a dry alternative to the classical hydrofluoric acid wet-chemical process. The effective native oxide removal and the hydrogenation of the silicon surface are shown to be the reasons for the excellent level of surface passivation achieved with this novel method.

  17. Solar Energy Technologies Program: Multi-Year Technical Plan 2003-2007 and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-01-01

    This publication charts a 5-year planning cycle for the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program. The document includes anticipated technical plans for the next 5 years for photovoltaics, concentrating solar power, solar water and space heating, solar hybrid lighting, and other new concepts that can take advantage of the solar resource. Solar energy is described as a clean, abundant, renewable energy resource that can benefit the nation by diversifying our energy supply.

  18. Solar technologies for buildings. Fundamentals and practice examples. 2. rev. ed.; Solare Technologien fuer Gebaeude. Grundlagen und Praxisbeispiele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eicker, Ursula

    2012-07-01

    Active and passive utilization of solar energy makes a significant contribution to energy supply in buildings. Solar heating and cooling systems, photovoltaic energy conversion systems and efficient daylighting and passive solar systems are available on the market and need to gain acceptance. The book presents the physical fundamentals and calculated examples for students. It also addresses engineers in practice, who are given concrete design procedures for solar technologies in domestic and administrative buildings. Subjects are, among others: Energy consumption of buildings and solar coverage potential - meteorological basis - solar powered heating - solar cooling - grid-connected photovoltaic systems - thermal analysis of building-integrated solar components - passive utilization of solar energy - lighting engineering and utilization of daylight.

  19. Solar on the brink : more and more engineers are being asked to integrate solar technologies into building designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, I.

    2010-01-01

    Methods of integrating solar technologies into building designs were discussed in this article. Ontario's feed-in-tariff (FIT) program will make Ontario a centre for solar technology and is expected to generate new jobs in the alternative energy industry. While photovoltaic (PV) systems eliminate the need for building new electricity and distribution networks, PV systems are the least efficient solar technology in relation to economics, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) offsets, and energy generation. Many buildings in Canada have significant ventilation air heating loads that are not best served by heat recovery technologies. The economic performance of solar thermal systems can only be understood in relation to the operational efficiency of a building's heating plant. Solar PV systems can provide returns on investment when considered alongside Ontario's FIT program tariffs. Without the tariffs, many payback periods are in excess of PV system product lifetimes. Maintenance contracts and budgets must be carefully considered when commissioning solar energy projects. 3 figs.

  20. Economic aspects of Solar Thermal Technologies for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinecke, W.

    1993-01-01

    Economic results of German studies are presented, which compare the four solar thermal technologies for electricity generation (parabolic trough collector system, central receiver system, parabolic dish/Stirling system, solar chimney plant). These studies were carried out by Interatom (today Siemens/KWU) in Bergisch Gladbach, Flachglas Solartechnik in Koln and Schlaich Bergermann and Partner in Stuggart under contract of DLR in Koln. Funds were made available by the German Ministry of Research and Development (BMFT). The results indicate that all of the investigated technologies have the potential to reduce the generating costs and that in the future costs of below 0.30 DM/kWh could be expected under excellent insolation conditions (e.G. 2850 kWh/m''2 a direct insolation as in California/USA). (Author) 25 refs

  1. International conference on comparative assessments of solar power technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, A.

    1994-02-01

    Many regions in the world which lack fossil fuel resources but possess ample sunshine seek to identify near-term solar technologies capable of gradually replacing their fuel imports in cost-effective fashion. The conference addresses the following topics: technical and economical studies specifying their underlying basic assumption, methods and rules for evaluation in order to enable meaningful comparison between different technologies and systems. Detailed delineation of numerical and graphical representations, critical analysis and comparison between simulations, and test validity. Generalized performance indicators for systems and subsystems, problems of measuring and evaluating physical parameters, of terminology and conceptual tools for comparative evaluations. Advances in research development, engineering and field performance, including implications pertaining to comparative assessments and definitions of criteria and standards helpful to comparative evaluation. Assessments of the full (and hidden) cost of fossil energies as compared to solar, including environmental costs. Cost/benefit studies for remote versus centralized systems. (ed.)

  2. Dish concentrators for solar thermal energy: Status and technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1982-01-01

    Point-focusing concentrators under consideration for solar thermal energy use are reviewed. These concentrators differ in such characteristics as optical configuration, optical materials, structure for support of the optical elements and of the receiver, mount, foundation, drive, controls and enclosure. Concentrator performance and cost are considered. Technology development is outlined, including wind loads and aerodynamics; precipitation, sand, and seismic considerations; and maintenance and cleaning.

  3. Solar building construction - new technologies; Solares Bauen - Neue Technologien fuer Gebaeude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luther, J.; Voss, K.; Wittwer, V. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany). Abt. ``Thermische und Optische Systeme``

    1998-02-01

    There is an increasing demand for integrated building concepts in order to reduce energy consumption. Building design, construction and heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) technology are decisive in this respect. Thus, an essentially higher energy efficiency is achieved and solar energy becomes the main energy source. An `active building envelope` assumes the task of controlling the energy flows between inside and outside. This paper reports on new components, system concepts and planning tools for solar building. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer zukuenftige Bauten werden in hohem Masse Forderungen nach integrierten Konzepten zur Begrenzung des Energieverbrauchs gestellt. Gestalt, Konstruktion und Klimatechnik sind dabei massgebliche Einflussfaktoren. Hierdurch wird eine wesentlich hoehere Energieeffizienz erzielt und Solarenergie kann die uebrigen Energiequellen zurueckdraengen. Eine `aktive Gebaeudehuelle` uebernimmt die Aufgabe, den Energiefluss zwischen Innen und Aussen zu steuern. Der Beitrag berichtet ueber neue Komponenten, Systemkonzepte und Planungswerkzeuge fuer das Solare Bauen. (orig.)

  4. Shedding light on solar technologies-A techno-economic assessment and its policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Michael; Schmidt, Tobias S.; Wiederkehr, David; Schneider, Malte

    2011-01-01

    Solar power technologies will have to become a major pillar in the world's future energy system to combat climate change and resource depletion. However, it is unclear which solar technology is and will prove most viable. Therefore, a comprehensive comparative assessment of solar technologies along the key quantitative and qualitative competitiveness criteria is needed. Based on a literature review and detailed techno-economic modeling for 2010 and 2020 in five locations, we provide such an assessment for the three currently leading large-scale solar technologies. We show that today these technologies cannot yet compete with conventional forms of power generation but approach competitiveness around 2020 in favorable locations. Furthermore, from a global perspective we find that none of the solar technologies emerges as a clear winner and that cost of storing energy differs by technology and can change the order of competitiveness in some instances. Importantly, the competitiveness of the different technologies varies considerably across locations due to differences in, e.g., solar resource and discount rates. Based on this analysis, we discuss policy implications with regard to fostering the diffusion of solar technologies while increasing the efficiency of policy support through an adequate geographical allocation of solar technologies. - Highlights: → We conduct a comprehensive comparative assessment of solar technologies (CSP/PV). → While solar technologies approach competitiveness in 2020, no clear winner emerges. → Solar resource and discount rate heavily impact competitiveness of solar technologies. → Adequate geographical allocation of solar technologies increases policy efficiency. → Focus on key cost down levers and strategic co-benefits of solar technologies needed.

  5. Review of the technology for solar gasification of carbonaceous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, M.; Spiewak, I.; Funken, K.H.; Ortner, J.

    1994-01-01

    Research has demonstrated the feasibility of solar assisted gasification of carbonaceous materials to form synthesis gas (syngas). The potential feedstocks range from natural gas, residual oil, biomass, and oil-shale to coal. The expected advantages of such processing are yields of syngas with calorific values above those of the carbonaceous feedstocks, syngas quality suited to production of hydrogen, methanol or bulk Fischer-Tropsch fuels, and the ability to process low-grade and waste materials with essentially no emissions to atmosphere other than small amounts of CO 2 . The review provides some background on solar receiver concepts to reach the high temperatures needed for syngas production, the basic chemistry involved, covers applicable experiments that have been reported with solar inputs and with conventional heating, heat transfer processes, process and energy balances, and cost analysis. Approximately 80 references are cited. The authors present their views on the most promising approaches to solar-assisted gasification, the technology development required, and the ultimate benefits of such development and commercialization

  6. United States Department of Energy solar receiver technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimas, P. C.; Diver, R. B.; Chavez, J. M.

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), through Sandia National Laboratories, has been conducting a Solar Thermal Receiver Technology Development Program, which maintains a balance between analytical modeling, bench and small scale testing, and experimentation conducted at scales representative of commercially-sized equipment. Central receiver activities emphasize molten salt-based systems on large scales and volumetric devices in the modeling and small scale testing. These receivers are expected to be utilized in solar power plants rated between 100 and 200 MW. Distributed receiver research focuses on liquid metal refluxing devices. These are intended to mate parabolic dish concentrators with Stirling cycle engines in the 5 to 25 kW(sub e) power range. The effort in the area of volumetric receivers is less intensive and highly cooperative in nature. A ceramic foam absorber of Sandia design was successfully tested on the 200 kW(sub t) test bed at Plataforma Solar during 1989. Material integrity during the approximately 90-test series was excellent. Significant progress has been made with parabolic dish concentrator-mounted receivers using liquid metals (sodium or a potassium/sodium mixture) as heat transport media. Sandia has successfully solar-tested a pool boiling reflux receiver sized to power a 25 kW Stirling engine. Boiling stability and transient operation were both excellent. This document describes these activities in detail and will outline plans for future development.

  7. Origins Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Asantha; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its spectrographs will enable 3D surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu. This presentation will provide a summary of the OST STDT, our completed first mission concept and an introduction to the second concept that will be studied at the study center in 2018. This presentation will also summarize key science drivers and the key study milestones between 2018 and 2020.

  8. The Sardinia Radio Telescope . From a technological project to a radio observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandoni, I.; Murgia, M.; Tarchi, A.; Burgay, M.; Castangia, P.; Egron, E.; Govoni, F.; Pellizzoni, A.; Ricci, R.; Righini, S.; Bartolini, M.; Casu, S.; Corongiu, A.; Iacolina, M. N.; Melis, A.; Nasir, F. T.; Orlati, A.; Perrodin, D.; Poppi, S.; Trois, A.; Vacca, V.; Zanichelli, A.; Bachetti, M.; Buttu, M.; Comoretto, G.; Concu, R.; Fara, A.; Gaudiomonte, F.; Loi, F.; Migoni, C.; Orfei, A.; Pilia, M.; Bolli, P.; Carretti, E.; D'Amico, N.; Guidetti, D.; Loru, S.; Massi, F.; Pisanu, T.; Porceddu, I.; Ridolfi, A.; Serra, G.; Stanghellini, C.; Tiburzi, C.; Tingay, S.; Valente, G.

    2017-12-01

    Context. The Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) is the new 64 m dish operated by the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF). Its active surface, comprised of 1008 separate aluminium panels supported by electromechanical actuators, will allow us to observe at frequencies of up to 116 GHz. At the moment, three receivers, one per focal position, have been installed and tested: a 7-beam K-band receiver, a mono-feed C-band receiver, and a coaxial dual-feed L/P band receiver. The SRT was officially opened in September 2013, upon completion of its technical commissioning phase. In this paper, we provide an overview of the main science drivers for the SRT, describe the main outcomes from the scientific commissioning of the telescope, and discuss a set of observations demonstrating the scientific capabilities of the SRT. Aims: The scientific commissioning phase, carried out in the 2012-2015 period, proceeded in stages following the implementation and/or fine-tuning of advanced subsystems such as the active surface, the derotator, new releases of the acquisition software, etc. One of the main objectives of scientific commissioning was the identification of deficiencies in the instrumentation and/or in the telescope subsystems for further optimization. As a result, the overall telescope performance has been significantly improved. Methods: As part of the scientific commissioning activities, different observing modes were tested and validated, and the first astronomical observations were carried out to demonstrate the science capabilities of the SRT. In addition, we developed astronomer-oriented software tools to support future observers on site. In the following, we refer to the overall scientific commissioning and software development activities as astronomical validation. Results: The astronomical validation activities were prioritized based on technical readiness and scientific impact. The highest priority was to make the SRT available for joint observations as

  9. Potential displacement of petroleum imports by solar energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLeon, P.; Jackson, B.L.; McNown, R.F.; Mahrenholz, G.J.

    1980-05-01

    The United States currently imports close to half of its petroleum requirements. This report delineates the economic, social, and political costs of such a foreign oil dependency. These costs are often intangible, but combined they clearly constitute a greater price for imported petroleum than the strictly economic cost. If we can assume that imported oil imposes significant socioeconomic costs upon the American economy and society, one way to reduce these costs is to develop alternative, domestic energy sources - such as solar energy technologies - which can displace foreign petroleum. The second half of this report estimates that by the year 2000, solar energy technologies can displace 3.6 quads of petroleum. This figure includes solar energy applications in utilities, industrial and agricultural process heat, and transportation. The estimate can be treated as a lower bound; if the United States were to achieve the proposed goal of 20 quads by 2000, the amount of displaced oil probably would be greater. Although all the displaced oil would not be imported, the reduction in imported petroleum would relieve many of the conditions that increase the present cost of foreign oil to the American consumer.

  10. The great Melbourne telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Gillespie, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Erected at Melbourne Observatory in 1869, the telescope was the second largest in the world, designed to explore the nature of the nebulae in the southern skies. Richard Gillespie, head of the History and Technology department at the Melbourne museum has written an entertaining account of the telescope's extraordinary history and tells the story through an amazing cast of characters whose lives intersected with the telescope.

  11. Dish concentrators for solar thermal energy - Status and technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1981-01-01

    Comparisons are presented of point-focusing, or 'dish' solar concentrator system features, development status, and performance levels demonstrated to date. In addition to the requirements of good optical efficiency and high geometric concentration ratios, the most important future consideration in solar thermal energy dish concentrator design will be the reduction of installed and lifetime costs, as well as the materials and labor costs of production. It is determined that technology development initiatives are needed in such areas as optical materials, design wind speeds and wind loads, structural configuration and materials resistance to prolonged exposure, and the maintenance of optical surfaces. The testing of complete concentrator systems, with energy-converting receivers and controls, is also necessary. Both reflector and Fresnel lens concentrator systems are considered.

  12. New technologies and new performances of the JCMT radio-telescope: a preliminary design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, S.; De Lorenzi, S.; Ghedin, L.; Rampini, F.; Marchiori, G.; Craig, S.

    2012-09-01

    With a diameter of 15m the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) is the largest astronomical telescope in the world designed specifically to operate in the submillimeter wavelength region of the spectrum. It is situated close to the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, at an altitude of 4092m. Its primary reflector currently consists of a steel geodesic supporting structure and pressed aluminium panels on a passive mount. The major issues of the present reflector are its thermal stability and its panels deterioration. A preliminary design study for the replacement of the JCMT antenna dish is here presented. The requested shape error for the new reflector is <20μm RMS. The proposed solution is based on a semi-monocoque backing structure made of CFRP and on high precision electroformed panels. The choice of CFRP for the backing structure allows indeed to improve the antenna performance in terms of both stiffness and thermal stability, so that the required surface accuracy of the primary can be achieved even by adopting a passive panels system. Moreover thanks to CFRP, a considerable weight reduction of the elevation structure can be attained. The performance of the proposed solution for the JCMT antenna has been investigated through FE analyses and the assessed deformation of the structure under different loading cases has been taken into account for subsequent error budgeting. Results show that the proposed solution is in line with the requested performance. With this new backing structure, the JCMT would have the largest CFRP reflector ever built.

  13. Solar technology and the insurance industry: Issues and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deering, A.; Thornton, J. P.

    1999-07-01

    Today's insurance industry strongly emphasizes developing cost-effective hazard mitigation programs, increasing and retaining commercial and residential customers through better service, educating customers on their exposure and vulnerabilities to natural disasters, collaborating with government agencies and emergency management organizations, and exploring the use of new technologies to reduce the financial impact of disasters. Solar technology can be used in underwriting, claims, catastrophe response, loss control, and risk management. This report will address the above issues, with an emphasis on pre-disaster planning and mitigation alternatives. It will also discuss how energy efficiency and renewable technologies can contribute to reducing insurance losses and offer suggestions on how to collaborate with the utility industry and how to develop educational programs for business and consumers.

  14. Technology development and application of solar energy in desalination: MEDRC contribution

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, NorEddine; Reddy, V. K.; Abu-Arabi, Mousa K.

    2011-01-01

    Desalination has become one of the sources for water supply in several countries especially in the Middle East and North Africa region. There is a great potential to develop solar desalination technologies especially in this region where solar

  15. Capture, transformation and conversion of the solar energy by the technologies of concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferriere, A.; Flamant, G.

    2003-01-01

    The specificities of the solar technologies at concentration are: high energy efficiency with increasing possibilities and the possibility of storage the solar energy by heat for a local and short dated utilization or by chemical storage (hydrogen for instance) for a delayed utilization or far from the capture area. This document takes stock on the concentration solar techniques, the electric power production by concentrated solar energy and the performance of concentrated solar plants, the industrial american experience of the SEGS plants, the hydrogen production by concentrated solar energy and discusses the scientific and technological locks. (A.L.B.)

  16. Developments in fiber-positioning technology for the WEAVE instrument at the William Herschel Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallig, Ellen; Lewis, Ian J.; Gilbert, James; Dalton, Gavin; Brock, Matthew; Abrams, Don Carlos; Middleton, Kevin; Aguerri, J. Alfonso L.; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Carrasco, Esperanza; Trager, Scott C.; Vallenari, Antonella

    2016-08-01

    WEAVE is the next-generation wide-field optical spectroscopy facility for the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) on La Palma in the Canary Islands, Spain. It is a multi-object "pick-and-place" fibre-fed spectrograph with a 1000 fibre multiplex behind a new dedicated 2° prime focus corrector. The WEAVE positioner concept uses two robots working in tandem in order to reconfigure a fully populated field within the expected 1 hour dwell-time for the instrument (a good match between the required exposure times and the limit of validity for a given configuration due to the effects of differential refraction). In this paper we describe some of the final design decisions arising from the prototyping phase of the instrument design and provide an update on the current manufacturing status of the fibre positioner system.

  17. Novel Thermal Storage Technologies for Concentrating Solar Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neti, Sudhakar [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics; Oztekin, Alparslan [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Chen, John [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Tuzla, Kemal [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Misiolek, Wojciech [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    2013-06-20

    The technologies that are to be developed in this work will enable storage of thermal energy in 100 MWe solar energy plants for 6-24 hours at temperatures around 300°C and 850°C using encapsulated phase change materials (EPCM). Several encapsulated phase change materials have been identified, fabricated and proven with calorimetry. Two of these materials have been tested in an airflow experiment. A cost analysis for these thermal energy storage systems has also been conducted that met the targets established at the initiation of the project.

  18. Technology assessment of solar-energy systems. Materials resource and hazardous materials impacts of solar deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Y. M.; Tahami, J. E.

    1982-04-01

    The materials-resource and hazardous-materials impacts were determined by examining the type and quantity of materials used in the manufacture, construction, installation, operation and maintenance of solar systems. The materials requirements were compared with US materials supply and demand data to determine if potential problems exist in terms of future availability of domestic supply and increased dependence on foreign sources of supply. Hazardous materials were evaluated in terms of public and occupational health hazards and explosive and fire hazards. It is concluded that: although large amounts of materials would be required, the US had sufficient industrial capacity to produce those materials; (2) postulated growth in solar technology deployment during the period 1995-2000 could cause some production shortfalls in the steel and copper industry; the U.S. could increase its import reliance for certain materials such as silver, iron ore, and copper; however, shifts to other materials such as aluminum and polyvinylchloride could alleviate some of these problems.

  19. What’s Political about Solar Electric Technology? The User’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Schelly

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Scholars in science and technology studies have debated the various ways in which technologies are (or are not political. Here, I examine how users themselves understand and articulate the politics of a specific technology—residential solar electric technology—and how understandings of politics interact with motivations to adopt. Based on interviews with 48 individuals in 36 households across the state of Wisconsin who have adopted residential solar electric technology, I consider the user’s perspective on the question: “What’s political about residential solar electric technology use?” These users were asked about the politics of this technology and how their understanding of the technology’s politics shaped their own motivation for adoption. These solar electric technology adopters saw solar electric technology as both imbued with political character based on the current national political scene and as inherently, innately political. They described how solar electric technology interacts with the politics of environmentalism, challenges “politics-as-usual” and can bring about decentralization and redistribution of wealth. In short, to the users of solar electric technology, this technological artifact is, indeed, political; it both interacts with, and offers an alternative to, current American political structures. Further, their perspectives on the politics of solar technology shaped their understandings of motivations for and limitations to adoption of this alternative technology.

  20. Conceptual model for marketing solar based technology to developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, Raj; Ramaseshan, B.; Nayar, C.V.

    2002-01-01

    Developing countries are faced with large shortfalls of electric-power generation, shortages of usable indigenous fuels, and transportation bottlenecks for those fuels. The loss of revenue that is forced upon the industry due to power cuts and frequent interruptions of power supply is substantial. Renewable sources of energy have an important role to play in providing much needed power in the context of growing global concern about sustainable energy supplies and protecting the environment from the adverse effects of fossil fuel utilization. The purpose of the study is to identify the factors that influence the adoption of solar-based technology. An examination of the literature in the area of diffusion of technology has led to the identification of different variables. The possible relationships that may exist between these variables is depicted in the conceptual framework. This paper attempts to clarify the relationships between the variables that have been identified and the decision to adopt. (Author)

  1. US public policy and emerging technologies: the case of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahm, Dianne

    1993-01-01

    Public policy is generally believed to have an effect on the emergence and rate of diffusion of technology. Solar energy technologies are no exception. This article explores the relationship between a variety of United States (US) public policies and the emergence and diffusion of solar energy technologies using data gathered as part of the National Solar Energy Policy Study. The article presents findings regarding the status and policy position of US renewable energy research and development (R and D) and manufacturing organizations. Specific policy options which could be adopted to speed emergence and diffusion of solar energy technology products are discussed. (Author)

  2. Relating a Prominence Observed from the Solar Optical Telescope on the Hinode Satellite to Known 3-D Structures of Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S. F.; Panasenco, O.; Agah, Y.; Engvold, O.; Lin, Y.

    2009-12-01

    We address only a first step in relating limb and disk observations by illustrating and comparing the spines and barbs of three different quiescent prominences and filaments observed in Hα by three different telescopes. Although the appearance of the three quiescent prominences is quite different, we show that each consists of a spine, barbs extending from the spine, and arcs at the base of some of the curtains of barb threads.

  3. Solar technology in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A series of papers dealing with the status of solar research and development in the Federal Republic of Germany are presented at a conference in Greece with the object of promoting international cooperation in solar energy utilization. The reports focus on solar collector designs, solar systems, heat pumps, solar homes, solar cooling and refrigeration, desalination and electric power generation. Numerous examples of systems produced by German manufacturers are illustrated and described, and performance data are presented.

  4. The other aspect of solar energy utilization. Solar technologies export enhancement: A central European point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, C. J.; Nitsch, J.; Klaiss, H.; Voigt, C.

    1985-11-01

    It is shown that solar energy utilization can, on a moderate scale, supplement the indigenous energy supply of the Federal Republic of Germany. It can contribute to the prevention of fatal ecological damage, open an attractive export market and, in the long run, prepare ground for North-South compensation, where energy-poor but technology rich countries cooperate with countries of the Third World, which are often rich in raw materials and are situated in the solar belt of the world, for the benefit of the implementation of a solar industry or the production of a marketable synthetic solar energy carrier.

  5. Extremely Lightweight Segmented Membrane Optical Shell Fabrication Technology for Future IR to Optical Telescope, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose that the Membrane Optical Shell Technology (MOST) substrate fabrication approach be extended with a specific focus on advanced off-axis very light weight,...

  6. Large aperture telescope technology: a design for an active lightweight multi-segmented fold-out space mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S. J.; Doel, A. P.; Whalley, M.; Edeson, R.; Edeson, R.; Tosh, I.; Poyntz-Wright, O.; Atad-Ettedgui, E.; Montgomery, D.; Nawasra, J.

    2017-11-01

    Large aperture telescope technology (LATT) is a design study for a differential lidar (DIAL) system; the main investigation being into suitable methods, technologies and materials for a 4-metre diameter active mirror that can be stowed to fit into a typical launch vehicle (e.g. ROKOT launcher with 2.1-metre diameter cargo) and can self-deploy - in terms of both leaving the space vehicle and that the mirrors unfold and self-align to the correct optical form within the tolerances specified. The primary mirror requirements are: main wavelength of 935.5 nm, RMS corrected wavefront error of λ/6, optical surface roughness better than 5 nm, areal density of less than 16 kg/m2 and 1-2 mirror shape corrections per orbit. The primary mirror consists of 7 segments - a central hexagonal mirror and 6 square mirror petals which unfold to form the 4-meter diameter aperture. The focus of the UK LATT consortium for this European Space Agency (ESA) funded project is on using lightweighted aluminium or carbon-fibre-composite materials for the mirror substrate in preference to more traditional materials such as glass and ceramics; these materials have a high strength and stiffness to weight ratio, significantly reducing risk of damage due to launch forces and subsequent deployment in orbit. We present an overview of the design, which includes suitable actuators for wavefront correction, petal deployment mechanisms and lightweight mirror technologies. Preliminary testing results from manufactured lightweight mirror samples will also be summarised.

  7. The Role of Solar Technology Programs In Meeting Our Energy Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Ivan E.; Larson, Milton E.

    1978-01-01

    Elements to be included in a solar energy technology training program offered in postsecondary institutions are listed. The article examines various present and future energy sources and describes the solar energy system, stressing the immediate need for training programs for solar energy technicians. (MF)

  8. Energizing Government Decision-Makers with the Facts on Solar Technology, Policy, and Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The Solar Technical Assistance Team (STAT) is a network of solar technology and implementation experts who provide timely, unbiased expertise to assist policymakers and regulators in making informed decisions about solar programs and policies. Government officials can submit requests directly to the STAT for technical assistance. STAT then partners with experts in solar policy, regulation, finance, technology, and other areas to deliver accurate, up-to-date information to state and local decision makers. The STAT responds to requests on a wide range of issues -- including, but not limited to, feed-in tariffs, renewable portfolio standards, rate design, program design, workforce and economic impacts of solar on jurisdictions, and project financing.

  9. Technology development and application of solar energy in desalination: MEDRC contribution

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2011-12-01

    Desalination has become one of the sources for water supply in several countries especially in the Middle East and North Africa region. There is a great potential to develop solar desalination technologies especially in this region where solar source is abundantly available. The success in implementing solar technologies in desalination at a commercial scale depends on the improvements to convert solar energy into electrical and/or thermal energies economically as desalination processes need these types of energies. Since desalination is energy intensive, the wider use of solar technologies in desalination will eventually increase the demand on these technologies, making it possible to go for mass production of photovoltaic (PV) cells, collectors and solar thermal power plants. This would ultimately lead to the reduction in the costs of these technologies. The energy consumed by desalination processes has been significantly reduced in the last decade meaning that, if solar technologies are to be used, less PV modules and area for collectors would be needed. The main aspects to be addressed to make solar desalination a viable option in remote location applications is to develop new materials or improve existing solar collectors and find the best combinations to couple the different desalination processes with appropriate solar collector. In the objective to promote solar desalination in MENA, the Middle East Desalination Research Center has concentrated on various aspects of solar desalination in the last twelve years by sponsoring 17 research projects on different technologies and Software packages development for coupling desalination and renewable energy systems to address the limitations of solar desalination and develop new desalination technologies and hybrid systems suitable for remote areas. A brief description of some of these projects is highlighted in this paper. The full details of all these projects are available the Centers website. © 2011 Elsevier

  10. Large fully retractable telescope enclosures still closable in strong wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Jägers, Aswin P. L.; Sliepen, Guus

    2008-07-01

    Two prototypes of fully retractable enclosures with diameters of 7 and 9 m have been built for the high-resolution solar telescopes DOT (Dutch Open Telescope) and GREGOR, both located at the Canary Islands. These enclosures protect the instruments for bad weather and are fully open when the telescopes are in operation. The telescopes and enclosures also operate in hard wind. The prototypes are based on tensioned membrane between movable but stiff bows, which fold together to a ring when opened. The height of the ring is small. The prototypes already survived several storms, with often snow and ice, without any damage, including hurricane Delta with wind speeds up to 68 m/s. The enclosures can still be closed and opened with wind speeds of 20 m/s without any problems or restrictions. The DOT successfully demonstrated the open, wind-flushing concept for astronomical telescopes. It is now widely recognized that also large future telescopes benefit from wind-flushing and retractable enclosures. These telescopes require enclosures with diameters of 30 m until roughly 100 m, the largest sizes for the ELTs (Extreme Large Telescopes), which will be built in the near future. We discuss developments and required technology for the realization of these large sizes.

  11. Solar Electric Propulsion Technologies Being Designed for Orbit Transfer Vehicle Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.; Hoffman, David J.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Oleson, Steven R.; Falck, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    There is increasing interest in employing Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) for new missions requiring transfer from low Earth orbit to the Earth-Moon Lagrange point, L1. Mission architecture plans place the Gateway Habitat at L1 in the 2011 to 2016 timeframe. The Gateway Habitat is envisioned to be used for Lunar exploration, space telescopes, and planetary mission staging. In these scenarios, an SEP stage, or "tug," is used to transport payloads to L1--such as the habitat module, lunar excursion and return vehicles, and chemical propellant for return crew trips. SEP tugs are attractive because they are able to efficiently transport large (less than 10,000 kg) payloads while minimizing propellant requirements. To meet the needs of these missions, a preliminary conceptual design for a general-purpose SEP tug was developed that incorporates several of the advanced space power and in-space propulsion technologies (such as high-power gridded ion and Hall thrusters, high-performance thin-film photovoltaics, lithium-ion batteries, and advanced high-voltage power processing) being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. A spreadsheet-based vehicle system model was developed for component sizing and is currently being used for mission planning. This model incorporates a low-thrust orbit transfer algorithm to make preliminary determinations of transfer times and propellant requirements. Results from this combined tug mass estimation and orbit transfer model will be used in a higher fidelity trajectory model to refine the analysis.

  12. Space Solar Power Technology Demonstration for Lunar Polar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, M. W.; Fikes, J. C.; Howell, J.; Mankins, J. C.; Howell, J.

    2002-01-01

    A solar power generation station on a mountaintop near the moon's North or South pole can receive sunlight 708 hours per lunar day, for continuous power generation. Power can be beamed from this station over long distances using a laser-based wireless power transmission system and a photo-voltaic receiver. This beamed energy can provide warmth, electricity, and illumination for a robotic rover to perform scientific experiments in cold, dark craters where no other power source is practical. Radio-frequency power transmission may also be demonstrated in lunar polar applications to locate and recover sub-surface deposits of volatile material, such as water ice. High circular polarization ratios observed in data from Clementine spacecraft and Arecibo radar reflections from the moon's South pole suggest that water ice is indeed present in certain lunar polar craters. Data from the Lunar Prospector spacecraft's epi-thermal neutron spectrometer also indicate that hydrogen is present at the moon's poles. Space Solar Power technology enables investigation of these craters, which may contain a billion-year-old stratigraphic record of tremendous scientific value. Layers of ice, preserved at the moon's poles, could help us determine the sequence and composition of comet impacts on the moon. Such ice deposits may even include distinct strata deposited by secondary ejecta following significant Earth (ocean) impacts, linked to major extinctions of life on Earth. Ice resources at the moon's poles could provide water and air for human exploration and development of space as well as rocket propellant for future space transportation. Technologies demonstrated and matured via lunar polar applications can also be used in other NASA science missions (Valles Marineris. Phobos, Deimos, Mercury's poles, asteroids, etc.) and in future large-scale SSP systems to beam energy from space to Earth. Ground-based technology demonstrations are proceeding to mature the technology for such a near

  13. Economic Feasibility and Market Readiness of Solar Technologies. Draft Final Report. Volume I.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaim, Silvio J.; Buchanan, Deborah L.; Christmas, Susan; Fellhauer, Cheryl; Glenn, Barbara; Ketels, Peter A.; Levary, Arnon; Mourning, Pete; Steggerda, Paul; Trivedi, Harit; Witholder, Robert E.

    1978-09-01

    Systems descriptions, costs, technical and market readiness assessments are reported for ten solar technologies: solar heating and cooling of buildings (SHACOB), passive, agricultural and industrial process heat (A/IPH), biomass, ocean thermal (OTEC), wind (WECS), solar thermal electric, photovoltaics, satellite power station (SPS), and solar total energy systems (STES). Study objectives, scope, and methods. are presented. of Joint Task The cost and market analyses portion 5213/6103 will be used to make commercialization assessments in the conclusions of. the final report.

  14. Parabolic trough solar concentrators: a technology which can contribute towards pakistan's energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masood, R.

    2013-01-01

    The utilization of solar thermal energy has got prime importance in Pakistan due to the current energy scarcity and escalating cost scenario in the country. Parabolic Trough Solar Concentrator is one of the most reliable technologies for utilization of solar thermal energy. In solar thermal power generation, Parabolic Trough Solar Concentrators are most successful as almost 96 percent of total solar thermal power is generated across the world by utilizing this technology. Its high reliability, operational compatibility, comparative low cost and high efficiency adds to its high value among other resources. Fortunately, Pakistan lies in the high Solar Insolation Zone; thus, a huge potential exists to benefit from this technology. This technology may cater to the Pakistan's seasonal increased electricity demand. Apart from electric power generation, this technology may also have cost-effective solutions for Pakistan's other industries, like steam generation, preheating of boiler make-up water, air-conditioning, and hot water production for food, textile, dairy and leather industries. However, economic justification of such projects would be possible only on accomplishing an indigenous technology base. Globally, this is a proven technology, but in Pakistan there is hardly any development in this field. In this study, an effort has been made by designing and fabricating an experimental Parabolic Trough Solar Water Heater by utilizing locally available materials and manufacturing capabilities. On achieving encouraging results, a solar boiler (steam generator) is proposed to be manufactured locally. (author)

  15. Solar energy and conservation technologies for Caribbean Tourist Facilities (CTF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary objectives of the Caribbean Tourist Facilities (CTF) project were to develop and publish materials and conduct workshops on solar energy and conservation technologies that would directly address the needs and interests of tourist facilities in the Caribbean basin. Past contacts with the Caribbean and US tourist industries indicated that decision-makers remained unconvinced that renewable technologies could have a significant impact on development and operation costs or that renewable energy products and services suited their needs. In order to assure that the materials and programs developed were responsive to the Caribbean tourist industry and U.S. conservation and renewable energy industries, marketing research with potential end users and the organizations and associations that serve those users was included as an underlying task in the project. The tasks outlined in the CTF Statement of Work included conference planning, gathering of field data, development of educational materials, and conduct of workshop(s). In addition to providing a chronicle of the fulfillment of those tasks, this final report includes suggestions for distributing the documents developed during the project, venues for future workshops, and other technology transfer and market influence strategies.

  16. SolarProTeam - Final report; Solar production technology melts architects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    To this date, no module manufacturing line has been able to produce special designed multiple function modules or Custom Design Solution (hereafter CDS) modules at costs that are anywhere near the costs of standard modules. The goal of this R and D project was to provide the basis for eliminating the multiplication of costs for specialised modules. The purpose of the SolarProTeam R and D project is to form the foundation of special production equipment and production lay-out in order to realise a cost-effective CDS module production line. The main results derive from research and development of: (1) A number of new module designs corresponding to the special demands of end-users. For instance, black shiny modules with high efficiency; long large black modules with in-built thermal absorbers; flexible high voltage lightweight modules for ground water pumping; large area curved colorful modules with for architecturally advanced buildings; a solar tree for power supply placed along roads and in public places. Module designs are reported. (2) A new general concept 'Q-keys' based on a master plan and specially designed modules integrating both very large and medium sized individual solar plants in the environment of the end-user. I.e., in addition to integration with regard to architectural and environment demands, integration with respect to technical demands are met, such as storage, desalination plants, cooling, mini-grids, the general grid, etc. The Q-keys concept emphasizes the financial issue in that the solar plants are competitive with coal generated electricity and stand-alone diesel generation of electricity. (3) Fully automated production equipment and a semi-automatic module production line, which can mass produce advanced multifunctional and/or architecturally integrated modules at a cost effective price. The equipment and production line were inspired by the functional and technological demands of different types of costumer designed modules. Due

  17. Absorption technology for solar and waste heat utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, G.

    1993-01-01

    Absorption heat pumps, first developed in the 19th century, have received renewed and growing attention in the past two decades. With the increasing cost of oil and electricity, the particular features of this heat-powered cycle have made it attractive for both residential and industrial applications. Solar-powered air conditioning, gas-fired domestic cooling and waste-heat-powered temperature boosters are some of the applications on which intensive research and development has been conducted. This paper describes the operation of absorption systems and discusses several practical applications. It surveys recent advances in absorption technology, including the selection of working fluids, cycle improvements and multi-staging, and fundamentals of the combined heat and mass transfer in absorption processes. (author)

  18. Solar-driven refrigeration technologies; Koeltechnologieen op zonne-energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Cillis, S.; Infante Ferreira, C.A. [Technische Universiteit Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Krieg, J. [Unilever Foods and Health Research Institute, Vlaardingen (Netherlands)

    2005-12-01

    A review is presented of solar driven refrigeration technologies. A subdivision is made between electric driven and thermal driven systems. Their potential and stage of development are discussed. The electric driven systems include Stirling, thermo-acoustic, thermoelectric, electrochemical and membrane assisted absorption systems. The thermal driven systems include absorption and adsorption systems. A model is used to compare the performance of the different solutions. [Dutch] Dit artikel geeft een overzicht van zon-aangedreven koeltechnologieen. Er wordt onderscheid gemaakt tussen elektrisch en thermisch aangedreven systemen. Hun potentieel en niveau van ontwikkeling worden besproken. De elektrisch aangedreven systemen omvatten Stirling, thermo-akoestisch, thermo-elektrisch, elektrochemisch en membraanondersteund absorptiesystemen.De warmte-aangedreven systemen omvatten absorptie en adsorptie. Er wordt gebruik gemaakt van een model om de prestaties van de verschillende alternatieven onderling te vergelijken.

  19. Gamma Large Area Silicon Telescope (GLAST): Applying silicon strip detector technology to the detection of gamma rays in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, W.B.

    1993-06-01

    The recent discoveries and excitement generated by space satellite experiment EGRET (presently operating on Compton Gamma Ray Observatory -- CGRO) have prompted an investigation into modern detector technologies for the next generation space based gamma ray telescopes. The GLAST proposal is based on silicon strip detectors as the open-quotes technology of choiceclose quotes for space application: no consumables, no gas volume, robust (versus fragile), long lived, and self triggerable. The GLAST detector basically has two components: a tracking module preceding a calorimeter. The tracking module has planes of crossed strip (x,y) 300 μm pitch silicon detectors coupled to a thin radiator to measure the coordinates of converted electron-positron pairs. The gap between the layers (∼5 cm) provides a lever arm for track fitting resulting in an angular resolution of <0.1 degree at high energy. The status of this R ampersand D effort is discussed including details on triggering the instrument, the organization of the detector electronics and readout, and work on computer simulations to model this instrument

  20. Technology Requirements for a Square Meter, Arcsecond Resolution Telescope for X-Rays: The SMART-X Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.; Allured, Ryan; Bookbinder, Jay A.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Forman, William R.; Freeman, Mark D.; McMuldroch, Stuart; Reid, Paul B.; Tananbaum, Harvey; Vikhlinin, Alexey A.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the astrophysical problems of the 2020's requires sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with square meter effective area. Such requirements can be derived, for example, by considering deep x-ray surveys to find the young black holes in the early universe (large redshifts) which will grow into the first super-massive black holes. We have envisioned a mission, the Square Meter Arcsecond Resolution Telescope for X-rays (SMART-X), based on adjustable x-ray optics technology, incorporating mirrors with the required small ratio of mass to collecting area. We are pursuing technology which achieves sub-arcsecond resolution by on-orbit adjustment via thin film piezoelectric "cells" deposited directly on the non-reflecting sides of thin, slumped glass. While SMART-X will also incorporate state-of-the-art x-ray cameras, the remaining spacecraft systems have no requirements more stringent than those which are well understood and proven on the current Chandra X-ray Observatory.

  1. The future prospect of PV and CSP solar technologies: An expert elicitation survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosetti, Valentina; Catenacci, Michela; Fiorese, Giulia; Verdolini, Elena

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present and discuss the results of an expert elicitation survey on solar technologies. Sixteen leading European experts from the academic world, the private sector and international institutions took part in this expert elicitation survey on Photovoltaic (PV) and Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technologies. The survey collected probabilistic information on (1) how Research, Development and Demonstration (RD and D) investments will impact the future costs of solar technologies and (2) the potential for solar technology deployment both in OECD and non-OECD countries. Understanding the technological progress and the potential of solar PV and CPS technologies is crucial to draft appropriate energy policies. The results presented in this paper are thus relevant for the policy making process and can be used as better input data in integrated assessment and energy models. - Highlights: ► With constant public support at least one solar technology will become cost-competitive with fossil fuels. ► Demonstration should become a key area of funding. ► Without climate policy (carbon price), by 2030 solar technologies will not be cost-competitive. ► The EU will first achieve a breakthrough in production costs. ► The share of electricity production from solar will never exceed 30%.

  2. Advanced Methods for Incorporating Solar Energy Technologies into Electric Sector Capacity-Expansion Models: Literature Review and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, P.; Eurek, K.; Margolis, R.

    2014-07-01

    Because solar power is a rapidly growing component of the electricity system, robust representations of solar technologies should be included in capacity-expansion models. This is a challenge because modeling the electricity system--and, in particular, modeling solar integration within that system--is a complex endeavor. This report highlights the major challenges of incorporating solar technologies into capacity-expansion models and shows examples of how specific models address those challenges. These challenges include modeling non-dispatchable technologies, determining which solar technologies to model, choosing a spatial resolution, incorporating a solar resource assessment, and accounting for solar generation variability and uncertainty.

  3. International energy technology collaboration and climate change mitigation. Case study 1. Concentrating Solar Power Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philibert, C. [Energy and Environment Division, International Energy Agency IEA, Paris (France)

    2004-07-01

    international collaboration by describing the globalisation of the economy and current efforts of technology collaboration and transfer. Finally, it considers various ways to strengthen international energy technology collaboration. This paper is one of six case-studies designed in an effort to provide practical insights on the role international technology collaboration could play to achieve the objectives of the UNFCCC. They will all consider the past achievements of international technology collaboration, and the role it could play in helping to develop and disseminate new technologies in the future: what worked, what did not work and why, and what lessons might be drawn from past experiences. Most case studies consider energy technologies that could help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. A few others consider areas not directly related to greenhouse gas emissions but where international technology collaboration has proven particularly successful in the past. This case study reviews past and current experience in international collaboration in the field of concentrating solar technologies in order to identify lessons that may be relevant for more general climate-friendly technology collaboration. It presents concentrating solar technologies in their current status, recent achievements and development prospects. It analyses the present successes and failures of different forms of international collaboration in this field, and draws lessons for further elaboration of international technology collaboration in addressing climate change.

  4. Utilization of space technology for terrestrial solar power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, R. K.; Patterson, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    A description is given of the evolution of photovoltaic power systems designed and built for terrestrial applications, giving attention to problem areas which are currently impeding the further development of such systems. The rooftop testing of surplus solar panels is considered along with solar powered seismic observatories, solar powered portable radio sets, and design considerations identified from past experience. Present activities discussed are related to a solar powered on-shore beacon flasher system, a solar powered buoy, and a solar powered beacon flasher buoy.

  5. Development of Inorganic Solar Cells by Nano-technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yafei Zhang; HueyLiang Hwang; Huijuan Geng; Zhihua Zhou; Jiang Wu; Zhiming Wang; Yaozhong Zhang; Zhongli Li; Liying Zhang; Zhi Yang

    2012-01-01

    Inorganic solar cells, as durable photovoltaic devices for harvesting electric energy from sun light, have received tremendous attention due to the fear of exhausting the earth’s energy resources and damaging the living environment due to greenhouse gases. Some recent developments in nanotechnology have opened up new avenues for more relevant inorganic solar cells produced by new photovoltaic conversion concepts and effective solar energy harvesting nanostructures. In this review, the multiple exciton generation effect solar cells, hot carrier solar cells, one dimensional material constructed asymmetrical schottky barrier arrays, noble nanoparticle induced plasmonic enhancement, and light trapping nanostructured semiconductor solar cells are highlighted.

  6. Liverpool Telescope and Liverpool Telescope 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copperwheat, C. M.; Steele, I. A.; Barnsley, R. M.; Bates, S. D.; Clay, N. R.; Jermak, H.; Marchant, J. M.; Mottram, C. J.; Piascik, A.; Smith, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Liverpool Telescope is a fully robotic optical/near-infrared telescope with a 2-metre clear aperture, located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos on the Canary Island of La Palma. The telescope is owned and operated by Liverpool John Moores University, with financial support from the UK's Science and Technology Facilities Council. The telescope began routine science operations in 2004 and is a common-user facility with time available through a variety of committees via an open, peer reviewed process. Seven simultaneously mounted instruments support a broad science programme, with a focus on transient follow-up and other time domain topics well suited to the characteristics of robotic observing. Development has also begun on a successor facility, with the working title `Liverpool Telescope 2', to capitalise on the new era of time domain astronomy which will be brought about by the next generation of survey facilities such as LSST. The fully robotic Liverpool Telescope 2 will have a 4-metre aperture and an improved response time. In this paper we provide an overview of the current status of both facilities.

  7. Spectral calibration of filters and detectors of solar EUV telescope for 13.2 nm for the TESIS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzin, S.V.; Shestov, S.V.; Pertsov, A.A.; Reva, A.A.; Zuev, S.Yu.; Lopatin, A.Ya.; Luchin, V.I.; Zhou, Kh.; Khuo, T.

    2008-01-01

    The full-sun EUV telescope for 13.2 nm spectral band for the TESIS experiment is designed to produce images of hot coronal plasma (T ∼ 10 MK). Calibration process of optical elements is presented. Spectral transmission of multilayer Zr/Si filters, sensitivity and radiation tolerance of CCD detector have been measured. Peak transmission of EUV filters in working, spectral band reaches 40-50% (filters with 50 and 55 layers are used), spectral dependence of transmission is close to calculated one. Transmission of filters in white light is equal to (1-2)x10 -6 . Sensitivity of CCD ranges from 0.01 to 0.1 ADC units per photon, radiation tolerance is better than 10 9 rad [ru

  8. Solar technology and building implementation in Malaysia: A national paradigm shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrul Nizam Kamaruzzaman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Solar technology is becoming increasingly popular. For example, the production of solarcells quadrupled in the 1999-2004 period, with a capacity of four gigawatts worldwide. Renewableenergy including solar power produces few or no harmful emissions and it is becoming increasinglyimportant to exploit it in the future. This paper presents a literature review of the application ofnumerous types of solar technology in buildings in Malaysia and identifies the challenges faced.Although several newly constructed green buildings use solar technology, Malaysia has yet to acceptit wholesale. If solar technology is to be adopted widely, then both public and private sectors mustcooperate to provide large-scale financial incentives and produce specialists in solar technology. Asthe first step, the government has established the Low Energy Office and the Green Energy Office,which use passive solar design and photovoltaic systems in their own buildings. However, the privatesector has yet to follow suit. It is anticipated that the application of solar technology in buildings willencourage sustainable development when all non-renewable energy sources decrease significantly. Ifpeople do not recognise the potential of such technology in daily life, it will soon be too late.

  9. Wireless electricity (Power) transmission using solar based power satellite technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqsood, M; Nasir, M Nauman

    2013-01-01

    In the near future due to extensive use of energy, limited supply of resources and the pollution in environment from present resources e.g. (wood, coal, fossil fuel) etc, alternative sources of energy and new ways to generate energy which are efficient, cost effective and produce minimum losses are of great concern. Wireless electricity (Power) transmission (WET) has become a focal point as research point of view and nowadays lies at top 10 future hot burning technologies that are under research these days. In this paper, we present the concept of transmitting power wirelessly to reduce transmission and distribution losses. The wired distribution losses are 70 – 75% efficient. We cannot imagine the world without electric power which is efficient, cost effective and produce minimum losses is of great concern. This paper tells us the benefits of using WET technology specially by using Solar based Power satellites (SBPS) and also focuses that how we make electric system cost effective, optimized and well organized. Moreover, attempts are made to highlight future issues so as to index some emerging solutions.

  10. Mission to the Solar System: Exploration and Discovery. A Mission and Technology Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulkis, S. (Editor); Stetson, D. S. (Editor); Stofan, E. R. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Solar System exploration addresses some of humanity's most fundamental questions: How and when did life form on Earth? Does life exist elsewhere in the Solar System or in the Universe? - How did the Solar System form and evolve in time? - What can the other planets teach us about the Earth? This document describes a Mission and Technology Roadmap for addressing these and other fundamental Solar System Questions. A Roadmap Development Team of scientists, engineers, educators, and technologists worked to define the next evolutionary steps in in situ exploration, sample return, and completion of the overall Solar System survey. Guidelines were to "develop aa visionary, but affordable, mission and technology development Roadmap for the exploration of the Solar System in the 2000 to 2012 timeframe." The Roadmap provides a catalog of potential flight missions. (Supporting research and technology, ground-based observations, and laboratory research, which are no less important than flight missions, are not included in this Roadmap.)

  11. The Dutch Open Telescope: History, Status, Prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    After many years of persistent telescope design and telescope construction, R.H. Hammerschlag has installed his Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on La Palma. I brie y review its history and design. The future of optical solar physics at Utrecht hinges on a recently-funded three- year DOT science

  12. Solar Energy Technologies Program FY08 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-05-01

    These reports chronicle the research and development (R&D) results of the Solar Program for the fiscal year. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories and its university and industry partners within PV R&D, Solar Thermal R&D, which encompasses solar water heating and concentrating solar power (CSP), and other subprograms.

  13. A 100 kW-Class Technology Demonstrator for Space Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, J.; Carrington, C.; Day, G.

    2004-12-01

    A first step in the development of solar power from space is the flight demonstration of critical technologies. These fundamental technologies include efficient solar power collection and generation, power management and distribution, and thermal management. In addition, the integration and utilization of these technologies into a viable satellite bus could provide an energy-rich platform for a portfolio of payload experiments such as wireless power transmission (WPT). This paper presents the preliminary design of a concept for a 100 kW-class free-flying platform suitable for flight demonstration of Space Solar Power (SSP) technology experiments.

  14. Solar generators in terrestrial communication technology. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, E

    1978-01-01

    To begin with, the basic terms solar cell, solar cell module, solar generator, and solar generator system are defined and illustrated by examples. After this, the advantages and disadvantages of solar generators in power supply for terrestrial communications as compared to dry cell batteries, diesel generators and mains operation are discussed with a view to technical, economic, and ecological aspects. After some hints for an optimum design of systems, a comprehensive, general list of possible applications is given. The second part will give a detailed description of typical and exemplary applications.

  15. Profits or preferences? Assessing the adoption of residential solar thermal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Bradford F.; Schleich, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Solar thermal technologies offer the potential to meet a substantial share of residential water and space heating needs in the EU, but current levels of adoption are low. This paper uses data from a large sample of German households to assess the effects of geographic, residence, and household characteristics on the adoption of solar thermal water and space heating technologies. In addition, the impact of solar thermal technology adoption on household energy expenditures is estimated after controlling for observed household heterogeneity in geographic, residential, and household characteristics. While evidence is found of moderate household energy expenditure savings from combined solar water and space heating systems, the findings generally confirm that low in-home energy cost savings and fixed housing stocks limit the diffusion of residential solar thermal technologies. Little evidence is found of differential adoption by distinct socio-economic groups.

  16. Economic opportunities resulting from a global deployment of concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies-The example of German technology providers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallentin, Daniel; Viebahn, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Several energy scenario studies consider concentrated solar power (CSP) plants as an important technology option to reduce the world's CO 2 emissions to a level required for not letting the global average temperature exceed a threshold of 2-2.4 o C. A global ramp up of CSP technologies offers great economic opportunities for technology providers as CSP technologies include highly specialised components. This paper analyses possible value creation effects resulting from a global deployment of CSP until 2050 as projected in scenarios of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and Greenpeace International. The analysis focuses on the economic opportunities of German technology providers since companies such as Schott Solar, Flabeg or Solar Millennium are among the leading suppliers of CSP technologies on the global market.

  17. The Spectrometer/Telescope for Imaging X-rays on Solar Orbiter: Flight design, challenges and trade-offs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krucker, S.; Bednarzik, M.; Grimm, O.; Hurford, G.J.; Limousin, O.; Meuris, A.; Orleański, P.; Seweryn, K.; Skup, K.R.

    2016-01-01

    STIX is the X-ray spectral imaging instrument on-board the Solar Orbiter space mission of the European Space Agency, and together with nine other instruments will address questions of the interaction between the Sun and the heliosphere. STIX will study the properties of thermal and accelerated electrons near the Sun through their Bremsstrahlung X-ray emission, addressing in particular the emission from flaring regions on the Sun. The design phase of STIX has been concluded. This paper reports the final flight design of the instrument, focusing on design challenges that were faced recently and how they were addressed.

  18. Social acceptance of solar energy technologies in China-End users' perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xueliang; Zuo Jian; Ma Chunyuan

    2011-01-01

    Energy is essential to human beings. The increasing demand of energy has triggered the public scrutiny on the sustainability issues associated with the energy production and transmission. There have been a large number of studies focusing on reducing the environmental impacts associated with the energy sector. Renewable energy sources such as solar energy have been prompted to mitigate these environmental impacts. This research adopted a quantitative approach to investigate the social acceptance of solar energy technologies from end users' perspective in Shandong province, China. A large scale questionnaire survey was conducted. The results show that there is a considerable high level of social acceptance and public awareness of solar water heater. However, another major application of solar energy, solar PV has not gained a high level of social acceptance or public awareness in Shandong. This study provides useful references for policy makers to further promote the utilization of solar energy innovations. - Research Highlights: → Social acceptance of solar energy technologies from end users' perspective is investigated by a large scale questionnaire survey. → Higher level of social acceptance and public awareness of solar water heater than solar PV. → Impact factors for social acceptance of solar energy technologies are analyzed.

  19. Refractive integrated nonimaging solar collectors design and analysis of a novel solar-daylighting-technology

    OpenAIRE

    Pelegrini, Alexandre Vieira

    2009-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. A novel and original category of low-cost static solar-daylighting-collectors named Keywo solar energy, solar collectors, daylighting systems, nonimaging optics, Refractive Integrated Nonimaging Solar Collectors (RINSC) has been designed and thoroughly tested. The RINSC category is based on nonimaging optics and integrates several optical elements, such as prismatic arrays and light guides, i...

  20. Process Heat Generation Potential from Solar Concentration Technologies in Latin America: The Case of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidoro Lillo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the potential of solar concentration technologies—compound parabolic collector (CPC, linear Fresnel collector (LFC and parabolic trough collector (PTC—as an alternative to conventional sources of energy for industrial processes in Latin America, where high levels of solar radiation and isolated areas without energy supply exist. The analysis is addressed from energy, economic and environmental perspective. A specific application for Argentina in which fourteen locations are analyzed is considered. Results show that solar concentration technologies can be an economically and environmentally viable alternative. Levelized cost of energy (LCOE ranges between 2.5 and 16.9 c€/kWh/m2 and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions avoided range between 33 and 348 kgCO2/(m2·year. CPC technology stands out as the most recommendable technology when the working fluid temperature ranges from 373 K to 423 K. As the working fluid temperature increases the differences between the LCOE values of the CPC and LFC technologies decrease. When 523 K is reached LFC technology is the one which presents the lowest LCOE values for all analyzed sites, while the LCOE values of PTC technology are close to CPC technology values. Results show that solar concentration technologies have reached economic and environmental competitiveness levels under certain scenarios, mainly linked to solar resource available, thermal level requirements and solar technology cost.

  1. Packaged solar water heating technology: twenty years of progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Graham; Wood, Byard

    2000-01-01

    The world market for packaged solar water heaters is reviewed, and descriptions are given of the different types of solar domestic water heaters (SDWH), design concepts for packaged SDWH, thermosyphon SDWH, evacuated insulation and excavated tube collectors, seasonally biased solar collectors, heat pump water heaters, and photovoltaic water heaters. The consumer market value for SDWHs is explained, and the results of a survey of solar water heating are summarised covering advantages, perceived disadvantages, the relative importance of purchase decision factors, experience with system components, and the most frequent maintenance problems. The durability, reliability, and performance of SDWHs are discussed

  2. Technology for Bayton-cycle powerplants using solar and nuclear energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Brayton cycle gas turbines have the potential to use either solar heat or nuclear reactors for generating from tens of kilowatts to tens of megawatts of power in space, all this from a single technology for the power generating system. Their development for solar energy dynamic power generation for the space station could be the first step in an evolution of such powerplants for a very wide range of applications. At the low power level of only 10 kWe, a power generating system has already demonstrated overall efficiency of 0.29 and operated 38 000 hr. Tests of improved components show that these components would raise that efficiency to 0.32, a value twice that demonstrated by any alternate concept. Because of this high efficiency, solar Brayton cycle power generators offer the potential to increase power per unit of solar collector area to levels exceeding four times that from photovoltaic powerplants using present technology for silicon solar cells. The technologies for solar mirrors and heat receivers are reviewed and assessed. This Brayton technology for solar powerplants is equally suitable for use with the nuclear reactors. The available long time creep data on the tantalum alloy ASTAR-811C show that such Brayton cycles can evolve to cycle peak temperatures of 1500 K (2240 F). And this same technology can be extended to generate 10 to 100 MW in space by exploiting existing technology for terrestrial gas turbines in the fields of both aircraft propulsion and stationary power generation.

  3. 78 FR 31997 - Greatmat Technology Corp., Kentucky USA Energy, Inc., Solar Energy Ltd., and Visiphor Corp...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Greatmat Technology Corp., Kentucky USA Energy, Inc., Solar Energy Ltd., and Visiphor Corp., Order of Suspension of Trading May 23, 2013. It appears... concerning the securities of Solar Energy Ltd. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period...

  4. Phenothiazine-Based Dyes in Solar Cell Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Bejan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenothiazine is a fused heterocyclic ring with strong electron-donating character which makes it an important building block for designing organic materials for solar cells applications. The present paper reviews the most recent achievements of phenothiazine-based compounds as dyes in solar cells, with special emphasis on the structure – performance relationship.

  5. Solar drying: An appropriate technology for the north Argentina; Secado solar: Una tecnologia apropiada para el norte argentino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurlo, Hugo D; Vergara, Liliana; Spotorno, Ruben; Benitez, Francisco; De Pedro, Jorge; Cervino, Veronica; Monzon, Sergio [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Chaco (Argentina)

    2000-07-01

    The results concerning to solar drying of nutritious products for rehearsed a low cost solar dryer, adapted to the area, composed by a plane solar collector of 2 m{sup 2} and a drying camera with capacity for, approximately, 5 kg of product. The objectives of the work were: a) to develop a low cost solar dry, capable to dehydrate products for human alimentary use; b) to transfer the developed technology to low resources rural communities through the INCUPO (Institute of Popular Culture) and to small producers through the INTA (National Institute of Agricultural Technology) and c) to diffuse the practice of the solar drying among small producers. The diffusion and transfer of the developed technology to small rural producers, contribute to improve their quality of life when facilitating them additional revenues for productive diversification, besides the contribution to the sustainable use of the forest like source of non conventional nutritious resources contributing to the task of cultural rescue faced by organizations like the INCUPO. [Spanish] Se exponen los resultados concernientes al secado solar de productos alimenticios para consumo humano. Se diseno, construyo y ensayo un secador solar de bajo costo, adaptado a la zona, compuesto por un colector solar plano de 2m{sup 2} y una camara de secado con capacidad para, aproximadamente, 5 kg de producto fresco. Los objetivos del trabajo fueron: a) desarrollar un secadero solar de bajo costo, apto para deshidratar productos para uso alimentario humano; b) transferir la tecnologia desarrollada a comunidades rurales de bajos recursos a traves del INCUPO (Instituto de Cultura Popular) y a pequenos productores a traves del INTA (Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria) y c) difundir la practica del secado solar entre productores frutihorticolas. La difusion y transferencia de la tecnologia desarrollada a pequenos productores rurales, contribuye a mejorar su calidad de vida al posibilitarles ingresos adicionales

  6. The impact of state financial incentives on market deployment of solar technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarzynski, Andrea; Larrieu, Jeremy; Shrimali, Gireesh

    2012-01-01

    Many states have adopted financial incentives to encourage market deployment of solar energy technology. This paper employs a cross-sectional time-series approach to evaluate the extent to which state solar financial incentives systematically encouraged market deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology from 1997 to 2009. The results demonstrate that states offering cash incentives such as rebates and grants experienced more extensive and rapid deployment of grid-tied PV technology than states without cash incentives over the study period. The analysis also finds that the presence of state renewable energy portfolio standards and specific solar carve-out provisions within them heavily influenced the market deployment of grid-tied solar PV technology through 2009. - Highlights: ► We evaluate the impact of state financial incentives on solar technology adoption. ► Cash incentives and renewable portfolio standards strongly influenced deployment. ► The impact of cash incentives and RPS grew significantly over time. ► Tax incentives had little systematic effect on solar market deployment.

  7. Comet C2012 S1 (ISON): Observations of the Dust Grains From SOFIA and of the Atomic Gas From NSO Dunn and Mcmath-Pierce Solar Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Woodward, Charles E.; Harker, David E.; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Sitko, Michael; Reach, William T.; De Pater, Imke; Gehrz, Robert D.; Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Cochran, Anita L.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) is unique in that it is a dynamically new comet derived from the Oort cloud reservoir of comets with a sun-grazing orbit. Infrared (IR) and visible wavelength observing campaigns were planned on NASA's Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) and on National Solar Observatory Dunn (DST) and McMath-Pierce Solar Telescopes, respectively. We highlight our SOFIA (+FORCAST) mid- to far-IR images and spectroscopy (approx. 5-35 microns) of the dust in the coma of ISON are to be obtained by the ISON-SOFIA Team during a flight window 2013 Oct 21-23 UT (r_h approx. = 1.18 AU). Dust characteristics, identified through the 10 micron silicate emission feature and its strength, as well as spectral features from cometary crystalline silicates (Forsterite) at 11.05-11.2 microns, and near 16, 19, 23.5, 27.5, and 33 microns are compared with other Oort cloud comets that span the range of small and/or highly porous grains (e.g., C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) and C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) to large and/or compact grains (e.g., C/2007 N4 (Lulin) and C/2006 P1 (McNaught)). Measurement of the crystalline peaks in contrast to the broad 10 and 20 micron amorphous silicate features yields the cometary silicate crystalline mass fraction, which is a benchmark for radial transport in our protoplanetary disk. The central wavelength positions, relative intensities, and feature asymmetries for the crystalline peaks may constrain the shapes of the crystals. Only SOFIA can look for cometary organics in the 5-8 micron region. Spatially resolved measurements of atoms and simple molecules from when comet ISON is near the Sun (r_hmeasures 4 settings: Na I, K, C2 to sample cometary organics (along with Mg I), and [OI] as a proxy for activity from water (along with Si I and Fe I). State-of-the-art instruments that will also be employed include IBIS, which is a Fabry-Perot spectral imaging system that concurrently measures lines of Na, K, Ca II, or Fe, and ROSA (CSUN/QUB), which is a

  8. Search for solar axions with the X-ray telescope of the CAST experiment (phase II); Suche nach solaren Axionen mit dem Roentgenteleskop des CAST-Experiments (Phase II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordt, Annika

    2009-10-14

    The CAST (CERN Solar Axion Telescope) experiment is searching for solar axions by their conversion into photons inside a transverse magnetic field. So far, no solar axionsignal has been detected, but a new upper limit could be given (CAST Phase I). Since 2005, CAST entered in its second phase where it operates with a buffer gas ({sup 4}He) in the conversion region to extend the sensitivity of the experiment to higher axionmasses. For the first time it is possible to enter the theoretically favored axion massrange and to give an upper limit for this solar axion mass-range (>0.02 eV). This thesis is about the analysis of the X-ray telescope data Phase II with {sup 4}He inside the magnet. The result for the coupling constant of axions to photons is: g{sub {alpha}}{sub {gamma}}{sub {gamma}}<1.6-6.0 x 10{sup -10} GeV{sup -1} (95%C.L.) for m{sub a}=0.02-0.4 eV. (2) This result is better than any result that has been given before in this mass range for solar axions. (orig.)

  9. Solar Power and Solar Fuels Synthesis Report. Technology, market and research activities 2006-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridell, Bengt; Nilsson, Ronny; Rehnlund, Bjoern [Grontmij, Stockholm (Sweden); Kasemo, Bengt [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-11-01

    The objectives of the synthesis is to survey the situation and give an accumulated and concentrated knowledge about status, needs and opportunities for Swedish research and Swedish industry within the area of solar power and solar fuels, to be used for prioritisation of further efforts. The synthesis shall identify strengths and weaknesses in areas fundamental for development of solar power and solar fuels, focused on the development in Sweden, but in an international context. The synthesis shall also cover proposals for future Swedish research efforts and organisation of future Swedish research programs.

  10. Enabling kinetic micro-penetrator technology for Solar System research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, R. A.

    2008-09-01

    Whilst the concept of high speed impacting penetrator probes is not new, recent highly successful ground test results have considerably improved the perception that these can be a viable and useful addition to the current toolbox of planetary probes. Previous developments only led to a single deployment (Deep Space-2 to Mars on the ill fated NASA Mars Polar Lander mission in 1999) where neither the soft lander nor penetrator was ever heard from, which is not a logical basis for dismissing penetrator technology. Other space penetrator programmes have included the Russian Mars'96 ~80m/s penetrators for which the whole mission was lost before the spacecraft left Earth orbit, and the Japanese Lunar-A program which was cancelled after a lengthy development program which however saw multiple successful ground trials. The Japanese penetrators were designed for ~300m/s impact. The current UK penetrator developments are actively working towards full space qualification for a Lunar penetrators (MoonLITE mission), which would also provide a significant technical demonstration towards the development of smaller, shorter lived penetrators for exploring other solar system objects. We are advocating delivered micro-penetrators in the mass range ~4-10Kg, (preceded by ~13Kg Lunar penetrator MoonLITE development program), impacting at around 100-500m/s and carrying a scientific payload of around 2Kg. Additional mass is required to deliver the probes from `orbit' to surface which is dependent upon the particular planetary body in question. The mass per descent module therefore involves and additional element which, for a descent through an atmosphere could be quite modest, while for a flyby deployment, can be substantial. For Europa we estimate a descent module mass of ~13 Kg, while for Enceladus the value is ~40Kg for Enceladus since a deceleration of ~3.8 kms-1 is needed from a Titan orbit. The delivery system could consist of a rocket deceleration motor and attitude control system

  11. Origins Space Telescope: Study Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayyeri, Hooshang; Cooray, Asantha; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its spectrographs will enable 3D surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu. This presentation will provide a summary of the OST STDT, the OST Study Team based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, study partners, and the advisory panel to the study. This presentation will also summarize recent activities, including the process used to reach a decision on the mission architecture, the identification of key science drivers, and the key study milestones between 2017 and 2020.

  12. Control and Modelling of Seawater Desalination Using Solar Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca, L.; Yebra, L. J.; Berenguel, M.; Alarcon, D. C.

    2006-07-01

    Desalination plants play a fundamental role in fighting the shortage of fresh water in places with plentiful seawater resources. This paper briefly describes a solar desalination system designed, erected and operated in the AQUASOL project at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA), consisting basically of a CPC (Compound Parabolic Concentrator) solar collector field, two water storage tanks, a multi-effect distillation plant (MED) and a Double Effect Absorption Heat Pump (DEAHP). These subsystems have been modeled to estimate system behaviour and develop control techniques for maintaining optimal operating conditions. (Author)

  13. Solar education combining art, history, science and technology at archaeological sites in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvi, C.; Ferro, P. [ISES (Italy); Ceccarini, T. [Educational Section - State Superintendence of Archaeological Monuments in Rome (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    ''Solar Art and Solar Technologies'' and ''Solar Energy by studying Ancient Architecture'' laboratory promoted by ISES ITALIA and the Educational Section of the State Superintendence of Archaeological Monuments in Rome involved from 2000 to 2004 roughly 1000 schoolchildren, 20 teachers and five archaeologists. For its innovative character and its special approach to solar education, the exhibition ''Solar Art and Technologies'' has been acknowledged among the 50 best projects of the ''2001 Energy Globe Award.'' The program has been continuously improved and has broadened its educational reach beyond schoolchildren. The experiences made at the archaeological sites from the energy point of view lead to new research projects and initiatives on solar energy at the archaeological sites during the excavations, while exploring historical sources, and at the involved schools. A seminar on ''Solar energy and the built environment in past civilizations'' will be held at the end of May 2004 to review historical sources and the most recent archaeological discoveries that have relation with solar architecture and technology. The seminar will also address the possible participation of historians and archaeologists in the history sessions planned at ISES 2005 (www.swc2005.org). (orig.)

  14. Cost Modeling for Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2011-01-01

    Parametric cost models are an important tool for planning missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. This paper presents on-going efforts to develop single variable and multi-variable cost models for space telescope optical telescope assembly (OTA). These models are based on data collected from historical space telescope missions. Standard statistical methods are used to derive CERs for OTA cost versus aperture diameter and mass. The results are compared with previously published models.

  15. Space Solar Power Satellite Technology Development at the Glenn Research Center: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudenhoefer, James E.; George, Patrick J.

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). is participating in the Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology program (SERT) for the development of a solar power satellite concept. The aim of the program is to provide electrical power to Earth by converting the Sun's energy and beaming it to the surface. This paper will give an overall view of the technologies being pursued at GRC including thin film photovoltaics, solar dynamic power systems, space environmental effects, power management and distribution, and electric propulsion. The developmental path not only provides solutions to gigawatt sized space power systems for the future, but provides synergistic opportunities for contemporary space power architectures. More details of Space Solar Power can be found by reading the references sited in this paper and by connecting to the web site http://moonbase.msfc.nasa.gov/ and accessing the "Space Solar Power" section "Public Access" area.

  16. Pico-solar electric systems the earthscan expert guide to the technology and emerging market

    CERN Document Server

    Keane, John

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the technology behind the pico-solar revolution and offers guidance on how to test and choose quality products. The book also discusses how pioneering companies and initiatives are overcoming challenges to reach scale in the marketplace, from innovative distribution strategies to reach customers in rural India and Tanzania, to product development in Cambodia, product assembly in Mozambique and the introduction of 'pay as you go' technology in Kenya.Pico-solar is a new category of solar electric system which has the potential to transform the lives

  17. Solar-insolation-induced changes in the coma morphology of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Optical monitoring with the Nordic Optical Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaprudin, B.; Lehto, H. J.; Nilsson, K.; Somero, A.; Pursimo, T.; Snodgrass, C.; Schulz, R.

    2017-07-01

    Context. 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P/C-G) is a short-period Jupiter family comet with an orbital period of 6.55 yr. Being the target comet of ESA's Rosetta mission, 67P/C-G has become one of the most intensively studied minor bodies of the solar system. The Rosetta Orbiter and the Philae Lander have brought us unique information about the structure and activity of the comet nucleus, as well as its activity along the orbit, composition of gas, and dust particles emitted into the coma. However, as Rosetta stayed in very close proximity to the cometary nucleus (less than 500 km with a few short excursions reaching up to 1500 km), it could not see the global picture of a coma at the scales reachable by telescopic observations (103 - 105 km). Aims: In this work we aim to connect in-situ observations made by Rosetta with the morphological evolution of the coma structures monitored by the ground-based observations. In particular, we concentrate on causal relationships between the coma morphology and evolution observed with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) in the Canary Islands, and the seasonal changes of the insolation and the activity of the comet observed by the Rosetta instruments. Methods: Comet 67P/C-G was monitored with the NOT in imaging mode in two colors. Imaging optical observations were performed roughly on a weekly basis, which provides good coverage of short- and long-term variability. With the three dimensional modeling of the coma produced by active regions on the southern hemisphere, we aim to qualify the observed morphology by connecting it to the activity observed by Rosetta. Results: During our monitoring program, we detected major changes in the coma morphology of comet 67P/C-G. These were long-term and long-lasting changes. They do not represent any sudden outburst or short transient event, but are connected to seasonal changes of the surface insolation and the emergence of new active regions on the irregular shaped comet nucleus. We have also

  18. solar thermal power systems advanced solar thermal technology project, advanced subsystems development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design for a prototype small (20 kWe) solar thermal electric generating unit was completed, consisting of several subsystems. The concentrator and the receiver collect solar energy and a thermal buffer storage with a transport system is used to provide a partially smoothed heat input to the Stirling engine. A fossil-fuel combustor is included in the receiver designs to permit operation with partial or no solar insolation (hybrid). The engine converts the heat input into mechanical action that powers a generator. To obtain electric power on a large scale, multiple solar modules will be required to operate in parallel. The small solar electric power plant used as a baseline design will provide electricity at remote sites and small communities.

  19. Holding a candle to innovation in concentrating solar power technologies: A study drawing on patent data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, Frauke G.; Hooper, Elizabeth; Wand, Robert; Zloczysti, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Improved understanding of the innovative pathways of renewable energy technologies is vital if we are to make the transition to a low carbon economy. This study presents new evidence on innovation and industry dynamics in concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. Though CSP is undergoing a renaissance, existing innovation studies have explored innovative activity in solar technologies in general, ignoring the major differences between solar photovoltaic and CSP technologies. This study, based on patent data, examines the level and dynamics of innovative activity in CSP between 1978 and 2004. Our unique contribution, based on engineering expertise and detailed datawork, is a classification system mapping CSP technologies to the International Patent Classification (IPC) system. The innovation performance of CSP is found to be surprisingly weak compared to the patent boom in other green technologies. Performance was strong around 1980 before falling dramatically, and has only recently begun to show signs of recovery. Innovation and R and D are concentrated in high-tech countries; the US, Germany and Japan, which do not necessarily have high domestic CSP potential. Large CSP potential is, therefore, not a sufficient condition for innovation. Innovators must possess economic and scientific capabilities. - Research highlights: → We develop a new classification system which allows us to map innovation in CSP technologies to the International Patent Classification System. → Evidence of innovation patterns in concentrating solar power technologies is presented. → Innovation performance in CSP is surprisingly weak compared to patenting in other green technologies, despite its strong potential as a low carbon power generation technology.

  20. Volumetric solar thermal receiver principles and technological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagie, D.; Gruntman, S.; Taragan, E.; Danino, M.; Weiss, S.; Mimon, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Solar energy has received much interest in recent years, being a clean free of pollution or other environmental dotage), and inexhaustible energy source. It is also considered safer than some other non conventional energy sources (like nuclear energy). The interest in solar energy is motivated mainly by the growing awareness of the environmental problems associated with the use of . conventional keels. However, solar energy may become a serious alternative only if it can be used efficiently in major energy consuming industries (like the chemical industry), or be used for electricity generation. Those facilities are nowadays solely depend on fossil fuels as the prime source of energy . The solar energy, reaches file Earth as radiation, can be utilized either by direct quantum conversion using photo-voltaic solar cells, or by converting the radiation into thermal energy, to be used directly for heating, or to feed a thermal to electric converting cycle. Alter three decades of huge spending on the development of photo-voltaic systems those devices are commercially competitive only on very small energy scale, while solar thermal commercial applications are evident. The prominent examples are the domestic heating water receivers (direct thermal), and LUZ International electricity generation plants which are currently operated on a commercial basis, supplying 80 MWe per plant. Direct thermal exploitation of solar energy is naturally more efficient than converting to electricity but is limited to specific applications and locations especially since thermal storage at high temperature is not commercially viable. Efficient electricity production at competitive price is clearly the biggest opportunity for solar energy. (authors)

  1. Solar Sentinels: Report of the Science and Technology Definition Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The goal of NASA s Living With a Star (LWS) program is to develop the scientific understanding necessary to effectively address those aspects of the connected Sun Earth system that directly affect life and society. Along with the other elements of LWS, Solar Sentinels aims to discover, understand, and model the heliospheric initiation, propagation, and solar connection of those energetic phenomena that adversely affect space exploration and life and society here on Earth. The Solar Sentinels mission will address the following questions: (1) How, where, and under what circumstances are solar energetic particles (SEPs) accelerated to high energies and how do they propagate through the heliosphere? And (2) How are solar wind structures associated with these SEPs, like CMEs, shocks, and high-speed streams, initiated, propagate, evolve, and interact in the inner heliosphere? The Sentinels STDT recommends implementing this mission in two portions, one optimized for inner heliospheric in-situ measurements and the other for solar remote observations. Sentinels will greatly enhance the overall LWS science return.

  2. Research and development of utilization technology of solar thermal system for industrial and other use. Research and development of solar system (research for solar/energy-conservation technology retrofitted to existing buildings); Sangyoyo nado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Solar system no chosa kenkyu (solar toshi muke gijutsu ni kansuru chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takita, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for solar/energy-conversion technologies retrofitted to existing buildings. The estimated effects and economic viability of retrofitting technologies show that they bring very high energy-saving effects when applied to heating and hot water supply, which consume a large portion of energy, but relatively low energy-saving effects when applied to cooling, solar walls, glazed balconies and transparent insulators. The study on applicability of these technologies in Japan indicates that the technologies which can recover cost within an average life time are those applied to windows, solar collector systems for hot water supply and heating, and transparent insulators. Although these technologies are low in applicability to cooling viewed from the angle of cost recovery, retrofitted radiation type cooling systems improve not only cooling and energy-saving effects but also comfortableness.

  3. Space Solar Power Technology Demonstration for Lunar Polar Applications: Laser-Photovoltaic Wireless Power Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, M. W.; Fikes, J. C.; Howell, J.; Mankins, J. C.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Space Solar Power technology offers unique benefits for near-term NASA space science missions, which can mature this technology for other future applications. "Laser-Photo-Voltaic Wireless Power Transmission" (Laser-PV WPT) is a technology that uses a laser to beam power to a photovoltaic receiver, which converts the laser's light into electricity. Future Laser-PV WPT systems may beam power from Earth to satellites or large Space Solar Power satellites may beam power to Earth, perhaps supplementing terrestrial solar photo-voltaic receivers. In a near-term scientific mission to the moon, Laser-PV WPT can enable robotic operations in permanently shadowed lunar polar craters, which may contain ice. Ground-based technology demonstrations are proceeding, to mature the technology for this initial application, in the moon's polar regions.

  4. Capture, transformation and conversion of the solar energy by the technologies of concentration; Captation, transformation et conversion de l'energie solaire par les technologies a concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferriere, A.; Flamant, G

    2003-07-01

    The specificities of the solar technologies at concentration are: high energy efficiency with increasing possibilities and the possibility of storage the solar energy by heat for a local and short dated utilization or by chemical storage (hydrogen for instance) for a delayed utilization or far from the capture area. This document takes stock on the concentration solar techniques, the electric power production by concentrated solar energy and the performance of concentrated solar plants, the industrial american experience of the SEGS plants, the hydrogen production by concentrated solar energy and discusses the scientific and technological locks. (A.L.B.)

  5. Robotic and Survey Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Przemysław

    Robotic telescopes are revolutionizing the way astronomers collect their dataand conduct sky surveys. This chapter begins with a discussion of principles thatguide the process of designing, constructing, and operating telescopes andobservatories that offer a varying degree of automation, from instruments remotelycontrolled by observers to fully autonomous systems requiring no humansupervision during their normal operations. Emphasis is placed on designtrade-offs involved in building end-to-end systems intended for a wide range ofscience applications. The second part of the chapter contains descriptions ofseveral projects and instruments, both existing and currently under development.It is an attempt to provide a representative selection of actual systems thatillustrates state of the art in technology, as well as important ideas and milestonesin the development of the field. The list of presented instruments spans the fullrange in size starting from small all-sky monitors, through midrange robotic andsurvey telescopes, and finishing with large robotic instruments and surveys.Explosive growth of telescope networking is enabling entirely new modesof interaction between the survey and follow-up observing. Increasingimportance of standardized communication protocols and software is stressed.These developments are driven by the fusion of robotic telescope hardware,massive storage and databases, real-time knowledge extraction, and datacross-correlation on a global scale. The chapter concludes with examplesof major science results enabled by these new technologies and futureprospects.

  6. Society, religion and technology: the Iona solar energy project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrie, J G

    1980-01-01

    The philosophical and religious reasoning behind the Iona solar energy hot water heater is discussed. Conservation, non-pollution, and sharing of the earth's resources are the main themes. Iona, a Scottish island, is visited for one week by groups (50 in each group) of young people for a total of a quarter million people from April to October. The technical objectives are summarized: (1) use solar energy to provide at least 1/2 of the hot water needs and (2) build a system with a payback period of 5 years or less. Solar insolation at Iona is about 700 kWh/m/sup 2/ per season, so 16.5 m/sup 2/ of solar collectors is required at a cost of less than 450 pounds. A closed system with a 750 l roof tank is described. Efficiency was greater than expected and cost objectives were surpassed. An analysis was performed to estimate the cost of a similar system elsewhere. Visual displays on the system are described which serve as an example to the young visitors of the benefits of solar energy. 11 references. (MJJ)

  7. Technology for obtaining of solar elements based on heterostructure basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camalova, A.Q.; Aliyeva, A.K.; Zeynalova, S.M.; Latifova, N.A.

    2013-01-01

    As it is known the level of energy sources usage reflects the level of development of civilization and was accepted by all as main factor. Currently, there are mainly oil, coal and natural gas are used as raw material in traditional energy, which leads to formation of environmental problems. They are not endless reserves of traditional energy sources and there is a danger of their extinction in the near future. For that reason, recently, the use of wind, solar, thermal waters and some other natural resources rapidly increased in many countries. The most important place among these natural resources belongs to solar energy. Thus, the amount of solar energy coming into the earth is much more than the amount of energy of oil, gas, coal and uranium reserves in the world taken together. At present the annual production of solar components exceeds 500 MW in the world. Photoelectric stations are silent and do not waste harmful products to the environment. The majority of modern solar cells are made on the basis of a single p-n junction

  8. Alternative energy technologies for private households - diffusion of solar collector systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krusche, H

    1979-01-01

    The study gives an estimate of the market potential for solar collectors in the Federal Republic of Germany and reports the results of a survey of first generation private users. It shows that these first users of solar collectors have social and personal charactristics similar to innovators in other areas as described in adoption and diffusion research. Compared with the average houseowner, first users of solar collectors tend to be younger, earn more and be better educated; to be professionally involved with building and heating and have some technical training; to be active information seekers and media users; to be socially active and well-integrated; to actively promote further diffusion of solar collectors. The study also shows that solar collectors are used for the purpose of room heating to an unexpectedly high degree; that the level of satisfaction with appliances and service is unexpectedly high and that the social environment of first users shows very little resistance to the introduction of solar collectors. Finally, it is shown that first users are more ecologically conscious than the average houseowner. The majority of first users attributes their decision to adopt solar technology to a lesser degree or at least not more than equally to economic-technical considerations than to ecological considerations. First users are generally fascinated by technically sweet consumption goods and can be characterized as technical optimists in their outlook on the future. Conclusions for social marketing of solar technology for the private household are drawn.

  9. Photovoltaics - solar power stations. Prospects of a cutting edge technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidenreich, M.

    2002-01-01

    Photovoltaics is the sector of the future in this millennium. The process of human urbanization has led to a high demand for electricity; at the same time high-density urban settlement offers an enormous surface area that could be used for photovoltaic equipment. Such surfaces include rooftops, building facades, parking lots for automobiles, train stations and solar soundproofing walls. According to conservative estimates, Austria has sufficient surface area for a peak solar output of 4,000 MW. This would be sufficient to supply some 1.6 million households with electricity from unlimited solar energy. However, a tremendous marketing effort will be required in order to achieve generation on such a scale. (author)

  10. Electromagnetic foundations of solar radiation collection a technology for sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Sangster, Alan J

    2014-01-01

    This text seeks to illuminate, mainly for the electrical power engineers of the future, the topic of large scale solar flux gathering schemes, which arguably represent the major source of renewable power available. The aim of the content is to impart, from an electromagnetic perspective, a deep and sound understanding of the topic of solar flux collection, ranging from the characteristics of light to the properties of antennas. To do this five chapters are employed to provide a thorough grounding in relevant aspects of electromagnetism and electromagnetic waves including optics, electromagneti

  11. Conceptual definition of a technology development mission for advanced solar dynamic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migra, R. P.

    1986-01-01

    An initial conceptual definition of a technology development mission for advanced solar dynamic power systems is provided, utilizing a space station to provide a dedicated test facility. The advanced power systems considered included Brayton, Stirling, and liquid metal Rankine systems operating in the temperature range of 1040 to 1400 K. The critical technologies for advanced systems were identified by reviewing the current state of the art of solar dynamic power systems. The experimental requirements were determined by planning a system test of a 20 kWe solar dynamic power system on the space station test facility. These requirements were documented via the Mission Requirements Working Group (MRWG) and Technology Development Advocacy Group (TDAG) forms. Various concepts or considerations of advanced concepts are discussed. A preliminary evolutionary plan for this technology development mission was prepared.

  12. Possibilities for retrofitting of the existing thermal electric power plants using solar power technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matjanov, Erkinjon K.; Abduganieva, Farogat A.; Aminov, Zarif Z.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Total installed electric power output of the existing thermal electric power plants in Uzbekistan is reaches 12 GW. Thermal electric power plants, working on organic fuel, produce around 88 % of the electricity in the country. The emission coefficient of CO 2 gases is 620 gram/kwph. Average electric efficiency of the thermal electric power plants is 32.1 %. The mentioned above data certifies, that the existing thermal electric power plants of Uzbekistan are physically and morally aged and they need to be retrofitted. Retrofitting of the existing thermal electric power plants can be done by several ways such as via including gas turbine toppings, by using solar technologies, etc. Solar thermal power is a relatively new technology which has already shown its enormous promise. With few environmental impacts and a massive resource, it offers a comparable opportunity to the sunniest Uzbekistan. Solar thermal power uses direct sunlight, so it must be sited in regions with high direct solar radiation. In many regions, one square km of land is enough to generate as much as 100-120 GWh of electricity per year using the solar thermal technology. This is equivalent to the annual production of a 50 MW conventional coal or gas-fired mid-load power plant. Solar thermal power plants can be designed for solar-only or for hybrid operation. Producing electricity from the energy in the sun's rays is a straightforward process: direct solar radiation can be concentrated and collected by a range of Concentrating Solar Power technologies to provide medium- to high temperature heat. This heat is then used to operate a conventional power cycle, for example through a steam turbine or a Stirling engine. Solar heat collected during the day can also be stored in liquid or solid media such as molten salts, ceramics, concrete or, in the future, phase-changing salt mixtures. At night, it can be extracted from the storage medium thereby continuing turbine operation. Currently, the

  13. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M.; Gilbride, T.; Ruiz, K.; Steward, H.; Love, P.

    2007-06-01

    This document is the sixth volume of the Building America Best Practices Series. It presents information that is useful throughout the United States for enhancing the energy efficiency practices in the specific climate zones that are presented in the first five Best Practices volumes. It provides an introduction to current photovoltaic and solar thermal building practices. Information about window selection and shading is included.

  14. Solar Energy and Other Appropriate Technologies for Small ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Region 2 research demonstration project presentation studied the efficacy of sustainable solar-powered water delivery and monitoring systems to reduce the economic burden of operating and maintaining Non-PRASA drinking water systems and to reduce the impact of climate change resulting from the use of fossil fuels in Puerto Rico. In Puerto Rico, petroleum (65%), natural gas (18%) and coal (16%) are imported to generate electricity resulting in electrical rates that are more than twice the US average. In 2012, only 1% of electricity came from renewable energy (US Energy Information Administration). One major cost for electricity for small communities in Puerto Rico is the transfer, treatment and distribution of drinking water. These small communities (Non-PRASA communities) are not able to afford electrical costs and many have abandoned their groundwater sources and reverted to unfiltered surface water systems, creating serious public health risks and non-compliance. Many Non-PRASA groundwater systems (141 out of 247) could use solar-powered pumps to extract and deliver groundwater. Solar power would also extend the life of system electrical components by improving the quality of electrical power supply. Solar power as a renewable energy source for Non-PRASA water systems is a viable approach that also reduces the impact of climate change in the Caribbean.

  15. Development of a closed and open loop solar tracker technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélio Gouvêa Melo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is among the renewable energy sources that received greater addition in installed capacity. However, it accounts for a small fraction of the energy matrix of most countries. Electric energy generation by solar systems can be improved through tracking. This work aimed to develop and compare a closed and an open loop solar tracking system. The closed loop system was developed using Light Dependent Resistors. An algorithm was developed for the open loop tracker as a function of the geometric relation between the sun and the photovoltaic module. A simulation was run to compare this algorithm with a system using tracking at fixed time intervals, for clear sky conditions, with different tracking parameters and for five different latitudes. No significant difference was observed between the proposed open loop tracking algorithm and the fixed time interval algorithm for the tracking parameters evaluated. The open and closed loop solar tracking systems were compared experimentally in Rio das Ostras, Brazil (22.49 °S 41.92° W. An average gain of 28.5% was observed for the open loop tracking system over a latitude tilted system and 33.0% for the closed loop tracking system.

  16. Medical and technology requirements for human solar system exploration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld; Harris, Leonard; Couch, Lana; Sulzman, Frank; Gaiser, Karen

    1989-01-01

    Measures that need to be taken to cope with the health problems posed by zero gravity and radiation in manned solar system exploration missions are discussed. The particular systems that will be used aboard Space Station Freedom are addressed, and relevant human factors problems are examined. The development of a controlled ecological life support system is addressed.

  17. Solar cell array design handbook - The principles and technology of photovoltaic energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenbach, H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar cell array design and technology for ground-based and space applications are discussed from the user's point of view. Solar array systems are described, with attention given to array concepts, historical development, applications and performance, and the analysis of array characteristics, circuits, components, performance and reliability is examined. Aspects of solar cell array design considered include the design process, photovoltaic system and detailed array design, and the design of array thermal, radiation shielding and electromagnetic components. Attention is then given to the characteristics and design of the separate components of solar arrays, including the solar cells, optical elements and mechanical elements, and the fabrication, testing, environmental conditions and effects and material properties of arrays and their components are discussed.

  18. 77 FR 76109 - IAS Energy, Inc., IB3 Networks, Inc., IBroadband, Inc., ICP Solar Technologies, Inc., IdentiPHI...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ...., IBroadband, Inc., ICP Solar Technologies, Inc., IdentiPHI, Inc., iDNA, Inc., Immune Network Ltd., Inca Designs, Inc., Indico Technologies, Inc. (n/k/a Indico Resources Ltd.), Infopage, Inc. (a/k/a Tamija Gold... securities of ICP Solar Technologies, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period...

  19. Technology for the large-scale production of multi-crystalline silicon solar cells and modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeber, A.W.; De Moor, H.H.C.

    1997-06-01

    In cooperation with Shell Solar Energy (formerly R and S Renewable Energy Systems) and the Research Institute for Materials of the Catholic University Nijmegen the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) plans to develop a competitive technology for the large-scale manufacturing of solar cells and solar modules on the basis of multi-crystalline silicon. The project will be carried out within the framework of the Economy, Ecology and Technology (EET) program of the Dutch ministry of Economic Affairs and the Dutch ministry of Education, Culture and Sciences. The aim of the EET-project is to reduce the costs of a solar module by 50% by means of increasing the conversion efficiency as well as the development of cheap processes for large-scale production

  20. CRADA with United Solar Technologies and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL-021): Thin film materialsfor low-cost high performance solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P. M.; Affinito, J. D.; Gross, M. E.; Bennett, W. D.

    1995-03-01

    The objectives of this project were to develop and evaluate promising low-cost dielectric and polymer-protected thin-film reflective metal coatings to be applied to preformed continuously-curved solar reflector panels to enhance their solar reflectance, and to demonstrate protected solar reflective coatings on preformed solar concentrator panels. The opportunity for this project arose from a search by United Solar Technologies (UST) for organizations and facilities capable of applying reflective coatings to large preformed panels. PNL was identified as being uniquely qualified to participate in this collaborative project.

  1. Life Cycle Assessment of Titania Perovskite Solar Cell Technology for Sustainable Design and Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyi; Gao, Xianfeng; Deng, Yelin; Li, Bingbing; Yuan, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Perovskite solar cells have attracted enormous attention in recent years due to their low cost and superior technical performance. However, the use of toxic metals, such as lead, in the perovskite dye and toxic chemicals in perovskite solar cell manufacturing causes grave concerns for its environmental performance. To understand and facilitate the sustainable development of perovskite solar cell technology from its design to manufacturing, a comprehensive environmental impact assessment has been conducted on titanium dioxide nanotube based perovskite solar cells by using an attributional life cycle assessment approach, from cradle to gate, with manufacturing data from our laboratory-scale experiments and upstream data collected from professional databases and the literature. The results indicate that the perovskite dye is the primary source of environmental impact, associated with 64.77% total embodied energy and 31.38% embodied materials consumption, contributing to more than 50% of the life cycle impact in almost all impact categories, although lead used in the perovskite dye only contributes to about 1.14% of the human toxicity potential. A comparison of perovskite solar cells with commercial silicon and cadmium-tellurium solar cells reveals that perovskite solar cells could be a promising alternative technology for future large-scale industrial applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. A Multi-scale, Multi-Model, Machine-Learning Solar Forecasting Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann, Hendrik F. [IBM, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center

    2017-05-31

    The goal of the project was the development and demonstration of a significantly improved solar forecasting technology (short: Watt-sun), which leverages new big data processing technologies and machine-learnt blending between different models and forecast systems. The technology aimed demonstrating major advances in accuracy as measured by existing and new metrics which themselves were developed as part of this project. Finally, the team worked with Independent System Operators (ISOs) and utilities to integrate the forecasts into their operations.

  3. Utility-Scale Concentrating Solar Power and Photovoltaic Projects: A Technology and Market Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.; Lowder, T.; Canavan, B.

    2012-04-01

    Over the last several years, solar energy technologies have been, or are in the process of being, deployed at unprecedented levels. A critical recent development, resulting from the massive scale of projects in progress or recently completed, is having the power sold directly to electric utilities. Such 'utility-scale' systems offer the opportunity to deploy solar technologies far faster than the traditional 'behind-the-meter' projects designed to offset retail load. Moreover, these systems have employed significant economies of scale during construction and operation, attracting financial capital, which in turn can reduce the delivered cost of power. This report is a summary of the current U.S. utility-scale solar state-of-the-market and development pipeline. Utility-scale solar energy systems are generally categorized as one of two basic designs: concentrating solar power (CSP) and photovoltaic (PV). CSP systems can be further delineated into four commercially available technologies: parabolic trough, central receiver (CR), parabolic dish, and linear Fresnel reflector. CSP systems can also be categorized as hybrid, which combine a solar-based system (generally parabolic trough, CR, or linear Fresnel) and a fossil fuel energy system to produce electric power or steam.

  4. Enhancing information for solar and wind energy technology deployment in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Martins, Fernando, E-mail: fernando.martins@inpe.br [Centro de Ciencia do Sistema Terrestre-Instituto Nacisonal de Pesquisas Espaciais (Earth System Center-National Institute for Space Research), P.O. Box 515, 12245-970, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil); Pereira, Enio Bueno, E-mail: enio.pereira@inpe.br [Centro de Ciencia do Sistema Terrestre-Instituto Nacisonal de Pesquisas Espaciais (Earth System Center-National Institute for Space Research), P.O. Box 515, 12245-970, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    Brazil's primary energy matrix is based on more than 47% of renewables, and more than 85% of its electricity is generated by hydro power sources. Despite this large fraction of renewable energy resources, less than 0.3% of the national energy supply comes from solar or wind sources. This paper presents a diagnostic review on the penetration of the solar and wind energy technologies in Brazil. It also includes a survey of the latest government policies and incentives for renewable energies deployment by entrepreneurs, industry and commercial and residential consumers. In addition, the paper analyses how to best meet the requirements for policy support and information technology to boost the deployment of solar technology and wind energy in Brazil. This study was mostly based on results of a widely distributed survey covering key issues, and also by personal interviews carried out with key stakeholders in order to better understand the issues highlighted in the survey responses. The study pointed out some of the main obstacles to effectively promote and improve government policies and actions for investment in solar and wind energy market in Brazil. - Highlights: > Current status on the solar and wind energy deployment in Brazil is presented. > Policy framework required to support solar and wind energy was discussed. > Study was based on responses for consultations with key stakeholders. > Worthiness Index was established to rank the stakeholders outlooks. > Energy price, human resources and tax reductions were indicated as priority.

  5. Design and Development of the Space Technology 5 (ST5) Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John; Fatemi, Navid; Gamica, Robert; Sharma, Surya; Senft, Donna; Maybery, Clay

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Technology 5 (ST5) is designed to flight-test the concept of miniaturized 'small size" satellites and innovative technologies in Earth's magnetosphere. Three satellites will map the intensity and direction of the magnetic fields within the inner magnetosphere. Due to the small area available for the solar arrays, and to meet the mission power requirements, very high-efficiency multijunction solar cells were selected to power the spacecraft built by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This was done in partnership with the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) through the Dual-Use Science and Technology (DUS&T) program. Emcore's InGaP/lnGaAs/Ge Advanced triple-junction (ATJ) solar cells, exhibiting an average air mass zero (AMO) efficiency of 28.0% (one-sun, 28 C), were used to populate the arrays. Each spacecraft employs 8 identical solar panels (total area of about 0.3 square meters), with 15 large-area solar cells per panel. The requirement for power is to support on-orbit average load of 13.5 W at 8.4 V, with plus or minus 5% off pointing. The details of the solar array design, development and qualification considerations, as well as ground electrical performance & shadowing analysis results are presented.

  6. Enhancing information for solar and wind energy technology deployment in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Martins, Fernando; Pereira, Enio Bueno

    2011-01-01

    Brazil's primary energy matrix is based on more than 47% of renewables, and more than 85% of its electricity is generated by hydro power sources. Despite this large fraction of renewable energy resources, less than 0.3% of the national energy supply comes from solar or wind sources. This paper presents a diagnostic review on the penetration of the solar and wind energy technologies in Brazil. It also includes a survey of the latest government policies and incentives for renewable energies deployment by entrepreneurs, industry and commercial and residential consumers. In addition, the paper analyses how to best meet the requirements for policy support and information technology to boost the deployment of solar technology and wind energy in Brazil. This study was mostly based on results of a widely distributed survey covering key issues, and also by personal interviews carried out with key stakeholders in order to better understand the issues highlighted in the survey responses. The study pointed out some of the main obstacles to effectively promote and improve government policies and actions for investment in solar and wind energy market in Brazil. - Highlights: → Current status on the solar and wind energy deployment in Brazil is presented. → Policy framework required to support solar and wind energy was discussed. → Study was based on responses for consultations with key stakeholders. → Worthiness Index was established to rank the stakeholders outlooks. → Energy price, human resources and tax reductions were indicated as priority.

  7. Rural electrification with photovoltaic solar technology using solar home system; Eletrificacao rural com tecnologia solar fotovoltaica utilizando sistemas isolados autonomos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salviano, Carlos Jose Caldas

    1999-02-01

    The utilization of solar energy, inexhaustible on the earthly scale of time, as heat and light source, today is one of the energetics alternatives more to confront the challenges of the new millennium. Remarkable is the impulse that power generation photovoltaic has received in Brazil. In Pernambuco, state of Brazil, the CELPE - Electric Power Company of Pernambuco, already implanted more than 750 photovoltaic solar home system (95 kW installed) for power supply to rural communities far from the grid connection that come across in commercial operation since 1994. Eight configurations were studied with modifications in their components (panel, battery and charge) with the objective to evaluate the performance and the adequacy of the size these configurations. The parameters utilized for this evaluation were: solar energy diary incident on the panel plat, diary efficiency generator, output voltage on the generator and state of charge the batteries bank. A system of data acquisition automated was fined to measure in real conditions the function of each components, the following parameters: solar radiation incident and temperature on the photovoltaic generator, voltage and generator current, batteries bank and charge and ambient temperature. About the configurations studied, it follows that analysis the operational of characteristics capacity and battery capacity of the SHS utilized, simulating the rural electrification conditions. It was possible to certify the adequate configurations for the load profile will be supply. (author)

  8. Soviet Robots in the Solar System Mission Technologies and Discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Huntress, JR , Wesley T

    2011-01-01

    The Soviet robotic space exploration program began in a spirit of bold adventure and technical genius. It ended after the fall of the Soviet Union and the failure of its last mission to Mars in 1996. Soviet Robots in the Solar System chronicles the scientific and engineering accomplishments of this enterprise from its infancy to its demise. Each flight campaign is set into context of national politics and international competition with the United States. Together with its many detailed illustrations and images, Soviet Robots in the Solar System presents the most detailed technical description of Soviet robotic space flights provides a unique insight into programmatic, engineering, and scientific issues covers mission objectives, spacecraft engineering, flight details, scientific payload and results describes in technical depth Soviet lunar and planetary probes

  9. Computational engineering applied to the concentrating solar power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannuzzi, Giuseppe Mauro; Miliozzi, Adio

    2006-01-01

    Solar power plants based on parabolic-trough collectors present innumerable thermo-structural problems related on the one hand to the high temperatures of the heat transfer fluid, and on the other to the need og highly precise aiming and structural resistance. Devising an engineering response to these problems implies analysing generally unconventional solutions. At present, computational engineering is the principal investigating tool; it speeds the design of prototype installations and significantly reduces the necessary but costly experimental programmes [it

  10. The NASA-Lewis/ERDA Solar Heating and Cooling Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, J. P.; Bloomfield, H. S.

    1975-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center plans to carry out a major role in the ERDA Solar Heating and Cooling Program. This role would be to create and test the enabling technology for future solar heating, cooling, and combined heating/cooling systems. The major objectives of the project are to achieve reduction in solar energy system costs, while maintaining adequate performance, reliability, life, and maintenance characteristics. The project approach is to move progressively through component, subsystem, and then system technology advancement phases in parallel with continuing manufacturing cost assessment studies. This approach will be accomplished principally by contract with industry to develop advanced components and subsystems. This advanced hardware will be tested to establish 'technology readiness' both under controlled laboratory conditions and under real sun conditions.

  11. An overview of solar and solar-related technologies in Zimbabwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zimbabwe, being away from the screening effect of tropical humidity, desert dust, and the clouds of temperate areas receives more sunshine or solar radiation, also known as insolation, than almost any other country in the world (Johnston, 1977). The Zimbabwe Science News Volume 33(1) January-March 1999 ...

  12. Review of thin film solar cell technology and applications for ultra-light spacecraft solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Developments in thin-film amorphous and polycrystalline photovoltaic cells are reviewed and discussed with a view to potential applications in space. Two important figures of merit are discussed: efficiency (i.e., what fraction of the incident solar energy is converted to electricity), and specific power (power to weight ratio).

  13. Solar Lighting Technologies for Highway Green Rest Areas in China: Energy Saving Economic and Environmental Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, taking Lushan West Sea highway green rest area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the suitable types, applicability, advantages, and effective methods of solar lighting technologies for highway rest area were determined based on the analysis of characteristics of highway green rest area. It was proved that solar lighting technologies including the natural light guidance system, solar LED lighting, and maximizing natural light penetration were quite suitable for highway rest area in terms of lighting effects and energy and economic efficiency. The illuminance comparison of light guidance system with electrical lighting was made based on the on-site experiment. Also, the feasibility of natural light guidance system was well verified in terms of the lighting demand of the visitor centre in the rest area by the illuminance simulation analysis. The evaluation of the energy saving, economic benefits, and environmental effects of solar lighting technologies for highway rest area was, respectively, made in detail. It was proved that the application of solar technology for green lighting of highway rest facilities not only could have considerable energy saving capacity and achieve high economic benefits, but also make great contributions to the reduction of environment pollution.

  14. Proxy magnetometry with the Dutch Open Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.; Hammerschlag, R.H.; Sütterlin, P.; Bettonvil, F.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Superb movies from the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on La Palma have proven the validity of the open concept of this innovative telescope for high-resolution imaging of the solar atmosphere. A five- camera speckle-burst registration system is being installed that should permit consistent and

  15. The Thirty-Meter Telescope

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The Thirty-Meter Telescope international observatory will enable transformational observations over the full cosmic timeline all the way from the first luminous objects in the Universe to the planets and moons of our own solar system. To realize its full scientific potential, TMT will be equipped with a powerful ...

  16. Monster telescope hunts blue planets

    CERN Multimedia

    Leake, J

    2003-01-01

    BRITAIN is to back a project to build the world's biggest telescope - so powerful that it could see life-bearing planets in other solar systems. It will need the largest mirror ever built at about 100 metres in diameter (1/2 page).

  17. Mars Array Technology Experiment Developed to Test Solar Arrays on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2001-01-01

    Solar arrays will be the power supply for future missions to the planet Mars, including landers, rovers, and eventually human missions to explore the Martian surface. Until Mars Pathfinder landed in July 1997, no solar array had been used on the surface. The MATE package is intended to measure the solar energy reaching the surface, characterize the Martian environment to gather the baseline information required for designing power systems for long-duration missions, and to quantify the performance and degradation of advanced solar cells on the Martian surface. To measure the properties of sunlight reaching the Martian surface, MATE incorporates two radiometers and a visible/NIR spectrometer. The radiometers consist of multiple thermocouple junctions using thin-film technology. These devices generate a voltage proportional to the solar intensity. One radiometer measures the global broadband solar intensity, including both the direct and scattered sunlight, with a field of view of approximately 130. The second radiometer incorporates a slit to measure the direct (unscattered) intensity radiation. The direct radiometer can only be read once per day, with the Sun passing over the slit. The spectrometer measures the global solar spectrum with two 256-element photodiode arrays, one Si sensitive in the visible range (300 to 1100 nm), and a second InGaAs sensitive to the near infrared (900 to 1700 nm). This range covers 86 percent of the total energy from the Sun, with approximately 5-nm resolution. Each photodiode array has its own fiber-optic feed and grating. Although the purpose of the MATE is to gather data useful in designing solar arrays for Mars surface power systems, the radiometer and spectrometer measurements are expected to also provide important scientific data for characterizing the properties of suspended atmospheric dust. In addition to measuring the solar environment of Mars, MATE will measure the performance of five different individual solar cell types

  18. Comparison of Heat Transfer Fluid and Direct Steam Generation technologies for Integrated Solar Combined Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovira, Antonio; Montes, María José; Varela, Fernando; Gil, Mónica

    2013-01-01

    At present time and in the medium term, Solar Thermal Power Plants are going to share scenario with conventional energy generation technologies, like fossil and nuclear. In such a context, Integrated Solar Combined Cycles (ISCCs) may be an interesting choice since integrated designs may lead to a very efficient use of the solar and fossil resources. In this work, different ISCC configurations including a solar field based on parabolic trough collectors and working with the so-called Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) and Direct Steam Generation (DSG) technologies are compared. For each technology, four layouts have been studied: one in which solar heat is used to evaporate part of the high pressure steam of a bottoming Rankine cycle with two pressure levels, another that incorporates a preheating section to the previous layout, the third one that includes superheating instead of preheating and the last one including both preheating and superheating in addition to the evaporation. The analysis is made with the aim of finding out which of the different layouts reaches the best performance. For that purpose, three types of comparisons have been performed. The first one assesses the benefits of including a solar steam production fixed at 50 MW th . The second one compares the configurations with a standardised solar field size instead of a fixed solar steam production. Finally, the last one consists on an even more homogeneous comparison considering the same steam generator size for all the configurations as well as standardised solar fields. The configurations are studied by mean of exergy analyses. Several figures of merit are used to correctly assess the configurations. Results reveal that the only-evaporative DSG configuration becomes the best choice, since it benefits of both low irreversibility at the heat recovery steam generator and high thermal efficiency in the solar field. Highlights: ► ISCC configurations with DSG and HTF technologies are compared. ► Four

  19. OBSERVING THE FINE STRUCTURE OF LOOPS THROUGH HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF CORONAL RAIN WITH THE CRISP INSTRUMENT AT THE SWEDISH SOLAR TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antolin, P.; Rouppe van der Voort, L.

    2012-01-01

    Observed in cool chromospheric lines, such as Hα or Ca II H, coronal rain corresponds to cool and dense plasma falling from coronal heights. Considered as a peculiar sporadic phenomenon of active regions, it has not received much attention since its discovery more than 40 years ago. Yet, it has been shown recently that a close relationship exists between this phenomenon and the coronal heating mechanism. Indeed, numerical simulations have shown that this phenomenon is most likely due to a loss of thermal equilibrium ensuing from a heating mechanism acting mostly toward the footpoints of loops. We present here one of the first high-resolution spectroscopic observations of coronal rain, performed with the CRisp Imaging Spectro Polarimeter (CRISP) instrument at the Swedish Solar Telescope. This work constitutes the first attempt to assess the importance of coronal rain in the understanding of the coronal magnetic field in active regions. With the present resolution, coronal rain is observed to literally invade the entire field of view. A large statistical set is obtained in which dynamics (total velocities and accelerations), shapes (lengths and widths), trajectories (angles of fall of the blobs), and thermodynamic properties (temperatures) of the condensations are derived. Specifically, we find that coronal rain is composed of small and dense chromospheric cores with average widths and lengths of ∼310 km and ∼710 km, respectively, average temperatures below 7000 K, displaying a broad distribution of falling speeds with an average of ∼70 km s –1 , and accelerations largely below the effective gravity along loops. Through estimates of the ion-neutral coupling in the blobs we show that coronal rain acts as a tracer of the coronal magnetic field, thus supporting the multi-strand loop scenario, and acts as a probe of the local thermodynamic conditions in loops. We further elucidate its potential in coronal heating. We find that the cooling in neighboring strands

  20. A 100 kW-Class Technology Demonstrator for Space Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Connie; Howell, Joe; Day, Greg

    2004-01-01

    A first step in the development of solar power from space is the flight demonstration of critical technologies. These fundamental technologies include efficient solar power collection and generation, power management and distribution, and thermal management. In addition, the integration and utilization of these technologies into a viable satellite bus could provide an energy-rich platform for a portfolio of payload experiments such as wireless power transmission (WPT). This paper presents the preliminary design of a concept for a 100 kW-class fiee-flying platform suitable for flight demonstration of technology experiments. Recent space solar power (SSP) studies by NASA have taken a stepping stones approach that lead to the gigawatt systems necessary to cost-effectively deliver power from space. These steps start with a 100 kW-class satellite, leading to a 500 kW and then a 1 MW-class platform. Later steps develop a 100 M W bus that could eventually lead to a 1-2 GW pilot plant for SSP. Our studies have shown that a modular approach is cost effective. Modular designs include individual laser-power-beaming satellites that fly in constellations or that are autonomously assembled into larger structures at geosynchronous orbit (GEO). Microwave power-beamed approaches are also modularized into large numbers of identical units of solar arrays, power converters, or supporting structures for arrays and microwave transmitting antennas. A cost-effective approach to launching these modular units is to use existing Earth-to-orbit (ETO) launch systems, in which the modules are dropped into low Earth orbit (LEO) and then the modules perform their own orbit transfer to GEO using expendable solar arrays to power solar electric thrusters. At GEO, the modules either rendezvous and are assembled robotically into larger platforms, or are deployed into constellations of identical laser power-beaming satellites. Since solar electric propulsion by the modules is cost-effective for both

  1. Overview: Solar Electric Propulsion Concept Designs for SEP Technology Demonstration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcguire, Melissa L.; Hack, Kurt J.; Manzella, David; Herman, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    JPC presentation of the Concept designs for NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration mission paper. Multiple Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Missions were developed to assess vehicle performance and estimated mission cost. Concepts ranged from a 10,000 kg spacecraft capable of delivering 4000 kg of payload to one of the Earth Moon Lagrange points in support of future human-crewed outposts to a 180 kg spacecraft capable of performing an asteroid rendezvous mission after launched to a geostationary transfer orbit as a secondary payload.

  2. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Wildlife Detection and Observation Technologies at a Solar Power Tower Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Robert H; Valdez, Ernest W; Preston, Todd M; Wellik, Michael J; Cryan, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    Solar power towers produce electrical energy from sunlight at an industrial scale. Little is known about the effects of this technology on flying animals and few methods exist for automatically detecting or observing wildlife at solar towers and other tall anthropogenic structures. Smoking objects are sometimes observed co-occurring with reflected, concentrated light ("solar flux") in the airspace around solar towers, but the identity and origins of such objects can be difficult to determine. In this observational pilot study at the world's largest solar tower facility, we assessed the efficacy of using radar, surveillance video, and insect trapping to detect and observe animals flying near the towers. During site visits in May and September 2014, we monitored the airspace surrounding towers and observed insects, birds, and bats under a variety of environmental and operational conditions. We detected and broadly differentiated animals or objects moving through the airspace generally using radar and near solar towers using several video imaging methods. Video revealed what appeared to be mostly small insects burning in the solar flux. Also, we occasionally detected birds flying in the solar flux but could not accurately identify birds to species or the types of insects and small objects composing the vast majority of smoking targets. Insect trapping on the ground was somewhat effective at sampling smaller insects around the tower, and presence and abundance of insects in the traps generally trended with radar and video observations. Traps did not tend to sample the larger insects we sometimes observed flying in the solar flux or found dead on the ground beneath the towers. Some of the methods we tested (e.g., video surveillance) could be further assessed and potentially used to automatically detect and observe flying animals in the vicinity of solar towers to advance understanding about their effects on wildlife.

  3. Evaluating the effectiveness of wildlife detection and observation technologies at a solar power tower facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Robert H.; Valdez, Ernest W.; Preston, Todd M.; Wellik, Mike J.; Cryan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Solar power towers produce electrical energy from sunlight at an industrial scale. Little is known about the effects of this technology on flying animals and few methods exist for automatically detecting or observing wildlife at solar towers and other tall anthropogenic structures. Smoking objects are sometimes observed co-occurring with reflected, concentrated light (“solar flux”) in the airspace around solar towers, but the identity and origins of such objects can be difficult to determine. In this observational pilot study at the world’s largest solar tower facility, we assessed the efficacy of using radar, surveillance video, and insect trapping to detect and observe animals flying near the towers. During site visits in May and September 2014, we monitored the airspace surrounding towers and observed insects, birds, and bats under a variety of environmental and operational conditions. We detected and broadly differentiated animals or objects moving through the airspace generally using radar and near solar towers using several video imaging methods. Video revealed what appeared to be mostly small insects burning in the solar flux. Also, we occasionally detected birds flying in the solar flux but could not accurately identify birds to species or the types of insects and small objects composing the vast majority of smoking targets. Insect trapping on the ground was somewhat effective at sampling smaller insects around the tower, and presence and abundance of insects in the traps generally trended with radar and video observations. Traps did not tend to sample the larger insects we sometimes observed flying in the solar flux or found dead on the ground beneath the towers. Some of the methods we tested (e.g., video surveillance) could be further assessed and potentially used to automatically detect and observe flying animals in the vicinity of solar towers to advance understanding about their effects on wildlife.

  4. Sustainable recycling technologies for Solar PV off-grid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Bhavesh; Tamboli, Adish; Wubhayavedantapuram, Nandan

    2017-11-01

    Policy makers throughout the world have accepted climate change as a repercussion of fossil fuel exploitation. This has led the governments to integrate renewable energy streams in their national energy mix. PV off-grid Systems have been at the forefront of this transition because of their permanently increasing efficiency and cost effectiveness. These systems are expected to produce large amount of different waste streams at the end of their lifetime. It is important that these waste streams should be recycled because of the lack of available resources. Our study found that separate researches have been carried out to increase the efficiencies of recycling of individual PV system components but there is a lack of a comprehensive methodical research which details efficient and sustainable recycling processes for the entire PV off-grid system. This paper reviews the current and future recycling technologies for PV off-grid systems and presents a scheme of the most sustainable recycling technologies which have the potential for adoption. Full Recovery End-of-Life Photovoltaic (FRELP) recycling technology can offer opportunities to sustainably recycle crystalline silicon PV modules. Electro-hydrometallurgical process & Vacuum technologies can be used for recovering lead from lead acid batteries with a high recovery rate. The metals in the WEEE can be recycled by using a combination of biometallurgical technology, vacuum metallurgical technology and other advanced metallurgical technologies (utrasonical, mechano-chemical technology) while the plastic components can be effectively recycled without separation by using compatibilizers. All these advanced technologies when used in combination with each other provide sustainable recycling options for growing PV off-grid systems waste. These promising technologies still need further improvement and require proper integration techniques before implementation.

  5. Sustainable recycling technologies for Solar PV off-grid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppal Bhavesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Policy makers throughout the world have accepted climate change as a repercussion of fossil fuel exploitation. This has led the governments to integrate renewable energy streams in their national energy mix. PV off-grid Systems have been at the forefront of this transition because of their permanently increasing efficiency and cost effectiveness. These systems are expected to produce large amount of different waste streams at the end of their lifetime. It is important that these waste streams should be recycled because of the lack of available resources. Our study found that separate researches have been carried out to increase the efficiencies of recycling of individual PV system components but there is a lack of a comprehensive methodical research which details efficient and sustainable recycling processes for the entire PV off-grid system. This paper reviews the current and future recycling technologies for PV off-grid systems and presents a scheme of the most sustainable recycling technologies which have the potential for adoption. Full Recovery End-of-Life Photovoltaic (FRELP recycling technology can offer opportunities to sustainably recycle crystalline silicon PV modules. Electro-hydrometallurgical process & Vacuum technologies can be used for recovering lead from lead acid batteries with a high recovery rate. The metals in the WEEE can be recycled by using a combination of biometallurgical technology, vacuum metallurgical technology and other advanced metallurgical technologies (utrasonical, mechano-chemical technology while the plastic components can be effectively recycled without separation by using compatibilizers. All these advanced technologies when used in combination with each other provide sustainable recycling options for growing PV off-grid systems waste. These promising technologies still need further improvement and require proper integration techniques before implementation.

  6. Fiscal 1994 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development of industrial solar system practicalization technology - Survey and research on solar system (Survey and research on city-oriented solar technology); 1994 nendo sangyoyonado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Solar system no chosa kenkyu (solar toshi muke gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Solar technology and energy conservation technology (through retrofitting) which can be introduced into existing buildings are evaluated for their effect and economic efficiency. Studied are technologies verified to be technically feasible at the current stage, introducible into existing buildings without major modification, low in introduction cost, and high in energy conservation effect. How retrofitting technology should be in Japan is discussed. In Japan where demand for heat is smaller than in Europe or America and building service life is shorter, conditions to meet for efficient cost recovery are quite severe. Suitable measures to enhance cost recovery include use of multiple panels of low-radiation glass and light modulators for windows and use of collecting technologies such as solar systems for hot water supply and air solar collectors. Use of a transparent insulator is also recommended. Japanese houses demand repair and reconstruction very often, which helps cost recovery. Dependence on locality is extensive, and this causes difference in solar system application. Since it is high in temperature and humidity in summer in Japan, there is a great need for environmental comfort, and therefore not only energy conservation but also comfortable air-conditioning is important. (NEDO)

  7. Technology for Solar Array Production on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    Silicon, aluminum, and glass are the primary raw materials that will be required for production of solar arrays on the moon. A process sequence is proposed for producing these materials from lunar regolith is proposed, consisting of separating the required materials from lunar rock with fluorine. Fluorosilane produced by this process is reduced to silicon; the fluorine salts are reduced to metals by reaction with metallic potassium. Fluorine is recovered from residual MgF and CaF2 by reaction with K2O. Aluminum, calcium oxide, and magnesium oxide are recovered to manufacture structural materials and glass.

  8. A Compendium of Solar Dish/Stirling Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    systems and Plataforma Solar in Almeria, Spain, with the goal being plans to produce fourteen 7.5-kWe systems for testing to test the system’s long-term...the sun is not a point source, its rays 21 Chapter 3 (a) (b) - N Mounting Ring and CollaraI/ / I/\\ I / Virtual Exit I / Target S• Entrance I 0 L...tptical \\ I Real Exit / Virtual Target \\ Aperture\\ / Cooling \\ / I Coils N - Focal - - - - " Plane 4. Figure 3-2. A secondary concentrator with side view (a

  9. Chart links solar, geophysical events with impacts on space technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, George R.

    While developing a Space Weather Training Program for Air Force Space Command and the 50th Weather Squadron, both based in Colorado, ARINC Incorporated produced a flowchart that correlates solar and geophysical events with their impacts on Air Force systems.Personnel from both organizations collaborated in the development of the flowchart and provided many comments and suggestions. The model became the centerpiece of the Space Environment Impacts Reference Pamphlet, as well as the formal Space Weather Training Program. Although it is not a numerical or computer model, the flowchart became known as the “Space Environmental Impacts Model.”

  10. The High-Resolution Lightweight Telescope for the EUV (HiLiTE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Galarce, D S; Boerner, P; Soufli, R; De Pontieu, B; Katz, N; Title, A; Gullikson, E M; Robinson, J C; Baker, S L

    2008-06-02

    The High-resolution Lightweight Telescope for the EUV (HiLiTE) is a Cassegrain telescope that will be made entirely of Silicon Carbide (SiC), optical substrates and metering structure alike. Using multilayer coatings, this instrument will be tuned to operate at the 465 {angstrom} Ne VII emission line, formed in solar transition region plasma at {approx}500,000 K. HiLiTE will have an aperture of 30 cm, angular resolution of {approx}0.2 arc seconds and operate at a cadence of {approx}5 seconds or less, having a mass that is about 1/4 that of one of the 20 cm aperture telescopes on the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument aboard NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). This new instrument technology thus serves as a path finder to a post-AIA, Explorer-class missions.

  11. Material challenges for solar cells in the twenty-first century: directions in emerging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamarre, Amaury; Jehl, Zacharie; Suchet, Daniel; Cojocaru, Ludmila; Giteau, Maxime; Behaghel, Benoit; Julian, Anatole; Ibrahim, Camille; Tatry, Léa; Wang, Haibin; Kubo, Takaya; Uchida, Satoshi; Segawa, Hiroshi; Miyashita, Naoya; Tamaki, Ryo; Shoji, Yasushi; Yoshida, Katsuhisa; Ahsan, Nazmul; Watanabe, Kentaro; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Hamamura, Tomofumi; Toupance, Thierry; Olivier, Céline; Chambon, Sylvain; Vignau, Laurence; Geffroy, Camille; Cloutet, Eric; Hadziioannou, Georges; Cavassilas, Nicolas; Rale, Pierre; Cattoni, Andrea; Collin, Stéphane; Gibelli, François; Paire, Myriam; Lombez, Laurent; Aureau, Damien; Bouttemy, Muriel; Etcheberry, Arnaud; Okada, Yoshitaka

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Photovoltaic generation has stepped up within the last decade from outsider status to one of the important contributors of the ongoing energy transition, with about 1.7% of world electricity provided by solar cells. Progress in materials and production processes has played an important part in this development. Yet, there are many challenges before photovoltaics could provide clean, abundant, and cheap energy. Here, we review this research direction, with a focus on the results obtained within a Japan–French cooperation program, NextPV, working on promising solar cell technologies. The cooperation was focused on efficient photovoltaic devices, such as multijunction, ultrathin, intermediate band, and hot-carrier solar cells, and on printable solar cell materials such as colloidal quantum dots. PMID:29707072

  12. Thermal Desalination using MEMS and Salinity-Gradient Solar Pond Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H.; Walton, J. C.; Hein, H.

    2002-08-01

    MEMS (multi-effect, multi-stage) flash desalination (distillation) driven by thermal energy derived from a salinity-gradient solar pond is investigated in this study for the purpose of improving the thermodynamic efficiency and economics of this technology. Three major tasks are performed: (1) a MEMS unit is tested under various operating conditions at the El Paso Solar Pond site; (2) the operation and maintenance procedures of the salinity-gradient solar pond coupled with the MEMS operation is studied; and (3) previous test data on a 24-stage, falling-film flash distillation unit (known as the Spinflash) is analyzed and compared with the performance of the MEMS unit. The data and information obtained from this investigation is applicable to a variety of thermal desalination processes using other solar options and/or waste heat.

  13. Advanced Solar Cell and Array Technology for NASA Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczor, Michael; Benson, Scott; Scheiman, David; Finacannon, Homer; Oleson, Steve; Landis, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    A recent study by the NASA Glenn Research Center assessed the feasibility of using photovoltaics (PV) to power spacecraft for outer planetary, deep space missions. While the majority of spacecraft have relied on photovoltaics for primary power, the drastic reduction in solar intensity as the spacecraft moves farther from the sun has either limited the power available (severely curtailing scientific operations) or necessitated the use of nuclear systems. A desire by NASA and the scientific community to explore various bodies in the outer solar system and conduct "long-term" operations using using smaller, "lower-cost" spacecraft has renewed interest in exploring the feasibility of using photovoltaics for to Jupiter, Saturn and beyond. With recent advances in solar cell performance and continuing development in lightweight, high power solar array technology, the study determined that photovoltaics is indeed a viable option for many of these missions.

  14. Material challenges for solar cells in the twenty-first century: directions in emerging technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almosni, Samy; Delamarre, Amaury; Jehl, Zacharie; Suchet, Daniel; Cojocaru, Ludmila; Giteau, Maxime; Behaghel, Benoit; Julian, Anatole; Ibrahim, Camille; Tatry, Léa; Wang, Haibin; Kubo, Takaya; Uchida, Satoshi; Segawa, Hiroshi; Miyashita, Naoya; Tamaki, Ryo; Shoji, Yasushi; Yoshida, Katsuhisa; Ahsan, Nazmul; Watanabe, Kentaro; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Hamamura, Tomofumi; Toupance, Thierry; Olivier, Céline; Chambon, Sylvain; Vignau, Laurence; Geffroy, Camille; Cloutet, Eric; Hadziioannou, Georges; Cavassilas, Nicolas; Rale, Pierre; Cattoni, Andrea; Collin, Stéphane; Gibelli, François; Paire, Myriam; Lombez, Laurent; Aureau, Damien; Bouttemy, Muriel; Etcheberry, Arnaud; Okada, Yoshitaka; Guillemoles, Jean-François

    2018-01-01

    Photovoltaic generation has stepped up within the last decade from outsider status to one of the important contributors of the ongoing energy transition, with about 1.7% of world electricity provided by solar cells. Progress in materials and production processes has played an important part in this development. Yet, there are many challenges before photovoltaics could provide clean, abundant, and cheap energy. Here, we review this research direction, with a focus on the results obtained within a Japan-French cooperation program, NextPV, working on promising solar cell technologies. The cooperation was focused on efficient photovoltaic devices, such as multijunction, ultrathin, intermediate band, and hot-carrier solar cells, and on printable solar cell materials such as colloidal quantum dots.

  15. Can Integrated Micro-Optical Concentrator Technology Revolutionize Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Solar Energy Harvesting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Michael W.

    2015-12-01

    The economies-of-scale and enhanced performance of integrated micro-technologies have repeatedly delivered disruptive market impact. Examples range from microelectronics to displays to lighting. However, integrated micro-scale technologies have yet to be applied in a transformational way to solar photovoltaic panels. The recently announced Micro-scale Optimized Solar-cell Arrays with Integrated Concentration (MOSAIC) program aims to create a new paradigm in solar photovoltaic panel technology based on the incorporation of micro-concentrating photo-voltaic (μ-CPV) cells. As depicted in Figure 1, MOSAIC will integrate arrays of micro-optical concentrating elements and micro-scale PV elements to achieve the same aggregated collection area and high conversion efficiency of a conventional (i.e., macro-scale) CPV approach, but with the low profile and mass, and hopefully cost, of a conventional non-concentrated PV panel. The reduced size and weight, and enhanced wiring complexity, of the MOSAIC approach provide the opportunity to access the high-performance/low-cost region between the conventional CPV and flat-plate (1-sun) PV domains shown in Figure 2. Accessing this portion of the graph in Figure 2 will expand the geographic and market reach of flat-plate PV. This talk reviews the motivation and goals for the MOSAIC program. The diversity of the technical approaches to micro-concentration, embedded solar tracking, and hybrid direct/diffuse solar resource collection found in the MOSAIC portfolio of projects will also be highlighted.

  16. Usage of hybrid solar collector system in drying technologies of medical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Čiplienė, Aušra; Novošinskas, Henrikas; Raila, Algirdas; Zvicevičius, Egidijus

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar radiation energy utilization in drying technologies. • Accumulation of solar radiation energy. • The system comprising two different solar collector types. • Preparation of the drying agent by employing solar radiation energy around the clock. • The energy resources saving technology for medicinal plants’ raw material processing and drying. - Abstract: In the temperate climate zone under natural conditions, medicinal plants drying up to 8–12% moisture content and preparation of the quality medicinal plant’s raw material are complicated tasks. In many cases drying process of medicinal plants raw material, particularly rich in volatile compounds, needs the optimal drying temperatures of 30–45 °C and relative humidity not higher than 50–60%. In Lithuania, located in the northern part of the temperate climate zone, in summer the average temperature of ambient air is 16.1 ± 0.5 °C, and relative humidity is 77.3 ± 1.8%. In order to improve the sorption properties of ambient air, it is heated up to the admissible drying temperature. The experimental dryer was developed comprising two different solar collectors: the air type solar collector with area 12 m 2 for direct heating of the drying agent and the flat-plate type solar collector (8 m 2 ) for accumulation of converted heat energy. The research of motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca L.) drying was carried out in the dryer. It was determined that by combining operation of two different solar collectors, the solar radiation energy for drying agent’s heating could be used continuously around the clock by employing the accumulated energy, in order to compensate the solar irradiance variability and to ensure stability of the drying process. In the daytime the air-type solar collector at an airflow equal to 367 m 3 h −1 , i.e. at comparative flow of the drying agent per ton of dried medicinal plant raw material – 2450 m 3 h −1 , heats the air up to 30 °C when the solar

  17. Reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by solar water heating systems and passive technologies in social housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessa, Vanessa M.T.; Prado, Racine T.A.

    2015-01-01

    Growing global concern regarding climate change motivates technological studies to minimize environmental impacts. In this context, solar water heating (SWH) systems are notably prominent in Brazil, primarily because of the abundance of solar energy in the country. However, SWH designs have not always been perfectly developed. In most projects, the installation option of the solar system only considers the electric power economy aspects and not the particular characteristics of each climatic zone. Thus, the primary objective of this paper is to assess the potential of carbon dioxide reduction with the use of SWH in comparison with electric showers in social housing in several Brazilian climatic zones. The Brazilian government authorities have created public policies to encourage the use of these technologies primarily among the low-income population. The results of this paper indicate that hot climactic regions demonstrate a low reduction of CO 2 emissions with SWH installations. Thus, solar radiation is not useful for water heating in those regions, but it does lead to a large fraction of household cooling loads, implying a demand for electrical energy for air conditioning or requiring the adoption of passive techniques to maintain indoor temperatures below threshold values. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Brazil has created public policies to increase the use of solar water heating in social housing. •We have evaluated the potential for reduction of CO 2 emissions installing solar water heating. •We have found that the coldest regions have the greatest potential for reducing emissions. •Passive technologies for thermal comfort in hot climate households are more useful than solar water heating systems

  18. Adhesive market develops new technologies. The thin-film solar cells gain ground; El mercado de adhesivos desarrolla nuevas tecnologias. Las celulas solares de capa fina ganan terreno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluke, M.

    2010-07-01

    The solar industry is booming. thin-film technology is experiencing a high demand as promised cost advantages and currently is providing excellent results, while a range of efficiency reaches acceptable. (Author)

  19. Book of specifications (StLB) and solar technology in data processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaehnig, W; Schiemann, W

    1982-06-01

    The book of specifications (StLB) is to create a common language for a system of integrated data processing in building construction to be used by all those participating in the process of construction. The StLB comprises e.g. special sectors from the field of framework construction and extension as well as of technical extension. Special performance sectors concerning solar energy are not yet included in the StLB. It can be expected that relevant texts for solar technology shall be included along with other editorial work. At present, analogous texts from various performance sectors can be transferred to solar technology. Different user programmes are available for the data-related utilization of the StLlB. The article illustrates the fields of application of the StLB and its data-related utilization procedure including text input as well as the various devices which are suitable for the individual processes of the StLB.

  20. Report of a Planning Conference for Solar Technology Information Transfer (Nashville, Tennessee, September 28-29, 1977).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleaves, Edwin S., Ed.

    A summary of the deliberations of the Planning Conference for Solar Technology Information Transfer--to discuss and outline a functioning solar energy technology network in the State of Tennessee--and a set of recommendations for future action are presented in this report. Topic areas include: (1) the Tennessee Regional Library Service; (2) the…

  1. Report of a Planning Conference for Solar Technology Information Transfer in Kentucky (Frankfort, September 11-12, 1978).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Randall, Ed.

    This summary of the deliberations of the Planning Conference for Solar Technology Information Transfer includes an outline of a functioning solar energy technology network for the State of Kentucky and a set of recommendations for future action. Four main types of information agents were identified: (1) the State Library System; (2) the State…

  2. The development and commercialization of solar PV technology in the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkse, Jonatan; Buuse, Daniel van den

    2012-01-01

    In diversifying energy supply, the transformation of the energy industry has been identified as a key challenge for a sustainable energy future. This suggests that incumbent firms in this industry have a vital role in the development and commercialization process of renewable energy technologies. This paper provides a comparative analysis of oil and gas firms’ strategies regarding solar PV technology investments, a renewable energy technology that has seen explosive growth of late. The main aim is to examine the strategic approach of incumbent firms in the oil and gas industry towards the development and commercialization of solar PV technology. To investigate this, a multiple case study has been conducted within the European oil industry, focusing on the three largest oil and gas firms: BP, Royal Dutch/Shell, and Total. Findings show that oil and gas firms have difficulties with integrating solar PV technology in their supply chain. The analysis suggests that it is uncertain whether all oil and gas firms will abandon solar completely, as this depends to what extent they are able to generate profits. Nevertheless, there is currently a trend in the oil industry of leaving solar and positioning towards a ‘recarbonization’ of business activities. - Research Highlights: ► Oil and gas incumbents have experienced difficulties in integrating solar technology in their supply chain and therefore established fairly independent business units, serving niche markets outside mainstream markets for oil and gas. ► It is uncertain whether all oil and gas firms will abandon solar completely, as it depends to what extent they are able to generate profits with these activities. ► The competitive strain and increased turbulence in the oil industry have led to erratic investment behavior of oil firms and, as a consequence, renewable energy projects in which incumbents are engaged are often cancelled for reasons which have nothing to do with the market viability of renewable

  3. Screen printing technology applied to silicon solar cell fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, J. W.; Sipperly, W. E.

    1980-01-01

    The process for producing space qualified solar cells in both the conventional and wraparound configuration using screen printing techniques was investigated. Process modifications were chosen that could be easily automated or mechanized. Work was accomplished to optimize the tradeoffs associated with gridline spacing, gridline definition and junction depth. An extensive search for possible front contact metallization was completed. The back surface field structures along with the screen printed back contacts were optimized to produce open circuit voltages of at least an average of 600 millivolts. After all intended modifications on the process sequence were accomplished, the cells were exhaustively tested. Electrical tests at AMO and 28 C were made before and after boiling water immersion, thermal shock, and storage under conditions of high temperature and high humidity.

  4. Solar and Space Physics: A Science for a Technological Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    From the interior of the Sun, to the upper atmosphere and near-space environment of Earth, and outward to a region far beyond Pluto where the Sun's influence wanes, advances during the past decade in space physics and solar physics the disciplines NASA refers to as heliophysics have yielded spectacular insights into the phenomena that affect our home in space. This report, from the National Research Council's (NRC's) Committee for a Decadal Strategy in Solar and Space Physics, is the second NRC decadal survey in heliophysics. Building on the research accomplishments realized over the past decade, the report presents a program of basic and applied research for the period 2013-2022 that will improve scientific understanding of the mechanisms that drive the Sun's activity and the fundamental physical processes underlying near-Earth plasma dynamics, determine the physical interactions of Earth's atmospheric layers in the context of the connected Sun-Earth system, and enhance greatly the capability to provide realistic and specific forecasts of Earth's space environment that will better serve the needs of society. Although the recommended program is directed primarily to NASA (Science Mission Directorate -- Heliophysics Division) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) (Directorate for Geosciences -- Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences) for action, the report also recommends actions by other federal agencies, especially the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) those parts of NOAA charged with the day-to-day (operational) forecast of space weather. In addition to the recommendations included in this summary, related recommendations are presented in the main text of the report.

  5. Considerations for Solar Energy Technologies to Make Progress Towards Grid Price Parity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhouse, Michael; Fu, Ran; Chung, Donald; Horowitz, Kelsey; Remo, Timothy; Feldman, David; Margolis, Robert

    2015-11-07

    In this seminar the component costs for solar photovoltaics module and system prices will be highlighted. As a basis for comparison to other renewable and traditional energy options, the metric of focus will be total lifecycle cost-of-energy (LCOE). Several innovations to traditional photovoltaics technologies (including crystalline silicon, CdTe, and CIGS) and developing technologies (including organics and perovskites) that may close the gaps in LCOE will be discussed.

  6. Neutrino Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelin Baldo, Milla

    2009-01-01

    The present volume contains the proceedings of the 13. International Workshop on 'Neutrino Telescope', 17. of the series 'Un altro modo di guardare il cielo', held in Venice at the 'Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti' from March 10 to March 13, 2009. This series started in Venice 21 years ago, in 1988, motivated by the growing interest in the exciting field of the neutrino physics and astrophysics, with the aim to bring together experimentalists and theorists and encourage discussion on the most recent results and to chart the direction of future researchers.

  7. Reflector Technology Development and System Design for Concentrating Solar Power Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam Schaut

    2011-12-30

    performance. The target criteria for the concept development was to achieve a solar field cost savings of 25%-50% thereby meeting or exceeding the DOE solar field cost savings target of $350/m2. After evaluating various structural design approaches, Alcoa down-selected to a monocoque, dubbed Wing Box, design that utilizes the reflective surface as a structural, load carrying member. The cost and performance potential of the Wing Box concept was developed via initial finite element analysis (FEA) and cost modeling. The structural members were sized through material utilization modeling when subjected to representative loading conditions including wind loading. Cost modeling was utilized to refine potential manufacturing techniques that could be employed to manufacture the structural members. Alcoa concluded that an aluminum intensive collector design can achieve significant cost savings without sacrificing performance. Based on the cost saving potential of this Concept Feasibility study, Alcoa recommended further validation of this CSP approach through the execution of Phase II: Design and Prototype Development. Alcoa Phase II objective was to provide the DOE with a validated CSP trough design that demonstrates significant overall system cost savings without sacrificing performance. Phase II consisted of three major tasks; Detail System Design, Prototype Build, and System Validation. Additionally, the reflector surface development that began in Phase I was continued in Phase II. After further development work, Alcoa was unable to develop a reflective technology that demonstrated significant performance or cost benefits compared to commercially available CSP reflective products. After considering other commercially available reflective surfaces, Alcoa selected Alano's MIRO-SUN product for use on the full scale prototype. Although MIRO-SUN has a lower specular reflectivity compared to other options, its durability in terms of handling, cleaning, and long-term reflectivity

  8. Greening the Grid - Advancing Solar, Wind, and Smart Grid Technologies (Spanish Version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    This is the Spanish version of 'Greening the Grid - Advancing Solar, Wind, and Smart Grid Technologies'. Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid.

  9. The Ion Propulsion System for the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Santiago, Walter; Kamhawi, Hani; Polk, James E.; Snyder, John Steven; Hofer, Richard R.; Parker, J. Morgan

    2015-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission is a candidate Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission whose main objectives are to develop and demonstrate a high-power solar electric propulsion capability for the Agency and return an asteroidal mass for rendezvous and characterization in a companion human-crewed mission. The ion propulsion system must be capable of operating over an 8-year time period and processing up to 10,000 kg of xenon propellant. This high-power solar electric propulsion capability, or an extensible derivative of it, has been identified as a critical part of an affordable, beyond-low-Earth-orbit, manned-exploration architecture. Under the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate the critical electric propulsion and solar array technologies are being developed. The ion propulsion system being co-developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle is based on the NASA-developed 12.5 kW Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS0 thruster and power processing technologies. This paper presents the conceptual design for the ion propulsion system, the status of the NASA in-house thruster and power processing activity, and an update on flight hardware.

  10. Propellantless Attitude Control of Solar Sail Technology Utilizing Reflective Control Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Solar sails offer an opportunity for a CubeSatscale, propellant-free spacecraft technology that enables long-term and long-distance missions not possible with traditional methods. Solar sails operate using the transfer of linear momentum from photons of sunlight reflected from the surface of the sail. To propel the spacecraft, no mechanically moving parts, thrusters, or propellant are needed. However, attitude control, or orientation, is still performed using traditional methods involving reaction wheels and propellant ejection, which severely limit mission lifetime. For example, the current state of the art solutions employed by upcoming missions couple solar sails with a state of the art propellant ejection gas system. Here, the use of the gas thruster has limited the lifetime of the mission. To solve the limited mission lifetime problem, the Propellantless Attitude Control of Solar Sail Technology Utilizing Reflective Control Devices project team is working on propellantless attitude control using thin layers of material, an optical film, electrically switchable from transparent to reflective. The technology is based on a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC), which allows this switch upon application of a voltage. This technology removes the need for propellant, which reduces weight and cost while improving performance and lifetime.

  11. Evaluation of solar electric propulsion technologies for discovery class missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, David Y.

    2005-01-01

    A detailed study examines the potential benefits that advanced electric propulsion (EP) technologies offer to the cost-capped missions in NASA's Discovery program. The study looks at potential cost and performance benefits provided by three EP technologies that are currently in development: NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), an Enhanced NSTAR system, and a Low Power Hall effect thruster. These systems are analyzed on three straw man Discovery class missions and their performance is compared to a state of the art system using the NSTAR ion thruster. An electric propulsion subsystem cost model is used to conduct a cost-benefit analysis for each option. The results show that each proposed technology offers a different degree of performance and/or cost benefit for Discovery class missions.

  12. Applications of Solar Technology for Catastrophe Response, Claims Management, and Loss Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deering, A.; Thornton, J.P.

    1999-02-17

    Today's insurance industry strongly emphasizes developing cost-effective hazard mitigation programs, increasing and retaining commercial and residential customers through better service, educating customers on their exposure and vulnerabilities to natural disasters, collaborating with government agencies and emergency management organizations, and exploring the use of new technologies to reduce the financial impact of disasters. In June of 1998, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the National Association of Independent Insurers (NAII) sponsored a seminar titled, ''Solar Technology and the Insurance Industry.'' Presentations were made by insurance company representatives, insurance trade groups, government and state emergency management organizations, and technology specialists. The meeting was attended by insurers, brokers, emergency managers, and consultants from more than 25 US companies. Leading insurers from the personal line and commercial carriers were shown how solar technology can be used in underwriting, claims, catastrophe response, loss control, and risk management. Attendees requested a follow-up report on solar technology, cost, and applications in disasters, including suggestions on how to collaborate with the utility industry and how to develop educational programs for business and consumers. This report will address these issues, with an emphasis on pre-disaster planning and mitigation alternatives. It will also discuss how energy efficiency and renewable technologies can contribute to reducing insurance losses.

  13. A review on photovoltaic/thermal hybrid solar technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, T.T.

    2010-01-01

    A significant amount of research and development work on the photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) technology has been done since the 1970s. Many innovative systems and products have been put forward and their quality evaluated by academics and professionals. A range of theoretical models has been introduced and their appropriateness validated by experimental data. Important design parameters are identified. Collaborations have been underway amongst institutions or countries, helping to sort out the suitable products and systems with the best marketing potential. This article gives a review of the trend of development of the technology, in particular the advancements in recent years and the future work required. (author)

  14. Evolutionary analysis of technological innovations: the example of solar photovoltaic and wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taillant, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is to study the building up and the development of technologies for renewable energies considered as environmental radical innovations. In a first part, the author discusses the systemic aspects of innovation and the environmental challenges associated with energy technologies. He examines the main evolutions of energy systems over a long period. In a second part, he addresses innovation incentives in the case of environmental technologies and within the frame of the neo-classical economic theory. The next parts aim at presenting the theoretical framework of the evolutionary analysis of innovation and technical change, and at applying it to the case of technological innovations for renewable energies (photovoltaic and wind energy). World PV market trends are discussed and the technological competition context of this sector is analysed. The evolution of the solar PV technological system in Germany is discussed, as well as the specific case of development of the wind energy technological system in Denmark

  15. Using Technology to Build Solar-Powered Drag Racers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fireman, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    The Colfax High School (Colfax, California) Design Tech program incorporates both academic instruction and practical use of advanced technology to prepare students for the wide range of occupations that involve working with metal, wood, computers, and electronics. In this article, the author describes how Colfax students applied academic learning,…

  16. Solar fashion: An embodied approach to wearable technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smelik, A.M.; Toussaint, L.; Dongen, P. van

    2016-01-01

    Using Pauline van Dongen’s ‘Wearable Solar’ project as a case study, the authors argue that materiality and embodiment should be taken into account both in the design of and the theoretical reflection on wearable technology. Bringing together a fashion designer and scholars from cultural studies,

  17. Solar Adaptive Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Rimmele

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive optics (AO has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO will be given.

  18. Solar Adaptive Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmele, Thomas R; Marino, Jose

    Adaptive optics (AO) has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO) and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO) will be given. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrsp-2011-2.

  19. Space Solar Power Technology for Lunar Polar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Mark W.; Howell, Joe T.

    2004-01-01

    The technology for Laser-Photo-Voltaic Wireless Power Transistor (Laser-PV WPT) is being developed for lunar polar applications by Boeing and NASA Marshall Space Center. A lunar polar mission could demonstrate and validate Laser-PV WPT and other SSP technologies, while enabling access to cold, permanently shadowed craters that are believed to contain ice. Crater may hold frozen water and other volatiles deposited over billion of years, recording prior impact event on the moon (and Earth). A photo-voltaic-powered rover could use sunlight, when available, and laser light, when required, to explore a wide range of lunar terrain. The National Research Council recently found that a mission to the moon's south pole-Aitkir basin has priority for space science

  20. Solar Energy Technology Office Portfolio Review: Promotion of PV Soft Cost Reductions in the Southeastern US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-12-20

    From 2016-2021, the installed solar capacity in South Carolina will mushroom from less than 20 megawatts to more than 300 megawatts. Concurrently, the number of customer-sited, load-centered solar generation is expected to grow from less than 500 statewide to as many as 10,000 by 2021. This growth is anticipated to be the direct result of a landmark state policy initiative, Act 236, passed by the South Carolina General Assembly and signed into law by the Governor in June of 2014. Local policy makers in South Carolina are ill-equipped to handle the onslaught of solar permitting and zoning requests expected over the next five years. Similarly, the state’s building inspectors, first responders, and tax assessors know little about photovoltaic (PV) technology and best practices. Finally, South Carolina’s workforce and workforce trainers are underprepared to benefit from the tremendous opportunity created by the passage of Act 236. Each of these deficits in knowledge of and preparedness for solar PV translates into higher “soft costs” of installed solar PV in South Carolina. Currently, we estimate that the installed costs of residential rooftop solar are as much as 25 percent higher than the national average. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), together with almost a dozen electricity stakeholders in the Southeast, proposes to create a replicable model for solar PV soft cost reduction in South Carolina through human capacity-building at the local level and direct efforts to harmonize policy at the inter-county or regional level. The primary goal of this effort is to close the gap between South Carolina installed costs of residential rooftop solar and national averages. The secondary goal is to develop a portable and replicable model that can be applied to other jurisdictions in the Southeastern US.

  1. Overview of NASA's Space Solar Power Technology Advanced Research and Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Joe; Mankins, John C.; Davis, N. Jan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Large solar power satellite (SPS) systems that might provide base load power into terrestrial markets were examined extensively in the 1970s by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Following a hiatus of about 15 years, the subject of space solar power (SSP) was reexamined by NASA from 1995-1997 in the 'fresh look' study, and during 1998 in an SSP 'concept definition study', and during 1999-2000 in the SSP Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) program. As a result of these efforts, during 2001, NASA has initiated the SSP Technology Advanced Research and Development (STAR-Dev) program based on informed decisions. The goal of the STAR-Dev program is to conduct preliminary strategic technology research and development to enable large, multi-megawatt to gigawatt-class space solar power (SSP) systems and wireless power transmission (WPT) for government missions and commercial markets (in-space and terrestrial). Specific objectives include: (1) Release a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) for SSP Projects; (2) Conduct systems studies; (3) Develop Component Technologies; (4) Develop Ground and Flight demonstration systems; and (5) Assess and/or Initiate Partnerships. Accomplishing these objectives will allow informed future decisions regarding further SSP and related research and development investments by both NASA management and prospective external partners. In particular, accomplishing these objectives will also guide further definition of SSP and related technology roadmaps including performance objectives, resources and schedules; including 'multi-purpose' applications (commercial, science, and other government).

  2. Review of New Technology for Preparing Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Materials by Metallurgical Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Man; Dai, Yongnian; Ma, Wenhui; Yang, Bin; Chu, Qingmei

    2017-11-01

    The goals of greatly reducing the photovoltaic power cost and making it less than that of thermal power to realize photovoltaic power grid parity without state subsidies are focused on in this paper. The research status, key technologies and development of the new technology for preparing crystalline silicon solar cell materials by metallurgical method at home and abroad are reviewed. The important effects of impurities and defects in crystalline silicon on its properties are analysed. The importance of new technology on reducing production costs and improving its quality to increase the cell conversion efficiency are emphasized. The previous research results show that the raw materials of crystalline silicon are extremely abundant. The product of crystalline silicon can meet the quality requirements of solar cell materials: Si ≥ 6 N, P 1 Ω cm, minority carrier life > 25 μs cell conversion efficiency of about 19.3%, the product costs energy consumption energy consumption, low carbon and sustainable development are prospected.

  3. An overview of crystalline silicon solar cell technology: Past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopian, K.; Cheow, S. L.; Zaidi, S. H.

    2017-09-01

    Crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell, ever since its inception, has been identified as the only economically and environmentally sustainable renewable resource to replace fossil fuels. Performance c-Si based photovoltaic (PV) technology has been equal to the task. Its price has been reduced by a factor of 250 over last twenty years (from ˜ 76 USD to ˜ 0.3 USD); its market growth is expected to reach 100 GWP by 2020. Unfortunately, it is still 3-4 times higher than carbon-based fuels. With the matured PV manufacturing technology as it exists today, continuing price reduction poses stiff challenges. Alternate manufacturing approaches in combination with thin wafers, low (< 10 x) optical enhancement with Fresnel lenses, band-gap engineering for enhanced optical absorption, and newer, advanced solar cell configurations including partially transparent bifacial and back contact solar cells will be required. This paper will present a detailed, cost-based analysis of advanced solar cell manufacturing technologies aimed at higher (˜ 22 %) efficiency with existing equipment and processes.

  4. TRL Assessment of Solar Sail Technology Development Following the 20-Meter System Ground Demonstrator Hardware Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Roy M.; Adams, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Projects Office sponsored two separate, independent solar sail system design and development demonstration activities during 2002-2005. ATK Space Systems of Goleta, CA was the prime contractor for one development team and L' Garde, Inc. of Tustin, CA was the prime contractor for the other development team. The goal of these activities was to advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of solar sail propulsion from 3 towards 6 by the year 2006. Component and subsystem fabrication and testing were completed successfully, including the ground deployment of 10-meter and 20-meter demonstration hardware systems under vacuum conditions. The deployment and structural testing of the 20-meter solar sail systems was conducted in the 30 meter diameter Space Power Facility thermal-vacuum chamber at NASA Glenn Plum Brook in April though August, 2005. This paper will present the results of the TRL assessment following the solar sail technology development activities associated with the design, development, analysis and testing of the 20-meter system ground demonstrators.

  5. Renewable energy technology for off-grid power generation solar hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Azhar Abd Rahman

    2006-01-01

    Off-grid power generation is meant to supply remote or rural area, where grid connection is almost impossible in terms of cost and geography, such as island, aborigine's villages, and areas where nature preservation is concern. Harnessing an abundance renewable energy sources using versatile hybrid power systems can offer the best, least-cost alternative solution for extending modern energy services to remote and isolated communities. The conventional method for off-grid power generation is using diesel generator with a renewable energy (RE) technology utilizing solar photovoltaic, wind, biomass, biogas and/or mini/micro hydro. A hybrid technology is a combination of multiple source of energy; such as RE and diesel generator and may also include energy storage such as battery. In our design, the concept of solar hybrid system is a combination of solar with diesel genset and battery as an energy storage. The main objective of the system are to reduce the cost of operation and maintenance, cost of logistic and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission. The operational concept of solar hybrid system is that solar will be the first choice of supplying load and excess energy produced will be stored in battery. Genset will be a secondary source of energy. The system is controlled by a microprocessor-based controlled to manage the energy supplied and load demand. The solar hybrid system consists of one or two diesel generator with electronic control system, lead-acid battery system, solar PV, inverter module and system controller with remote monitoring capability. The benefits of solar hybrid system are: Improved reliability, Improved energy services, reduced emissions and pollution, provide continuous power supply, increased operational life, reduced cost, and more efficient use of power. Currently, such system has been installed at Middle and Top Station of Langkawi Cable Car, Langkawi and Aborigines Village Kg Denai, Rompin, Pahang. The technology is considered new in Malaysia

  6. Solar energy photovoltaic technology: proficiency and performance; L'energie solaire maitrise et performance photovoltaiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Total is committed to making the best possible of the planet's fossil fuel reserves while fostering the emergence of other solutions, notably by developing effective alternatives. Total involves in photovoltaics when it founded in 1983 Total Energies, renamed Tenesol in 2005, a world leader in the design and installation of photovoltaic solar power systems. This document presents Total's activities in the domain: the global challenge of energy sources and the environment, the energy collecting by photovoltaic electricity, the silicon technology for cell production, solar panels and systems to distribute energy, research and development to secure the future. (A.L.B.)

  7. 17th Business Report Meeting of New Energy Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). Section Meeting on Solar Technology; Dai 17 kai jigyo hokokukai. Taiyo gijutsu bunkakai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    In this section meeting, reports were made on the following themes: 1) outline of NEDO solar technology development; 2) commercialization study of thin film polycrystal solar cell production technology; 3) development of CdTe solar cell module production technology; 4) R and D of construction material monolithic solar cell modules; 5) development of the project overseas for solar energy technology development. In 1), outlined were the development of commercialization technology of photovoltaic power system, internationally joint demonstration development of photovoltaic power system, development of production facilities of solar cell use compound semiconductors, development of commercialization technology of solar system for industrial use, etc., and a large wind power system. In 2), the results of the study 'low cost Si substrate production by continuous cast method' were reported. In 3), the results were reported of the increase in efficiency and development of low cost production technology for large area modules. In 4), 3 kinds and 6 systems of R and D for house roofs and building walls were conducted, and possibilities of commercialization were obtained in terms of performance and economical efficiency as construction material. In 5), with the use of natural conditions and social systems in Nepal, Mongol, Thailand and Malaysia, the development for commercialization of this system is being made by joint research with each country. (NEDO)

  8. Wideband pulse amplifier with 8 GHz GBW product in a 0.35 {mu}m CMOS technology for the integrated camera of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gascon, D; Sanuy, A; Ribo, M [Dept. AM i Dept.ECM, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, E08028, Barcelona (Spain); Delagnes, E; Glicenstein, J-F [IRFU/DSM/CEA, CE-Saclay, Bat. 141 SEN Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Sieiro, X [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, E08028, Barcelona (Spain); Feinstein, F; Vorobiov, S [LPTA, Universite Montpellier II and IN2P3/CNRS, Montpellier (France); Nayman, P; Toussenel, F; Tavernet, J-P; Vincent, P, E-mail: gascon@ecm.ub.es [LPNHE, Universite Paris VI and IN2P3/CNRS, Paris (France)

    2010-12-15

    A fully differential wideband amplifier for the camera of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is presented. This amplifier would be part of a new ASIC, developed by the NECTAr collaboration, performing the digitization at 1 GS/s with a dynamic range of 16 bits. Input amplifiers must have a voltage gain up to 20 V/V and a bandwidth of 400 MHz. Being impossible to design a fully differential operational amplifier with an 8 GHz GBW product in a 0.35{mu}m CMOS technology, an alternative implementation based on HF linearised transconductors is explored. Test results show that the required GBW product is achieved, with a linearity error smaller than 1% for a differential output voltage range up to 1 Vpp, and smaller than 3% for 2 Vpp.

  9. Wideband pulse amplifier with 8 GHz GBW product in a 0.35 μm CMOS technology for the integrated camera of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gascon, D; Sanuy, A; Ribo, M; Delagnes, E; Glicenstein, J-F; Sieiro, X; Feinstein, F; Vorobiov, S; Nayman, P; Toussenel, F; Tavernet, J-P; Vincent, P

    2010-01-01

    A fully differential wideband amplifier for the camera of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is presented. This amplifier would be part of a new ASIC, developed by the NECTAr collaboration, performing the digitization at 1 GS/s with a dynamic range of 16 bits. Input amplifiers must have a voltage gain up to 20 V/V and a bandwidth of 400 MHz. Being impossible to design a fully differential operational amplifier with an 8 GHz GBW product in a 0.35μm CMOS technology, an alternative implementation based on HF linearised transconductors is explored. Test results show that the required GBW product is achieved, with a linearity error smaller than 1% for a differential output voltage range up to 1 Vpp, and smaller than 3% for 2 Vpp.

  10. The Origins Space Telescope (OST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staguhn, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, one of the four science and technology definition studies to be submitted by NASA Headquarters to the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal survey. The observatory will provide orders of magnitude improvements in sensitivity over prior missions, in particular for spectroscopy, enabling breakthrough science across astrophysics. The observatory will cover a wavelength range between 5 μm and 600 μm in order to enable the study of the formation of proto-planetary disks, detection of bio-signatures from extra-solar planet's atmospheres, characterization of the first galaxies in the universe, and many more. The five instruments that are currently studied are two imaging far-infrared spectrometers using incoherent detectors, providing up to R 10^5 spectral resolution, one far-infrared infrared heterodyne instrument for even higher spectral resolving powers, one far-infrared continuum imager and polarimeter, plus a mid-infrared coronagraph with imaging and spectroscopy mode. I will describe the scientific and technical capabilities of the observatory with focus on the expected synergies with AtLAST.

  11. Human Outer Solar System Exploration via Q-Thruster Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, B. Kent; White, Harold G.

    2014-01-01

    Propulsion technology development efforts at the NASA Johnson Space Center continue to advance the understanding of the quantum vacuum plasma thruster (QThruster), a form of electric propulsion. Through the use of electric and magnetic fields, a Q-thruster pushes quantum particles (electrons/positrons) in one direction, while the Qthruster recoils to conserve momentum. This principle is similar to how a submarine uses its propeller to push water in one direction, while the submarine recoils to conserve momentum. Based on laboratory results, it appears that continuous specific thrust levels of 0.4 - 4.0 N/kWe are achievable with essentially no onboard propellant consumption. To evaluate the potential of this technology, a mission analysis tool was developed utilizing the Generalized Reduced Gradient non-linear parameter optimization engine contained in the Microsoft Excel® platform. This tool allowed very rapid assessments of "Q-Ship" minimum time transfers from earth to the outer planets and back utilizing parametric variations in thrust acceleration while enforcing constraints on planetary phase angles and minimum heliocentric distances. A conservative Q-Thruster specific thrust assumption (0.4 N/kWe) combined with "moderate" levels of space nuclear power (1 - 2 MWe) and vehicle specific mass (45 - 55 kg/kWe) results in continuous milli-g thrust acceleration, opening up realms of human spaceflight performance completely unattainable by any current systems or near-term proposed technologies. Minimum flight times to Mars are predicted to be as low as 75 days, but perhaps more importantly new "retro-phase" and "gravity-augmented" trajectory shaping techniques were revealed which overcome adverse planetary phasing and allow virtually unrestricted departure and return opportunities. Even more impressively, the Jovian and Saturnian systems would be opened up to human exploration with round-trip times of 21 and 32 months respectively including 6 to 12 months of

  12. Solar system exploration - Some thoughts on techniques and technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekey, Ivan

    1990-01-01

    Some techniques and technologies for proposed interplanetary missions are described. Methods for reducing the effect of zero gravity on humans during missions to Mars and the moon, and the need for launch vehicles with increased lift capability are discussed. The use of nuclear power, liquid oxygen from the moon, and helium 3 as propellants for spacecraft is examined. The development and capabilities of the Shuttle Z vehicle are considered. Attention is given to the Space Station Freedom and Energia. A launch vehicle concept which utilizes the Shuttle Z for a mission to Mars is presented.

  13. Techno-economical study of solar energy technologies in Russia and in Israel and development of conceptions for the use of solar energy in various fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, D.; Saksonov, G.; Kiselman, U.; Shpielrain, E.

    1993-01-01

    A techno-economical study was made on the Russian and Israeli solar energy research and development and application. The main objective were to evaluate the present state of art in both countries and to identify topics of mutual interest for cooperation on research and development and application including commercialization. The Israeli and Russian teams have visited many institutions and have consulted with many people involved in solar energy work, and have analyzed the following main topics: Low potential solar heat, electricity production via thermodynamic cycles, electricity production via photovoltaic cells and solar energy for technological processes. A wide variety of subjects were identified to have potential for cooperation, and a number of institutes and scientists and engineers have expressed interest in joint work. In the proposed course of action we gave higher priorities for cooperation on photovoltaic cells, parabolic troughs and DSG development, solar tower and high temperature technology, solar collectors and heating and cooling systems. Except perhaps for water heating, the economic analysis shows marginal to poor economics for solar energy utilization. Depending on fuel costs and additional restrictions planned on fuels combustion, the economics may change in some cases, for example for solar ponds. (authors)

  14. Polymer and organic solar cells viewed as thin film technologies: What it will take for them to become a success outside academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    The polymer and organic solar cell technology is critically presented in the context of other thin film technologies with a specific focus on what it will take to make them a commercial success. The academic success of polymer and organic solar cells far outweigh any other solar cell technology w...

  15. The big data telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkel, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    On a flat, red mulga plain in the outback of Western Australia, preparations are under way to build the most audacious telescope astronomers have ever dreamed of - the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). Next-generation telescopes usually aim to double the performance of their predecessors. The Australian arm of SKA will deliver a 168-fold leap on the best technology available today, to show us the universe as never before. It will tune into signals emitted just a million years after the Big Bang, when the universe was a sea of hydrogen gas, slowly percolating with the first galaxies. Their starlight illuminated the fledgling universe in what is referred to as the “cosmic dawn”.

  16. Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 6: High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Steward, Heidi E.; Love, Pat M.

    2007-06-04

    This guide is was written by PNNL for the US Department of Energy's Building America program to provide information for residential production builders interested in building near zero energy homes. The guide provides indepth descriptions of various roof-top photovoltaic power generating systems for homes. The guide also provides extensive information on various designs of solar thermal water heating systems for homes. The guide also provides construction company owners and managers with an understanding of how solar technologies can be added to their homes in a way that is cost effective, practical, and marketable. Twelve case studies provide examples of production builders across the United States who are building energy-efficient homes with photovoltaic or solar water heating systems.

  17. Performance analysis of a co-generation system using solar energy and SOFC technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akikur, R.K.; Saidur, R.; Ping, H.W.; Ullah, K.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new concept of a cogeneration system is proposed and investigated. • The system comprises solar collector, PV, SOFC and heat exchanger. • 83.6% Power and heat generation efficiency has been found at fuel cell mode. • 85.1% Efficiency of SOSE has been found at H2 production mode. • The heat to power ratio of SOFC mode has been found about 0.917. - Abstract: Due to the increasing future energy demands and global warming, the renewable alternative energy sources and the efficient power systems have been getting importance over the last few decades. Among the renewable energy technologies, the solar energy coupling with fuel cell technology will be the promising possibilities for the future green energy solutions. Fuel cell cogeneration is an auspicious technology that can potentially reduce the energy consumption and environmental impact associated with serving building electrical and thermal demands. In this study, performance assessment of a co-generation system is presented to deliver electrical and thermal energy using the solar energy and the reversible solid oxide fuel cell. A mathematical model of the co-generation system is developed. To illustrate the performance, the system is considered in three operation modes: a solar-solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) mode, which is low solar radiation time when the solar photovoltaic (PV) and SOFC are used for electric and heat load supply; a solar-solid oxide steam electrolyzer (SOSE) mode, which is high solar radiation time when PV is used for power supply to the electrical load and to the steam electrolyzer to generate hydrogen (H 2 ); and a SOFC mode, which is the power and heat generation mode of reversible SOFC using the storage H 2 at night time. Also the effects of solar radiation on the system performances and the effects of temperature on RSOFC are analyzed. In this study, 100 kW electric loads are considered and analyzed for the power and heat generation in those three modes to evaluate

  18. The Use of the Molecular Adsorber Coating Technology to Mitigate Vacuum Chamber Contamination During Pathfinder Testing for the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin S.; Hasegawa, Mark M.; Wooldridge, Eve M.; Henderson-Nelson, Kelly A.

    2016-01-01

    As a coating made of highly porous zeolite materials, the Molecular Adsorber Coating (MAC) was developed to capture outgassed molecular contaminants, such as hydrocarbons and silicones. For spaceflight applications, the adsorptive capabilities of the coating can alleviate on-orbit outgassing concerns on or near sensitive surfaces and instruments within the spacecraft. Similarly, this sprayable paint technology has proven to be significantly beneficial for ground based space applications, in particular, for vacuum chamber environments. This paper describes the recent use of the MAC technology during Pathfinder testing of the Optical Ground Support Equipment (OGSE) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The coating was used as a mitigation tool to entrap persistent outgassed contaminants, specifically silicone based diffusion pump oil, from within JSC's cryogenic optical vacuum chamber test facility called Chamber A. This paper summarizes the sample fabrication, installation, laboratory testing, post-test chemical analysis results, and future plans for the MAC technology, which was effectively used to protect the JWST test equipment from vacuum chamber contamination.

  19. Deployment Technology of a Heliogyro Solar Sail for Long Duration Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peerawan, Wiwattananon; Bryant, Robert G.; Edmonson, William W.; Moore, William B.; Bell, Jared M.

    2015-01-01

    Interplanetary, multi-mission, station-keeping capabilities will require that a spacecraft employ a highly efficient propulsion-navigation system. The majority of space propulsion systems are fuel-based and require the vehicle to carry and consume fuel as part of the mission. Once the fuel is consumed, the mission is set, thereby limiting the potential capability. Alternatively, a method that derives its acceleration and direction from solar photon pressure using a solar sail would eliminate the requirement of onboard fuel to meet mission objectives. MacNeal theorized that the heliogyro-configured solar sail architecture would be lighter, less complex, cheaper, and less risky to deploy a large sail area versus a masted sail. As sail size increases, the masted sail requires longer booms resulting in increased mass, and chaotic uncontrollable deployment. With a heliogyro, the sail membrane is stowed as a roll of thin film forming a blade when deployed that can extend up to kilometers. Thus, a benefit of using a heliogyro-configured solar sail propulsion technology is the mission scalability as compared to masted versions, which are size constrained. Studies have shown that interplanetary travel is achievable by the heliogyro solar sail concept. Heliogyro solar sail concept also enables multi-mission missions such as sample returns, and supply transportation from Earth to Mars as well as station-keeping missions to provide enhanced warning of solar storm. This paper describes deployment technology being developed at NASA Langley Research Center to deploy and control the center-of-mass/center-of-pressure using a twin bladed heliogyro solar sail 6-unit (6U) CubeSat. The 6U comprises 2x2U blade deployers and 2U for payload. The 2U blade deployers can be mounted to 6U or larger scaled systems to serve as a non-chemical in-space propulsion system. A single solar sail blade length is estimated to be 2.4 km with a total area from two blades of 720 m2; total allowable weight

  20. History of Robotic and Remotely Operated Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, Russell M.

    2011-03-01

    While automated instrument sequencers were employed on solar eclipse expeditions in the late 1800s, it wasn't until the 1960s that Art Code and associates at Wisconsin used a PDP minicomputer to automate an 8-inch photometric telescope. Although this pioneering project experienced frequent equipment failures and was shut down after a couple of years, it paved the way for the first space telescopes. Reliable microcomputers initiated the modern era of robotic telescopes. Louis Boyd and I applied single board microcomputers with 64K of RAM and floppy disk drives to telescope automation at the Fairborn Observatory, achieving reliable, fully robotic operation in 1983 that has continued uninterrupted for 28 years. In 1985 the Smithsonian Institution provided us with a suburb operating location on Mt. Hopkins in southern Arizona, while the National Science Foundation funded additional telescopes. Remote access to our multiple robotic telescopes at the Fairborn Observatory began in the late 1980s. The Fairborn Observatory, with its 14 fully robotic telescopes and staff of two (one full and one part time) illustrates the potential for low operating and maintenance costs. As the information capacity of the Internet has expanded, observational modes beyond simple differential photometry opened up, bringing us to the current era of real-time remote access to remote observatories and global observatory networks. Although initially confined to smaller telescopes, robotic operation and remote access are spreading to larger telescopes as telescopes from afar becomes the normal mode of operation.

  1. Advance on solar instrumentation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yihua

    2015-08-01

    The solar observing facilities in China are introduced with the emphasis on the development in recent years and future plans for both ground and space-based solar instrumentations. The recent solar instruments are as follows: A new generation Chinese Spectral Radioreliograph (CSRH) has been constructed at Mingantu Observing Station in Zhengxiangbaiqi, inner Mongolia of China since 2013 and is in test observations now. CSRH has two arrays with 40 × 4.5 m and 60 × 2 m parabolic antennas covering 0.4-2 GHz and 2-15 GHz frequency range. CSRH is renamed as MUSER (Mingantu Ultrawide Spectral Radiheliograph) after its accomplishment. A new 1 m vacuum solar telescope (NVST) has been installed in 2010 at Fuxian lake, 60 km away from Kunming, Yunana. At present it is the best seeing place in China. A new telescope called ONSET (Optical and NIR Solar Eruption Tracer) has been established at the same site as NVST in 2011. ONSET has been put into operation since 2013. For future ground-based plans, Chinese Giant Solar Telescope (CGST) with spatial resolution equivalent to 8m and effective area of 5m full-aperture telescope has been proposed and was formally listed into the National Plans of Major Science & Technology Infrastructures in China. The pre-study and site survey for CGST have been pursued. A 1-meter mid-infrared telescope for precise measurement of the solar magnetic field has been funded by NSFC in 2014 as a national major scientific instrument development project. This project will develop the first mid-infrared solar magnetic observation instrument in the world aiming at increasing the precision of the transverse magnetic field measurement by one order of magnitude. For future ground-based plans, we promote the Deep-space Solar Observatory (DSO) with 1-m aperture telescope to be formally funded. The ASO-S (an Advanced Space-based Solar Observatory) has been supported in background phase by Space Science Program as a small mission. Other related space solar

  2. Solar disinfection: an approach for low-cost household water treatment technology in Southwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessie, Awrajaw; Alemayehu, Esayas; Mekonen, Seblework; Legesse, Worku; Kloos, Helmut; Ambelu, Argaw

    2014-01-10

    Disinfection of contaminated water using solar radiation (SODIS) is known to inactivate bacteria. Its inactivation efficiency depends on local conditions where the disinfection is made. This study was aiming to test the efficiency of solar disinfection using different water parameters as low-cost household water treatment technology. Inactivation of microbes was tested using fecal coliform as test organism. The SODIS experiment was carried out at turbidity 2NTU, pH 7, and various water temperature (38.1°C, 41.8°C, 45.6°Cand 51.1°C) and solar intensities, using clear and black plastic bottles filled to different depths. The results show that the rate of microbial inactivation in relation to depth of water, turbidity, container type, intensity of light and color of container was statistically significant (p solar disinfection. By adjusting the parameters, complete and irreversible fecal coliform inactivation was achieved within an exposure time of less than four hours in the areas where the solar irradiance is about 3.99 kW/m2 and above. Our results indicate that application of SODIS could play a significant role in the provision of safe water in rural communities of developing countries where there is ample sunshine, specifically in sub-Saharan African countries.

  3. Solar pumping: an introduction and update on the technology, performance, costs, and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlow, Roy; McNelis, Bernard; Derrick, Anthony

    1993-01-01

    Solar pumping was first introduced into the field in the late nineteen-seventies, and since then manufacturers have refined their products to give considerable increases in performance and reliability. The steady fall in prices of solar photovoltaic (PV) panels means that solar pumping is becoming economic for an increasingly wide range of applications. This guide is written for the potential user to give a simple background to PV pumping technology and to help to identify the situations in which solar pumping should be considered. The early chapters act as a guide to those unfamiliar with PV pumping, illustrating typical applications and reviewing current technology. Following this are sections dealing with the range of currently available equipment and examining experience in the field. The final four sections cover the practical aspects of choosing a pumping system. This includes site evaluation and system sizing, a simple methodology for an economic assessment, and advice on procurement, installation and maintenance. The appendices contain various data and information referred to in the text. Two of these are of particular note: Appendix G, which contains quick reference data for wind, diesel and hand pumping scenarios; and appendix I which reviews the current and future economics of PV pumping in general in comparison with other pumping alternatives. (author)

  4. Solar radiation control using nematic curvilinear aligned phase (NCAP) liquid crystal technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanKonynenburg, Peter; Marsland, Stephen; McCoy, James

    1987-11-01

    A new, advanced liquid crystal technology has made economical, large area, electrically-controlled windows a commercial reality. The new technology, Nematic Curvilinear Aligned Phase (NCAP), is based on a polymeric material containing small droplets of nematic liquid crystal which is coated and laminated between transparent electrodes and fabricated into large area field effect devices. NCAP windows feature variable solar transmission and reflection through a voltage-controlled scattering mechanism. Laminated window constructions provide the excellent transmission and visibility of glass in the powered condition. In the unpowered condition, the windows are highly translucent, and provide 1) blocked vision for privacy, security, and obscuration of information, and 2) glare control and solar shading. The stability is excellent during accelerated aging tests. Degradation mechanisms which can limit performance and lifetime are discussed. Maximum long term stability is achieved by product designs that incorporate the appropriate window materials to provide environmental protection.

  5. On-Orbit Measurement of Next Generation Space Solar Cell Technology on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolford, David S.; Myers, Matthew G.; Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Parker, David S.; Cassidy, Justin C.; Davies, William E.; Vorreiter, Janelle O.; Piszczor, Michael F.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.

    2015-01-01

    Measurement is essential for the evaluation of new photovoltaic (PV) technology for space solar cells. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is in the process of measuring several solar cells in a supplemental experiment on NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Robotic Refueling Mission's (RRM) Task Board 4 (TB4). Four industry and government partners have provided advanced PV devices for measurement and orbital environment testing. The experiment will be on-orbit for approximately 18 months. It is completely self-contained and will provide its own power and internal data storage. Several new cell technologies including four- junction (4J) Inverted Metamorphic Multijunction (IMM) cells will be evaluated and the results compared to ground-based measurements.

  6. Solar Hydrogen Energy Systems Science and Technology for the Hydrogen Economy

    CERN Document Server

    Zini, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    It is just a matter of time when fossil fuels will become unavailable or uneconomical to retrieve. On top of that, their environmental impact is already too severe. Renewable energy sources can be considered as the most important substitute to fossil energy, since they are inexhaustible and have a very low, if none, impact on the environment. Still, their unevenness and unpredictability are drawbacks that must be dealt with in order to guarantee a reliable and steady energy supply to the final user. Hydrogen can be the answer to these problems. This book presents the readers with the modeling, functioning and implementation of solar hydrogen energy systems, which efficiently combine different technologies to convert, store and use renewable energy. Sources like solar photovoltaic or wind, technologies like electrolysis, fuel cells, traditional and advanced hydrogen storage are discussed and evaluated together with system management and output performance. Examples are also given to show how these systems are ...

  7. Technology Assessments of High Performance Envelope with Optimized Lighting, Solar Control, and Daylighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; Thanachareonkit, Anothai; Touzani, Samir; Dutton, Spencer; Shackelford, Jordan; Dickerhoff, Darryl; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this monitored field study was to identify near-term innovative façade technologies for solar control and daylighting with a goal of 20-40% energy use savings below Title 24 2013 in the 30-ft deep perimeter zone near vertical windows within cost and comfort constraints. The targeted market was new or existing commercial office buildings or buildings with similar patterns of use.

  8. Lightweight solar array blanket tooling, laser welding and cover process technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    A two phase technology investigation was performed to demonstrate effective methods for integrating 50 micrometer thin solar cells into ultralightweight module designs. During the first phase, innovative tooling was developed which allows lightweight blankets to be fabricated in a manufacturing environment with acceptable yields. During the second phase, the tooling was improved and the feasibility of laser processing of lightweight arrays was confirmed. The development of the cell/interconnect registration tool and interconnect bonding by laser welding is described.

  9. A Scientific Revolution: The Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2010-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the important discoveries of the last decade, from dwarf planets in the outer Solar System to the mysterious dark energy that overcomes gravity to accelerate the expansion of the Universe. The next decade will be equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. An infrared-optimized 6.5m space telescope, Webb is designed to find the first galaxies that formed in the early universe and to peer into the dusty gas clouds where stars and planets are born. With MEMS technology, a deployed primary mirror and a tennis-court sized sunshield, the mission presents many technical challenges. I will describe Webb's scientific goals, its design and recent progress in constructing the observatory. Webb is scheduled for launch in 2014.

  10. Energetical and ecological assessment of solar- and heat pump technologies for hot water preparation and space heating in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faninger, G.

    1991-11-01

    Solar and heat pump systems have been proved in many applications on the market. To achieve an efficient energy output it is necessary to consider the special conditions of these technologies. The energetical and ecological criteria of solar and heat pump systems for hot water preparation and space heating are analysed on the basis of experimental data. (author)

  11. Report of a Planning Conference for Solar Technology Information Transfer in Georgia (Atlanta, Georgia, July 24-25, 1978).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Mark C., Ed.

    A summary of the deliberations of the Georgia planning conference of the Solar Technology Transfer Program is presented in this report. Topic areas include background information on the Georgia conference and a summary of the discussions and recommendations dealing with solar information transfer within state systems and the need for greater…

  12. Solar energy: photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetzberger, A.; Voss, B.; Knobloch, J.

    1994-01-01

    This textbooks covers the following topics: foundations of photovoltaics, solar energy, P-N junctions, physics of solar cells, high-efficiency solar cells, technology of Si solar cells, other solar cells, photovoltaic applications. (orig.)

  13. SNAP Telescope Latest Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampton, M.; SNAP Collaboration

    2004-12-01

    The coming era of precision cosmology imposes new demands on space telescopes with regard to spectrophotometric accuracy and image stability. To meet these requirements for SNAP we have developed an all reflecting two-meter-class space telescope of the three-mirror anastigmat type. Our design features a large flat annular field (1.5 degrees = 580mm diameter) and a telephoto advantage of 6, delivering a 22m focal length within an optical package length of only 3.5 meters. The use of highly stable materials (Corning ULE glass and carbon-fiber reinforced cyanate ester resin for the metering structure) combined with agressive distributed thermal control and an L2 orbit location will lead to unmatched figure stability. Owing to our choice of rigid structure with nondeployable solar panels, finite-element models show no structural resonances below 10Hz. An exhaustive stray light study has been completed. Beginning in 2005, two industry studies will develop plans for fabrication, integration and test, bringing SNAP to a highly realistic level of definition. SNAP is supported by the Office of Science, US DoE, under contract DE-AC03-76SF00098.

  14. Assessment of 25 kW free-piston Stirling technology alternatives for solar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbeznik, Raymond M.; White, Maurice A.; Penswick, L. B.; Neely, Ronald E.; Ritter, Darren C.; Wallace, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The final design, construction, and testing of a 25-kW free-piston advanced Stirling conversion system (ASCS) are examined. The final design of the free-piston hydraulic ASCS consists of five subsystems: heat transport subsystem (solar receiver and pool boiler), free-piston hydraulic Stirling engine, hydraulic subsystem, cooling subsystem, and electrical and control subsystem. Advantages and disadvantages are identified for each technology alternative. Technology alternatives considered are gas bearings vs flexure bearings, stationary magnet linear alternator vs moving magnetic linear alternator, and seven different control options. Component designs are generated using available in-house procedures to meet the requirements of the free-piston Stirling convertor configurations.

  15. New technology to collect solar energy: non-imaging focusing heliostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok Keong Chong; Bahrom Sanugi; Chen, L.C.; Jasmy Yunus; Kannan, K.S.; Lim, B.H.; Lim, C.S.; Noriah Bidin; Omar Aliman; Sahar Salehan; Shaikh Ab Rezan; Tam, C.M.; Tan, K.K.; Chen, Y.T.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we report a non-imaging focusing heliostat with multi-faceted plane mirrors for the effective use of solar energy. The non-imaging heliostat demonstrates a new technology to track the sun radiation and then concentrating it onto a stationary receiver by a mere single reflection. Deviated from the conventional method, one of the rotation axes is reoriented in a way that can significantly reduce the number of motors. The feasibility of the new scheme has been proved by a 25-mirrors-heliostat in Universiti Technologi Malaysia (UTM) campus. (Author)

  16. Technology Requirements For a Square-Meter, Arcsecond-Resolution Telescope for X-Rays: The SMART-X Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.; Allured, Ryan; Bookbinder, Jay; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Forman, William; Freeman, Mark; McMuldroch, Stuart; Reid, Paul; Tananbaum, Harvey; Vikhlinin, Alexey; hide

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the astrophysical problems of the 2020's requires sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with square meter effective area. Such requirements can be derived, for example, by considering deep x-ray surveys to find the young black holes in the early universe (large redshifts) which will grow into the first supermassive black holes. We have envisioned a mission based on adjustable x-ray optics technology, in order to achieve the required reduction of mass to collecting area for the mirrors. We are pursuing technology which effects this adjustment via thin film piezoelectric "cells" deposited directly on the non-reflecting sides of thin, slumped glass. While SMARTX will also incorporate state-of-the-art x-ray cameras, the remaining spacecraft systems have no more stringent requirements than those which are well understood and proven on the current Chandra X-ray Observatory.

  17. Novel Space-based Solar Power Technologies and Architectures for Earth and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Joe T.; Fikes, John C.; O'Neill, Mark J.

    2005-01-01

    Research, development and studies of novel space-based solar power systems, technologies and architectures for Earth and beyond are needed to reduce the cost of clean electrical power for terrestrial use and to provide a stepping stone for providing an abundance of power in space, i.e., manufacturing facilities, tourist facilities, delivery of power between objects in space, and between space and surface sites. The architectures, technologies and systems needed for space to Earth applications may also be used for in-space applications. Advances in key technologies, i.e., power generation, power management and distribution, power beaming and conversion of beamed power are needed to achieve the objectives of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial applications. Power beaming or wireless power transmission (WPT) can involve lasers or microwaves along with the associated power interfaces. Microwave and laser transmission techniques have been studied with several promising approaches to safe and efficient WPT identified. These investigations have included microwave phased array transmitters, as well as laser transmission and associated optics. There is a need to produce "proof-of-concept" validation of critical WPT technologies for both the near-term, as well as far-term applications. Investments may be harvested in near-term beam safe demonstrations of commercial WPT applications. Receiving sites (users) include ground-based stations for terrestrial electrical power, orbital sites to provide power for satellites and other platforms, future space elevator systems, space vehicle propulsion, and space to surface sites. This paper briefly discusses achieving a promising approach to the solar power generation and beamed power conversion. The approach is based on a unique high-power solar concentrator array called Stretched Lens Array (SLA) for both solar power generation and beamed power conversion. Since both versions (solar and laser) of SLA use many identical components

  18. Educational benefits from solar technology-Access to solar electric services and changes in children's study routines, experiences from eastern province Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, Mathias

    2007-01-01

    Solar technology is diffused in many parts of the world with the ambition to improve the situation in rural areas. One claimed benefit of solar power at household level is improved situation for studies. The aim of this article is to analyse the impacts that access to solar electric services can have on education in a rural setting. The results presented concern the use of solar home systems related to children's possibilities to study at night and their exposure to TVs and radios are based on two surveys. Children are reported to spend more time studying after getting solar services than prior. They do not complain to the same extent about the light as the children living in houses without solar electric light. TV and radio cassette players are found in many households. Most households served have at least one household member with a formal income, a typical occupation is teacher. A number of schools also have access to solar services through the ESCO-project. The possibility to arrange evening classes is appreciated. Targeting schools serves as a possibility to improve the educational services offered in the rural setting, benefiting all students and not only those that can afford solar at home

  19. Providing Appropriate Technology for Emerging Markets: Case Study on China’s Solar Thermal Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianghua Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Building on a case study of five Chinese solar thermal companies and one association, our study aims to understand how the innovator’s choices regarding the use of technology and organizational practices for new product development enable companies to design and diffuse appropriate technology in emerging markets. The study uncovers two critical factors that enhance the appropriateness of technology: redefining the identity of technology and building a local supply system. Our analysis shows that synergic innovation in both architecture and component leads to the appropriate functionalities desired by emerging markets. Moreover, modular design and the building of a local supply system enhance the process appropriateness of technology. Our study provides an empirical basis for advocating going beyond minor adaptations of existing products to creating appropriate technology for emerging markets, and extends our understandings of the upstream process of designing appropriate technology. Moreover, the emphasis on the local supply system reflects a holistic framework for shaping and delivering appropriate technology, expanding the existing research focus on the perspective of the technology itself. Our research also has managerial implications that may help firms tap into emerging markets.

  20. Measures for the Diffusion of Solar PV are Aligned in Technology Action Plans for Six Countries in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Pedersen, Mathilde Brix

    2014-01-01

    African countries from 2010 to 2013, dedicated government committees have prioritized climate change mitigation technologies and developed action plans for the diffusion of the selected technologies. The project results show that solar PV is high on the agenda in Africa. Six out of ten countries...... in the region prioritized solar PV, and action plans for the diffusion of solar home systems were put forward in Cote d’Ivoire, Kenya, Mali and Senegal, while the implementation of grid-connected systems was proposed in Rwanda, Mali and Senegal. The project reports and technology action plans prepared...... in these six countries are used as the basis for comparing how solar PV is perceived in these countries and how policy measures enabling environmental adjustments and investment programmes are being planned to promote diffusion of the technology in these different contexts....