WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology solar technology

  1. Solar Cooker Technological Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Bashir

    1997-01-01

    The challenges which solar cooking technology is facing right now is discussed. Based on a field study in Madras and Gujarat, it is asserted that there is an important incompatibility between the technology and the every day real-life conditions of the "users" of solar cooker. An evaluation report...... on a solar cooker technology in Burkina Faso supports the findings of the study. It is concluded that the users and other important actors have to be incorporated in the technological development process of solar cookers in the future....

  2. Passive solar technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D

    1981-04-01

    The present status of passive solar technology is summarized, including passive solar heating, cooling and daylighting. The key roles of the passive solar system designer and of innovation in the building industry are described. After definitions of passive design and a summary of passive design principles are given, performance and costs of passive solar technology are discussed. Passive energy design concepts or methods are then considered in the context of the overall process by which building decisions are made to achieve the integration of new techniques into conventional design. (LEW).

  3. Implementing Solar Technologies at Airports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, A.; Romero, R.

    2014-07-01

    Federal agencies, such as the Department of Defense and Department of Homeland Security, as well as numerous private entities are actively pursuing the installation of solar technologies to help reduce fossil fuel energy use and associated emissions, meet sustainability goals, and create more robust or reliable operations. One potential approach identified for siting solar technologies is the installation of solar energy technologies at airports and airfields, which present a significant opportunity for hosting solar technologies due to large amounts of open land. This report focuses largely on the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA's) policies toward siting solar technologies at airports.

  4. Solar Technology Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Bob

    2011-04-27

    The Department of Energy, Golden Field Office, awarded a grant to the UNLV Research Foundation (UNLVRF) on August 1, 2005 to develop a solar and renewable energy information center. The Solar Technology Center (STC) is to be developed in two phases, with Phase I consisting of all activities necessary to determine feasibility of the project, including design and engineering, identification of land access issues and permitting necessary to determine project viability without permanently disturbing the project site, and completion of a National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Environmental Assessment. Phase II is the installation of infrastructure and related structures, which leads to commencement of operations of the STC. The STC is located in the Boulder City designated 3,000-acre Eldorado Valley Energy Zone, approximately 15 miles southwest of downtown Boulder City and fronting on Eldorado Valley Drive. The 33-acre vacant parcel has been leased to the Nevada Test Site Development Corporation (NTSDC) by Boulder City to accommodate a planned facility that will be synergistic with present and planned energy projects in the Zone. The parcel will be developed by the UNLVRF. The NTSDC is the economic development arm of the UNLVRF. UNLVRF will be the entity responsible for overseeing the lease and the development project to assure compliance with the lease stipulations established by Boulder City. The STC will be operated and maintained by University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) and its Center for Energy Research (UNLV-CER). Land parcels in the Eldorado Valley Energy Zone near the 33-acre lease are committed to the construction and operation of an electrical grid connected solar energy production facility. Other projects supporting renewable and solar technologies have been developed within the energy zone, with several more developments in the horizon.

  5. 2010 Solar Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 2010 Solar Technologies Market Report details the market conditions and trends for photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. Produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the report provides a comprehensive overview of the solar electricity market and identifies successes and trends within the market from both global and national perspectives.

  6. Solar photovoltaics - An aerospace technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, J. V.

    1977-01-01

    Specific problems affecting the development of low-cost silicon solar array power sources are discussed, taking into account the potential of realizing less than $0.50/per peak watt of silicon solar array technology. A utilization of less expensive processes for the manufacture of pure silicon and more economical procedures of silicon crystal and wafer production appear desirable. Attention is given to a sheet growth process example and a concept of pulsed processing for automated cell production.

  7. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-01-29

    The focus of this report is the U.S. solar electricity market, including photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. The report is organized into five chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of global and U.S. installation trends. Chapter 2 presents production and shipment data, material and supply chain issues, and solar industry employment trends. Chapter 3 presents cost, price, and performance trends. Chapter 4 discusses policy and market drivers such as recently passed federal legislation, state and local policies, and developments in project financing. Chapter 5 provides data on private investment trends and near-term market forecasts.

  8. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, S.; Margolis, R.; Barbose, G.; Bartlett, J.; Cory, K.; Couture, T.; DeCesaro, J.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Frickel, M.; Hemmeline, C.; Mendelsohn, T.; Ong, S.; Pak, A.; Poole, L.; Peterman, C.; Schwabe, P.; Soni, A.; Speer, B.; Wiser, R.; Zuboy, J.; James, T.

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this report is the U.S. solar electricity market, including photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. The report is organized into five chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of global and U.S. installation trends. Chapter 2 presents production and shipment data, material and supply chain issues, and solar industry employment trends. Chapter 3 presents cost, price, and performance trends. Chapter 4 discusses policy and market drivers such as recently passed federal legislation, state and local policies, and developments in project financing. Chapter 5 provides data on private investment trends and near-term market forecasts. Highlights of this report include: (1) The global PV industry has seen impressive growth rates in cell/module production during the past decade, with a 10-year compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 46% and a 5-year CAGR of 56% through 2008. (2) Thin-film PV technologies have grown faster than crystalline silicon over the past 5 years, with a 10-year CAGR of 47% and a 5-year CAGR of 87% for thin-film shipments through 2008. (3) Global installed PV capacity increased by 6.0 GW in 2008, a 152% increase over 2.4 GW installed in 2007. (4) The United States installed 0.34 GW of PV capacity in 2008, a 63% increase over 0.21 GW in 2007. (5) Global average PV module prices dropped 23% from $4.75/W in 1998 to $3.65/W in 2008. (6) Federal legislation, including the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (EESA, October 2008) and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA, February 2009), is providing unprecedented levels of support for the U.S. solar industry. (7) In 2008, global private-sector investment in solar energy technology topped $16 billion, including almost $4 billion invested in the United States. (8) Solar PV market forecasts made in early 2009 anticipate global PV production and demand to increase fourfold between 2008 and 2012, reaching roughly 20 GW of production and demand by 2012. (9

  9. Solar Energy Technologies Program Newsletter - July 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-07-01

    This quarterly newsletter is intended for participants and stakeholders in the DOE Solar Program. The content includes features on technology development, market transformation, and policy analysis for solar. Highlights include solar industry updates, DOE funding opportunity announcements and awards, and national laboratory technology developments.

  10. Solar Energy Technologies Program Newsletter - September 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-10-01

    This quarterly newsletter is intended for participants and stakeholders in the DOE Solar Program. The content includes features on technology development, market transformation, and policy analysis for solar. Highlights include solar industry updates, DOE funding opportunity announcements and awards, and national laboratory technology developments.

  11. Development of technologies for solar energy utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    With relation to the development of photovoltaic power systems for practical use, studies were made on thin-substrate polycrystalline solar cells and thin-film solar cells as manufacturing technology for solar cells for practical use. The technological development for super-high efficiency solar cells was also being advanced. Besides, the research and development have been conducted of evaluation technology for photovoltaic power systems and systems to utilize the photovoltaic power generation and peripheral technologies. The demonstrative research on photovoltaic power systems was continued. The international cooperative research on photovoltaic power systems was also made. The development of a manufacturing system for compound semiconductors for solar cells was carried out. As to the development of solar energy system technologies for industrial use, a study of elemental technologies was first made, and next the development of an advanced heat process type solar energy system was commenced. In addition, the research on passive solar systems was made. An investigational study was carried out of technologies for solar cities and solar energy snow melting systems. As international joint projects, studies were made of solar heat timber/cacao drying plants, etc. The paper also commented on projects for international cooperation for the technological development of solar energy utilization systems. 26 figs., 15 tabs.

  12. Concentrating Solar Power. Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    Concentrating solar power can contribute significantly to the world's energy supply. As shown in this roadmap, this decade is a critical window of opportunity during which CSP could become a competitive source of electrical power to meet peak and intermediate loads in the sunniest parts of the world. This roadmap identifies technology, economy and policy goals and milestones needed to support the development and deployment of CSP, as well as ongoing advanced research in CSF. It also sets out the need for governments to implement strong, balanced policies that favour rapid technological progress, cost reductions and expanded industrial manufacturing of CSP equipment to enable mass deployment. Importantly, this roadmap also establishes a foundation for greater international collaboration. The overall aim of this roadmap is to identify actions required - on the part of all stakeholders - to accelerate CSP deployment globally. Many countries, particularly in emerging regions, are only just beginning to develop CSP. Accordingly, milestone dates should be considered as indicative of urgency, rather than as absolutes. This roadmap is a work in progress. As global CSP efforts advance and an increasing number of CSP applications are developed, new data will provide the basis for updated analysis. The IEA will continue to track the evolution of CSP technology and its impacts on markets, the power sector and regulatory environments, and will update its analysis and set additional tasks and milestones as new learning comes to light.

  13. Technology Roadmaps: Concentrating Solar Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The emerging technology known as concentrating solar power, or CSP, holds much promise for countries with plenty of sunshine and clear skies. Its electrical output matches well the shifting daily demand for electricity in places where airconditioning systems are spreading. When backed up by thermal storage facilities and combustible fuel, it offers utilities electricity that can be dispatched when required, enabling it to be used for base, shoulder and peak loads. Within about one to two decades, it will be able to compete with coal plants that emit high levels of CO2. The sunniest regions, such as North Africa, may be able to export surplus solar electricity to neighbouring regions, such as Europe, where demand for electricity from renewable sources is strong. In the medium-to-longer term, concentrating solar facilities can also produce hydrogen, which can be blended with natural gas, and provide low-carbon liquid fuels for transport and other end-use sectors. For CSP to claim its share of the coming energy revolution, concerted action is required over the next ten years by scientists, industry, governments, financing institutions and the public. This roadmap is intended to help drive these indispensable developments.

  14. Solar power generation technology, new concepts & policy

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, P Jayarama

    2012-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the current state of affairs in the field of solar power engineering from a global perspective. In four parts, this well-researched volume informs about (1) established solar PV (photovoltaic) technologies; (2) third-generation PV technologies based on new materials with potential for low-cost large-scale production; (3) solar cell technology based on new (third-generation) concepts such as quantum dot solar cells and nano wire solar cells using silicon and compound semiconductors; and (4) economic implications and effects, as well as policies and incentives i

  15. Environmental aspects of solar energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strojan, C.L.

    1980-09-01

    Solar energy technologies have environmental effects, and these may be positive or negative compared with current ways of producing energy. In this respect, solar energy technologies are no different from other energy systems. Where solar energy technologies differ is that no unresolvable technological problems (e.g., CO/sub 2/ emissions) or sociopolitical barriers (e.g., waste disposal, catastrophic accidents) have been identified. This report reviews some of the environmental aspects of solar energy technologies and ongoing research designed to identify and resolve potential environmental concerns. It is important to continue research and assessment of environmental aspects of solar energy to ensure that unanticipated problems do not arise. It is also important that the knowledge gained through such environmental research be incorporated into technology development programs and policy initiatives.

  16. Applications of solar reforming technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiewak, I. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel); Tyner, C.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Langnickel, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany)

    1993-11-01

    Research in recent years has demonstrated the efficient use of solar thermal energy for driving endothermic chemical reforming reactions in which hydrocarbons are reacted to form synthesis gas (syngas). Closed-loop reforming/methanation systems can be used for storage and transport of process heat and for short-term storage for peaking power generation. Open-loop systems can be used for direct fuel production; for production of syngas feedstock for further processing to specialty chemicals and plastics and bulk ammonia, hydrogen, and liquid fuels; and directly for industrial processes such as iron ore reduction. In addition, reforming of organic chemical wastes and hazardous materials can be accomplished using the high-efficiency destruction capabilities of steam reforming. To help identify the most promising areas for future development of this technology, we discuss in this paper the economics and market potential of these applications.

  17. Technology Roadmaps: Solar photovoltaic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Solar PV power is a commercially available and reliable technology with a significant potential for long-term growth in nearly all world regions. This roadmap estimates that by 2050, PV will provide around 11% of global electricity production and avoid 2.3 gigatonnes (Gt) of CO2 emissions per year. Achieving this roadmap's vision will require an effective, long-term and balanced policy effort in the next decade to allow for optimal technology progress, cost reduction and ramp-up of industrial manufacturing for mass deployment. Governments will need to provide long-term targets and supporting policies to build confidence for investments in manufacturing capacity and deployment of PV systems. PV will achieve grid parity -- i.e. competitiveness with electricity grid retail prices -- by 2020 in many regions. As grid parity is achieved, the policy framework should evolve towards fostering self-sustained markets, with the progressive phase-out of economic incentives, but maintaining grid access guarantees and sustained R&D support.

  18. Solar Energy: Its Technologies and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auh, P. C.

    1978-06-01

    Solar heat, as a potential source of clean energy, is available to all of us. Extensive R and D efforts are being made to effectively utilize this renewable energy source. A variety of different technologies for utilizing solar energy have been proven to be technically feasible. Here, some of the most promising technologies and their applications are briefly described. These are: Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings (SHACOB), Solar Thermal Energy Conversion (STC), Wind Energy Conversion (WECS), Bioconversion to Fuels (BCF), Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), and Photovoltaic Electric Power Systems (PEPS). Special emphasis is placed on the discussion of the SHACOB technologies, since the technologies are being expeditiously developed for the near commercialization.

  19. From Solar Cookers Towards Viable Solar Cooking Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Bashir

    1997-01-01

    A broader concept of technology encompassing the technical and the societal aspects is introduced. Viability of technology and technological development process from a socio-technical view- point is discussed. Based on the above, the question of securing viability of solar cooking technology...... is taken up. It is discussed that actor- approach can operationally relate the abstract societal factors with those of technical aspects. Some concrete measures regarding application of solar cooker projects are drawn from the discussion: solar cooking projects should a) be based on user and producer...

  20. Solar technology application to enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Leon, P.; Brown, K.C.; Margolis, J.W.; Nasr, L.H.

    1979-12-01

    One proposed near-term commercial application for solar energy technology is the use of solar energy systems to generate steam for thermal enhanced oil recovery (EOR). This report examines four aspects of solar energy employed for steam EOR. First, six solar technologies are evaluated and two - parabolic troughs and central receivers - are selected for closer study; typical systems that would meet current production requirements are proposed and costed. Second, the legal and environmental issues attending solar EOR are analyzed. Third, the petroleum producing companies' preferences and requirements are discussed. Finally, alternative means of financing solar EOR are addressed. The study concludes that within the next four to five years, conventional (fossil-fueled) thermal EOR means are much less expensive and more available than solar EOR systems, even given environmental requirements. Within 10 to 15 years, assuming specified advances in solar technologies, central receiver EOR systems will be significantly more cost-effective than parabolic trough EOR systems and will be price competitive with conventional thermal EOR systems. Important uncertainties remain (both in solar energy technologies and in how they affect the operating characteristics of petroleum reservoirs) that need resolution before definitive projections can be made.

  1. Photovoltaics: A Solar Technology for Powering Tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavin, Christopher

    1983-01-01

    Photovoltaics, the technology that converts sunlight directly into electricity, may soon be a reliable power source for the world's poor. The one major challenge is cost reduction. Many topics are discussed, including solar powering the Third World, designing the solar building, investing in the sun, and the future of photovoltaics. (NW)

  2. Summary of solar energy technology characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alessio, Dr., Gregory J.; Blaunstein, Dr., Robert R.

    1980-09-01

    This report summarizes the design, operating, energy, environmental, and economic characteristics of 38 model solar systems used in the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems Project including solar heating and cooling of buildings, agricultural and industrial process heat, solar electric conversion, and industrial biomass systems. The generic systems designs utilized in this report were based on systems studies and mission analyses performed by the DOE National Laboratories and the MITRE Corporation. The purpose of those studies were to formulate materials and engineering cost data and performance data of solar equipment once mass produced.

  3. High Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdrhman M G; LI Hang-quan; ZHANG Li-ye; ZHOU Bing

    2006-01-01

    The conjugated polymer-based solar cell is one of the most promising devices in search of sustainable, renewable energy sources in last decade. It is the youngest field in organic solar cell research and also is certainly the fastest growing one at the moment. In addition, the key factor for polymer-based solar cells with high-efficiency is to invent new materials. Organic solar cell has attracted significant researches and commercial interest due to its low cost in fabrication and flexibility in applications. However, they suffer from relatively low conversion efficiency. The summarization of the significance and concept of high efficiency polymer solar cell technologies are presented.

  4. Solar Photovoltaics Technology: The Revolution Begins . . .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmerski, Lawrence

    2009-11-01

    The prospects of current and coming solar-photovoltaic (PV) technologies are envisioned, arguing this solar-electricity source is at a tipping point in the complex worldwide energy outlook. The emphasis of this presentation is on R&D advances (cell, materials, and module options), with indications of the limitations and strengths of crystalline (Si and GaAs) and thin-film (a-Si:H, Si, Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2, CdTe). The contributions and technological pathways for now and near-term technologies (silicon, III-Vs, and thin films) and status and forecasts for next- generation PV (organics, nanotechnologies, non-conventional junction approaches) are evaluated. Recent advances in concentrators with efficiencies headed toward 50%, new directions for thin films (20% and beyond), and materials/device technology issues are discussed in terms of technology progress. Insights into technical and other investments needed to tip photovoltaics to its next level of contribution as a significant clean-energy partner in the world energy portfolio. The need for R&D accelerating the now and imminent (evolutionary) technologies balanced with work in mid-term (disruptive) approaches is highlighted. Moreover, technology progress and ownership for next generation solar PV mandates a balanced investment in research on longer-term (the revolution needs revolutionary approaches to sustain itself) technologies (quantum dots, multi-multijunctions, intermediate-band concepts, nanotubes, bio-inspired, thermophotonics, solar hydrogen. . . ) having high-risk, but extremely high performance and cost returns for our next generations of energy consumers. Issues relating to manufacturing are explored-especially with the requirements for the next-generation technologies. This presentation provides insights into how this technology has developed-and where the R&D investments should be made and we can expect to be by this mid-21st century.

  5. Solar Sail Propulsion Technology at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Charles Les

    2007-01-01

    NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program developed the first generation of solar sail propulsion systems sufficient to accomplish inner solar system science and exploration missions. These first generation solar sails, when operational, will range in size from 40 meters to well over 100 meters in diameter and have an area density of less than 13 grams per square meter. A rigorous, multi-year technology development effort culminated in 2005 with the testing of two different 20-m solar sail systems under thermal vacuum conditions. This effort provided a number of significant insights into the optimal design and expected performance of solar sails as well as an understanding of the methods and costs of building and using them. In addition, solar sail orbital analysis tools for mission design were developed and tested. Laboratory simulations of the effects of long-term space radiation exposure were also conducted on two candidate solar sail materials. Detailed radiation and charging environments were defined for mission trajectories outside the protection of the earth's magnetosphere, in the solar wind environment. These were used in other analytical tools to prove the adequacy of sail design features for accommodating the harsh space environment. The presentation will describe the status of solar sail propulsion within NASA, near-term solar sail mission applications, and near-term plans for further development.

  6. Solar energy – new photovoltaic technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer-Larsen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    of its major energy sources. Solar energy is a focus point in many strategies for a sustainable energy supply. The European Commission’s Strategic Energy Plan (SET-plan) envisages a Solar Europe Initiative, where photovoltaics and concentrated solar power (CSP) supply as much power as wind mills......Solar energy technologies directly convert sunlight into electricity and heat, or power chemical reactions that convert simple molecules into synthetic chemicals and fuels. The sun is by far the most abundant source of energy, and a sustainable society will need to rely on solar energy as one...... in the future. Much focus is directed towards photovoltaics presently. Installation of solar cell occurs at an unprecedented pace and the expectations of the photovoltaics industry are high: a total PV capacity of 40 GW by 2012 as reported by a recent study. The talk progresses from general solar energy topics...

  7. Solar energy – new photovoltaic technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer-Larsen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Solar energy technologies directly convert sunlight into electricity and heat, or power chemical reactions that convert simple molecules into synthetic chemicals and fuels. The sun is by far the most abundant source of energy, and a sustainable society will need to rely on solar energy as one...... of its major energy sources. Solar energy is a focus point in many strategies for a sustainable energy supply. The European Commission’s Strategic Energy Plan (SET-plan) envisages a Solar Europe Initiative, where photovoltaics and concentrated solar power (CSP) supply as much power as wind mills...... in the future. Much focus is directed towards photovoltaics presently. Installation of solar cell occurs at an unprecedented pace and the expectations of the photovoltaics industry are high: a total PV capacity of 40 GW by 2012 as reported by a recent study. The talk progresses from general solar energy topics...

  8. Solar driven technologies for hydrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medojević Milovan M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind that the production of hydrogen based on renewable energy sources, without doubt, is an important aspect to be taken into account when considering the potential of this gas, where as particularly interesting technologies stand out the ones which are based on the use of solar energy to produce hydrogen. The goal of this paper provides basic technological trajectories, with the possibility of combining, for solar driven hydrogen production, such as: electrochemical, photochemical and thermochemical process. Furthermore, the paper presents an analysis of those technologies from a technical as well as economic point of view. In addition, the paper aims to draw attention to the fact that the generation of hydrogen using renewable energy should be imposed as a logical and proper way to store solar energy in the form of chemical energy.

  9. From Solar Cookers Towards Viable Solar Cooking Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Bashir

    1997-01-01

    A broader concept of technology encompassing the technical and the societal aspects is introduced. Viability of technology and technological development process from a socio-technical view- point is discussed. Based on the above, the question of securing viability of solar cooking technology is t...... studies to understand their priorities and opportunities related with the process of technological development; b) be multi-disciplinary, flexible and long-term; facilitate co-working of users, producers, political actors and other actors in the process....

  10. Status of solar sail technology within NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Young, Roy; Montgomery, Edward; Alhorn, Dean

    2011-12-01

    In the early 2000s, NASA made substantial progress in the development of solar sail propulsion systems for use in robotic science and exploration of the solar system. Two different 20-m solar sail systems were produced. NASA has successfully completed functional vacuum testing in their Glenn Research Center's Space Power Facility at Plum Brook Station, Ohio. The sails were designed and developed by Alliant Techsystems Space Systems and L'Garde, respectively. The sail systems consist of a central structure with four deployable booms that support each sail. These sail designs are robust enough for deployment in a one-atmosphere, one-gravity environment and are scalable to much larger solar sails - perhaps as large as 150 m on a side. Computation modeling and analytical simulations were performed in order to assess the scalability of the technology to the larger sizes that are required to implement the first generation of missions using solar sails. Furthermore, life and space environmental effects testing of sail and component materials was also conducted.NASA terminated funding for solar sails and other advanced space propulsion technologies shortly after these ground demonstrations were completed. In order to capitalize on the $30 M investment made in solar sail technology to that point, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center funded the NanoSail-D, a subscale solar sail system designed for possible small spacecraft applications. The NanoSail-D mission flew on board a Falcon-1 rocket, launched August 2, 2008. As a result of the failure of that rocket, the NanoSail-D was never successfully given the opportunity to achieve orbit. The NanoSail-D flight spare was flown in the Fall of 2010. This review paper summarizes NASA's investment in solar sail technology to date and discusses future opportunities.

  11. Building Design Guidelines for Solar Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givoni, B.

    1989-01-01

    There are two main objectives to this publication. The first is to find out the communalities in the experience gained in previous studies and in actual applications of solar technologies in buildings, residential as well as nonresidential. The second objective is to review innovative concepts and products which may have an impact on future developments and applications of solar technologies in buildings. The available information and common lessons were collated and presented in a form which, hopefully, is useful for architects and solar engineers, as well as for teachers of "solar architecture" and students in Architectural Schools. The publication is based mainly on the collection and analysis of relevant information. The information included previous studies in which the performance of solar buildings was evaluated, as well as the personal experience of the Author and the research consultants. The state of the art, as indicated by these studies and personal experience, was summarized and has served as basis for the development of the Design Guidelines. In addition to the summary of the state of the art, as was already applied in solar buildings, an account was given of innovative concepts and products. Such innovations have occurred in the areas of thermal storage by Phase Change Materials (PCM) and in glazing with specialized or changeable properties. Interesting concepts were also developed for light transfer, which may enable to transfer sunlight to the core areas of large multi story nonresidential buildings. These innovations may have a significant impact on future developments of solar technologies and their applications in buildings.

  12. NASA Solar Sail Propulsion Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Montgomery, Edward E.; Young, Roy; Adams, Charles

    2007-01-01

    NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program has developed the first generation of solar sail propulsion systems sufficient to accomplish inner solar system science and exploration missions. These first generation solar sails, when operational, will range in size from 40 meters to well over 100 meters in diameter and have an areal density of less than 13 grams per square meter. A rigorous, multi-year technology development effort culminated in 2005 with the testing of two different 20-m solar sail systems under thermal vacuum conditions. The first system, developed by ATK Space Systems of Goleta, California, uses rigid booms to deploy and stabilize the sail. In the second approach, L'Garde, Inc. of Tustin, California uses inflatable booms that rigidize in the coldness of space to accomplish sail deployment. This effort provided a number of significant insights into the optimal design and expected performance of solar sails as well as an understanding of the methods and costs of building and using them. In a separate effort, solar sail orbital analysis tools for mission design were developed and tested. Laboratory simulations of the effects of long-term space radiation exposure were also conducted on two candidate solar sail materials. Detailed radiation and charging environments were defined for mission trajectories outside the protection of the earth's magnetosphere, in the solar wind environment. These were used in other analytical tools to prove the adequacy of sail design features for accommodating the harsh space environment. Preceding and in conjunction with these technology efforts, NASA sponsored several mission application studies for solar sails. Potential missions include those that would be flown in the near term to study the sun and be used in space weather prediction to one that would use an evolved sail capability to support humanity's first mission into nearby interstellar space. This paper will describe the status of solar sail propulsion within

  13. Solar cell materials developing technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Conibeer, Gavin J

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a comparison of solar cell materials, including both new materials based on organics, nanostructures and novel inorganics and developments in more traditional photovoltaic materials. It surveys the materials and materials trends in the field including third generation solar cells (multiple energy level cells, thermal approaches and the modification of the solar spectrum) with an eye firmly on low costs, energy efficiency and the use of abundant non-toxic materials.

  14. OUT Success Stories: Solar Hot Water Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyne, R.

    2000-08-01

    Solar hot water technology was made great strides in the past two decades. Every home, commercial building, and industrial facility requires hot water. DOE has helped to develop reliable and durable solar hot water systems. For industrial applications, the growth potential lies in large-scale systems, using flat-plate and trough-type collectors. Flat-plate collectors are commonly used in residential hot water systems and can be integrated into the architectural design of the building.

  15. Perovskite solar cells: an emerging photovoltaic technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam-Gyu Park

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Perovskite solar cells based on organometal halides represent an emerging photovoltaic technology. Perovskite solar cells stem from dye-sensitized solar cells. In a liquid-based dye-sensitized solar cell structure, the adsorption of methylammonium lead halide perovskite on a nanocrystalline TiO2 surface produces a photocurrent with a power conversion efficiency (PCE of around 3–4%, as first discovered in 2009. The PCE was doubled after 2 years by optimizing the perovskite coating conditions. However, the liquid-based perovskite solar cell receives little attention because of its stability issues, including instant dissolution of the perovskite in a liquid electrolyte. A long-term, stable, and high efficiency (∼10% perovskite solar cell was developed in 2012 by substituting the solid hole conductor with a liquid electrolyte. Efficiencies have quickly risen to 18% in just 2 years. Since PCE values over 20% are realistically anticipated with the use of cheap organometal halide perovskite materials, perovskite solar cells are a promising photovoltaic technology. In this review, the opto-electronic properties of perovskite materials and recent progresses in perovskite solar cells are described. In addition, comments on the issues to current and future challenges are mentioned.

  16. Solar technology - A whether report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finneran, K.

    1983-03-01

    Progress in the use of solar energy for producing large quantities of electrical power is assessed. The practicality of different applications of solar energy has been demonstrated, and present activity focuses on reducing production costs, enhancing efficiency, and improving reliability. Solar cell production reached 6 MW in 1982, but cuts in government research funding will delay the arrival of cost-competitive photovoltaics for commercial applications in developed countries. Research is expanding on amorphous Si cells, which are cheaper to produce while having lower efficiencies than single crystal cells. An estimated 60,000-80,000 passive solar houses have been constructed since 1978, and work is proceeding on better thermal control in the houses and more elegant storage techniques, such as long-lasting phase change materials. Industrially, a 114-unit array of parabolic concentrators producing 3 MW is providing steam for electricity and processing in a clothing factory. Tests of the 10 MWe Solar One heliostat array power plant in Barstow, CA have encouraged plans for a 100 MWe plant.

  17. Mass properties survey of solar array technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Robert

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the technologies, electrical performance, and mass characteristics of many of the presently available and the more advanced developmental space solar array technologies is presented. Qualitative trends and quantitative mass estimates as total array output power is increased from 1 kW to 5 kW at End of Life (EOL) from a single wing are shown. The array technologies are part of a database supporting an ongoing solar power subsystem model development for top level subsystem and technology analyses. The model is used to estimate the overall electrical and thermal performance of the complete subsystem, and then calculate the mass and volume of the array, batteries, power management, and thermal control elements as an initial sizing. The array types considered here include planar rigid panel designs, flexible and rigid fold-out planar arrays, and two concentrator designs, one with one critical axis and the other with two critical axes. Solar cell technologies of Si, GaAs, and InP were included in the analyses. Comparisons were made at the array level; hinges, booms, harnesses, support structures, power transfer, and launch retention mountings were included. It is important to note that the results presented are approximations, and in some cases revised or modified performance and mass estimates of specific designs.

  18. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report: January 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-01-01

    This report focuses on the U.S. solar electricity market, including photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. The report provides an overview of global and U.S. installation trends. It also presents production and shipment data, material and supply chain issues, and solar industry employment trends. It also presents cost, price, and performance trends; and discusses policy and market drivers such as recently passed federal legislation, state and local policies, and developments in project financing. The final chapter provides data on private investment trends and near-term market forecasts.

  19. Building design guidelines for solar energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Givoni, B.

    1989-01-01

    There are two main objectives to this publication. The first is to find out the communalities in the experience gained in previous studies and in actual applications of solar technologies in buildings, residential as well as nonresidential. The second objective is to review innovative concepts and products which may have an impact on future developments and applications of solar technologies in buildings. The available information and common lessons were collated and presented in a form which, hopefully, is useful for architects and solar engineers, as well as for teachers of solar architecture'' and students in Architectural Schools. The publication is based mainly on the collection and analysis of relevant information. The information included previous studies in which the performance of solar buildings was evaluated, as well as the personal experience of the Author and the research consultants. The state of the art, as indicated by these studies and personal experience, was summarized and has served as basis for the development of the Design Guidelines. In addition to the summary of the state of the art, as was already applied in solar buildings, an account was given of innovative concepts and products. Such innovations have occurred in the areas of thermal storage by Phase Change Materials (PCM) and in glazing with specialized or changeable properties. Interesting concepts were also developed for light transfer, which may enable to transfer sunlight to the core areas of large multi story nonresidential buildings. These innovations may have a significant impact on future developments of solar technologies and their applications in buildings. 15 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Space solar cell technology development - A perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Monck, J.

    1982-01-01

    The developmental history of photovoltaics is examined as a basis for predicting further advances to the year 2000. Transistor technology was the precursor of solar cell development. Terrestrial cells were modified for space through changes in geometry and size, as well as the use of Ag-Ti contacts and manufacture of a p-type base. The violet cell was produced for Comsat, and involved shallow junctions, new contacts, and an enhanced antireflection coating for better radiation tolerance. The driving force was the desire by private companies to reduce cost and weight for commercial satellite power supplies. Liquid phase epitaxial (LPE) GaAs cells are the latest advancement, having a 4 sq cm area and increased efficiency. GaAs cells are expected to be flight ready in the 1980s. Testing is still necessary to verify production techniques and the resistance to electron and photon damage. Research will continue in CVD cell technology, new panel technology, and ultrathin Si cells.

  1. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  2. Oxygenic photosynthesis: translation to solar fuel technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian David Janna Olmos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mitigation of man-made climate change, rapid depletion of readily available fossil fuel reserves and facing the growing energy demand that faces mankind in the near future drive the rapid development of economically viable, renewable energy production technologies. It is very likely that greenhouse gas emissions will lead to the significant climate change over the next fifty years. World energy consumption has doubled over the last twenty-five years, and is expected to double again in the next quarter of the 21st century. Our biosphere is at the verge of a severe energy crisis that can no longer be overlooked. Solar radiation represents the most abundant source of clean, renewable energy that is readily available for conversion to solar fuels. Developing clean technologies that utilize practically inexhaustible solar energy that reaches our planet and convert it into the high energy density solar fuels provides an attractive solution to resolving the global energy crisis that mankind faces in the not too distant future. Nature’s oxygenic photosynthesis is the most fundamental process that has sustained life on Earth for more than 3.5 billion years through conversion of solar energy into energy of chemical bonds captured in biomass, food and fossil fuels. It is this process that has led to evolution of various forms of life as we know them today. Recent advances in imitating the natural process of photosynthesis by developing biohybrid and synthetic “artificial leaves” capable of solar energy conversion into clean fuels and other high value products, as well as advances in the mechanistic and structural aspects of the natural solar energy converters, photosystem I and photosystem II, allow to address the main challenges: how to maximize solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency, and most importantly: how to store the energy efficiently and use it without significant losses. Last but not least, the question of how to make the process of solar

  3. Flexible implementation of rigid solar cell technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollowell, Andrew E.

    2010-08-01

    As a source of clean, remote energy, photovoltaic (PV) systems are an important area of research. The majority of solar cells are rigid materials with negligible flexibility. Flexible PV systems possess many advantages, such as being transportable and incorporable on diverse structures. Amorphous silicon and organic PV systems are flexible; however, they lack the efficiency and lifetime of rigid cells. There is also a need for PV systems that are light weight, especially in space and flight applications. We propose a solution to this problem by arranging rigid cells onto a flexible substrate creating efficient, light weight, and flexible devices. To date, we have created a working prototype of our design using the 1.1cm x 1cm Emcore cells. We have achieved a better power to weight ratio than commercially available PowerFilm{reg_sign}, which uses thin film silicon yielding .034W/gram. We have also tested our concept with other types of cells and verified that our methods are able to be adapted to any rigid solar cell technology. This allows us to use the highest efficiency devices despite their physical characteristics. Depending on the cell size we use, we can rival the curvature of most available flexible PV devices. We have shown how the benefits of rigid solar cells can be integrated into flexible applications, allowing performance that surpasses alternative technologies.

  4. Technical Assistance for Southwest Solar Technologies Inc. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz-Ramos, Karina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Surety Engineering and Analysis; Brainard, James Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). National Security Applications; McIntyre, Annie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Surety Engineering and Analysis; Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geomechanics; Akin, Lili A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Structural and Thermal Analysis; Nicol, Katherine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Surety Engineering and Analysis; Hayden, Herb [Southwest Solar Technologies, Inc., Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Southwest Solar Technologies Inc. is constructing a Solar-Fuel Hybrid Turbine energy system. This innovative energy system combines solar thermal energy with compressed air energy storage and natural gas fuel backup capability to provide firm, non-intermittent power. In addition, the energy system will have very little impact on the environment since, unlike other Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technologies, it requires minimal water. In 2008 Southwest Solar Technologies received a Solar America Showcase award from the Department of Energy for Technical Assistance from Sandia National Laboratories. This report details the work performed as part of the Solar America Showcase award for Southwest Solar Technologies. After many meetings and visits between Sandia National Labs and Southwest Solar Technologies, several tasks were identified as part of the Technical Assistance and the analysis and results for these are included here.

  5. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  6. Test results, Industrial Solar Technology parabolic trough solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudley, V.E. [EG and G MSI, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evans, L.R.; Matthews, C.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Industrial Solar Technology are cost-sharing development of advanced parabolic trough technology. As part of this effort, several configurations of an IST solar collector were tested to determine the collector efficiency and thermal losses with black chrome and black nickel receiver selective coatings, combined with aluminized film and silver film reflectors, using standard Pyrex{reg_sign} and anti-reflective coated Pyrex{reg_sign} glass receiver envelopes. The development effort has been successful, producing an advanced collector with 77% optical efficiency, using silver-film reflectors, a black nickel receiver coating, and a solgel anti-reflective glass receiver envelope. For each receiver configuration, performance equations were empirically derived relating collector efficiency and thermal losses to the operating temperature. Finally, equations were derived showing collector performance as a function of input insolation value, incident angle, and operating temperature.

  7. Current situation and development of solar heating technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Ruicheng

    2009-01-01

    It is introduced the current situation and development for solar heating technology including passive solar heat-ing and solar heating combisystems in China in this paper. Combined with the engineering application projects, the au-thor gave the technical and economic analysis of the passive solar and solar heating combisystems in China and summa-rized the developing obstacle and the spreading tactics for raising marketing of the solar heating in China.

  8. Solar sail technology-A state of the art review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Bo; Sperber, Evan; Eke, Fidelis

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the current state of the art of solar sail technology is reviewed. Solar sail research is quite broad and multi-disciplinary; this paper focuses mainly on areas such as solar sail dynamics, attitude control, design and deployment, and mission and trajectory analysis. Special attention is given to solar radiation pressure force modeling and attitude dynamics. Some basics of solar sailing which would be very useful for a new investigator in the area are also presented. Technological difficulties and current challenges in solar sail system design are identified, and possible ideas for future research in the field are also discussed.

  9. Solar and Wind Technologies for Hydrogen Production Report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2005-12-01

    DOE's Solar and Wind Technologies for Hydrogen Production Report to Congress summarizes the technology roadmaps for solar- and wind-based hydrogen production. Published in December 2005, it fulfills the requirement under section 812 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

  10. Economic and environmental benefits of technology fusion of solar photovoltaics with alternative technologies

    OpenAIRE

    De Schepper, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Technology fusion refers to the blending of several previously separate fields of existing technology, creating novel markets and growth opportunities. In technology fusion, one plus one equals three. This is indeed the case when fusing solar PV with alternative technologies: besides greenhouse gas emission reductions, additional advantages such as the savings of scarce land area, grid independency, diminishment of the effect of power variability of intermittent clean energy sources, and incr...

  11. Long-term goals for solar thermal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, T.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Brown, D.R.

    1985-05-01

    This document describes long-term performance and cost goals for three solar thermal technologies. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) developed these goals in support of the Draft Five Year Research and Development Plan for the National Solar Thermal Technology Program (DOE 1984b). These technology goals are intended to provide targets that, if met, will lead to the widespread use of solar thermal technologies in the marketplace. Goals were developed for three technologies and two applications: central receiver and dish technologies for utility-generated electricity applications, and central receiver, dish, and trough technologies for industrial process heat applications. These technologies and applications were chosen because they are the primary technologies and applications that have been researched by DOE in the past. System goals were developed through analysis of future price projections for energy sources competing with solar thermal in the middle-to-late 1990's time frame. The system goals selected were levelized energy costs of $0.05/kWh for electricity and $9/MBtu for industrial process heat (1984 $). Component goals established to meet system goals were developed based upon projections of solar thermal component performance and cost which could be achieved in the same time frame.

  12. Solar technologies and the soft path: an empirical examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodwick, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    A US national probability sample of 2023 traditional energy users and a purposive sample of 3809 solar energy technology owners are compared to assess whether those who owned solar energy technologies in 1980 have more soft path preferences (SPP) (e.g., attitudes and behaviors compatible with soft energy path developments) than do those who did not own such technologies. It is suggested that SPP is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the social structural transformation of society to the soft energy path proposed by Amory Lovins. A soft-path preferences scale is developed. The scale values for solar and nonsolar homeowners, for active and passive solar technology owners, and for those owing the technologies for four different time periods are compared. The nonsolar homeowners, passive technology owners, and those who owned the technologies from one to five years have the highest SPP scores. The greatest differences were found in the dimension of natural resources conservation. Partial least squares structural equation modeling is used to examine an extension and specification of Lovins' theory of soft-energy-path development. A model is created which focuses on the process of SPP development. Energy vulnerability needs, contextual resources, type of solar technologies, technological problems, and evaluation are the independent variables of the model.

  13. Compound parabolic concentrator technology development to commercial solar detoxification applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, J.; Malato, S.; Fernandez, P. [CIEMAT, Plataforma Solar de Almeria (ES)] (and others)

    1999-07-01

    An EC-DGXII BRITE-EURAM-III-financed project called Solar detoxification technology in the treatment of persistent non-biodegradable chlorinated industrial water contaminants' is described. The objectives are to develop a simple, efficient and commercially competitive solar water treatment technology based on compound parabolic collectors (CPC) enabling design and erection of turnkey installations. A European industrial consortium, SOLARDETOX, representing industry and research in Spain, Portugal, Germany and Italy has been created through this project. Some of the most up-to-date scientific and technological results are given, including the design of the first industrial European solar detoxification treatment plant, the main project deliverable. (author)

  14. Status note on solar cell technology; Statusnotat om solcelleteknologi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This status note briefly describes development and perspectives for solar cell technology internationally and nationally. The note will form part of the background for a coming proposal for a national solar cell strategy. The strategy will be prepared by the Danish Energy Authority in collaboration with the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation, Elkraft System, Eltra, representatives from the industry and others. The proposal is expected to give an overall picture of Danish R and D niches and opportunities within solar cell technology. (BA)

  15. Effects of solar photovoltaic technology on the environment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Liqiang; Zhang, Yajuan

    2017-08-31

    Among the various types of renewable energy, solar photovoltaic has elicited the most attention because of its low pollution, abundant reserve, and endless supply. Solar photovoltaic technology generates both positive and negative effects on the environment. The environmental loss of 0.00666 yuan/kWh from solar photovoltaic technology is lower than that from coal-fired power generation (0.05216 yuan/kWh). The negative effects of solar photovoltaic system production include wastewater and waste gas pollutions, the representatives of which contain fluorine, chromium with wastewater and hydrogen fluoride, and silicon tetrachloride gas. Solar panels are also a source of light pollution. Improper disposal of solar cells that have reached the end of their service life harms the environment through the stench they produce and the damage they cause to the soil. So, the positive and negative effects of green energy photovoltaic power generation technology on the environment should be considered.

  16. Assessing Rare Metal Availability Challenges for Solar Energy Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Grandell

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is commonly seen as a future energy source with significant potential. Ruthenium, gallium, indium and several other rare elements are common and vital components of many solar energy technologies, including dye-sensitized solar cells, CIGS cells and various artificial photosynthesis approaches. This study surveys solar energy technologies and their reliance on rare metals such as indium, gallium, and ruthenium. Several of these rare materials do not occur as primary ores, and are found as byproducts associated with primary base metal ores. This will have an impact on future production trends and the availability for various applications. In addition, the geological reserves of many vital metals are scarce and severely limit the potential of certain solar energy technologies. It is the conclusion of this study that certain solar energy concepts are unrealistic in terms of achieving TW scales.

  17. Solar Energy Technologies Program Newsletter - First Quarter 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-04-22

    The first quarter 2010 edition of the Solar Energy Technologies Program newsletter summarizes the activities for the past three months, funding opportunities, highlights from the national labs, and upcoming events.

  18. A Systematic Evaluation Model for Solar Cell Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Fu Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuels, including coal, petroleum, natural gas, and nuclear energy, are the primary electricity sources currently. However, with depletion of fossil fuels, global warming, nuclear crisis, and increasing environmental consciousness, the demand for renewable energy resources has skyrocketed. Solar energy is one of the most popular renewable energy resources for meeting global energy demands. Even though there are abundant studies on various solar technology developments, there is a lack of studies on solar technology evaluation and selection. Therefore, this research develops a model using interpretive structural modeling (ISM, benefits, opportunities, costs, and risks concept (BOCR, and fuzzy analytic network process (FANP to aggregate experts' opinions in evaluating current available solar cell technology. A case study in a photovoltaics (PV firm is used to examine the practicality of the proposed model in selecting the most suitable technology for the firm in manufacturing new products.

  19. Solar Energy Technologies Program Newsletter - Fourth Quarter 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2009-12-31

    The Fourth Quarter 2009 edition of the Solar Energy Technologies Program newsletter summarizes the activities for the past three months, funding opportunities, highlights from the national labs, and upcoming events.

  20. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2006 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2006 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2005. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  1. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-03-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2005. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program?s national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  2. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program 2007 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2007 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program from October 2006 to September 2007. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  3. Barriers to the Diffusion of Solar Thermal Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Despite its considerable potential in household, domestic and industry sectors, the possible contribution of solar heat is often neglected in many academic and institutional energy projections and scenarios. This is best explained by the frequent failure to distinguish heat and work as two different forms of energy transfers. As a result, policy makers in many countries or States have tended to pay lesser attention to solar thermal technologies than to other renewable energy technologies.

  4. Proceedings of the solar thermal concentrating collector technology symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, B.P.; Kreith, F. (eds.)

    1978-08-01

    The purpose of the symposium was to review the current status of the concentrating collector technology, to disseminate the information gained from experience in operating solar systems, and to highlight the significant areas of technology development that must be vigorously pursued to foster early commercialization of concentrating solar collectors. Separate abstracts were prepared for thirteen invited papers and working group summaries. Two papers were previously abstracted for EDB.

  5. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program: FY 2004 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-10-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2004 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2004. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  6. Distributed Solar Photovoltaic Power Production - Technology and Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Al [PSE& G; Stuby, Rick [Petra Solar

    2011-11-02

    As part of its nationally recognized Solar 4 All program, PSE&G has partnered with Petra Solar to deploy the world’s first and largest pole attached solar project. The project, based on Petra Solar’s distributed Smart Solar solution, will create a 40 megawatt solar “virtual power plant.” In deployment as 200,000 individual grid-connected solar power producers on utility poles in PSE&G territory, Petra Solar SunWave® solutions leverage Smart Grid communications and high-tech panel-level inverters to implement a robust system with many technical benefits over traditional solar photovoltaic solutions. The program overview, deployment model, smart grid communications and enabling inverter technology and safety features will be presented, as well the future challenges of, and solutions for, solar power intermittency as photovoltaic penetration on the electric grid increases.

  7. Research and Development Needs for Building-Integrated Solar Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-01-01

    The Building Technologies Office (BTO) has identified Building Integrated Solar Technologies (BIST) as a potentially valuable piece of the comprehensive pathway to help achieve its goal of reducing energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings by 50% by the year 2030. This report helps to identify the key research and development (R&D) needs that will be required for BIST to make a substantial contribution toward that goal. BIST include technologies for space heating and cooling, water heating, hybrid photovoltaic-thermal systems (PV/T), active solar lighting, and building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV).

  8. Laser technology in solar absorber manufacturing; Laser punktet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, Joachim

    2009-12-07

    No other solar collector manufacturing stage is as fully automatic as absorber fabrication. Laser welding systems are well established in the market. In addition to welding machines, some manufacturers are also offering complete assembly lines for solar collector production. SONNE WIND and WAeRME presents technologies and manufacturers. (orig./AKB)

  9. Flexible Assembly Solar Technology (FAST) Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toister, Elad [BrightSource Energy Inc., Jerusalem (Israel)

    2014-11-06

    The Flexible Assembly Solar Technology (FAST) project was initiated by BrightSource in an attempt to provide potential solar field EPC contractors with an effective set of tools to perform specific construction tasks. These tasks are mostly associated with heliostat assembly and installation, and require customized non-standard tools. The FAST concept focuses on low equipment cost, reduced setup time and increased assembly throughput as compared to the Ivanpah solar field construction tools.

  10. Forecasting the Development of Different Solar Cell Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Arturo Morales-Acevedo; Gaspar Casados-Cruz

    2013-01-01

    Solar cells are made of several materials and device structures with the main goal of having maximum efficiency at low cost. Some types of solar cells have shown a rapid efficiency progress whereas others seem to remain constant as a consequence of different factors such as the technological and economic ones. Using information published by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) about the increase of solar cells record efficiency, we apply a simple mathematical model to estimate the ...

  11. PV technology and success of solar electricity in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dung, T.Q. [Vietnam National Center for Science and Technology, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Solarlab

    1997-12-31

    Since 1990 the PV Technology and the Solar electricity have been strongly developed in Vietnam. The PV experts of Solarlab have studied and set up an appropriate PV Technology responding to local Market needs. It has not only stood well but has been also transferred to Mali Republic and Lao P.D.R. The PV off grid systems of Solarlab demonstrate good efficiency and low prices. Over 60 solar stations and villages have been built to provide solar lighting for about 3000 families along the country in remote, mountainous areas and islands. 400 families are using stand-alone Solar Home Systems. The Solar electricity has been chosen for Rural Electrification and National Telecommunication Network in remote and mountainous regions. Many International projects in cooperation with FONDEM-France, SELF USA and Governmental PV projects have been realized by Solarlab. The experiences of maintenance, management and finance about PV development in Vietnam are also mentioned.

  12. Facing technological challenges of Solar Updraft Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, F.; Borri, C.; Harte, R.; Krätzig, W. B.; Niemann, H.-J.

    2015-01-01

    The Solar Updraft Power Plant technology addresses a very challenging idea of combining two kinds of renewable energy: wind and solar. The working principle is simple: a Solar Updraft Power Plant (SUPP) consists of a collector area to heat the air due to the wide-banded ultra-violet solar radiation, the high-rise solar tower to updraft the heated air to the atmosphere, and in between the power conversion unit, where a system of coupled turbines and generators transforms the stream of heated air into electric power. A good efficiency of the power plant can only be reached with extra-large dimensions of the tower and/or the collector area. The paper presents an up-to-date review of the SUPP technology, focusing on the multi-physics modeling of the power plant, on the structural behavior of the tower and, last but not least, on the modeling of the stochastic wind loading process.

  13. A compendium of solar dish/Stirling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stine, W.B. [California State Polytechnic Univ., Pomona, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Diver, R.B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This report surveys the emerging dish/Stirling technology. It documents -- using consistent terminology the design characteristics of dish concentrators, receivers, and Stirling engines applicable to solar electric power generation. Development status and operating experience for each system and an overview of dish/Stirling technology are also presented. This report enables comparisons of concentrator, receiver, and engine technologies. Specifications and performance data are presented on systems and on components that are in use or that could be used in dish/Stirling systems. This report is organized into two parts: The first part (Chapters 1 through 4) provides an overview of dish/Stirling technology -- the dish/ Stirling components (concentrator, receiver, and engine/alternator), current technology, basic theory, and technology development. The second part (Chapters 5 through 7) provides a detailed survey of the existing dish/Stirling concentrators, receivers, and engine/alternators.

  14. Applications of Laser Precisely Processing Technology in Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    According to the design method of laser resonator cavity, we optimized the primary parameters of resonator and utilized LD arrays symmetrically pumping manner to implementing output of the high-brightness laser in our laser cutter, then which was applied to precisely cutting the conductive film of CuInSe2 solar cells, the buried contact silicon solar cells' electrode groove, and perforating in wafer which is used to the emitter wrap through silicon solar cells. Laser processing precision was less than 40μm, the results have met solar cell's fabrication technology, and made finally the buried cells' conversion efficiency be improved from 18% to 21% .

  15. Solar Cell and Array Technology Development for NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczor, Michael; McNatt, Jeremiah; Mercer, Carolyn; Kerslake, Tom; Pappa, Richard

    2012-01-01

    NASA is currently developing advanced solar cell and solar array technologies to support future exploration activities. These advanced photovoltaic technology development efforts are needed to enable very large (multi-hundred kilowatt) power systems that must be compatible with solar electric propulsion (SEP) missions. The technology being developed must address a wide variety of requirements and cover the necessary advances in solar cell, blanket integration, and large solar array structures that are needed for this class of missions. Th is paper will summarize NASA's plans for high power SEP missions, initi al mission studies and power system requirements, plans for advanced photovoltaic technology development, and the status of specific cell and array technology development and testing that have already been conducted.

  16. Standards, building codes, and certification programs for solar technology applicatons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, J. D.; Odland, R.; Barker, H.

    1979-07-01

    This report is a primer on solar standards development. It explains the development of standards, building code provisions, and certification programs and their relationship to the emerging solar technologies. These areas are important in the commercialization of solar technology because they lead to the attainment of two goals: the development of an industry infrastructure and consumer confidence. Standards activities in the four phases of the commercialization process (applied research, development, introduction, and diffusion) are discussed in relation to institutional issues. Federal policies have been in operation for a number of years to accelerate the development process for solar technology. These policies are discussed in light of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular on federal interaction with the voluntary consensus system, and in light of current activities of DOE, HUD, and other interested federal agencies. The appendices cover areas of specific interest to different audiences: activities on the state and local level; and standards, building codes, and certification programs for specific technologies. In addition, a contract for the development of a model solar document let by DOE to a model consortium is excerpted in the Appendix.

  17. Forecasting the Development of Different Solar Cell Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Morales-Acevedo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar cells are made of several materials and device structures with the main goal of having maximum efficiency at low cost. Some types of solar cells have shown a rapid efficiency progress whereas others seem to remain constant as a consequence of different factors such as the technological and economic ones. Using information published by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL about the increase of solar cells record efficiency, we apply a simple mathematical model to estimate the evolution in the near future for the different cell technologies. Here, as an example, we use data for solar cells made with representative materials and structures of each of the three “PV generations.”

  18. Technology Roadmaps: Solar Heating and Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The solar heating and cooling (SHC) roadmap outlines a pathway for solar energy to supply almost one sixth (18 EJ) of the world’s total energy use for both heating and cooling by 2050. This would save some 800 megatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year; more than the total CO2 emissions in Germany in 2009. While solar heating and cooling today makes a modest contribution to world energy demand, the roadmap envisages that if concerted action is taken by governments and industry, solar energy could annually produce more than 16% of total final energy use for low temperature heat and nearly 17% for cooling. Given that global energy demand for heat represents almost half of the world’s final energy use – more than the combined global demand for electricity and transport – solar heat can make a significant contribution in both tackling climate change and strengthening energy security.

  19. Technology Roadmaps: Solar Heating and Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    The solar heating and cooling (SHC) roadmap outlines a pathway for solar energy to supply almost one sixth (18 EJ) of the world's total energy use for both heating and cooling by 2050. This would save some 800 megatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year; more than the total CO2 emissions in Germany in 2009. While solar heating and cooling today makes a modest contribution to world energy demand, the roadmap envisages that if concerted action is taken by governments and industry, solar energy could annually produce more than 16% of total final energy use for low temperature heat and nearly 17% for cooling. Given that global energy demand for heat represents almost half of the world's final energy use -- more than the combined global demand for electricity and transport -- solar heat can make a significant contribution in both tackling climate change and strengthening energy security.

  20. Solar technology applications: a survey of solar powered irrigation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newkirk, H.W.

    1978-04-17

    Published information on solar powered irrigation systems is presented. Thermal solar systems, thermoelectric solar systems, and photovoltaic solar systems are included. A bibliography and survey of on-going work is presented. (WHK)

  1. Time to shine applications of solar energy technology

    CERN Document Server

    Grupp, Michael

    2012-01-01

    As solar energy becomes increasingly more important in all of our lives, it is more important to learn how it works and how it can be implemented. This book is the perfect primer for the engineer, scientist, and layperson alike, for learning about the practical applications of solar energy technology and how it is being used today to heat homes, light city streets, and provide power worldwide.

  2. Federal technology alert. Parabolic-trough solar water heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    Parabolic-trough solar water heating is a well-proven renewable energy technology with considerable potential for application at Federal facilities. For the US, parabolic-trough water-heating systems are most cost effective in the Southwest where direct solar radiation is high. Jails, hospitals, barracks, and other facilities that consistently use large volumes of hot water are particularly good candidates, as are facilities with central plants for district heating. As with any renewable energy or energy efficiency technology requiring significant initial capital investment, the primary condition that will make a parabolic-trough system economically viable is if it is replacing expensive conventional water heating. In combination with absorption cooling systems, parabolic-trough collectors can also be used for air-conditioning. Industrial Solar Technology (IST) of Golden, Colorado, is the sole current manufacturer of parabolic-trough solar water heating systems. IST has an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract with the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to finance and install parabolic-trough solar water heating on an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) basis for any Federal facility that requests it and for which it proves viable. For an ESPC project, the facility does not pay for design, capital equipment, or installation. Instead, it pays only for guaranteed energy savings. Preparing and implementing delivery or task orders against the IDIQ is much simpler than the standard procurement process. This Federal Technology Alert (FTA) of the New Technology Demonstration Program is one of a series of guides to renewable energy and new energy-efficient technologies.

  3. Solar to fuels conversion technologies: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuller, Harry L

    2017-01-01

    To meet increasing energy needs, while limiting greenhouse gas emissions over the coming decades, power capacity on a large scale will need to be provided from renewable sources, with solar expected to play a central role. While the focus to date has been on electricity generation via photovoltaic (PV) cells, electricity production currently accounts for only about one-third of total primary energy consumption. As a consequence, solar-to-fuel conversion will need to play an increasingly important role and, thereby, satisfy the need to replace high energy density fossil fuels with cleaner alternatives that remain easy to transport and store. The solar refinery concept (Herron et al. in Energy Environ Sci 8:126-157, 2015), in which captured solar radiation provides energy in the form of heat, electricity or photons, used to convert the basic chemical feedstocks CO2 and H2O into fuels, is reviewed as are the key conversion processes based on (1) combined PV and electrolysis, (2) photoelectrochemically driven electrolysis and (3) thermochemical processes, all focused on initially converting H2O and CO2 to H2 and CO. Recent advances, as well as remaining challenges, associated with solar-to-fuel conversion are discussed, as is the need for an intensive research and development effort to bring such processes to scale.

  4. Practical application of amorphous solar cells. High quality production technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-08-01

    The targets of the project are to develop production technology of amorphous solar cells for electric power generation which will possess good reproducibility and be highly sensitive to solar light, and to elucidate their technological and economical applicability. During the years of from 1980 to 1982, studies on research and development of amorphous solar cells with multi-layer structure were made, and the conversion efficiency of the amorphous sollar cell was improved to 82.5% (10 cm square cell). (1) Amorphous growth equipment for continuous formation of tandem structure was designed and constructed. Boron concentration when grown in independent separate reaction chambers was found to be less than 1/10 of that grown in the single chanber. Film formation rate of 7/sup 0/ A/sec was achieved using Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/ for the growth of a-Si:H(i). (2) In the technology for stainless steel substrate modules, modules of the sizes specified by NEDO were assembled with the super strail structure employing tempered glass, achieving 4.7% conversion rate. (3) For materials and formation technology of the transparent conductive film grid electrode, light transmittance and resistance of the film made by sputtering evaporation of ITO film were studied. (4) As regards reliability technology, it was found that the tandem structure will greatly decreace the deterioration rate as compared with the single layer structure. The modules with super strait structre proved to be weatherproof. (4 figs)

  5. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutula, Raymond A. [DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2006-03-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the program for fiscal year 2005. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program’s national laboratories and university and industry partners.

  6. Software and codes for analysis of concentrating solar power technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2008-12-01

    This report presents a review and evaluation of software and codes that have been used to support Sandia National Laboratories concentrating solar power (CSP) program. Additional software packages developed by other institutions and companies that can potentially improve Sandia's analysis capabilities in the CSP program are also evaluated. The software and codes are grouped according to specific CSP technologies: power tower systems, linear concentrator systems, and dish/engine systems. A description of each code is presented with regard to each specific CSP technology, along with details regarding availability, maintenance, and references. A summary of all the codes is then presented with recommendations regarding the use and retention of the codes. A description of probabilistic methods for uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of concentrating solar power technologies is also provided.

  7. High temperature solar thermal technology: The North Africa Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    High temperature solar thermal (HTST) technology offers an attractive option for both industrialized and non-industrialized countries to generate electricity and industrial process steam. The purpose of this report is to assess the potential market for solar thermal applications in the North African countries of Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. North Africa was selected because of its outstanding solar resource base and the variety of applications to be found there. Diminishing oil and gas resources, coupled with expanding energy needs, opens a large potential market for the US industry. The US high temperature solar trough industry has little competition globally and could build a large market in these areas. The US is already familiar with certain solar markets in North Africa due to the supplying of substantial quantities of US-manufactured flat plate collectors to this region.

  8. High temperature solar thermal technology: The North Africa Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    High temperature solar thermal (HTST) technology offers an attractive option for both industrialized and non-industrialized countries to generate electricity and industrial process steam. The purpose of this report is to assess the potential market for solar thermal applications in the North African countries of Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. North Africa was selected because of its outstanding solar resource base and the variety of applications to be found there. Diminishing oil and gas resources, coupled with expanding energy needs, opens a large potential market for the US industry. The US high temperature solar trough industry has little competition globally and could build a large market in these areas. The US is already familiar with certain solar markets in North Africa due to the supplying of substantial quantities of US-manufactured flat plate collectors to this region.

  9. Solar Energy Technologies and the Utilization on Native American Tribal Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Kathryn [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    2017-08-31

    As an undergraduate researcher, I worked on a new technology called nanofluid-based direct absorption solar collectors (DASC) which is a type of solar water heater that has the potential to be more efficient than traditional solar water heaters. Because of my experience with this type of technology, I decided to look into other types of solar energy technologies which could be used on Native American tribal lands. Some types of solar energy technologies that I wanted to focus on are photovoltaic solar energy systems, passive solar design, and solar water heaters.

  10. Technology development for the Solar Probe Plus Faraday Cup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Mark D.; Kasper, Justin; Case, Anthony W.; Daigneau, Peter; Gauron, Thomas; Bookbinder, Jay; Brodu, Étienne; Balat-Pichelin, Marianne; Wright, Kenneth

    2013-09-01

    The upcoming Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission requires novel approaches for in-situ plasma instrument design. SPP's Solar Probe Cup (SPC) instrument will, as part of the Solar Wind Electrons, Alphas, and Protons (SWEAP) instrument suite, operate over an enormous range of temperatures, yet must still accurately measure currents below 1 pico-amp, and with modest power requirements. This paper discusses some of the key technology development aspects of the SPC, a Faraday Cup and one of the few instruments on SPP that is directly exposed to the solar disk, where at closest approach to the Sun (less than 10 solar radii (Rs) from the center of the Sun) the intensity is greater than 475 earth-suns. These challenges range from materials characterization at temperatures in excess of 1400°C to thermal modeling of the behavior of the materials and their interactions at these temperatures. We discuss the trades that have resulted in the material selection for the current design of the Faraday Cup. Specific challenges include the material selection and mechanical design of insulators, particularly for the high-voltage (up to 8 kV) grid and coaxial supply line, and thermo-optical techniques to minimize temperatures in the SPC, with the specific intent of demonstrating Technology Readiness Level 6 by the end of 2013.

  11. Development Trends and Economics of Concentrating Solar Power Generation Technologies: A Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we compare development trends, economics and financial risks of alternative large-scale solar power generation technologies (parabolic trough, solar tower, and three different photovoltaic technologies). In particular, a number of European countries, Algeria and the US promote solar power generation. In oure study, we investigate the economic viability of the solar trough projects Andasol-I (Spain), Nevada Solar One (US), the solar tower projects PS-10 and Solar Tres (Spain), an...

  12. Dish concentrators for solar thermal energy: Status and technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1982-01-01

    Point-focusing concentrators under consideration for solar thermal energy use are reviewed. These concentrators differ in such characteristics as optical configuration, optical materials, structure for support of the optical elements and of the receiver, mount, foundation, drive, controls and enclosure. Concentrator performance and cost are considered. Technology development is outlined, including wind loads and aerodynamics; precipitation, sand, and seismic considerations; and maintenance and cleaning.

  13. Value of storage technologies for wind and solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braff, William A.; Mueller, Joshua M.; Trancik, Jessika E.

    2016-10-01

    Wind and solar industries have grown rapidly in recent years but they still supply only a small fraction of global electricity. The continued growth of these industries to levels that significantly contribute to climate change mitigation will depend on whether they can compete against alternatives that provide high-value energy on demand. Energy storage can transform intermittent renewables for this purpose but cost improvement is needed. Evaluating diverse storage technologies on a common scale has proved a major challenge, however, owing to their widely varying performance along the two dimensions of energy and power costs. Here we devise a method to compare storage technologies, and set cost improvement targets. Some storage technologies today are shown to add value to solar and wind energy, but cost reduction is needed to reach widespread profitability. The optimal cost improvement trajectories, balancing energy and power costs to maximize value, are found to be relatively location invariant, and thus can inform broad industry and government technology development strategies.

  14. Progress and Outlook for Silicon Solar Cell Process Technology (Environmental Problem)

    OpenAIRE

    永吉, 浩

    2000-01-01

    An over view of recent solar cell development program and Si solar cell process technology are presented. In the past 5 years, the PV production has drastically increased. To cover the large amount of PV demand in future, novel Si material production technology and development of the thin film Si cell technology are needed. To improve the efficiency of thin film Si cells, surface passivation technology will be more important. To improve the stability of a-Si : H solar cells, microcrystalline ...

  15. Multijunction Solar Cell Technology for Mars Surface Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Paul M.; Mardesich, Nick; Ewell, Richard C.; Mueller, Robert L.; Endicter, Scott; Aiken, Daniel; Edmondson, Kenneth; Fetze, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Solar cells used for Mars surface applications have been commercial space qualified AM0 optimized devices. Due to the Martian atmosphere, these cells are not optimized for the Mars surface and as a result operate at a reduced efficiency. A multi-year program, MOST (Mars Optimized Solar Cell Technology), managed by JPL and funded by NASA Code S, was initiated in 2004, to develop tools to modify commercial AM0 cells for the Mars surface solar spectrum and to fabricate Mars optimized devices for verification. This effort required defining the surface incident spectrum, developing an appropriate laboratory solar simulator measurement capability, and to develop and test commercial cells modified for the Mars surface spectrum. This paper discusses the program, including results for the initial modified cells. Simulated Mars surface measurements of MER cells and Phoenix Lander cells (2007 launch) are provided to characterize the performance loss for those missions. In addition, the performance of the MER rover solar arrays is updated to reflect their more than two (2) year operation.

  16. Solar sorptive cooling. Technologies, user requirements, practical experience, future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treffinger, P. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Hardthausen (Germany); Hertlein, H.P. [eds.] [Forschungsverbund Sonnenenergie, Koeln (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Sorptive cooling techniques permit the use of low-temperature solar heat, i.e. a renewable energy of low cost and world-wide availability. The Forschungsverbund Sonnenenergie intends to develop solar sorptive cooling technologies to the prototype stage and, in cooperation with the solar industry and its end users, to promote practical application in air conditioning of buildings and cold storage of food. The workshop presents an outline of the state of development of solar sorptive cooling from the view of users and developers. Exemplary solar cooling systems are described, and the potential of open and closed sorptive processes is assessed. Future central activities will be defined in an intensive discussion between planners, producers, users and developers. [German] Der Einsatz von Sorptionstechniken zur Kaelteerzeugung erlaubt es, als treibende Solarenergie Niedertemperatur-Solarwaerme einzusetzen, also eine regenerative Energie mit sehr geringen Kosten und weltweiter Verfuegbarkeit. Der Forschungsverbund Sonnenenergie hat sich als Aufgabe gestellt, die Techniken der solaren Sorptionskuehlung bis zum Prototyp zu entwickeln und mit Industrie und Nutzern die praktische Anwendung voranzubringen. Die Anwendungsfelder sind die Klimatisierung von Gebaeuden und die Kaltlagerung von Lebensmitteln. Der Workshop gibt einen Ueberblick zum Entwicklungsstand der solaren Sorptionskuehlung aus der Sicht der Anwender und Entwickler. Bereits ausgefuehrte Beispiele zur solaren Kuehlung werden vorgestellt und das Potential geschlossener und offener Sorptionsverfahren angegeben. In intensiver Diskussion zwischen Planern, Herstellern, Nutzern und Entwicklern sollen kuenftige Arbeitsschwerpunkte herausgearbeitet werden. (orig.)

  17. Potential displacement of petroleum imports by solar energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLeon, P.; Jackson, B.L.; McNown, R.F.; Mahrenholz, G.J.

    1980-05-01

    The United States currently imports close to half of its petroleum requirements. This report delineates the economic, social, and political costs of such a foreign oil dependency. These costs are often intangible, but combined they clearly constitute a greater price for imported petroleum than the strictly economic cost. If we can assume that imported oil imposes significant socioeconomic costs upon the American economy and society, one way to reduce these costs is to develop alternative, domestic energy sources - such as solar energy technologies - which can displace foreign petroleum. The second half of this report estimates that by the year 2000, solar energy technologies can displace 3.6 quads of petroleum. This figure includes solar energy applications in utilities, industrial and agricultural process heat, and transportation. The estimate can be treated as a lower bound; if the United States were to achieve the proposed goal of 20 quads by 2000, the amount of displaced oil probably would be greater. Although all the displaced oil would not be imported, the reduction in imported petroleum would relieve many of the conditions that increase the present cost of foreign oil to the American consumer.

  18. Novel Thermal Storage Technologies for Concentrating Solar Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neti, Sudhakar [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics; Oztekin, Alparslan [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Chen, John [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Tuzla, Kemal [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Misiolek, Wojciech [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    2013-06-20

    The technologies that are to be developed in this work will enable storage of thermal energy in 100 MWe solar energy plants for 6-24 hours at temperatures around 300°C and 850°C using encapsulated phase change materials (EPCM). Several encapsulated phase change materials have been identified, fabricated and proven with calorimetry. Two of these materials have been tested in an airflow experiment. A cost analysis for these thermal energy storage systems has also been conducted that met the targets established at the initiation of the project.

  19. What’s Political about Solar Electric Technology? The User’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Schelly

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Scholars in science and technology studies have debated the various ways in which technologies are (or are not political. Here, I examine how users themselves understand and articulate the politics of a specific technology—residential solar electric technology—and how understandings of politics interact with motivations to adopt. Based on interviews with 48 individuals in 36 households across the state of Wisconsin who have adopted residential solar electric technology, I consider the user’s perspective on the question: “What’s political about residential solar electric technology use?” These users were asked about the politics of this technology and how their understanding of the technology’s politics shaped their own motivation for adoption. These solar electric technology adopters saw solar electric technology as both imbued with political character based on the current national political scene and as inherently, innately political. They described how solar electric technology interacts with the politics of environmentalism, challenges “politics-as-usual” and can bring about decentralization and redistribution of wealth. In short, to the users of solar electric technology, this technological artifact is, indeed, political; it both interacts with, and offers an alternative to, current American political structures. Further, their perspectives on the politics of solar technology shaped their understandings of motivations for and limitations to adoption of this alternative technology.

  20. Dish concentrators for solar thermal energy - Status and technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1981-01-01

    Comparisons are presented of point-focusing, or 'dish' solar concentrator system features, development status, and performance levels demonstrated to date. In addition to the requirements of good optical efficiency and high geometric concentration ratios, the most important future consideration in solar thermal energy dish concentrator design will be the reduction of installed and lifetime costs, as well as the materials and labor costs of production. It is determined that technology development initiatives are needed in such areas as optical materials, design wind speeds and wind loads, structural configuration and materials resistance to prolonged exposure, and the maintenance of optical surfaces. The testing of complete concentrator systems, with energy-converting receivers and controls, is also necessary. Both reflector and Fresnel lens concentrator systems are considered.

  1. Technology assessment of solar energy: An evaluation of widespread deployment of solar and biomass technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, Y.; D' Alessio, G.J.

    1980-12-01

    The following summarizes significance of the results of the analyses performed: Air Quality - Both increases and decreases in emissions of certain energy related criteria pollutants: essentially no influence on long-range transport of energy-related pollutants; moderate regional decreases in SO /SUB x/ and NO /SUB x/ ; significant increases in biomass-related particulate emissions in certain regions and subregions; minor changes in nonenergy related criteria pollutants associated with manufacturing solar on a national basis. Water Quality - Relatively minor increases and decreases in water pollution nationally; some significant increases in erosion in agricultural states; some potential local benefits associated with reduced conventional waste disposal requirements; and some potential penalties associated with increased solar working fluid disposal. Water Resources - Nationally insignificant especially in the Eastern U.S., but with some potential local problems in the West associated with discretionary water use for cleaning solar systems; some local benefits in the East associated with reduction in mandatory water use by conventional power plant cooling systems. Land Resources - On-site solar energy demands in moderately sized communities can be exceeded in all but the most dense land use sectors, this would offset adverse local land use impacts, but is highly influenced by local land use planning decisions.

  2. Space Solar Power Technology Demonstration for Lunar Polar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, M. W.; Fikes, J. C.; Howell, J.; Mankins, J. C.

    2002-01-01

    A solar power generation station on a mountaintop near the moon's North or South pole can receive sunlight 708 hours per lunar day, for continuous power generation. Power can be beamed from this station over long distances using a laser-based wireless power transmission system and a photo-voltaic receiver. This beamed energy can provide warmth, electricity, and illumination for a robotic rover to perform scientific experiments in cold, dark craters where no other power source is practical. Radio-frequency power transmission may also be demonstrated in lunar polar applications to locate and recover sub-surface deposits of volatile material, such as water ice. High circular polarization ratios observered in data from Clementine spacecraft and Arecibo radar reflections from the moon's South pole suggest that water ice is indeed present in certain lunar polar craters. Data from the Lunar Prospector spacecraft's epi-thermal neutron spectrometer also indicate that hydrogen is present at the moon's poles. Space Solar Power technology enables investigation of these craters, which may contain a billion-year-old stratigraphic record of tremendous scientific value. Layers of ice, preserved at the moon's poles, could help us determine the sequence and composition of comet impacts on the moon. Such ice deposits may even include distinct strata deposited by secondary ejecta following significant Earth (ocean) impacts, linked to major extinctions of life on Earth. Ice resources at the moon's poles could provide water and air for human exploration and development of space as well as rocket propellant for future space transportation. Technologies demonstrated and matured via lunar polar applications can also be used in other NASA science missions (Valles Marineris, Phobos, Deimos, Mercury's poles, asteroids, etc.) and in future large-scale SSP systems to beam energy from space to Earth. Ground-based technology demonstrations are proceeding to mature the technology for such a near

  3. The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: design and early construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullin, Joseph P.; Rimmele, Thomas R.; Keil, Stephen L.; Warner, Mark; Barden, Samuel; Bulau, Scott; Craig, Simon; Goodrich, Bret; Hansen, Eric; Hegwer, Steve; Hubbard, Robert; McBride, William; Shimko, Steve; Wöger, Friedrich; Ditsler, Jennifer

    2012-09-01

    The National Solar Observatory’s (NSO) Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) is the first large U.S. solar telescope accessible to the worldwide solar physics community to be constructed in more than 30 years. The 4-meter diameter facility will operate over a broad wavelength range (0.35 to 28 μm ), employing adaptive optics systems to achieve diffraction limited imaging and resolve features approximately 20 km on the Sun; the key observational parameters (collecting area, spatial resolution, spectral coverage, polarization accuracy, low scattered light) enable resolution of the theoretically-predicted, fine-scale magnetic features and their dynamics which modulate the radiative output of the sun and drive the release of magnetic energy from the Sun’s atmosphere in the form of flares and coronal mass ejections. In 2010, the ATST received a significant fraction of its funding for construction. In the subsequent two years, the project has hired staff and opened an office on Maui. A number of large industrial contracts have been placed throughout the world to complete the detailed designs and begin constructing the major telescope subsystems. These contracts have included the site development, AandE designs, mirrors, polishing, optic support assemblies, telescope mount and coudé rotator structures, enclosure, thermal and mechanical systems, and high-level software and controls. In addition, design development work on the instrument suite has undergone significant progress; this has included the completion of preliminary design reviews (PDR) for all five facility instruments. Permitting required for physically starting construction on the mountaintop of Haleakalā, Maui has also progressed. This paper will review the ATST goals and specifications, describe each of the major subsystems under construction, and review the contracts and lessons learned during the contracting and early construction phases. Schedules for site construction, key factory testing of

  4. Solar Energy Technologies Office FY 2017 Budget At-A-Glance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-03-01

    The Solar Energy Technologies Office supports the SunShot Initiative goal to make solar energy technologies cost competitive with conventional energy sources by 2020. Reducing the total installed cost for utility-scale solar electricity by approximately 75% (2010 baseline) to roughly $0.06 per kWh without subsidies will enable rapid, large-scale adoption of solar electricity across the United States. This investment will help re-establish American technological and market leadership in solar energy, reduce environmental impacts of electricity generation, and strengthen U.S. economic competitiveness.

  5. Appropriate Technology as Indian Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Tom

    1979-01-01

    Describes the mounting enthusiasm of Indian communities for appropriate technology as an inexpensive means of providing much needed energy and job opportunities. Describes the development of several appropriate technology projects, and the goals and activities of groups involved in utilizing low scale solar technology for economic development on…

  6. Facility level thermal systems for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, LeEllen; Murga, Gaizka; Fraser, Mark; Climent, Tània

    2012-09-01

    The management and control of the local aero-thermal environment is critical for success of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST). In addition to minimizing disturbances to local seeing, the facility thermal systems must meet stringent energy efficiency requirements to minimize impact on the surrounding environment and meet federal requirements along with operational budgetary constraints. This paper describes the major facility thermal equipment and systems to be implemented along with associated energy management features. The systems presented include the central plant, the climate control systems for the computer room and coudé laboratory, the carousel cooling system which actively controls the surface temperature of the rotating telescope enclosure, and the systems used for active and passive ventilation of the telescope chamber.

  7. The JPL parabolic dish project. [solar collectors technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscello, V. C.; Williams, A. N.

    1980-01-01

    The parabolic dish solar collector is a highly versatile concentrating collector system that can produce heat for many thermal processes and electricity by coupling the collector to a suitable heat engine. This paper discusses a project for the development of these collector systems and summarizes contracts with industry for developing the dish subsystems which include concentrator, receiver, and heat engine. An early market for dishes is the dispersed small community market which depends heavily on oil to operate diesel or steam turbine plants in order to generate electricity. The present contracts with industry for conducting engineering experiments using the developed dish hardware to demonstrate the technology in these early opportunity markets is also discussed.

  8. Solar augmentation for process heat with central receiver technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzé, Johannes P.; du Toit, Philip; Bode, Sebastian J.; Larmuth, James N.; Landman, Willem A.; Gauché, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Coal fired boilers are currently one of the most widespread ways to deliver process heat to industry. John Thompson Boilers (JTB) offer industrial steam supply solutions for industry and utility scale applications in Southern Africa. Transport cost add significant cost to the coal price in locations far from the coal fields in Mpumalanga, Gauteng and Limpopo. The Helio100 project developed a low cost, self-learning, wireless heliostat technology that requires no ground preparation. This is attractive as an augmentation alternative, as it can easily be installed on any open land that a client may have available. This paper explores the techno economic feasibility of solar augmentation for JTB coal fired steam boilers by comparing the fuel savings of a generic 2MW heliostat field at various locations throughout South Africa.

  9. Technology development of fabrication techniques for advanced solar dynamic concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Scott W.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the advanced concentrator program is to develop the technology that will lead to lightweight, highly reflective, accurate, scaleable, and long lived space solar dynamic concentrators. The advanced concentrator program encompasses new and innovative concepts, fabrication techniques, materials selection, and simulated space environmental testing. Fabrication techniques include methods of fabricating the substrates and coating substrate surfaces to produce high quality optical surfaces, acceptable for further coating with vapor deposited optical films. The selected materials to obtain a high quality optical surface include microsheet glass and Eccocoat EP-3 epoxy, with DC-93-500 selected as a candidate silicone adhesive and levelizing layer. The following procedures are defined: cutting, cleaning, forming, and bonding microsheet glass. Procedures are also defined for surface cleaning, and EP-3 epoxy application. The results and analyses from atomic oxygen and thermal cycling tests are used to determine the effects of orbital conditions in a space environment.

  10. Reflector Technology Development and System Design for Concentrating Solar Power Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam Schaut

    2011-12-30

    performance. The target criteria for the concept development was to achieve a solar field cost savings of 25%-50% thereby meeting or exceeding the DOE solar field cost savings target of $350/m2. After evaluating various structural design approaches, Alcoa down-selected to a monocoque, dubbed Wing Box, design that utilizes the reflective surface as a structural, load carrying member. The cost and performance potential of the Wing Box concept was developed via initial finite element analysis (FEA) and cost modeling. The structural members were sized through material utilization modeling when subjected to representative loading conditions including wind loading. Cost modeling was utilized to refine potential manufacturing techniques that could be employed to manufacture the structural members. Alcoa concluded that an aluminum intensive collector design can achieve significant cost savings without sacrificing performance. Based on the cost saving potential of this Concept Feasibility study, Alcoa recommended further validation of this CSP approach through the execution of Phase II: Design and Prototype Development. Alcoa Phase II objective was to provide the DOE with a validated CSP trough design that demonstrates significant overall system cost savings without sacrificing performance. Phase II consisted of three major tasks; Detail System Design, Prototype Build, and System Validation. Additionally, the reflector surface development that began in Phase I was continued in Phase II. After further development work, Alcoa was unable to develop a reflective technology that demonstrated significant performance or cost benefits compared to commercially available CSP reflective products. After considering other commercially available reflective surfaces, Alcoa selected Alano's MIRO-SUN product for use on the full scale prototype. Although MIRO-SUN has a lower specular reflectivity compared to other options, its durability in terms of handling, cleaning, and long-term reflectivity

  11. Technology development and application of solar energy in desalination: MEDRC contribution

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2011-12-01

    Desalination has become one of the sources for water supply in several countries especially in the Middle East and North Africa region. There is a great potential to develop solar desalination technologies especially in this region where solar source is abundantly available. The success in implementing solar technologies in desalination at a commercial scale depends on the improvements to convert solar energy into electrical and/or thermal energies economically as desalination processes need these types of energies. Since desalination is energy intensive, the wider use of solar technologies in desalination will eventually increase the demand on these technologies, making it possible to go for mass production of photovoltaic (PV) cells, collectors and solar thermal power plants. This would ultimately lead to the reduction in the costs of these technologies. The energy consumed by desalination processes has been significantly reduced in the last decade meaning that, if solar technologies are to be used, less PV modules and area for collectors would be needed. The main aspects to be addressed to make solar desalination a viable option in remote location applications is to develop new materials or improve existing solar collectors and find the best combinations to couple the different desalination processes with appropriate solar collector. In the objective to promote solar desalination in MENA, the Middle East Desalination Research Center has concentrated on various aspects of solar desalination in the last twelve years by sponsoring 17 research projects on different technologies and Software packages development for coupling desalination and renewable energy systems to address the limitations of solar desalination and develop new desalination technologies and hybrid systems suitable for remote areas. A brief description of some of these projects is highlighted in this paper. The full details of all these projects are available the Centers website. © 2011 Elsevier

  12. Solar technology and building implementation in Malaysia: A national paradigm shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrul Nizam Kamaruzzaman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Solar technology is becoming increasingly popular. For example, the production of solarcells quadrupled in the 1999-2004 period, with a capacity of four gigawatts worldwide. Renewableenergy including solar power produces few or no harmful emissions and it is becoming increasinglyimportant to exploit it in the future. This paper presents a literature review of the application ofnumerous types of solar technology in buildings in Malaysia and identifies the challenges faced.Although several newly constructed green buildings use solar technology, Malaysia has yet to acceptit wholesale. If solar technology is to be adopted widely, then both public and private sectors mustcooperate to provide large-scale financial incentives and produce specialists in solar technology. Asthe first step, the government has established the Low Energy Office and the Green Energy Office,which use passive solar design and photovoltaic systems in their own buildings. However, the privatesector has yet to follow suit. It is anticipated that the application of solar technology in buildings willencourage sustainable development when all non-renewable energy sources decrease significantly. Ifpeople do not recognise the potential of such technology in daily life, it will soon be too late.

  13. Solar building construction - new technologies; Solares Bauen - Neue Technologien fuer Gebaeude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luther, J.; Voss, K.; Wittwer, V. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany). Abt. ``Thermische und Optische Systeme``

    1998-02-01

    There is an increasing demand for integrated building concepts in order to reduce energy consumption. Building design, construction and heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) technology are decisive in this respect. Thus, an essentially higher energy efficiency is achieved and solar energy becomes the main energy source. An `active building envelope` assumes the task of controlling the energy flows between inside and outside. This paper reports on new components, system concepts and planning tools for solar building. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer zukuenftige Bauten werden in hohem Masse Forderungen nach integrierten Konzepten zur Begrenzung des Energieverbrauchs gestellt. Gestalt, Konstruktion und Klimatechnik sind dabei massgebliche Einflussfaktoren. Hierdurch wird eine wesentlich hoehere Energieeffizienz erzielt und Solarenergie kann die uebrigen Energiequellen zurueckdraengen. Eine `aktive Gebaeudehuelle` uebernimmt die Aufgabe, den Energiefluss zwischen Innen und Aussen zu steuern. Der Beitrag berichtet ueber neue Komponenten, Systemkonzepte und Planungswerkzeuge fuer das Solare Bauen. (orig.)

  14. Energizing Government Decision-Makers with the Facts on Solar Technology, Policy, and Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The Solar Technical Assistance Team (STAT) is a network of solar technology and implementation experts who provide timely, unbiased expertise to assist policymakers and regulators in making informed decisions about solar programs and policies. Government officials can submit requests directly to the STAT for technical assistance. STAT then partners with experts in solar policy, regulation, finance, technology, and other areas to deliver accurate, up-to-date information to state and local decision makers. The STAT responds to requests on a wide range of issues -- including, but not limited to, feed-in tariffs, renewable portfolio standards, rate design, program design, workforce and economic impacts of solar on jurisdictions, and project financing.

  15. Reflector Technology Development and System Design for Concentrating Solar Power Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam Schaut

    2011-12-30

    performance. The target criteria for the concept development was to achieve a solar field cost savings of 25%-50% thereby meeting or exceeding the DOE solar field cost savings target of $350/m2. After evaluating various structural design approaches, Alcoa down-selected to a monocoque, dubbed Wing Box, design that utilizes the reflective surface as a structural, load carrying member. The cost and performance potential of the Wing Box concept was developed via initial finite element analysis (FEA) and cost modeling. The structural members were sized through material utilization modeling when subjected to representative loading conditions including wind loading. Cost modeling was utilized to refine potential manufacturing techniques that could be employed to manufacture the structural members. Alcoa concluded that an aluminum intensive collector design can achieve significant cost savings without sacrificing performance. Based on the cost saving potential of this Concept Feasibility study, Alcoa recommended further validation of this CSP approach through the execution of Phase II: Design and Prototype Development. Alcoa Phase II objective was to provide the DOE with a validated CSP trough design that demonstrates significant overall system cost savings without sacrificing performance. Phase II consisted of three major tasks; Detail System Design, Prototype Build, and System Validation. Additionally, the reflector surface development that began in Phase I was continued in Phase II. After further development work, Alcoa was unable to develop a reflective technology that demonstrated significant performance or cost benefits compared to commercially available CSP reflective products. After considering other commercially available reflective surfaces, Alcoa selected Alano's MIRO-SUN product for use on the full scale prototype. Although MIRO-SUN has a lower specular reflectivity compared to other options, its durability in terms of handling, cleaning, and long-term reflectivity

  16. Advanced Methods for Incorporating Solar Energy Technologies into Electric Sector Capacity-Expansion Models: Literature Review and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, P.; Eurek, K.; Margolis, R.

    2014-07-01

    Because solar power is a rapidly growing component of the electricity system, robust representations of solar technologies should be included in capacity-expansion models. This is a challenge because modeling the electricity system--and, in particular, modeling solar integration within that system--is a complex endeavor. This report highlights the major challenges of incorporating solar technologies into capacity-expansion models and shows examples of how specific models address those challenges. These challenges include modeling non-dispatchable technologies, determining which solar technologies to model, choosing a spatial resolution, incorporating a solar resource assessment, and accounting for solar generation variability and uncertainty.

  17. Solar/hydrogen systems technologies. Volume II (Part 1 of 2). Solar/hydrogen systems assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, W. J.D.; Foster, R. W.; Tison, R. R.; Hanson, J. A.

    1980-06-02

    Volume II of the Solar/Hydrogen Systems Assessment contract report (2 volumes) is basically a technological source book. Relying heavily on expert contributions, it comprehensively reviews constituent technologies from which can be assembled a wide range of specific solar/hydrogen systems. Covered here are both direct and indirect solar energy conversion technologies; respectively, those that utilize solar radiant energy input directly and immediately, and those that absorb energy from a physical intermediary, previously energized by the sun. Solar-operated hydrogen energy production technologies are also covered in the report. The single most prominent of these is water electrolysis. Utilization of solar-produced hydrogen is outside the scope of the volume. However, the important hydrogen delivery step is treated under the delivery sub-steps of hydrogen transmission, distribution and storage. An exemplary use of the presented information is in the synthesis and analysis of those solar/hydrogen system candidates documented in the report's Volume I. Morever, it is intended that broad use be made of this technology information in the implementation of future solar/hydrogen systems. Such systems, configured on either a distributed or a central-plant basis, or both, may well be of major significance in effecting an ultimate transition to renewable energy systems.

  18. Solar/hydrogen systems technologies. Volume II (Part 2 of 2). Solar/hydrogen systems assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, W. J.D.; Foster, R. W.; Tison, R. R.; Hanson, J. A.

    1980-06-02

    Volume II of the Solar/Hydrogen Systems Assessment contract report (2 volumes) is basically a technological source book. Relying heavily on expert contributions, it comprehensively reviews constituent technologies from which can be assembled a wide range of specific solar/hydrogen systems. Covered here are both direct and indirect solar energy conversion technologies; respectively, those that utilize solar radiant energy input directly and immediately, and those that absorb energy from a physical intermediary, previously energized by the sun. Solar-operated hydrogen energy production technologies are also covered in the report. The single most prominent of these is water electrolysis. Utilization of solar-produced hydrogen is outside the scope of the volume. However, the important hydrogen delivery step is treated under the delivery sub-steps of hydrogen transmission, distribution and storage. An exemplary use of the presented information is in the synthesis and analysis of those solar/hydrogen system candidates documented in the report's Volume I. Moreover, it is intended that broad use be made of this technology information in the implementation of future solar/hydrogen systems. Such systems, configured on either a distributed or a central-plant basis, or both, may well be a major significance in effecting an ultimate transition to renewable energy systems.

  19. Systematic comprehensive techno-economic assessment of solar cooling technologies using location-specific climate data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtar, Marwan; Ali, Muhammad Tauha; Sgouridis, Sgouris; Armstrong, Peter; Chiesa, Matteo [Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Braeuniger, Simon; Afshari, Afshin [Masdar, Abu Dhabi Future Energy Company, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2010-12-15

    A methodology for assessing solar cooling technologies is proposed. The method takes into account location specific boundary conditions such as the cooling demand time series, solar resource availability, climatic conditions, component cost and component performance characteristics. This methodology evaluates the techno-economic performance of the solar collector/chiller system. We demonstrate the method by systematic evaluation of 25 feasible combinations of solar energy collection and cooling technologies. The comparison includes solar thermal and solar electric cooling options and is extended to solar cooling through concentrated solar power plants. Solar cooling technologies are compared on an economic and overall system efficiency perspective. This analysis has implication for the importance of solar load fraction and storage size in the design of solar cooling systems. We also stress the importance of studying the relation between cooling demand and solar resource availability, it was found that overlooking this relation might lead to overestimations of the potential of a solar cooling system in the range of 22% to over 100% of the actual potential. (author)

  20. Mission to the Solar System: Exploration and Discovery. A Mission and Technology Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulkis, S. (Editor); Stetson, D. S. (Editor); Stofan, E. R. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Solar System exploration addresses some of humanity's most fundamental questions: How and when did life form on Earth? Does life exist elsewhere in the Solar System or in the Universe? - How did the Solar System form and evolve in time? - What can the other planets teach us about the Earth? This document describes a Mission and Technology Roadmap for addressing these and other fundamental Solar System Questions. A Roadmap Development Team of scientists, engineers, educators, and technologists worked to define the next evolutionary steps in in situ exploration, sample return, and completion of the overall Solar System survey. Guidelines were to "develop aa visionary, but affordable, mission and technology development Roadmap for the exploration of the Solar System in the 2000 to 2012 timeframe." The Roadmap provides a catalog of potential flight missions. (Supporting research and technology, ground-based observations, and laboratory research, which are no less important than flight missions, are not included in this Roadmap.)

  1. Economic Feasibility and Market Readiness of Solar Technologies. Draft Final Report. Volume I.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaim, Silvio J.; Buchanan, Deborah L.; Christmas, Susan; Fellhauer, Cheryl; Glenn, Barbara; Ketels, Peter A.; Levary, Arnon; Mourning, Pete; Steggerda, Paul; Trivedi, Harit; Witholder, Robert E.

    1978-09-01

    Systems descriptions, costs, technical and market readiness assessments are reported for ten solar technologies: solar heating and cooling of buildings (SHACOB), passive, agricultural and industrial process heat (A/IPH), biomass, ocean thermal (OTEC), wind (WECS), solar thermal electric, photovoltaics, satellite power station (SPS), and solar total energy systems (STES). Study objectives, scope, and methods. are presented. of Joint Task The cost and market analyses portion 5213/6103 will be used to make commercialization assessments in the conclusions of. the final report.

  2. Solar Site Survey for the Advanced Technology Solar Telecope. I. Analysis of the Seeing Data

    CERN Document Server

    Socas-Navarro, H; Brandt, P; Briggs, J; Brown, T; Brown, W; Collados, M; Denker, C; Fletcher, S; Hegwer, S; Hill, F; Horst, T; Komsa, M; Kühn, J; Lecinski, A; Lin, H; Oncley, S; Penn, M; Rimmele, T; Streander, K

    2005-01-01

    The site survey for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope concluded recently after more than two years of data gathering and analysis. Six locations, including lake, island and continental sites, were thoroughly probed for image quality and sky brightness. The present paper describes the analysis methodology employed to determine the height stratification of the atmospheric turbulence. This information is crucial because day-time seeing is often very different between the actual telescope aperture (~30 m) and the ground. Two independent inversion codes have been developed to analyze simultaneously data from a scintillometer array and a solar differential image monitor. We show here the results of applying them to a sample subset of data from May 2003, which was used for testing. Both codes retrieve a similar seeing stratification through the height range of interest. A quantitative comparison between our analysis procedure and actual in situ measurements confirms the validity of the inversions. The sample d...

  3. Enabling kinetic micro-penetrator technology for Solar System research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, R. A.

    2008-09-01

    Whilst the concept of high speed impacting penetrator probes is not new, recent highly successful ground test results have considerably improved the perception that these can be a viable and useful addition to the current toolbox of planetary probes. Previous developments only led to a single deployment (Deep Space-2 to Mars on the ill fated NASA Mars Polar Lander mission in 1999) where neither the soft lander nor penetrator was ever heard from, which is not a logical basis for dismissing penetrator technology. Other space penetrator programmes have included the Russian Mars'96 ~80m/s penetrators for which the whole mission was lost before the spacecraft left Earth orbit, and the Japanese Lunar-A program which was cancelled after a lengthy development program which however saw multiple successful ground trials. The Japanese penetrators were designed for ~300m/s impact. The current UK penetrator developments are actively working towards full space qualification for a Lunar penetrators (MoonLITE mission), which would also provide a significant technical demonstration towards the development of smaller, shorter lived penetrators for exploring other solar system objects. We are advocating delivered micro-penetrators in the mass range ~4-10Kg, (preceded by ~13Kg Lunar penetrator MoonLITE development program), impacting at around 100-500m/s and carrying a scientific payload of around 2Kg. Additional mass is required to deliver the probes from `orbit' to surface which is dependent upon the particular planetary body in question. The mass per descent module therefore involves and additional element which, for a descent through an atmosphere could be quite modest, while for a flyby deployment, can be substantial. For Europa we estimate a descent module mass of ~13 Kg, while for Enceladus the value is ~40Kg for Enceladus since a deceleration of ~3.8 kms-1 is needed from a Titan orbit. The delivery system could consist of a rocket deceleration motor and attitude control system

  4. Technology for Bayton-cycle powerplants using solar and nuclear energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Brayton cycle gas turbines have the potential to use either solar heat or nuclear reactors for generating from tens of kilowatts to tens of megawatts of power in space, all this from a single technology for the power generating system. Their development for solar energy dynamic power generation for the space station could be the first step in an evolution of such powerplants for a very wide range of applications. At the low power level of only 10 kWe, a power generating system has already demonstrated overall efficiency of 0.29 and operated 38 000 hr. Tests of improved components show that these components would raise that efficiency to 0.32, a value twice that demonstrated by any alternate concept. Because of this high efficiency, solar Brayton cycle power generators offer the potential to increase power per unit of solar collector area to levels exceeding four times that from photovoltaic powerplants using present technology for silicon solar cells. The technologies for solar mirrors and heat receivers are reviewed and assessed. This Brayton technology for solar powerplants is equally suitable for use with the nuclear reactors. The available long time creep data on the tantalum alloy ASTAR-811C show that such Brayton cycles can evolve to cycle peak temperatures of 1500 K (2240 F). And this same technology can be extended to generate 10 to 100 MW in space by exploiting existing technology for terrestrial gas turbines in the fields of both aircraft propulsion and stationary power generation.

  5. Space Solar Power Technology Demonstration for Lunar Polar Applications: Laser-Photovoltaic Wireless Power Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, M. W.; Fikes, J. C.; Howell, J.; Mankins, J. C.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Space Solar Power technology offers unique benefits for near-term NASA space science missions, which can mature this technology for other future applications. "Laser-Photo-Voltaic Wireless Power Transmission" (Laser-PV WPT) is a technology that uses a laser to beam power to a photovoltaic receiver, which converts the laser's light into electricity. Future Laser-PV WPT systems may beam power from Earth to satellites or large Space Solar Power satellites may beam power to Earth, perhaps supplementing terrestrial solar photo-voltaic receivers. In a near-term scientific mission to the moon, Laser-PV WPT can enable robotic operations in permanently shadowed lunar polar craters, which may contain ice. Ground-based technology demonstrations are proceeding, to mature the technology for this initial application, in the moon's polar regions.

  6. Solar Technology Test, Evaluation, and Data Collection: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-279

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albin, David S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-08

    Under this Agreement, NREL will work with Abengoa Solar Inc. on the testing, evaluation, and collection of data related to Abengoa Solar Inc. solar technologies and systems. This work includes, but is not limited to, testing and evaluation of solar component and system technologies, data collection and monitoring, performance evaluation, reliability testing, thermal energy storage integration, solar resource measurement and forecasting, grid impact testing, and analysis. This work will be conducted at NREL, SolarTAC (Aurora), and other field test locations.

  7. Capture, transformation and conversion of the solar energy by the technologies of concentration; Captation, transformation et conversion de l'energie solaire par les technologies a concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferriere, A.; Flamant, G

    2003-07-01

    The specificities of the solar technologies at concentration are: high energy efficiency with increasing possibilities and the possibility of storage the solar energy by heat for a local and short dated utilization or by chemical storage (hydrogen for instance) for a delayed utilization or far from the capture area. This document takes stock on the concentration solar techniques, the electric power production by concentrated solar energy and the performance of concentrated solar plants, the industrial american experience of the SEGS plants, the hydrogen production by concentrated solar energy and discusses the scientific and technological locks. (A.L.B.)

  8. Solar fashion: An embodied approach to wearable technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smelik, A.M.; Toussaint, L.; Dongen, P. van

    2016-01-01

    Using Pauline van Dongen’s ‘Wearable Solar’ project as a case study, the authors argue that materiality and embodiment should be taken into account both in the design of and the theoretical reflection on wearable technology. Bringing together a fashion designer and scholars from cultural studies, th

  9. The impact of solar cell technology on planar solar array performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Michael W.; Kurland, Richard M.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a study into the potential impact of advanced solar cell technologies on the characteristics (weight, cost, area) of typical planar solar arrays designed for low, medium and geosynchronous altitude earth orbits are discussed. The study considered planar solar array substrate designs of lightweight, rigid-panel graphite epoxy and ultra-lightweight Kapton. The study proposed to answer the following questions: Do improved cell characteristics translate into array-level weight, size and cost improvements; What is the relative importance of cell efficiency, weight and cost with respect to array-level performance; How does mission orbital environment affect array-level performance. Comparisons were made at the array level including all mechanisms, hinges, booms, and harnesses. Array designs were sized to provide 5kW of array power (not spacecraft bus power, which is system dependent but can be scaled from given values). The study used important grass roots issues such as use of the GaAs radiation damage coefficients as determined by Anspaugh. Detailed costing was prepared, including cell and cover costs, and manufacturing attrition rates for the various cell types.

  10. 78 FR 31997 - Greatmat Technology Corp., Kentucky USA Energy, Inc., Solar Energy Ltd., and Visiphor Corp...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... COMMISSION Greatmat Technology Corp., Kentucky USA Energy, Inc., Solar Energy Ltd., and Visiphor Corp., Order... lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Solar Energy Ltd. because it has... concerning the securities of Kentucky USA Energy, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports...

  11. Advanced Space Robotics and Solar Electric Propulsion: Enabling Technologies for Future Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, M.; Tadros, A.

    2017-02-01

    Obtaining answers to questions posed by planetary scientists over the next several decades will require the ability to travel further while exploring and gathering data in more remote locations of our solar system. Timely investments need to be made in developing and demonstrating solar electric propulsion and advanced space robotics technologies.

  12. Technologies. [space power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Energy technologies to meet the power requirements of future space missions are reviewed. Photovoltaic, solar dynamic, and solar thermal technologies are discussed along with techniques for energy storage and power management and distribution.

  13. Decentralized Solar Energy Technology Assessment Program: review of activities (April 1978-December 1979)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronfman, B.H.; Carnes, S.A.; Schweitzer, M.; Peelle, E.; Enk, G.

    1980-05-01

    The Decentralized Solar Energy Technology Assessment Program (TAP), sponsored by the Office of Solar Energy, Department of Energy, is a technology assessment and planning activity directed at local communities. Specifically, the objectives of the TAP are: (1) to assess the socioeconomic and institutional impacts of the widespread use of renewable energy technologies; (2) to involve communities in planning for their energy futures; and (3) to plan for local energy development. This report discusses two major efforts of the TAP during the period April 1978 to December 1979: the community TA's and several support studies. Four communities have been contracted to undertake an assessment-planning exercise to examine the role of solar renewable energy technologies in their future. The communities selected are the Southern Tier Central Region of New York State, (STC); Richmond, Kentucky, Kent, Ohio; and Franklin County, Massachusetts. Descriptions and progress to date of the community TA's are presented in detail. Two major support study efforts are also presented. A review of existing literature on the legal and institutional issues relative to the adoption of decentralized solar technologies is summarized. A preliminary analysis of potential socioeconomic impacts and other social considerations relative to decentralized solar technologies is also described.

  14. Pico-solar electric systems the earthscan expert guide to the technology and emerging market

    CERN Document Server

    Keane, John

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the technology behind the pico-solar revolution and offers guidance on how to test and choose quality products. The book also discusses how pioneering companies and initiatives are overcoming challenges to reach scale in the marketplace, from innovative distribution strategies to reach customers in rural India and Tanzania, to product development in Cambodia, product assembly in Mozambique and the introduction of 'pay as you go' technology in Kenya.Pico-solar is a new category of solar electric system which has the potential to transform the lives

  15. Solar technology in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A series of papers dealing with the status of solar research and development in the Federal Republic of Germany are presented at a conference in Greece with the object of promoting international cooperation in solar energy utilization. The reports focus on solar collector designs, solar systems, heat pumps, solar homes, solar cooling and refrigeration, desalination and electric power generation. Numerous examples of systems produced by German manufacturers are illustrated and described, and performance data are presented.

  16. Application of laser technology in high efficiency silicon solar cell manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, W.X.; Tu, J.L.; Wang, Z.G.; Cui, H.Y.; Deng, J.L.; Liu, Z.M.; Liao, H. [Yunnan Normal Univ., Yunnan (China). Solar Energy Research Inst., Education Ministry Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy Advanced Materials and Manufacturing Technology

    2008-07-01

    This paper examined the use of laser processing applications in solar cell fabrication. Laser processing is used to improve the electrical performance of solar cells as well as to reduce their manufacturing cost. Laser processes included laser scribing and cutting; laser fired contacts; wrap through technology; laser chemical processing; and the application of thin film devices. The study also examined the use of laser-fired contact (LFC) process schemes for the production of silicon (Si) Results of the study indicated that the lasers resulted in decreased wafer thickness and increased wafer sizes. LFC schemes can be applied on almost all advanced solar cell structures, including metal or emitter wrap-through cells and interdigitated back contact cells. Laser doping and via hole drilling techniques are also feasible in industrial applications. The use of laser technologies is expected to reduce costs. It was concluded that laser technologies are an appropriate choice for solar cell manufacturing processes. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Characterizing the Radiation Survivability of Space Solar Cell Technologies for Heliospheric Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H.; Walker, D.; Mann, C. J.; Yue, Y.; Nocerino, J. C.; Smith, B. S.; Mulligan, T.

    2016-12-01

    Space solar cells are responsible for powering the majority of heliospheric space missions. This paper will discuss methods for characterizing space solar cell technologies for on-orbit operations that rely on a series of laboratory tests that include measuring the solar cells' beginning of life performance under simulated (e.g. AM0 or air mass zero) sunlight over different operating temperatures and observing their end of life performance following exposure to laboratory-generated charged particle radiation (protons and electrons). The Aerospace Corporation operates a proton implanter as well as electron gun facilities and collaborates with external radiation effects facilities to expose space solar cells or other space technologies to representative space radiation environments (i.e. heliosphere or magnetosphere of Earth or other planets), with goals of characterizing how the technologies perform over an anticipated space mission timeline and, through the application of precision diagnostic capabilities, understanding what part of the solar cell is impacted by varying space radiation environments. More recently, Aerospace has been hosting solar cell flight tests on its previously-flown CubeSat avionics bus, providing opportunities to compare the laboratory tests to on-orbit observations. We hope through discussion of the lessons learned and methods we use to characterize how solar cells perform after space radiation exposure that similar methodology could be adopted by others to improve the state of knowledge on the survivability of other space technologies required for future space missions.

  18. The other aspect of solar energy utilization. Solar technologies export enhancement: A central European point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, C. J.; Nitsch, J.; Klaiss, H.; Voigt, C.

    1985-11-01

    It is shown that solar energy utilization can, on a moderate scale, supplement the indigenous energy supply of the Federal Republic of Germany. It can contribute to the prevention of fatal ecological damage, open an attractive export market and, in the long run, prepare ground for North-South compensation, where energy-poor but technology rich countries cooperate with countries of the Third World, which are often rich in raw materials and are situated in the solar belt of the world, for the benefit of the implementation of a solar industry or the production of a marketable synthetic solar energy carrier.

  19. Technology assessment of solar-energy systems. Materials resource and hazardous materials impacts of solar deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, Y.M.; Tahami, J.E.

    1982-04-01

    The materials-resource and hazardous-materials impacts were determined by examining the type and quantity of materials used in the manufacture, construction, installation, operation and maintenance of solar systems. The materials requirements were compared with US materials supply-and-demand data to determine if potential problems exist in terms of future availability of domestic supply and increased dependence on foreign sources of supply. Hazardous materials were evaluated in terms of public and occupational health hazards and explosive and fire hazards. It is concluded that: (1) although large amounts of materials would be required, the US had sufficient industrial capacity to produce those materials; (2) the postulated growth in solar technology deployment during the period 1995-2000 could cause some production shortfalls in the steel and copper industry; (3) the U.S. could increase its import reliance for certain materials such as silver, iron ore, and copper; (4) however, shifts to other materials such as aluminum and polyvinylchloride could alleviate some of these problems.

  20. The social control of energy: A case for the promise of decentralized solar technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmer, R. W.

    1980-05-01

    Decentralized solar technology and centralized electric utilities were contrasted in the ways they assign property rights in capital and energy output; in the assignment of operational control; and in the means of monitoring, policing, and enforcing property rights. An analogy was drawn between the decision of an energy consumer to use decentralized solar and the decision of a firm to vertically integrate, that is, to extend the boundary of a the firm to vertically integrate, that is, to extend the boundary of the firm by making inputs or further processing output. Decentralized solar energy production offers the small energy consumer the chance to cut ties to outside suppliers--to vertically integrate energy production into the home or business. The development of this analogy provides insight into important noneconomic aspects of solar energy, and it points clearly to the lighter burdens of social management offered by decentralized solar technology.

  1. Development of Inorganic Solar Cells by Nano-technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yafei Zhang; HueyLiang Hwang; Huijuan Geng; Zhihua Zhou; Jiang Wu; Zhiming Wang; Yaozhong Zhang; Zhongli Li; Liying Zhang; Zhi Yang

    2012-01-01

    Inorganic solar cells, as durable photovoltaic devices for harvesting electric energy from sun light, have received tremendous attention due to the fear of exhausting the earth’s energy resources and damaging the living environment due to greenhouse gases. Some recent developments in nanotechnology have opened up new avenues for more relevant inorganic solar cells produced by new photovoltaic conversion concepts and effective solar energy harvesting nanostructures. In this review, the multiple exciton generation effect solar cells, hot carrier solar cells, one dimensional material constructed asymmetrical schottky barrier arrays, noble nanoparticle induced plasmonic enhancement, and light trapping nanostructured semiconductor solar cells are highlighted.

  2. Human Outer Solar System Exploration via Q-Thruster Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, B. Kent; White, Harold G.

    2014-01-01

    Propulsion technology development efforts at the NASA Johnson Space Center continue to advance the understanding of the quantum vacuum plasma thruster (QThruster), a form of electric propulsion. Through the use of electric and magnetic fields, a Q-thruster pushes quantum particles (electrons/positrons) in one direction, while the Qthruster recoils to conserve momentum. This principle is similar to how a submarine uses its propeller to push water in one direction, while the submarine recoils to conserve momentum. Based on laboratory results, it appears that continuous specific thrust levels of 0.4 - 4.0 N/kWe are achievable with essentially no onboard propellant consumption. To evaluate the potential of this technology, a mission analysis tool was developed utilizing the Generalized Reduced Gradient non-linear parameter optimization engine contained in the Microsoft Excel® platform. This tool allowed very rapid assessments of "Q-Ship" minimum time transfers from earth to the outer planets and back utilizing parametric variations in thrust acceleration while enforcing constraints on planetary phase angles and minimum heliocentric distances. A conservative Q-Thruster specific thrust assumption (0.4 N/kWe) combined with "moderate" levels of space nuclear power (1 - 2 MWe) and vehicle specific mass (45 - 55 kg/kWe) results in continuous milli-g thrust acceleration, opening up realms of human spaceflight performance completely unattainable by any current systems or near-term proposed technologies. Minimum flight times to Mars are predicted to be as low as 75 days, but perhaps more importantly new "retro-phase" and "gravity-augmented" trajectory shaping techniques were revealed which overcome adverse planetary phasing and allow virtually unrestricted departure and return opportunities. Even more impressively, the Jovian and Saturnian systems would be opened up to human exploration with round-trip times of 21 and 32 months respectively including 6 to 12 months of

  3. Solar system exploration - Some thoughts on techniques and technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekey, Ivan

    1990-01-01

    Some techniques and technologies for proposed interplanetary missions are described. Methods for reducing the effect of zero gravity on humans during missions to Mars and the moon, and the need for launch vehicles with increased lift capability are discussed. The use of nuclear power, liquid oxygen from the moon, and helium 3 as propellants for spacecraft is examined. The development and capabilities of the Shuttle Z vehicle are considered. Attention is given to the Space Station Freedom and Energia. A launch vehicle concept which utilizes the Shuttle Z for a mission to Mars is presented.

  4. Solar Energy Technologies Program FY08 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-05-01

    These reports chronicle the research and development (R&D) results of the Solar Program for the fiscal year. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories and its university and industry partners within PV R&D, Solar Thermal R&D, which encompasses solar water heating and concentrating solar power (CSP), and other subprograms.

  5. Energy Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Reviewed are technological problems faced in energy production including locating, recovering, developing, storing, and distributing energy in clean, convenient, economical, and environmentally satisfactory manners. The energy resources of coal, oil, natural gas, hydroelectric power, nuclear energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, winds, tides,…

  6. Line-focus solar thermal energy technology development. FY 79 annual report for Department 4720

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, K D; Champion, R L; Hunke, R W [eds.

    1980-04-01

    The primary role of the Solar Energy Projects Department II (4720) is the development, evaluation, and testing of line-focus solar thermal technology. This report of FY 79 progress and accomplishments is divided into two parts: (1) Component and Subsystem Development including the design and analysis of collector modules, their components, and associated materials and processes, and (2) Systems and Applications Development, involving larger configurations of solar thermal line-focus systems. The emphasis is on parabolic troughs, but significant efforts on hemispherical bowls, compound parabolic collectors, and dishes for the Solar Total Energy Project are also described.

  7. Recent trends in solar thermal sorption cooling system technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled M Bataineh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Solar thermal cooling is the best alternative solution to overcome the problems associated with using nonrenewable resources. There are several thermal cooling methods developed differing from each other according to the thermodynamic cycle and type of refrigerant used. Recent developments in absorption and adsorption solar cooling systems are presented. Summarized thermodynamic modeling for both absorption and adsorption solar cooling systems is given. Brief thermal analysis among the types of solar collectors is presented. System efficiencies and optimization analysis are presented. The influences of geometrical, system configurations, and physical parameters on the performance of solar thermal sorption cooling system are investigated. The basis for the design of absorption and adsorption solar cooling systems is provided. Several case studies in different climatic conditions are presented. Economic feasibility for both systems is discussed. Comparison between the absorption and adsorption solar cooling system is summarized.

  8. Chapter 1.03: Solar Photovoltaics Technology: No Longer an Outlier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmerski, L. L.

    2012-01-01

    The status and future technology, market, and industry opportunities for solar photovoltaics are examined and discussed. The co-importance of both policy and technology investments for the future markets and competitiveness of this solar approach is emphasized. This paper underscores the technology side, with a comprehensive overview and insights to technical, policy, market, industry and other investments needed to tip photovoltaics to its next level of contribution as a significant clean-energy partner in the world energy economy. The requirement to venture from near-term and evolutionary approaches into disruptive and revolutionary technology pathways is argued for our needs in the mid-term (the next 10-15 years) and the long-term (beyond the first quarter of this century).

  9. Physics and technology of amorphous-crystalline heterostructure silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sark, Wilfried G.J.H.M. van [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Copernicus Institute, Science Technology and Society; Roca, Francesco [Unita Tecnologie Portici, Napoli (Italy). ENEA - Agenzia Nazionale per le Nuove Tecnologie, l' Energia e lo Sviluppo Economico Sostenibile; Korte, Lars [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie (Germany). Inst. Silizium-Photovoltaik

    2012-07-01

    The challenge of developing photovoltaic (PV) technology to a cost-competitive alternative for established energy sources can be achieved using simple, high-throughput mass-production compatible processes. Issues to be addressed for large scale PV deployment in large power plants or in building integrated applications are enhancing the performance of solar energy systems by increasing solar cell efficiency, using low amounts of materials which are durable, stable, and abundant on earth, and reducing manufacturing and installation cost. Today's solar cell multi-GW market is dominated by crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafer technology, however new cell concepts are entering the market. One very promising solar cell design to answer these needs is the silicon hetero-junction solar cell, of which the emitter and back surface field are basically produced by a low temperature growth of ultra-thin layers of amorphous silicon. In this design, amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) constitutes both ''emitter'' and ''base-contact/back surface field'' on both sides of a thin crystalline silicon wafer-base (c-Si) where the photogenerated electrons and holes are generated; at the same time, a Si:H passivates the c-Si surface. Recently, cell efficiencies above 23% have been demonstrated for such solar cells. In this book, the editors present an overview of the state-of-the-art in physics and technology of amorphous-crystalline heterostructure silicon solar cells. (orig.)

  10. Considerations for Solar Energy Technologies to Make Progress Towards Grid Price Parity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhouse, Michael; Fu, Ran; Chung, Donald; Horowitz, Kelsey; Remo, Timothy; Feldman, David; Margolis, Robert

    2015-11-07

    In this seminar the component costs for solar photovoltaics module and system prices will be highlighted. As a basis for comparison to other renewable and traditional energy options, the metric of focus will be total lifecycle cost-of-energy (LCOE). Several innovations to traditional photovoltaics technologies (including crystalline silicon, CdTe, and CIGS) and developing technologies (including organics and perovskites) that may close the gaps in LCOE will be discussed.

  11. Solarization/conservation technology development for existing housing. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberdick, W.

    1981-06-01

    The project objectives are: to develop a method for evaluationg existing residences for their energy solarization/conservation potential as well as carrying out the solarization/conservation work within context of the Community Development program; and to demonstrate appropriate methods of utilizing solar energy in existing Ann Arbor residences beyond that obtainable in a good conservation program. A general progress update is presented covering tasks related to community solarization/conservation characteristics and community system analysis and development. The process of selection and technical evaluation of houses for solarization/conservation project directed retrofit is described. A detailed report on the survey of utility data and a report on the solarization/conservation site audits are included. A detailed comparison of the audit data for both the audit and control group are appended. (LEW)

  12. Synthesis of Inorganic Semiconductor Materials for Solar-Based Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    There is an alarming increase of energy issues due to significant fossil fuel consumption. Some progress has been made to replace fossil fuels with renewable sources, among which, solar energy has always been considered as the ultimate solution to solve these problems. As a relatively new evolved type of solar cell, Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC), have been investigated intensively in recent years and they are very promising for their cost-effectiveness properties. Zinc oxide (ZnO) is one ...

  13. Technology assessment of solar energy systems. Scenario development and methodology. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, Y.M.

    1981-07-01

    Included are a general overview of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy systems (TASE) project and a description of the study approach, the development of the TASE scenarios, energy and environmental assumptions, and assumptions and forecasts of the FOSSIL2 National Energy Model upon which the TASE scenarios were based. The Strategic Environmental Assessment System (SEAS) model was used to generate the analytical data base for TASE. Improvements made to SEAS to allow it to model solar and biomass energy technologies are also described.

  14. Overview: Solar Electric Propulsion Concept Designs for SEP Technology Demonstration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcguire, Melissa L.; Hack, Kurt J.; Manzella, David; Herman, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    JPC presentation of the Concept designs for NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration mission paper. Multiple Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Missions were developed to assess vehicle performance and estimated mission cost. Concepts ranged from a 10,000 kg spacecraft capable of delivering 4000 kg of payload to one of the Earth Moon Lagrange points in support of future human-crewed outposts to a 180 kg spacecraft capable of performing an asteroid rendezvous mission after launched to a geostationary transfer orbit as a secondary payload.

  15. Solar Lighting Technologies for Highway Green Rest Areas in China: Energy Saving Economic and Environmental Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, taking Lushan West Sea highway green rest area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the suitable types, applicability, advantages, and effective methods of solar lighting technologies for highway rest area were determined based on the analysis of characteristics of highway green rest area. It was proved that solar lighting technologies including the natural light guidance system, solar LED lighting, and maximizing natural light penetration were quite suitable for highway rest area in terms of lighting effects and energy and economic efficiency. The illuminance comparison of light guidance system with electrical lighting was made based on the on-site experiment. Also, the feasibility of natural light guidance system was well verified in terms of the lighting demand of the visitor centre in the rest area by the illuminance simulation analysis. The evaluation of the energy saving, economic benefits, and environmental effects of solar lighting technologies for highway rest area was, respectively, made in detail. It was proved that the application of solar technology for green lighting of highway rest facilities not only could have considerable energy saving capacity and achieve high economic benefits, but also make great contributions to the reduction of environment pollution.

  16. Thermal storage technologies for solar industrial process heat applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of thermal storage subsystems for the intermediate and high temperature (100 C to 600 C) solar industrial process heat generation is presented. Primary emphasis is focused on buffering and diurnal storage as well as total energy transport. In addition, advanced thermal storage concepts which appear promising for future solar industrial process heat applications are discussed.

  17. Assessment of financial incentives in commercialization of solar technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, Y.

    1981-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is developing policies and programs to support the use of solar plants by utilities and industry. Widespread use of this renewable resource will reduce the nation's reliance on non-renewable energy resources. An added benefit of utilizing solar plants would be improvements in the air quality where facilities are sited.

  18. Silicon bulk growth for solar cells: Science and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Koichi; Gao, Bing; Nakano, Satoshi; Harada, Hirofumi; Miyamura, Yoshiji

    2017-02-01

    The photovoltaic industry is in a phase of rapid expansion, growing by more than 30% per annum over the last few decades. Almost all commercial solar cells presently use single-crystalline or multicrystalline silicon wafers similar to those used in microelectronics; meanwhile, thin-film compounds and alloy solar cells are currently under development. The laboratory performance of these cells, at 26% solar energy conversion efficiency, is now approaching thermodynamic limits, with the challenge being to incorporate these improvements into low-cost commercial products. Improvements in the optical design of cells, particularly in their ability to trap weakly absorbed light, have also led to increasing interest in thin-film cells based on polycrystalline silicon; these cells have advantages over other thin-film photovoltaic candidates. This paper provides an overview of silicon-based solar cell research, especially the development of silicon wafers for solar cells, from the viewpoint of growing both single-crystalline and multicrystalline wafers.

  19. Solar photovoltaics R and D at the tipping point: A 2005 technology overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmerski, Lawrence L. [National Center for Photovoltaics, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)]. E-mail: larry_kazmerski@nreil.gov

    2006-02-15

    The status of current and coming solar photovoltaic technologies and their future development are presented. The emphasis is on R and D advances and cell and module performances, with indications of the limitations and strengths of crystalline (Si and GaAs) and thin film (a-Si:H, Si, Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2}, CdTe). The contributions and technological pathways for now and near-term technologies (silicon, III-Vs, and thin films) and status and forecasts for next-next generation photovoltaics (organics, nanotechnologies, multi-multiple junctions) are evaluated. Recent advances in concentrators, new directions for thin films, and materials/device technology issues are discussed in terms of technology evolution and progress. Insights to technical and other investments needed to tip photovoltaics to its next level of contribution as a significant clean-energy partner in the world energy portfolio.

  20. Providing Appropriate Technology for Emerging Markets: Case Study on China’s Solar Thermal Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianghua Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Building on a case study of five Chinese solar thermal companies and one association, our study aims to understand how the innovator’s choices regarding the use of technology and organizational practices for new product development enable companies to design and diffuse appropriate technology in emerging markets. The study uncovers two critical factors that enhance the appropriateness of technology: redefining the identity of technology and building a local supply system. Our analysis shows that synergic innovation in both architecture and component leads to the appropriate functionalities desired by emerging markets. Moreover, modular design and the building of a local supply system enhance the process appropriateness of technology. Our study provides an empirical basis for advocating going beyond minor adaptations of existing products to creating appropriate technology for emerging markets, and extends our understandings of the upstream process of designing appropriate technology. Moreover, the emphasis on the local supply system reflects a holistic framework for shaping and delivering appropriate technology, expanding the existing research focus on the perspective of the technology itself. Our research also has managerial implications that may help firms tap into emerging markets.

  1. Utility-Scale Concentrating Solar Power and Photovoltaic Projects: A Technology and Market Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.; Lowder, T.; Canavan, B.

    2012-04-01

    Over the last several years, solar energy technologies have been, or are in the process of being, deployed at unprecedented levels. A critical recent development, resulting from the massive scale of projects in progress or recently completed, is having the power sold directly to electric utilities. Such 'utility-scale' systems offer the opportunity to deploy solar technologies far faster than the traditional 'behind-the-meter' projects designed to offset retail load. Moreover, these systems have employed significant economies of scale during construction and operation, attracting financial capital, which in turn can reduce the delivered cost of power. This report is a summary of the current U.S. utility-scale solar state-of-the-market and development pipeline. Utility-scale solar energy systems are generally categorized as one of two basic designs: concentrating solar power (CSP) and photovoltaic (PV). CSP systems can be further delineated into four commercially available technologies: parabolic trough, central receiver (CR), parabolic dish, and linear Fresnel reflector. CSP systems can also be categorized as hybrid, which combine a solar-based system (generally parabolic trough, CR, or linear Fresnel) and a fossil fuel energy system to produce electric power or steam.

  2. TRL Assessment of Solar Sail Technology Development Following the 20-Meter System Ground Demonstrator Hardware Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Edward E.; Young, Roy M.; Adams, Charles L.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Projects Office has been sponsoring 2 separate, independent system design and development hardware demonstration activities during 2002-2005. ATK Space Systems of Goleta, CA was the prime contractor for one development team and L'Garde, Inc. of Tustin, CA was the prime contractor for the other development team. The goal of these activities was to advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of solar sail propulsion from 3 towards 6 by the year 2006. Component and subsystem fabrication and testing were completed successfully, including the ground deployment of 10-meter and 20-meter ground demonstration hardware systems under vacuum conditions. The deployment and structural testing of the 20-meter solar sail systems was conducted in the 30 meter diameter Space Power Facility thermal-vacuum chamber at NASA Glenn Plum Brook in April though August, 2005. This paper will present the results of the TRL assessment following the solar sail technology development activities associated with the design, development, analysis and testing of the 20-meter system ground demonstrators. Descriptions of the system designs for both the ATK and L'Garde systems will be presented. Changes, additions and evolution of the system designs will be highlighted. A description of the modeling and analyses activities performed by both teams, as well as testing conducted to raise the TRL of solar sail technology will be presented. A summary of the results of model correlation activities will be presented. Finally, technology gaps identified during the assessment and gap closure plans will be presented, along with "lessons learned", subsequent planning activities and validation flight opportunities for solar sail propulsion technology.

  3. National solar technology roadmap: Nano-architecture PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yong [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2007-06-01

    This roadmap addresses nano-architecture solar cells that use nanowires, nanotubes, and nanocrystals, including single-component, core-shell, embedded nanowires or nanocrystals either as absorbers or transporters.

  4. Design requirements for interfaces in solar energy conversion technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, B. L.

    1982-04-01

    Candidate materials for improving the durability and economics of solar energy conversion systems (SECS) are reviewed. A 30-yr lifetime is regarded as necessary for solar collector and concentrator materials in order to offset the high initial costs of SECS in parabolic dish, heliostat, parabolic trough, flat plate collector, OTEC, solar cell, and wind turbine configurations. The materials are required to transfer a maximum amount of intercepted energy without degrading from exposure to UV radiation, wind, water, dust, and temperature cycling. Glass and mirrored surfaces for reflecting or refracting optical subsystems are currently made from soda-lime, boro- and aluminosilicate, and must resist chemicals, abrasion, and permeability, and have good strength, flexibility, coefficient of expansion, and Young's modulus. Additional concerns are present in photochemical, solar cell, and in substrata components and systems.

  5. Solar Sentinels: Report of the Science and Technology Definition Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The goal of NASA s Living With a Star (LWS) program is to develop the scientific understanding necessary to effectively address those aspects of the connected Sun Earth system that directly affect life and society. Along with the other elements of LWS, Solar Sentinels aims to discover, understand, and model the heliospheric initiation, propagation, and solar connection of those energetic phenomena that adversely affect space exploration and life and society here on Earth. The Solar Sentinels mission will address the following questions: (1) How, where, and under what circumstances are solar energetic particles (SEPs) accelerated to high energies and how do they propagate through the heliosphere? And (2) How are solar wind structures associated with these SEPs, like CMEs, shocks, and high-speed streams, initiated, propagate, evolve, and interact in the inner heliosphere? The Sentinels STDT recommends implementing this mission in two portions, one optimized for inner heliospheric in-situ measurements and the other for solar remote observations. Sentinels will greatly enhance the overall LWS science return.

  6. The Development Status and Key Technologies of Solar Powered Unmanned Air Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, Li; Wei, Zhou; Xueren, Wang

    2017-03-01

    By analyzing the development status of several typical solar powered unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) at home and abroad, the key technologies involved in the design and manufacture of solar powered UAV and the technical difficulties need to be solved at present are obtained. It is pointed out that with the improvement of energy system efficiency, advanced aerodynamic configuration design, realization of high applicability flight stability and control system, breakthrough of efficient propulsion system, the application prospect of solar powered UAV will be more extensive.

  7. Clean Technology Fund Investment Plan Approved for Concentrated Solar Power in the MENA Region

    OpenAIRE

    Coma-Cunill, Roger; Govindarajalu, Chandra; Pariente-David, Silvia; Walters, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) clean technology fund investment plan proposes co-financing of $750 million and mobilizes an additional $4.85 billion from other sources to accelerate deployment of Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) by investing in the CSP expansion programs of Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia. Specifically, the Investment Plan will support MENA countries to ...

  8. Propellantless Attitude Control of Solar Sail Technology Utilizing Reflective Control Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Solar sails offer an opportunity for a CubeSatscale, propellant-free spacecraft technology that enables long-term and long-distance missions not possible with traditional methods. Solar sails operate using the transfer of linear momentum from photons of sunlight reflected from the surface of the sail. To propel the spacecraft, no mechanically moving parts, thrusters, or propellant are needed. However, attitude control, or orientation, is still performed using traditional methods involving reaction wheels and propellant ejection, which severely limit mission lifetime. For example, the current state of the art solutions employed by upcoming missions couple solar sails with a state of the art propellant ejection gas system. Here, the use of the gas thruster has limited the lifetime of the mission. To solve the limited mission lifetime problem, the Propellantless Attitude Control of Solar Sail Technology Utilizing Reflective Control Devices project team is working on propellantless attitude control using thin layers of material, an optical film, electrically switchable from transparent to reflective. The technology is based on a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC), which allows this switch upon application of a voltage. This technology removes the need for propellant, which reduces weight and cost while improving performance and lifetime.

  9. The Ion Propulsion System for the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Santiago, Walter; Kamhawi, Hani; Polk, James E.; Snyder, John Steven; Hofer, Richard R.; Parker, J. Morgan

    2015-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission is a candidate Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission whose main objectives are to develop and demonstrate a high-power solar electric propulsion capability for the Agency and return an asteroidal mass for rendezvous and characterization in a companion human-crewed mission. The ion propulsion system must be capable of operating over an 8-year time period and processing up to 10,000 kg of xenon propellant. This high-power solar electric propulsion capability, or an extensible derivative of it, has been identified as a critical part of an affordable, beyond-low-Earth-orbit, manned-exploration architecture. Under the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate the critical electric propulsion and solar array technologies are being developed. The ion propulsion system being co-developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle is based on the NASA-developed 12.5 kW Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS0 thruster and power processing technologies. This paper presents the conceptual design for the ion propulsion system, the status of the NASA in-house thruster and power processing activity, and an update on flight hardware.

  10. Greening the Grid - Advancing Solar, Wind, and Smart Grid Technologies (Spanish Version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    This is the Spanish version of 'Greening the Grid - Advancing Solar, Wind, and Smart Grid Technologies'. Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid.

  11. Electromagnetic foundations of solar radiation collection a technology for sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Sangster, Alan J

    2014-01-01

    This text seeks to illuminate, mainly for the electrical power engineers of the future, the topic of large scale solar flux gathering schemes, which arguably represent the major source of renewable power available. The aim of the content is to impart, from an electromagnetic perspective, a deep and sound understanding of the topic of solar flux collection, ranging from the characteristics of light to the properties of antennas. To do this five chapters are employed to provide a thorough grounding in relevant aspects of electromagnetism and electromagnetic waves including optics, electromagneti

  12. 77 FR 76109 - IAS Energy, Inc., IB3 Networks, Inc., IBroadband, Inc., ICP Solar Technologies, Inc., IdentiPHI...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... COMMISSION IAS Energy, Inc., IB3 Networks, Inc., IBroadband, Inc., ICP Solar Technologies, Inc., IdentiPHI... accurate information concerning the securities of IAS Energy, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic... accurate information concerning the securities of ICP Solar Technologies, Inc. because it has not filed...

  13. Illuminating Solar Decathlon Homes: Exploring Next Generation Lighting Technology - Light Emitting Diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Kelly L.; Gilbride, Theresa L.

    2008-05-22

    This report was prepared by PNNL for the US Department of Energy Building Technologies Program, Solid-State Lighting Program. The report will be provided to teams of university students who are building houses for the 2009 Solar Decathlon, a home design competition sponsored in part by DOE, to encourage teams to build totally solar powered homes. One aspect of the competition is lighting. This report provides the teams with information about LED lighting that can help them determine how they incorporate LED lighting into their homes. The report provides an overview of LED technology, a status of where LED technology is today, questions and answers about lighting quality, efficiency, lifetime etc.; numerous examples of LED products; and several weblinks for further research.

  14. An overview of crystalline silicon solar cell technology: Past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopian, K.; Cheow, S. L.; Zaidi, S. H.

    2017-09-01

    Crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell, ever since its inception, has been identified as the only economically and environmentally sustainable renewable resource to replace fossil fuels. Performance c-Si based photovoltaic (PV) technology has been equal to the task. Its price has been reduced by a factor of 250 over last twenty years (from ˜ 76 USD to ˜ 0.3 USD); its market growth is expected to reach 100 GWP by 2020. Unfortunately, it is still 3-4 times higher than carbon-based fuels. With the matured PV manufacturing technology as it exists today, continuing price reduction poses stiff challenges. Alternate manufacturing approaches in combination with thin wafers, low (cost-based analysis of advanced solar cell manufacturing technologies aimed at higher (˜ 22 %) efficiency with existing equipment and processes.

  15. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M.; Gilbride, T.; Ruiz, K.; Steward, H.; Love, P.

    2007-06-01

    This document is the sixth volume of the Building America Best Practices Series. It presents information that is useful throughout the United States for enhancing the energy efficiency practices in the specific climate zones that are presented in the first five Best Practices volumes. It provides an introduction to current photovoltaic and solar thermal building practices. Information about window selection and shading is included.

  16. Solar Energy and Other Appropriate Technologies for Small ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Region 2 research demonstration project presentation studied the efficacy of sustainable solar-powered water delivery and monitoring systems to reduce the economic burden of operating and maintaining Non-PRASA drinking water systems and to reduce the impact of climate change resulting from the use of fossil fuels in Puerto Rico. In Puerto Rico, petroleum (65%), natural gas (18%) and coal (16%) are imported to generate electricity resulting in electrical rates that are more than twice the US average. In 2012, only 1% of electricity came from renewable energy (US Energy Information Administration). One major cost for electricity for small communities in Puerto Rico is the transfer, treatment and distribution of drinking water. These small communities (Non-PRASA communities) are not able to afford electrical costs and many have abandoned their groundwater sources and reverted to unfiltered surface water systems, creating serious public health risks and non-compliance. Many Non-PRASA groundwater systems (141 out of 247) could use solar-powered pumps to extract and deliver groundwater. Solar power would also extend the life of system electrical components by improving the quality of electrical power supply. Solar power as a renewable energy source for Non-PRASA water systems is a viable approach that also reduces the impact of climate change in the Caribbean.

  17. Solar Energy and Other Appropriate Technologies for Small ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Region 2 research demonstration project presentation studied the efficacy of sustainable solar-powered water delivery and monitoring systems to reduce the economic burden of operating and maintaining Non-PRASA drinking water systems and to reduce the impact of climate change resulting from the use of fossil fuels in Puerto Rico. In Puerto Rico, petroleum (65%), natural gas (18%) and coal (16%) are imported to generate electricity resulting in electrical rates that are more than twice the US average. In 2012, only 1% of electricity came from renewable energy (US Energy Information Administration). One major cost for electricity for small communities in Puerto Rico is the transfer, treatment and distribution of drinking water. These small communities (Non-PRASA communities) are not able to afford electrical costs and many have abandoned their groundwater sources and reverted to unfiltered surface water systems, creating serious public health risks and non-compliance. Many Non-PRASA groundwater systems (141 out of 247) could use solar-powered pumps to extract and deliver groundwater. Solar power would also extend the life of system electrical components by improving the quality of electrical power supply. Solar power as a renewable energy source for Non-PRASA water systems is a viable approach that also reduces the impact of climate change in the Caribbean.

  18. Solid state device technology for Solar Power Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, D. G.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of using solid state elements in the solar power satellite transmitter system is addressed. Recommendations are given concerning device types, the antenna modules, and the overall antenna system. The development of a solid state amplifier based on GaAs field effect transistor devices is also described.

  19. Life Cycle Assessment of Titania Perovskite Solar Cell Technology for Sustainable Design and Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyi; Gao, Xianfeng; Deng, Yelin; Li, Bingbing; Yuan, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Perovskite solar cells have attracted enormous attention in recent years due to their low cost and superior technical performance. However, the use of toxic metals, such as lead, in the perovskite dye and toxic chemicals in perovskite solar cell manufacturing causes grave concerns for its environmental performance. To understand and facilitate the sustainable development of perovskite solar cell technology from its design to manufacturing, a comprehensive environmental impact assessment has been conducted on titanium dioxide nanotube based perovskite solar cells by using an attributional life cycle assessment approach, from cradle to gate, with manufacturing data from our laboratory-scale experiments and upstream data collected from professional databases and the literature. The results indicate that the perovskite dye is the primary source of environmental impact, associated with 64.77% total embodied energy and 31.38% embodied materials consumption, contributing to more than 50% of the life cycle impact in almost all impact categories, although lead used in the perovskite dye only contributes to about 1.14% of the human toxicity potential. A comparison of perovskite solar cells with commercial silicon and cadmium-tellurium solar cells reveals that perovskite solar cells could be a promising alternative technology for future large-scale industrial applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Utility rates and service policies as potential barriers to the market penetration of decentralized solar technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuerstein, R. J.

    1979-08-01

    At present, economic and institutional concerns dictate that decentralized solar technologies generally require an auxiliary energy source to assure continuous service through periods of adverse weather. Utility rates and service policies regarding auxiliary energy service have a significant impact upon solar system economics, and thus the commercialization of solar energy. The scope of this paper evaluates three basic issues: (1) whether a utility can refuse to provide auxiliary service to solar users, (2) whether a utility can charge higher or lower than traditional rates for auxiliary service, and (3) whether a utility can refuse to purchase excess power generated by small power producers utilizing electricity-producing solar technologies. It appears that a utility cannot refuse to provide auxiliary service to a solar user unless the company can demonstrate that to provide such service, substantial harm would result to its existing customers. Statutes or case decisions also provide that utilities cannot unreasonably discriminate in rates charged to customers for the same service under like conditions. The ability of a utility to provide solar users lower than traditional rates may depend upon the jurisdiction's view of promotional rates. 681 references.

  1. Can Integrated Micro-Optical Concentrator Technology Revolutionize Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Solar Energy Harvesting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Michael W.

    2015-12-01

    The economies-of-scale and enhanced performance of integrated micro-technologies have repeatedly delivered disruptive market impact. Examples range from microelectronics to displays to lighting. However, integrated micro-scale technologies have yet to be applied in a transformational way to solar photovoltaic panels. The recently announced Micro-scale Optimized Solar-cell Arrays with Integrated Concentration (MOSAIC) program aims to create a new paradigm in solar photovoltaic panel technology based on the incorporation of micro-concentrating photo-voltaic (μ-CPV) cells. As depicted in Figure 1, MOSAIC will integrate arrays of micro-optical concentrating elements and micro-scale PV elements to achieve the same aggregated collection area and high conversion efficiency of a conventional (i.e., macro-scale) CPV approach, but with the low profile and mass, and hopefully cost, of a conventional non-concentrated PV panel. The reduced size and weight, and enhanced wiring complexity, of the MOSAIC approach provide the opportunity to access the high-performance/low-cost region between the conventional CPV and flat-plate (1-sun) PV domains shown in Figure 2. Accessing this portion of the graph in Figure 2 will expand the geographic and market reach of flat-plate PV. This talk reviews the motivation and goals for the MOSAIC program. The diversity of the technical approaches to micro-concentration, embedded solar tracking, and hybrid direct/diffuse solar resource collection found in the MOSAIC portfolio of projects will also be highlighted.

  2. Solar cell array design handbook - The principles and technology of photovoltaic energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenbach, H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar cell array design and technology for ground-based and space applications are discussed from the user's point of view. Solar array systems are described, with attention given to array concepts, historical development, applications and performance, and the analysis of array characteristics, circuits, components, performance and reliability is examined. Aspects of solar cell array design considered include the design process, photovoltaic system and detailed array design, and the design of array thermal, radiation shielding and electromagnetic components. Attention is then given to the characteristics and design of the separate components of solar arrays, including the solar cells, optical elements and mechanical elements, and the fabrication, testing, environmental conditions and effects and material properties of arrays and their components are discussed.

  3. Solar cell array design handbook - The principles and technology of photovoltaic energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenbach, H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar cell array design and technology for ground-based and space applications are discussed from the user's point of view. Solar array systems are described, with attention given to array concepts, historical development, applications and performance, and the analysis of array characteristics, circuits, components, performance and reliability is examined. Aspects of solar cell array design considered include the design process, photovoltaic system and detailed array design, and the design of array thermal, radiation shielding and electromagnetic components. Attention is then given to the characteristics and design of the separate components of solar arrays, including the solar cells, optical elements and mechanical elements, and the fabrication, testing, environmental conditions and effects and material properties of arrays and their components are discussed.

  4. Soviet Robots in the Solar System Mission Technologies and Discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Huntress, JR , Wesley T

    2011-01-01

    The Soviet robotic space exploration program began in a spirit of bold adventure and technical genius. It ended after the fall of the Soviet Union and the failure of its last mission to Mars in 1996. Soviet Robots in the Solar System chronicles the scientific and engineering accomplishments of this enterprise from its infancy to its demise. Each flight campaign is set into context of national politics and international competition with the United States. Together with its many detailed illustrations and images, Soviet Robots in the Solar System presents the most detailed technical description of Soviet robotic space flights provides a unique insight into programmatic, engineering, and scientific issues covers mission objectives, spacecraft engineering, flight details, scientific payload and results describes in technical depth Soviet lunar and planetary probes

  5. Simple solar technology saves money for alligator farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, A.

    1993-01-01

    In 1990, a high-volume solar thermal water-heating system in Florida was installed in Okeechobee County by Solar Development, Inc. (SDI). The system is designed to provide large quantities of hot water for commercial use and heat water to as high as 140[degrees]F. The design in Florida is known as a Shallow Solar Pond (SSP). It was completed with the help of the Florida Alligator Farmers Association, the Florida Energy Office, Foster Farms, and SDI. The SSP is a modular system built on site and modified to meet the specific needs of each application. The tank and the collector are the same unit, which keeps the system cost very low. The typical SSP module is 16 feet wide and up to 200 feet long. The module contains one or two reinforced-rubber flat water bags similar to a water bed. The bags rest on a layer of insulation or sand inside concrete or fiberglass curbs. In the Foster Farms SSP, the insulation was omitted and the water bags are placed on sand. The bag is protected against damage and heat loss by greenhouse-type glazing. At Foster Farms there are 3 SSPs, set in approximately 8,000 square feet, with two 5,000-gallon bags per unit. In addition, there is a pressurizing pump/tank system. Every morning, the heated water from the bags drains into a sump tank. While the bags are emptied into the backup system, well water is pumped in and the solar heating process starts all over again.

  6. Next Generation Solar Array Technologies for Small Satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Fosness, E.; Guerrero, J.; Mayberry, C.; Carpenter, B.; Goldstein, D.

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in Shape Memory Alloy (SMA), Elastic Memory Composites (EMC), and ultra- light composites along with thin-film Copper-Indium- Diselinide (CIS) photovoltaics have offered the potential to provide solar array systems for small satellites that are significantly lighter than the current state of the practice. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), and Lockheed Martin...

  7. Technology for Solar Array Production on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    Silicon, aluminum, and glass are the primary raw materials that will be required for production of solar arrays on the moon. A process sequence is proposed for producing these materials from lunar regolith is proposed, consisting of separating the required materials from lunar rock with fluorine. Fluorosilane produced by this process is reduced to silicon; the fluorine salts are reduced to metals by reaction with metallic potassium. Fluorine is recovered from residual MgF and CaF2 by reaction with K2O. Aluminum, calcium oxide, and magnesium oxide are recovered to manufacture structural materials and glass.

  8. A Compendium of Solar Dish/Stirling Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    systems and Plataforma Solar in Almeria, Spain, with the goal being plans to produce fourteen 7.5-kWe systems for testing to test the system’s long-term...the sun is not a point source, its rays 21 Chapter 3 (a) (b) - N Mounting Ring and CollaraI/ / I/\\ I / Virtual Exit I / Target S• Entrance I 0 L...tptical \\ I Real Exit / Virtual Target \\ Aperture\\ / Cooling \\ / I Coils N - Focal - - - - " Plane 4. Figure 3-2. A secondary concentrator with side view (a

  9. Applicability of solid state microwave technology to solar power satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalos, E. J.; Fitzsimmons, G. W.; Sperber, B. R.

    1979-01-01

    A potential SPS design using antenna mounted GaAs FET's as the basic dc-RF converter is described, together with the rationale of why such a design may represent a viable cost effective complement to current SPS designs using tube type dc-RF converters such as klystrons or crossed field amplifiers. An initial description of a microwave antenna array module is given, together with a concept of how such a module is to be integrated into the SPS overall design. A comparison is made of several such designs using either antenna mounted or solar cell mounted dc-RF converters.

  10. Solar drying: An appropriate technology for the north Argentina; Secado solar: Una tecnologia apropiada para el norte argentino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurlo, Hugo D; Vergara, Liliana; Spotorno, Ruben; Benitez, Francisco; De Pedro, Jorge; Cervino, Veronica; Monzon, Sergio [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Chaco (Argentina)

    2000-07-01

    The results concerning to solar drying of nutritious products for rehearsed a low cost solar dryer, adapted to the area, composed by a plane solar collector of 2 m{sup 2} and a drying camera with capacity for, approximately, 5 kg of product. The objectives of the work were: a) to develop a low cost solar dry, capable to dehydrate products for human alimentary use; b) to transfer the developed technology to low resources rural communities through the INCUPO (Institute of Popular Culture) and to small producers through the INTA (National Institute of Agricultural Technology) and c) to diffuse the practice of the solar drying among small producers. The diffusion and transfer of the developed technology to small rural producers, contribute to improve their quality of life when facilitating them additional revenues for productive diversification, besides the contribution to the sustainable use of the forest like source of non conventional nutritious resources contributing to the task of cultural rescue faced by organizations like the INCUPO. [Spanish] Se exponen los resultados concernientes al secado solar de productos alimenticios para consumo humano. Se diseno, construyo y ensayo un secador solar de bajo costo, adaptado a la zona, compuesto por un colector solar plano de 2m{sup 2} y una camara de secado con capacidad para, aproximadamente, 5 kg de producto fresco. Los objetivos del trabajo fueron: a) desarrollar un secadero solar de bajo costo, apto para deshidratar productos para uso alimentario humano; b) transferir la tecnologia desarrollada a comunidades rurales de bajos recursos a traves del INCUPO (Instituto de Cultura Popular) y a pequenos productores a traves del INTA (Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria) y c) difundir la practica del secado solar entre productores frutihorticolas. La difusion y transferencia de la tecnologia desarrollada a pequenos productores rurales, contribuye a mejorar su calidad de vida al posibilitarles ingresos adicionales

  11. Research and development of utilization technology of solar thermal system for industrial and other use. Research and development of solar system (research for solar/energy-conservation technology retrofitted to existing buildings); Sangyoyo nado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Solar system no chosa kenkyu (solar toshi muke gijutsu ni kansuru chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takita, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for solar/energy-conversion technologies retrofitted to existing buildings. The estimated effects and economic viability of retrofitting technologies show that they bring very high energy-saving effects when applied to heating and hot water supply, which consume a large portion of energy, but relatively low energy-saving effects when applied to cooling, solar walls, glazed balconies and transparent insulators. The study on applicability of these technologies in Japan indicates that the technologies which can recover cost within an average life time are those applied to windows, solar collector systems for hot water supply and heating, and transparent insulators. Although these technologies are low in applicability to cooling viewed from the angle of cost recovery, retrofitted radiation type cooling systems improve not only cooling and energy-saving effects but also comfortableness.

  12. Studies of key technologies for CdTe solar modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, CdS thin films, which act as the window layer and n-type partner to the p-type CdTe layer, were prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD). CdTe thin films were deposited by the close-spaced sublimation (CSS) method. To obtain high-quality back contacts, a Te-rich layer was created with chemical etching and back contact materials were applied after CdTe annealing. The results indicate that the ZnTe/ZnTe:Cu complex layers show superior performance over other back contacts. Finally, by using laser scribing and mechanical scribing, the CdTe mini-modules were fabricated, in which a glass/SnO2:F/CdS/CdTe/ZnTe/ZnTe:Cu/Ni solar module with a PWQC-confirmed total-area efficiency of 7.03% (54 cm2) was achieved.

  13. Solar and Space Physics: A Science for a Technological Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    From the interior of the Sun, to the upper atmosphere and near-space environment of Earth, and outward to a region far beyond Pluto where the Sun's influence wanes, advances during the past decade in space physics and solar physics the disciplines NASA refers to as heliophysics have yielded spectacular insights into the phenomena that affect our home in space. This report, from the National Research Council's (NRC's) Committee for a Decadal Strategy in Solar and Space Physics, is the second NRC decadal survey in heliophysics. Building on the research accomplishments realized over the past decade, the report presents a program of basic and applied research for the period 2013-2022 that will improve scientific understanding of the mechanisms that drive the Sun's activity and the fundamental physical processes underlying near-Earth plasma dynamics, determine the physical interactions of Earth's atmospheric layers in the context of the connected Sun-Earth system, and enhance greatly the capability to provide realistic and specific forecasts of Earth's space environment that will better serve the needs of society. Although the recommended program is directed primarily to NASA (Science Mission Directorate -- Heliophysics Division) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) (Directorate for Geosciences -- Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences) for action, the report also recommends actions by other federal agencies, especially the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) those parts of NOAA charged with the day-to-day (operational) forecast of space weather. In addition to the recommendations included in this summary, related recommendations are presented in the main text of the report.

  14. A long-term strategic plan for development of solar thermal electric technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, T.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Burch, G. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Chavez, J.M.; Mancini, T.R.; Tyner, C.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-06-01

    Solar thermal electric (STE) technologies--parabolic troughs, power towers, and dish/engine systems--can convert sunlight into electricity efficiently and with minimum effect on the environment. These technologies currently range from developmental to early commercial stages of maturity. This paper summarizes the results of a recent strategic planning effort conducted by the US department of Energy (DOE) to develop a long-term strategy for the development of STE technologies. The planning team led by DOE included representatives from the solar thermal industry, domestic utilities, state energy offices, and Sun{center_dot}Lab (the cooperative Sandia National laboratories/National Renewable Energy Laboratory partnership that supports the STE Program) as well as project developers. The plan was aimed at identifying specific activities necessary to achieve the DOE vision of 20 gigawatts of installed STE capability by the year 2020. The planning team developed five strategies that both build on the strengths of, and opportunities for, STE technology and address weaknesses and threats. These strategies are to: support future commercial opportunities for STE technologies; demonstrate improved performance and reliability of STE components and systems; reduce STE energy costs; develop advanced STE systems and applications; and address nontechnical barriers and champion STE power. The details of each of these strategies are discussed.

  15. A long-term strategic plan for development of solar thermal electric technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, T.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Burch, G.D. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Chavez, J.M.; Mancini, T.R.; Tyner, C.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-06-01

    Solar thermal electric (STE) technologies--parabolic troughs, power towers, and dish/engine systems--can convert sunlight into electricity efficiently and with minimum effect on the environment. These technologies currently range from developmental to early commercial stages of maturity. This paper summarizes the results of a recent strategic planning effort conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a long-term strategy for the development of STE technologies (DOE, 1996). The planning team led by DOE included representatives from the solar thermal industry, domestic utilities, state energy offices, and Sun-Lab (the cooperative Sandia National Laboratories/National Renewable Energy Laboratory partnership that supports the STE Program) as well as project developers. The plan was aimed at identifying specific activities necessary to achieve the DOE vision of 20 gigawatts of installed STE capacity by the year 2020. The planning team developed five strategies that both build on the strengths of, and opportunities for, STE technology and address weaknesses and threats. These strategies are to support future commercial opportunities for STE technologies; demonstrate improved performance and reliability of STE components and systems; reduce STE energy costs; develop advanced STE systems and applications; and address nontechnical barriers and champion STE power. The details of each of these strategies are discussed.

  16. Simulate a ‘Sun’ for Solar Research : A Literature Review of Solar Simulator Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wujun; Laumert, Björn

    2014-01-01

    The solar simulator is the key facility for indoor research of solar PV cells, solar heat collectors, space craft and CSP systems. This paper classifies the four types of solar simulators based on their characteristics and their design objects: space solar simulator, standard PV cell testing solar simulator, collector testing solar simulator and high-flux solar simulator. The review of solar simulator developments is mainly based on the developments of light sources and optical concentrators....

  17. Solar detoxification technology to the treatment of non-biodegradable hazardous water contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, J.; Malato, S.; Fernadez, P. [Plataforma Solar de Almeira, (Spain)] (and others)

    2001-07-01

    Design, construction and installation of a turn-key solar light radiation-based system (SOLARDETOX) for the treatment of hazardous and non-biodegradable water contaminants, is described. The basic concept underlying the system is derived from the solar catalytic mineralization of organic compounds dissolved in water. The technology is based on the simple, inexpensive, yet efficient, compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) solar technology. This paper describes the scientific, engineering and strategic objectives of the project (as initially proposed to the European Union for funding), the basic chemistry involved in the process, the titanium oxide powders used as catalysts, the new mirror to increase the reflective surface UV reflectivity in the appropriate UV range ( 300-400 nm), the fully automatic controls built into the system, and the construction of a demonstration plant with a solar collector field of about 100 square meters for evaluating the technology. Results of the demonstration have been fully satisfactory showing the technical feasibility of the system for the treatment of wastewater containing low to medium pollutant concentrations of hazardous contaminants which cannot be satisfactorily treated in biological waste treatment plants. These substances include phenols, chlorinated hydrocarbons, pharmaceutical compounds, wood preservative wastes, maritime tank terminal wastewater and agrochemical wastes. SOLARDETOX is also considered to be a good solution for in-situ treatment and decontamination of groundwater containing substances that do not biodegrade. Economic analysis showed that the SOLARDETOX system could be fully competitive against conventional wastewater treatment processes. 25 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs.

  18. TRL Assessment of Solar Sail Technology Development Following the 20-Meter System Ground Demonstrator Hardware Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Roy M.; Adams, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Projects Office sponsored two separate, independent solar sail system design and development demonstration activities during 2002-2005. ATK Space Systems of Goleta, CA was the prime contractor for one development team and L' Garde, Inc. of Tustin, CA was the prime contractor for the other development team. The goal of these activities was to advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of solar sail propulsion from 3 towards 6 by the year 2006. Component and subsystem fabrication and testing were completed successfully, including the ground deployment of 10-meter and 20-meter demonstration hardware systems under vacuum conditions. The deployment and structural testing of the 20-meter solar sail systems was conducted in the 30 meter diameter Space Power Facility thermal-vacuum chamber at NASA Glenn Plum Brook in April though August, 2005. This paper will present the results of the TRL assessment following the solar sail technology development activities associated with the design, development, analysis and testing of the 20-meter system ground demonstrators.

  19. Promising Results from Three NASA SBIR Solar Array Technology Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskenazi, Mike; White, Steve; Spence, Brian; Douglas, Mark; Glick, Mike; Pavlick, Ariel; Murphy, David; O'Neill, Mark; McDanal, A. J.; Piszczor, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Results from three NASA SBIR solar array technology programs are presented. The programs discussed are: 1) Thin Film Photovoltaic UltraFlex Solar Array; 2) Low Cost/Mass Electrostatically Clean Solar Array (ESCA); and 3) Stretched Lens Array SquareRigger (SLASR). The purpose of the Thin Film UltraFlex (TFUF) Program is to mature and validate the use of advanced flexible thin film photovoltaics blankets as the electrical subsystem element within an UltraFlex solar array structural system. In this program operational prototype flexible array segments, using United Solar amorphous silicon cells, are being manufactured and tested for the flight qualified UltraFlex structure. In addition, large size (e.g. 10 kW GEO) TFUF wing systems are being designed and analyzed. Thermal cycle and electrical test and analysis results from the TFUF program are presented. The purpose of the second program entitled, Low Cost/Mass Electrostatically Clean Solar Array (ESCA) System, is to develop an Electrostatically Clean Solar Array meeting NASA s design requirements and ready this technology for commercialization and use on the NASA MMS and GED missions. The ESCA designs developed use flight proven materials and processes to create a ESCA system that yields low cost, low mass, high reliability, high power density, and is adaptable to any cell type and coverglass thickness. All program objectives, which included developing specifications, creating ESCA concepts, concept analysis and trade studies, producing detailed designs of the most promising ESCA treatments, manufacturing ESCA demonstration panels, and LEO (2,000 cycles) and GEO (1,350 cycles) thermal cycling testing of the down-selected designs were successfully achieved. The purpose of the third program entitled, "High Power Platform for the Stretched Lens Array," is to develop an extremely lightweight, high efficiency, high power, high voltage, and low stowed volume solar array suitable for very high power (multi-kW to MW

  20. Assessment of 25 kW free-piston Stirling technology alternatives for solar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbeznik, Raymond M.; White, Maurice A.; Penswick, L. B.; Neely, Ronald E.; Ritter, Darren C.; Wallace, David A.

    The final design, construction, and testing of a 25-kW free-piston advanced Stirling conversion system (ASCS) are examined. The final design of the free-piston hydraulic ASCS consists of five subsystems: heat transport subsystem (solar receiver and pool boiler), free-piston hydraulic Stirling engine, hydraulic subsystem, cooling subsystem, and electrical and control subsystem. Advantages and disadvantages are identified for each technology alternative. Technology alternatives considered are gas bearings vs flexure bearings, stationary magnet linear alternator vs moving magnetic linear alternator, and seven different control options. Component designs are generated using available in-house procedures to meet the requirements of the free-piston Stirling convertor configurations.

  1. Overview of thick-film technology as applied to solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firor, K.; Hogan, S.

    1980-01-01

    Thick-film technology was developed by the electronics industry as a means of fabricating components and miniature circuitry. Today, the solar cell industry is looking at screen printing as an alternate to more expensive, high-vacuum techniques in several of the production steps during the manufacture of silicon solar cells. Screen printing is already fairly well established as a means of providing electrical contact to a cell and for the formation of a back surface field. Now under investigation are the possibilities of non-noble metal contacts and protective and antireflective coatings applied to solar cells by the use of screen printing. Most exciting is the work being done in the non-silicon area on the fabrication of the active layers of a solar cell, using thick-film inks made up of II-VI semiconductors.

  2. Advanced Solar Cell and Array Technology for NASA Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczor, Michael; Benson, Scott; Scheiman, David; Finacannon, Homer; Oleson, Steve; Landis, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    A recent study by the NASA Glenn Research Center assessed the feasibility of using photovoltaics (PV) to power spacecraft for outer planetary, deep space missions. While the majority of spacecraft have relied on photovoltaics for primary power, the drastic reduction in solar intensity as the spacecraft moves farther from the sun has either limited the power available (severely curtailing scientific operations) or necessitated the use of nuclear systems. A desire by NASA and the scientific community to explore various bodies in the outer solar system and conduct "long-term" operations using using smaller, "lower-cost" spacecraft has renewed interest in exploring the feasibility of using photovoltaics for to Jupiter, Saturn and beyond. With recent advances in solar cell performance and continuing development in lightweight, high power solar array technology, the study determined that photovoltaics is indeed a viable option for many of these missions.

  3. Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells: Physics and technology by alternative tracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crovetto, Andrea

    In this thesis I shall present the most scientifically interesting and/or practically useful results achieved in my PhD project. Such results are related to fundamental properties and technological aspects of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) and related materials for solar cells. By "related materials" I mean two...... things: i) alternative solar absorbers (notably, Cu2SnS3) that are chemically related to CZTS and that have similar selling points; ii) other materials included in the device stack of CZTS solar cells. Here I list what I believe the main highlights of my work are. First, we achieve the highest reported...... power conversion eciency (5.2%) for a CZTS solar cell using pulsed laser deposition as a fabrication method for CZTS precursors. This is thanks to to joint work of PhD student Andrea Cazzaniga, PhD student Chang Yan (University of New South Wales, Australia) and myself. Perhaps more importantly, we...

  4. Preliminary Results From NASA's Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Joe T.; Mankins, John C.

    2000-01-01

    Large solar power satellite (SPS) systems that might provide base load power into terrestrial markets were examined extensively in the 1970s by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Following a hiatus of about 15 years, the subject of space solar power (SSP) was reexamined by NASA from 1995-1997 in the "fresh look" study, and during 1998 in an SSP "concept definition study". As a result of these efforts, during 1999-2000, NASA has been conducting the SSP Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) program. The goal of the SERT activity has been to conduct preliminary strategic technology research and development to enable large, multi-megawatt SSP systems and wireless power transmission (WPT) for government missions and commercial markets (in-space and terrestrial). In pursuing that goal, the SERT: (1) refined and modeled systems approaches for the utilization of SSP concepts and technologies, ranging from the near-term (e.g., for space science, exploration and commercial space applications) to the far-term (e.g., SSP for terrestrial markets), including systems concepts, architectures, technology, infrastructure (e.g. transportation), and economics; (2) conducted technology research, development and demonstration activities to produce "proof-of-concept" validation of critical SSP elements for both nearer and farther-term applications; and (3) engendered the beginnings of partnerships (nationally and internationally) that could be expanded, as appropriate, to pursue later SSP technology and applications. Through these efforts, the SERT should allow better informed future decisions regarding further SSP and related technology research and development investments by both NASA and prospective partners, and guide further definition of technology roadmaps - including performance objectives, resources and schedules, as well as "multi-purpose" applications (e.g., commerce, science, and government). This paper

  5. National implications of high solar and biomass energy growth. Final report of the TASE project. A technology assessment of solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, Y.M.; D' Alessio, G.

    1982-09-01

    The Technology Assessment of Solar Energy (TASE) Project is a comprehensive multi-year analysis of the environmental, resource and community impacts which could result in the year 2000 if major national incentives were adopted to accelerate solar and biomass energy use. The study uses a comparative approach to examine: (a) the potential impacts of large numbers of solar and biomass units, and (b) the potential reductions in the impacts of new conventional technologies which they would displace. In addition, TASE examines the indirect pollution impacts associated with the manufacturing of solar systems at greater and lesser rates. Overall, massive incentives for solar and biomass energy over the next 20 years can lead to major stress on national capital and finished materials resources as well as to significant air pollution and safety problems. Rapid growth rates for solar systems could markedly increase energy damand in the manufacturing sector. The capital resource and materials problems would derive from emphasis on high, near term growth of solar technologies. The potential environmental and safety problems would derive largely from emphasis on decentralized, uncontrolled biomass combustion. A range of less costly general approaches lies in greater near term emphasis on more mature, competitive technologies, and specifically on biomass rather than solar technologies.In particular this emphasis should be on larger scale biomass technologies with economical pollution controls rather than on small, uncontrolled units; on bio-harvesting safety measures; on larger scale solar technologies which are far less energy and materials intensive and hence less costly than smaller solar technologies per unit energy output; on more gradual growth rates for active solar energy systems, especially small systems.

  6. Polymer and organic solar cells viewed as thin film technologies: What it will take for them to become a success outside academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    The polymer and organic solar cell technology is critically presented in the context of other thin film technologies with a specific focus on what it will take to make them a commercial success. The academic success of polymer and organic solar cells far outweigh any other solar cell technology w...

  7. Solar energy photovoltaic technology: proficiency and performance; L'energie solaire maitrise et performance photovoltaiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Total is committed to making the best possible of the planet's fossil fuel reserves while fostering the emergence of other solutions, notably by developing effective alternatives. Total involves in photovoltaics when it founded in 1983 Total Energies, renamed Tenesol in 2005, a world leader in the design and installation of photovoltaic solar power systems. This document presents Total's activities in the domain: the global challenge of energy sources and the environment, the energy collecting by photovoltaic electricity, the silicon technology for cell production, solar panels and systems to distribute energy, research and development to secure the future. (A.L.B.)

  8. CHP Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about CHP technologies, including reciprocating engines, combustion turbines, steam turbines, microturbines, fuel cells, and waste heat to power. Access the Catalog of CHP Technologies and the Biomass CHP Catalog of Technologies.

  9. Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Assistive Technology Assistive technology (AT) is any service or tool that helps ... be difficult or impossible. For older adults, such technology may be a walker to improve mobility or ...

  10. Solar Hydrogen Energy Systems Science and Technology for the Hydrogen Economy

    CERN Document Server

    Zini, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    It is just a matter of time when fossil fuels will become unavailable or uneconomical to retrieve. On top of that, their environmental impact is already too severe. Renewable energy sources can be considered as the most important substitute to fossil energy, since they are inexhaustible and have a very low, if none, impact on the environment. Still, their unevenness and unpredictability are drawbacks that must be dealt with in order to guarantee a reliable and steady energy supply to the final user. Hydrogen can be the answer to these problems. This book presents the readers with the modeling, functioning and implementation of solar hydrogen energy systems, which efficiently combine different technologies to convert, store and use renewable energy. Sources like solar photovoltaic or wind, technologies like electrolysis, fuel cells, traditional and advanced hydrogen storage are discussed and evaluated together with system management and output performance. Examples are also given to show how these systems are ...

  11. On-Orbit Measurement of Next Generation Space Solar Cell Technology on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolford, David S.; Myers, Matthew G.; Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Parker, David S.; Cassidy, Justin C.; Davies, William E.; Vorreiter, Janelle O.; Piszczor, Michael F.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.

    2015-01-01

    Measurement is essential for the evaluation of new photovoltaic (PV) technology for space solar cells. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is in the process of measuring several solar cells in a supplemental experiment on NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Robotic Refueling Mission's (RRM) Task Board 4 (TB4). Four industry and government partners have provided advanced PV devices for measurement and orbital environment testing. The experiment will be on-orbit for approximately 18 months. It is completely self-contained and will provide its own power and internal data storage. Several new cell technologies including four- junction (4J) Inverted Metamorphic Multijunction (IMM) cells will be evaluated and the results compared to ground-based measurements.

  12. Monolithically interconnected GaAs solar cells: A new interconnection technology for high voltage solar cell output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinetta, L. C.; Hannon, M. H.

    1995-01-01

    Photovoltaic linear concentrator arrays can benefit from high performance solar cell technologies being developed at AstroPower. Specifically, these are the integration of thin GaAs solar cell and epitaxial lateral overgrowth technologies with the application of monolithically interconnected solar cell (MISC) techniques. This MISC array has several advantages which make it ideal for space concentrator systems. These are high system voltage, reliable low cost monolithically formed interconnections, design flexibility, costs that are independent of array voltage, and low power loss from shorts, opens, and impact damage. This concentrator solar cell will incorporate the benefits of light trapping by growing the device active layers over a low-cost, simple, PECVD deposited silicon/silicon dioxide Bragg reflector. The high voltage-low current output results in minimal 12R losses while properly designing the device allows for minimal shading and resistance losses. It is possible to obtain open circuit voltages as high as 67 volts/cm of solar cell length with existing technology. The projected power density for the high performance device is 5 kW/m for an AMO efficiency of 26% at 1 5X. Concentrator solar cell arrays are necessary to meet the power requirements of specific mission platforms and can supply high voltage power for electric propulsion systems. It is anticipated that the high efficiency, GaAs monolithically interconnected linear concentrator solar cell array will enjoy widespread application for space based solar power needs. Additional applications include remote man-portable or ultra-light unmanned air vehicle (UAV) power supplies where high power per area, high radiation hardness and a high bus voltage or low bus current are important. The monolithic approach has a number of inherent advantages, including reduced cost per interconnect and increased reliability of array connections. There is also a high potential for a large number of consumer products. Dual

  13. Solar Thermal Technologies Dynamics and Strategies for Market Creation in Sindh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Ali Shah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to sketch Sindh's RE (Renewable Energy based scenario, it is vital to trace the dynamics of simplest RETs (Renewable Energy Technologies such as STTs (Solar Thermal Technologies. STTs are simple to operate, easy to maintain and requires low cost of fabrication. Due to these advantages, STTs possess scope for mass market creation in Sindh as can provide alternate energy solutions to meet daily fuel requirements of heating and cooking etc. The paper identifies that the low awareness creates a negative perception about the price and efficiency of these technologies in masses, which can be removed once the awareness increases. This paper consists of survey findings, which traces the trends for STTs utilization in Sindh by testing various hypotheses to identify the suitable tactics required for their market creation. Finally the key policy recommendations are provided at the end.

  14. Sliver Solar Cells: High-Efficiency, Low-Cost PV Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Franklin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sliver cells are thin, single-crystal silicon solar cells fabricated using standard fabrication technology. Sliver modules, composed of several thousand individual Sliver cells, can be efficient, low-cost, bifacial, transparent, flexible, shadow tolerant, and lightweight. Compared with current PV technology, mature Sliver technology will need 10% of the pure silicon and fewer than 5% of the wafer starts per MW of factory output. This paper deals with two distinct challenges related to Sliver cell and Sliver module production: providing a mature and robust Sliver cell fabrication method which produces a high yield of highly efficient Sliver cells, and which is suitable for transfer to industry; and, handling, electrically interconnecting, and encapsulating billions of sliver cells at low cost. Sliver cells with efficiencies of 20% have been fabricated at ANU using a reliable, optimised processing sequence, while low-cost encapsulation methods have been demonstrated using a submodule technique.

  15. Evaluating the effectiveness of wildlife detection and observation technologies at a solar power tower facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Robert H.; Valdez, Ernest W.; Preston, Todd M.; Wellik, Mike J.; Cryan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Solar power towers produce electrical energy from sunlight at an industrial scale. Little is known about the effects of this technology on flying animals and few methods exist for automatically detecting or observing wildlife at solar towers and other tall anthropogenic structures. Smoking objects are sometimes observed co-occurring with reflected, concentrated light (“solar flux”) in the airspace around solar towers, but the identity and origins of such objects can be difficult to determine. In this observational pilot study at the world’s largest solar tower facility, we assessed the efficacy of using radar, surveillance video, and insect trapping to detect and observe animals flying near the towers. During site visits in May and September 2014, we monitored the airspace surrounding towers and observed insects, birds, and bats under a variety of environmental and operational conditions. We detected and broadly differentiated animals or objects moving through the airspace generally using radar and near solar towers using several video imaging methods. Video revealed what appeared to be mostly small insects burning in the solar flux. Also, we occasionally detected birds flying in the solar flux but could not accurately identify birds to species or the types of insects and small objects composing the vast majority of smoking targets. Insect trapping on the ground was somewhat effective at sampling smaller insects around the tower, and presence and abundance of insects in the traps generally trended with radar and video observations. Traps did not tend to sample the larger insects we sometimes observed flying in the solar flux or found dead on the ground beneath the towers. Some of the methods we tested (e.g., video surveillance) could be further assessed and potentially used to automatically detect and observe flying animals in the vicinity of solar towers to advance understanding about their effects on wildlife.

  16. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Wildlife Detection and Observation Technologies at a Solar Power Tower Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Robert H; Valdez, Ernest W; Preston, Todd M; Wellik, Michael J; Cryan, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    Solar power towers produce electrical energy from sunlight at an industrial scale. Little is known about the effects of this technology on flying animals and few methods exist for automatically detecting or observing wildlife at solar towers and other tall anthropogenic structures. Smoking objects are sometimes observed co-occurring with reflected, concentrated light ("solar flux") in the airspace around solar towers, but the identity and origins of such objects can be difficult to determine. In this observational pilot study at the world's largest solar tower facility, we assessed the efficacy of using radar, surveillance video, and insect trapping to detect and observe animals flying near the towers. During site visits in May and September 2014, we monitored the airspace surrounding towers and observed insects, birds, and bats under a variety of environmental and operational conditions. We detected and broadly differentiated animals or objects moving through the airspace generally using radar and near solar towers using several video imaging methods. Video revealed what appeared to be mostly small insects burning in the solar flux. Also, we occasionally detected birds flying in the solar flux but could not accurately identify birds to species or the types of insects and small objects composing the vast majority of smoking targets. Insect trapping on the ground was somewhat effective at sampling smaller insects around the tower, and presence and abundance of insects in the traps generally trended with radar and video observations. Traps did not tend to sample the larger insects we sometimes observed flying in the solar flux or found dead on the ground beneath the towers. Some of the methods we tested (e.g., video surveillance) could be further assessed and potentially used to automatically detect and observe flying animals in the vicinity of solar towers to advance understanding about their effects on wildlife.

  17. Mars Array Technology Experiment Developed to Test Solar Arrays on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2001-01-01

    Solar arrays will be the power supply for future missions to the planet Mars, including landers, rovers, and eventually human missions to explore the Martian surface. Until Mars Pathfinder landed in July 1997, no solar array had been used on the surface. The MATE package is intended to measure the solar energy reaching the surface, characterize the Martian environment to gather the baseline information required for designing power systems for long-duration missions, and to quantify the performance and degradation of advanced solar cells on the Martian surface. To measure the properties of sunlight reaching the Martian surface, MATE incorporates two radiometers and a visible/NIR spectrometer. The radiometers consist of multiple thermocouple junctions using thin-film technology. These devices generate a voltage proportional to the solar intensity. One radiometer measures the global broadband solar intensity, including both the direct and scattered sunlight, with a field of view of approximately 130. The second radiometer incorporates a slit to measure the direct (unscattered) intensity radiation. The direct radiometer can only be read once per day, with the Sun passing over the slit. The spectrometer measures the global solar spectrum with two 256-element photodiode arrays, one Si sensitive in the visible range (300 to 1100 nm), and a second InGaAs sensitive to the near infrared (900 to 1700 nm). This range covers 86 percent of the total energy from the Sun, with approximately 5-nm resolution. Each photodiode array has its own fiber-optic feed and grating. Although the purpose of the MATE is to gather data useful in designing solar arrays for Mars surface power systems, the radiometer and spectrometer measurements are expected to also provide important scientific data for characterizing the properties of suspended atmospheric dust. In addition to measuring the solar environment of Mars, MATE will measure the performance of five different individual solar cell types

  18. Estimating the economic and demographic impacts of solar technology commercialization on US regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kort, J.R.

    1980-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a framework through which these regional economic and demographic impacts of solar technology commercialization can be analyzed. Two models comprise the basis of this framework - a national input/output model and an interregional econometric model, the National-Regional Impact Evaluation System (NRIES). These models are used to convert projected sales of solar energy systems to gross output concepts, and to evaluate the impacts associated with these sales. Analysis is provided for the nine census regions and 50 states and the District of Columbia for the years 1980 through 1990. Impacts on major economic aggregates such as output, employment, income, and population are described. The methodology used in this study is described. The economic and demographic impacts of solar technology commercialization on US regions and states are presented. The major conclusions of the study are summarized, and direction is provided for further research. Detailed tables of regional and state solar energy expenditures and their impacts appear in the Appendix.

  19. GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL CORPORATION; CURE ELECTROCOAGULATION TECHNOLOGY: INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CURE electrocoagulation technology was demonstrated under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), where water from the solar evaporation ponds (SEPs) was contaminat...

  20. Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 6: High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Steward, Heidi E.; Love, Pat M.

    2007-06-04

    This guide is was written by PNNL for the US Department of Energy's Building America program to provide information for residential production builders interested in building near zero energy homes. The guide provides indepth descriptions of various roof-top photovoltaic power generating systems for homes. The guide also provides extensive information on various designs of solar thermal water heating systems for homes. The guide also provides construction company owners and managers with an understanding of how solar technologies can be added to their homes in a way that is cost effective, practical, and marketable. Twelve case studies provide examples of production builders across the United States who are building energy-efficient homes with photovoltaic or solar water heating systems.

  1. Preliminary design of the Visible Spectro-Polarimeter for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    de Wijn, Alfred G; Nelson, Peter G; Huang, Pei

    2012-01-01

    The Visible Spectro-Polarimeter (ViSP) is one of the first light instruments for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST). It is an echelle spectrograph designed to measure three different regions of the solar spectrum in three separate focal planes simultaneously between 380 and 900 nm. It will use the polarimetric capabilities of the ATST to measure the full Stokes parameters across the line profiles. By measuring the polarization in magnetically sensitive spectral lines the magnetic field vector as a function of height in the solar atmosphere can be obtained, along with the associated variation of the thermodynamic properties. The ViSP will have a spatial resolution of 0.04 arcsec over a 2 arcmin field of view (at 600 nm). The minimum spectral resolving power for all the focal planes is 180,000. The spectrograph supports up to 4 diffraction gratings and is fully automated to allow for rapid reconfiguration.

  2. Status of Solar Generator Related Technology Development Activities Supporting the Juice Mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baur Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an overview of the current status of several technical development activities initiated by the European Space Agency (ESA to support the JUICE mission to the Jovian system. First of all, the qualification status of the solar cells to be used in the JUICE mission will be reported. Then, the conclusions from a dedicated activity aiming at assessing the potential degradation of triple-junction solar cells upon primary discharges will be discussed. Finally, the results on the coupon tests currently running at ESA will be presented. The coupons consist of representative solar cell assemblies including coverglasses with a conductive Indium Tin Oxide (ITO layer. Dedicated coverglass grounding technologies are tested on the coupons which connect the conductive coverglass surfaces to the panel ground. It will be shown how the resistivity of the materials used in the coupons evolves upon submission to extreme thermal cycles.

  3. Science and Technology of BOREXINO A Real Time Detector for Low Energy Solar Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Alimonti, G; Back, H O; Balata, M; Beau, T; Bellini, G; Benziger, J B; Bonetti, S; Brigatti, A; Caccianiga, B; Cadonati, L; Calaprice, F P; Cecchet, G; Chen, M; De Bari, A; De Haas, E; De Kerret, H; Donghi, O; Deutsch, M; Elisei, F; Etenko, A; Von Feilitzsch, F; Fernholz, R C; Ford, R; Freudiger, B; Garagiola, A; Galbiati, C; Gatti, F; Gazzana, S; Giammarchi, M G; Giugni, D; Golubchikov, A; Goretti, A; Grieb, C; Hagner, C; Hagner, T; Hampel, W; Harding, E; Hartmann, F; Von Hentig, R; Hess, H; Heusser, G; Ianni, A; Inzani, P; Kidner, S H; Kiko, J; Kirsten, T; Korga, G; Korschinek, G; Kryn, Didier; Lagomarsino, V; La Marche, P; Laubenstein, M; Löser, F; Lombardi, P; Magni, S; Malvezzi, S; Maneira, J; Manno, I; Manuzio, G; Masetti, F; Mazzucato, U; Meroni, E; Musico, P; Neder, H; Neff, M; Nisi, S; Oberauer, L; Obolensky, M; Pallavicini, M; Papp, L; Perasso, L; Pocar, A; Raghavan, R; Ranucci, G; Rau, W; Razeto, A; Resconi, E; Riedel, T; Sabelnikov, A A; Saggese, P; Salvo, C; Scardaoni, R; Schönert, S; Schuhbeck, K; Seidel, H; Shutt, T A; Simgen, H; Sonnenschein, A H; Smirnov, O Yu; Sotnikov, A; Skorokhvatov, M; Sukhotin, S V; Tartaglia, R; Testera, G; Vitale, S; Vogelaar, R; Wójcik, M; Zaimidoroga, O A; Zakharov, Yu I

    2002-01-01

    BOREXINO, a real-time device for low energy neutrino spectroscopy is nearing completion of construction in the underground laboratories at Gran Sasso, Italy (LNGS). The experiment's goal is the direct measurement of the flux of 7Be solar neutrinos of all flavors via neutrino-electron scattering in an ultra-pure scintillation liquid. Seeded by a series of innovations which were brought to fruition by large scale operation of a 4-ton test detector at LNGS, a new technology has been developed for BOREXINO. It enables sub-MeV solar neutrino spectroscopy for the first time. This paper describes the design of BOREXINO, the various facilities essential to its operation, its spectroscopic and background suppression capabilities and a prognosis of the impact of its results towards resolving the solar neutrino problem. BOREXINO will also address several other frontier questions in particle physics astrophysics and geophysics.

  4. Danish SDHW Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon

    1996-01-01

    The status of Danish technology for solar heating systems for hot water supply as well as R&D work in the field is presented.......The status of Danish technology for solar heating systems for hot water supply as well as R&D work in the field is presented....

  5. Solar technology. The energy of the future: Bases, applications, perspectives. Solartechnik. Die Energie der Zukunft: Grundlagen, Anwendungen, Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tintrup, E.

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, the extensive use of fossil fuels has seriously aggravated environmental problems. They may be partially countered with the aid of renewable energy sources. This non-fiction book deals with the bases of solar technology in popular language. It also discusses in detail economic and political aspects associated with the launching of this technology. Finally, it provides hints for the self-construction of solar collectors and photovoltaic systems. (BWI).

  6. Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) Technical Interchange Meeting 2 (SERT TIM 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Joe; Sanders, Clark W.

    2000-01-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville's (UAH) Propulsion Research Center hosted the Space Solar Power Exploratory Research & Technology (SERT) Technical Interchange Meeting TIM) 2 in Huntsville, Alabama December 7-10. 1999 with 126 people in attendance. The SERT program includes both competitively procured activities. which are being implemented through a portfolio of focused R&D investments--with the maximum leveraging of existing resources inside and outside NASA. and guided by these system studies. Axel Roth. Director of the Flight Projects Directorate NASA MSFC, welcomed the SERT TIM 2 participants and challenged them to develop the necessary technologies and demonstrations that will lead to Space Solar Power (SSP) International implementation. Joe Howell, NASA MSFC, reiterated the SERT TIM 2 objectives: 1) Refining and modeling systems approaches for the utilization of SSP concepts and technologies, ranging, from the near-term e.g. for space science, exploration and commercial space applications to the far-term (e. g. SSP for terrestrial markets), including systems concepts, technology, infrastructure (i.g., transportation), and economics. 2) Conducting technology research, development and demonstration activities to produce "proof- of-concept" validation of critical SSP elements for both the nearer and farther-term applications. 3) Initiating partnerships Nationality and Internationally that could be expanded, as appropriate, to pursue later SSP technology and applications (e.g., space science. colonization, etc.). Day one began with the NASA Centers presenting their SERT activities summary since SERT TIM 1 and wound up with a presentation by Masahiro Mori, NASDA titled "NASDA In-house Study for SSP". Demonstration for the Near-Term. Day two began with the SERT Systems Studies and Analysis reports resulting from NRA 8-23 followed by presentations of SERT Technology Demonstrations reports resulting from NRA 8-23. Day two closed with John Mankins presentation

  7. Heating Unsaturated Sediments Using Solar Energy to Enhance Passive Sediment Remediation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, A.

    2002-12-01

    Sediment heating has been shown to enhance passive sediment remediation technologies such as bioremediation and barometric pumping (passive soil venting). Sediment heating raises the slow remediation rates that often limit the widespread use of these technologies. In bioremediation applications, a 10 degree C increase in subsurface temperature is expected to double the microbial activity, and thus the remediation rate. The removal rate of tetracholorethylene (PCE - a common subsurface contaminant) by passive soil vapor extraction is expected to nearly double in low-permeable sediments when the subsurface is heated 10 degree C from ambient temperatures due to an increased vapor pressure in the PCE. When the sediment is heated using renewable energy sources, these thermally enhanced remediation technologies can be environmentally benign alternatives to conventional remediation techniques that rely on large external energy inputs. The thermally enhanced passive technologies may be particularly useful for remediating unsaturated, low-permeable lenses that are troublesome to most conventional remediation technologies such as conventional soil vapor extraction and co-solvent flushes. The main objective of this work was to quantify subsurface sediment heating using a solar powered heat injection well. To do this, a pilot sediment heating system was installed in Vermont and high resolution meteorological and sediment temperature data were collected using a stand-alone data acquisition system. Unsaturated, silty sediments were heated in-situ by converting the direct and indirect solar energy available at the surface to heat energy in the subsurface using stand-alone renewable energy sources and a resistive element heat injection well. The heat injection well was powered by a 600-W passively tracking photovoltaic (PV) array and a small 1.2-m swept area wind turbine. It is envisioned that the heat injection well would be placed directly into an area of high subsurface

  8. Dry technologies for the production of crystalline silicon solar cells; Trockentechnologien zur Herstellung von kristallinen Siliziumsolarzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rentsch, J.

    2005-04-15

    Within this work, dynamic plasma etching technologies for the industrial production of crystalline silicon solar cells has been investigated. The research activity can be separated into three major steps: the characterisation of the etching behaviour of a newly developed dynamic plasma etching system, the development and analysis of dry etching processes for solar cell production and the determination of the ecological and economical impacts of such a new technology compared to standard up to date technologies. The characterisation of the etching behaviour has been carried out for two different etching sources, a low frequency (110 kHz) and a microwave (2.45 GHz) plasma source. The parameter of interest was the delivered ion energy of each source mainly determining the reachable etch rate. The etch rate turned out to be the main most critical parameter concerning the reachable wafer throughput per hour. Other points of interest in characterisation of the etching system were the material of the transport carriers, the silicon load as well as the process temperatures. The development of different dry etching processes targets the design of a complete dry production process for crystalline silicon solar cells. Therefore etching processes for saw damage removal, texturing, edge isolation as well as etching of dielectric layers have been developed and optimised. The major benefits of a complete dry production process would be the reduction of handling steps in between process steps and therefore offers a large cost reduction potential. For multicrystalline silicon solar cells a cost reduction potential of 5 % compared to a standard wet chemical based reference process could be realized only including the dry etching of a phosphorus silicate glass layer after diffusion. Further reduction potential offers the implementation of a dry texturing process due to a significant efficiency increase. (orig.)

  9. Adhesive market develops new technologies. The thin-film solar cells gain ground; El mercado de adhesivos desarrolla nuevas tecnologias. Las celulas solares de capa fina ganan terreno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluke, M.

    2010-07-01

    The solar industry is booming. thin-film technology is experiencing a high demand as promised cost advantages and currently is providing excellent results, while a range of efficiency reaches acceptable. (Author)

  10. Liquid metal technology for concentrated solar power systems: Contributions by the German research program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wetzel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated solar power (CSP systems can play a major role as a renewable energy source with the inherent possibility of including a thermal energy storage subsystem for improving the plant dispatchability. Next-generation CSP systems have to provide an increased overall efficiency at reduced specific costs and they will require higher operating temperatures and larger heat flux densities. In that context, liquid metals are proposed as advanced high temperature heat transfer fluids, particularly for central receiver systems. Their main advantages are chemical stability at temperatures up to 900 ℃ and even beyond, as well as largely improved heat transfer when compared to conventional fluids like oil or salt mixtures, primarily due to their superior thermal conductivity. However, major issues here are the corrosion protection of structural materials and the development of technology components and control systems, as well as the development of indirect storage solutions, to circumvent the relatively small heat capacity of liquid metals. On the other hand, using liquid metals might enable alternative technologies like direct thermal-electric conversion or use of solar high-tem­perature heat in chemical processes. This article aims at describing research areas and research needs to be addressed for fully evaluating and subsequently utilizing the potential of liquid metals in CSP systems. A second aim of the article is a brief overview of the liquid metal research capabilities of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT, their background and their relation to CSP and the aforementioned research pathways.

  11. Laser microprocessing technologies for automotive, flexible electronics, and solar energy sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikumb, Suwas; Bathe, Ravi; Knopf, George K.

    2014-10-01

    Laser microprocessing technologies offer an important tool to fulfill the needs of many industrial sectors. In particular, there is growing interest in applications of these processes in the manufacturing areas such as automotive parts fabrication, printable electronics and solar energy panels. The technology is primarily driven by our understanding of the fundamental laser-material interaction, process control strategies and the advancement of significant fabrication experience over the past few years. The wide-ranging operating parameters available with respect to power, pulse width variation, beam quality, higher repetition rates as well as precise control of the energy deposition through programmable pulse shaping technologies, enables pre-defined material removal, selective scribing of individual layer within a stacked multi-layer thin film structure, texturing of material surfaces as well as precise introduction of heat into the material to monitor its characteristic properties are a few examples. In this research, results in the area of laser surface texturing of metals for added hydrodynamic lubricity to reduce friction, processing of ink-jet printed graphene oxide for flexible printed electronic circuit fabrication and scribing of multi-layer thin films for the development of photovoltaic CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) interconnects for solar panel devices will be discussed.

  12. Polymer and organic solar cells viewed as thin film technologies: What it will take for them to become a success outside academia

    OpenAIRE

    Krebs, Frederik C.; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    The polymer and organic solar cell technology is critically presented in the context of other thin film technologies with a specific focus on what it will take to make them a commercial success. The academic success of polymer and organic solar cells far outweigh any other solar cell technology when judging by the number of scientific publications whereas the application of polymer and organic solar cells in real products is completely lacking. This aspect is viewed as a sign of the polymer a...

  13. Technology Maturity is Technology Superiority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-09

    Dominant Air Power: Design For Tomorrow…Deliver Today 2 TECHNOLOGY MATURITY CONFERENCE • ONE DEFINITION OF MATURITY – GOOD JUDGEMENT COMES FROM...EXPERIENCE—EXPERIENCE COMES FROM BAD JUDGEMENT Dominant Air Power: Design For Tomorrow…Deliver Today 3 TECHNOLOGY MATURITY CONFERENCE • THIS WILL BE A...2008 TECHNOLOGY MATURITY CONFERENCE “ TECHNOLOGY MATURITY IS TECHNOLOGY SUPERIORITY” Aeronautical Systems Center Dr. Tom Christian ASC/EN, WPAFB OH

  14. Measures for the Diffusion of Solar PV are Aligned in Technology Action Plans for Six Countries in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Pedersen, Mathilde Brix

    2014-01-01

    in the region prioritized solar PV, and action plans for the diffusion of solar home systems were put forward in Cote d’Ivoire, Kenya, Mali and Senegal, while the implementation of grid-connected systems was proposed in Rwanda, Mali and Senegal. The project reports and technology action plans prepared...

  15. The next generation CdTe technology- Substrate foil based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferekides, Chris [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2017-03-22

    The main objective of this project was the development of one of the most promising Photovoltaic (PV) materials CdTe into a versatile, cost effective, and high throughput technology, by demonstrating substrate devices on foil substrates using high throughput fabrication conditions. The typical CdTe cell is of the superstrate configuration where the solar cell is fabricated on a glass superstrate by the sequential deposition of a TCO, n-type heterojunction partner, p-CdTe absorber, and back contact. Large glass modules are heavy and present significant challenges during manufacturing (uniform heating, etc.). If a substrate CdTe cell could be developed (the main goal of this project) a roll-to-toll high throughput technology could be developed.

  16. Solar technology assessment project. Volume 3: Active space heating and hot water supply with solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaki, S.; Loef, G. O. G.

    1981-04-01

    Several types of solar water heaters are described and assessed. These include thermosiphon water heaters and pump circulation water heaters. Auxiliary water heating is briefly discussed, and new and retrofit systems are compared. Liquid-based space heating systems and solar air heaters are described and assessed, auxiliary space heating are discussed, and new and retrofit solar space heating systems are compared. The status of flat plate collectors, evacuated tube collectors, and thermal storage systems is examined. Systems improvements, reliability, durability and maintenance are discussed. The economic assessment of space and water heating systems includes a comparison of new systems costs with conventional fuels, and sales history and projections. The variety of participants in the solar industry and users of solar heat is discussed, and various incentives and barriers to solar heating are examined. Several policy implications are discussed, and specific government actions are recommended.

  17. Historic Developments, Current Technologies and Potential of Nanotechnology to Develop Next Generation Solar Cells with Improved Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisith Raval

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sun is the continuous source of renewable energy, from where we can get abundant of solar energy. Concept of conversionof solar energy into heat was used back in 200 B.C. since then, the solar cells have been developed which can convert solar energy into theelectrical energy and these systems have been produced commercially. The technologies to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCEhave been continuously improved. Different technologies used for developing solar cells can be categorized either on the basis of materialused or techniques of technology development which is further termed as ‘first generation’ (e.g. crystalline silicon, ‘second generation’(thin films of Amorphous silicon, Copper indium gallium selenide, Cadmium telluride, ‘Third generation’ (Concentrated, Organic and Dyesensitize solar cell. These technologies give PCE up to 25% depending on the technology and the materials used. Nanotechnology enablesthe use of nanomaterial whose size is below 100 nm with extraordinary properties which has the capability to enhance the PCE to greaterextent. Various nanomaterials like Quantum Dots, Quantum well, carbon nanotubes, Nanowire and graphene have been used to makeefficient and economical solar cells, which not only provide high conversion efficiency economically but also are easy to produce. Today,by using nanotechnology, conversion efficiency up to 44.7 % has been achieved by Fraunhofer Institute at Germany. In this review article,we have reviewed the literature including various patents and publications, summarized the history of solar cell development, developmentof different technologies and rationale of their development highlighting the advantages and challenges involved in their development forcommercial purpose. We have also included the recent developments in solar cell research where different nanomaterials have beendesigned and used successfully to prove their superiority over conventional systems.

  18. Solar Power and Solar Fuels Synthesis Report. Technology, market and research activities 2006-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridell, Bengt; Nilsson, Ronny; Rehnlund, Bjoern [Grontmij, Stockholm (Sweden); Kasemo, Bengt [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-11-01

    The objectives of the synthesis is to survey the situation and give an accumulated and concentrated knowledge about status, needs and opportunities for Swedish research and Swedish industry within the area of solar power and solar fuels, to be used for prioritisation of further efforts. The synthesis shall identify strengths and weaknesses in areas fundamental for development of solar power and solar fuels, focused on the development in Sweden, but in an international context. The synthesis shall also cover proposals for future Swedish research efforts and organisation of future Swedish research programs.

  19. LCOE reduction potential of parabolic trough and solar tower CSP technology until 2025

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, Simon; Dersch, Jürgen; Giuliano, Stefano; Puppe, Michael; Lüpfert, Eckhard; Hennecke, Klaus; Pitz-Paal, Robert; Taylor, Michael; Ralon, Pablo

    2017-06-01

    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP), with an installed capacity of 4.9 GW by 2015, is a young technology compared to other renewable power generation technologies. A limited number of plants and installed capacity in a small challenging market environment make reliable and transparent cost data for CSP difficult to obtain. The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) and the DLR German Aerospace Center gathered and evaluated available cost data from various sources for this publication in order to yield transparent, reliable and up-to-date cost data for a set of reference parabolic trough and solar tower plants in the year 2015 [1]. Each component of the power plant is analyzed for future technical innovations and cost reduction potential based on current R&D activities, ongoing commercial developments and growth in market scale. The derived levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for 2015 and 2025 are finally contrasted with published power purchase agreements (PPA) of the NOOR II+III power plants in Morocco. At 7.5% weighted average cost of capital (WACC) and 25 years economic life time, the levelized costs of electricity for plants with 7.5 (trough) respectively 9 (tower) full-load hours thermal storage capacity decrease from 14-15 -ct/kWh today to 9-10 -ct/kWh by 2025 for both technologies at direct normal irradiation of 2500 kWh/(m².a). The capacity factor increases from 41.1% to 44.6% for troughs and from 45.5% to 49.0% for towers. Financing conditions are a major cost driver and offer potential for further cost reduction with the maturity of the technology and low interest rates (6-7 - ct/kWh for 2% WACC at 2500 kWh/(m2.a) in 2025).

  20. A highly efficient photosynthesis system using LCD technology for solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanai, Kenji [Research Inst. for Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE), Kyoto (Japan); Nakano, Yoshihisa [Osaka Prefecture Univ., Coll. of Agriculture, Osaka (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    For CO{sub 2} fixation and utilisation, a newly developed culture combining a light conduction plate of Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) technology worked well. The injected light energy was effectively served to the whole area into the culture without mechanical energy such as stirring the fluid and the light energy efficiency of this system was obtained up to 60% of the theoretical value of 8 mol photons / 1 mol CO{sub 2}. The photosynthesis of the plant-like micro-organism, euglena glacilis, was used with solar energy. The product was useful for feed and will be for foods and fuels. (Author)

  1. Ultrafast Fabrication of Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by Ultrasonic Spray-Coating Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyun-Gyu; Weerasinghe, Hashitha C; Min Kim, Kwang; Soo Kim, Jeong; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Jones, David J; Holmes, Andrew B; Kwon, Tae-Hyuk

    2015-09-30

    This study investigates novel deposition techniques for the preparation of TiO2 electrodes for use in flexible dye-sensitized solar cells. These proposed new methods, namely pre-dye-coating and codeposition ultrasonic spraying, eliminate the conventional need for time-consuming processes such as dye soaking and high-temperature sintering. Power conversion efficiencies of over 4.0% were achieved with electrodes prepared on flexible polymer substrates using this new deposition technology and N719 dye as a sensitizer.

  2. Appropriate battery technology for a new, rechargeable, micro-solar lantern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, D. W. H.; Holland, R.; Crawley, K.

    A detailed market survey in Kenya has assessed the performance of currently available domestic lighting systems, for example, kerosene 'hurricane` lamps and (generally poorly constructed) solar lanterns, against end-user expectations. Following this survey, the UK Government's Department for International Development approved a project to design and develop an affordable, reliable and efficient solar lantern, which would provide improved lighting to rural households. This paper provides an overview of the end-user requirements, and corresponding lantern design features. The suitability of three commercially available alternative battery technologies, viz., nickel-metal-hydride, nickel-cadmium, and valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA), for use in this PV application are discussed. Finally, improvements to the VRLA batteries are proposed, which would further enhance their cycle-life and reduce the energy cost per cycle.

  3. A large-scale view of Space Technology 5 magnetometer response to solar wind drivers

    CERN Document Server

    Knipp, D J; Gjerloev, J; Redmon, R J; Slavin, J; Le, G

    2016-01-01

    In this data report we discuss reprocessing of the Space Technology 5 (ST5) magnetometer database for inclusion in NASA's Coordinated Data Analysis Web (CDAWeb) virtual observatory. The mission consisted of three spacecraft flying in elliptical orbits, from 27 March to 27 June 2006. Reprocessing includes (1) transforming the data into the Modified Apex Coordinate System for projection to a common reference altitude of 110km, (2) correcting gain jumps, and (3) validating the results. We display the averaged magnetic perturbations as a keogram, which allows direct comparison of the full-mission data with the solar wind values and geomagnetic indices.With the data referenced to a common altitude, we find the following: (1) Magnetic perturbations that track the passage of corotating interaction regions and high-speed solar wind; (2) unexpectedly strong dayside perturbations during a solstice magnetospheric sawtooth oscillation interval characterized by a radial interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) component that m...

  4. Globalization & technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narula, Rajneesh

    Technology and globalization are interdependent processes. Globalization has a fundamental influence on the creation and diffusion of technology, which, in turn, affects the interdependence of firms and locations. This volume examines the international aspect of this interdependence at two levels...

  5. Living Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    This book is aimed at anyone who is interested in learning more about living technology, whether coming from business, the government, policy centers, academia, or anywhere else. Its purpose is to help people to learn what living technology is, what it might develop into, and how it might impact...... our lives. The phrase 'living technology' was coined to refer to technology that is alive as well as technology that is useful because it shares the fundamental properties of living systems. In particular, the invention of this phrase was called for to describe the trend of our technology becoming...... increasingly life-like or literally alive. Still, the phrase has different interpretations depending on how one views what life is. This book presents nineteen perspectives on living technology. Taken together, the interviews convey the collective wisdom on living technology's power and promise, as well as its...

  6. Living Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    This book is aimed at anyone who is interested in learning more about living technology, whether coming from business, the government, policy centers, academia, or anywhere else. Its purpose is to help people to learn what living technology is, what it might develop into, and how it might impact...... our lives. The phrase 'living technology' was coined to refer to technology that is alive as well as technology that is useful because it shares the fundamental properties of living systems. In particular, the invention of this phrase was called for to describe the trend of our technology becoming...... increasingly life-like or literally alive. Still, the phrase has different interpretations depending on how one views what life is. This book presents nineteen perspectives on living technology. Taken together, the interviews convey the collective wisdom on living technology's power and promise, as well as its...

  7. Emerging Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Salgar, S. M.

    2004-01-01

    Phenomenal advancements have taken place in the field of Information and communication technologies in the last decade. Spectacular and innovative changes are expected to take place in these fields in coming decade. Networking technologies are going through a sea change. This paper enumerates the likely networking technologies which are emerging, particularly WLANs. Most of the personal communication in the country will be through cellular/ mobile technologies, which are also covered in the p...

  8. CRADA with United Solar Technologies and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL-021): Thin film materialsfor low-cost high performance solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P. M.; Affinito, J. D.; Gross, M. E.; Bennett, W. D.

    1995-03-01

    The objectives of this project were to develop and evaluate promising low-cost dielectric and polymer-protected thin-film reflective metal coatings to be applied to preformed continuously-curved solar reflector panels to enhance their solar reflectance, and to demonstrate protected solar reflective coatings on preformed solar concentrator panels. The opportunity for this project arose from a search by United Solar Technologies (UST) for organizations and facilities capable of applying reflective coatings to large preformed panels. PNL was identified as being uniquely qualified to participate in this collaborative project.

  9. Sustainable Solution for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Separation using Concentrated Solar Power Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Piyush; Srivastava, Rakesh K.; Nath Mahendra, Som; Motahhir, Saad

    2017-08-01

    In today’s scenario to combat with climate change effects, there are a lot of reasons why we all should use renewable energy sources instead of fossil fuels. Solar energy is one of the best options based on features like good for the environment, independent of electricity prices, underutilized land, grid security, sustainable growth, etc. This concept paper is oriented primarily focused on the use of Solar Energy for the crude oil heating purpose besides other many prospective industrial applications to reduce cost, carbon footprint and moving towards a sustainable and ecologically friendly Oil & Gas Industry. Concentrated Solar Power technology based prototype system is proposed to substitute the presently used system based on natural gas burning method. The hybrid system which utilizes the solar energy in the oil and gas industry would strengthen the overall field working conditions, safety measures and environmental ecology. 40% reduction on natural gas with this hybrid system is estimated. A positive implication for an environment, working conditions and safety precautions is the additive advantage. There could also decrease air venting of CO2, CH4 and N2O by an average of 30-35%.

  10. Soulful Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2010-01-01

    or anthropomorphism is important for the branding of new technology. Technology is seen as creating a techno-transcendence towards a more qualified humanity which is in contact with fundamental human values like intuition, vision, and sensing; all the qualities that technology, industrialization, and rationalization...

  11. Technology Tiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    A technology tier is a level in a product system: final product, system, subsystem, component, or part. As a concept, it contrasts traditional “vertical” special technologies (for example, mechanics and electronics) and focuses “horizontal” feature technologies such as product characteristics...

  12. Technology Tiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    A technology tier is a level in a product system: final product, system, subsystem, component, or part. As a concept, it contrasts traditional “vertical” special technologies (for example, mechanics and electronics) and focuses “horizontal” feature technologies such as product characteristics...

  13. Assistive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auat Cheein, Fernando A., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book offers the reader new achievements within the Assistive Technology field made by worldwide experts, covering aspects such as assistive technology focused on teaching and education, mobility, communication and social interactivity, among others. Each chapter included in this book covers one particular aspect of Assistive Technology that…

  14. Functions of a Computer Assisted Teaching Systems, SOLAR-CATS, which uses P2P technology

    OpenAIRE

    山之上, 卓; ヤマノウエ, タカシ; Yamanoue, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    P2P技術を利用した教育支援システムSOLAR-CATSの機能について述べる。SOLAR-CATSを利用することにより、端末教室において、教師が行うSOLAR-CATSの応用プログラムの操作を、全学生端末上で、実時間で同時に見せたり、学生間で共同作業を行ったり、教師や学生が行う操作の記録と再生を行ったりすることができる。ファイヤーウォールで隔てられた遠隔地にある教室のネットワーク間を結んで利用することも可能である。SOLAR- CATSは、お絵かきプログラム、テキストエディタ、簡単なプログラミング環境、Webブラウザ、英作文支援システムなどの応用プログラムを備えている。 A computer assisted teaching system, SOLAR-CATS, which uses P2P technology, is shown. In a computer laboratory, the teacher can show operation of application programs of the SOLAR-CATS at his/her terminal ...

  15. Solar cooking - Practice of use and disuse of alternative technology. A case-based study of users and disusers of box solar cookers in urban Gujarat, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, B.

    2000-10-01

    Solar cooking technology is generally known for its multiple benefits, but also for its slow or lack of diffusion among user groups. It is this paradox that is the theme of this thesis. Use and disuse of alternative technologies is the central issue of the study. Arational aspects as well as rational issues significantly affects practice of use and disuse of alternative technologies. In this study the limits and details of these arationalities and rationalities are investigated. The empirical part of the study was carried out in Gujarat, India, where abouth 45,000 families have a functioning box solar cooker at their homes (about 1% of urban families). These families enjoy numerous favourable conditions for solar cooking: 1) About 270 sunny days per year; 2) Staple foods like rice and dal are possible to be cooked by solar cooker; 3) Solar cookers are robust and are technically functional after several years of use; 4) Maintenance and operation of solar cookers is easy and does not pose significant constraints to the users; 5) Economic saving of abouth 30% of cooking fuel (1999 prices) on year basis is achievable by users, if the solar cooker were used for one meal on sunny days; 6) Culturally, use of sun for cooking is not seen as negative; 7) The solar cookers are locally manufactured and sold at local sale outlets at 750 Indian Rupees. The price is after 50% subsidy and is affordable for the middle class urban families. 8) Solar cooker has more than two decades of history in Gujarat. During last 20 years Gujarat State has constantly striven to introduce solar cookers to families in Gujarat. In this regard at both national and international levels, Gujarat State is not only a pioneer, but also on development, introduction and implementation of solar cookers the State is often referred to as model. The question is not how to encourage other families to buy a solar cooker, but rather why most of those who have purchased a solar cooker do not use their solar cookers

  16. Overview - Flat-plate technology. [review of Low Cost Solar Array Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, W. T.

    1981-01-01

    Progress and continuing plans for the joint NASA/DoE program at the JPL to develop the technologies and industrial processes necessary for mass production of low-cost solar arrays (LSA) which produce electricity from solar cells at a cost of less than $0.70/W are reviewed. Attention is given to plans for a demonstration Si refinement plant capable of yielding 1000 MT/yr, and to a CVD process with chlorosilane, which will yield material at a cost of $21/kg. Ingot and shaped-sheet technologies, using either Czochralski growth and film fed growth methods have yielded AM1 15% efficient cells in an automated process. Encapsulation procedures have been lowered to $14/sq m, and robotics have permitted assembled cell production at a rate of 10 sec/cell. Standards are being defined for module safety features. It is noted that construction of a pilot Si purification plant is essential to achieving the 1986 $0.70/W cost goals.

  17. Bulk-Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells: Five Core Technologies for Their Commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hongkyu; Kim, Geunjin; Kim, Junghwan; Kwon, Sooncheol; Kim, Heejoo; Lee, Kwanghee

    2016-09-01

    The past two decades of vigorous interdisciplinary approaches has seen tremendous breakthroughs in both scientific and technological developments of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells (OSCs) based on nanocomposites of π-conjugated organic semiconductors. Because of their unique functionalities, the OSC field is expected to enable innovative photovoltaic applications that can be difficult to achieve using traditional inorganic solar cells: OSCs are printable, portable, wearable, disposable, biocompatible, and attachable to curved surfaces. The ultimate objective of this field is to develop cost-effective, stable, and high-performance photovoltaic modules fabricated on large-area flexible plastic substrates via high-volume/throughput roll-to-roll printing processing and thus achieve the practical implementation of OSCs. Recently, intensive research efforts into the development of organic materials, processing techniques, interface engineering, and device architectures have led to a remarkable improvement in power conversion efficiencies, exceeding 11%, which has finally brought OSCs close to commercialization. Current research interests are expanding from academic to industrial viewpoints to improve device stability and compatibility with large-scale printing processes, which must be addressed to realize viable applications. Here, both academic and industrial issues are reviewed by highlighting historically monumental research results and recent state-of-the-art progress in OSCs. Moreover, perspectives on five core technologies that affect the realization of the practical use of OSCs are presented, including device efficiency, device stability, flexible and transparent electrodes, module designs, and printing techniques. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Efficiency improvements by Metal Wrap Through technology for n-type Si solar cells and modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenchao, Zhao; Jianming, Wang; Yanlong, Shen; Ziqian, Wang; Yingle, Chen; Shuquan, Tian; Zhiliang, Wan; Bo, Yu; Gaofei, Li; Zhiyan, Hu; Jingfeng, Xiong [Yingli Green Energy Holding Co., Ltd, 3399 North Chaoyang Avenue, Baoding (China); Guillevin, N.; Heurtault, B.; Aken, B.B. van; Bennett, I.J.; Geerligs, L.J.; Weeber, A.W.; Bultman, J.H. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    N-type Metal Wrap Through (n-MWT) is presented as an industrially promising back-contact technology to reach high performance of silicon solar cells and modules. It can combine benefits from both n-type base and MWT metallization. In this paper, the efficiency improvements of commercial industrial n-type bifacial Si solar cells (239 cm{sup 2}) and modules (60 cells) by the integration of the MWT technique are described. For the cell, after the optimization of integration, over 0.3% absolute efficiency gain was achieved over the similar non-MWT technology, and Voc gain and Isc gain up to 0.9% and 3.5%, respectively. These gains are mainly attributed to reduced shading loss and surface recombination. Besides the front pattern optimization, a 0.1m{Omega} reduction of Rs in via part will induce further 0.06% absolute efficiency improvement. For the module part, a power output of n-MWT module up to 279W was achieved, corresponding to a module efficiency of about 17.7%.

  19. Sensemaking technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland

    Research scope: The scope of the project is to study technological implementation processes by using Weick's sensemaking concept (Weick, 1995). The purpose of using a social constructivist approach to investigate technological implementation processes is to find out how new technologies transform......, Orlikowski 2000). Viewing the use of technology as a process of enactment opens up for investigating the social processes of interpreting new technology into the organisation (Orlikowski 2000). The scope of the PhD project will therefore be to gain a deeper understanding of how the enactment of new...... & Brass, 1990; Kling 1991; Orlikowski 2000). It also demonstrates that technology is a flexible variable adapted to the organisation's needs, culture, climate and management philosophy, thus leading to different uses and outcomes of the same technology in different organisations (Barley 1986; 1990...

  20. Review of thin film solar cell technology and applications for ultra-light spacecraft solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Developments in thin-film amorphous and polycrystalline photovoltaic cells are reviewed and discussed with a view to potential applications in space. Two important figures of merit are discussed: efficiency (i.e., what fraction of the incident solar energy is converted to electricity), and specific power (power to weight ratio).

  1. Efficiency and stability aspects of CdS photoanode for solar hydrogen generation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareek, Alka; Gopalakrishnan, Arthi; Borse, Pramod H.

    2016-10-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell based technology is expected to be one of the easiest green technologies to harness and to convert available solar energy into hydrogen [1]. Among the known systems of GaAs, Si, GaP and CdS- Cadmium sulphide is one of the best suited PEC materials that display a balance between its efficiency and stability. It has capability to absorb the visible light photons (E∼1.5eV - 3eV), and displays the band- energetics that suits for water-splitting reaction (H2O→H2+O2), that ultimately is based on the electronic and optical structure of the sulphides. However, the photo-induced dissolution of CdS in an electrolyte during its photo-illumination in PEC cell is its major drawback [2]. Though arsenides and phosphides show higher efficiency however CdS exhibits significant stability. In contrast though TiO2/ ZnO show good stability but CdS displays good optical response towards visible light photons as compared null response of titanate like systems. This necessitates one to identify the practical way to inhibit the photocorrosion in case of CdS photoanodes which is mainly facilitated due to interaction of photogenerated holes with CdS lattice. In past, Pt/ RuO2/ Ru modified CdS surface were found to control the unwanted photocorrosion [3]. Commercially, usage of such materials is un-economic option for any technological usage. The present work discusses that with advent of present day new synthetic routes how the dynamics of photo generated holes and electrons can be controlled to improve the stability and efficiency of the sulphide photoanodes, which in turn shows an an improvement in the performance and stability of the PEC cell for desirable technological applications.

  2. Microbiological Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Sewage Sludge Sanitization with Solar Drying Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Paluszak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to estimate the sanitization effectiveness of the sludge solar drying process carried out on technical scale in Poland based on the inactivation of bacteria and parasite eggs. Sewage sludge samples inoculated with Escherichia coli, Salmonella Senftenberg W775 and enterococci and perlon bags containing Ascaris suum eggs were placed inside the carriers fixed in the dried sludge pile and on the shovels and frame of the sludge turner. The number of reisolated microorganisms was determined with MPN method and the percentage of invasive A. suum eggs—with the microscope counting. On the basis of regression equations, the theoretical survivability and elimination rate of bacteria and parasite eggs were calculated. Experiment showed low hygienization efficiency of solar drying method. The theoretical survival time was 46–104 days in summer and 90–98 days in winter for S. Senftenberg W775 and, respectively 42–55 and 71–148 days for E. coli, depending on the carriers location. Enterococci were able to survive for 52–168 days in summer and in winter its number increased. The decrease in the percentage of invasive A. suum eggs was almost not observed. Results indicated that solar drying is a technology, which does not guarantee biosafety of product.

  3. Legal and institutional implications of providing financial incentives to encourage the development of solar technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyatt, R. J.

    1979-07-01

    The legal basis to provide financial incentives is found in the enumerated powers of the Constitution for the exercise of federal authority, the police and tax powers for the exercise of state authority, and state delegated powers for the exercise of local authority. These powers are limited by the federal and state constitutions, and the scope of delegated authority. The major types of financial incentives are tax incentives, including income tax deductions and credits, accelerated depreciation allowances, tax-exempt bonds, and reduction in property and sales taxes; loan incentives, including low interest loans, government guaranteed and insured loans, and elimination of statutory and secondary market constraints; and government transfer incentives, including grants in aid from all levels of government. Other incentives that will indirectly affect the financing and availability of solar energy technologies include eliminating or reducing financial incentives benefiting competitive energy sources, government action to insure the operation of solar energy equipment, government-sponsored education, research, and development programs, government demonstration and procurement programs, and placing priority on rapid passage of solar energy legislation dealing with financial incentives. In most cases, a financial incentives program constituting one or more of these incentives will probably not confront any major, unique, legal or institutional impediments. The minor impediments that do exist can usually be eliminated by preventive legislation.

  4. Location Study of Solar Thermal Power Plant in the State of Pernambuco Using Geoprocessing Technologies and Multiple-Criteria Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Wilma B. Azevêdo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Solar Thermal Technology for the generation of electricity in large scale has been a reality in the world since the 1980s, when the first large-sized solar plants in the United States were introduced. Brazil presents great potential for the development of large-scale projects, although it is noted that the main barriers for the insertion of this technology in Brazilian market are the lack of incentives and goals and associated costs. In a way to contribute to the insertion of solar thermal technology in Brazil, this paper presents a macro-spatial approach, based on the use of Multiple-Criteria Decision Analysis and Geoprocessing, for the location of solar thermal power plants. The applied methodology for Pernambuco, located in the Northeast Region of Brazil, considered the implantation of parabolic trough solar power plant of 80 MW, operating only in solar mode, without heat storage. Based on performed analysis, it was confirmed that Pernambuco presents great potential for the installation of solar power plants, especially in the backlands of Pernambuco. Performed validations in the model demonstrate that the methodology attended the objective once the consistence between the assigned weights to the thematic layers, individually, and the final Map of site suitability were evidenced.

  5. Progress in N-type Si Solar Cell and Module Technology for High Efficiency and Low Cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Dengyuan; Xiong, Jingfeng; Hu, Zhiyan; Li, Gaofei; Wang, Hongfang; An, Haijiao; Yu, Bo; Grenko, Brian; Borden, Kevin; Sauer, Kenneth; Cui, Jianhua; Wang, Haitao [Yingli Green Energy Holding Co., LTD, 071051 Boading (China); Roessler, T. [Yingli Green Energy Europe GmbH, Heimeranstr. 37, 80339 Munich (Germany); Bultman, J. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Vlooswijk, A.H.G.; Venema, P.R. [Tempress Systems BV, Radeweg 31, 8171 Vaassen (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    A novel high efficiency solar cell and module technology, named PANDA, using crystalline n-type CZ Si wafers has moved into large-scale production at Yingli. The first commercial sales of the PANDA modules commenced in mid 2010. Up to 600MW of mass production capacity from crystal-Si growth, wafer slicing, cell processing and module assembly have been implemented by the end of 2011. The PANDA technology was developed specifically for high efficiency and low cost. In contrast to the existing n-type Si solar cell manufacturing methods in mass production, this new technology is largely compatible with a traditional p-type Si solar cell production line by conventional diffusion, SiNx coating and screen-printing technology. With optimizing all technologies, Yingli's PANDA solar cells on semi-square 6-inch n-type CZ wafers (cell size 239cm{sup 2}) have been improved to currently have an average efficiency on commercial production lines exceeding 19.0% and up to 20.0% in pilot production. The PANDA modules have been produced and were certified according to UL1703, IEC 61215 and IEC 61730 standards. Nearly two years of full production on scale-up lines show that the PANDA modules have a high efficiency and power density, superior high temperature performance, near zero initial light induced degradation, and excellent efficiency at low irradiance.

  6. Sensemaking technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland

    & Brass, 1990; Kling 1991; Orlikowski 2000). It also demonstrates that technology is a flexible variable adapted to the organisation's needs, culture, climate and management philosophy, thus leading to different uses and outcomes of the same technology in different organisations (Barley 1986; 1990......, Orlikowski 2000). Viewing the use of technology as a process of enactment opens up for investigating the social processes of interpreting new technology into the organisation (Orlikowski 2000). The scope of the PhD project will therefore be to gain a deeper understanding of how the enactment of new...

  7. Chemistry Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Chemistry technology experts at NCATS engage in a variety of innovative translational research activities, including:Design of bioactive small molecules.Development...

  8. Overcoming the lock-out of renewable energy technologies in Spain: The cases of wind and solar electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, Pablo del [Department of Spanish and International Economics, Econometrics and History and Economic Institutions, Facultad de Ciencias Juridicas y Sociales de Toledo, C/Cobertizo de S. Pedro Martir s/n, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Toledo-45071 (Spain); Unruh, Gregory [Alumni Association Chair for Corporate Sustainability, Center for Eco-Intelligent Management, Instituto de Empresa, Serrano, 105 Madrid-28006 (Spain)

    2007-09-15

    This paper applies an evolutionary economics framework to analyse the factors leading to lock-out of renewable energy technologies (RETs). The cases of wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) in Spain are empirically analysed. The paper shows that a wide array of interrelated factors (technoeconomic characteristics of technology components, system-level infrastructure and institutional factors) can create both barriers to the wide diffusion of RETs and can also be drivers that foster an escape from a lock-in situation. Based on this analysis, the paper suggests several policy measures which may help to overcome the lock-out of promising renewable energy technologies. (author)

  9. Low cost monocrystalline silicon sheet fabrication for solar cells by advanced ingot technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiegl, G. F.; Bonora, A. C.

    1980-01-01

    The continuous liquid feed (CLF) Czochralski furnace and the enhanced I.D. slicing technology for the low-cost production of monocrystalline silicon sheets for solar cells are discussed. The incorporation of the CLF system is shown to improve ingot production rate significantly. As demonstrated in actual runs, higher than average solidification rates (75 to 100 mm/hr for 150 mm 1-0-0 crystals) can be achieved, when the system approaches steady-state conditions. The design characteristics of the CLF furnace are detailed, noting that it is capable of precise control of dopant impurity incorporation in the axial direction of the crystal. The crystal add-on cost is computed to be $11.88/sq m, considering a projected 1986 25-slice per cm conversion factor with an 86% crystal growth yield.

  10. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  11. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  12. Electricity generation costs of concentrated solar power technologies in China based on operational plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhao; Zhang, Da; Mischke, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Recent years witnessed a sharp increase of CSP (concentrated solar power) plants around the world. CSP is currently at its early stage in China, with several demonstration and utility-scale plants underway. China's rising electricity demand, the severe environmental pollution from coal-fired power...... plants, and favorable renewable energy policies are expected to result in a large-scale CSP deployment in the next years. Detailed CSP studies for China are however hardly available. To fill this knowledge gap, this study collects plant-specific data in a national CSP database in collaboration with local...... CSP experts. On this basis, this study analyzes and benchmarks the costs of parabolic trough CSP, tower CSP, and dish CSP technologies in China by applying an LCOE (levelized cost of electricity) model. The current LCOE for the different CSP plants falls in a range of 1.2-2.7 RMB/kWh (0.19-0.43 US...

  13. Low cost monocrystalline silicon sheet fabrication for solar cells by advanced ingot technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiegl, G. F.; Bonora, A. C.

    1980-01-01

    The continuous liquid feed (CLF) Czochralski furnace and the enhanced I.D. slicing technology for the low-cost production of monocrystalline silicon sheets for solar cells are discussed. The incorporation of the CLF system is shown to improve ingot production rate significantly. As demonstrated in actual runs, higher than average solidification rates (75 to 100 mm/hr for 150 mm 1-0-0 crystals) can be achieved, when the system approaches steady-state conditions. The design characteristics of the CLF furnace are detailed, noting that it is capable of precise control of dopant impurity incorporation in the axial direction of the crystal. The crystal add-on cost is computed to be $11.88/sq m, considering a projected 1986 25-slice per cm conversion factor with an 86% crystal growth yield.

  14. Advanced Heat/Mass Exchanger Technology for Geothermal and Solar Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiner, Miles [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Childress, Amy [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Hiibel, Sage [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Kim, Kwang [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Park, Chanwoo [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Wirtz, Richard [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-12-16

    Northern Nevada has abundant geothermal and solar energy resources, and these renewable energy sources provide an ample opportunity to produce economically viable power. Heat/mass exchangers are essential components to any energy conversion system. Improvements in the heat/mass exchange process will lead to smaller, less costly (more efficient) systems. There is an emerging heat transfer technology, based on micro/nano/molecular-scale surface science that can be applied to heat/mass exchanger design. The objective is to develop and characterize unique coating materials, surface configurations and membranes capable of accommodating a 10-fold increase in heat/mass exchanger performance via phase change processes (boiling, condensation, etc.) and single phase convective heat/mass transfer.

  15. Rapid Deposition Technology Holds the Key for the World's Largest Manufacturer of Thin-Film Solar Modules (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-08-01

    First Solar, Inc. has been collaborating with NREL since 1991, advancing its thin-film cadmium telluride solar technology to grow from a startup company to become one of the world's largest manufacturers of solar modules, and the world's largest manufacturer of thin-film solar modules.

  16. Thermally activated technologies: Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this Technology Roadmap is to outline a set of actions for government and industry to develop thermally activated technologies for converting America’s wasted heat resources into a reservoir of pollution-free energy for electric power, heating, cooling, refrigeration, and humidity control. Fuel flexibility is important. The actions also cover thermally activated technologies that use fossil fuels, biomass, and ultimately hydrogen, along with waste heat.

  17. Thermally activated technologies: Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this Technology Roadmap is to outline a set of actions for government and industry to develop thermally activated technologies for converting America’s wasted heat resources into a reservoir of pollution-free energy for electric power, heating, cooling, refrigeration, and humidity control. Fuel flexibility is important. The actions also cover thermally activated technologies that use fossil fuels, biomass, and ultimately hydrogen, along with waste heat.

  18. Plastics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Tommy G.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high schools industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in plastics technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to production technology; history and development of plastics; safety; youth leadership,…

  19. Lasers technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The Lasers Technology Program of IPEN is committed to the development of new lasers based on the research of optical materials and new technologies, as well to laser applications in several areas: Nuclear, Medicine, Dentistry, Industry, Environment and Advanced Research. The Program is basically divided into two main areas: Material and Laser Development and Laser Applications.

  20. Maritime Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1997-01-01

    Elementary introduction to the subject "Maritime Technology".The contents include drawings, sketches and references in English without any supplementary text.......Elementary introduction to the subject "Maritime Technology".The contents include drawings, sketches and references in English without any supplementary text....

  1. Maritime Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1997-01-01

    Elementary introduction to the subject "Maritime Technology".The contents include drawings, sketches and references in English without any supplementary text.......Elementary introduction to the subject "Maritime Technology".The contents include drawings, sketches and references in English without any supplementary text....

  2. Technology Push

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    When students, teachers, administrators and others employed in education arrive at work every day on thousands of campuses across the nation, it should come as no surprise that at every step along the way, technology is there to greet them. Technological advancements in education, as well as in facilities operation and management, are not a…

  3. Solar efficient technologies for valorising an archaeological site in the rural area Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tǎmǎşan, Maria; Mǎrǎcineanu, Cristian; Bica, Smaranda Maria

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the study is finding viable methods of rehabilitation and re-use of the cultural heritage in rural areas by efficient contemporary technological and architectural solutions. In this respect, this paper describes the phases of an environmental-friendly intervention on an archaeological site near the village Şiria, Arad County, as case study, the expected results and the steps which must be taken in order to implement the proposal. The final aim is to create a complex and sustainable tourist attraction through musealisation, integrated in the already known, but poorly promoted tourist itinerary, known as The Wine Path - Şiria is in a wine-growing region first documented in the 9th century. The proposed design reflects our sustainable approach by combining local materials with non-invasive structural solutions and efficient solar technologies. The purpose of this approach is to reduce the building's maintenance costs nearly to 0 and to extend the visiting time of the archaeological site during the entire year, whatever the weather or season. The proposals are to be submitted to the County Council, having issued the Strategy for Tourist Development for Arad County, elaborated in 2011 by The Analysis for Institutional Development Centre - Bucharest.

  4. Self-sustained cabinet based on fuel cell technology and solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Rafael Augusto de Oliveira; Valentim, Rafael Bertier; Glir, Joao Raphael Zanlorensi; Stall, Alexandre; Sommer, Elise Meister; Sanches, Luciana Schimidilin; Dias, Fernando Gallego; Korndorfer, Heitor Medeiros de Albuquerque; Vargas, Jose Viriato Coelho [Universidade Federal do Parana (DEMEC/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Email: rafaelcorrea123@hotmail.com; Ordonez, Juan Carlos [Florida State University, Tallahasse, Florida (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Center for Advanced Power Systems

    2010-07-01

    Along the past few years, there has been intensive research on clean and renewable energy production. Two main reasons have been pointed out: pollution caused by oil based fuels consumption and their availability diminution, which increases their production costs. Fuel Cells have shown to be a clean and renewable energy source, which reveals them as a promising solution, although their technology needs further development. Fuel Cells produce electricity, water and heat consuming hydrogen and oxygen, this provided pure or from a natural air source. Present research has combined different equipment to compose a self-sustaining fuel cells technology based cabinet for energy production, which is a Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFC). This system contains: fuel cells stack, electrolyzer, photovoltaic panel, batteries, current inverter and a charge controller. Photovoltaic panel charges the batteries, while charge controller controls the batteries loading. Batteries are connected to an inverter which converts direct current into alternating current. Inverter is connected to an electrolyzer (Hogen GC 600) which splits the water molecule into hydrogen and oxygen molecules. Produced hydrogen supplies the fuel cell stack and the oxygen is released directly to the atmosphere. Fuel cell stacks power production is transformed into mechanical energy by a fan. Electrical power generated by Ballard stack is 5.124 W, with a voltage of 36.6 V and current of 0.14 A. The system proved to have a great efficiency and to be capable to assemble two renewable energy sources (solar and fuel cell technology) in a self-sustainable cabinet. It has also been shown that equipment such as Electrolyzer, Fuel Cell Stack and Photovoltaic panel can be fit together in the order to produce energy. Therefore, research on Fuel Cells Regenerative System reveals great importance for developing a new, clean, renewable and regenerative energy production system. (author)

  5. Sensemaking technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland

    Research objective: The object of the LOK research project is to gain a better understanding of the technological strategic processes in organisations by using the concept/metaphor of sensemaking. The project will investigate the technological strategies in organisations in order to gain a deeper...... understanding of the cognitive competencies and barriers towards implementing new technology in organisations. The research will therefore concentrate on researching the development process in the organisation's perception of the external environmental elements of customers, suppliers, competitors, internal...... and external technology and legislation and the internal environmental elements of structure, power relations and political arenas. All of these variables have influence on which/how technologies are implemented thus creating different outcomes all depending on the social dynamics that are triggered by changes...

  6. Sensemaking technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland

    Research objective: The object of the LOK research project is to gain a better understanding of the technological strategic processes in organisations by using the concept/metaphor of sensemaking. The project will investigate the technological strategies in organisations in order to gain a deeper...... understanding of the cognitive competencies and barriers towards implementing new technology in organisations. The research will therefore concentrate on researching the development process in the organisation's perception of the external environmental elements of customers, suppliers, competitors, internal...... and external technology and legislation and the internal environmental elements of structure, power relations and political arenas. All of these variables have influence on which/how technologies are implemented thus creating different outcomes all depending on the social dynamics that are triggered by changes...

  7. Technology collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Jacob [Halliburton (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to present Halliburton's Brazilian technology center. Halliburton has technology centers in the United States, Saudi Arabia, India, Singapore and Brazil, all of which aim at delivering accelerated innovation in the oil sector. The technology centers engage in research and development activities with the help of various universities and in collaboration with the customer or supplier. The Halliburton Brazil technology center provides its customers with timely research and development solutions for enhancing recovery and mitigating reservoir uncertainty; they are specialized in finding solutions for pre- and post-salt carbonate drilling and in the enhancement of production from mature fields. This presentation showcased the work carried out by the Halliburton Brazil technology center to help customers develop their deepwater field activities.

  8. BIOGAS TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. SALUNKHE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to scarcity of petroleum and coal it threatens supply of fuel throughout the world also problem of their combustion leads to research in different corners to get access the new sources of energy, like renewable energy resources. Solar energy, wind energy, different thermal and hydro sources of energy, biogas are all renewable energy resources. But, biogas is distinct from other renewable energies because of its characteristics of using, controlling and collecting organic wastes and at the same time producing fertilizer and water for use in agricultural irrigation. Biogas does not have any geographical limitations nor does it require advanced technology for producing energy, also it is very simple to use and apply. Anaerobic digestion is controlled biological degradation process which allows efficient capturing & utilization of biogas (approximately 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide for energy generation. Anaerobic digestion of food waste is achievable but different types, composition of food waste results in varying degrees of methane yields, and thus the effects of mixing various types of food waste and their proportions should be determined on case by case basis.

  9. NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute: Science and Technology for Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Greg; Bailey, Brad; Gibbs, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is a virtual institute focused on research at the intersection of science and exploration, training the next generation of lunar scientists, and development and support of the international community. As part of its mission, SSERVI acts as a hub for opportunities that engage the larger scientific and exploration communities in order to form new interdisciplinary, research-focused collaborations. The nine domestic SSERVI teams that comprise the U.S. complement of the Institute engage with the international science and exploration communities through workshops, conferences, online seminars and classes, student exchange programs and internships. SSERVI represents a close collaboration between science, technology and exploration enabling a deeper, integrated understanding of the Moon and other airless bodies as human exploration moves beyond low Earth orbit. SSERVI centers on the scientific aspects of exploration as they pertain to the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the moons of Mars, with additional aspects of related technology development, including a major focus on human exploration-enabling efforts such as resolving Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs). The Institute focuses on interdisciplinary, exploration-related science focused on airless bodies targeted as potential human destinations. Areas of study represent the broad spectrum of lunar, NEA, and Martian moon sciences encompassing investigations of the surface, interior, exosphere, and near-space environments as well as science uniquely enabled from these bodies. This research profile integrates investigations of plasma physics, geology/geochemistry, technology integration, solar system origins/evolution, regolith geotechnical properties, analogues, volatiles, ISRU and exploration potential of the target bodies. New opportunities for both domestic and international partnerships are continually generated through these research and

  10. The small community solar thermal power experiment. Parabolic dish technology for industrial process heat application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzien, R. E.; Rodriguez, D.

    1981-01-01

    Aspects of incorporating a thermal energy transport system (ETS) into a field of parabolic dish collectors for industrial process heat (IPH) applications were investigated. Specific objectives are to: (1) verify the mathematical optimization of pipe diameters and insulation thicknesses calculated by a computer code; (2) verify the cost model for pipe network costs using conventional pipe network construction; (3) develop a design and the associated production costs for incorporating risers and downcomers on a low cost concentrator (LCC); (4) investigate the cost reduction of using unconventional pipe construction technology. The pipe network design and costs for a particular IPH application, specifically solar thermally enhanced oil recovery (STEOR) are analyzed. The application involves the hybrid operation of a solar powered steam generator in conjunction with a steam generator using fossil fuels to generate STEOR steam for wells. It is concluded that the STEOR application provides a baseline pipe network geometry used for optimization studies of pipe diameter and insulation thickness, and for development of comparative cost data, and operating parameters for the design of riser/downcomer modifications to the low cost concentrator.

  11. On the Path to SunShot - Advancing Concentrating Solar Power Technology, Performance, and Dispatchability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehos, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ho, Clifford [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Armijo, Kenneth [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Energy storage will help enable CSP compete by adding flexibility value to a high-variable-generation (solar plus wind) power system (see Mehos et al. 2016). Compared with PV, CSP systems are more complex to develop, design, construct, and operate, and they require a much larger minimum effective scale—typically at least 50 MW, compared with PV systems that can be as small as a few kilowatts. In recent years, PV’s greater modularity and lower LCOE have made it more attractive to many solar project developers, and some large projects that were originally planned for CSP have switched to PV. However, the ability of CSP to use thermal energy storage—and thus provide continuous power for long periods when the sun is not shining—could give CSP a vital role in evolving electricity systems. Because CSP with storage can store energy when net demand is low and release that energy when demand is high, it increases the electricity system’s ability to balance supply and demand over multiple time scales. Such flexibility becomes increasingly important as more variable-generation renewable energy is added to the system. For example, one analysis suggests that, under a 40% renewable portfolio standard in California, CSP with storage could provide more than twice as much value to the electricity system as variable-generation PV. For this reason, enhanced thermal energy storage is a critical component of the SunShot Initiative’s 2020 CSP technology-improvement roadmap.

  12. Enhancing students' science literacy using solar cell learning multimedia containing science and nano technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliyawati, Sunarya, Yayan; Mudzakir, Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    This research attempts to enhance students' science literacy in the aspects of students' science content, application context, process, and students' attitude using solar cell learning multimedia containing science and nano technology. The quasi-experimental method with pre-post test design was used to achieve these objectives. Seventy-two students of class XII at a high school were employed as research's subject. Thirty-six students were in control class and another thirty-six were in experiment class. Variance test (t-test) was performed on the average level of 95% to identify the differences of students' science literacy in both classes. As the result, there were significant different of learning outcomes between experiment class and control class. Almost half of students (41.67%) in experiment class are categorized as high. Therefore, the learning using solar cell learning multimedia can improve students' science literacy, especially in the students' science content, application context, and process aspects with n-gain(%) 59.19 (medium), 63.04 (medium), and 52.98 (medium). This study can be used to develop learning multimedia in other science context.

  13. The High Energy X-ray Imager Technology (HEXITEC) for Solar Hard X-ray Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert Y.; Gaskin, Jessica; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Seller, Paul; Wilson, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    High angular resolution HXR optics require detectors with a large number of fine pixels in order to adequately sample the telescope point spread function (PSF) over the entire field of view. Excessively over-sampling the PSF will increase readout noise and require more processing with no appreciable increase in image quality. An appropriate level of over-sampling is to have 3 pixels within the HPD. For current high resolution X-ray mirrors, the HPD is about 25 arcsec. Over a 6-m focal length this converts to 750 µm, the optimum pixel size is around 250 µm. Annother requirement are that the detectors must also have high efficiency in the HXR region, good energy resolution, low background, low power requirements, and low sensitivity to radiation damage. For solar observations, the ability to handle high counting rates is also extremely desirable. The Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK has been developing the electronics for such a detector. Dubbed HEXITEC, for High Energy X-Ray Imaging Technology, this Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), can be bonded to 1- or 2- mm-thick Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) or Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT), to create a fine (250 µm pitch) HXR detector. The NASA Marshall Space Flight CenterMSFC and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been working with RAL over the past few years to develop these detectors to be used with HXR focusing telescopes. We present on recent results and capabilities as applied to solar observations.

  14. Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Thermal Technologies in the Australian Minerals Processing and Extractive Metallurgical Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglinton, Thomas; Hinkley, Jim; Beath, Andrew; Dell'Amico, Mark

    2013-12-01

    The Australian minerals processing and extractive metallurgy industries are responsible for about 20% of Australia's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This article reviews the potential applications of concentrated solar thermal (CST) energy in the Australian minerals processing industry to reduce this impact. Integrating CST energy into these industries would reduce their reliance upon conventional fossil fuels and reduce GHG emissions. As CST technologies become more widely deployed and cheaper, and as fuel prices rise, CST energy will progressively become more competitive with conventional energy sources. Some of the applications identified in this article are expected to become commercially competitive provided the costs for pollution abatement and GHG mitigation are internalized. The areas of potential for CST integration identified in this study can be classed as either medium/low-temperature or high-temperature applications. The most promising medium/low-grade applications are electricity generation and low grade heating of liquids. Electricity generation with CST energy—also known as concentrated solar power—has the greatest potential to reduce GHG emissions out of all the potential applications identified because of the 24/7 dispatchability when integrated with thermal storage. High-temperature applications identified include the thermal decomposition of alumina and the calcination of limestone to lime in solar kilns, as well as the production of syngas from natural gas and carbonaceous materials for various metallurgical processes including nickel and direct reduced iron production. Hybridization and integration with thermal storage could enable CST to sustain these energy-intensive metallurgical processes continuously. High-temperature applications are the focus of this paper.

  15. A large-scale view of Space Technology 5 magnetometer response to solar wind drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipp, D J; Kilcommons, L M; Gjerloev, J; Redmon, R J; Slavin, J; Le, G

    2015-04-01

    In this data report we discuss reprocessing of the Space Technology 5 (ST5) magnetometer database for inclusion in NASA's Coordinated Data Analysis Web (CDAWeb) virtual observatory. The mission consisted of three spacecraft flying in elliptical orbits, from 27 March to 27 June 2006. Reprocessing includes (1) transforming the data into the Modified Apex Coordinate System for projection to a common reference altitude of 110 km, (2) correcting gain jumps, and (3) validating the results. We display the averaged magnetic perturbations as a keogram, which allows direct comparison of the full-mission data with the solar wind values and geomagnetic indices. With the data referenced to a common altitude, we find the following: (1) Magnetic perturbations that track the passage of corotating interaction regions and high-speed solar wind; (2) unexpectedly strong dayside perturbations during a solstice magnetospheric sawtooth oscillation interval characterized by a radial interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) component that may have enhanced the accompanying modest southward IMF; and (3) intervals of reduced magnetic perturbations or "calms," associated with periods of slow solar wind, interspersed among variable-length episodic enhancements. These calms are most evident when the IMF is northward or projects with a northward component onto the geomagnetic dipole. The reprocessed ST5 data are in very good agreement with magnetic perturbations from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft, which we also map to 110 km. We briefly discuss the methods used to remap the ST5 data and the means of validating the results against DMSP. Our methods form the basis for future intermission comparisons of space-based magnetometer data.

  16. Energy-saving Technology of Vent in Passive Solar Wall of Rural House of Severe Cold Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Ling; TianYu Zhao; Hong Jin; XiPeng Zhao

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at solving the problems of low thermal collection rate, inconvenient maintenance, hindering indoor using during the application of passive solar technologies in rural houses in severe cold region. All these defects prevent the passive solar houses'further development. This paper chooses trombe wall, which has higher thermal efficiency of the passive solar house, as research object. The traditional vent is improved into a new type of ventilation device. This improvement overcomes the shortcoming, which traditional vent loses huge heat, and simplifies the construction of vent. Comparing with traditional trombe wall, the energy saving rate is 15�69%.

  17. n technology; economy and simplicity

    OpenAIRE

    Yacoub Yousef Ahmad Alotaibi

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity is a major problem, a seawater desalination process separates saline seawater into two streams: a fresh water stream containing a low concentration of dissolved salts and a concentrated brine stream Applied desalination technologies can be divided in to three groups, thermal desalination technologies, membrane based desalination technologies,and solar desalination technologies. Results show that solar energy coupled to desalination offers a promising prospect for co...

  18. Multiple EFG silicon ribbon technology as the basis for manufacturing low-cost terrestrial solar cells. [Epitaxial Film Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackintosh, B.; Kalejs, J. P.; Ho, C. T.; Wald, F. V.

    1981-01-01

    Mackintosh et al. (1978) have reported on the development of a multiple ribbon furnace based on the 'edge defined film fed growth' (EFG) process for the fabrication of silicon ribbon. It has been demonstrated that this technology can meet the requirements for a silicon substrate material to be used in the manufacture of solar panels which can meet requirements regarding a selling price of $0.70/Wp when certain goals in terms of throughput and quality are achieved. These goals for the multiple ribbon technology using 10 cm wide ribbon require simultaneous growth of 12 ribbons by one operator at average speeds of 4 to 4.5 cm/min, and 13% efficient solar cells. A description is presented of the progress made toward achieving these goals. It is concluded that the required performance levels have now been achieved. The separate aspects of technology must now be integrated into a single prototype furnace.

  19. Ergonomics technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    Major areas of research and development in ergonomics technology for space environments are discussed. Attention is given to possible applications of the technology developed by NASA in industrial settings. A group of mass spectrometers for gas analysis capable of fully automatic operation has been developed for atmosphere control on spacecraft; a version for industrial use has been constructed. Advances have been made in personal cooling technology, remote monitoring of medical information, and aerosol particle control. Experience gained by NASA during the design and development of portable life support units has recently been applied to improve breathing equipment used by fire fighters.

  20. The Application Study in Solar Energy Technology for Highway Service Area: A Case Study of West Lushan Highway Low-Carbon Service Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of research works have been made concerning highway service area or solar technology and acquired great achievements. However, unfortunately, few works have been made combining the two topics together of highway service areas and solar energy saving to make a systemic research on solar technology application for highway service area. In this paper, taking West Lushan highway low-carbon service area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the advantages, technical principles, and application methods of solar energy technology for highway service area including solar photoelectric technology and solar water heating technology were discussed based on the analysis of characteristics of highway low-carbon service area; the system types, operation mode, and installing tilt angle of the two kinds of solar systems suitable for highway service areas were confirmed. It was proved that the reduction of the cost by electricity savings of solar system was huge. Taking the investment of the solar systems into account, the payback period of solar photoelectric systems and solar water heating systems was calculated. The economic effect of the solar systems in West Lushan highway service area during the effective operation periods was also calculated and proved very considerable.

  1. I+D+i of the latest technological trends in the solar industry 2010; I+D+i utlimas tendencias tecnologicas de la industria solar 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    He is currently working hard on the development of technology applied to the use of solar energy, which in turn results in more frequent occurrence of numerous advances in this field. Although none of them is revolutionary, it is interesting that gradually comes to solar energy every day with the goal of being an energy source cost effective, efficient and cheap. many of these advances go unnoticed by the general public, so that was solar has been collecting and collating some of the most important and interesting events that have arisen during the year 2010 to introduce readers in this article. (Author)

  2. Acciona Solar Technology Performance Evaluation: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-384

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehos, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Under this agreement, NREL will work with Acciona to conduct joint testing, evaluation, and data collection related to Acciona's solar technologies and systems. This work includes, but is not limited to, testing and evaluation of solar component and system technologies, data collection and monitoring, performance evaluation, reliability testing, and analysis. This work will be conducted at Acciona's Nevada Solar One (NSO) power plant and NREL test facilities. Specific projects will be developed on a task order basis. Each task order will identify the name of the project and deliverables to be produced under the task order. Each task order will delineate an estimated completion date based on a project's schedule. Any reports developed under this CRADA must be reviewed by both NREL and Acciona and approved by each organization prior to publication of results or documents.

  3. Rural electrification with photovoltaic solar technology using solar home system; Eletrificacao rural com tecnologia solar fotovoltaica utilizando sistemas isolados autonomos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salviano, Carlos Jose Caldas

    1999-02-01

    The utilization of solar energy, inexhaustible on the earthly scale of time, as heat and light source, today is one of the energetics alternatives more to confront the challenges of the new millennium. Remarkable is the impulse that power generation photovoltaic has received in Brazil. In Pernambuco, state of Brazil, the CELPE - Electric Power Company of Pernambuco, already implanted more than 750 photovoltaic solar home system (95 kW installed) for power supply to rural communities far from the grid connection that come across in commercial operation since 1994. Eight configurations were studied with modifications in their components (panel, battery and charge) with the objective to evaluate the performance and the adequacy of the size these configurations. The parameters utilized for this evaluation were: solar energy diary incident on the panel plat, diary efficiency generator, output voltage on the generator and state of charge the batteries bank. A system of data acquisition automated was fined to measure in real conditions the function of each components, the following parameters: solar radiation incident and temperature on the photovoltaic generator, voltage and generator current, batteries bank and charge and ambient temperature. About the configurations studied, it follows that analysis the operational of characteristics capacity and battery capacity of the SHS utilized, simulating the rural electrification conditions. It was possible to certify the adequate configurations for the load profile will be supply. (author)

  4. Technology Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA produces innovative technologies and facilitates their creation in line with the Agency mission to create products such as the stormwater calculator, remote sensing, innovation clusters, and low-cost air sensors.

  5. Banana technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amstel, Willem D.; Schellekens, E. P. A.; Walravens, C.; Wijlaars, A. P. F.

    1999-09-01

    With 'Banana Technology' an unconventional hybrid fabrication technology is indicated for the production of very large parabolic and hyperbolic cylindrical mirror systems. The banana technology uses elastic bending of very large and thin glass substrates and fixation onto NC milled metal moulds. This technology has matured during the last twenty years for the manufacturing of large telecentric flat-bed scanners. Two construction types, called 'internal banana' and 'external banana; are presented. Optical figure quality requirements in terms of slope and curvature deviations are discussed. Measurements of these optical specifications by means of a 'finishing rod' type of scanning deflectometer or slope tester are presented. Design constraints for bending glass and the advantages of a new process will be discussed.

  6. Exploration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennevik, H.C. [Saga Petroleum A/S, Forus (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    The paper evaluates exploration technology. Topics discussed are: Visions; the subsurface challenge; the creative tension; the exploration process; seismic; geology; organic geochemistry; seismic resolution; integration; drilling; value creation. 4 refs., 22 figs.

  7. UPLIFTING TECHNOLOGY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas K Grose

    2015-01-01

      Inspired by Star Trek turbolifts, German engineering firm ThyssenKrupp says it's ready to replace cables and pulleys using maglev, or magnetic levitation technology, that enables the world's fastest...

  8. Videodisc technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, F.E. Jr.

    1981-03-01

    An overview of the technology of videodiscs is given. The emphasis is on systems that use reflection or transmission of laser light. Possible use of videodiscs for storage of bibliographic information is considered. 6 figures, 3 tables. (RWR)

  9. Fabrication Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1993-03-01

    The mission of the Fabrication Technology thrust area is to have an adequate base of manufacturing technology, not necessarily resident at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), to conduct the future business of LLNL. The specific goals continue to be to (1) develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes; (2) construct general purpose process models that will have wide applicability; (3) document findings and models in journals; (4) transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues; and (5) develop continuing relationships with the industrial and academic communities to advance the collective understanding of fabrication processes. The strategy to ensure success is changing. For technologies in which they are expert and which will continue to be of future importance to LLNL, they can often attract outside resources both to maintain their expertise by applying it to a specific problem and to help fund further development. A popular vehicle to fund such work is the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with industry. For technologies needing development because of their future critical importance and in which they are not expert, they use internal funding sources. These latter are the topics of the thrust area. Three FY-92 funded projects are discussed in this section. Each project clearly moves the Fabrication Technology thrust area towards the goals outlined above. They have also continued their membership in the North Carolina State University Precision Engineering Center, a multidisciplinary research and graduate program established to provide the new technologies needed by high-technology institutions in the US. As members, they have access to and use of the results of their research projects, many of which parallel the precision engineering efforts at LLNL.

  10. Cognitive technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Mello, Alan; Figueiredo, Fabrício; Figueiredo, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the next generation optical networks as well as mobile communication technologies. The reader will find chapters on Cognitive Optical Network, 5G Cognitive Wireless, LTE, Data Analysis and Natural Language Processing. It also presents a comprehensive view of the enhancements and requirements foreseen for Machine Type Communication. Moreover, some data analysis techniques and Brazilian Portuguese natural language processing technologies are also described here. .

  11. Lasers technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Laser Technology Program of IPEN is developed by the Center for Lasers and Applications (CLA) and is committed to the development of new lasers based on the research of new optical materials and new resonator technologies. Laser applications and research occur within several areas such as Nuclear, Medicine, Dentistry, Industry, Environment and Advanced Research. Additional goals of the Program are human resource development and innovation, in association with Brazilian Universities and commercial partners.

  12. Fabrication Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1993-03-01

    The mission of the Fabrication Technology thrust area is to have an adequate base of manufacturing technology, not necessarily resident at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), to conduct the future business of LLNL. The specific goals continue to be to (1) develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes; (2) construct general purpose process models that will have wide applicability; (3) document findings and models in journals; (4) transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues; and (5) develop continuing relationships with the industrial and academic communities to advance the collective understanding of fabrication processes. The strategy to ensure success is changing. For technologies in which they are expert and which will continue to be of future importance to LLNL, they can often attract outside resources both to maintain their expertise by applying it to a specific problem and to help fund further development. A popular vehicle to fund such work is the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with industry. For technologies needing development because of their future critical importance and in which they are not expert, they use internal funding sources. These latter are the topics of the thrust area. Three FY-92 funded projects are discussed in this section. Each project clearly moves the Fabrication Technology thrust area towards the goals outlined above. They have also continued their membership in the North Carolina State University Precision Engineering Center, a multidisciplinary research and graduate program established to provide the new technologies needed by high-technology institutions in the US. As members, they have access to and use of the results of their research projects, many of which parallel the precision engineering efforts at LLNL.

  13. Summary of Recent Results from NASA's Space Solar Power (SSP) Programs and the Current Capabilities of Microwave WPT Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSpadden, James; Mankins, John C.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The concept of placing enormous solar power satellite (SPS) systems in space represents one of a handful of new technological options that might provide large-scale, environmentally clean base load power into terrestrial markets. In the US, the SPS concept was examined extensively during the late 1970s by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). More recently, the subject of space solar power (SSP) was reexamined by NASA from 1995-1997 in the "fresh look" study, and during 1998 in an SSP "concept definition study". As a result of these efforts, in 1999-2000, NASA undertook the SSP Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) program which pursued preliminary strategic technology research and development to enable large, multi-megawatt SSP systems and wireless power transmission (WPT) for government missions and commercial markets (in-space and terrestrial). During 2001-2002, NASA has been pursuing an SSP Concept and Technology Maturation (SCTM) program follow-on to the SERT, with special emphasis on identifying new, high-leverage technologies that might advanced the feasibility of future SSP systems. In addition, in 2001, the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) released a major report providing the results of a peer review of NASA's SSP strategic research and technology (R&T) road maps. One of the key technologies needed to enable the future feasibility of SSP/SPS is that of wireless power transmission. Advances in phased array antennas and rectennas have provided the building blocks for a realizable WPT system. These key components include the dc-RF converters in the transmitter, the retrodirective beam control system, and the receiving rectenna. Each subject is briefly covered, and results from the SERT program that studied a 5.8 GHz SPS system are presented. This paper presents a summary results from NASA's SSP efforts, along with a summary of the status of microwave WPT technology development.

  14. Technology and technology transfer: some basic issues

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsavari, Ali; Adikibi, Owen; Taha, Yasser

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses various issues relating to technology and transfer of technology such as technology and society, technology and science, channels and models of technology transfer, the role of multinational companies in transfer of technology, etc. The ultimate objective is to pose the question of relevance of some existing models and ideas like technological independence in an increasingly globalised world economy.

  15. Estimating the Value of Utility-Scale Solar Technologies in California Under a 40% Renewable Portfolio Standard (Report Summary) (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgenson, J.; Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.

    2014-06-01

    Concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) is a unique source of solar energy in that its output can be shifted over time. The ability of CSP-TES to be a flexible source of generation may be particularly valuable in regions with high overall penetration of solar energy, such as the state of California. California's Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) requires the state to increase generation from eligible renewable energy resources to reach 33% of retail electricity sales by 2020. Beyond 2020, California targets a further reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. To help reach this goal, current California governor Jerry Brown has stated that a higher 40% RPS might be reachable in the near term. The levelized cost of energy is generally emphasized when assessing the economic viability of renewable energy systems implemented to achieve the RPS. However, the operational and capacity benefits of such systems are often ignored, which can lead to incorrect economic comparisons between CSP-TES and variable renewable generation technologies such as solar photovoltaics (PV). Here we evaluate a 40% RPS scenario in a California grid model with PV or CSP-TES providing the last 1% of RPS energy. We compare the technical and economic implications of integrating either solar technology under several sensitivities, finding that the ability to displace new conventional thermal generation capacity may be the largest source of value of CSP-TES compared to PV at high solar penetrations.

  16. Estimating the Value of Utility-Scale Solar Technologies in California Under a 40% Renewable Portfolio Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgenson, J.; Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.

    2014-05-01

    Concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) is a unique source of solar energy in that its output can be shifted over time. The ability of CSP-TES to be a flexible source of generation may be particularly valuable in regions with high overall penetration of solar energy, such as the state of California. California's Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) requires the state to increase generation from eligible renewable energy resources to reach 33% of retail electricity sales by 2020. Beyond 2020, California targets a further reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. To help reach this goal, current California governor Jerry Brown has stated that a higher 40% RPS might be reachable in the near term. The levelized cost of energy is generally emphasized when assessing the economic viability of renewable energy systems implemented to achieve the RPS. However, the operational and capacity benefits of such systems are often ignored, which can lead to incorrect economic comparisons between CSP-TES and variable renewable generation technologies such as solar photovoltaics (PV). Here we evaluate a 40% RPS scenario in a California grid model with PV or CSP-TES providing the last 1% of RPS energy. We compare the technical and economic implications of integrating either solar technology under several sensitivities, finding that the ability to displace new conventional thermal generation capacity may be the largest source of value of CSP-TES compared to PV at high solar penetrations.

  17. Research on fabrication technology for thin film solar cells for practical use. Research on low-cost fabrication technology for large-area modules (production technology for amorphous silicon solar cell modules); Usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Daimenseki module no tei cost seizo gijutsu (amorphous taiyo denchi module seizo no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on the fabrication technology of amorphous Si solar cell modules in fiscal 1994. (1) On process technology for prototype film substrate solar cells, an advanced preprocessing equipment for film substrates, stepping roll type film forming technology, and prototype submodules were studied. A conversion efficiency of 7.2% was achieved by use of the submodule formed in an effective region of 40 {times} 40cm{sup 2}. (2) On efficiency improvement technology for film substrate solar cells, p/i and n/i interfaces, forming condition for Ag film electrodes, film thickness of transparent electrode ITO, and optimum transmissivity were studied. (3) On technology for advanced solar cells, high-quality a-SiGe: H film, ion control in plasma CVD, and a-Si film formation by plasma CVD using SiH2Cl2 were studied as production technology of narrow gap materials. (4) On advanced two-layer tandem solar cells, the defect density in optical degradation of a-Si cells by reverse bias dark current was evaluated, and outdoor exposure data were analyzed. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Overview of the Development of the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission 12.5-kW Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas; Yim, John; Chang, Li; Clayman, Lauren; Herman, Daniel; Shastry, Rohit; Thomas, Robert; Verhey, Timothy; Griffith, Christopher; Myers, James; Williams, George; Mikellides, Ioannis; Hofer, Richard; Polk, James; Goebel, Dan

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing mission concepts for a solar electric propulsion technology demonstration mission. A number of mission concepts are being evaluated including ambitious missions to near Earth objects. The demonstration of a high-power solar electric propulsion capability is one of the objectives of the candidate missions under consideration. In support of NASA's exploration goals, a number of projects are developing extensible technologies to support NASA's near and long term mission needs. Specifically, the Space Technology Mission Directorate Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission project is funding the development of a 12.5-kilowatt magnetically shielded Hall thruster system to support future NASA missions. This paper presents the design attributes of the thruster that was collaboratively developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The paper provides an overview of the magnetic, plasma, thermal, and structural modeling activities that were carried out in support of the thruster design. The paper also summarizes the results of the functional tests that have been carried out to date. The planned thruster performance, plasma diagnostics (internal and in the plume), thermal, wear, and mechanical tests are outlined.

  19. Technology cycles and technology revolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paganetto, Luigi; Scandizzo, Pasquale Lucio

    2010-09-15

    Technological cycles have been characterized as the basis of long and continuous periods economic growth through sustained changes in total factor productivity. While this hypothesis is in part consistent with several theories of growth, the sheer magnitude and length of the economic revolutions experienced by humankind seems to indicate surmise that more attention should be given to the origin of major technological and economic changes, with reference to one crucial question: role of production and use of energy in economic development.

  20. A REVIEW ON NEW SOLAR DESALINATION TECHNOLOGY%太阳能海水淡化新技术综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘业凤; 胡海涛

    2011-01-01

    依据太阳能的光效应和热效应对传统的海水淡化进行分类,列举了太阳能与传统蒸馏法与渗析法的结合形式,指出了传统蒸馏法效率不高的原因,重点介绍利用冷凝潜热和提升换热效率的新型高效海水淡化技术以及反渗透的能量回收装置,认为将太阳能与传统海水淡化技术有机结合起来前景广阔,并简述了太阳能收集器的研究现状及先进技术,为太阳能海水淡化技术的进一步研究和发展提供了参考与依据.%Based on the light and the thermal effect of the solar energy, this paper classifies the traditional brine desalination, lists the combinative way of the solar energy, the traditional distillation and the dialysis. It points out the reason why the traditional distillation is inefficient and focuses on the new efficiency brine desalinization technology depending on the latent heat and the promotion of the heat transfer efficiency as well as the energy recovery device of the reverse osmosis system, found that solar energy with traditional brine desalination technology possess bright future. Finally it briefs the research status and the advanced technologies on the solar energy collector, which can provide a basis for the further research on the solar brine desalinization technology.

  1. Reaching Grid Parity Using BP Solar Crystalline Silicon Technology: A Systems Class Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Daniel W; Wohlgemuth, John; Carlson, David E; Clark, Roger F; Gleaton, Mark; Posbic, John P; Zahler, James

    2010-12-06

    The primary target market for this program was the residential and commercial PV markets, drawing on BP Solar's premium product and service offerings, brand and marketing strength, and unique routes to market. These two markets were chosen because: (1) in 2005 they represented more than 50% of the overall US PV market; (2) they are the two markets that will likely meet grid parity first; and (3) they are the two market segments in which product development can lead to the added value necessary to generate market growth before reaching grid parity. Federal investment in this program resulted in substantial progress toward the DOE TPP target, providing significant advancements in the following areas: (1) Lower component costs particularly the modules and inverters. (2) Increased availability and lower cost of silicon feedstock. (3) Product specifically developed for residential and commercial applications. (4) Reducing the cost of installation through optimization of the products. (5) Increased value of electricity in mid-term to drive volume increases, via the green grid technology. (6) Large scale manufacture of PV products in the US, generating increased US employment in manufacturing and installation. To achieve these goals BP Solar assembled a team that included suppliers of critical materials, automated equipment developers/manufacturers, inverter and other BOS manufacturers, a utility company, and University research groups. The program addressed all aspects of the crystalline silicon PV business from raw materials (particularly silicon feedstock) through installation of the system on the customers site. By involving the material and equipment vendors, we ensured that supplies of silicon feedstock and other PV specific materials like encapsulation materials (EVA and cover glass) will be available in the quantities required to meet the DOE goals of 5 to 10 GW of installed US PV by 2015 and at the prices necessary for PV systems to reach grid parity in 2015

  2. New approach to solar photo-Fenton operation. Raceway ponds as tertiary treatment technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carra, Irene; Santos-Juanes, Lucas; Acién Fernández, Francisco Gabriel; Malato, Sixto; Sánchez Pérez, José Antonio

    2014-08-30

    The photo-Fenton process has proven its efficiency in the removal of micropollutants. However, the high costs usually associated with it prevent a spread of this technology. An important factor affecting costs is the kind of photoreactor used, usually tubular with a reflecting surface. Tubular reactors like compound parabolic collectors, CPCs, involve high capital costs. In comparison, the application of less costly reactors such as the extensive raceway ponds (RPRs) would help to spread the use of the photo-Fenton process as tertiary treatment at commercial scale. As far as the authors know, RPRs have never been used in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) applications. This work is aimed at studying the applicability of RPRs to remove micropollutants with solar photo-Fenton. For this purpose, a pesticide mixture of commercial acetamiprid (ACTM) and thiabendazole (TBZ) (100μg/L each) was used in simulated secondary effluent. Iron concentration (1, 5.5 and 10mg/L) and liquid depth (5, 10 and 15cm) were studied as process variables. TBZ was removed at the beginning of the treatment (less than 5min), although ACTM removal times were longer (20-40min for the highest iron concentrations). High treatment capacity per surface area was obtained (48mg/hm(2) with 5.5mg Fe/L and 15cm liquid depth), proving the feasibility of using RPRs for micropollutant removal.

  3. Solar thermal technologies benefits assessment: Objectives, methodologies and results for 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1982-07-01

    The economic and social benefits of developing cost competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) were assessed. The analysis was restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high insolation/high energy price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs were considered, reflecting uncertainty over fuel prices and STT cost projections. After considering the numerous benefits of introducing STT into the energy market, three primary benefits were identified and evaluated: (1) direct energy cost savings were estimated to range from zero to $50 billion; (2) oil imports may be reduced by up to 9 percent, improving national security; and (3) significant environmental benefits can be realized in air basins where electric power plant emissions create substantial air pollution problems. STT research and development was found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. The normal risks associated with investments in research and development are accentuated because the OPEC cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut the growth of alternative energy sources.

  4. Software control of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope enclosure PLC hardware using COTS software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrowman, Alastair J.; de Bilbao, Lander; Ariño, Javier; Murga, Gaizka; Goodrich, Bret; Hubbard, John R.; Greer, Alan; Mayer, Chris; Taylor, Philip

    2012-09-01

    As PLCs evolve from simple logic controllers into more capable Programmable Automation Controllers (PACs), observatories are increasingly using such devices to control complex mechanisms1, 2. This paper describes use of COTS software to control such hardware using the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) Common Services Framework (CSF). We present the Enclosure Control System (ECS) under development in Spain and the UK. The paper details selection of the commercial PLC communication library PLCIO. Implemented in C and delivered with source code, the library separates the programmer from communication details through a simple API. Capable of communicating with many types of PLCs (including Allen-Bradley and Siemens) the API remains the same irrespective of PLC in use. The ECS is implemented in Java using the observatory's framework that provides common services for software components. We present a design following a connection-based approach where all components access the PLC through a single connection class. The link between Java and PLCIO C library is provided by a thin Java Native Interface (JNI) layer. Also presented is a software simulator of the PLC based upon the PLCIO Virtual PLC. This creates a simulator operating below the library's API and thus requires no change to ECS software. It also provides enhanced software testing capabilities prior to hardware becoming available. Results are presented in the form of communication timing test data, showing that the use of CSF, JNI and PLCIO provide a control system capable of controlling enclosure tracking mechanisms, that would be equally valid for telescope mount control.

  5. The development and utilization of solar photovoltaic cells: An assessment of the potential for a new energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, K. J.

    1981-01-01

    The Government set the goal of accelerating the adaptation of photovoltaics by reducing system costs to a competitive level and overcoming the technical, institutional, legal, environmental, and social barriers impeding the diffusion of photovoltaic technology. The technology of silicon solar arrays was examined and the status of development efforts are reviewed. The political, legal, economic, social, and environmental issues are discussed, and several methods for selecting development projects are described. A number of market forecasting techniques, including time trend, judgemental, and econometric methods, were reviewed, and the results of these models are presented.

  6. Application of an electrochemical chlorine-generation system combined with solar energy as appropriate technology for water disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jusol; Park, Chan Gyu; Yoon, Jeyong

    2013-02-01

    Affordable water disinfection is key to reducing the waterborne disease experienced worldwide where resources are limited. A simple electrochemical system that can generate chlorine as a disinfectant from the electrolysis of sodium chloride is an appropriate technology to produce clean water, particularly if driven by solar energy. This study examined the affordability of an electrochemical chlorine generation system using solar energy and developed the necessary design information for its implementation. A two-electrode batch reactor, equipped with commercial IrO(2)-coated electrodes and a solar panel (approximate area 0.2 m(2)), was used to produce chlorine from a 35g/L solution of NaCl. Within 1 h, sufficient chlorine (0.8 g) was generated to produce clean drinking water for about 80 people for 1 day (target microorganism: Escherichia coli; daily drinking water requirement: 2 L per person; chlorine demand: 4 mg/L; solar power: 650 W/m(2) in Seoul, Korea. Small household batteries were demonstrated to be a suitable alternative power source when there is insufficient solar irradiation. Using a 1 m(2) solar panel, the reactor would take only 15 min in Seoul, Korea, or 7 min in the tropics (solar power 1300 W/m(2)), to generate 1 g of chlorine. The solar-powered electrochemical chlorine generation system for which design information is provided here is a simple and affordable way to produce chlorine with which to convert contaminated water into clean drinking water.

  7. Knowledge Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Several technologies are emerging that provide new ways to capture, store, present and use knowledge. This book is the first to provide a comprehensive introduction to five of the most important of these technologies: Knowledge Engineering, Knowledge Based Engineering, Knowledge Webs, Ontologies and Semantic Webs. For each of these, answers are given to a number of key questions (What is it? How does it operate? How is a system developed? What can it be used for? What tools are available? What are the main issues?). The book is aimed at students, researchers and practitioners interested in Knowledge Management, Artificial Intelligence, Design Engineering and Web Technologies. During the 1990s, Nick worked at the University of Nottingham on the application of AI techniques to knowledge management and on various knowledge acquisition projects to develop expert systems for military applications. In 1999, he joined Epistemics where he worked on numerous knowledge projects and helped establish knowledge management...

  8. Persuasive Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Persuasive Technology, PERSUASIVE 2010, held in Copenhagen Denmark in June 2010. The 25 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 80 submissions. In addition three keynote papers are included in this vol......This book constitutes the proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Persuasive Technology, PERSUASIVE 2010, held in Copenhagen Denmark in June 2010. The 25 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 80 submissions. In addition three keynote papers are included...... in this volume. The topics covered are emotions and user experience, ambient persuasive systems, persuasive design, persuasion profiles, designing for health, psychology of persuasion, embodied and conversational agents, economic incentives, and future directions for persuasive technology....

  9. Seafood Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børresen, Torger

    This presentation will fill the total picture of this conference between fisheries and aquaculture, blue biotech and bioconservation, by considering the optimal processing technology of marine resources from the raw material until the seafood reaches the plate of the consumer. The situation today...... must be performed such that total traceability and authenticity of the final products can be presented on demand. The most important aspects to be considered within seafood technology today are safety, healthy products and high eating quality. Safety can be divided into microbiological safety...... and not presenting any safety risk per se. Seafood is healthy due to the omega-3 fatty acids and the nutritional value of vitamins, peptides and proteins. The processing technology must however be performed such that these valuable features are not lost during production. The same applies to the eating quality. Any...

  10. Persuasive Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Persuasive Technology, PERSUASIVE 2010, held in Copenhagen Denmark in June 2010. The 25 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 80 submissions. In addition three keynote papers are included in this vol......This book constitutes the proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Persuasive Technology, PERSUASIVE 2010, held in Copenhagen Denmark in June 2010. The 25 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 80 submissions. In addition three keynote papers are included...... in this volume. The topics covered are emotions and user experience, ambient persuasive systems, persuasive design, persuasion profiles, designing for health, psychology of persuasion, embodied and conversational agents, economic incentives, and future directions for persuasive technology....

  11. Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells: Physics and technology by alternative tracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crovetto, Andrea

    In this thesis I shall present the most scientifically interesting and/or practically useful results achieved in my PhD project. Such results are related to fundamental properties and technological aspects of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) and related materials for solar cells. By "related materials" I mean two...... things: i) alternative solar absorbers (notably, Cu2SnS3) that are chemically related to CZTS and that have similar selling points; ii) other materials included in the device stack of CZTS solar cells. Here I list what I believe the main highlights of my work are. First, we achieve the highest reported...... power conversion eciency (5.2%) for a CZTS solar cell using pulsed laser deposition as a fabrication method for CZTS precursors. This is thanks to to joint work of PhD student Andrea Cazzaniga, PhD student Chang Yan (University of New South Wales, Australia) and myself. Perhaps more importantly, we...

  12. Research and development of utilization technology of solar thermal energy system for industrial and other use. International joint technology development for solar energy utilization systems; Sangyoyo nado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Taiyo energy riyo system kokusai kyodo gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takita, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for international joint technology development for solar energy utilization systems. The joint study with an Indonesian research institute takes a model of lumber drying plant for the design and feasibility study. All the parts it needs are technically available in Indonesia, except carbon fiber sheets and electronic devices for controlling purposes. The drying cost is higher than that of a plant which procures charge-free wood fuel, but lower than that of a plant which procures fuel at 30$/t. A cacao drying plant model is also studied. The feasibility study shows that the initial investment for the blowing-up model is much higher by 60% to 100% than that for the conventional plant. Its fuel cost is lower by 11% than that of residual oil but 27% higher than that of wood. 4 figs.

  13. Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nanette R.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this summer's work was to attempt to enhance Technology Application Group (TAG) ability to measure the outcomes of its efforts to transfer NASA technology. By reviewing existing literature, by explaining the economic principles involved in evaluating the economic impact of technology transfer, and by investigating the LaRC processes our William & Mary team has been able to lead this important discussion. In reviewing the existing literature, we identified many of the metrics that are currently being used in the area of technology transfer. Learning about the LaRC technology transfer processes and the metrics currently used to track the transfer process enabled us to compare other R&D facilities to LaRC. We discuss and diagram impacts of technology transfer in the short run and the long run. Significantly, it serves as the basis for analysis and provides guidance in thinking about what the measurement objectives ought to be. By focusing on the SBIR Program, valuable information regarding the strengths and weaknesses of this LaRC program are to be gained. A survey was developed to ask probing questions regarding SBIR contractors' experience with the program. Specifically we are interested in finding out whether the SBIR Program is accomplishing its mission, if the SBIR companies are providing the needed innovations specified by NASA and to what extent those innovations have led to commercial success. We also developed a survey to ask COTR's, who are NASA employees acting as technical advisors to the SBIR contractors, the same type of questions, evaluating the successes and problems with the SBIR Program as they see it. This survey was developed to be implemented interactively on computer. It is our hope that the statistical and econometric studies that can be done on the data collected from all of these sources will provide insight regarding the direction to take in developing systematic evaluations of programs like the SBIR Program so that they can

  14. Soulful Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2010-01-01

    Samsung introduced in 2008 a mobile phone called "Soul" made with a human touch and including itself a "magic touch". Through the analysis of a Nokia mobile phone TV-commercials I want to examine the function and form of digital technology in everyday images. The mobile phone and its digital came...... commercials and internet commercials for mobile phones from Nokia, or handheld computers, as Sony-Ericsson prefers to call them. Digital technology points towards a forgotten pre-human and not only post-human condition....

  15. Playful Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv; Eriksson, Eva

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the design of future services for children in Danish public libraries is discussed, in the light of new challenges and opportunities in relation to new media and technologies. The Danish government has over the last few years initiated and described a range of initiatives regarding...... in the library, the changing role of the librarians and the library space. We argue that intertwining traditional library services with new media forms and engaging play is the core challenge for future design in physical public libraries, but also that it is through new media and technology that new...

  16. Playful Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv; Eriksson, Eva

    2013-01-01

    in the library, the changing role of the librarians and the library space. We argue that intertwining traditional library services with new media forms and engaging play is the core challenge for future design in physical public libraries, but also that it is through new media and technology that new......In this paper, the design of future services for children in Danish public libraries is discussed, in the light of new challenges and opportunities in relation to new media and technologies. The Danish government has over the last few years initiated and described a range of initiatives regarding...

  17. Architectural technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    The booklet offers an overall introduction to the Institute of Architectural Technology and its projects and activities, and an invitation to the reader to contact the institute or the individual researcher for further information. The research, which takes place at the Institute of Architectural...... Technology at the Roayl Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture, reflects a spread between strategic, goal-oriented pilot projects, commissioned by a ministry, a fund or a private company, and on the other hand projects which originate from strong personal interests and enthusiasm of individual...

  18. Aluminium alloyed iron-silicide/silicon solar cells: A simple approach for low cost environmental-friendly photovoltaic technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Dalapati, Goutam; Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Kumar, Avishek; Cheh Tan, Cheng; Ru Tan, Hui; Chi, Dongzhi

    2015-12-03

    This work demonstrates the fabrication of silicide/silicon based solar cell towards the development of low cost and environmental friendly photovoltaic technology. A heterostructure solar cells using metallic alpha phase (α-phase) aluminum alloyed iron silicide (FeSi(Al)) on n-type silicon is fabricated with an efficiency of 0.8%. The fabricated device has an open circuit voltage and fill-factor of 240 mV and 60%, respectively. Performance of the device was improved by about 7 fold to 5.1% through the interface engineering. The α-phase FeSi(Al)/silicon solar cell devices have promising photovoltaic characteristic with an open circuit voltage, short-circuit current and a fill factor (FF) of 425 mV, 18.5 mA/cm(2), and 64%, respectively. The significant improvement of α-phase FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells is due to the formation p(+-)n homojunction through the formation of re-grown crystalline silicon layer (~5-10 nm) at the silicide/silicon interface. Thickness of the regrown silicon layer is crucial for the silicide/silicon based photovoltaic devices. Performance of the α-FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells significantly depends on the thickness of α-FeSi(Al) layer and process temperature during the device fabrication. This study will open up new opportunities for the Si based photovoltaic technology using a simple, sustainable, and los cost method.

  19. Aluminium alloyed iron-silicide/silicon solar cells: A simple approach for low cost environmental-friendly photovoltaic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Dalapati, Goutam; Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Kumar, Avishek; Cheh Tan, Cheng; Ru Tan, Hui; Chi, Dongzhi

    2015-12-01

    This work demonstrates the fabrication of silicide/silicon based solar cell towards the development of low cost and environmental friendly photovoltaic technology. A heterostructure solar cells using metallic alpha phase (α-phase) aluminum alloyed iron silicide (FeSi(Al)) on n-type silicon is fabricated with an efficiency of 0.8%. The fabricated device has an open circuit voltage and fill-factor of 240 mV and 60%, respectively. Performance of the device was improved by about 7 fold to 5.1% through the interface engineering. The α-phase FeSi(Al)/silicon solar cell devices have promising photovoltaic characteristic with an open circuit voltage, short-circuit current and a fill factor (FF) of 425 mV, 18.5 mA/cm2, and 64%, respectively. The significant improvement of α-phase FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells is due to the formation p+-n homojunction through the formation of re-grown crystalline silicon layer (~5-10 nm) at the silicide/silicon interface. Thickness of the regrown silicon layer is crucial for the silicide/silicon based photovoltaic devices. Performance of the α-FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells significantly depends on the thickness of α-FeSi(Al) layer and process temperature during the device fabrication. This study will open up new opportunities for the Si based photovoltaic technology using a simple, sustainable, and los cost method.

  20. Research Update: Large-area deposition, coating, printing, and processing techniques for the upscaling of perovskite solar cell technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razza, Stefano; Castro-Hermosa, Sergio; Di Carlo, Aldo; Brown, Thomas M.

    2016-09-01

    To bring perovskite solar cells to the industrial world, performance must be maintained at the photovoltaic module scale. Here we present large-area manufacturing and processing options applicable to large-area cells and modules. Printing and coating techniques, such as blade coating, slot-die coating, spray coating, screen printing, inkjet printing, and gravure printing (as alternatives to spin coating), as well as vacuum or vapor based deposition and laser patterning techniques are being developed for an effective scale-up of the technology. The latter also enables the manufacture of solar modules on flexible substrates, an option beneficial for many applications and for roll-to-roll production.

  1. Screening of high melting point phase change materials (PCM) in solar thermal concentrating technology based on CLFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshi, Akira [Ichinoseki National College of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Mills, D.R.; Bittar, A. [University of Sydney (Australia). School of Physics; Saitoh, T.S. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Graduate School of Environmental Studies

    2005-09-01

    We have investigated the suitability of high melting point phase change materials for use in new, large scale solar thermal electricity plants. Candidate materials for latent heat thermal energy storage are identified and their operating parameters modeled and analysed. The mathematical characteristics of charging and discharging these storage materials are discussed. Several high melting point, high conductivity materials are shown to be suitable and advantageous for use with solar thermal electricity plants, such as Sydney University's novel, low cost CLFR and MTSA collector systems, as well as existing parabolic trough and tower technologies. (author)

  2. Manufacturing technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

  3. Blast Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    Team Leader Risa Scherer Blast Mitigation Interior and Laboratory Team Leader Blast Technologies POC’s Government Point Of Contacts (POCs): To...to yield injury assessments at higher fidelities and with higher confidence UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Risa Scherer Blast Mitigation Interior and

  4. Strategic Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-11

    the spectrum of future conflict and engagement. Technology Surprise Francis Fukuyama , in his introduction to the book Blindside, summarizes recent...atrocities or large-scale natural disasters abroad 12 Francis Fukuyama , ed, Blindside (Baltimore, MD: Brookings Institute Press, 2007), 1. 13 Defense

  5. (Environmental technology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boston, H.L.

    1990-10-12

    The traveler participated in a conference on environmental technology in Paris, sponsored by the US Embassy-Paris, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the French Environmental Ministry, and others. The traveler sat on a panel for environmental aspects of energy technology and made a presentation on the potential contributions of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to a planned French-American Environmental Technologies Institute in Chattanooga, Tennessee, and Evry, France. This institute would provide opportunities for international cooperation on environmental issues and technology transfer related to environmental protection, monitoring, and restoration at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The traveler also attended the Fourth International Conference on Environmental Contamination in Barcelona. Conference topics included environmental chemistry, land disposal of wastes, treatment of toxic wastes, micropollutants, trace organics, artificial radionuclides in the environment, and the use biomonitoring and biosystems for environmental assessment. The traveler presented a paper on The Fate of Radionuclides in Sewage Sludge Applied to Land.'' Those findings corresponded well with results from studies addressing the fate of fallout radionuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. There was an exchange of new information on a number of topics of interest to DOE waste management and environmental restoration needs.

  6. GIG Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-08

    caching • GIG as a sensor • Cyber SA/defense • Cross Domain Information Sharing • Multi-Level Security solutions • Enterprise Service Bus ( ESB ...Link Layer Technologies Integrated Link Layer All Optical Core For Terrestrial and Space Networks Separate Transmission Networks Mid-Term Integrated

  7. Geospatial Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Philip A.; Ritz, John

    2004-01-01

    Geospatial technology refers to a system that is used to acquire, store, analyze, and output data in two or three dimensions. This data is referenced to the earth by some type of coordinate system, such as a map projection. Geospatial systems include thematic mapping, the Global Positioning System (GPS), remote sensing (RS), telemetry, and…

  8. Sport Technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kirkbride, T

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available in design and manufacturing to virtual reality. There are carbon fiber materials used and in performance analysis that use video base technology. In the 1999 cricket World Cup, small earphones were used for Hansie to communicate with the coach and were later...

  9. Soft X-Ray (1-7 nm) Solar Spectrometer based on novel Nanowriter Electron-Beam Nanofabrication Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didkovsky, L. V.; Wieman, S. R.; Chao, W.

    2015-12-01

    A new soft X-ray (SXR) spectrometer combines proven detector technology demonstrated on the SOHO Solar EUV Monitor (SOHO/SEM) and SDO EUV SpectroPhotometer (SDO/EVE/ESP) instruments with novel technology for X-ray optics nanofabrication developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The new spectrometer will provide solar SXR measurements of absolute irradiance in the 1.0 to 7.0 nm range spectrally resolved into bands narrower than 1 nm - measurements that are not available from existing solar-observing instruments but are important for studying and modeling coronal dynamics and the Sun-Earth's connection, e.g. the Earth's Ionosphere. For the proposed SXR spectrometer we will introduce a transmission grating based on novel Nanowriter Electron-Beam Nanofabrication technology developed at the Center for X-ray Optics (CXRO) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The CXRO technology has been used in the fabrication of X-ray zone plates with feature sizes as small as 25 nm in optical elements with overall sizes on the order of 1 cm. The CXRO technology has significant flexibility in terms of pattern geometry, and is thus capable of producing linear transmission gratings with aperture sizes similar to SEM and ESP but with four times the dispersion. With such dispersion, reasonable spectral resolution (< 1nm) can be obtained using commercial off-the shelf (COTS) X-ray sensitive AXUV type silicon photodiodes from the Optodiode Corp. in an instrument with overall size and mass similar to that of SEM or ESP.

  10. Power generation technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The new edition of Power Generation Technologies is a concise and readable guide that provides an introduction to the full spectrum of currently available power generation options, from traditional fossil fuels and the better established alternatives such as wind and solar power, to emerging renewables such as biomass and geothermal energy. Technology solutions such as combined heat and power and distributed generation are also explored. However, this book is more than just an account of the technologies - for each method the author explores the economic and environmental costs and risk factor

  11. Vacuum Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biltoft, P J

    2004-10-15

    The environmental condition called vacuum is created any time the pressure of a gas is reduced compared to atmospheric pressure. On earth we typically create a vacuum by connecting a pump capable of moving gas to a relatively leak free vessel. Through operation of the gas pump the number of gas molecules per unit volume is decreased within the vessel. As soon as one creates a vacuum natural forces (in this case entropy) work to restore equilibrium pressure; the practical effect of this is that gas molecules attempt to enter the evacuated space by any means possible. It is useful to think of vacuum in terms of a gas at a pressure below atmospheric pressure. In even the best vacuum vessels ever created there are approximately 3,500,000 molecules of gas per cubic meter of volume remaining inside the vessel. The lowest pressure environment known is in interstellar space where there are approximately four molecules of gas per cubic meter. Researchers are currently developing vacuum technology components (pumps, gauges, valves, etc.) using micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Miniature vacuum components and systems will open the possibility for significant savings in energy cost and will open the doors to advances in electronics, manufacturing and semiconductor fabrication. In conclusion, an understanding of the basic principles of vacuum technology as presented in this summary is essential for the successful execution of all projects that involve vacuum technology. Using the principles described above, a practitioner of vacuum technology can design a vacuum system that will achieve the project requirements.

  12. Solar Wear Tattoo: New Technology Through the use of Different Material Behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Vanessa da Graça

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study comes within the framework of a PhD course in Design, which is the continuation of a Masters Degree research in Fashion Design, searching for wardrobe technology and innovation through material behaviour. The intent of this project is to present solutions that promote a new and versatile product allowing for a different kind of aesthetic. This will be achieved through different materials with different behaviours that when put together create an innovative technology thus creating a new practice of body art, through the use of fashionable beachwear created with this technology. This technology allows the transformation of the suntan marks left by female swimwear. This will result in the creation of designs and drawings on the body, using shapes inspired by the Oriental Zodiac Signs, as well as colours drawn from the five elements of Feng Shui, which are also present in the Western Astrological Signs.

  13. Methodology for Examining Potential Technology Breakthroughs for Mitigating CO2 and Application to Centralized Solar Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggressive reductions in US greenhouse gas emissions will require radical changes in how society generates and uses energy. Technological breakthroughs will be necessary if we are to make this transition cost effectively. With limited resources, understanding the breakthrough pot...

  14. New approach to solar photo-Fenton operation. Raceway ponds as tertiary treatment technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carra, Irene; Santos-Juanes, Lucas [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Almería, 04120, Almería (Spain); CIESOL, Joint Centre of the University of Almería-CIEMAT, 04120, Almería (Spain); Acién Fernández, Francisco Gabriel [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Almería, 04120, Almería (Spain); Malato, Sixto [CIESOL, Joint Centre of the University of Almería-CIEMAT, 04120, Almería (Spain); Plataforma Solar de Almería (CIEMAT), 04200, Tabernas, Almería (Spain); Sánchez Pérez, José Antonio, E-mail: jsanchez@ual.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Almería, 04120, Almería (Spain); CIESOL, Joint Centre of the University of Almería-CIEMAT, 04120, Almería (Spain)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Raceway ponds are used for the first time as photo-Fenton reactors. • Raceway ponds are effective and have high treatment capacity (48 mg/h m{sup 2} for 360 L). • The highest treatment capacity occurs with 5.5 mg Fe/L and 15 cm liquid depth. • Low iron concentrations are enough to oxidise the pesticide mixture. • Raceway ponds are a simple and low-cost alternative for micropollutant removal. - Abstract: The photo-Fenton process has proven its efficiency in the removal of micropollutants. However, the high costs usually associated with it prevent a spread of this technology. An important factor affecting costs is the kind of photoreactor used, usually tubular with a reflecting surface. Tubular reactors like compound parabolic collectors, CPCs, involve high capital costs. In comparison, the application of less costly reactors such as the extensive raceway ponds (RPRs) would help to spread the use of the photo-Fenton process as tertiary treatment at commercial scale. As far as the authors know, RPRs have never been used in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) applications. This work is aimed at studying the applicability of RPRs to remove micropollutants with solar photo-Fenton. For this purpose, a pesticide mixture of commercial acetamiprid (ACTM) and thiabendazole (TBZ) (100 μg/L each) was used in simulated secondary effluent. Iron concentration (1, 5.5 and 10 mg/L) and liquid depth (5, 10 and 15 cm) were studied as process variables. TBZ was removed at the beginning of the treatment (less than 5 min), although ACTM removal times were longer (20–40 min for the highest iron concentrations). High treatment capacity per surface area was obtained (48 mg/h m{sup 2} with 5.5 mg Fe/L and 15 cm liquid depth), proving the feasibility of using RPRs for micropollutant removal.

  15. On the Path to SunShot. Advancing Concentrating Solar Power Technology, Performance, and Dispatchability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehos, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ho, Clifford [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Armijo, Kenneth [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This report examines the remaining challenges to achieving the competitive concentrating solar power (CSP) costs and large-scale deployment envisioned under the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative. Although CSP costs continue to decline toward SunShot targets, CSP acceptance and deployment have been hindered by inexpensive photovoltaics (PV). However, a recent analysis found that thermal energy storage (TES) could increase CSP's value--based on combined operational and capacity benefits--by up to 6 cents/kWh compared to variable-generation PV, under a 40% renewable portfolio standard in California. Thus, the high grid value of CSP-TES must be considered when evaluating renewable energy options. An assessment of net system cost accounts for the difference between the costs of adding new generation and the avoided cost from displacing other resources providing the same level of energy and reliability. The net system costs of several CSP configurations are compared with the net system costs of conventional natural-gas-fired combustion-turbine (CT) and combined-cycle plants. At today's low natural gas prices and carbon emission costs, the economics suggest a peaking configuration for CSP. However, with high natural gas prices and emission costs, each of the CSP configurations compares favorably against the conventional alternatives, and systems with intermediate to high capacity factors become the preferred alternatives. Another analysis compares net system costs for three configurations of CSP versus PV with batteries and PV with CTs. Under current technology costs, the least-expensive option is a combination of PV and CTs. However, under future cost assumptions, the optimal configuration of CSP becomes the most cost-effective option.

  16. Technology Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    The technology activities carried out by the Euratom-ENEA Association in the framework of the European Fusion Development Agreement concern the Next Step (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER), the Long-Term Programme (breeder blanket, materials, International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility - IFMIF), Power Plant Conceptual Studies and Socio-Economic Studies. The Underlying Technology Programme was set up to complement the fusion activities as well to develop technologies with a wider range of interest. The Technology Programme mainly involves staff from the Frascati laboratories of the Fusion Technical and Scientific Unit and from the Brasimone laboratories of the Advanced Physics Technologies Unit. Other ENEA units also provide valuable contributions to the programme. ENEA is heavily engaged in component development/testing and in design and safety activities for the European Fusion Technology Programme. Although the work documented in the following covers a large range of topics that differ considerably because they concern the development of extremely complex systems, the high level of integration and coordination ensures the capability to cover the fusion system as a whole. In 2004 the most significant testing activities concerned the ITER primary beryllium-coated first wall. In the field of high-heat-flux components, an important achievement was the qualification of the process for depositing a copper liner on carbon fibre composite (CFC) hollow tiles. This new process, pre-brazed casting (PBC), allows the hot radial pressing (HRP) joining procedure to be used also for CFC-based armour monoblock divertor components. The PBC and HRP processes are candidates for the construction of the ITER divertor. In the materials field an important milestone was the commissioning of a new facility for chemical vapour infiltration/deposition, used for optimising silicon carbide composite (SiCf/SiC) components. Eight patents were deposited during 2004

  17. Eco green flexible hybrid photovoltaic-thermoelectric solar cells with nanoimprint technology and roll-to-roll manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Choi, Sang H.

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores the technical and commercial feasibility of nanotechnology based, high-efficiency, photovoltaic-thermoelectric hybrid solar cells as an environmentally-friendly, renewable energy source for residential and commercial buildings. To convert as much as possible of the usable photovoltaic (58% of the Energy Density) and thermoelectric (42% of the Energy Density) solar spectrum into electricity, a hybrid multilayer system is presented which comprises of 1) carbon nanotube (CNT) embedded in conducting polymers such as P3HT (poly(3-hexylthiophene) or P3OT (poly3-octylthiophene), 2) 3D gold nanostructures exhibiting plasmonic resonances for energy conversion, 3) nanoantenna architecture to capture IR energy, 4) a composite of Bi2Te3, SiGe nanocrystals and Au nanoshells as thermoelectric energy conversion layer, 5) configuration of the above items engineered in the form of meta-material designs that by virtue of their 3D structures ensure that incident light is neither reflected nor transmitted, but is rather all absorbed, 6) a multilayer arrangement of the above layers in a fractal architecture to capture all the wavelengths from 200 to 3000 nm8 and the matching electronic interface for each layer. The roll-to-roll manufacturing method presented will enable economical large-scale production of solar panels. This potentially transformational technology has the ability to replace the Si solar cell technology by reducing costs from 0.18/KWh to 0.003/KWh while introducing a more environmentally-friendly manufacturing process.

  18. Hearing Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the Public / Hearing and Balance Hearing Assistive Technology Hearing Assistive Technology: FM Systems | Infrared Systems | Induction ... Assistive Technology Systems Solutions What are hearing assistive technology systems (HATS)? Hearing assistive technology systems (HATS) are ...

  19. Communications technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccia, C. Louis; Sivo, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    The technologies for optimized, i.e., state of the art, operation of satellite-based communications systems are surveyed. Features of spaceborne active repeater systems, low-noise signal amplifiers, power amplifiers, and high frequency switches are described. Design features and capabilities of various satellite antenna systems are discussed, including multiple beam, shaped reflector shaped beam, offset reflector multiple beam, and mm-wave and laser antenna systems. Attitude control systems used with the antenna systems are explored, along with multiplexers, filters, and power generation, conditioning and amplification systems. The operational significance and techniques for exploiting channel bandwidth, baseband and modulation technologies are described. Finally, interconnectivity among communications satellites by means of RF and laser links is examined, as are the roles to be played by the Space Station and future large space antenna systems.

  20. Manufacturing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, J.A.; Floyd, H.L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L. [eds.

    1993-08-01

    This bulletin depicts current research on manufacturing technology at Sandia laboratories. An automated, adaptive process removes grit overspray from jet engine turbine blades. Advanced electronic ceramics are chemically prepared from solution for use in high- voltage varistors. Selective laser sintering automates wax casting pattern fabrication. Numerical modeling improves performance of photoresist stripper (simulation on Cray supercomputer reveals path to uniform plasma). And mathematical models help make dream of low- cost ceramic composites come true.

  1. 0.35% Absolute Efficiency Gain of Bifacial N-type Si Solar cells by Industrial Metal Wrap Through Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geerligs, L.J.; Guillevin, N.; Weeber, A.W.; Bultman, J.H.; Heurtault, B. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Zhao, Wenchao; Wang, Jianming; Shen, Yanlong; Wang, Ziqian; Chen, Yingle; Hu, Zhiyan; Li, Gaofei; Chen, Jianhui; Xiong, Jingfeng [Yingli Green Energy Holding Co., Ltd, 3399 North Chaoyang Avenue, Baoding (China)

    2012-06-15

    N-type Metal Wrap Through (n-MWT) is presented as an industrially promising back-contact technology to reach high performance of silicon solar cells and modules. It can combine benefits from both n-type base and MWT metallization. In this paper, the integration of the MWT technique with a commercial industrial bifacial n-type Si Solar cell (239 cm{sup 2}) process is described. After the integration, 0.35% absolute efficiency gain was achieved, and V{sub oc} gain and I{sub sc} gain up to 0.42% and 2.45%, respectively, were obtained, mainly attributed to reduced shadow loss and surface recombination. Based on calculations, the anticipation of further improvements for n-MWT solar cells, by taking better advantage of this integration, is also presented.

  2. Emerging technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shin-yee

    1993-03-01

    The mission of the Emerging Technologies thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is to help individuals establish technology areas that have national and commercial impact, and are outside the scope of the existing thrust areas. We continue to encourage innovative ideas that bring quality results to existing programs. We also take as our mission the encouragement of investment in new technology areas that are important to the economic competitiveness of this nation. In fiscal year 1992, we have focused on nine projects, summarized in this report: (1) Tire, Accident, Handling, and Roadway Safety; (2) EXTRANSYT: An Expert System for Advanced Traffic Management; (3) Odin: A High-Power, Underwater, Acoustic Transmitter for Surveillance Applications; (4) Passive Seismic Reservoir Monitoring: Signal Processing Innovations; (5) Paste Extrudable Explosive Aft Charge for Multi-Stage Munitions; (6) A Continuum Model for Reinforced Concrete at High Pressures and Strain Rates: Interim Report; (7) Benchmarking of the Criticality Evaluation Code COG; (8) Fast Algorithm for Large-Scale Consensus DNA Sequence Assembly; and (9) Using Electrical Heating to Enhance the Extraction of Volatile Organic Compounds from Soil.

  3. Technology Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilkington, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a bibliometric analysis (co-citation network analysis) of 10 journals in the management of technology (MOT) field. As well as introducing various bibliometric ideas, network analysis tools identify and explore the concepts covered by the field and their inter-relationships. Spe......This paper reports a bibliometric analysis (co-citation network analysis) of 10 journals in the management of technology (MOT) field. As well as introducing various bibliometric ideas, network analysis tools identify and explore the concepts covered by the field and their inter......-relationships. Specific results from different levels of analysis show the different dimensions of technology management: • Co-word terms identify themes • Journal co-citation network: linking to other disciplines • Co-citation network show concentrations of themes The analysis shows that MOT has a bridging role...... in integrating ideas from several distinct disciplines. This suggests that management and strategy are central to MOT which essentially relates to the firm rather than policy. Similarly we have a dual focus on capabilities, but can see subtle differences in how we view these ideas, either through an inwards...

  4. Long-Term Monitoring of Utility-Scale Solar Energy Development and Application of Remote Sensing Technologies: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Yuki [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Division; Grippo, Mark A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Division; Smith, Karen P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Division

    2014-09-30

    In anticipation of increased utility-scale solar energy development over the next 20 to 50 years, federal agencies and other organizations have identified a need to develop comprehensive long-term monitoring programs specific to solar energy development. Increasingly, stakeholders are requesting that federal agencies, such as the U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management (BLM), develop rigorous and comprehensive long-term monitoring programs. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) is assisting the BLM in developing an effective long-term monitoring plan as required by the BLM Solar Energy Program to study the environmental effects of solar energy development. The monitoring data can be used to protect land resources from harmful development practices while at the same time reducing restrictions on utility-scale solar energy development that are determined to be unnecessary. The development of a long-term monitoring plan that incorporates regional datasets, prioritizes requirements in the context of landscape-scale conditions and trends, and integrates cost-effective data collection methods (such as remote sensing technologies) will translate into lower monitoring costs and increased certainty for solar developers regarding requirements for developing projects on public lands. This outcome will support U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Sunshot Program goals. For this reason, the DOE provided funding for the work presented in this report.

  5. Integration of photovoltaic and concentrated solar thermal technologies for H2 production by the hybrid sulfur cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberatore, Raffaele; Ferrara, Mariarosaria; Lanchi, Michela; Turchetti, Luca

    2017-06-01

    It is widely agreed that hydrogen used as energy carrier and/or storage media may significantly contribute in the reduction of emissions, especially if produced by renewable energy sources. The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) cycle is considered as one of the most promising processes to produce hydrogen through the water-splitting process. The FP7 project SOL2HY2 (Solar to Hydrogen Hybrid Cycles) investigates innovative material and process solutions for the use of solar heat and power in the HyS process. A significant part of the SOL2HY2 project is devoted to the analysis and optimization of the integration of the solar and chemical (hydrogen production) plants. In this context, this work investigates the possibility to integrate different solar technologies, namely photovoltaic, solar central receiver and solar troughs, to optimize their use in the HyS cycle for a green hydrogen production, both in the open and closed process configurations. The analysis carried out accounts for different combinations of geographical location and plant sizing criteria. The use of a sulfur burner, which can serve both as thermal backup and SO2 source for the open cycle, is also considered.

  6. Promotion of solar technology by self-construction, systems in the Bergstrasse region of Germany; Foerderung von Solartechnik durch Selbstbau, Anlagen im Kreis Bergstrasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, R.

    1993-12-31

    The experiences gained within the framework of the foundation of a working group `Solar Technology Bergstrasse` are described. (UA) [Deutsch] Es wird ueber Erfahrungen berichtet, die im Zuge der Gruendung der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Solartechnik Bergstrasse gesammelt werden konnten. (UA)

  7. FY 1995 report on the results of the investigational study on the technology development for the commercialization of solar systems for industrial use, etc. - Investigational study on the solar system. Investigational study on a solar heat utilization system; 1995 nendo sangyoyonado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Solar system no chosa kenkyu (taiyonetsu riyo system ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This survey clarifies the present situation of the solar heat utilization technology mostly for industrial use, makes a concrete concept of solar heat utilization clear, and extracts items of the technology development and evaluates sociality, economical efficiency, etc. It aims at working out a program for the future technology development. The following proposals were made: 1) technology development program; 2) simulation soft development program; 3) experimental field of the solar heat utilization technology. In 1), concepts of technology development are 'medical use boiling pasteurization,' 'temperature increase in the metal surface treatment process,' 'water purification using photo-catalyst,' 'distributed small power system,' and 'waste water treatment using bio-technology.' In 2), cost reduction is needed for commercialization/merchandising of technology, and therefore, the development of simulation software is studied. In 3), as the experimental field from commercial/residential use system to industrial use system, an large-scale and systematical experimental field is proposed where all that can be substituted for by solar energy among the energies required for the urban function are used. By this, the solar heat utilization system gets accustomed to the people, increases the reliability, and clearly leads to the course to the next stage of the R and D. (NEDO)

  8. The Brazilian solar heater. Theoretical and practical aspects for a sustainable technology transfer; O aquecedor solar brasileiro. Teoria e pratica em prol de uma transferencia de tecnologia sustentavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rispoli, Italo Alberto Gatica

    2008-07-01

    This research represents a contribution to the hydric, energetic and environmental resources, serving as a technical aid to the energetic planning related to the demand, acting favorably on the stability of the conventional electrical systems. It has been studied a reduction on the manufacturing cost of an industrialized solar heater that performs well during the cold season of the year, being necessary to review the solar radiation subject and at the same time test prototypes and materials. The final result of this research gathers aid to civil, environmental engineering students, as well to architecture students, designers, thermo solar technology makers and salespeople. It was still possible to model a sustainable credit line for the Brazilian middle class, with no loss to the bank (author)

  9. Public demonstration projects and field trials: Accelerating commercialisation of sustainable technology in solar photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, James [Cass Business School, City University, 106 Bunhill Row, London EC1Y 8TZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: j.e.brown@city.ac.uk; Hendry, Chris [Cass Business School, City University, 106 Bunhill Row, London EC1Y 8TZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: c.n.hendry@city.ac.uk

    2009-07-15

    The paper considers the role of government funded demonstration projects and field trials (DTs) in accelerating the commercialisation of new energy technologies that meet a public good but do not have immediate market appeal [Sagar, A.D., van der Zwaan, B., 2006. Technological innovation in the energy sector: R and D, deployment, and learning-by-doing. Energy Policy 34, 2601-2608]. Drawing on an original database of DTs in the EU, Japan and USA from 1973 to 2004, we review the history of DTs in photovoltaic technology for electricity generation, and its subsequent take up as a commercial energy source. We find that DTs that are aimed purely at discovering suitable market opportunities are less successful in achieving diffusion than projects that target a particular application and concentrate resources on it. The former nevertheless have a vital role to play in the learning process, while a targeted focus is often dependent on national industrial and institutional factors.

  10. Public demonstration projects and field trials. Accelerating commercialisation of sustainable technology in solar photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, James; Hendry, Chris [Cass Business School, City University, 106 Bunhill Row, London EC1Y 8TZ (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    The paper considers the role of government funded demonstration projects and field trials (DTs) in accelerating the commercialisation of new energy technologies that meet a public good but do not have immediate market appeal [Sagar, A.D., van der Zwaan, B., 2006. Technological innovation in the energy sector: R and D, deployment, and learning-by-doing. Energy Policy 34, 2601-2608]. Drawing on an original database of DTs in the EU, Japan and USA from 1973 to 2004, we review the history of DTs in photovoltaic technology for electricity generation, and its subsequent take up as a commercial energy source. We find that DTs that are aimed purely at discovering suitable market opportunities are less successful in achieving diffusion than projects that target a particular application and concentrate resources on it. The former nevertheless have a vital role to play in the learning process, while a targeted focus is often dependent on national industrial and institutional factors. (author)

  11. Life cycle assessment of micro production technologies - solar cells, household wind turbines and micro motors; Livscyklusvurdering af mikroproduktionsteknologier - solceller, husstandsvindmoeller og mikromotorer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faeborg Poulsen, A.; Kruse, H.; Hvid Ipsen, K.

    2000-07-15

    This report contains a life cycle based estimation of environmental effects of CHP based on the micro production technologies: solar cells, household wind turbines and micro motors. The technologies cover CHP production on very small plants which are characterised by being located by the individual consumer. (BA)

  12. Agreement technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Ossowski, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    More and more transactions, whether in business or related to leisure activities, are mediated automatically by computers and computer networks, and this trend is having a significant impact on the conception and design of new computer applications. The next generation of these applications will be based on software agents to which increasingly complex tasks can be delegated, and which interact with each other in sophisticated ways so as to forge agreements in the interest of their human users. The wide variety of technologies supporting this vision is the subject of this volume. It summarises

  13. Seafood Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børresen, Torger

    -Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) is needed to pay attention to environmental protection and continued biodiversity. Further, it is necessary to use all the raw materials provided such that present by-products and side streams in processing are being upgraded for a better use than today. Principles of blue biotechnology may......This presentation will fill the total picture of this conference between fisheries and aquaculture, blue biotech and bioconservation, by considering the optimal processing technology of marine resources from the raw material until the seafood reaches the plate of the consumer. The situation today...

  14. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Research results of hard photon technology have been summarized as a part of novel technology development highly utilizing the quantum nature of photon. Hard photon technology refers to photon beam technologies which use photon in the 0.1 to 200 nm wavelength region. Hard photon has not been used in industry due to the lack of suitable photon sources and optical devices. However, hard photon in this wavelength region is expected to bring about innovations in such areas as ultrafine processing and material synthesis due to its atom selective reaction, inner shell excitation reaction, and spatially high resolution. Then, technological themes and possibility have been surveyed. Although there are principle proposes and their verification of individual technologies for the technologies of hard photon generation, regulation and utilization, they are still far from the practical applications. For the photon source technology, the laser diode pumped driver laser technology, laser plasma photon source technology, synchrotron radiation photon source technology, and vacuum ultraviolet photon source technology are presented. For the optical device technology, the multi-layer film technology for beam mirrors and the non-spherical lens processing technology are introduced. Also are described the reduction lithography technology, hard photon excitation process, and methods of analysis and measurement. 430 refs., 165 figs., 23 tabs.

  15. The development and commercialization of solar PV technology in the oil industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinkse, J.; van den Buuse, D.

    2012-01-01

    In diversifying energy supply, the transformation of the energy industry has been identified as a key challenge for a sustainable energy future. This suggests that incumbent firms in this industry have a vital role in the development and commercialization process of renewable energy technologies. Th

  16. Employment factors for wind and solar energy technologies: A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cameron, L.; van der Zwaan, B.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an up-to-date literature review on employment opportunities associated with the deployment of renewable energy technology. We identified approximately 70 studies and data sources published over the past decade that report analysed or observed employment impacts of renewable

  17. The development and commercialization of solar PV technology in the oil industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinkse, J.; van den Buuse, D.

    2012-01-01

    In diversifying energy supply, the transformation of the energy industry has been identified as a key challenge for a sustainable energy future. This suggests that incumbent firms in this industry have a vital role in the development and commercialization process of renewable energy technologies.

  18. Employment factors for wind and solar energy technologies: A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cameron, L.; van der Zwaan, B.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an up-to-date literature review on employment opportunities associated with the deployment of renewable energy technology. We identified approximately 70 studies and data sources published over the past decade that report analysed or observed employment impacts of renewable

  19. Wearable Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Wearable technology projects, to be useful, in the future, must be seamlessly integrated with the Flight Deck of the Future (F.F). The lab contains mockups of space vehicle cockpits, habitat living quarters, and workstations equipped with novel user interfaces. The Flight Deck of the Future is one element of the Integrated Power, Avionics, and Software (IPAS) facility, which, to a large extent, manages the F.F network and data systems. To date, integration with the Flight Deck of the Future has been limited by a lack of tools and understanding of the Flight Deck of the Future data handling systems. To remedy this problem it will be necessary to learn how data is managed in the Flight Deck of the Future and to develop tools or interfaces that enable easy integration of WEAR Lab and EV3 products into the Flight Deck of the Future mockups. This capability is critical to future prototype integration, evaluation, and demonstration. This will provide the ability for WEAR Lab products, EV3 human interface prototypes, and technologies from other JSC organizations to be evaluated and tested while in the Flight Deck of the Future. All WEAR Lab products must be integrated with the interface that will connect them to the Flight Deck of the Future. The WEAR Lab products will primarily be programmed in Arduino. Arduino will be used for the development of wearable controls and a tactile communication garment. Arduino will also be used in creating wearable methane detection and warning system.

  20. Study of Green Shipping Technologies - Harnessing Wind, Waves and Solar Power in New Generation Marine Propulsion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Rutkowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose and scope of this paper is to describe the complexity of the new generation marine propulsion technologies implemented in the shipping industry to promote green ships concept and change the view of sea transportation to a more ecological and environment-friendly. Harnessing wind, waves and solar power in shipping industry can help the ship’s owners reduce the operational costs. Reducing fuel consumption results in producing less emissions and provides a clean source of renewable energy. Green shipping technologies can also effectively increase the operating range of vessels and help drive sea transportation towards a greener future and contribute to the global reduction of harmful gas emissions from the world's shipping fleets.

  1. Ke Alahaka Program of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) Mitigation Initiative Provides STEM Workshops for Native Hawaiian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, A.; Cie, D. K.; Naho`olewa, D.; Chirico, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) Mitigation Initiative and the Kahikina O Ka Lā Program are NSF-funded projects at the University of Hawai`i Maui College. These projects will provide instruction and activities intended to increase diversity in STEM or STEM-related careers. Ke Alahaka, the 2012 summer bridge program, was offered to Native Hawaiian high-school students who indicated an interest in STEM areas. Three STEM-content workshops were offered including Marine Science, Sustainable Energy Technology, and Computer Science and Engineering. Students attended hands-on classes three days a week for a month concentrating on only one of the three topics. On the other days, students participated in a Hawaiian Studies course designed to provide a cultural context for the STEM instruction. Focus groups and other program assessments indicate that 50% of the 60 students attending the workshops intend to pursue a STEM major during their undergraduate studies.

  2. Internalizing the externalities of solar technology: Methodologies for incorporating externalities in the assessment of policy options and technology assessments of solar energy initiatives and R and D programs using Brookhaven models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcuse, W

    1978-05-01

    Internalizing the costs for implementing solar energy may never be, the author says. In the meantime, budget allocation decisions must be made. It is the purpose of this paper to identify capabilities currently in existence at BNL that help to provide answers to the value of increasing the contribution of solar energy. This paper presents several alternative approaches. BNL models that are useful for the economic measurement of energy related environmental damage are NEDS/REPS1 NEDS/REPS; ESNS; PRESTO; and optimization models (M-RESOM, BECOM, SOGEPH, BESOM, DESOM/TESOM/MARICAL). The approaches suggested would be much more useful if they were evaluated by certain criteria. This is the goal of most systems research on internalizing externalities. The methods described provide quantitative measures for the following criteria, although no single method provides all of them: the residuals produced with and without solar; the impact of residuals on life, property, ecosystems, and ambience; the intergenerational effects; the effect of oil imports on security; the depletion of non-renewable resources; the quantification (as far as possible) of externalities; and the appropriate level of aggregration. In most cases in this paper, examples are given. The most common criteria is that the energy demands must be driven by an economic model that in turn is driven by an energy model that produces the energy prices and the fuel mix. Solar technology implementation is particularly dependent on relative prices, economic activity, and energy demand. (MCW)

  3. Technology maturity and technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underhill, Gary K.; Carlson, Ronald A.; Clendinning, William A.; Erdos, Jozsef; Gault, John; Hall, James W.; Jones, Robert L.; Michael, Herbert K.; Powell, Paul H.; Riemann, Carl F.; Rios-Castellon, Lorenzo; Shepherd, Burchard P.; Wilson, John S.

    1976-01-01

    All of the work reported in the preceding chapters was performed in order to assess the technical, economic, and energetic feasibility of proceeding with more detailed studies of the geopressured geothermal resource. The preliminary conceptual design and costing activities represented the prime activity for component by component review of the maturity of the technology available for resource utilization facilities. The economics and energetics studies focussed attentions on the areas of major capital and energy investment; these results comprise a useful guide for focussing design in order to reduce initial and operations and maintenance costs and/or investment. The following presents a discussion of the primary technical problems identified.

  4. Dye-sensitized solar cell module realized photovoltaic and photothermal highly efficient conversion via three-dimensional printing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qi-Zhang; Zhu, Yan-Qing; Shi, Ji-Fu; Wang, Lei-Lei; Zhong, Liu-Wen; Xu, Gang

    2017-03-01

    Not Available Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21103194, 51506205, and 21673243), the Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province, China (Grant Nos. 2014A010106018 and 2013A011401011), the Guangdong-Hong Kong Joint Innovation Project of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2014B050505015), the Special Support Program of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2014TQ01N610), the Director Innovation Foundation of Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, China (Grant No. y307p81001), and the Solar Photothermal Advanced Materials Engineering Research Center Construction Project of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2014B090904071).

  5. Incineration technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Buekens, Alfons

    2013-01-01

    Waste incineration is the art of completely combusting waste, while maintaining or reducing emission levels below current emission standards. Where possible, objectives include the recovering of energy as well as the  combustion residues.  Successful waste incineration makes it possible to achieve a deep reduction in waste volume, obtain a compact and sterile residue, and eliminate a wide array of pollutants. This book places waste incineration within the wider context of waste management, and demonstrates that, in contrast to landfills and composting, waste incineration can eliminate objectionable and hazardous properties such as flammability and toxicity, result in a significant reduction in volume, and destroy gaseous and liquid waste streams leaving little or no residues beyond those linked to flue gas neutralization and treatment. Moreover, waste incineration sterilizes and destroys putrescible matter, and produces usable heat.  Incineration Technologies first appeared as a peer-reviewed contribution ...

  6. Research Update: Large-area deposition, coating, printing, and processing techniques for the upscaling of perovskite solar cell technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Razza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To bring perovskite solar cells to the industrial world, performance must be maintained at the photovoltaic module scale. Here we present large-area manufacturing and processing options applicable to large-area cells and modules. Printing and coating techniques, such as blade coating, slot-die coating, spray coating, screen printing, inkjet printing, and gravure printing (as alternatives to spin coating, as well as vacuum or vapor based deposition and laser patterning techniques are being developed for an effective scale-up of the technology. The latter also enables the manufacture of solar modules on flexible substrates, an option beneficial for many applications and for roll-to-roll production.

  7. Reactors, Weapons, X-Rays, and Solar Panels: Using SCOT, Technological Frame, Epistemic Culture, and Actor Network Theory to Investigate Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2006-01-01

    The article explores how four different theories have been used to investigate technology. It highlights the worth and limitations of each theory and argues that an eclectic, ever-evolving approach to the study of technology is warranted. (Contains 1 table.)

  8. Application Analysis on Medium Temperature Solar Thermal Technology%中温太阳能集热技术应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 何涛; 路宾

    2013-01-01

    本文总结了近年来中温太阳能集热技术的发展,包括太阳选择性吸收涂层吸收、发射和耐高温性能的优化提高,玻璃增透技术及太阳能集热器聚光技术的改进等.而后,结合太阳能空调系统的案例计算,对比分析了中温太阳能集热器和普通低温太阳能集热器的工作效率、太阳能保证率、节能量等指标.最后,指出了中温太阳能集热技术在建筑中应用的发展方向和前景.%In this paper, the development of medium temperature solar thermal technology was discussed, including the improvement of absorptivity, emissivity and resistance to high temperature of solar paint coat, the glass antireflection technology, the optimization of light-concentrating technology for solar collector, etc. Furthermore, basing on the case study, the system COP, solar fraction and energy-saving quantity of medium temperature solar thermal collector and common low temperature solar thermal collector were compared. As a result,the development direction and prospect of medium temperature solar thermal technology were pointed out.

  9. Aluminide slurry coatings for protection of ferritic steel in molten nitrate corrosion for concentrated solar power technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audigié, Pauline; Bizien, Nicolas; Baráibar, Ignacio; Rodríguez, Sergio; Pastor, Ana; Hernández, Marta; Agüero, Alina

    2017-06-01

    Molten nitrates can be employed as heat storage fluids in solar concentration power plants. However molten nitrates are corrosive and if operating temperatures are raised to increase efficiencies, the corrosion rates will also increase. High temperature corrosion resistant coatings based on Al have demonstrated excellent results in other sectors such as gas turbines. Aluminide slurry coated and uncoated P92 steel specimens were exposed to the so called Solar Salt (industrial grade), a binary eutectic mixture of 60 % NaNO3 - 40 % KNO3, in air for 2000 hours at 550°C and 580°C in order to analyze their behavior as candidates to be used in future solar concentration power plants employing molten nitrates as heat transfer fluids. Coated ferritic steels constitute a lower cost technology than Ni based alloy. Two different coating morphologies resulting from two heat treatment performed at 700 and 1050°C after slurry application were tested. The coated systems exhibited excellent corrosion resistance at both temperatures, whereas uncoated P92 showed significant mass loss from the beginning of the test. The coatings showed very slow reaction with the molten Solar Salt. In contrast, uncoated P92 developed a stratified, unprotected Fe, Cr oxide with low adherence which shows oscillating Cr content as a function of coating depth. NaFeO2 was also found at the oxide surface as well as within the Fe, Cr oxide.

  10. Solar technology assessment project. Volume 11: The solar industry in the United States: Its status and prospects, 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J. A.

    1981-04-01

    The energy production goals for the solar industry, and the industry's present status are described. Manufacturing and sales of low and medium temperature solar collectors from 1974 to 2000 are analyzed, and the HUD/DOE solar demonstration programs' relative merits are discussed. Certain characteristics of the conventional water heating industry are briefly described

  11. German energy technology prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, M

    1982-12-24

    After more than 25 years of development of nuclear power and almost 10 years of research and development in numerous areas of nonnuclear energy, there is now a good basis for judging the future prospects of energy technologies in the Federal Republic of Germany. The development of nuclear power has provided an important and economically advantageous new source of energy. Further efforts are needed to establish the nuclear fuel cycle in all stages and to exploit the potential of advanced reactors. In all other areas of energy technology, including energy conservation, new energy sources, and coal, economics has turned out to be the key problem, even at today's energy prices. Opportunities to overcome these economic problems through additional R & D are limited. There is some potential for special applications, and there are many technologies that could contribute to the energy supply of developing countries. In general, however, progress in energy conservation and the use of renewable energy sources will depend on the degree to which energy policy measures can improve their economic basis. For some technologies, such as solar thermal power stations and coal liquefaction, large-scale economic deployment cannot be foreseen today. Instead of establishing costly demonstration projects, emphasis will be put on improving key components of these technologies with the aim of having the most advanced technology available when the economic parameters are more favorable.

  12. Darwinism determines technological survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevc, F.; Harkness, S.

    1996-10-01

    In an industry where new power plant planning and budgeting cycles stretch from one to three years, where a typical new generation product takes from five to 10 years to successfully enter the market and where some plants have a 30- to 50-year economic life, change is an evolutionary process. However, that change, driven by the application of new technologies, is inevitable. Twenty-five years ago, in 1971, gas turbines were perceived to have limited applications and were primarily used for part-time peaking duty. Today, they are the baseload, new power generation technology of choice. Nevertheless, more than 55% of the US`s electricity is still generated by coal-fired steam turbine plants, the technology of choice 25 years ago. Power generation technologies will evolve further, but it`s doubtful there will be any new concepts that are not evident in today`s laboratories. Twenty-five years from now, today`s coal-fires team turbine plants will still provide the majority of the electricity generated in the US. However, new natural gas or syngas-fired combined-cycle plants will make up the majority of the new additions, perhaps as much as 20% of the overall installed capacity in 2021. Still, during the next 25 years, a number of new generation technologies should become economically competitive and enter the market. Technologies moving from today`s demonstrations to widespread applications include: gasification, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, fuel cell hybrid cycles, and solar photovoltaics.

  13. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 2: Assumptions, methodology and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.

  14. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 2: Assumptions, methodology and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.

  15. Photovoltaic technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    After a brief review of the history of photovoltaic devices and a discussion of the cost goals set for photovoltaic modules, the status of photovoltaic technology is assessed. Included are discussions of: current applications, present industrial production, low-cost silicon production techniques, energy payback periods for solar cells, advanced materials research and development, concentrator systems, balance-of-system components. Also discussed are some nontechnical aspects, including foreign markets, US government program approach, and industry attitudes and approaches. (LEW)

  16. CMM Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Robert C.

    2008-10-20

    This project addressed coordinate measuring machine (CMM) technology and model-based engineering. CMM data analysis and delivery were enhanced through the addition of several machine types to the inspection summary program. CMM hardware and software improvements were made with the purchases of calibration and setup equipment and new model-based software for the creation of inspection programs. Kansas City Plant (KCP) personnel contributed to and influenced the development of dimensional metrology standards. Model-based engineering capabilities were expanded through the development of software for the tolerance analysis of piece parts and for the creation of model-based CMM inspection programs and inspection plans and through the purchase of off-the-shelf software for the tolerance analysis of mechanical assemblies. An obsolete database application used to track jobs in Precision Measurement was replaced by a web-based application with improved query and reporting capabilities. A potential project to address the transformation of the dimensional metrology enterprise at the Kansas City Plant was identified.

  17. Public policy performance for social development: solar energy approach to assess technological outcome in Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas-Aquino, Angel Raúl; Matsumoto-Kuwabara, Y; Kleiche-Dray, M

    2017-01-11

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is the most populated urban area in the country. In 2010, MCMA required 14.8% of total energy domestic demand, but greenhouse gas emissions accounted for 7.7% of domestic emissions. Mexico has massive renewable energy potential that could be harnessed through solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. The problem to explore is the relationship between local and federal public strategies in MCMA and their stance on energy transition concern, social empowerment, new technology appropriation, and the will to boost social development and urban sustainability. A public policy typology was conducted through instruments of State intervention approach, based on political agenda articulation and environmental local interactions. Social equality is encouraged by means of forthright funding and in-kind support and energy policies focus on non-renewable energy subsidies and electric transmission infrastructure investment. There is a lack of vision for using PV technology as a guiding axis for marginalized population development. It is essential to promote economic and political rearrangement in order to level and structure environmental governance. It is essential to understand people's representation about their own needs along with renewable energy.

  18. Technological development for super-high efficiency solar cells. Survey on the commercialization on analysis; Chokokoritsu taiyo denchi no gijutsu kaihatsu. Jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the survey results on analysis of super-high efficiency solar cells for practical use in fiscal 1994. (1) On the survey on crystalline compound solar cells, it was pointed out that the present study target is III-V compound semiconductor solar cell, and efficiencies of 36-39% are theoretically expected by use of two-junction cells. (2) On structure of super-high efficiency solar cells of 40%, selection of upper and lower cell materials for multi-junction cells, high-efficiency tandem Si solar cells, and the merit and possibility of light collection operation were surveyed, and their issues were discussed. (3) On physical properties of mixed crystalline semiconductors and characteristic evaluation of solar cells, impurities, trap center, minority carrier life, and applicability of supper lattice structure to high-efficiency solar cells were surveyed. (4) On fabrication technology of compound semiconductor solar cells, various problems of and approaches to electrode formation and antireflection film technologies, the meaning and issues of thin film substrate technology and continuous process, trial calculation of costs, safety, and resource problem were surveyed.

  19. Research on fabrication technology for thin film solar cells for practical use. Technological development for qualitative improvement (development of fabrication technology of thin film polycrystalline Si solar cell); Usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Kohinshitsuka gijutsu (usumaku takessho silicon kei taiyo denchi seizo no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on the fabrication technology of thin film polycrystalline Si solar cells in fiscal 1994. (1) On the fabrication technology of high-quality Si thin films, the new equipment was studied which allows uniform stable melting recrystallization over a large area. The new equipment adopted a heating method based on RTP system, and is now under adjustment. (2) On the fabrication technology of light/carrier confinement structure, degradation of hydrogen-treated thin film Si solar cells by light irradiation was examined. As a result, since any characteristic degradation was not found even by long time light irradiation, the high quality of the cells was confirmed regardless of hydrogen-treatment. Fabrication of stable reproducible fine texture structure became possible by using fabrication technology of light confinement structure by texture treatment of cell surfaces. (3) On low-cost process technology, design by VEST process, estimation of cell characteristics by simulation, and characteristics of prototype cells were reported. 33 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Opportunities to integrate solar technologies into the Chilean lithium mining industry - reducing process related GHG emissions of a strategic storage resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telsnig, Thomas; Potz, Christian; Haas, Jannik; Eltrop, Ludger; Palma-Behnke, Rodrigo

    2017-06-01

    The arid northern regions of Chile are characterized by an intensive mineral mining industry and high solar irradiance levels. Besides Chile's main mining products, copper, molybdenum and iron, the production of lithium carbonate from lithium containing brines has become strategically important due to the rising demand for battery technologies worldwide. Its energy-intensive production may affect the ecological footprint of the product and the country's climate targets. Thus, the use of solar technologies for electricity and heat production might constitute an interesting option for CO2 mitigation. This study aims to quantify the impacts of the lithium carbonate production processes in Chile on climate change, and to identify site-specific integration options of solar energy technologies to reduce GHG life-cycle emissions. The considered solar integration options include a parabolic trough power plant with a molten salt storage, a solar tower power plant with molten salt receiver and molten salt storage, a one-axis tracking photovoltaic energy system for electricity, and two solar thermal power plants with Ruths storage (steam accumulator) for thermal heat production. CSP plants were identified as measures with the highest GHG mitigation potential reducing the CO2 emissions for the entire production chain and the lithium production between 16% and 33%. In a scenario that combines solar technologies for electricity and thermal energy generation, up to 59% of the CO2 emissions at the lithium production sites in Chile can be avoided. A comparison of the GHG abatement costs of the proposed solar integration options indicates that the photovoltaic system, the solar thermal plant with limited storage and the solar tower power plant are the most cost effective options.

  1. Advanced Materials and Production Technology for Very Large Solar Sail Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solar sails are an attractive means for propulsion of future spacecraft. One potential device for deploying and supporting very large solar sails is the CoilAble...

  2. 2009 Technical Risk and Uncertainty Analysis of the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technologies Program Concentrating Solar Power and Photovoltaics R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McVeigh, J.; Lausten, M.; Eugeni, E.; Soni, A.

    2010-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP) conducted a 2009 Technical Risk and Uncertainty Analysis to better assess its cost goals for concentrating solar power (CSP) and photovoltaic (PV) systems, and to potentially rebalance its R&D portfolio. This report details the methodology, schedule, and results of this technical risk and uncertainty analysis.

  3. Energy Technology Programs: program summaries for 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The Energy Technology Programs in the BNL Department of Energy and Environment cover a broad range of activities, namely: electrochemical research, chemical energy storage, chemical heat pumps, solar technology, fossil technology, catalytic systems development, space-conditioning technology, and technical support/program management. Summaries of the individual tasks associated with these activities along with publications, significant accomplishments, and program funding levels are presented.

  4. Solar Photovoltaic Hydrogen: The Technologies and Their Place in Our Roadmaps and Energy Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmerski, L. L.; Broussard, K.

    2004-08-01

    Future solar photovoltaics-hydrogen systems are discussed in terms of the evolving hydrogen economy. The focus is on distributed hydrogen, relying on the same distributed-energy strengths of solar-photovoltaic electricity in the built environment. Solar-hydrogen residences/buildings, as well as solar parks, are presented. The economics, feasibility, and potential of these approaches are evaluated in terms of roadmap predictions on photovoltaic and hydrogen pathways-and whether solar-hydrogen fit in these strategies and timeframes. Issues with the ''hydrogen future'' are considered, and alternatives to this hydrogen future are examined.

  5. Solar photovoltaic hydrogen: the technologies and their place in our road-maps and energy economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmerski, L.L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado (United States); Broussard, K. [Southern Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Future solar photovoltaic-hydrogen systems are discussed in terms of the evolving hydrogen economy. The focus is on distributed hydrogen, relying on the same distributed-energy strengths of solar-photovoltaic electricity in the built environment. Solar-hydrogen residences/buildings, as well as solar parks, are presented. The economics, feasibility, and potential of these approaches are evaluated in terms of road-map predictions on photovoltaic and hydrogen pathways and whether solar-hydrogen fit in these strategies and time-frames. Issues with the ''hydrogen future'' are considered, and alternatives to this hydrogen future are examined. (authors)

  6. Division of Environmental Control Technology program, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    Environmental engineering programs are reviewed for the following technologies; coal; petroleum and gas; oil shale; solar; geothermal and energy conservation; nuclear energy; and decontamination and decommissioning. Separate abstracts were prepared for each technology. (MHR)

  7. Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology. ... Food Science and Technology, Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Energy, ... Pretreatment effect on sun and solar drying of carrot slices · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  8. Production of the 4.26 m ZERODUR mirror blank for the Advanced Technology Solar telescope (ATST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Werner, Thomas; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST, formerly the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, ATST) will be the most powerful solar telescope in the world. It is currently being built by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) in a height of 3000 m above sea level on the mountain Haleakala of Maui, Hawaii. The primary mirror blank of diameter 4.26 m is made of the extremely low thermal expansion glass ceramic ZERODUR® of SCHOTT AG Advanced Optics. The DKIST primary mirror design is extremely challenging. With a mirror thickness of only 78 to 85 mm it is the smallest thickness ever machined on a mirror of 4.26 m in diameter. Additionally the glassy ZERODUR® casting is one of the largest in size ever produced for a 4 m class ZERODUR® mirror blank. The off axis aspherical mirror surface required sophisticated grinding procedures to achieve the specified geometrical tolerance. The small thickness of about 80 mm required special measures during processing, lifting and transport. Additionally acid etch treatment was applied to the convex back-surface and the conical shaped outer diameter surface to improve the strength of the blank. This paper reports on the challenging tasks and the achievements on the material property and dimensional specification parameter during the production of the 4.26 m ZERODUR® primary mirror blank for AURA.

  9. 太阳能技术的合作专利分析及对策%Analysis on Patent Cooperation in Chinese Solar Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申红艳; 滕飞; 扆铁梅

    2014-01-01

    低碳经济已经成为国际经济发展的新要求,因此,低碳技术开发日益受到世界各国的重视。太阳能技术是一种典型的低碳技术,我国经过10几年的发展,在太阳能领域取得了举世瞩目的成就,但因缺乏核心技术,目前面临着严峻的挑战。由于专利分析能客观地评价技术创新与合作水平,因此,为更好地促进我国太阳能技术的发展,基于专利分析法,对我国太阳能合作专利数据进行了分析。结果表明:我国太阳能技术的跨机构技术联系较少,“产学研”创新体系尚不成熟;政策扶持对于太阳能这种新兴低碳技术有较大的影响力;国内太阳能专利授权的技术领域主要集中在太阳能热利用,而在光伏领域的合作较少;太阳能合作专利存在较大的区域差异,应该进一步加强区域之间的技术合作和技术转移;应该加强国际技术合作。%Solar technology is a typical low-carbon technology. After many years of development, China has made great achievements in solar technology. But China is still confronted with grave challenges due to the lack of core technology. Considering that the technology innovation and cooperation level can be evaluated by patent analysis, this paper, analyzes the data of patent cooperation of solar technology in China based on the method of patent analysis. The conclusions are: there are few technical connection in solar technology among institutions in China, which means the mature innovation system among industry, universities and research institutions has not been established; the policy support has great impact on the emerging low-carbon technologies including solar technology; the patent authorization in solar technology in China mainly concentrates in solar thermal industry with less cooperation in solar photovoltaic industry; regional differences of solar patent cooperation are still obvious, and we should strengthen the

  10. TECHNOLOGICAL WASTE DISPOSAL BY SUBSURFACE INJECTION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Branimir

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of oilfield and solution mining technology to subsurface disposal of technological wastes has proven to be an environmentally, technically and economically suitable method for the disposal of the waste generated in petroleum industry as well as other industrial branches. This paper describes the subsurface injection technology, the disposal formation characteristics, the waste disposal well design, evaluates the environmental impact of above mentioned technology and proposes a solutions for disposing of technological wastes in Croatia or nerby region by implementing underground injection technology according to the world experience (the paper is published in Croatian.

  11. Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants - Public Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grogan, Dylan C. P.

    2013-08-15

    Executive Summary This Final Report for the "Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants” describes the overall project accomplishments, results and conclusions. Phase 1 analyzed the feasibility, cost and performance of a parabolic trough solar power plant with a molten salt heat transfer fluid (HTF); researched and/or developed feasible component options, detailed cost estimates and workable operating procedures; and developed hourly performance models. As a result, a molten salt plant with 6 hours of storage was shown to reduce Thermal Energy Storage (TES) cost by 43.2%, solar field cost by 14.8%, and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) by 9.8% - 14.5% relative to a similar state-of-the-art baseline plant. The LCOE savings range met the project’s Go/No Go criteria of 10% LCOE reduction. Another primary focus of Phase 1 and 2 was risk mitigation. The large risk areas associated with a molten salt parabolic trough plant were addressed in both Phases, such as; HTF freeze prevention and recovery, collector components and piping connections, and complex component interactions. Phase 2 analyzed in more detail the technical and economic feasibility of a 140 MWe,gross molten-salt CSP plant with 6 hours of TES. Phase 2 accomplishments included developing technical solutions to the above mentioned risk areas, such as freeze protection/recovery, corrosion effects of applicable molten salts, collector design improvements for molten salt, and developing plant operating strategies for maximized plant performance and freeze risk mitigation. Phase 2 accomplishments also included developing and thoroughly analyzing a molten salt, Parabolic Trough power plant performance model, in order to achieve the project cost and performance targets. The plant performance model and an extensive basic Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC) quote were used to calculate a real levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of 11.50

  12. Photovoltaic technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Bagnall, Darren M.; Boreland, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Photovoltaics is already a billion dollar industry. It is experiencing rapid growth as concerns over fuel supplies and carbon emissions mean that governments and individuals are increasingly prepared to ignore its current high costs. It will become truly mainstream when its costs are comparable to other energy sources. At the moment, it is around four times too expensive for competitive commercial production. Three generations of photovoltaics have been envisaged that will take solar power in...

  13. Feasibility study of utilizing solar furnace technology in steel making industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbaspoursani, K. [The Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Takestan Islamic Azad University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], Email: a.abbaspour@tiau.ac.ir; Tofigh, A.A.; Nahang Toudeshki, S.; Hadadian, A. [Department of Energy, Materials and Energy Research Center (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], Email: Ali.A.Tofigh@gmail.com, email: toudeshki@hotmail.com, email: Arash.Hadadian@gmail.com; Farahmandpour, B. [Iranian Fuel Conservation company (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], Email: farahmandpour@gmail.com

    2011-07-01

    In Iran, the casting industry consumes 33.6% of electricity production, and most of this electricity is used in the melting process. Currently, scrap preheating is done using electric arc furnaces and the aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of replacing electric arc furnaces with solar furnaces. The performance of solar furnaces in the Iran Alloy Steel Company under Yazd climate conditions was studied. It was found that the solar irradiation time and solar insulation are sufficient to operate a solar furnace with the capacity to preheat 250 thousand tons per year of scrap to 500 degrees celsius. Results showed that such a furnace would decrease energy consumption by 40 GWh per year and that it would take 5 years to return the investment. This study demonstrated that operating a solar furnace in the Iran Alloy Steel Company under Yazd climate conditions is feasible and would result in economic and environmental benefits.

  14. Overview of Opportunities for Co-Location of Solar Energy Technologies and Vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beatty, Brenda [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hill, Graham [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Large-scale solar facilities have the potential to contribute significantly to national electricity production. Many solar installations are large-scale or utility-scale, with a capacity over 1 MW and connected directly to the electric grid. Large-scale solar facilities offer an opportunity to achieve economies of scale in solar deployment, yet there have been concerns about the amount of land required for solar projects and the impact of solar projects on local habitat. During the site preparation phase for utility-scale solar facilities, developers often grade land and remove all vegetation to minimize installation and operational costs, prevent plants from shading panels, and minimize potential fire or wildlife risks. However, the common site preparation practice of removing vegetation can be avoided in certain circumstances, and there have been successful examples where solar facilities have been co-located with agricultural operations or have native vegetation growing beneath the panels. In this study we outline some of the impacts that large-scale solar facilities can have on the local environment, provide examples of installations where impacts have been minimized through co-location with vegetation, characterize the types of co-location, and give an overview of the potential benefits from co-location of solar energy projects and vegetation. The varieties of co-location can be replicated or modified for site-specific use at other solar energy installations around the world. We conclude with opportunities to improve upon our understanding of ways to reduce the environmental impacts of large-scale solar installations.

  15. Feasibility of solar technology (photovoltaic) adoption. A case study on Tennessee's poultry industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazen, Ernest F.; Brown, Matthew A. [University of Tennessee, Department of Agricultural Economics, 2621 Morgan Circle, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    The advantages and limitations of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems for energy generation are reviewed under various physical efficiency limits and financial assistance programs. Recent increases in utility and fuel costs in poultry production as well as public awareness of and demand for green power or renewable energy sources have given renewed interest in alternative energy sources. This study seeks to investigate the impact of alternative energy programs, grants and other incentives on the feasibility of solar PV systems in several solar regions within Tennessee's poultry industry. Preliminary results show that incentives exceeding current levels before adoption of solar PV systems would be financially beneficial. (author)

  16. Historical Analysis of Investment in Solar Energy Technologies (2000-2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, C. E.; Margolis, R. M.; Bartlett, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    The solar energy industry experienced unprecedented growth in the eight years from 2000 to 2007, with explosive growth occurring in the latter half of this period. From 2004 to 2007, global private sector investment in solar energy increased by almost twenty-fold, marking a dramatic increase in the short span of four years. This paper examines the timing, magnitude, focus and location of various forms of investment in the solar energy sector. It analyzes their trends to provide an understanding of the growth of the solar industry during the past eight years and to identify emerging themes in this rapidly evolving industry.

  17. Evaluation of Solar Grade Silicon Produced by the Institute of Physics and Technology: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-211

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, M.

    2013-02-01

    NREL and Solar Power Industries will cooperate to evaluate technology for producing solar grade silicon from industrial waste of the phosphorus industry, as developed by the Institute of Physics and Technology (IPT), Kazakhstan. Evaluation will have a technical component to assess the material quality and a business component to assess the economics of the IPT process. The total amount of silicon produced by IPT is expected to be quite limited (50 kg), so evaluations will need to be done on relatively small quantities (≈ 5 kg/sample).

  18. In-Space Propulsion (346620) Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Technologies include, but are not limited to, electric and advanced chemical propulsion, propellantless propulsion such as aerocapture and solar sails, sample return...

  19. An Overview of Dish-Stirling Concentrating Solar Power Technology%碟式斯特林太阳能热发电的技术发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱辰元; 彭小方

    2011-01-01

    The principle of Solar Dish-Stirling power system has been introduced.Some tests show that Solar Dish-Stirling technology has the highest solar energy-to-grid quality electricity transfer efficiency compared to peer technologies.Recent development of dish concentrating solar power systems based on Stirling engine technology has also been discussed.In view of the key technology of gas Stirling engine had been breached,a technical condition in developing 25kW dish-Stirling concentrating solar power in China has been formed.%碟式斯特林太阳能热发电是目前发电效率最高的太阳能热发电的技术。介绍了碟式斯特林太阳能热发电系统原理,论述了国际上目前以热气机为核心技术的碟式太阳能热发电系统发展状况。指出我国的燃气热气机发电技术已经取得了突破性的发展,25kW级碟式斯特林太阳能热发电系统的研发已具备了技术基础。

  20. Optical materials technology for energy efficiency and solar energy conversion VI; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, Aug. 18, 19, 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Carl M.

    1987-01-01

    Recent advances in optical materials for energy conversion are discussed in reviews and reports. Sections are devoted to transparent IR reflectors and large-area deposition technology; optical switching materials; holographic films and reflector technology; and absorbers, photovoltaics, and solar materials. Topics addressed include bendable Ag-based low-emissivity coating on glass, plasma oxidation of Ag and Zn in low-emissivity stacks, smart window coatings, improved colored-state reflectivity in lithiated WO3 films, photochromic and thermochromic pigments for solar absorbing-reflecting coatings, the design and optimization of holographic solar concentrators, the properties of black cobalt coatings, and interface states and Fermi-level pinning in CdSe thin-film solar cells.

  1. Comparative environmental and economic analysis of conventional and nanofluid solar hot water technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otanicar, Todd P; Golden, Jay S

    2009-08-01

    This study compares environmental and economic impacts of using nanofluids to enhance solar collector efficiency as compared to conventional solar collectors for domestic hotwater systems. Results show that for the current cost of nanoparticles the nanofluid based solar collector has a slightly longer payback period but at the end of its useful life has the same economic savings as a conventional solar collector. The nanofluid based collector has a lower embodied energy (approximately 9%) and approximately 3% higher levels of pollution offsets than a conventional collector. In addition if 50% penetration of residential nanofluid based solar collector systems for hot water heating could be achieved in Phoenix, Arizona over 1 million metric tons of CO2 would be offset per year.

  2. Photon technology. Laser process technology; Photon technology. Laser process gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For developing laser process technology by interaction between substance and photon, the present state, system, R and D issues and proposal of such technology were summarized. Development of the photon technology aims at the modification of bonding conditions of substances by quantum energy of photon, and the new process technology for generating ultra- high temperature and pressure fields by concentrating photon on a minute region. Photon technology contributes to not only the conventional mechanical and thermal forming and removal machining but also function added machining (photon machining) in quantum level and new machining technology ranging from macro- to micro-machining, creating a new industrial field. This technology extends various fields from the basis of physics and chemistry to new bonding technology. Development of a compact high-quality high-power high-efficiency photon source, and advanced photon transmission technology are necessary. The basic explication of an unsolved physicochemical phenomenon related to photon and substance, and development of related application technologies are essential. 328 refs., 147 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. Design approaches for solar industrial process-heat systems: nontracking and line-focus collector technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.F.; Davenport, R.L.; Dougherty, D.A.; Gee, R.C.; Masterson, P.M.; May, E.K.

    1982-08-01

    The design methodology for solar industrial process heat systems is described, and an overview is given of the use of solar energy in industry. A way to determine whether solar energy makes sense for a particular application is described. The basic system configurations used to supply hot water or steam are discussed, and computer-generated graphs are supplied that allow the user to select a collector type. Detailed energy calculations are provided, including the effects of thermal losses and storage. The selection of subsystem components is described, and control systems, installation and start-up details, economics, and safety and environmental issues are explained. (LEW)

  4. Final Report: Towards an Emergent Model of Technology Adoption for Accelerating the Diffusion of Residential Solar PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Varun [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-08-15

    This project sought to enable electric utilities in Texas to accelerate diffusion of residential solar photovoltaic (PV) by systematically identifying and targeting existing barriers to PV adoption. A core goal of the project was to develop an integrated research framework that combines survey research, econometric modeling, financial modeling, and implementation and evaluation of pilot projects to study the PV diffusion system. This project considered PV diffusion as an emergent system, with attention to the interactions between the constituent parts of the PV socio-technical system including: economics of individual decision-making; peer and social influences; behavioral responses; and information and transaction costs. We also conducted two pilot projects, which have yielded new insights into behavioral and informational aspects of PV adoption. Finally, this project has produced robust and generalizable results that will provide deeper insights into the technology-diffusion process that will be applicable for the design of utility programs for other technologies such as home-energy management systems and plug-in electric vehicles. When we started this project in 2013 there was little systematic research on characterizing the decision-making process of households interested in adopting PV. This project was designed to fill that research gap by analyzing the PV adoption process from the consumers' decision-making perspective and with the objective to systematically identifying and addressing the barriers that consumers face in the adoption of PV. The two key components of that decision-making process are consumers' evaluation of: (i) uncertainties and non-monetary costs associated with the technology and (ii) the direct monetary cost-benefit. This project used an integrated approach to study both the non-monetary and the monetary components of the consumer decision-making process.

  5. Characterization of selected application of biomass energy technologies and a solar district heating and cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alessio, Dr., Gregory J.; Blaunstein, Robert P.

    1980-09-01

    The following systems are discussed: energy self-sufficient farms, wood gasification, energy from high-yield silviculture farms, and solar district heating and cooling. System descriptions and environmental data are included for each one. (MHR)

  6. Candidate thermal energy storage technologies for solar industrial process heat applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    A number of candidate thermal energy storage system elements were identified as having the potential for the successful application of solar industrial process heat. These elements which include storage media, containment and heat exchange are shown.

  7. Deconstructing Solar Photovoltaic Pricing: The Role of Market Structure, Technology, and Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillingham, Kenneth [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Deng, Hao [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nemet, Gregory [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rai, Varun [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Dong, C. G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) system prices in the United States display considerable heterogeneity both across geographic locations and within a given location. Such heterogeneity may arise due to state and federal policies, differences in market structure, and other factors that influence demand and costs. This paper examines the relative importance of such factors on equilibrium solar PV system prices in the United States using a detailed dataset of roughly 100,000 recent residential and small commercial installations. As expected, we find that PV system prices differ based on characteristics of the systems. More interestingly, we find evidence suggesting that search costs and imperfect competition affect solar PV pricing. Installer density substantially lowers prices, while regions with relatively generous financial incentives for solar PV are associated with higher prices.

  8. Excimer Laser Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Basting, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    This comprehensive survey on Excimer Lasers investigates the current range of the technology, applications and devices of this commonly used laser source, as well as the future of new technologies, such as F2 laser technology. Additional chapters on optics, devices and laser systems complete this compact handbook. A must read for laser technology students, process application researchers, engineers or anyone interested in excimer laser technology. An effective and understandable introduction to the current and future status of excimer laser technology.

  9. Technology transfer by multinationals

    OpenAIRE

    Kostyantyn Zuzik

    2003-01-01

    The paper analyses the issue of technology transfer by multinational corporations. The following questions are explored: (a) world market of technologies, the role of MNCs (b) Choice of the technology transfer mode, Dunning's OLI-theory as a factor of the choice of the mode of transfer (c) measurement and profitability of technology transfer (d) transfer of technology through partnerships, JVs, alliances and through M&As (e) aspects of technology transfer by services multinationals. Paper uti...

  10. Technology transfer by multinationals

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The paper analyses the issue of technology transfer by multinational corporations. The following questions are explored: (a) world market of technologies, the role of MNCs (b) Choice of the technology transfer mode, Dunning's OLI-theory as a factor of the choice of the mode of transfer (c) measurement and profitability of technology transfer (d) transfer of technology through partnerships, JVs, alliances and through M&As (e) aspects of technology transfer by services multinationals. Paper uti...

  11. The photovoltaic solar technology in a semi-arid Piaui region: case study; A tecnologia solar fotovoltaica no semi-arido piauiense: estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Albemerc Moura de; Trigoso, Federico B. Morante [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia, Modelagem e Ciencias Sociais Aplicadas. Programa de Pos Graduacao em Energia

    2008-07-01

    The following work has as objective to present some results of a research of field carried through in the Piaui semi-arid region that it aimed at to verify the use of the photovoltaic solar technology. For this six questionnaires in three rural communities of three municipal territories of the State in the valley of the river Caninde had been applied. It was verified that due to lack of maintenance of these systems good part of them left to still function in the first years of its installation. Although this almost all the interviewed ones had revealed signal of approval to the electric energy proceeding from these systems for the community use, however they had questioned the lack of maintenance of these and had revealed interested in possessing access in its residences of this so important good is useful, the electricity. (author)

  12. Dust Interactions on Small Solar System Bodies and Technology Considerations for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobrick, Ryan,; Hoffman, Jeffrey; Pavone, Marco; Street, Kenneth; Rickman, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Small-bodies such as asteroids and Mars' moons Phobos and Deimos have relatively unknown regolith environments. It is hypothesized that dust preserved in the regolith on the surfaces will have similar mechanical properties to lunar dust because of similar formation processes from micrometeorite bombardment, low relative gravity for slow settling times, and virtually no weathering because there is no atmosphere. This combination of processes infers that small-body dust particles will be highly angular and retain abrasive properties. The focus of this paper uses the mission architecture and engineering design for an asteroid hopper known as Hedgehog, a spherical spacecraft with several symmetric spikes used to aid with tumbling mobility in a low gravity environment. Dust abrasion considerations are highlighted throughout the paper relating to the lead authors' previous work, but act as an example of one of many important dust or regolith physical properties that need to be considered for future exploration. Measurable regolith properties are summarized in order to identify technologies that may be useful for exploration in terms of scientific return and spacecraft design. Previous instruments are summarized in this paper that could be used on the Hedgehog. Opportunities for hardware payloads are highlighted that include low mass solutions or dualpurpose instruments that can measure regolith or dust properties. Finally, dust mitigation suggestions are made for vehicles of this mobility profile.

  13. Water Innovation and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water technologies are a specific sector that EPA works to address through the water technology cluster, aging infrastructure research, green infrastructure, and major industry meetings such as WEFTEC.

  14. Morgantown Energy Technology Center, technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This document has been prepared by the DOE Environmental Management (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) to highlight its research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities funded through the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). Technologies and processes described have the potential to enhance DOE`s cleanup and waste management efforts, as well as improve US industry`s competitiveness in global environmental markets. METC`s R&D programs are focused on commercialization of technologies that will be carried out in the private sector. META has solicited two PRDAs for EM. The first, in the area of groundwater and soil technologies, resulted in twenty-one contact awards to private sector and university technology developers. The second PRDA solicited novel decontamination and decommissioning technologies and resulted in eighteen contract awards. In addition to the PRDAs, METC solicited the first EM ROA in 1993. The ROA solicited research in a broad range of EM-related topics including in situ remediation, characterization, sensors, and monitoring technologies, efficient separation technologies, mixed waste treatment technologies, and robotics. This document describes these technology development activities.

  15. Utilizing a scale model solar system project to visualize important planetary science concepts and develop technology and spatial reasoning skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortenkamp, Stephen J.; Brock, Laci

    2016-10-01

    Scale model solar systems have been used for centuries to help educate young students and the public about the vastness of space and the relative sizes of objects. We have adapted the classic scale model solar system activity into a student-driven project for an undergraduate general education astronomy course at the University of Arizona. Students are challenged to construct and use their three dimensional models to demonstrate an understanding of numerous concepts in planetary science, including: 1) planetary obliquities, eccentricities, inclinations; 2) phases and eclipses; 3) planetary transits; 4) asteroid sizes, numbers, and distributions; 5) giant planet satellite and ring systems; 6) the Pluto system and Kuiper belt; 7) the extent of space travel by humans and robotic spacecraft; 8) the diversity of extrasolar planetary systems. Secondary objectives of the project allow students to develop better spatial reasoning skills and gain familiarity with technology such as Excel formulas, smart-phone photography, and audio/video editing.During our presentation we will distribute a formal description of the project and discuss our expectations of the students as well as present selected highlights from preliminary submissions.

  16. Connections beyond the margins of the power grid Information technology and the evolution of off-grid solar electricity in the developing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstone, Peter Michael

    This work explores the intersections of information technology and off-grid electricity deployment in the developing world with focus on a key instance: the emergence of pay-as-you-go (PAYG) solar household-scale energy systems. It is grounded in detailed field study by my research team in Kenya between 2013-2014 that included primary data collection across the solar supply chain from global businesses through national and local distribution and to the end-users. We supplement the information with business process and national survey data to develop a detailed view of the markets, technology systems, and individuals who interact within those frameworks. The findings are presented in this dissertation as a series of four chapters with introductory, bridging, and synthesis material between them. The first chapter, Decentralized Energy Systems for Clean Electricity Access, presents a global view of the emerging off-grid power sector. Long-run trends in technology create "a unique moment in history" for closing the gap between global population and access to electricity, which has stubbornly held at 1-2 billion people without power since the initiation of the electric utility business model in the late 1800's. We show the potential for widespread near-term adoption of off-grid solar, which could lead to ten times less inequality in access and also ten times lower household-level climate impacts. Decentralized power systems that replace fuel-based incumbent lighting can advance the causes of climate stabilization, economic and social freedom and human health. Chapters two and three are focused on market and institutional dynamics present circa 2014 in for off-grid solar with a focus on the Kenya market. Chapter 2, "Off-grid Power and Connectivity", presents our findings related to the widespread influence of information technology across the supply chain for solar and in PAYG approaches. Using digital financing and embedded payment verification technology, PAYG

  17. Human Spaceflight Technology Needs - A Foundation for JSC's Technology Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklein, Jonette M.

    2013-01-01

    Human space exploration has always been heavily influenced by goals to achieve a specific mission on a specific schedule. This approach drove rapid technology development, the rapidity of which adds risks as well as provides a major driver for costs and cost uncertainty. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is now approaching the extension of human presence throughout the solar system by balancing a proactive yet less schedule-driven development of technology with opportunistic scheduling of missions as the needed technologies are realized. This approach should provide cost effective, low risk technology development that will enable efficient and effective manned spaceflight missions. As a first step, the NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) has identified a suite of critical technologies needed to support future manned missions across a range of destinations, including in cis-lunar space, near earth asteroid visits, lunar exploration, Mars moons, and Mars exploration. The challenge now is to develop a strategy and plan for technology development that efficiently enables these missions over a reasonable time period, without increasing technology development costs unnecessarily due to schedule pressure, and subsequently mitigating development and mission risks. NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC), as the nation s primary center for human exploration, is addressing this challenge through an innovative approach in allocating Internal Research and Development funding to projects. The HAT Technology Needs (TechNeeds) Database has been developed to correlate across critical technologies and the NASA Office of Chief Technologist Technology Area Breakdown Structure (TABS). The TechNeeds Database illuminates that many critical technologies may support a single technical capability gap, that many HAT technology needs may map to a single TABS technology discipline, and that a single HAT technology need may map to multiple TABS technology

  18. Epitaxial lift-off technology of GaAs multijunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyps, P.; Dumiszewska, E.; Kaszub, W.; Przewłoka, A.; Strupinski, W.

    2016-12-01

    Epitaxial lift-off (ELO) is a process which enables the removal of solar cell structures (one junction GaAs, two junction GaAs/InGaP or three junction GaAs/InGaAs/InGaP) from the substrate on which they are grown and their transfer onto lightweight carriers such as metal or polymeric insulator films. The said solar cells exhibit superior power conversion efficiency compared with alternative single-junction photovoltaic cell designs such as those based on crystalline Si, copper indium gallium sulfide (CIGS) or CdTe. The major advantage of ELO solar cells is the potential for wafer reuse, which can enable significant manufacturing cost reduction by minimizing the consumption of expensive wafers. Here in this work we have grown one junction GaAs solar cells on GaAs (100) substrates. A 10 nm thick AlAs layer has been used as a release layer, which has been selectively etched in HF solution. We have investigated different methods of transferring thin films onto polymer and copper foils, including the usage of temporary mounting adhesives and electro-conductive pastes. Lift-off has been demonstrated to be a very promising technique for producing affordable solar cells with a very high efficiency of up to 30%.

  19. Integration of solar installations in heating technology; Integration der Solaranlage in die Heizungstechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, H. [Solvis Energiesysteme GmbH und Co KG, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    Future heating systems must be geared to the task of providing the comfort of warm rooms and warm water while giving due consideration to the consequences this has for the environment. The present paper discusses the development of heating energy demand, the integration and adjustment of the heating circuit for solar energy, and the dimensioning and layout of a solar installation for water warming. It also deals with the testing of solar buffer storages. [Deutsch] Wie kann der Komfort warmer Raeume und warmem Wassers erreicht werden und welche Konsquenzen hat das fuer die Umwelt, dies sind die Kriterien an denen sich die Waermeversorgung der Zukunft orientieren muss. Die Entwicklung des Heizenergiebedarfs, die Einbindung und Abstimmung des Heizkrieses fuer Solarenergie sowie die Dimensionierung und Auslegung einer Solaranlage zur Warmwassererw armung werden erlaeutert. Ein weiterer Punkt betrifft den Test von Solarpufferspeichern.

  20. NREL Collaboration Breaks 1-Volt Barrier in CdTe Solar Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-05-01

    NREL scientists have worked with Washington State University and the University of Tennessee to improve the maximum voltage available from CdTe solar cells. Changes in dopants, stoichiometry, interface design, and defect chemistry improved the CdTe conductivity and carrier lifetime by orders of magnitude, thus enabling CdTe solar cells with open-circuit voltages exceeding 1 volt for the first time. Values of current density and fill factor for CdTe solar cells are already at high levels, but sub-par voltages has been a barrier to improved efficiencies. With voltages pushed beyond 1 volt, CdTe cells have a path to produce electricity at costs less than fossil fuels.

  1. Hypermodular Distributed Solar Power Satellites -- Exploring a Technology Option for Near-Term LEO Demonstration and GLPO Full-Scale Plants

    CERN Document Server

    Leitgab, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new and innovative design for scaleable space solar power systems based on satellite self-assembly and microwave spatial power combination. Lower system cost of utility-scale space solar power is achieved by independence of yet-to-be-built in-space assembly and transportation infrastructure. Using current and expected near-term technology, this study explores a design for near-term space solar power low-Earth orbit demonstrators and for mid-term utility-scale power plants in geosynchronous Laplace plane orbits. High-level economic considerations in the context of current and expected future launch costs are given as well.

  2. Effect of Computer Animation Technique on Students' Comprehension of the "Solar System and Beyond" Unit in the Science and Technology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Gokhan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of computer animation technique on academic achievement of students in the "Solar System and Beyond" unit lecture as part of the Science and Technology course of the seventh grade in primary education. The sample of the study consists of 60 students attending to the 7th grade of primary school…

  3. Research on the Comparison of Solar Power Generation with Different Technology Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To effectively cope with global climate change and the environment pollution problem, all countries are promoting low-carbon development actively. China is rich in solar energy resources, which has important influence on the sustainable development. Photovoltaic and thermal power generation were compared by constructing the comprehensive comparison model which is based on the interval weight and set pair analysis method. Then, their superiorities can be judged. The results of the study can provide strategic advice for investors in the solar-thermal and photovoltaic power generation to make decisions, which has far-reaching significance for them.

  4. Solution to enhance the acceptability of solar-powered LED lighting technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pode, Ramchandra [Department of Physics, Kyung Hee University, 1 Hoegi-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea)

    2010-04-15

    Unavailability of grid based electricity is a major challenge facing a majority of developing countries, particularly the population in rural areas. Consequently, people are forced to use the kerosene lantern in much of the world for lighting. However, fuel-based lighting is contributing to global warming and causing serious health related problems. To address these issues, several developing countries are now encouraging the use of sustainable clean lighting systems - solar-powered light emitting diode system. In the present paper, barriers and mechanisms to boost the use of solar-powered lighting are discussed. (author)

  5. Employing Si solar cell technology to increase efficiency of ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermang, Bart; Wätjen, Jörn Timo; Fjällström, Viktor; Rostvall, Fredrik; Edoff, Marika; Kotipalli, Ratan; Henry, Frederic; Flandre, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Reducing absorber layer thickness below 500 nm in regular Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells decreases cell efficiency considerably, as both short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage are reduced because of incomplete absorption and high Mo/CIGS rear interface recombination. In this work, an innovative rear cell design is developed to avoid both effects: a highly reflective rear surface passivation layer with nano-sized local point contact openings is employed to enhance rear internal reflection and decrease the rear surface recombination velocity significantly, as compared with a standard Mo/CIGS rear interface. The formation of nano-sphere shaped precipitates in chemical bath deposition of CdS is used to generate nano-sized point contact openings. Evaporation of MgF2 coated with a thin atomic layer deposited Al2O3 layer, or direct current magnetron sputtering of Al2O3 are used as rear surface passivation layers. Rear internal reflection is enhanced substantially by the increased thickness of the passivation layer, and also the rear surface recombination velocity is reduced at the Al2O3/CIGS rear interface. (MgF2/)Al2O3 rear surface passivated ultra-thin CIGS solar cells are fabricated, showing an increase in short circuit current and open circuit voltage compared to unpassivated reference cells with equivalent CIGS thickness. Accordingly, average solar cell efficiencies of 13.5% are realized for 385 nm thick CIGS absorber layers, compared with 9.1% efficiency for the corresponding unpassivated reference cells. PMID:26300619

  6. Employing Si solar cell technology to increase efficiency of ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermang, Bart; Wätjen, Jörn Timo; Fjällström, Viktor; Rostvall, Fredrik; Edoff, Marika; Kotipalli, Ratan; Henry, Frederic; Flandre, Denis

    2014-10-01

    Reducing absorber layer thickness below 500 nm in regular Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells decreases cell efficiency considerably, as both short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage are reduced because of incomplete absorption and high Mo/CIGS rear interface recombination. In this work, an innovative rear cell design is developed to avoid both effects: a highly reflective rear surface passivation layer with nano-sized local point contact openings is employed to enhance rear internal reflection and decrease the rear surface recombination velocity significantly, as compared with a standard Mo/CIGS rear interface. The formation of nano-sphere shaped precipitates in chemical bath deposition of CdS is used to generate nano-sized point contact openings. Evaporation of MgF2 coated with a thin atomic layer deposited Al2O3 layer, or direct current magnetron sputtering of Al2O3 are used as rear surface passivation layers. Rear internal reflection is enhanced substantially by the increased thickness of the passivation layer, and also the rear surface recombination velocity is reduced at the Al2O3/CIGS rear interface. (MgF2/)Al2O3 rear surface passivated ultra-thin CIGS solar cells are fabricated, showing an increase in short circuit current and open circuit voltage compared to unpassivated reference cells with equivalent CIGS thickness. Accordingly, average solar cell efficiencies of 13.5% are realized for 385 nm thick CIGS absorber layers, compared with 9.1% efficiency for the corresponding unpassivated reference cells.

  7. The status of lightweight photovoltaic space array technology based on amorphous silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanak, Joseph J.; Kaschmitter, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Ultralight, flexible photovoltaic (PV) array of amorphous silicon (a-Si) was identified as a potential low cost power source for small satellites. A survey was conducted of the status of the a-Si PV array technology with respect to present and future performance, availability, cost, and risks. For existing, experimental array blankets made of commercial cell material, utilizing metal foil substrates, the Beginning of Life (BOL) performance at Air Mass Zero (AM0) and 35 C includes total power up to 200 W, power per area of 64 W/sq m and power per weight of 258 W/kg. Doubling of power per weight occurs when polyimide substrates are used. Estimated End of Life (EOL) power output after 10 years in a nominal low earth orbit would be 80 pct. of BOL, the degradation being due to largely light induced effects (-10 to -15 pct.) and in part (-5 pct.) to space radiation. Predictions for the year 1995 for flexible PV arrays, made on the basis of published results for rigid a-Si modules, indicate EOL power output per area and per weight of 105 W/sq m and 400 W/kg, respectively, while predictions for the late 1990s based on existing U.S. national PV program goals indicate EOL values of 157 W/sq m and 600 W/kg. Cost estimates by vendors for 200 W ultralight arrays in volume of over 1000 units range from $100/watt to $125/watt. Identified risks include the lack of flexible, space compatible encapsulant, the lack of space qualification effort, recent partial or full acquisitions of US manufacturers of a-Si cells by foreign firms, and the absence of a national commitment for a long range development program toward developing of this important power source for space.

  8. Fundamentals of technology roadmapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M.L.; Bray, O.H.

    1997-04-01

    Technology planning is important for many reasons. Globally, companies are facing many competitive problems. Technology roadmapping, a form of technology planning can help deal with this increasingly competitive environment. While it has been used by some companies and industries, the focus has always been on the technology roadmap as a product, not on the process. This report focuses on formalizing the process so that it can be more broadly and easily used. As a DOE national security laboratory with R&D as a major product, Sandia must do effective technology planning to identify and develop the technologies required to meet its national security mission. Once identified, technology enhancements or new technologies may be developed internally or collaboratively with external partners. For either approach, technology roadmapping, as described in this report, is an effective tool for technology planning and coordination, which fits within a broader set of planning activities. This report, the second in a series on technology roadmapping, develops and documents this technology roadmapping process, which can be used by Sandia, other national labs, universities, and industry. The main benefit of technology roadmapping is that it provides information to make better technology investment decisions by identifying critical technologies and technology gaps and identifying ways to leverage R&D investments. It can also be used as a marketing tool. Technology roadmapping is critical when the technology investment decision is not straight forward. This occurs when it is not clear which alternative to pursue, how quickly the technology is needed, or when there is a need to coordinate the development of multiple technologies. The technology roadmapping process consists of three phases - preliminary activity, development of the technology roadmap, and follow-up activity.

  9. Assessment of industry views on international business prospects for solar thermal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterling, J.C.

    1984-09-01

    This report contains a review of solar thermal industry viewpoints on their prospects for developing international business. The report documents the industry's current involvement in foreign markets, view of foreign competition in overseas applications, and view of federal R and D and policy requirements to strengthen international business prospects. The report is based on discussions with equipment manufacturers and system integrators who have a product or service with potential international demand. Interviews with manufacturers and system integrators were conducted by using a standard format for interview questions. The use of a standard format for questions provided a basis for aggregating similar views expressed by US companies concerning overseas business prospects. A special effort was made to gather responses from the entire solar thermal industry, including manufacturers of line-focus, point-focus, and central receiver systems. General, technical, economic, institutional, and financial findings are provided in this summary. In addition, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) recommendations are provided (based upon advice from the Solar Thermal Review Panel) for activities to improve US solar thermal business prospects overseas.

  10. Solar Energy and Other Appropriate Technologies for Small Potable Water Systems in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Region 2 research demonstration project presentation studied the efficacy of sustainable solar-powered water delivery and monitoring systems to reduce the economic burden of operating and maintaining Non-PRASA drinking water systems and to reduce the impact of climate change...

  11. Solar Energy and Other Appropriate Technologies for Small Potable Water Systems in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Region 2 research demonstration project presentation studied the efficacy of sustainable solar-powered water delivery and monitoring systems to reduce the economic burden of operating and maintaining Non-PRASA drinking water systems and to reduce the impact of climate change...

  12. Small molecule organic semiconductors on the move: promises for future solar energy technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Amaresh; Bäuerle, Peter

    2012-02-27

    This article is written from an organic chemist's point of view and provides an up-to-date review about organic solar cells based on small molecules or oligomers as absorbers and in detail deals with devices that incorporate planar-heterojunctions (PHJ) and bulk heterojunctions (BHJ) between a donor (p-type semiconductor) and an acceptor (n-type semiconductor) material. The article pays particular attention to the design and development of molecular materials and their performance in corresponding devices. In recent years, a substantial amount of both, academic and industrial research, has been directed towards organic solar cells, in an effort to develop new materials and to improve their tunability, processability, power conversion efficiency, and stability. On the eve of commercialization of organic solar cells, this review provides an overview over efficiencies attained with small molecules/oligomers in OSCs and reflects materials and device concepts developed over the last decade. Approaches to enhancing the efficiency of organic solar cells are analyzed.

  13. n technology; economy and simplicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacoub Yousef Ahmad Alotaibi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is a major problem, a seawater desalination process separates saline seawater into two streams: a fresh water stream containing a low concentration of dissolved salts and a concentrated brine stream Applied desalination technologies can be divided in to three groups, thermal desalination technologies, membrane based desalination technologies,and solar desalination technologies. Results show that solar energy coupled to desalination offers a promising prospect for covering the fundamental needs of power and water in remote regions such as grid-limited villages or isolated islands that have access to sea or brackish-water. Reverse osmosis (RO and electrodialysis (ED desalination units are the most favorable alternatives to be coupled with photovoltaic (PV systems.

  14. 钙钛矿太阳电池专利技术概述%Overview of patent technology for solar cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱波

    2016-01-01

    钙钛矿太阳电池(Perovskite Solar Cells,PSCs)是由染料敏化太阳能电池演化出来的一种新型太阳能电池.其能够利用有机太阳能电池所采用的溶液法进行制备,极大降低了生产成本,有望成为新能源产业的一项重要技术.本文通过对检索到的国内外关于钙钛矿太阳电池的专利申请文件进行统计和梳理,对钙钛矿太阳电池领域的技术概况、专利申请态势以及专利技术发展趋势作了介绍,并分析了国内重点申请人的重点专利,为未来钙钛矿太阳电池领域的研究和改进提供参考.%Solar Cells Perovskite (PSCs) is a new type of solar cell which has evolved from the dye sensitized solar cell. It can be used in the preparation of organic solar cells,which greatly reduces the cost of production, is expected to become an important technology in the new energy industry. In this paper, after the statistics and analysis of the retrieved at home and abroad on the perovskite solar cell patent application, patent application and patent technology development trend trend of technology survey, on the field of perovskite solar cell are introduced,and the analysis of the key focus of domestic patent applicants, for the future of solar cell research field of perovskite and provide reference for improving.

  15. EFG Ribbon Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwirtlich, I. A.

    Since the beginning of solar cell development based on crystalline silicon, there have been efforts to produce wafers directly from the melt instead of through crystallization of ingots. Ingots require slicing into the blocs and wafers which form the basis of solar cells. In the last 30 years, several dozen processes have been published that describe a variety of concepts. Only few of these processes could be developed to an acceptable degree of technical maturity. Among those successful technologies are the Dendritic Web process, the Edge Supported Pulling (ESP) process and the Edge-Defined-Film-Fed-Growth (EFG) process. The EFG Process was originally developed by Mobil Solar and, since the mid-1990s, belongs to SCHOTT Solar GmbH and its predecessors, respectively. The Ribbon Growth on Substrate (RGS) process was originally developed by Bayer AG and is now in a pilot project at the ECN, Petten. Considering the past 20 to 30 years, the EFG process has reached the most advanced state in terms of industrialization.

  16. Low-cost ion implantation and annealing technology for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, A. H.; Minnucci, J. A.; Greenwald, A. C.

    1980-01-01

    Ion implantation and thermal annealing techniques for processing junctions and back surface layers in solar cells are discussed. Standard 10 keV (31)p(+) junction implants and 25 keV (11)B(+) back surface implants in combination with three-step furnace annealing are used for processing a range of silicon materials and device structures. Cells with efficiencies up to 16.5% AM1 are being produced, and large-area terrestrial cells with implanted junctions and back fields being fabricated in pilot production exhibit average efficiencies in excess of 15% AM1. Thermal annealing methods for removal of the radiation damage caused by implantation should be replaced by transient processing techniques in future production. Design studies have been completed for solar cell processing implanters to support 10 MW/yr and 100 MW/yr production lines, and analyses indicate that implantation costs can be reduced to approximately 1 cent/watt.

  17. Methodology for identifying materials constraints to implementation of solar energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litchfield, J.W.; Watts, R.L.; Gurwell, W.E.; Hartley, J.N.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1978-07-01

    A materials assessment methodology for identifying specific critical material requirements that could hinder the implementation of solar energy has been developed and demonstrated. The methodology involves an initial screening process, followed by a more detailed materials assessment. The detailed assessment considers such materials concerns and constraints as: process and production constraints, reserve and resource limitations, lack of alternative supply sources, geopolitical problems, environmental and energy concerns, time constraints, and economic constraints. Data for 55 bulk and 53 raw materials are currently available on the data base. These materials are required in the example photovoltaic systems. One photovoltaic system and thirteen photovoltaic cells, ten solar heating and cooling systems, and two agricultural and industrial process heat systems have been characterized to define their engineering and bulk material requirements.

  18. Marketing technology in macroeconomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamegawa, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we incorporate a marketing technology into a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model by assuming a matching friction for consumption. An improvement in matching can be interpreted as an increase in matching technology, which we call marketing technology because of similar properties. Using a simulation analysis, we confirm that a positive matching technology shock can increase output and consumption.

  19. Educational Technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meifeng, Liu; Jinjiao, Lv; Cui, Kang

    2010-01-01

    This paper elaborates the two different academic views of the identity of educational technology in China at the current time--advanced-technology-oriented cognition, known as Electrifying Education, and problem-solving-oriented cognition, known as Educational Technology. It addresses five main modes of educational technology in China: as a…

  20. Marketing technologically advanced products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bender, Horst

    1989-01-01

    This paper calls for a merger of technology and marketing under a customer value perspective; for an enhancement of the traditional technological innovation orientation of the technology-based firm with a market thrust. It establishes technology-based products as product-service offerings that are d

  1. Emerging technology and ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Wakunuma, Kutoma

    2011-01-01

    This e-book on Emerging Technologies and Ethics includes a collection of essays which explore the future and ethics of emerging information and communication technologies. Articles in the collection include an overview of the legal implications which may be relevant to the ethical aspects of emerging technologies and also ethical issues arising from the mass-take up of mobile technologies.

  2. Composite Technology for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, John

    2017-01-01

    The CTE (Composite Technology for Exploration) Project will develop and demonstrate critical composites technologies with a focus on joints that utilize NASA expertise and capabilities. The project will advance composite technologies providing lightweight structures to support future NASA exploration missions. The CTE project will demonstrate weight-saving, performance-enhancing bonded joint technology for Space Launch System (SLS)-scale composite hardware.

  3. Thermal Characterization of the Air Force Institute of Technology Solar Simulation Thermal Vacuum Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    Decrease KI Decrease Increase Increase Eliminate KD Small Change Decrease Decrease No Change A general process for manually tuning a PID ...solar simulator if restrictions were required. PID Coefficient Tuning Again, due to lack of previous testing of the chamber, the PID coefficients set...prescribed < 0.1°C bound. PID coefficient tuning was done throughout the process of testing in order to get as close to desired performance, with small

  4. ECO-CASTING OF AEOLIAN BLADES AND SOLAR PANELS WITH COMPOSITES MATERIALS VIA RTM TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Attaf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The technique used for manufacturing composite wind turbine blades and solar panels must be sure of environment-friendly. In order to achieve this objective, the closed mould manufacturing process that takes into account environment preservation and health protection besides assurance quality will be the subject of this article. The requirements of sustainable development and ecodesign are the objectives to be fulfilled with an acceptable degree of tolerance in relation to the new regulations and eco-standards.

  5. A novel microwave absorption and dielectric spectrum detection technology in photoelectron dynamic study for solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaowei; SUN Shuxu; LAI Weidong; ZHANG Rongxiang; DAI Xiuhong; JIANG Xiaoli

    2006-01-01

    The photoelectron property is directly related to the light-energy conversion efficiency of solar cells. In this paper, the photoelectron dynamic of semiconductor was analyzed. The diffusion of electrons has influence on the dielectric function of the solar cell material. And the amplitude variance of the imaginary andreal part of the dielectric function is in direct proportion to the dynamic process of free and shallow-trapped electrons. Based on the untouched detection technique, the method is present to detect the amplitude change of the microwave signal which is passing through the material whose dielectric function changes after exposure. A35GHz oscillator was used as a microwave source. The absorptionand dispersion microwave signals, which contain the dynamic information of free and shallow-trapped electron signal, are split respectively with phase-sensitive instrument. The photoelectron character of n-type Si(100) thin film was investigated by the novel equipment, and the lifetime of different kinds of electronswith the resolution of 1 ns was obtained. The equipment can be directly used inthe study of the optoelectronic conversion mechanism of solar cells.

  6. InterTechnology Corporation report of solar energy systems installation costs for selected commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-12-01

    The results of a study in which the primary objective was to determine actual costs associated with the installation of solar collector and thermal energy storage subsystems in specific non-residential building applications are presented. A secondary objective of the study was to assemble details of existing solar collector and storage subsystem installations, including caveats concerning cost estimating, logistics and installation practices. The study began with the development of an exhaustive listing and compilation of basic data and contacts for non-residential applications of solar heating and cooling of buildings. Both existing projects and those under construction were surveyed. Survey summary sheets for each project encountered are provided as a separate appendix. Subsequently, the rationale used to select the projects studied in-depth is presented. The results of each of the detailed studies are then provided along with survey summary sheets for each of the projects studied. Installation cost data are summarized and the significance of the differences and similarities between the reported projects is discussed. After evaluating the data obtained from the detailed studies, methods for reducing installation labor costs are postulated based on the experience of the study. Some of the methods include modularization of collectors, preplumbing and preinsulating, and collector placement procedures. Methods of cost reduction and a summary discussion of prominent problems encountered in the projects are considered.(WHK)

  7. Development of Lab-to-Fab Production Equipment Across Several Length Scales for Printed Energy Technologies, Including Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hösel, Markus; Dam, Henrik Friis; Krebs, Frederik C

    2015-01-01

    We describe and review how the scaling of printed energy technologies not only requires scaling of the input materials but also the machinery used in the processes. The general consensus that ultrafast processing of technologies with large energy capacity can only be realized using roll-to-roll m......We describe and review how the scaling of printed energy technologies not only requires scaling of the input materials but also the machinery used in the processes. The general consensus that ultrafast processing of technologies with large energy capacity can only be realized using roll...

  8. Newnes communications technology handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Geoff

    1994-01-01

    Newnes Communications Technology Handbook provides a discussion on different topics relevant to communications technology. The book is comprised of 39 chapters that tackle a wide variety of concern in communications technology. The coverage of the text includes technologies, such as analog digital communications systems, radio frequency receiver, and satellite systems. The book also discusses some methods and techniques used in communications technology, including mixer signal processing, modulation and demodulation, and spread spectrum techniques. The text will be of great use to engineers, t

  9. Technology and Nursing

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão Cardoso

    2012-01-01

    In the present age we cannot disassociate from emerging issues, which involve science, communication, health and technology, the influence of media, technological advances, and the use of computers in all spheres of life. The concepts created for technology cover various evaluation approaches, which depend upon which type of technology, approaches, usefulness and influences in a particular area of knowledge. Technological advances cover several areas, figuring quantum physics, nanotechnology,...

  10. Rural Electrification through Decentralized Concentrating Solar Power: Technological and Socio-Economic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Quoilin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of small-scale solar Organic Rankine Cycles for rural electrification in remote areas of Lesotho. It is subdivided in two parts. The first part deals with the success conditions of decentralized rural electrification projects. Through a literature survey, relevant guiding principles and recommendations are formulated. The second part of the paper describes the proposed system, which is designed in agreement with the formulated recommendations. A framework for benchmarking the performance and cost of various micro-utility platforms and rural electrification distribution models is proposed.

  11. Development of practical application technology for photovoltaic power generation systems in fiscal 1997. Development of technologies to manufacture thin film solar cells, development of technologies to manufacture low-cost large-area modules, development of technologies to manufacture next-generation thin film solar cells (development of technologies to manufacture CIS solar cell modules); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (CIS taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Research and development was made with an objective to achieve conversion efficiency of 13% in a 30 cm times 30 cm size submodule of a CIS-based thin film solar cell, and to develop a manufacturing technology that can achieve 140 yen/Wp. This paper describes the achievements attained during fiscal 1997. In fiscal 1997, based on the achievements reached during the previous year, a submodule with a size of 10 cm times 30 cm was fabricated for an attempt of improving the open voltage and short circuit current density. Simultaneously, the applicability thereof to a module with an area as large as 30 cm times 30 cm was evaluated. As a result of experimental discussions, enhancement in the open voltage was verified by increasing amount of Ga or sulfur, but it was not possible to achieve 600 mV or higher. In the research of component technologies to establish a mass production process, research and development was made on a high-resistance buffer layer film forming technology, a high-quality window layer film forming technology, a high-quality metallic rear electrode film forming technology, and patterning technologies. The outdoor exposure test was continued on laminated mini-modules with a size of 10 cm times 10 cm. (NEDO)

  12. Theoretical Technology Research for the International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour-Abdalla, Maha; Curtis, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the last four years the UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) IGPP (Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics) Space Plasma Simulation Group has continued its theoretical effort to develop a Mission Oriented Theory (MOT) for the International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program. This effort has been based on a combination of approaches: analytical theory, large-scale kinetic (LSK) calculations, global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations and self-consistent plasma kinetic (SCK) simulations. These models have been used to formulate a global interpretation of local measurements made by the ISTP spacecraft. The regions of applications of the MOT cover most of the magnetosphere: solar wind, low- and high- latitude magnetospheric boundary, near-Earth and distant magnetotail, and auroral region. Most recent investigations include: plasma processes in the electron foreshock, response of the magnetospheric cusp, particle entry in the magnetosphere, sources of observed distribution functions in the magnetotail, transport of oxygen ions, self-consistent evolution of the magnetotail, substorm studies, effects of explosive reconnection, and auroral acceleration simulations. A complete list of the activities completed under the grant follow.

  13. MOCVD of thin film photovoltaic solar cells—Next-generation production technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, S. J. C.; Barrioz, V.; Lamb, D.; Jones, E. W.; Rowlands-Jones, R. L.

    2008-11-01

    This paper will review the chalcogenide thin film photovoltaic (PV) solar cells, based on cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium diselenide (CIS) and discuss the potential for metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) to enable more advanced devices in the second generation of CdTe module production. The current generation of production methods is based on physical vapour deposition (PVD) or close-spaced sublimation (CSS). This paper concentrates on the less well-known topic of MOCVD of thin film chalcogenide cells, and in particular that of CdTe. Efficient CdTe PV solar cells (>10% AM1.5) have been demonstrated from deposition of the CdS, CdTe and CdCl 2 films in a single MOCVD chamber. The CdTe layer was doped with As and an additional high As concentration CdTe layer provides effective low resistance contacting without the need for wet etching the surface. The high level of flexibility in using MOCVD has been demonstrated where the CdS window layer has been alloyed with Zn to improve the blue response of the PV device and improve AM1.5 efficiency to 13.3%.

  14. Socio-geographic perception in the diffusion of innovation: Solar energy technology in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEachern, Menzie [Alberta Environment, 7th Floor, Oxbridge Place, 9820-106 Street, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Hanson, Susan [Department of Geography, Clark University, 950 Main Street, Worcester, MA 01610 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Understandings of the diffusion process have tended to emphasize either the adoption perspective, which focuses on individual characteristics, or the market perspective, which focuses on institutional context. In this paper we bring these two perspectives together by recognizing that people are embedded in socio-geographic contexts that affect their perceptions of their situations, which in turn shape the innovativeness of individuals and places. Focusing on the diffusion of Solar Home Systems (SHS) in Sri Lanka, we explore the role of context at the village (by comparing adoption rates among villages) and individual (by comparing time-to-adoption among household decision makers in a case-study village) scales. At the village scale, we find that expectations of government policy based on interactions related to ethnicity and politicians' previous power-grid connection promises are significant drivers of SHS adoption, along with perceived tolerance levels in the village for non-conformist behavior. Among household decision makers within the case-study village, we analyze relative adoption time and the duration of the innovation-decision process and find that perceiving strong village-level social control inhibits SHS adoption decision making. The results add to innovation diffusion theory and provide policy recommendations for agencies promoting solar energy in developing countries. (author)

  15. Solar energy for wastewater treatment: review of international technologies and their applicability in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelino, R B P; Queiroz, M T A; Amorim, C C; Leão, M M D; Brites-Nóbrega, F F

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported the adverse effects of recalcitrant compounds and emerging contaminants present in industrial effluents, which are not degradable by ordinary biological treatment. Many of these compounds are likely to accumulate in living organisms through the lipid layer. At concentrations above the limits of biological tolerance, these compounds can be harmful to the ecosystem and may even reach humans through food chain biomagnification. In this regard, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) represent an effective alternative for the removal of the pollutants. This study focused on the AOP involving the use of ultraviolet radiation in homogeneous and heterogeneous systems. Based on the literature review, comparisons between natural and artificial light were established, approaching photoreactors constructive and operational characteristics. We concluded that the high availability of solar power in Brazil would make the implementation of the AOP using natural solar radiation for the decontamination of effluents feasible, thereby contributing to clean production and biodiversity conservation. This will serve as an important tool for the enforcement of environmental responsibility among public and private institutions.

  16. Technology evaluation report, commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1976-04-01

    Criteria are presented which are to be met by solar hardware for inclusion in the demonstration program. Assessments are made, based on a survey made of solar hardware manufacturers and developers, of when components, subsystems, and systems will be available for demonstration according to the technology status categories set forth in ERDA 23A. Task outlines are provided for development activity recommended to improve available systems or develop advanced systems for later demonstration cycles. (WDM)

  17. Entry and Technological Performance in New Technology Domains : Technological Opportunities, Technology Competition and Technological Relatedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leten, B.; Belderbos, R.; Van Looy, B.

    2016-01-01

    Entry and success in new technology domains (NTDs) is essential for firms' long-term performance. We argue that firms' choices to enter NTDs and their subsequent performance in these domains are not only governed by firm-level factors but also by environmental characteristics. Entry is encouraged by

  18. Emerging technologies to power next generation mobile electronic devices using solar energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dewei JIA; Yubo DUAN; Jing LIU

    2009-01-01

    Mobile electronic devices such as MP3, mobile phones, and wearable or implanted medical devices have already or will soon become a necessity in peoples' lives.However, the further development of these devices is restricted not only by the inconvenient charging process of the power module, but also by the soaring prices of fossil fuel and its downstream chain of electricity manipulation.In view of the huge amount of solar energy fueling the world biochemically and thermally, a carry-on electricity harvester embedded in portable devices is emerging as a most noteworthy research area and engineering practice for a cost efficient solution. Such a parasitic problem is intrinsic in the next generation portable devices. This paper is dedicated to presenting an overview of the photovoltaic strategy in the chain as a reference for researchers and practitioners committed to solving the problem.

  19. Native Vegetation Performance under a Solar PV Array at the National Wind Technology Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatty, Brenda [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCall, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Braus, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buckner, David [ESCO Associates Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-05-16

    Construction activities at most large-scale ground installations of photovoltaic (PV) arrays are preceded by land clearing and re-grading to uniform slope and smooth surface conditions to facilitate convenient construction access and facility operations. The impact to original vegetation is usually total eradication followed by installation of a gravel cover kept clear of vegetation by use of herbicides. The degree to which that total loss can be mitigated by some form of revegetation is a subject in its infancy, and most vegetation studies at PV development sites only address weed control and the impact of tall plants on the efficiency of the solar collectors from shading.This study seeks to address this void, advancing the state of knowledge of how constructed PV arrays affect ground-level environments, and to what degree plant cover, having acceptable characteristics within engineering constraints, can be re-established.

  20. Ultrasonic seam welding technologies of copper plate and tube for collecting solar energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤勇; 万珍平; 刘亚俊; 刘树道

    2003-01-01

    The ultrasonic welding is applied more and more extensively due to its advantages such as environmental protection, cleaning and energy saving. By researching the mechanism on ultrasonic seam welding of copper plates and tubes for collecting solar energy, it is put forward that the ultrasonic metal welding process can be divided into two stages, and two factors make functions jointly to join the welded metal specimens. In order to successfully join the welding, three basic conditions must be satisfied, that is, there should be high frequency friction vibration in the contact interface; pressure must be imposed on the plate specimen during friction vibration; the time of friction vibration and pressure imposed should be proper. Furthermore, how to select the hardness of copper plate and tube and ultrasonic seam welding parameters is analyzed by experiments.

  1. Status of dye solar cell technology as a guideline for further research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsch, Andreas; Veurman, Welmoed; Brandt, Henning; Jensen, Katrine Flarup; Mastroianni, Simone

    2014-04-14

    Recently, the first commercial dye solar cell (DSC) products based on the mesoscopic principle were successfully launched. Introduction to the market has been accompanied by a strong increase in patent applications in the field during the last four years, which is a good indication of further commercialization activity. Materials and cell concepts have been developed to such extent that easy uptake by industrial manufacturers is possible. The critical phase for broad market acceptance has therefore been reached, which implies focusing on standardization-related research topics. In parallel the number of scientific publications on DSC is growing further (>3500 since 2012), and the range of new or renewed fundamental topics is broadening. A recent example is the introduction of the perovskite mesoscopic cell, for which an efficiency of 14.1% has been certified. Thus, a growing divergence between market introduction and research could be the consequence. Herein, an attempt is made to show that such an unwanted divergence can be prevented, for example, by developing suitable reference-type cell and module concepts as well as manufacturing routes. An in situ cell manufacturing concept that can be applied to mesoscopic-based solar cells in a broader sense is proposed. As a guideline for future module concepts, recent results for large-area, glass-frit-sealed DSC modules from efficiency studies (6.6% active-area efficiency) and outdoor analysis are discussed. Electroluminescence measurements are introduced as a quality tool. Another important point that is addressed is sustainability, which affects both market introduction and the direction of fundamental research.

  2. Solar Europe industry initiative: research technology development and demonstration in support of 2020 and long-term targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinke, W.C.; Fraile Montoro, D.; Despotou, E.; Nowak, S.; Perezagua, E.

    2010-01-01

    The European Union has set an ambitious target for the implementation of renewable energy technologies by 2020, i.e. a share of 20% of the total energy consumption. In support of these targets the Strategic Energy Technology (SET) Plan has been initiated by the European Commission. One of the key co

  3. Solar Europe industry initiative: research technology development and demonstration in support of 2020 and long-term targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinke, W.C.; Fraile Montoro, D.; Despotou, E.; Nowak, S.; Perezagua, E.

    2010-01-01

    The European Union has set an ambitious target for the implementation of renewable energy technologies by 2020, i.e. a share of 20% of the total energy consumption. In support of these targets the Strategic Energy Technology (SET) Plan has been initiated by the European Commission. One of the key co

  4. GRACE BIOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES - DARAMEND™ BIOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace Dearborn's DARAMEND™ Bioremediation Technology was developed to treat soils/sediment contaminated with organic contaminants using solid-phase organic amendments. The amendments increase the soil’s ability to supply biologically available water/nutrients to micro...

  5. Emerging Technologies Integrating Technology into Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin-Jones, Robert

    2016-01-01

    "Ready access to travel and to technology-enhanced social networking (e.g., Facebook or Skype) has changed the nature of study abroad to the point where today's experiences are fundamentally different from those of earlier eras" (Kinginger, 2013a, p. 345). In addition to more travel options and greater technology availability, study…

  6. Payload software technology: Software technology development plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Programmatic requirements for the advancement of software technology are identified for meeting the space flight requirements in the 1980 to 1990 time period. The development items are described, and software technology item derivation worksheets are presented along with the cost/time/priority assessments.

  7. Search Technologies | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our team of technology transfer specialists has specialized training in invention reporting, patenting, patent strategy, executing technology transfer agreements and marketing. TTC is comprised of professionals with diverse legal, scientific, and business/marketing expertise. Most of our staff hold doctorate-level technical and/or legal training.

  8. Available Technologies | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our team of technology transfer specialists has specialized training in invention reporting, patenting, patent strategy, executing technology transfer agreements and marketing. TTC is comprised of professionals with diverse legal, scientific, and business/marketing expertise. Most of our staff hold doctorate-level technical and/or legal training.

  9. Educational technology and the new technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, Pløn W.; Plomp, Tjeerd

    1989-01-01

    Like everywhere in our culture, new technologies gradually penetrate the field of education. This may be seen as a problem area, which asks for appropriate, actions by teachers, curriculum experts, instructional designers and others. As "technology" seems to be the main issue,one may quation whether

  10. SHARED TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRIFFIN, JOHN M. HAUT, RICHARD C.

    2008-03-07

    The program established a collaborative process with domestic industries for the purpose of sharing Navy-developed technology. Private sector businesses were educated so as to increase their awareness of the vast amount of technologies that are available, with an initial focus on technology applications that are related to the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies (Hydrogen) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. Specifically, the project worked to increase industry awareness of the vast technology resources available to them that have been developed with taxpayer funding. NAVSEA-Carderock and the Houston Advanced Research Center teamed with Nicholls State University to catalog NAVSEA-Carderock unclassified technologies, rated the level of readiness of the technologies and established a web based catalog of the technologies. In particular, the catalog contains technology descriptions, including testing summaries and overviews of related presentations.

  11. 美国太阳能发电技术及产业发展%Technology Progress and Industrial Developmentof U.S. Solar Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    禹庚

    2015-01-01

    Based on empirical study of the U.S. milestone achievements in 2013 and 2014 which are called the year of utility-scale PV solar power and the year of utility-scale CSP(Concentrating Solar Power) respectively, the article analyses the thrust forces produced by technology innovation and preferential policies on the U.S. solar power technology and industry. It argues that it is technology innovation and policies that safeguard the U.S. solar technology and industry on a fast track with features as lower cost, higher efifciency and booming market. With optimistic expectation, the U.S. solar power will be able to fully compete with traditional fossil energy by 2020, a target set by DOE’s SunShot Initiative.%本文以2013年美国多个超大规模光伏电站并网发电、2014年多个超大规模聚热太阳能电站投产为主要研究对象,分析了技术创新驱动和产业扶持政策对美国太阳能发电技术及大规模商业应用发展的推动作用,以及由此引发的效能提升、价格下降、供需市场兴旺,乐观预见美国太阳能发电产业的未来发展。

  12. Identifying and Tracking Solar Photospheric Bright Points Based on Three-dimensional Segmentation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian-ping, Xiong; Ai-li, Zhang; Kai-fan, Ji; Song, Feng; Hui, Deng; Yun-fei, Yang

    2016-10-01

    Photospheric bright points (PBPs) are tiny short-lived brightening phenomena that can be seen within dark inter-granular lanes. In this paper, we develop a new method to identify and track a PBP in a 3D space-time cube. Different from the common-adopted strategy of "identifying-before-tracking", this algorithm is based on the strategy of "identifying-by-tracking". This method can identify a PBP when its intensity is still rather weak, and can avoid the discontinuous evolution of PBP caused by the algorithm of Laplacian morphological dilation (LMD) to recognize completely the evolutionary process of a PBP. The statistics on a group of G-band data observed by Hinode/SOT (Solar Optical Telescope) in quiet regions indicate that the average lifetime of isolated PBP is as long as 3 minutes, and the longest lifetime is up to 27 minutes, which means that the lifetime of PBPs is longer than that obtained by the previous LMD algorithm. Furthermore, it is also found that the mean intensity contrast of PBPs is 1.02 times of the mean photospheric intensity, which is weaker than that calculated by the LMD algorithm, and that the intensity of PBP exhibits a periodical oscillation of 2∼3 minute during the whole lifetime.

  13. Radiation Exposure Analyses Supporting the Development of Solar Particle Event Shielding Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Steven A.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Abston, H. Lee; Simon, Hatthew A.; Gallegos, Adam M.

    2013-01-01

    NASA has plans for long duration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Outside of LEO, large solar particle events (SPEs), which occur sporadically, can deliver a very large dose in a short amount of time. The relatively low proton energies make SPE shielding practical, and the possibility of the occurrence of a large event drives the need for SPE shielding for all deep space missions. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) RadWorks Storm Shelter Team was charged with developing minimal mass SPE storm shelter concepts for missions beyond LEO. The concepts developed included "wearable" shields, shelters that could be deployed at the onset of an event, and augmentations to the crew quarters. The radiation transport codes, human body models, and vehicle geometry tools contained in the On-Line Tool for the Assessment of Radiation In Space (OLTARIS) were used to evaluate the protection provided by each concept within a realistic space habitat and provide the concept designers with shield thickness requirements. Several different SPE models were utilized to examine the dependence of the shield requirements on the event spectrum. This paper describes the radiation analysis methods and the results of these analyses for several of the shielding concepts.

  14. ACR-700 advanced technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapping, R.L.; Turner, C.W. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Yu, S.K.W. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Olmstead, R.; Speranzini, R.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2004-12-01

    A successful advanced reactor plant will have optimized economics including reduced operating and maintenance costs, improved performance, and enhanced safety. Incorporating improvements based on advanced technologies ensures cost, safety and operational competitiveness of the ACR-700. These advanced technologies include modern configuration management; construction technologies; operational technology for the control centre and information systems for plant monitoring and analysis. This paper summarizes the advanced technologies used to achieve construction and operational improvements to enhance plant economic competitiveness, advances in the operational technology used for reactor control, and presents the development of the Smart CANDU suite of tools and its application to existing operating reactors and to the ACR-700. (author)

  15. [Health technology in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, C; Faba, G; Martuscelli, J

    1992-01-01

    The features of the health technology cycle are presented, and the effects of the demographic, epidemiologic and economic transition on the health technology demand in Mexico are discussed. The main problems of science and technology in the context of a decreasing scientific and technological activity due to the economic crisis and the adjustment policies are also analyzed: administrative and planning problems, low impact of scientific production, limitations of the Mexican private sector, and the obstacles for technology assessment. Finally, this paper also discusses the main support strategies for science and technology implemented by the Mexican government during the 1980s and the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead.

  16. Technological Style is History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blond, Lasse

    culture, and just as importantly that culture shapes technology. By looking at a recent transfer of technology this reciprocal exchange is elaborated by considering the cultural or contextual influence in the adaptation of technology. In this connection the notion of technological style is revisited...... by questioning whether it pays due attention to the non-technical factors of the process? In order to compensate for the deficiencies of the technological style as a sensitizing device the concept of sociotechnical style is introduced – a concept more in tune with resent research in technology studies....

  17. Cloud Computing Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Carlin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the key characteristics that cloud computing technologies possess and illustrates the cloud computing stack containing the three essential services (SaaS, PaaS and IaaS that have come to define the technology and its delivery model. The underlying virtualization technologies that make cloud computing possible are also identified and explained. The various challenges that face cloud computing technologies today are investigated and discussed. The future of cloud computing technologies along with its various applications and trends are also explored, giving a brief outlook of where and how the technology will progress into the future.

  18. Non-conventional sources in energy. Solar, wind and biomass technologies. Decentralized generation of energy (SHPPs). 3. ed.; Fontes nao-convencionais de energia. As tecnologias solar, eolica e de biomassa. Geracao descentralizada (PCHs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montenegro, Alexandre de Albuquerque

    2000-07-01

    This work presents the papers submitted to the seminar on energy non-conventional sources, specifically the solar, wind and biomass technologies, held on the year of 1998, at the LABSOLAR/NCTS - Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil.

  19. Optical materials technology for energy efficiency and solar energy conversion VII; Proceedings of the Meeting, Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany, Sept. 19-21, 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granqvist, Claes G.; Lampert, Carl M.

    Various papers on optical materials technology for energy efficiency and solar energy conversion are presented. Individual topics addressed include: nonlinear optical effects in organic molecules and polymers, optical and electrical properties of amorphous Li(x)WO3 films, electrochromism in sputtered vanadium pentoxide, characterization of nickel oxide electrochromic films, radiative cooling with pigmented polyethylene foils, plasma-film interactions in RF sputtered a-Si:H and a-Ge:H, metal oxyfluoride coatings for energy-efficient windows, fatigue-resistant photochromic plastics, evaporated VO(x) thin films, electrochromism in nickel oxide films, system design for high-rate deposition of indium oxide solar coatings, performance and bandwidth analysis of holographic solar reflectors, laser and spectroscopic characterization of thin films, high-efficiency collectors for solar energy applications, influence of surface roughness on the optical properties of cermet coatings, and sputtered aluminum composite selective absorbing surfaces.

  20. 太阳能海水淡化技术研究进展%Advance in Research of Solar Seawater Desalination Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常泽辉; 侯静; 温雯

    2013-01-01

      淡水资源短缺已成为一个世界性问题,太阳能海水淡化技术是有效解决淡水危机的根本措施之一。对多种太阳能海水淡化技术的困境和发展进行了综述,简述了近年开发的太阳能海水淡化的新系统,分析其原因,指出与常规海水淡化技术结合是未来太阳能海水淡化技术的发展方向,前景广阔。%The shortage of freshwater resources has become a worldwide problem; solar seawater desalination technology is one of new approaches to settle the water supply crisis. The dilemma and development of conventional solar seawater desalination are described, the recently new solar seawater desalination technologies are provided, the reasons are analyzed, the reality that solar energy combined with traditional seawater desalination is solar desalination developing trend and possesses bright future is pointed out.