WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology solar energy

  1. Environmental aspects of solar energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strojan, C.L.

    1980-09-01

    Solar energy technologies have environmental effects, and these may be positive or negative compared with current ways of producing energy. In this respect, solar energy technologies are no different from other energy systems. Where solar energy technologies differ is that no unresolvable technological problems (e.g., CO/sub 2/ emissions) or sociopolitical barriers (e.g., waste disposal, catastrophic accidents) have been identified. This report reviews some of the environmental aspects of solar energy technologies and ongoing research designed to identify and resolve potential environmental concerns. It is important to continue research and assessment of environmental aspects of solar energy to ensure that unanticipated problems do not arise. It is also important that the knowledge gained through such environmental research be incorporated into technology development programs and policy initiatives.

  2. Development of technologies for solar energy utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    With relation to the development of photovoltaic power systems for practical use, studies were made on thin-substrate polycrystalline solar cells and thin-film solar cells as manufacturing technology for solar cells for practical use. The technological development for super-high efficiency solar cells was also being advanced. Besides, the research and development have been conducted of evaluation technology for photovoltaic power systems and systems to utilize the photovoltaic power generation and peripheral technologies. The demonstrative research on photovoltaic power systems was continued. The international cooperative research on photovoltaic power systems was also made. The development of a manufacturing system for compound semiconductors for solar cells was carried out. As to the development of solar energy system technologies for industrial use, a study of elemental technologies was first made, and next the development of an advanced heat process type solar energy system was commenced. In addition, the research on passive solar systems was made. An investigational study was carried out of technologies for solar cities and solar energy snow melting systems. As international joint projects, studies were made of solar heat timber/cacao drying plants, etc. The paper also commented on projects for international cooperation for the technological development of solar energy utilization systems. 26 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. Solar energy – new photovoltaic technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer-Larsen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    of its major energy sources. Solar energy is a focus point in many strategies for a sustainable energy supply. The European Commission’s Strategic Energy Plan (SET-plan) envisages a Solar Europe Initiative, where photovoltaics and concentrated solar power (CSP) supply as much power as wind mills......Solar energy technologies directly convert sunlight into electricity and heat, or power chemical reactions that convert simple molecules into synthetic chemicals and fuels. The sun is by far the most abundant source of energy, and a sustainable society will need to rely on solar energy as one...... in the future. Much focus is directed towards photovoltaics presently. Installation of solar cell occurs at an unprecedented pace and the expectations of the photovoltaics industry are high: a total PV capacity of 40 GW by 2012 as reported by a recent study. The talk progresses from general solar energy topics...

  4. Solar energy – new photovoltaic technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer-Larsen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Solar energy technologies directly convert sunlight into electricity and heat, or power chemical reactions that convert simple molecules into synthetic chemicals and fuels. The sun is by far the most abundant source of energy, and a sustainable society will need to rely on solar energy as one...... of its major energy sources. Solar energy is a focus point in many strategies for a sustainable energy supply. The European Commission’s Strategic Energy Plan (SET-plan) envisages a Solar Europe Initiative, where photovoltaics and concentrated solar power (CSP) supply as much power as wind mills...... in the future. Much focus is directed towards photovoltaics presently. Installation of solar cell occurs at an unprecedented pace and the expectations of the photovoltaics industry are high: a total PV capacity of 40 GW by 2012 as reported by a recent study. The talk progresses from general solar energy topics...

  5. Solar Energy: Its Technologies and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auh, P. C.

    1978-06-01

    Solar heat, as a potential source of clean energy, is available to all of us. Extensive R and D efforts are being made to effectively utilize this renewable energy source. A variety of different technologies for utilizing solar energy have been proven to be technically feasible. Here, some of the most promising technologies and their applications are briefly described. These are: Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings (SHACOB), Solar Thermal Energy Conversion (STC), Wind Energy Conversion (WECS), Bioconversion to Fuels (BCF), Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), and Photovoltaic Electric Power Systems (PEPS). Special emphasis is placed on the discussion of the SHACOB technologies, since the technologies are being expeditiously developed for the near commercialization.

  6. Summary of solar energy technology characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alessio, Dr., Gregory J.; Blaunstein, Dr., Robert R.

    1980-09-01

    This report summarizes the design, operating, energy, environmental, and economic characteristics of 38 model solar systems used in the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems Project including solar heating and cooling of buildings, agricultural and industrial process heat, solar electric conversion, and industrial biomass systems. The generic systems designs utilized in this report were based on systems studies and mission analyses performed by the DOE National Laboratories and the MITRE Corporation. The purpose of those studies were to formulate materials and engineering cost data and performance data of solar equipment once mass produced.

  7. Technology Roadmaps: Solar photovoltaic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Solar PV power is a commercially available and reliable technology with a significant potential for long-term growth in nearly all world regions. This roadmap estimates that by 2050, PV will provide around 11% of global electricity production and avoid 2.3 gigatonnes (Gt) of CO2 emissions per year. Achieving this roadmap's vision will require an effective, long-term and balanced policy effort in the next decade to allow for optimal technology progress, cost reduction and ramp-up of industrial manufacturing for mass deployment. Governments will need to provide long-term targets and supporting policies to build confidence for investments in manufacturing capacity and deployment of PV systems. PV will achieve grid parity -- i.e. competitiveness with electricity grid retail prices -- by 2020 in many regions. As grid parity is achieved, the policy framework should evolve towards fostering self-sustained markets, with the progressive phase-out of economic incentives, but maintaining grid access guarantees and sustained R&D support.

  8. Solar Energy Technologies Program Newsletter - July 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-07-01

    This quarterly newsletter is intended for participants and stakeholders in the DOE Solar Program. The content includes features on technology development, market transformation, and policy analysis for solar. Highlights include solar industry updates, DOE funding opportunity announcements and awards, and national laboratory technology developments.

  9. Solar Energy Technologies Program Newsletter - September 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-10-01

    This quarterly newsletter is intended for participants and stakeholders in the DOE Solar Program. The content includes features on technology development, market transformation, and policy analysis for solar. Highlights include solar industry updates, DOE funding opportunity announcements and awards, and national laboratory technology developments.

  10. Building Design Guidelines for Solar Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givoni, B.

    1989-01-01

    There are two main objectives to this publication. The first is to find out the communalities in the experience gained in previous studies and in actual applications of solar technologies in buildings, residential as well as nonresidential. The second objective is to review innovative concepts and products which may have an impact on future developments and applications of solar technologies in buildings. The available information and common lessons were collated and presented in a form which, hopefully, is useful for architects and solar engineers, as well as for teachers of "solar architecture" and students in Architectural Schools. The publication is based mainly on the collection and analysis of relevant information. The information included previous studies in which the performance of solar buildings was evaluated, as well as the personal experience of the Author and the research consultants. The state of the art, as indicated by these studies and personal experience, was summarized and has served as basis for the development of the Design Guidelines. In addition to the summary of the state of the art, as was already applied in solar buildings, an account was given of innovative concepts and products. Such innovations have occurred in the areas of thermal storage by Phase Change Materials (PCM) and in glazing with specialized or changeable properties. Interesting concepts were also developed for light transfer, which may enable to transfer sunlight to the core areas of large multi story nonresidential buildings. These innovations may have a significant impact on future developments of solar technologies and their applications in buildings.

  11. Assessing Rare Metal Availability Challenges for Solar Energy Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Grandell

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is commonly seen as a future energy source with significant potential. Ruthenium, gallium, indium and several other rare elements are common and vital components of many solar energy technologies, including dye-sensitized solar cells, CIGS cells and various artificial photosynthesis approaches. This study surveys solar energy technologies and their reliance on rare metals such as indium, gallium, and ruthenium. Several of these rare materials do not occur as primary ores, and are found as byproducts associated with primary base metal ores. This will have an impact on future production trends and the availability for various applications. In addition, the geological reserves of many vital metals are scarce and severely limit the potential of certain solar energy technologies. It is the conclusion of this study that certain solar energy concepts are unrealistic in terms of achieving TW scales.

  12. Building design guidelines for solar energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Givoni, B.

    1989-01-01

    There are two main objectives to this publication. The first is to find out the communalities in the experience gained in previous studies and in actual applications of solar technologies in buildings, residential as well as nonresidential. The second objective is to review innovative concepts and products which may have an impact on future developments and applications of solar technologies in buildings. The available information and common lessons were collated and presented in a form which, hopefully, is useful for architects and solar engineers, as well as for teachers of solar architecture'' and students in Architectural Schools. The publication is based mainly on the collection and analysis of relevant information. The information included previous studies in which the performance of solar buildings was evaluated, as well as the personal experience of the Author and the research consultants. The state of the art, as indicated by these studies and personal experience, was summarized and has served as basis for the development of the Design Guidelines. In addition to the summary of the state of the art, as was already applied in solar buildings, an account was given of innovative concepts and products. Such innovations have occurred in the areas of thermal storage by Phase Change Materials (PCM) and in glazing with specialized or changeable properties. Interesting concepts were also developed for light transfer, which may enable to transfer sunlight to the core areas of large multi story nonresidential buildings. These innovations may have a significant impact on future developments of solar technologies and their applications in buildings. 15 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2006 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2006 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2005. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  14. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-03-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2005. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program?s national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  15. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program 2007 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2007 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program from October 2006 to September 2007. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  16. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program: FY 2004 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-10-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2004 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2004. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  17. Solar Energy Technologies Program Newsletter - First Quarter 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-04-22

    The first quarter 2010 edition of the Solar Energy Technologies Program newsletter summarizes the activities for the past three months, funding opportunities, highlights from the national labs, and upcoming events.

  18. Solar Energy Technologies Program Newsletter - Fourth Quarter 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2009-12-31

    The Fourth Quarter 2009 edition of the Solar Energy Technologies Program newsletter summarizes the activities for the past three months, funding opportunities, highlights from the national labs, and upcoming events.

  19. Solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer-Larsen, P.; Krebs, F.C. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Plaza, D.M. (Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT (Spain))

    2010-11-15

    Solar energy is the most abundant energy resource on earth. In a sustainable future with an ever-increasing demand for energy, we will need to use this resource better. Solar energy technologies either convert sunlight directly into heat and electrical energy or use it to power chemical conversions which create 'solar fuels' or synthetic compounds. Solar heating technologies have developed steadily for many years and solar heating and cooling is one of the world's commonest renewable energy technologies. This chapter, however, focuses on technologies for electricity production and touches more briefly on the prospects for solar fuels. The section on Danish perspectives also discusses solar thermal heating in district heating plants. In recent decades, two technologies for converting solar energy into electrical energy have dominated: photovoltaics (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP). Today's silicon and thin-film PV technologies are advancing steadily, with new materials and technologies constantly being developed, and there are clear roadmaps for lowering production costs. In the discussion below we assess the maturation potential of currently emerging PV technologies within the next 40 years. Concentrating solar power is already a proven technology, and below we evaluate its potential to become a substantial part of the energy mix by 2050. Solar fuels cover a range of technologies. The chapter is to a great extent based on two recent roadmaps from the International Energy Agency (IEA). Many reports, predictions, scenarios and roadmaps for solar energy deployment exist. The IEA predictions for the penetration of solar energy in the future energy system are low relative to many of the other studies. The IEA roadmaps, however, cover most aspects of the future deployment of the technologies and reference older work. (Author)

  20. Time to shine applications of solar energy technology

    CERN Document Server

    Grupp, Michael

    2012-01-01

    As solar energy becomes increasingly more important in all of our lives, it is more important to learn how it works and how it can be implemented. This book is the perfect primer for the engineer, scientist, and layperson alike, for learning about the practical applications of solar energy technology and how it is being used today to heat homes, light city streets, and provide power worldwide.

  1. 78 FR 31997 - Greatmat Technology Corp., Kentucky USA Energy, Inc., Solar Energy Ltd., and Visiphor Corp...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... COMMISSION Greatmat Technology Corp., Kentucky USA Energy, Inc., Solar Energy Ltd., and Visiphor Corp., Order... lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Solar Energy Ltd. because it has... concerning the securities of Kentucky USA Energy, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports...

  2. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutula, Raymond A. [DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2006-03-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the program for fiscal year 2005. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program’s national laboratories and university and industry partners.

  3. Solar Energy Technologies and the Utilization on Native American Tribal Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Kathryn [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    2017-08-31

    As an undergraduate researcher, I worked on a new technology called nanofluid-based direct absorption solar collectors (DASC) which is a type of solar water heater that has the potential to be more efficient than traditional solar water heaters. Because of my experience with this type of technology, I decided to look into other types of solar energy technologies which could be used on Native American tribal lands. Some types of solar energy technologies that I wanted to focus on are photovoltaic solar energy systems, passive solar design, and solar water heaters.

  4. Value of storage technologies for wind and solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braff, William A.; Mueller, Joshua M.; Trancik, Jessika E.

    2016-10-01

    Wind and solar industries have grown rapidly in recent years but they still supply only a small fraction of global electricity. The continued growth of these industries to levels that significantly contribute to climate change mitigation will depend on whether they can compete against alternatives that provide high-value energy on demand. Energy storage can transform intermittent renewables for this purpose but cost improvement is needed. Evaluating diverse storage technologies on a common scale has proved a major challenge, however, owing to their widely varying performance along the two dimensions of energy and power costs. Here we devise a method to compare storage technologies, and set cost improvement targets. Some storage technologies today are shown to add value to solar and wind energy, but cost reduction is needed to reach widespread profitability. The optimal cost improvement trajectories, balancing energy and power costs to maximize value, are found to be relatively location invariant, and thus can inform broad industry and government technology development strategies.

  5. Dish concentrators for solar thermal energy: Status and technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1982-01-01

    Point-focusing concentrators under consideration for solar thermal energy use are reviewed. These concentrators differ in such characteristics as optical configuration, optical materials, structure for support of the optical elements and of the receiver, mount, foundation, drive, controls and enclosure. Concentrator performance and cost are considered. Technology development is outlined, including wind loads and aerodynamics; precipitation, sand, and seismic considerations; and maintenance and cleaning.

  6. Potential displacement of petroleum imports by solar energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLeon, P.; Jackson, B.L.; McNown, R.F.; Mahrenholz, G.J.

    1980-05-01

    The United States currently imports close to half of its petroleum requirements. This report delineates the economic, social, and political costs of such a foreign oil dependency. These costs are often intangible, but combined they clearly constitute a greater price for imported petroleum than the strictly economic cost. If we can assume that imported oil imposes significant socioeconomic costs upon the American economy and society, one way to reduce these costs is to develop alternative, domestic energy sources - such as solar energy technologies - which can displace foreign petroleum. The second half of this report estimates that by the year 2000, solar energy technologies can displace 3.6 quads of petroleum. This figure includes solar energy applications in utilities, industrial and agricultural process heat, and transportation. The estimate can be treated as a lower bound; if the United States were to achieve the proposed goal of 20 quads by 2000, the amount of displaced oil probably would be greater. Although all the displaced oil would not be imported, the reduction in imported petroleum would relieve many of the conditions that increase the present cost of foreign oil to the American consumer.

  7. Dish concentrators for solar thermal energy - Status and technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1981-01-01

    Comparisons are presented of point-focusing, or 'dish' solar concentrator system features, development status, and performance levels demonstrated to date. In addition to the requirements of good optical efficiency and high geometric concentration ratios, the most important future consideration in solar thermal energy dish concentrator design will be the reduction of installed and lifetime costs, as well as the materials and labor costs of production. It is determined that technology development initiatives are needed in such areas as optical materials, design wind speeds and wind loads, structural configuration and materials resistance to prolonged exposure, and the maintenance of optical surfaces. The testing of complete concentrator systems, with energy-converting receivers and controls, is also necessary. Both reflector and Fresnel lens concentrator systems are considered.

  8. Solar Energy: Solar System Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system economics is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

  9. Solar Energy Technologies Office FY 2017 Budget At-A-Glance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-03-01

    The Solar Energy Technologies Office supports the SunShot Initiative goal to make solar energy technologies cost competitive with conventional energy sources by 2020. Reducing the total installed cost for utility-scale solar electricity by approximately 75% (2010 baseline) to roughly $0.06 per kWh without subsidies will enable rapid, large-scale adoption of solar electricity across the United States. This investment will help re-establish American technological and market leadership in solar energy, reduce environmental impacts of electricity generation, and strengthen U.S. economic competitiveness.

  10. Solar energy photovoltaic technology: proficiency and performance; L'energie solaire maitrise et performance photovoltaiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Total is committed to making the best possible of the planet's fossil fuel reserves while fostering the emergence of other solutions, notably by developing effective alternatives. Total involves in photovoltaics when it founded in 1983 Total Energies, renamed Tenesol in 2005, a world leader in the design and installation of photovoltaic solar power systems. This document presents Total's activities in the domain: the global challenge of energy sources and the environment, the energy collecting by photovoltaic electricity, the silicon technology for cell production, solar panels and systems to distribute energy, research and development to secure the future. (A.L.B.)

  11. Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  12. Technology assessment of solar energy: An evaluation of widespread deployment of solar and biomass technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, Y.; D' Alessio, G.J.

    1980-12-01

    The following summarizes significance of the results of the analyses performed: Air Quality - Both increases and decreases in emissions of certain energy related criteria pollutants: essentially no influence on long-range transport of energy-related pollutants; moderate regional decreases in SO /SUB x/ and NO /SUB x/ ; significant increases in biomass-related particulate emissions in certain regions and subregions; minor changes in nonenergy related criteria pollutants associated with manufacturing solar on a national basis. Water Quality - Relatively minor increases and decreases in water pollution nationally; some significant increases in erosion in agricultural states; some potential local benefits associated with reduced conventional waste disposal requirements; and some potential penalties associated with increased solar working fluid disposal. Water Resources - Nationally insignificant especially in the Eastern U.S., but with some potential local problems in the West associated with discretionary water use for cleaning solar systems; some local benefits in the East associated with reduction in mandatory water use by conventional power plant cooling systems. Land Resources - On-site solar energy demands in moderately sized communities can be exceeded in all but the most dense land use sectors, this would offset adverse local land use impacts, but is highly influenced by local land use planning decisions.

  13. Energy Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Reviewed are technological problems faced in energy production including locating, recovering, developing, storing, and distributing energy in clean, convenient, economical, and environmentally satisfactory manners. The energy resources of coal, oil, natural gas, hydroelectric power, nuclear energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, winds, tides,…

  14. Design requirements for interfaces in solar energy conversion technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, B. L.

    1982-04-01

    Candidate materials for improving the durability and economics of solar energy conversion systems (SECS) are reviewed. A 30-yr lifetime is regarded as necessary for solar collector and concentrator materials in order to offset the high initial costs of SECS in parabolic dish, heliostat, parabolic trough, flat plate collector, OTEC, solar cell, and wind turbine configurations. The materials are required to transfer a maximum amount of intercepted energy without degrading from exposure to UV radiation, wind, water, dust, and temperature cycling. Glass and mirrored surfaces for reflecting or refracting optical subsystems are currently made from soda-lime, boro- and aluminosilicate, and must resist chemicals, abrasion, and permeability, and have good strength, flexibility, coefficient of expansion, and Young's modulus. Additional concerns are present in photochemical, solar cell, and in substrata components and systems.

  15. Solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, D.

    1981-01-01

    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  16. Solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, D.

    1981-01-01

    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  17. Technology development and application of solar energy in desalination: MEDRC contribution

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2011-12-01

    Desalination has become one of the sources for water supply in several countries especially in the Middle East and North Africa region. There is a great potential to develop solar desalination technologies especially in this region where solar source is abundantly available. The success in implementing solar technologies in desalination at a commercial scale depends on the improvements to convert solar energy into electrical and/or thermal energies economically as desalination processes need these types of energies. Since desalination is energy intensive, the wider use of solar technologies in desalination will eventually increase the demand on these technologies, making it possible to go for mass production of photovoltaic (PV) cells, collectors and solar thermal power plants. This would ultimately lead to the reduction in the costs of these technologies. The energy consumed by desalination processes has been significantly reduced in the last decade meaning that, if solar technologies are to be used, less PV modules and area for collectors would be needed. The main aspects to be addressed to make solar desalination a viable option in remote location applications is to develop new materials or improve existing solar collectors and find the best combinations to couple the different desalination processes with appropriate solar collector. In the objective to promote solar desalination in MENA, the Middle East Desalination Research Center has concentrated on various aspects of solar desalination in the last twelve years by sponsoring 17 research projects on different technologies and Software packages development for coupling desalination and renewable energy systems to address the limitations of solar desalination and develop new desalination technologies and hybrid systems suitable for remote areas. A brief description of some of these projects is highlighted in this paper. The full details of all these projects are available the Centers website. © 2011 Elsevier

  18. The other aspect of solar energy utilization. Solar technologies export enhancement: A central European point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, C. J.; Nitsch, J.; Klaiss, H.; Voigt, C.

    1985-11-01

    It is shown that solar energy utilization can, on a moderate scale, supplement the indigenous energy supply of the Federal Republic of Germany. It can contribute to the prevention of fatal ecological damage, open an attractive export market and, in the long run, prepare ground for North-South compensation, where energy-poor but technology rich countries cooperate with countries of the Third World, which are often rich in raw materials and are situated in the solar belt of the world, for the benefit of the implementation of a solar industry or the production of a marketable synthetic solar energy carrier.

  19. Capture, transformation and conversion of the solar energy by the technologies of concentration; Captation, transformation et conversion de l'energie solaire par les technologies a concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferriere, A.; Flamant, G

    2003-07-01

    The specificities of the solar technologies at concentration are: high energy efficiency with increasing possibilities and the possibility of storage the solar energy by heat for a local and short dated utilization or by chemical storage (hydrogen for instance) for a delayed utilization or far from the capture area. This document takes stock on the concentration solar techniques, the electric power production by concentrated solar energy and the performance of concentrated solar plants, the industrial american experience of the SEGS plants, the hydrogen production by concentrated solar energy and discusses the scientific and technological locks. (A.L.B.)

  20. Solar Energy and Other Appropriate Technologies for Small ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Region 2 research demonstration project presentation studied the efficacy of sustainable solar-powered water delivery and monitoring systems to reduce the economic burden of operating and maintaining Non-PRASA drinking water systems and to reduce the impact of climate change resulting from the use of fossil fuels in Puerto Rico. In Puerto Rico, petroleum (65%), natural gas (18%) and coal (16%) are imported to generate electricity resulting in electrical rates that are more than twice the US average. In 2012, only 1% of electricity came from renewable energy (US Energy Information Administration). One major cost for electricity for small communities in Puerto Rico is the transfer, treatment and distribution of drinking water. These small communities (Non-PRASA communities) are not able to afford electrical costs and many have abandoned their groundwater sources and reverted to unfiltered surface water systems, creating serious public health risks and non-compliance. Many Non-PRASA groundwater systems (141 out of 247) could use solar-powered pumps to extract and deliver groundwater. Solar power would also extend the life of system electrical components by improving the quality of electrical power supply. Solar power as a renewable energy source for Non-PRASA water systems is a viable approach that also reduces the impact of climate change in the Caribbean.

  1. Solar Energy and Other Appropriate Technologies for Small ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Region 2 research demonstration project presentation studied the efficacy of sustainable solar-powered water delivery and monitoring systems to reduce the economic burden of operating and maintaining Non-PRASA drinking water systems and to reduce the impact of climate change resulting from the use of fossil fuels in Puerto Rico. In Puerto Rico, petroleum (65%), natural gas (18%) and coal (16%) are imported to generate electricity resulting in electrical rates that are more than twice the US average. In 2012, only 1% of electricity came from renewable energy (US Energy Information Administration). One major cost for electricity for small communities in Puerto Rico is the transfer, treatment and distribution of drinking water. These small communities (Non-PRASA communities) are not able to afford electrical costs and many have abandoned their groundwater sources and reverted to unfiltered surface water systems, creating serious public health risks and non-compliance. Many Non-PRASA groundwater systems (141 out of 247) could use solar-powered pumps to extract and deliver groundwater. Solar power would also extend the life of system electrical components by improving the quality of electrical power supply. Solar power as a renewable energy source for Non-PRASA water systems is a viable approach that also reduces the impact of climate change in the Caribbean.

  2. Solar energy an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Mackay, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Solar Energy presents an introduction to all aspects of solar energy, from photovoltaic devices to active and passive solar thermal energy conversion, giving both a detailed and broad perspective of the field. It is aimed at the beginner involved in solar energy or a related field, or for someone wanting to gain a broader perspective of solar energy technologies. A chapter considering solar radiation, basic principles applied to solar energy, semiconductor physics, and light absorption brings the reader on equal footing with the technology of either solar generated electrical current or useful heat. Details of how a solar cell works and then production of current from a photovoltaic device is discussed. Characterization of a solar cell is examined, allowing one the ability to interpret the current-voltage relation, followed by discussion of parameter extraction from this relation. This information can be used to understand what limits the performance of a given solar cell with the potential to optimize its pe...

  3. Alternatives in solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

  4. Solar Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

  5. The social control of energy: A case for the promise of decentralized solar technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmer, R. W.

    1980-05-01

    Decentralized solar technology and centralized electric utilities were contrasted in the ways they assign property rights in capital and energy output; in the assignment of operational control; and in the means of monitoring, policing, and enforcing property rights. An analogy was drawn between the decision of an energy consumer to use decentralized solar and the decision of a firm to vertically integrate, that is, to extend the boundary of a the firm to vertically integrate, that is, to extend the boundary of the firm by making inputs or further processing output. Decentralized solar energy production offers the small energy consumer the chance to cut ties to outside suppliers--to vertically integrate energy production into the home or business. The development of this analogy provides insight into important noneconomic aspects of solar energy, and it points clearly to the lighter burdens of social management offered by decentralized solar technology.

  6. Decentralized Solar Energy Technology Assessment Program: review of activities (April 1978-December 1979)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronfman, B.H.; Carnes, S.A.; Schweitzer, M.; Peelle, E.; Enk, G.

    1980-05-01

    The Decentralized Solar Energy Technology Assessment Program (TAP), sponsored by the Office of Solar Energy, Department of Energy, is a technology assessment and planning activity directed at local communities. Specifically, the objectives of the TAP are: (1) to assess the socioeconomic and institutional impacts of the widespread use of renewable energy technologies; (2) to involve communities in planning for their energy futures; and (3) to plan for local energy development. This report discusses two major efforts of the TAP during the period April 1978 to December 1979: the community TA's and several support studies. Four communities have been contracted to undertake an assessment-planning exercise to examine the role of solar renewable energy technologies in their future. The communities selected are the Southern Tier Central Region of New York State, (STC); Richmond, Kentucky, Kent, Ohio; and Franklin County, Massachusetts. Descriptions and progress to date of the community TA's are presented in detail. Two major support study efforts are also presented. A review of existing literature on the legal and institutional issues relative to the adoption of decentralized solar technologies is summarized. A preliminary analysis of potential socioeconomic impacts and other social considerations relative to decentralized solar technologies is also described.

  7. National implications of high solar and biomass energy growth. Final report of the TASE project. A technology assessment of solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, Y.M.; D' Alessio, G.

    1982-09-01

    The Technology Assessment of Solar Energy (TASE) Project is a comprehensive multi-year analysis of the environmental, resource and community impacts which could result in the year 2000 if major national incentives were adopted to accelerate solar and biomass energy use. The study uses a comparative approach to examine: (a) the potential impacts of large numbers of solar and biomass units, and (b) the potential reductions in the impacts of new conventional technologies which they would displace. In addition, TASE examines the indirect pollution impacts associated with the manufacturing of solar systems at greater and lesser rates. Overall, massive incentives for solar and biomass energy over the next 20 years can lead to major stress on national capital and finished materials resources as well as to significant air pollution and safety problems. Rapid growth rates for solar systems could markedly increase energy damand in the manufacturing sector. The capital resource and materials problems would derive from emphasis on high, near term growth of solar technologies. The potential environmental and safety problems would derive largely from emphasis on decentralized, uncontrolled biomass combustion. A range of less costly general approaches lies in greater near term emphasis on more mature, competitive technologies, and specifically on biomass rather than solar technologies.In particular this emphasis should be on larger scale biomass technologies with economical pollution controls rather than on small, uncontrolled units; on bio-harvesting safety measures; on larger scale solar technologies which are far less energy and materials intensive and hence less costly than smaller solar technologies per unit energy output; on more gradual growth rates for active solar energy systems, especially small systems.

  8. Line-focus solar thermal energy technology development. FY 79 annual report for Department 4720

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, K D; Champion, R L; Hunke, R W [eds.

    1980-04-01

    The primary role of the Solar Energy Projects Department II (4720) is the development, evaluation, and testing of line-focus solar thermal technology. This report of FY 79 progress and accomplishments is divided into two parts: (1) Component and Subsystem Development including the design and analysis of collector modules, their components, and associated materials and processes, and (2) Systems and Applications Development, involving larger configurations of solar thermal line-focus systems. The emphasis is on parabolic troughs, but significant efforts on hemispherical bowls, compound parabolic collectors, and dishes for the Solar Total Energy Project are also described.

  9. Technology assessment of solar energy systems. Scenario development and methodology. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, Y.M.

    1981-07-01

    Included are a general overview of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy systems (TASE) project and a description of the study approach, the development of the TASE scenarios, energy and environmental assumptions, and assumptions and forecasts of the FOSSIL2 National Energy Model upon which the TASE scenarios were based. The Strategic Environmental Assessment System (SEAS) model was used to generate the analytical data base for TASE. Improvements made to SEAS to allow it to model solar and biomass energy technologies are also described.

  10. Solar Energy: Heat Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat transfer is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The…

  11. Solar Energy: Heat Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  12. Solar Energy: Home Heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on home heating is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  13. Solar Energy Technologies Program FY08 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-05-01

    These reports chronicle the research and development (R&D) results of the Solar Program for the fiscal year. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories and its university and industry partners within PV R&D, Solar Thermal R&D, which encompasses solar water heating and concentrating solar power (CSP), and other subprograms.

  14. Technology for Bayton-cycle powerplants using solar and nuclear energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Brayton cycle gas turbines have the potential to use either solar heat or nuclear reactors for generating from tens of kilowatts to tens of megawatts of power in space, all this from a single technology for the power generating system. Their development for solar energy dynamic power generation for the space station could be the first step in an evolution of such powerplants for a very wide range of applications. At the low power level of only 10 kWe, a power generating system has already demonstrated overall efficiency of 0.29 and operated 38 000 hr. Tests of improved components show that these components would raise that efficiency to 0.32, a value twice that demonstrated by any alternate concept. Because of this high efficiency, solar Brayton cycle power generators offer the potential to increase power per unit of solar collector area to levels exceeding four times that from photovoltaic powerplants using present technology for silicon solar cells. The technologies for solar mirrors and heat receivers are reviewed and assessed. This Brayton technology for solar powerplants is equally suitable for use with the nuclear reactors. The available long time creep data on the tantalum alloy ASTAR-811C show that such Brayton cycles can evolve to cycle peak temperatures of 1500 K (2240 F). And this same technology can be extended to generate 10 to 100 MW in space by exploiting existing technology for terrestrial gas turbines in the fields of both aircraft propulsion and stationary power generation.

  15. Solar technology. The energy of the future: Bases, applications, perspectives. Solartechnik. Die Energie der Zukunft: Grundlagen, Anwendungen, Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tintrup, E.

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, the extensive use of fossil fuels has seriously aggravated environmental problems. They may be partially countered with the aid of renewable energy sources. This non-fiction book deals with the bases of solar technology in popular language. It also discusses in detail economic and political aspects associated with the launching of this technology. Finally, it provides hints for the self-construction of solar collectors and photovoltaic systems. (BWI).

  16. Considerations for Solar Energy Technologies to Make Progress Towards Grid Price Parity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhouse, Michael; Fu, Ran; Chung, Donald; Horowitz, Kelsey; Remo, Timothy; Feldman, David; Margolis, Robert

    2015-11-07

    In this seminar the component costs for solar photovoltaics module and system prices will be highlighted. As a basis for comparison to other renewable and traditional energy options, the metric of focus will be total lifecycle cost-of-energy (LCOE). Several innovations to traditional photovoltaics technologies (including crystalline silicon, CdTe, and CIGS) and developing technologies (including organics and perovskites) that may close the gaps in LCOE will be discussed.

  17. Solar Energy: Solar and the Weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar and the weather is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

  18. Future: Solar energy. Zukunft: Sonnenenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, V.

    1987-01-01

    The first chapter, 'Solar energy - more than just Utopia' deals with the following: Alternatives to nuclear energy problems of energy supply, solar energy use, commencement of the solar age in space, solar technology in the Federal Republic of Germany, solar collectors, wind power, energy from hydrogen. The second chapter 'Solar energy - its contribution to future energy supply' discusses prospects for the future (interviews with scientists and engineers). The third and last chapter gives practical hints (solar energy use: self-construction of solar plants). (HWJ).

  19. Solar Lighting Technologies for Highway Green Rest Areas in China: Energy Saving Economic and Environmental Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, taking Lushan West Sea highway green rest area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the suitable types, applicability, advantages, and effective methods of solar lighting technologies for highway rest area were determined based on the analysis of characteristics of highway green rest area. It was proved that solar lighting technologies including the natural light guidance system, solar LED lighting, and maximizing natural light penetration were quite suitable for highway rest area in terms of lighting effects and energy and economic efficiency. The illuminance comparison of light guidance system with electrical lighting was made based on the on-site experiment. Also, the feasibility of natural light guidance system was well verified in terms of the lighting demand of the visitor centre in the rest area by the illuminance simulation analysis. The evaluation of the energy saving, economic benefits, and environmental effects of solar lighting technologies for highway rest area was, respectively, made in detail. It was proved that the application of solar technology for green lighting of highway rest facilities not only could have considerable energy saving capacity and achieve high economic benefits, but also make great contributions to the reduction of environment pollution.

  20. Solar Hydrogen Energy Systems Science and Technology for the Hydrogen Economy

    CERN Document Server

    Zini, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    It is just a matter of time when fossil fuels will become unavailable or uneconomical to retrieve. On top of that, their environmental impact is already too severe. Renewable energy sources can be considered as the most important substitute to fossil energy, since they are inexhaustible and have a very low, if none, impact on the environment. Still, their unevenness and unpredictability are drawbacks that must be dealt with in order to guarantee a reliable and steady energy supply to the final user. Hydrogen can be the answer to these problems. This book presents the readers with the modeling, functioning and implementation of solar hydrogen energy systems, which efficiently combine different technologies to convert, store and use renewable energy. Sources like solar photovoltaic or wind, technologies like electrolysis, fuel cells, traditional and advanced hydrogen storage are discussed and evaluated together with system management and output performance. Examples are also given to show how these systems are ...

  1. Solar Energy Windows and Smart IR Switchable Building Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarny, James; Kornish, Brian

    2011-09-30

    The three building envelope functions with the largest impact on the energy usage are illumination, energy flux and energy production. In general, these three functions are addressed separately in the building design. A step change toward a zero-energy building can be achieved with a glazing system that combines these three functions and their control into a single unit. In particular, significant value could be realized if illumination into the building is dynamically controlled such that it occurs during periods of low load on the grid (e.g., morning) to augment illumination supplied by interior lights and then to have that same light diverted to PV energy production and the thermal energy rejected during periods of high load on the grid. The objective of this project is to investigate the feasibility of a glazing unit design that integrates these three key functions (illumination and energy flux control, and power production) into a single module.

  2. 77 FR 76109 - IAS Energy, Inc., IB3 Networks, Inc., IBroadband, Inc., ICP Solar Technologies, Inc., IdentiPHI...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... COMMISSION IAS Energy, Inc., IB3 Networks, Inc., IBroadband, Inc., ICP Solar Technologies, Inc., IdentiPHI... accurate information concerning the securities of IAS Energy, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic... accurate information concerning the securities of ICP Solar Technologies, Inc. because it has not filed...

  3. Passive solar technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D

    1981-04-01

    The present status of passive solar technology is summarized, including passive solar heating, cooling and daylighting. The key roles of the passive solar system designer and of innovation in the building industry are described. After definitions of passive design and a summary of passive design principles are given, performance and costs of passive solar technology are discussed. Passive energy design concepts or methods are then considered in the context of the overall process by which building decisions are made to achieve the integration of new techniques into conventional design. (LEW).

  4. 2010 Solar Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 2010 Solar Technologies Market Report details the market conditions and trends for photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. Produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the report provides a comprehensive overview of the solar electricity market and identifies successes and trends within the market from both global and national perspectives.

  5. A highly efficient photosynthesis system using LCD technology for solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanai, Kenji [Research Inst. for Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE), Kyoto (Japan); Nakano, Yoshihisa [Osaka Prefecture Univ., Coll. of Agriculture, Osaka (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    For CO{sub 2} fixation and utilisation, a newly developed culture combining a light conduction plate of Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) technology worked well. The injected light energy was effectively served to the whole area into the culture without mechanical energy such as stirring the fluid and the light energy efficiency of this system was obtained up to 60% of the theoretical value of 8 mol photons / 1 mol CO{sub 2}. The photosynthesis of the plant-like micro-organism, euglena glacilis, was used with solar energy. The product was useful for feed and will be for foods and fuels. (Author)

  6. Implementing Solar Technologies at Airports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, A.; Romero, R.

    2014-07-01

    Federal agencies, such as the Department of Defense and Department of Homeland Security, as well as numerous private entities are actively pursuing the installation of solar technologies to help reduce fossil fuel energy use and associated emissions, meet sustainability goals, and create more robust or reliable operations. One potential approach identified for siting solar technologies is the installation of solar energy technologies at airports and airfields, which present a significant opportunity for hosting solar technologies due to large amounts of open land. This report focuses largely on the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA's) policies toward siting solar technologies at airports.

  7. Technology assessment of solar-energy systems. Materials resource and hazardous materials impacts of solar deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, Y.M.; Tahami, J.E.

    1982-04-01

    The materials-resource and hazardous-materials impacts were determined by examining the type and quantity of materials used in the manufacture, construction, installation, operation and maintenance of solar systems. The materials requirements were compared with US materials supply-and-demand data to determine if potential problems exist in terms of future availability of domestic supply and increased dependence on foreign sources of supply. Hazardous materials were evaluated in terms of public and occupational health hazards and explosive and fire hazards. It is concluded that: (1) although large amounts of materials would be required, the US had sufficient industrial capacity to produce those materials; (2) the postulated growth in solar technology deployment during the period 1995-2000 could cause some production shortfalls in the steel and copper industry; (3) the U.S. could increase its import reliance for certain materials such as silver, iron ore, and copper; (4) however, shifts to other materials such as aluminum and polyvinylchloride could alleviate some of these problems.

  8. Collecting Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Alexander

    This solar energy learning module for use with junior high school students offers a list of activities, a pre-post test, job titles, basic solar energy vocabulary, and diagrams of solar energy collectors and installations. The purpose is to familiarize students with applications of solar energy and titles of jobs where this knowledge could be…

  9. Collecting Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Alexander

    This solar energy learning module for use with junior high school students offers a list of activities, a pre-post test, job titles, basic solar energy vocabulary, and diagrams of solar energy collectors and installations. The purpose is to familiarize students with applications of solar energy and titles of jobs where this knowledge could be…

  10. Science and Technology of BOREXINO A Real Time Detector for Low Energy Solar Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Alimonti, G; Back, H O; Balata, M; Beau, T; Bellini, G; Benziger, J B; Bonetti, S; Brigatti, A; Caccianiga, B; Cadonati, L; Calaprice, F P; Cecchet, G; Chen, M; De Bari, A; De Haas, E; De Kerret, H; Donghi, O; Deutsch, M; Elisei, F; Etenko, A; Von Feilitzsch, F; Fernholz, R C; Ford, R; Freudiger, B; Garagiola, A; Galbiati, C; Gatti, F; Gazzana, S; Giammarchi, M G; Giugni, D; Golubchikov, A; Goretti, A; Grieb, C; Hagner, C; Hagner, T; Hampel, W; Harding, E; Hartmann, F; Von Hentig, R; Hess, H; Heusser, G; Ianni, A; Inzani, P; Kidner, S H; Kiko, J; Kirsten, T; Korga, G; Korschinek, G; Kryn, Didier; Lagomarsino, V; La Marche, P; Laubenstein, M; Löser, F; Lombardi, P; Magni, S; Malvezzi, S; Maneira, J; Manno, I; Manuzio, G; Masetti, F; Mazzucato, U; Meroni, E; Musico, P; Neder, H; Neff, M; Nisi, S; Oberauer, L; Obolensky, M; Pallavicini, M; Papp, L; Perasso, L; Pocar, A; Raghavan, R; Ranucci, G; Rau, W; Razeto, A; Resconi, E; Riedel, T; Sabelnikov, A A; Saggese, P; Salvo, C; Scardaoni, R; Schönert, S; Schuhbeck, K; Seidel, H; Shutt, T A; Simgen, H; Sonnenschein, A H; Smirnov, O Yu; Sotnikov, A; Skorokhvatov, M; Sukhotin, S V; Tartaglia, R; Testera, G; Vitale, S; Vogelaar, R; Wójcik, M; Zaimidoroga, O A; Zakharov, Yu I

    2002-01-01

    BOREXINO, a real-time device for low energy neutrino spectroscopy is nearing completion of construction in the underground laboratories at Gran Sasso, Italy (LNGS). The experiment's goal is the direct measurement of the flux of 7Be solar neutrinos of all flavors via neutrino-electron scattering in an ultra-pure scintillation liquid. Seeded by a series of innovations which were brought to fruition by large scale operation of a 4-ton test detector at LNGS, a new technology has been developed for BOREXINO. It enables sub-MeV solar neutrino spectroscopy for the first time. This paper describes the design of BOREXINO, the various facilities essential to its operation, its spectroscopic and background suppression capabilities and a prognosis of the impact of its results towards resolving the solar neutrino problem. BOREXINO will also address several other frontier questions in particle physics astrophysics and geophysics.

  11. Purdue Solar Energy Utilization Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Rakesh [Purdue

    2014-01-21

    The objective of this project is to establish and set-up a laboratory that will facilitate research and development of new low-cost and high-efficiency solar energy utilization technologies at Purdue University. The outcome will help spur the creation of solar energy start-up companies and eventually a solar energy industry in Indiana that can help fulfill the growing national demand for solar energy.

  12. Heating Unsaturated Sediments Using Solar Energy to Enhance Passive Sediment Remediation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, A.

    2002-12-01

    Sediment heating has been shown to enhance passive sediment remediation technologies such as bioremediation and barometric pumping (passive soil venting). Sediment heating raises the slow remediation rates that often limit the widespread use of these technologies. In bioremediation applications, a 10 degree C increase in subsurface temperature is expected to double the microbial activity, and thus the remediation rate. The removal rate of tetracholorethylene (PCE - a common subsurface contaminant) by passive soil vapor extraction is expected to nearly double in low-permeable sediments when the subsurface is heated 10 degree C from ambient temperatures due to an increased vapor pressure in the PCE. When the sediment is heated using renewable energy sources, these thermally enhanced remediation technologies can be environmentally benign alternatives to conventional remediation techniques that rely on large external energy inputs. The thermally enhanced passive technologies may be particularly useful for remediating unsaturated, low-permeable lenses that are troublesome to most conventional remediation technologies such as conventional soil vapor extraction and co-solvent flushes. The main objective of this work was to quantify subsurface sediment heating using a solar powered heat injection well. To do this, a pilot sediment heating system was installed in Vermont and high resolution meteorological and sediment temperature data were collected using a stand-alone data acquisition system. Unsaturated, silty sediments were heated in-situ by converting the direct and indirect solar energy available at the surface to heat energy in the subsurface using stand-alone renewable energy sources and a resistive element heat injection well. The heat injection well was powered by a 600-W passively tracking photovoltaic (PV) array and a small 1.2-m swept area wind turbine. It is envisioned that the heat injection well would be placed directly into an area of high subsurface

  13. Solar technology assessment project. Volume 3: Active space heating and hot water supply with solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaki, S.; Loef, G. O. G.

    1981-04-01

    Several types of solar water heaters are described and assessed. These include thermosiphon water heaters and pump circulation water heaters. Auxiliary water heating is briefly discussed, and new and retrofit systems are compared. Liquid-based space heating systems and solar air heaters are described and assessed, auxiliary space heating are discussed, and new and retrofit solar space heating systems are compared. The status of flat plate collectors, evacuated tube collectors, and thermal storage systems is examined. Systems improvements, reliability, durability and maintenance are discussed. The economic assessment of space and water heating systems includes a comparison of new systems costs with conventional fuels, and sales history and projections. The variety of participants in the solar industry and users of solar heat is discussed, and various incentives and barriers to solar heating are examined. Several policy implications are discussed, and specific government actions are recommended.

  14. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  15. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  16. Solar energy engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayigh, A.A.M. (ed.)

    1977-01-01

    The scope and advantages of solar energy are dealt with. The nature of the sun, the solar radiation spectrum, the estimation of total, direct, and diffuse radiation, and the heat transfer fundamentals for solar energy application are explained. The fundamentals, fabrication, and uses of various water and air heaters are outlined. Optics and concentrating collectors are dealt with, as well as solar furnaces. The various applications of solar energy are discussed, namely, solar pond, solar distillation, photovoltaic conversion of solar energy, solar refrigeration, solar hydrogen production, space applications, and solar measuring equipment. The cost of solar appliances is discussed. (MHR)

  17. Solar Energy and You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    This booklet provides an introduction to solar energy by discussing: (1) how a home is heated; (2) how solar energy can help in the heating process; (3) the characteristics of passive solar houses; (4) the characteristics of active solar houses; (5) how solar heat is stored; and (6) other uses of solar energy. Also provided are 10 questions to…

  18. Laser microprocessing technologies for automotive, flexible electronics, and solar energy sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikumb, Suwas; Bathe, Ravi; Knopf, George K.

    2014-10-01

    Laser microprocessing technologies offer an important tool to fulfill the needs of many industrial sectors. In particular, there is growing interest in applications of these processes in the manufacturing areas such as automotive parts fabrication, printable electronics and solar energy panels. The technology is primarily driven by our understanding of the fundamental laser-material interaction, process control strategies and the advancement of significant fabrication experience over the past few years. The wide-ranging operating parameters available with respect to power, pulse width variation, beam quality, higher repetition rates as well as precise control of the energy deposition through programmable pulse shaping technologies, enables pre-defined material removal, selective scribing of individual layer within a stacked multi-layer thin film structure, texturing of material surfaces as well as precise introduction of heat into the material to monitor its characteristic properties are a few examples. In this research, results in the area of laser surface texturing of metals for added hydrodynamic lubricity to reduce friction, processing of ink-jet printed graphene oxide for flexible printed electronic circuit fabrication and scribing of multi-layer thin films for the development of photovoltaic CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) interconnects for solar panel devices will be discussed.

  19. Solar energy applications in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilenikhena, P.A.; Ezemonye, L.I.N.

    2010-09-15

    Solar radiation being abundantly present in Nigeria was one area of focus in renewable energy sources. Researches were carried out and technologies produced for direct harnessing of the energy in six energy centres across the country. Some state governments in collaboration with non-governmental agencies also sponsored solar energy projects in some villages that are not connected to the national grid.

  20. Advanced Heat/Mass Exchanger Technology for Geothermal and Solar Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiner, Miles [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Childress, Amy [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Hiibel, Sage [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Kim, Kwang [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Park, Chanwoo [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Wirtz, Richard [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-12-16

    Northern Nevada has abundant geothermal and solar energy resources, and these renewable energy sources provide an ample opportunity to produce economically viable power. Heat/mass exchangers are essential components to any energy conversion system. Improvements in the heat/mass exchange process will lead to smaller, less costly (more efficient) systems. There is an emerging heat transfer technology, based on micro/nano/molecular-scale surface science that can be applied to heat/mass exchanger design. The objective is to develop and characterize unique coating materials, surface configurations and membranes capable of accommodating a 10-fold increase in heat/mass exchanger performance via phase change processes (boiling, condensation, etc.) and single phase convective heat/mass transfer.

  1. Research and development of utilization technology of solar thermal system for industrial and other use. Research and development of solar system (research for solar/energy-conservation technology retrofitted to existing buildings); Sangyoyo nado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Solar system no chosa kenkyu (solar toshi muke gijutsu ni kansuru chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takita, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for solar/energy-conversion technologies retrofitted to existing buildings. The estimated effects and economic viability of retrofitting technologies show that they bring very high energy-saving effects when applied to heating and hot water supply, which consume a large portion of energy, but relatively low energy-saving effects when applied to cooling, solar walls, glazed balconies and transparent insulators. The study on applicability of these technologies in Japan indicates that the technologies which can recover cost within an average life time are those applied to windows, solar collector systems for hot water supply and heating, and transparent insulators. Although these technologies are low in applicability to cooling viewed from the angle of cost recovery, retrofitted radiation type cooling systems improve not only cooling and energy-saving effects but also comfortableness.

  2. Solar Photovoltaic Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenreich, Henry; Martin, John H.

    1979-01-01

    The goals of solar photovoltaic technology in contributing to America's future energy needs are presented in this study conducted by the American Physical Society. Although the time needed for photovoltaics to become popular is several decades away, according to the author, short-range applications are given. (Author/SA)

  3. Solar energy conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Crabtree, George W.; Lewis, Nathan S.

    2007-01-01

    If solar energy is to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels, we must have efficient ways to convert photons into electricity, fuel, and heat. The need for better conversion technologies is a driving force behind many recent developments in biology, materials, and especially nanoscience.

  4. Solar Photovoltaic Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenreich, Henry; Martin, John H.

    1979-01-01

    The goals of solar photovoltaic technology in contributing to America's future energy needs are presented in this study conducted by the American Physical Society. Although the time needed for photovoltaics to become popular is several decades away, according to the author, short-range applications are given. (Author/SA)

  5. Self-sustained cabinet based on fuel cell technology and solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Rafael Augusto de Oliveira; Valentim, Rafael Bertier; Glir, Joao Raphael Zanlorensi; Stall, Alexandre; Sommer, Elise Meister; Sanches, Luciana Schimidilin; Dias, Fernando Gallego; Korndorfer, Heitor Medeiros de Albuquerque; Vargas, Jose Viriato Coelho [Universidade Federal do Parana (DEMEC/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Email: rafaelcorrea123@hotmail.com; Ordonez, Juan Carlos [Florida State University, Tallahasse, Florida (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Center for Advanced Power Systems

    2010-07-01

    Along the past few years, there has been intensive research on clean and renewable energy production. Two main reasons have been pointed out: pollution caused by oil based fuels consumption and their availability diminution, which increases their production costs. Fuel Cells have shown to be a clean and renewable energy source, which reveals them as a promising solution, although their technology needs further development. Fuel Cells produce electricity, water and heat consuming hydrogen and oxygen, this provided pure or from a natural air source. Present research has combined different equipment to compose a self-sustaining fuel cells technology based cabinet for energy production, which is a Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFC). This system contains: fuel cells stack, electrolyzer, photovoltaic panel, batteries, current inverter and a charge controller. Photovoltaic panel charges the batteries, while charge controller controls the batteries loading. Batteries are connected to an inverter which converts direct current into alternating current. Inverter is connected to an electrolyzer (Hogen GC 600) which splits the water molecule into hydrogen and oxygen molecules. Produced hydrogen supplies the fuel cell stack and the oxygen is released directly to the atmosphere. Fuel cell stacks power production is transformed into mechanical energy by a fan. Electrical power generated by Ballard stack is 5.124 W, with a voltage of 36.6 V and current of 0.14 A. The system proved to have a great efficiency and to be capable to assemble two renewable energy sources (solar and fuel cell technology) in a self-sustainable cabinet. It has also been shown that equipment such as Electrolyzer, Fuel Cell Stack and Photovoltaic panel can be fit together in the order to produce energy. Therefore, research on Fuel Cells Regenerative System reveals great importance for developing a new, clean, renewable and regenerative energy production system. (author)

  6. Solar energy and environmental ethics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    Current directions in the scientific development and advocacy of solar technology emphasize its technical efficiency, its ability to function in place of conventional energy technologies, and measures of its long-run cost effectiveness. Those directions do not consider human experience or the effect of their preoccupation with technical thinking. Even environmental ethics, as it relates to solar energy, and legal aspects of the use of solar energy are biased toward finding fixed solutions to social problems. The German thinker Martin Heidegger argued that meaningful involvement in any saturation depends on one's ability to think clearly and thoroughly. Heidegger's emphasis on thinking and thoughtfulness fits best with ways of using solar energy that are appropriate to both the nature of solar energy and the lifestyles of the users. Truly appropriate use of solar energy requires what Heidegger called a composure toward solar technology, in which solar technology might change to suit new circumstances but not to the point where the user cannot control it. The horizons of solar technology itself are broadened in the context to include scientifically less-sophisticated equipment, and ways of using solar energy that reflect changes in lifestyle and greater awareness of the sun.

  7. Research and development of utilization technology of solar thermal energy system for industrial and other use. International joint technology development for solar energy utilization systems; Sangyoyo nado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Taiyo energy riyo system kokusai kyodo gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takita, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for international joint technology development for solar energy utilization systems. The joint study with an Indonesian research institute takes a model of lumber drying plant for the design and feasibility study. All the parts it needs are technically available in Indonesia, except carbon fiber sheets and electronic devices for controlling purposes. The drying cost is higher than that of a plant which procures charge-free wood fuel, but lower than that of a plant which procures fuel at 30$/t. A cacao drying plant model is also studied. The feasibility study shows that the initial investment for the blowing-up model is much higher by 60% to 100% than that for the conventional plant. Its fuel cost is lower by 11% than that of residual oil but 27% higher than that of wood. 4 figs.

  8. Historical Analysis of Investment in Solar Energy Technologies (2000-2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, C. E.; Margolis, R. M.; Bartlett, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    The solar energy industry experienced unprecedented growth in the eight years from 2000 to 2007, with explosive growth occurring in the latter half of this period. From 2004 to 2007, global private sector investment in solar energy increased by almost twenty-fold, marking a dramatic increase in the short span of four years. This paper examines the timing, magnitude, focus and location of various forms of investment in the solar energy sector. It analyzes their trends to provide an understanding of the growth of the solar industry during the past eight years and to identify emerging themes in this rapidly evolving industry.

  9. Characterization of selected application of biomass energy technologies and a solar district heating and cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alessio, Dr., Gregory J.; Blaunstein, Robert P.

    1980-09-01

    The following systems are discussed: energy self-sufficient farms, wood gasification, energy from high-yield silviculture farms, and solar district heating and cooling. System descriptions and environmental data are included for each one. (MHR)

  10. BLM Solar Energy Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Priority development areas for utility-scale solar energy facilities as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision. An additional Solar Energy Zone identified...

  11. Solar Technology Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Bob

    2011-04-27

    The Department of Energy, Golden Field Office, awarded a grant to the UNLV Research Foundation (UNLVRF) on August 1, 2005 to develop a solar and renewable energy information center. The Solar Technology Center (STC) is to be developed in two phases, with Phase I consisting of all activities necessary to determine feasibility of the project, including design and engineering, identification of land access issues and permitting necessary to determine project viability without permanently disturbing the project site, and completion of a National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Environmental Assessment. Phase II is the installation of infrastructure and related structures, which leads to commencement of operations of the STC. The STC is located in the Boulder City designated 3,000-acre Eldorado Valley Energy Zone, approximately 15 miles southwest of downtown Boulder City and fronting on Eldorado Valley Drive. The 33-acre vacant parcel has been leased to the Nevada Test Site Development Corporation (NTSDC) by Boulder City to accommodate a planned facility that will be synergistic with present and planned energy projects in the Zone. The parcel will be developed by the UNLVRF. The NTSDC is the economic development arm of the UNLVRF. UNLVRF will be the entity responsible for overseeing the lease and the development project to assure compliance with the lease stipulations established by Boulder City. The STC will be operated and maintained by University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) and its Center for Energy Research (UNLV-CER). Land parcels in the Eldorado Valley Energy Zone near the 33-acre lease are committed to the construction and operation of an electrical grid connected solar energy production facility. Other projects supporting renewable and solar technologies have been developed within the energy zone, with several more developments in the horizon.

  12. Solar Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer-Larsen, Peter; Furbo, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is about Photovoltaic (PV) cells and its stresses in various directions by calculating the power generated using solar cells under different conditions to improve its efficiency. Our research studies found that using multi-junction cells with larger substrates can increase the efficiency to some extent which in practice is limited to 43 percent. The experiment was conducted using ten solar cells each with an area of 20.9〖cm〗 ^2, where each cell gives 0.5 V and 0.4 A and a 1.25 Ω r...

  13. Solar Photovoltaic Hydrogen: The Technologies and Their Place in Our Roadmaps and Energy Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmerski, L. L.; Broussard, K.

    2004-08-01

    Future solar photovoltaics-hydrogen systems are discussed in terms of the evolving hydrogen economy. The focus is on distributed hydrogen, relying on the same distributed-energy strengths of solar-photovoltaic electricity in the built environment. Solar-hydrogen residences/buildings, as well as solar parks, are presented. The economics, feasibility, and potential of these approaches are evaluated in terms of roadmap predictions on photovoltaic and hydrogen pathways-and whether solar-hydrogen fit in these strategies and timeframes. Issues with the ''hydrogen future'' are considered, and alternatives to this hydrogen future are examined.

  14. Solar photovoltaic hydrogen: the technologies and their place in our road-maps and energy economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmerski, L.L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado (United States); Broussard, K. [Southern Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Future solar photovoltaic-hydrogen systems are discussed in terms of the evolving hydrogen economy. The focus is on distributed hydrogen, relying on the same distributed-energy strengths of solar-photovoltaic electricity in the built environment. Solar-hydrogen residences/buildings, as well as solar parks, are presented. The economics, feasibility, and potential of these approaches are evaluated in terms of road-map predictions on photovoltaic and hydrogen pathways and whether solar-hydrogen fit in these strategies and time-frames. Issues with the ''hydrogen future'' are considered, and alternatives to this hydrogen future are examined. (authors)

  15. Improving Air Quality with Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    This fact sheet series highlights how renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies can and are being used to reduce air emissions and meet environmental goals, showcasing case studies and technology-specific topics. This one focus on solar energy technologies.

  16. The High Energy X-ray Imager Technology (HEXITEC) for Solar Hard X-ray Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert Y.; Gaskin, Jessica; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Seller, Paul; Wilson, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    High angular resolution HXR optics require detectors with a large number of fine pixels in order to adequately sample the telescope point spread function (PSF) over the entire field of view. Excessively over-sampling the PSF will increase readout noise and require more processing with no appreciable increase in image quality. An appropriate level of over-sampling is to have 3 pixels within the HPD. For current high resolution X-ray mirrors, the HPD is about 25 arcsec. Over a 6-m focal length this converts to 750 µm, the optimum pixel size is around 250 µm. Annother requirement are that the detectors must also have high efficiency in the HXR region, good energy resolution, low background, low power requirements, and low sensitivity to radiation damage. For solar observations, the ability to handle high counting rates is also extremely desirable. The Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK has been developing the electronics for such a detector. Dubbed HEXITEC, for High Energy X-Ray Imaging Technology, this Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), can be bonded to 1- or 2- mm-thick Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) or Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT), to create a fine (250 µm pitch) HXR detector. The NASA Marshall Space Flight CenterMSFC and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been working with RAL over the past few years to develop these detectors to be used with HXR focusing telescopes. We present on recent results and capabilities as applied to solar observations.

  17. 2009 Technical Risk and Uncertainty Analysis of the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technologies Program Concentrating Solar Power and Photovoltaics R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McVeigh, J.; Lausten, M.; Eugeni, E.; Soni, A.

    2010-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP) conducted a 2009 Technical Risk and Uncertainty Analysis to better assess its cost goals for concentrating solar power (CSP) and photovoltaic (PV) systems, and to potentially rebalance its R&D portfolio. This report details the methodology, schedule, and results of this technical risk and uncertainty analysis.

  18. Candidate thermal energy storage technologies for solar industrial process heat applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    A number of candidate thermal energy storage system elements were identified as having the potential for the successful application of solar industrial process heat. These elements which include storage media, containment and heat exchange are shown.

  19. Long-Term Monitoring of Utility-Scale Solar Energy Development and Application of Remote Sensing Technologies: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Yuki [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Division; Grippo, Mark A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Division; Smith, Karen P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Division

    2014-09-30

    In anticipation of increased utility-scale solar energy development over the next 20 to 50 years, federal agencies and other organizations have identified a need to develop comprehensive long-term monitoring programs specific to solar energy development. Increasingly, stakeholders are requesting that federal agencies, such as the U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management (BLM), develop rigorous and comprehensive long-term monitoring programs. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) is assisting the BLM in developing an effective long-term monitoring plan as required by the BLM Solar Energy Program to study the environmental effects of solar energy development. The monitoring data can be used to protect land resources from harmful development practices while at the same time reducing restrictions on utility-scale solar energy development that are determined to be unnecessary. The development of a long-term monitoring plan that incorporates regional datasets, prioritizes requirements in the context of landscape-scale conditions and trends, and integrates cost-effective data collection methods (such as remote sensing technologies) will translate into lower monitoring costs and increased certainty for solar developers regarding requirements for developing projects on public lands. This outcome will support U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Sunshot Program goals. For this reason, the DOE provided funding for the work presented in this report.

  20. Energy-saving Technology of Vent in Passive Solar Wall of Rural House of Severe Cold Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Ling; TianYu Zhao; Hong Jin; XiPeng Zhao

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at solving the problems of low thermal collection rate, inconvenient maintenance, hindering indoor using during the application of passive solar technologies in rural houses in severe cold region. All these defects prevent the passive solar houses'further development. This paper chooses trombe wall, which has higher thermal efficiency of the passive solar house, as research object. The traditional vent is improved into a new type of ventilation device. This improvement overcomes the shortcoming, which traditional vent loses huge heat, and simplifies the construction of vent. Comparing with traditional trombe wall, the energy saving rate is 15�69%.

  1. Overview of Opportunities for Co-Location of Solar Energy Technologies and Vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beatty, Brenda [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hill, Graham [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Large-scale solar facilities have the potential to contribute significantly to national electricity production. Many solar installations are large-scale or utility-scale, with a capacity over 1 MW and connected directly to the electric grid. Large-scale solar facilities offer an opportunity to achieve economies of scale in solar deployment, yet there have been concerns about the amount of land required for solar projects and the impact of solar projects on local habitat. During the site preparation phase for utility-scale solar facilities, developers often grade land and remove all vegetation to minimize installation and operational costs, prevent plants from shading panels, and minimize potential fire or wildlife risks. However, the common site preparation practice of removing vegetation can be avoided in certain circumstances, and there have been successful examples where solar facilities have been co-located with agricultural operations or have native vegetation growing beneath the panels. In this study we outline some of the impacts that large-scale solar facilities can have on the local environment, provide examples of installations where impacts have been minimized through co-location with vegetation, characterize the types of co-location, and give an overview of the potential benefits from co-location of solar energy projects and vegetation. The varieties of co-location can be replicated or modified for site-specific use at other solar energy installations around the world. We conclude with opportunities to improve upon our understanding of ways to reduce the environmental impacts of large-scale solar installations.

  2. Solar cell array design handbook - The principles and technology of photovoltaic energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenbach, H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar cell array design and technology for ground-based and space applications are discussed from the user's point of view. Solar array systems are described, with attention given to array concepts, historical development, applications and performance, and the analysis of array characteristics, circuits, components, performance and reliability is examined. Aspects of solar cell array design considered include the design process, photovoltaic system and detailed array design, and the design of array thermal, radiation shielding and electromagnetic components. Attention is then given to the characteristics and design of the separate components of solar arrays, including the solar cells, optical elements and mechanical elements, and the fabrication, testing, environmental conditions and effects and material properties of arrays and their components are discussed.

  3. Solar cell array design handbook - The principles and technology of photovoltaic energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenbach, H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar cell array design and technology for ground-based and space applications are discussed from the user's point of view. Solar array systems are described, with attention given to array concepts, historical development, applications and performance, and the analysis of array characteristics, circuits, components, performance and reliability is examined. Aspects of solar cell array design considered include the design process, photovoltaic system and detailed array design, and the design of array thermal, radiation shielding and electromagnetic components. Attention is then given to the characteristics and design of the separate components of solar arrays, including the solar cells, optical elements and mechanical elements, and the fabrication, testing, environmental conditions and effects and material properties of arrays and their components are discussed.

  4. Application of an electrochemical chlorine-generation system combined with solar energy as appropriate technology for water disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jusol; Park, Chan Gyu; Yoon, Jeyong

    2013-02-01

    Affordable water disinfection is key to reducing the waterborne disease experienced worldwide where resources are limited. A simple electrochemical system that can generate chlorine as a disinfectant from the electrolysis of sodium chloride is an appropriate technology to produce clean water, particularly if driven by solar energy. This study examined the affordability of an electrochemical chlorine generation system using solar energy and developed the necessary design information for its implementation. A two-electrode batch reactor, equipped with commercial IrO(2)-coated electrodes and a solar panel (approximate area 0.2 m(2)), was used to produce chlorine from a 35g/L solution of NaCl. Within 1 h, sufficient chlorine (0.8 g) was generated to produce clean drinking water for about 80 people for 1 day (target microorganism: Escherichia coli; daily drinking water requirement: 2 L per person; chlorine demand: 4 mg/L; solar power: 650 W/m(2) in Seoul, Korea. Small household batteries were demonstrated to be a suitable alternative power source when there is insufficient solar irradiation. Using a 1 m(2) solar panel, the reactor would take only 15 min in Seoul, Korea, or 7 min in the tropics (solar power 1300 W/m(2)), to generate 1 g of chlorine. The solar-powered electrochemical chlorine generation system for which design information is provided here is a simple and affordable way to produce chlorine with which to convert contaminated water into clean drinking water.

  5. National Energy Act statutes and solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.

    1980-02-01

    The National Energy Act of 1978 contains many provisions that will significantly affect solar technology commercialization and solar energy users. Four of the five statutes that comprise the National Energy Act deserve close attention. The National Energy Conservation Policy Act will promote residential solar installations. The Energy Tax Act will accelerate both residential and commercial solar system applications. The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act promotes efficient use of utility resources as well as decentralized power production. And, the Power Plan and Industrial Fuel Use Act places severe restrictions on future burning of petroleum and natural gas, which should lead some operators to build or convert to solar energy systems. Each of the preceding acts are considered in separate sections of this report. Federal regulations issued pursuant to the various provisions are also identified and discussed, and some of the problems with the provisions and regulations are noted.

  6. Overcoming the lock-out of renewable energy technologies in Spain: The cases of wind and solar electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, Pablo del [Department of Spanish and International Economics, Econometrics and History and Economic Institutions, Facultad de Ciencias Juridicas y Sociales de Toledo, C/Cobertizo de S. Pedro Martir s/n, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Toledo-45071 (Spain); Unruh, Gregory [Alumni Association Chair for Corporate Sustainability, Center for Eco-Intelligent Management, Instituto de Empresa, Serrano, 105 Madrid-28006 (Spain)

    2007-09-15

    This paper applies an evolutionary economics framework to analyse the factors leading to lock-out of renewable energy technologies (RETs). The cases of wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) in Spain are empirically analysed. The paper shows that a wide array of interrelated factors (technoeconomic characteristics of technology components, system-level infrastructure and institutional factors) can create both barriers to the wide diffusion of RETs and can also be drivers that foster an escape from a lock-in situation. Based on this analysis, the paper suggests several policy measures which may help to overcome the lock-out of promising renewable energy technologies. (author)

  7. Solar Cooker Technological Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Bashir

    1997-01-01

    The challenges which solar cooking technology is facing right now is discussed. Based on a field study in Madras and Gujarat, it is asserted that there is an important incompatibility between the technology and the every day real-life conditions of the "users" of solar cooker. An evaluation report...... on a solar cooker technology in Burkina Faso supports the findings of the study. It is concluded that the users and other important actors have to be incorporated in the technological development process of solar cookers in the future....

  8. Solar energy directories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankena, F.

    1984-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 275 directories relating to solar energy and renewable energy resources. The references include the newsletters and in-house publications of small firms and groups, plans and designs for solar housing, catalogs, and directories of agencies and organizations involved in solar energy. The references are listed in alphabetical order.

  9. Optical materials technology for energy efficiency and solar energy conversion VII; Proceedings of the Meeting, Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany, Sept. 19-21, 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granqvist, Claes G.; Lampert, Carl M.

    Various papers on optical materials technology for energy efficiency and solar energy conversion are presented. Individual topics addressed include: nonlinear optical effects in organic molecules and polymers, optical and electrical properties of amorphous Li(x)WO3 films, electrochromism in sputtered vanadium pentoxide, characterization of nickel oxide electrochromic films, radiative cooling with pigmented polyethylene foils, plasma-film interactions in RF sputtered a-Si:H and a-Ge:H, metal oxyfluoride coatings for energy-efficient windows, fatigue-resistant photochromic plastics, evaporated VO(x) thin films, electrochromism in nickel oxide films, system design for high-rate deposition of indium oxide solar coatings, performance and bandwidth analysis of holographic solar reflectors, laser and spectroscopic characterization of thin films, high-efficiency collectors for solar energy applications, influence of surface roughness on the optical properties of cermet coatings, and sputtered aluminum composite selective absorbing surfaces.

  10. Solar Energy Automobile

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    The thesis was to design a solar energy automobile, which is using solar power as energy re-source. At the moment, Finland was chosen as an example place. It was necessary to calculate the related data, which are the solar angle and the day length when designing the solar energy automobile. Also the seats and dashboard to improve the performance. Actually, in Finland it is possible to use solar energy automobile in summer. But in winter, the day length is so short and the solar constant i...

  11. Solar Energy Automobile

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    The thesis was to design a solar energy automobile, which is using solar power as energy re-source. At the moment, Finland was chosen as an example place. It was necessary to calculate the related data, which are the solar angle and the day length when designing the solar energy automobile. Also the seats and dashboard to improve the performance. Actually, in Finland it is possible to use solar energy automobile in summer. But in winter, the day length is so short and the solar constant i...

  12. Can Integrated Micro-Optical Concentrator Technology Revolutionize Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Solar Energy Harvesting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Michael W.

    2015-12-01

    The economies-of-scale and enhanced performance of integrated micro-technologies have repeatedly delivered disruptive market impact. Examples range from microelectronics to displays to lighting. However, integrated micro-scale technologies have yet to be applied in a transformational way to solar photovoltaic panels. The recently announced Micro-scale Optimized Solar-cell Arrays with Integrated Concentration (MOSAIC) program aims to create a new paradigm in solar photovoltaic panel technology based on the incorporation of micro-concentrating photo-voltaic (μ-CPV) cells. As depicted in Figure 1, MOSAIC will integrate arrays of micro-optical concentrating elements and micro-scale PV elements to achieve the same aggregated collection area and high conversion efficiency of a conventional (i.e., macro-scale) CPV approach, but with the low profile and mass, and hopefully cost, of a conventional non-concentrated PV panel. The reduced size and weight, and enhanced wiring complexity, of the MOSAIC approach provide the opportunity to access the high-performance/low-cost region between the conventional CPV and flat-plate (1-sun) PV domains shown in Figure 2. Accessing this portion of the graph in Figure 2 will expand the geographic and market reach of flat-plate PV. This talk reviews the motivation and goals for the MOSAIC program. The diversity of the technical approaches to micro-concentration, embedded solar tracking, and hybrid direct/diffuse solar resource collection found in the MOSAIC portfolio of projects will also be highlighted.

  13. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Lotsch, H.K.V; U.Hoffmann, Volker; Rhodes, William T; Asakura, Toshimitsu; Brenner, Karl-Heinz; Hänsch, Theodor W; Kamiya, Takeshi; Krausz, Ferenc; Monemar, Bo; Venghaus, Herbert; Weber, Horst; Weinfurter, Harald

    2005-01-01

    This comprehensive description and discussion of photovoltaics (PV) is presented at a level that makes it accessible to the interested academic. Starting with an historical overview, the text outlines the relevance of photovoltaics today and in the future. Then follows an introduction to the physical background of solar cells and the most important materials and technologies, with particular emphasis placed on future developments and prospects. The book goes beyond technology by also describing the path from the cell to the module to the system, proceeding to important applications, such as grid-connected and stand-alone systems. The composition and development of the markets and the role of PV in future energy systems are also considered. Finally, the discussion turns to the future structure of energy supplies, expected to comprise more distributed generation, and addresses synergies and competition from other carbon-free energy sources.

  14. Solar Thermal Energy; Energia Solar Termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Martinez, M.; Cuesta-Santianes, M. J.; Cabrera Jimenez, J. A.

    2008-07-01

    Approximately, 50 % of worldwide primary energy consumption is done in the form of heat in applications with a temperature lower than 250 degree centigree (low-medium temperature heat). These data clearly demonstrate the great potential of solar thermal energy to substitute conventional fossil fuels, which are becoming more expensive and are responsible for global warming. Low-medium temperature solar thermal energy is mainly used to obtain domestic hot water and provide space heating. Active solar thermal systems are those related to the use of solar thermal collectors. This study is dealing with low temperature solar thermal applications, mainly focusing on active solar thermal systems. This kind of systems has been extensively growing worldwide during the last years. At the end of 2006, the collector capacity in operation worldwide equalled 127.8 GWth. The technology is considered to be already developed and actions should be aimed at favouring a greater market penetration: diffusion, financial support, regulations establishment, etc. China and USA are the leading countries with a technology based on evacuated tube collectors and unglazed collectors, respectively. The rest of the world markets are dominated by the flat glazed collectors technology. (Author) 15 refs.

  15. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  16. Low-energy thermal processing technology of foamed concrete products in landfills using solar energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauzhanov Nabi Tokmurzaevich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the comprehensive research and industrial development there is a new method developed for accelerating the hardening of foamed products using thermal heating of products by soft modes, which allows to receive high quality material and organize energy-efficient and environmentally friendly production of foam concrete products.

  17. Solar energy emplacement developer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Michael; Sauls, Bob

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary design was developed for a Lunar Power System (LPS) composed of photovoltaic arrays and microwave reflectors fabricated from lunar materials. The LPS will collect solar energy on the surface of the Moon, transform it into microwave energy, and beam it back to Earth where it will be converted into usable energy. The Solar Energy Emplacement Developer (SEED) proposed will use a similar sort of solar energy collection and dispersement to power the systems that will construct the LPS.

  18. Advanced Methods for Incorporating Solar Energy Technologies into Electric Sector Capacity-Expansion Models: Literature Review and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, P.; Eurek, K.; Margolis, R.

    2014-07-01

    Because solar power is a rapidly growing component of the electricity system, robust representations of solar technologies should be included in capacity-expansion models. This is a challenge because modeling the electricity system--and, in particular, modeling solar integration within that system--is a complex endeavor. This report highlights the major challenges of incorporating solar technologies into capacity-expansion models and shows examples of how specific models address those challenges. These challenges include modeling non-dispatchable technologies, determining which solar technologies to model, choosing a spatial resolution, incorporating a solar resource assessment, and accounting for solar generation variability and uncertainty.

  19. Solar Energy Technician/Installer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2007-01-01

    Solar power (also known as solar energy) is solar radiation emitted from the sun. Large panels that absorb the sun's energy as the sun beats down on them gather solar power. The energy in the rays can be used for heat (solar thermal energy) or converted to electricity (photovoltaic energy). Each solar energy project, from conception to…

  20. Solar Energy Technician/Installer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2007-01-01

    Solar power (also known as solar energy) is solar radiation emitted from the sun. Large panels that absorb the sun's energy as the sun beats down on them gather solar power. The energy in the rays can be used for heat (solar thermal energy) or converted to electricity (photovoltaic energy). Each solar energy project, from conception to…

  1. Experimenting with Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, the author has had the opportunity to study the subject of solar energy and to get involved with the installation, operation, and testing of solar energy systems. His work has taken him all over the United States and put him in contact with solar experts from around the world. He has also had the good fortune of seeing some…

  2. Solar energy modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, R. R. (Inventor); Mcdougal, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A module is described with a receiver having a solar energy acceptance opening and supported by a mounting ring along the optic axis of a parabolic mirror in coaxial alignment for receiving solar energy from the mirror, and a solar flux modulator plate for varying the quantity of solar energy flux received by the acceptance opening of the module. The modulator plate is characterized by an annular, plate-like body, the internal diameter of which is equal to or slightly greater than the diameter of the solar energy acceptance opening of the receiver. Slave cylinders are connected to the modulator plate for supporting the plate for axial displacement along the axis of the mirror, therby shading the opening with respect to solar energy flux reflected from the surface of the mirror to the solar energy acceptance opening.

  3. Solar energy engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    This book introduces the reader to solar energy engineering, covering topics such as radiation, absorption, its practical applications in space and hot water heating, and solar geometrical and geographical forms.

  4. Optical materials technology for energy efficiency and solar energy conversion VI; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, Aug. 18, 19, 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Carl M.

    1987-01-01

    Recent advances in optical materials for energy conversion are discussed in reviews and reports. Sections are devoted to transparent IR reflectors and large-area deposition technology; optical switching materials; holographic films and reflector technology; and absorbers, photovoltaics, and solar materials. Topics addressed include bendable Ag-based low-emissivity coating on glass, plasma oxidation of Ag and Zn in low-emissivity stacks, smart window coatings, improved colored-state reflectivity in lithiated WO3 films, photochromic and thermochromic pigments for solar absorbing-reflecting coatings, the design and optimization of holographic solar concentrators, the properties of black cobalt coatings, and interface states and Fermi-level pinning in CdSe thin-film solar cells.

  5. The Application Study in Solar Energy Technology for Highway Service Area: A Case Study of West Lushan Highway Low-Carbon Service Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of research works have been made concerning highway service area or solar technology and acquired great achievements. However, unfortunately, few works have been made combining the two topics together of highway service areas and solar energy saving to make a systemic research on solar technology application for highway service area. In this paper, taking West Lushan highway low-carbon service area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the advantages, technical principles, and application methods of solar energy technology for highway service area including solar photoelectric technology and solar water heating technology were discussed based on the analysis of characteristics of highway low-carbon service area; the system types, operation mode, and installing tilt angle of the two kinds of solar systems suitable for highway service areas were confirmed. It was proved that the reduction of the cost by electricity savings of solar system was huge. Taking the investment of the solar systems into account, the payback period of solar photoelectric systems and solar water heating systems was calculated. The economic effect of the solar systems in West Lushan highway service area during the effective operation periods was also calculated and proved very considerable.

  6. Solar energy to biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Rakesh; Singh, Navneet R

    2010-01-01

    In a solar economy, sustainably available biomass holds the potential to be an excellent nonfossil source of high energy density transportation fuel. However, if sustainably available biomass cannot supply the liquid fuel need for the entire transport sector, alternatives must be sought. This article reviews biomass to liquid fuel conversion processes that treat biomass primarily as a carbon source and boost liquid fuel production substantially by using supplementary energy that is recovered from solar energy at much higher efficiencies than the biomass itself. The need to develop technologies for an energy-efficient future sustainable transport sector infrastructure that will use different forms of energy, such as electricity, H(2), and heat, in a synergistic interaction with each other is emphasized. An enabling template for such a future transport infrastructure is presented. An advantage of the use of such a template is that it reduces the land area needed to propel an entire transport sector. Also, some solutions for the transition period that synergistically combine biomass with fossil fuels are briefly discussed.

  7. Solar energy sciences and engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Enteria, Napoleon

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy is available all over the world in different intensities. Theoretically, the solar energy available on the surface of the earth is enough to support the energy requirements of the entire planet. However, in reality, progress and development of solar science and technology depends to a large extent on human desires and needs. This is due to the various barriers to overcome and to deal with the economics of practical utilization of solar energy.This book will introduce the rapid development and progress in the field of solar energy applications for science and technology: the advanc

  8. Methodology for identifying materials constraints to implementation of solar energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litchfield, J.W.; Watts, R.L.; Gurwell, W.E.; Hartley, J.N.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1978-07-01

    A materials assessment methodology for identifying specific critical material requirements that could hinder the implementation of solar energy has been developed and demonstrated. The methodology involves an initial screening process, followed by a more detailed materials assessment. The detailed assessment considers such materials concerns and constraints as: process and production constraints, reserve and resource limitations, lack of alternative supply sources, geopolitical problems, environmental and energy concerns, time constraints, and economic constraints. Data for 55 bulk and 53 raw materials are currently available on the data base. These materials are required in the example photovoltaic systems. One photovoltaic system and thirteen photovoltaic cells, ten solar heating and cooling systems, and two agricultural and industrial process heat systems have been characterized to define their engineering and bulk material requirements.

  9. Research opportunities to advance solar energy utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan S

    2016-01-22

    Major developments, as well as remaining challenges and the associated research opportunities, are evaluated for three technologically distinct approaches to solar energy utilization: solar electricity, solar thermal, and solar fuels technologies. Much progress has been made, but research opportunities are still present for all approaches. Both evolutionary and revolutionary technology development, involving foundational research, applied research, learning by doing, demonstration projects, and deployment at scale will be needed to continue this technology-innovation ecosystem. Most of the approaches still offer the potential to provide much higher efficiencies, much lower costs, improved scalability, and new functionality, relative to the embodiments of solar energy-conversion systems that have been developed to date.

  10. Physics of solar energy

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, C Julian

    2011-01-01

    The definitive guide to the science of solar energy You hold in your hands the first, and only, truly comprehensive guide to the most abundant and most promising source of alternative energy-solar power. In recent years, all major countries in the world have been calling for an energy revolution. The renewable energy industry will drive a vigorous expansion of the global economy and create more ""green"" jobs. The use of fossil fuels to power our way of living is moving toward an inevitable end, with sources of coal, petroleum, and natural gas being fiercely depleted. Solar energy

  11. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 2: Assumptions, methodology and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.

  12. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 2: Assumptions, methodology and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.

  13. Solar energy in buildings: Implications for California energy policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshberg, A. S.; Davis, E. S.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of the potential of active solar energy systems for buildings in California is summarized. The technology used for solar heating, cooling, and water heating in buildings is discussed. The major California weather zones and the solar energy designs are described, as well as the sizing of solar energy systems and their performance. The cost of solar energy systems is given both at current prices and at prices consistent with optimistic estimates for the cost of collectors. The main institutional barriers to the wide spread use of solar energy are summarized.

  14. InterTechnology Corporation report of solar energy systems installation costs for selected commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-12-01

    The results of a study in which the primary objective was to determine actual costs associated with the installation of solar collector and thermal energy storage subsystems in specific non-residential building applications are presented. A secondary objective of the study was to assemble details of existing solar collector and storage subsystem installations, including caveats concerning cost estimating, logistics and installation practices. The study began with the development of an exhaustive listing and compilation of basic data and contacts for non-residential applications of solar heating and cooling of buildings. Both existing projects and those under construction were surveyed. Survey summary sheets for each project encountered are provided as a separate appendix. Subsequently, the rationale used to select the projects studied in-depth is presented. The results of each of the detailed studies are then provided along with survey summary sheets for each of the projects studied. Installation cost data are summarized and the significance of the differences and similarities between the reported projects is discussed. After evaluating the data obtained from the detailed studies, methods for reducing installation labor costs are postulated based on the experience of the study. Some of the methods include modularization of collectors, preplumbing and preinsulating, and collector placement procedures. Methods of cost reduction and a summary discussion of prominent problems encountered in the projects are considered.(WHK)

  15. Employment factors for wind and solar energy technologies: A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cameron, L.; van der Zwaan, B.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an up-to-date literature review on employment opportunities associated with the deployment of renewable energy technology. We identified approximately 70 studies and data sources published over the past decade that report analysed or observed employment impacts of renewable

  16. Employment factors for wind and solar energy technologies: A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cameron, L.; van der Zwaan, B.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an up-to-date literature review on employment opportunities associated with the deployment of renewable energy technology. We identified approximately 70 studies and data sources published over the past decade that report analysed or observed employment impacts of renewable

  17. German energy technology prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, M

    1982-12-24

    After more than 25 years of development of nuclear power and almost 10 years of research and development in numerous areas of nonnuclear energy, there is now a good basis for judging the future prospects of energy technologies in the Federal Republic of Germany. The development of nuclear power has provided an important and economically advantageous new source of energy. Further efforts are needed to establish the nuclear fuel cycle in all stages and to exploit the potential of advanced reactors. In all other areas of energy technology, including energy conservation, new energy sources, and coal, economics has turned out to be the key problem, even at today's energy prices. Opportunities to overcome these economic problems through additional R & D are limited. There is some potential for special applications, and there are many technologies that could contribute to the energy supply of developing countries. In general, however, progress in energy conservation and the use of renewable energy sources will depend on the degree to which energy policy measures can improve their economic basis. For some technologies, such as solar thermal power stations and coal liquefaction, large-scale economic deployment cannot be foreseen today. Instead of establishing costly demonstration projects, emphasis will be put on improving key components of these technologies with the aim of having the most advanced technology available when the economic parameters are more favorable.

  18. Public policy performance for social development: solar energy approach to assess technological outcome in Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas-Aquino, Angel Raúl; Matsumoto-Kuwabara, Y; Kleiche-Dray, M

    2017-01-11

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is the most populated urban area in the country. In 2010, MCMA required 14.8% of total energy domestic demand, but greenhouse gas emissions accounted for 7.7% of domestic emissions. Mexico has massive renewable energy potential that could be harnessed through solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. The problem to explore is the relationship between local and federal public strategies in MCMA and their stance on energy transition concern, social empowerment, new technology appropriation, and the will to boost social development and urban sustainability. A public policy typology was conducted through instruments of State intervention approach, based on political agenda articulation and environmental local interactions. Social equality is encouraged by means of forthright funding and in-kind support and energy policies focus on non-renewable energy subsidies and electric transmission infrastructure investment. There is a lack of vision for using PV technology as a guiding axis for marginalized population development. It is essential to promote economic and political rearrangement in order to level and structure environmental governance. It is essential to understand people's representation about their own needs along with renewable energy.

  19. Solar Renewable Energy. Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Marion; And Others

    This unit develops the concept of solar energy as a renewable resource. It includes: (1) an introductory section (developing understandings of photosynthesis and impact of solar energy); (2) information on solar energy use (including applications and geographic limitations of solar energy use); and (3) future considerations of solar energy…

  20. Ultrasonic seam welding technologies of copper plate and tube for collecting solar energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤勇; 万珍平; 刘亚俊; 刘树道

    2003-01-01

    The ultrasonic welding is applied more and more extensively due to its advantages such as environmental protection, cleaning and energy saving. By researching the mechanism on ultrasonic seam welding of copper plates and tubes for collecting solar energy, it is put forward that the ultrasonic metal welding process can be divided into two stages, and two factors make functions jointly to join the welded metal specimens. In order to successfully join the welding, three basic conditions must be satisfied, that is, there should be high frequency friction vibration in the contact interface; pressure must be imposed on the plate specimen during friction vibration; the time of friction vibration and pressure imposed should be proper. Furthermore, how to select the hardness of copper plate and tube and ultrasonic seam welding parameters is analyzed by experiments.

  1. Non-conventional sources in energy. Solar, wind and biomass technologies. Decentralized generation of energy (SHPPs). 3. ed.; Fontes nao-convencionais de energia. As tecnologias solar, eolica e de biomassa. Geracao descentralizada (PCHs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montenegro, Alexandre de Albuquerque

    2000-07-01

    This work presents the papers submitted to the seminar on energy non-conventional sources, specifically the solar, wind and biomass technologies, held on the year of 1998, at the LABSOLAR/NCTS - Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil.

  2. Solar energy in Czechoslovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, Eva

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of my tour to Czechoslovakia was to participate the Third International Conference Applied Optics in Solar Energy, which was held in Prague, Octoher 2-6, 1989, and then visit some scientific institutes and solar collector plants as guest of the Czechoslovakian Academy of Science. This was made possihle hy an exchange researcher grant from the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences.

  3. The Energy Crisis and Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockris, J. O'M.

    1974-01-01

    Examines the status of the energy crisis in Australia. Outlines energy alternatives for the 1990's and describes the present status of solar energy research and the economics of solar energy systems. (GS)

  4. The Energy Crisis and Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockris, J. O'M.

    1974-01-01

    Examines the status of the energy crisis in Australia. Outlines energy alternatives for the 1990's and describes the present status of solar energy research and the economics of solar energy systems. (GS)

  5. Socio-geographic perception in the diffusion of innovation: Solar energy technology in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEachern, Menzie [Alberta Environment, 7th Floor, Oxbridge Place, 9820-106 Street, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Hanson, Susan [Department of Geography, Clark University, 950 Main Street, Worcester, MA 01610 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Understandings of the diffusion process have tended to emphasize either the adoption perspective, which focuses on individual characteristics, or the market perspective, which focuses on institutional context. In this paper we bring these two perspectives together by recognizing that people are embedded in socio-geographic contexts that affect their perceptions of their situations, which in turn shape the innovativeness of individuals and places. Focusing on the diffusion of Solar Home Systems (SHS) in Sri Lanka, we explore the role of context at the village (by comparing adoption rates among villages) and individual (by comparing time-to-adoption among household decision makers in a case-study village) scales. At the village scale, we find that expectations of government policy based on interactions related to ethnicity and politicians' previous power-grid connection promises are significant drivers of SHS adoption, along with perceived tolerance levels in the village for non-conformist behavior. Among household decision makers within the case-study village, we analyze relative adoption time and the duration of the innovation-decision process and find that perceiving strong village-level social control inhibits SHS adoption decision making. The results add to innovation diffusion theory and provide policy recommendations for agencies promoting solar energy in developing countries. (author)

  6. Solar energy policy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-08-17

    A number of memoranda and reports are collected which deal with evaluations of solar energy policy options, including direct and indirect labor impacts and costs of different options and consumer protection. (LEW)

  7. Solar energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Sorensen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    While solar is the fastest-growing energy source in the world, key concerns around solar power's inherent variability threaten to de-rail that scale-up . Currently, integration of intermittent solar resources into the grid creates added complication to load management, leading some utilities to reject it altogether, while other operators may penalize the producers via rate increases or force solar developers to include storage devices on-site to smooth out power delivery at the point of production. However these efforts at mitigation unfold, it is increasingly clear to parties on all sides th

  8. Solar Energy: Solar System Design Fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system design fundamentals is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy…

  9. Emerging technologies to power next generation mobile electronic devices using solar energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dewei JIA; Yubo DUAN; Jing LIU

    2009-01-01

    Mobile electronic devices such as MP3, mobile phones, and wearable or implanted medical devices have already or will soon become a necessity in peoples' lives.However, the further development of these devices is restricted not only by the inconvenient charging process of the power module, but also by the soaring prices of fossil fuel and its downstream chain of electricity manipulation.In view of the huge amount of solar energy fueling the world biochemically and thermally, a carry-on electricity harvester embedded in portable devices is emerging as a most noteworthy research area and engineering practice for a cost efficient solution. Such a parasitic problem is intrinsic in the next generation portable devices. This paper is dedicated to presenting an overview of the photovoltaic strategy in the chain as a reference for researchers and practitioners committed to solving the problem.

  10. Integrated solar energy system optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S. K.

    1982-11-01

    The computer program SYSOPT, intended as a tool for optimizing the subsystem sizing, performance, and economics of integrated wind and solar energy systems, is presented. The modular structure of the methodology additionally allows simulations when the solar subsystems are combined with conventional technologies, e.g., a utility grid. Hourly energy/mass flow balances are computed for interconnection points, yielding optimized sizing and time-dependent operation of various subsystems. The program requires meteorological data, such as insolation, diurnal and seasonal variations, and wind speed at the hub height of a wind turbine, all of which can be taken from simulations like the TRNSYS program. Examples are provided for optimization of a solar-powered (wind turbine and parabolic trough-Rankine generator) desalinization plant, and a design analysis for a solar powered greenhouse.

  11. Tehnical day: solar energy

    OpenAIRE

    Carli, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents an example of planning and carrying out a technical activity day in the field of solar energy in primary school grades 7 and 9. Firstly, we briefly present technical activity days, the goals and criteria for the planning of technical days, and the topics and devices connected to the technical day in question and were needed in the execution of the experiments. We have selected four simple experiments in the field of solar energy and prepared the needed worksheets fo...

  12. Diffusion of solar energy technologies in the new-construction market: a survey of new solar-home and onventional-home buyers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rains, D.; Dunipace, D.; Woo, C.K.

    1981-02-01

    Comsumer motivations for choosing a solar energy equipped new home when the non-solar or conventional model was also available were investigated. The approach was to test the relative importance of demographic, dwelling unit, and heating system characteristics in household decisions to purchase a home equipped with solar energy devices. Two statistical models were developed: one to examine the relationship between the types of home buyers (as an identifiable market segment) and the decision to purchase a solar home, and the other to compare the energy use of solar vs. conventional homes selected in the sample. (MHR)

  13. Teaching Children to Value Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugerat, Muhamad; Saker, Salem; Odeh, Saeed; Agbaria, Adnan

    2011-01-01

    In this educational initiative, we suggest to build a real model of solar village inside the school, which uses only solar energy. These educational initiatives emphasize the importance of energy for a technological society and the advantage of alternative energy sources. In this scientific educational initiative, the pupils in three elementary…

  14. Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy data - over 200 satellite-derived meteorology and solar energy parameters, monthly averaged from 22 years of data, global solar...

  15. Surface meteorology and Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    The Release 5.1 Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data contains parameters formulated for assessing and designing renewable energy systems. Parameters fall under 11 categories including: Solar cooking, solar thermal applications, solar geometry, tilted solar panels, energy storage systems, surplus product storage systems, cloud information, temperature, wind, other meteorological factors, and supporting information. This latest release contains new parameters based on recommendations by the renewable energy industry and it is more accurate than previous releases. On-line plotting capabilities allow quick evaluation of potential renewable energy projects for any region of the world. The SSE data set is formulated from NASA satellite- and reanalysis-derived insolation and meteorological data for the 10-year period July 1983 through June 1993. Results are provided for 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude grid cells over the globe. Average daily and monthly measurements for 1195 World Radiation Data Centre ground sites are also available. [Mission Objectives] The SSE project contains insolation and meteorology data intended to aid in the development of renewable energy systems. Collaboration between SSE and technology industries such as the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables ( HOMER ) may aid in designing electric power systems that employ some combination of wind turbines, photovoltaic panels, or diesel generators to produce electricity. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1993-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

  16. Internalizing the externalities of solar technology: Methodologies for incorporating externalities in the assessment of policy options and technology assessments of solar energy initiatives and R and D programs using Brookhaven models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcuse, W

    1978-05-01

    Internalizing the costs for implementing solar energy may never be, the author says. In the meantime, budget allocation decisions must be made. It is the purpose of this paper to identify capabilities currently in existence at BNL that help to provide answers to the value of increasing the contribution of solar energy. This paper presents several alternative approaches. BNL models that are useful for the economic measurement of energy related environmental damage are NEDS/REPS1 NEDS/REPS; ESNS; PRESTO; and optimization models (M-RESOM, BECOM, SOGEPH, BESOM, DESOM/TESOM/MARICAL). The approaches suggested would be much more useful if they were evaluated by certain criteria. This is the goal of most systems research on internalizing externalities. The methods described provide quantitative measures for the following criteria, although no single method provides all of them: the residuals produced with and without solar; the impact of residuals on life, property, ecosystems, and ambience; the intergenerational effects; the effect of oil imports on security; the depletion of non-renewable resources; the quantification (as far as possible) of externalities; and the appropriate level of aggregration. In most cases in this paper, examples are given. The most common criteria is that the energy demands must be driven by an economic model that in turn is driven by an energy model that produces the energy prices and the fuel mix. Solar technology implementation is particularly dependent on relative prices, economic activity, and energy demand. (MCW)

  17. Chalcogenide Materials for Solar Energy Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Turmezei

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of electrical energy storage can possibly be solved with the help of electrochemical solar cells, which are suitable to generate either electrical energy or hydrogen gas under special conditions. The greatest problem of the electrochemical solar cell technology is to find novel materials which have appropriate properties for electrochemical energy conversion. In this work Cd4GeSe6, a novel material for electrochemical solar cells, will be presented.

  18. Diffusion of solar energy technologies in the new-construction market: A survey of new solar-home and conventional-home buyers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rains, D.; Dunipace, D.; Woo, C. K.

    1981-02-01

    Consumer motivations for choosing a solar energy equipped home when the nonsolar or conventional model was available were investigated. The approach was to test the relative importance of demographic, dwelling unit, and heating system characteristics in household decisions to purchase a home equipped with solar energy devices. Two statistical models were developed: one to examine the relationship between the types of home buyers (as an identifiable market segment) and the decision to purchase a solar home; and the other to compare the energy use of solar vs. conventional homes selected in the sample.

  19. Technical Assistance for Southwest Solar Technologies Inc. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz-Ramos, Karina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Surety Engineering and Analysis; Brainard, James Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). National Security Applications; McIntyre, Annie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Surety Engineering and Analysis; Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geomechanics; Akin, Lili A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Structural and Thermal Analysis; Nicol, Katherine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Surety Engineering and Analysis; Hayden, Herb [Southwest Solar Technologies, Inc., Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Southwest Solar Technologies Inc. is constructing a Solar-Fuel Hybrid Turbine energy system. This innovative energy system combines solar thermal energy with compressed air energy storage and natural gas fuel backup capability to provide firm, non-intermittent power. In addition, the energy system will have very little impact on the environment since, unlike other Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technologies, it requires minimal water. In 2008 Southwest Solar Technologies received a Solar America Showcase award from the Department of Energy for Technical Assistance from Sandia National Laboratories. This report details the work performed as part of the Solar America Showcase award for Southwest Solar Technologies. After many meetings and visits between Sandia National Labs and Southwest Solar Technologies, several tasks were identified as part of the Technical Assistance and the analysis and results for these are included here.

  20. Photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gottfried H

    2015-01-01

    This concise primer on photovoltaic solar energy conversion invites readers to reflect on the conversion of solar light into energy at the most fundamental level and encourages newcomers to the field to help find meaningful answers on how photovoltaic solar energy conversion can work (better), eventually contributing to its ongoing advancement. The book is based on lectures given to graduate students in the Physics Department at the University of Oldenburg over the last two decades, yet also provides an easy-to-follow introduction for doctoral and postdoctoral students from related disciplines such as the materials sciences and electrical engineering. Inspired by classic textbooks in the field, it reflects the author’s own ideas on how to understand, visualize and eventually teach the microscopic physical mechanisms and effects, while keeping the text as concise as possible so as to introduce interested readers to the field and balancing essential knowledge with open questions.

  1. Solar technology application to enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Leon, P.; Brown, K.C.; Margolis, J.W.; Nasr, L.H.

    1979-12-01

    One proposed near-term commercial application for solar energy technology is the use of solar energy systems to generate steam for thermal enhanced oil recovery (EOR). This report examines four aspects of solar energy employed for steam EOR. First, six solar technologies are evaluated and two - parabolic troughs and central receivers - are selected for closer study; typical systems that would meet current production requirements are proposed and costed. Second, the legal and environmental issues attending solar EOR are analyzed. Third, the petroleum producing companies' preferences and requirements are discussed. Finally, alternative means of financing solar EOR are addressed. The study concludes that within the next four to five years, conventional (fossil-fueled) thermal EOR means are much less expensive and more available than solar EOR systems, even given environmental requirements. Within 10 to 15 years, assuming specified advances in solar technologies, central receiver EOR systems will be significantly more cost-effective than parabolic trough EOR systems and will be price competitive with conventional thermal EOR systems. Important uncertainties remain (both in solar energy technologies and in how they affect the operating characteristics of petroleum reservoirs) that need resolution before definitive projections can be made.

  2. Solar energy in Norway; Solstroem i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorud, Bjoern; Nordal, Siv Helen; Bugge, Lars; Authen, Mari L.; Bernhard, Peter

    2012-10-15

    Enova SF produced in 2010/11 a report that described the potential of solar energy until 2020. Developments in the market for the production of electricity from solar energy happens so fast that it is prepared a new report describing the market and technology per 2012. (eb)

  3. Solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz I

    2012-01-01

    Finally filling a gap in the literature for a text that also adopts the chemist?s view of this hot topic, Prof Likhtenshtein, an experienced author and internationally renowned scientist, considers different physical and engineering aspects in solar energy conversion. From theory to real-life systems, he shows exactly which chemical reactions take place when converting light energy, providing an overview of the chemical perspective from fundamentals to molecular harvesting systems and solar cells. This essential guide will thus help researchers in academia and industry better understa

  4. Solar energy for electricity and fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inganäs, Olle; Sundström, Villy

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy conversion into electricity by photovoltaic modules is now a mature technology. We discuss the need for materials and device developments using conventional silicon and other materials, pointing to the need to use scalable materials and to reduce the energy payback time. Storage of solar energy can be achieved using the energy of light to produce a fuel. We discuss how this can be achieved in a direct process mimicking the photosynthetic processes, using synthetic organic, inorganic, or hybrid materials for light collection and catalysis. We also briefly discuss challenges and needs for large-scale implementation of direct solar fuel technologies.

  5. Solar Spots - Activities to Introduce Solar Energy into the K-8 Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longe, Karen M.; McClelland, Michael J.

    Following an introduction to solar technology which reviews solar heating and cooling, passive solar systems (direct gain systems, thermal storage walls, sun spaces, roof ponds, and convection loops), active solar systems, solar electricity (photovoltaic and solar thermal conversion systems), wind energy, and biomass, activities to introduce solar…

  6. Solar energy application, economics, and public perception

    CERN Document Server

    Adaramola, Muyiwa

    2015-01-01

    Due to climate change, the rise in energy demand, and issues of energy security, more countries are being forced to reexamine their energy policies and consider more renewable sources of energy. Solar power is expected to play a significant role in the changing face of energy economies, due in a large part to the recent technological advances in the field and the significant decrease in cost. This book describes these advances and examines the current state of solar power from a variety of angles. The various sections of the book cover the following topics: an overview of hybrid solar energy s

  7. Employment impacts of solar energy in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetin, Muejgan, E-mail: mujgan@sistemyon.com.tr [SISTEM Yoenetim Danismanligi Ltd. Sti. Atatuerk Cad. Ulastirici sok. Eris Sitesi A Blok No:3/7 Sahrayicedid-Erenkoey Istanbul (Turkey); Egrican, Niluefer [Suntek International Orhangazi Cad. No:54/A Dragos- Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-11-15

    Solar energy is considered a key source for the future, not only for Turkey, also for all of the world. Therefore the development and usage of solar energy technologies are increasingly becoming vital for sustainable economic development. The main objective of this study is investigating the employment effects of solar energy industry in Turkey. Some independent reports and studies, which analyze the economic and employment impacts of solar energy industry in the world have been reviewed. A wide range of methods have been used in those studies in order to calculate and to predict the employment effects. Using the capacity targets of the photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) plants in the solar Roadmap of Turkey, the prediction of the direct and indirect employment impacts to Turkey's economy is possible. As a result, solar energy in Turkey would be the primary source of energy demand and would have a big employment effects on the economics. That can only be achieved with the support of governmental feed-in tariff policies of solar energy and by increasing research-development funds. - Highlights: > The objective of the study, is investigating employment effects of solar energy. > Using the capacity targets of the PV and CSP plants in solar roadmap of Turkey. > Direct employment has been calculated by constructing of the solar power plant. > If multiplier effect is accepted as 2, total employment will be doubled. > Validity of the figures depends on the government's policies.

  8. Development of solar energy in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, H. O.; Nahui, A.

    1981-06-01

    Development of solar energy technology utilization in Peru is discussed. Peru receives a high degree of solar radiation (except for part of its coastal area) and has almost an ideal climate for the development of solar energy. The development of low temperature applications, including the design of passive solar heated buildings for the high Andes, the design and evaluation of various types of solar water heaters and crop dryers for both household and industrial uses (based on flat plate collectors), and the construction of a desalinization prototype plant are reported. Photovoltaic systems are investigated for suitable applications and have an excellent potential, especially in telecommunications.

  9. Solar energy for electricity and fuels.

    OpenAIRE

    Inganäs, Olle; Sundström, V

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy conversion into electricity by photovoltaic modules is now a mature technology. We discuss the need for materials and device developments using conventional silicon and other materials, pointing to the need to use scalable materials and to reduce the energy payback time. Storage of solar energy can be achieved using the energy of light to produce a fuel. We discuss how this can be achieved in a direct process mimicking the photosynthetic processes, using synthetic organic, inorga...

  10. High Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdrhman M G; LI Hang-quan; ZHANG Li-ye; ZHOU Bing

    2006-01-01

    The conjugated polymer-based solar cell is one of the most promising devices in search of sustainable, renewable energy sources in last decade. It is the youngest field in organic solar cell research and also is certainly the fastest growing one at the moment. In addition, the key factor for polymer-based solar cells with high-efficiency is to invent new materials. Organic solar cell has attracted significant researches and commercial interest due to its low cost in fabrication and flexibility in applications. However, they suffer from relatively low conversion efficiency. The summarization of the significance and concept of high efficiency polymer solar cell technologies are presented.

  11. Determinants of Trade with Solar Energy Technology Components: Evidence on the Porter Hypothesis?

    OpenAIRE

    Groba, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Studies analyzing renewable energy market development usually investigate additional capacity or investment. Characteristics, roles and determinants of cross border trade with renewable energy system components remain blurred. Environmental regulation and renewable energy policies are important in promoting renewable energy use. Yet, the effect of respective policies on determining exports remains ambiguous. The Porter hypothesis and the lead market literature argue that environmental regulat...

  12. Solar Energy and Other Appropriate Technologies for Small Potable Water Systems in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Region 2 research demonstration project presentation studied the efficacy of sustainable solar-powered water delivery and monitoring systems to reduce the economic burden of operating and maintaining Non-PRASA drinking water systems and to reduce the impact of climate change...

  13. Solar Energy and Other Appropriate Technologies for Small Potable Water Systems in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Region 2 research demonstration project presentation studied the efficacy of sustainable solar-powered water delivery and monitoring systems to reduce the economic burden of operating and maintaining Non-PRASA drinking water systems and to reduce the impact of climate change...

  14. Small molecule organic semiconductors on the move: promises for future solar energy technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Amaresh; Bäuerle, Peter

    2012-02-27

    This article is written from an organic chemist's point of view and provides an up-to-date review about organic solar cells based on small molecules or oligomers as absorbers and in detail deals with devices that incorporate planar-heterojunctions (PHJ) and bulk heterojunctions (BHJ) between a donor (p-type semiconductor) and an acceptor (n-type semiconductor) material. The article pays particular attention to the design and development of molecular materials and their performance in corresponding devices. In recent years, a substantial amount of both, academic and industrial research, has been directed towards organic solar cells, in an effort to develop new materials and to improve their tunability, processability, power conversion efficiency, and stability. On the eve of commercialization of organic solar cells, this review provides an overview over efficiencies attained with small molecules/oligomers in OSCs and reflects materials and device concepts developed over the last decade. Approaches to enhancing the efficiency of organic solar cells are analyzed.

  15. Community impediments to implementation of solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, M. D.; Armstrong, J. E.

    1979-11-01

    The complete array of institutional problems expected to energy when solar technology are implemented on a national scale is assembled. The findings of the study are presented in two formats. First, the results are organized by the time frames of delays in solar implementation caused by the inherent difficulties a national energy policy would encounter in changing the way a given institution responds to specific solar technologies. Delay categories of 10 years or more, 6 to 8 years, and 3 to 5 years were selected; all were assigned under the assumption that a strong national policy promoting adoption of solar technologies would be in effect. The second format constitutes a description of the difficulties at the community level, associated with implementing each solar technology. (MHR)

  16. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzberger, Adolf; Hoffmann, Volker U.

    This comprehensive description and discussion of photovoltaics (PV) is presented at a level that makes it accessible to the interested academic. Starting with an historical overview, the text outlines the relevance of photovoltaics today and in the future. Then follows an introduction to the physical background of solar cells and the most important materials and technologies, with particular emphasis placed on future developments and prospects. The book goes beyond technology by also describing the path from the cell to the module to the system, proceeding to important applications such as grid-connected and stand-alone systems.

  17. Solar driven technologies for hydrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medojević Milovan M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind that the production of hydrogen based on renewable energy sources, without doubt, is an important aspect to be taken into account when considering the potential of this gas, where as particularly interesting technologies stand out the ones which are based on the use of solar energy to produce hydrogen. The goal of this paper provides basic technological trajectories, with the possibility of combining, for solar driven hydrogen production, such as: electrochemical, photochemical and thermochemical process. Furthermore, the paper presents an analysis of those technologies from a technical as well as economic point of view. In addition, the paper aims to draw attention to the fact that the generation of hydrogen using renewable energy should be imposed as a logical and proper way to store solar energy in the form of chemical energy.

  18. Solar Flares and the High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Gordon D.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Solar flares are the biggest explosions in the solar system. They are important both for understanding explosive events in the Universe and for their impact on human technology and communications. The satellite-based HESSI is designed to study the explosive release of energy and the acceleration of electrons, protons, and other charged particles to high energies in solar flares. HESSI produces "color" movies of the Sun in high-energy X rays and gamma rays radiated by these energetic particles. HESSI's X-ray and gamma-ray images of flares are obtained using techniques similar to those used in radio interferometry. Ground-based radio observations of the Sun provide an important complement to the HESSI observations of solar flares. I will describe the HESSI Project and the high-energy aspects of solar flares, and how these relate to radio astronomy techniques and observations.

  19. Sustainable energy for a resilient future: proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Sustainable Energy Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Lucélia Taranto

    2016-01-01

    Volume I, 898 pages, ISBN 9780853583134 Energy Technologies & Renewables Session 1: Biofuels & Biomass Session 5: Building Energy Systems Session 9: Low-carbon/ Low-energy Technologies Session 13: Biomass Systems Session 16: Solar Energy Session 17: Biomass & Biofuels Session 20: Solar Energy Session 21: Solar Energy Session 22: Solar Energy Session 25: Building Energy Technologies Session 26: Solar Energy Session 29: Low-carbon/ Low-energy Technologies ...

  20. Solar Energy Systems for Ohioan Residential Homeowners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Rickey D.

    Dwindling nonrenewable energy resources and rising energy costs have forced the United States to develop alternative renewable energy sources. The United States' solar energy industry has seen an upsurge in recent years, and photovoltaic holds considerable promise as a renewable energy technology. The purpose of this case study was to explore homeowner's awareness of the benefits of solar energy. Disruptive-innovation theory was used to explore marketing strategies for conveying information to homeowners about access to new solar energy products and services. Twenty residential homeowners were interviewed face-to-face to explore (a) perceived benefits of solar energy in their county in Ohio, and (b) perceptions on the rationale behind the marketing strategy of solar energy systems sold for residential use. The study findings used inductive analyses and coding interpretation to explore the participants' responses that revealed 3 themes: the existence of environmental benefits for using solar energy systems, the expensive cost of equipment associated with government incentives, and the lack of marketing information that is available for consumer use. The implications for positive social change include the potential to enable corporate leaders, small business owners, and entrepreneurs to develop marketing strategies for renewable energy systems. These strategies may promote use of solar energy systems as a clean, renewable, and affordable alternative electricity energy source for the 21st century.

  1. Energy Technology Programs: program summaries for 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The Energy Technology Programs in the BNL Department of Energy and Environment cover a broad range of activities, namely: electrochemical research, chemical energy storage, chemical heat pumps, solar technology, fossil technology, catalytic systems development, space-conditioning technology, and technical support/program management. Summaries of the individual tasks associated with these activities along with publications, significant accomplishments, and program funding levels are presented.

  2. Tower Power: Producing Fuels from Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, M. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This article examines the use of power tower technologies for the production of synthetic fuels. This process overcomes the limitations of other processes by using a solar furnace to drive endothermic fuel producing reactions and the resulting fuels serve as a medium for storing solar energy. (BT)

  3. Solar energy for wastewater treatment: review of international technologies and their applicability in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelino, R B P; Queiroz, M T A; Amorim, C C; Leão, M M D; Brites-Nóbrega, F F

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported the adverse effects of recalcitrant compounds and emerging contaminants present in industrial effluents, which are not degradable by ordinary biological treatment. Many of these compounds are likely to accumulate in living organisms through the lipid layer. At concentrations above the limits of biological tolerance, these compounds can be harmful to the ecosystem and may even reach humans through food chain biomagnification. In this regard, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) represent an effective alternative for the removal of the pollutants. This study focused on the AOP involving the use of ultraviolet radiation in homogeneous and heterogeneous systems. Based on the literature review, comparisons between natural and artificial light were established, approaching photoreactors constructive and operational characteristics. We concluded that the high availability of solar power in Brazil would make the implementation of the AOP using natural solar radiation for the decontamination of effluents feasible, thereby contributing to clean production and biodiversity conservation. This will serve as an important tool for the enforcement of environmental responsibility among public and private institutions.

  4. EDITORIAL: Renewing energy technology Renewing energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2011-06-01

    Renewable energy is now a mainstream concern among businesses and governments across the world, and could be considered a characteristic preoccupation of our time. It is interesting to note that many of the energy technologies currently being developed date back to very different eras, and even predate the industrial revolution. The fuel cell was first invented as long ago as 1838 by the Swiss--German chemist Christian Friedrich Schönbein [1], and the idea of harnessing solar power dates back to ancient Greece [2]. The enduring fascination with new means of harnessing energy is no doubt linked to man's innate delight in expending it, whether it be to satisfy the drive of curiosity, or from a hunger for entertainment, or to power automated labour-saving devices. But this must be galvanized by the sustained ability to improve device performance, unearthing original science, and asking new questions, for example regarding the durability of photovoltaic devices [3]. As in so many fields, advances in hydrogen storage technology for fuel cells have benefited significantly from nanotechnology. The idea is that the kinetics of hydrogen uptake and release may be reduced by decreasing the particle size. An understanding of how effective this may be has been hampered by limited knowledge of the way the thermodynamics are affected by atom or molecule cluster size. Detailed calculations of individual atoms in clusters are limited by computational resources as to the number of atoms that can studied, and other innovative approaches that deal with force fields derived by extrapolating the difference between the properties of clusters and bulk matter require labour-intensive modifications when extending such studies to new materials. In [4], researchers in the US use an alternative approach, considering the nanoparticle as having the same crystal structure as the bulk but relaxing the few layers of atoms near the surface. The favourable features of nanostructures for catalysis

  5. Decentalized solar photovoltaic energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, M. C.

    1980-09-01

    Environmental data for decentralized solar photovoltaic systems have been generated in support of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems program (TASE). Emphasis has been placed upon the selection and use of a model residential photovoltaic system to develop and quantify the necessary data. The model consists of a reference home located in Phoenix, AZ, utilizing a unique solar cell array-roof shingle combination. Silicon solar cells, rated at 13.5% efficiency at 28/sup 0/C and 100 mW/cm/sup 2/ (AMI) insolation are used to generate approx. 10 kW (peak). An all-electric home is considered with lead-acid battery storage, dc-ac inversion and utility backup. The reference home is compared to others in regions of different insolation. Major material requirements, scaled to quad levels of end-use energy include significant quantities of silicon, copper, lead, antimony, sulfuric acid and plastics. Operating residuals generated are negligible with the exception of those from the storage battery due to a short (10-year) lifetime. A brief general discussion of other environmental, health, and safety and resource availability impacts is presented. It is suggested that solar cell materials production and fabrication may have the major environmental impact when comparing all facets of photovoltaic system usage. Fabrication of the various types of solar cell systems involves the need, handling, and transportation of many toxic and hazardous chemicals with attendant health and safety impacts. Increases in production of such materials as lead, antimony, sulfuric acid, copper, plastics, cadmium and gallium will be required should large scale usage of photovoltaic systems be implemented.

  6. Development of Lab-to-Fab Production Equipment Across Several Length Scales for Printed Energy Technologies, Including Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hösel, Markus; Dam, Henrik Friis; Krebs, Frederik C

    2015-01-01

    We describe and review how the scaling of printed energy technologies not only requires scaling of the input materials but also the machinery used in the processes. The general consensus that ultrafast processing of technologies with large energy capacity can only be realized using roll-to-roll m......We describe and review how the scaling of printed energy technologies not only requires scaling of the input materials but also the machinery used in the processes. The general consensus that ultrafast processing of technologies with large energy capacity can only be realized using roll...

  7. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, S.; Margolis, R.; Barbose, G.; Bartlett, J.; Cory, K.; Couture, T.; DeCesaro, J.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Frickel, M.; Hemmeline, C.; Mendelsohn, T.; Ong, S.; Pak, A.; Poole, L.; Peterman, C.; Schwabe, P.; Soni, A.; Speer, B.; Wiser, R.; Zuboy, J.; James, T.

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this report is the U.S. solar electricity market, including photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. The report is organized into five chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of global and U.S. installation trends. Chapter 2 presents production and shipment data, material and supply chain issues, and solar industry employment trends. Chapter 3 presents cost, price, and performance trends. Chapter 4 discusses policy and market drivers such as recently passed federal legislation, state and local policies, and developments in project financing. Chapter 5 provides data on private investment trends and near-term market forecasts. Highlights of this report include: (1) The global PV industry has seen impressive growth rates in cell/module production during the past decade, with a 10-year compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 46% and a 5-year CAGR of 56% through 2008. (2) Thin-film PV technologies have grown faster than crystalline silicon over the past 5 years, with a 10-year CAGR of 47% and a 5-year CAGR of 87% for thin-film shipments through 2008. (3) Global installed PV capacity increased by 6.0 GW in 2008, a 152% increase over 2.4 GW installed in 2007. (4) The United States installed 0.34 GW of PV capacity in 2008, a 63% increase over 0.21 GW in 2007. (5) Global average PV module prices dropped 23% from $4.75/W in 1998 to $3.65/W in 2008. (6) Federal legislation, including the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (EESA, October 2008) and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA, February 2009), is providing unprecedented levels of support for the U.S. solar industry. (7) In 2008, global private-sector investment in solar energy technology topped $16 billion, including almost $4 billion invested in the United States. (8) Solar PV market forecasts made in early 2009 anticipate global PV production and demand to increase fourfold between 2008 and 2012, reaching roughly 20 GW of production and demand by 2012. (9

  8. Real goods solar living sourcebook your complete guide to living beyond the grid with renewable energy technologies and sustainable living

    CERN Document Server

    Schaeffer, John

    2014-01-01

    What book would you want if you were stranded on a desert island? Widely regarded as the ""bible"" of off-grid living, Real Goods Solar Living Source Book might be your best choice. With over six hundred thousand copies in print worldwide, it is the most comprehensive resource available for anyone interested in lessening their environmental footprint or increasing their energy independence. The Solar Living Sourcebook, Fourteenth Edition is the ultimate guide to renewable energy, sustainable living, natural and green building, off-grid living, and alternative transporta

  9. The solar energy; L'Energie solaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-07-01

    This document provides information the today technology concerning the photovoltaic cells and presents the research programs in the domain: silver cells, black silicon, spherical cells, mini sensors, solar spectrum cells Hercules europe project of solar energy concentration. Many Internet addresses are provided. (A.L.B.)

  10. Renewable energy technology handbook for military engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    Renewable energy applications are introduced that are considered promising for military use in the 1980s. These are: solar hot water for buildings, active solar hot water and space heating for buildings, passive solar heating and cooling of buildings, solar industrial process heata, solar ponds, photovoltaic power for homes, photovoltaic power for remote applications, parabolic dish solar systems for remote applications, wind energy for buildings, wind energy for central power plants, wind energy for water pumping, biomass energy systems for buildings, biomass energy systems for central power plants, geothermal energy for process heat, and geothermal energy for central power plants. For each of these is given: a brief history of the technology and information on how the technology works; a detailed technical and economic profile of an operating system; and a summary listing of operating civilian and military systems that are open for public viewing.

  11. Solar cell materials developing technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Conibeer, Gavin J

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a comparison of solar cell materials, including both new materials based on organics, nanostructures and novel inorganics and developments in more traditional photovoltaic materials. It surveys the materials and materials trends in the field including third generation solar cells (multiple energy level cells, thermal approaches and the modification of the solar spectrum) with an eye firmly on low costs, energy efficiency and the use of abundant non-toxic materials.

  12. Technology Roadmaps: Concentrating Solar Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The emerging technology known as concentrating solar power, or CSP, holds much promise for countries with plenty of sunshine and clear skies. Its electrical output matches well the shifting daily demand for electricity in places where airconditioning systems are spreading. When backed up by thermal storage facilities and combustible fuel, it offers utilities electricity that can be dispatched when required, enabling it to be used for base, shoulder and peak loads. Within about one to two decades, it will be able to compete with coal plants that emit high levels of CO2. The sunniest regions, such as North Africa, may be able to export surplus solar electricity to neighbouring regions, such as Europe, where demand for electricity from renewable sources is strong. In the medium-to-longer term, concentrating solar facilities can also produce hydrogen, which can be blended with natural gas, and provide low-carbon liquid fuels for transport and other end-use sectors. For CSP to claim its share of the coming energy revolution, concerted action is required over the next ten years by scientists, industry, governments, financing institutions and the public. This roadmap is intended to help drive these indispensable developments.

  13. Solar energy - When, where and how

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touryan, K. J.

    1981-05-01

    A comprehensive review is presented of the conversion technologies by which solar energy may be turned into useful end products. The degree of maturity of these technologies, which include photovoltaics, biomass conversion, and direct and indirect solar thermal conversion systems such as wind energy and ocean thermal gradients, ranges from those that are available commercially, such as hot water heating, to those that are in a robust embryonic stage, such as the production of ethanol from woody biomass. The cost, performance, market potential and environmental/social impact of these technologies are considered to determine (1) what fraction of the U.S. energy budget will be solar in the short, middle, and long terms, and (2) what the mix and distribution of these technologies will be in the year 2000.

  14. Limits to solar and biomass energy growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, Y.M.; D' Alessio, G.J.

    1983-01-01

    Drawing on some 45 assessments made by the Technology Assessments of Solar Energy (TASE), the authors examine the potential for commercialization of solar and biomass technologies. The book is divided into four major parts: Part I describes and compares technologies; Part II describes the natural and capital resources necessary for commercialization; Part III examines social, economic, and environmental impacts and institutional and regulatory factors; and Part IV analyzes the consequences of several deployment scenarios. The authors conclude that the disproportionate resource requirements for a modest energy contribution will be liminting factor. 103 references, 80 figures, 32 tables. (DCK)

  15. Solar electric energy supply at high altitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knaupp, W.; Mundschau, E. [Zentrum fur Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung (ZSW), Ulm (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    Solar-hydrogen systems were analyzed regarding their usability as energy supply system for high altitude platforms. In a first step for an assessment of solar and photovoltaic resources near-ground spectral transmittances of atmosphere were extended with simplified height correction functions to achieve spectral irradiance descriptions versus atmospheric height up to 25 km. The influence of atmospheric height to different solar cell technologies regarding electrical performance was quantified at some examples for the aspect of spectral distribution with the help of the introduced spectral height factor. The main attention during analysis of the whole solar-hydrogen energy system was directed to characteristics of current or near term available technology. Specific power weight of photovoltaic system, electrolyzer, fuel cell and gas tanks and their dependence on operation mode and power range were assessed. A pre-design of a solar-hydrogen energy system was carried out for an airship (volume 580,000 m3) withstanding continuous wind speeds up to {approx} 130 km/h. The calculated coverage ratio of photovoltaic and load share of energy system mark the frame of usability. Depending on the airship size, shape and other external boundary conditions the total electrical energy demand could be covered by a solar-hydrogen energy system of current or near term technology for full year operation. However further investigations are necessary regarding e.g. further mass reductions. (author)

  16. Support for solar energy collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Corey; Ardell-Smith, Zachary; Ciasulli, John; Jensen, Soren

    2016-11-01

    A solar energy collection system can include support devices configured to accommodate misalignment of components during assembly. For example, the system can include piles fixed to the earth and an adjustable bearing assembly at the upper end of the pile. The adjustable bearing assembly can include at least one of a vertical adjustment device, a lateral adjustment device and an angular adjustment device. The solar energy collection system can also include a plurality of solar energy collection device pre-wired together and mounted to a support member so as to form modular units. The system can also include enhanced supports for wire trays extending between rows of solar energy collection devices.

  17. Solar energy for the hospital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    You can't scrap your boiler and expect solar panels to provide steam for process and heating, but solar systems are cost-effective now for domestic hot water generation, according to a leading solar energy engineering/design/build firm.

  18. Solar energy technical training directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcoleotes, G; Kramer, K; O& #x27; Connor, K

    1979-06-01

    Available solar energy offerings in the technical training area are presented. Institutions are listed alphabetically by state. Each listing includes an institution address and phone number, solar programs or curricula offered, and detailed solar couse information. An alphabetical index of institutions in included. (MHR)

  19. Wavelet Study of Meteorological Data Collected by Arduino-Weather Station: Impact on Solar Energy Collection Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caccamo Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Meteorological data collected by an automated LSI Lastem weather station connected with an Arduino device for remote acquisition are reported and discussed. Weather station, located at 38° 15’ 35.10’’ N latitude and 15° 35’ 58.86’’ E longitude, registered data which were analysed by wavelet transform to obtain time-frequency characterization of the signals. Such an approach allowed to highlight the correlation existing among the registered meteorological data. The results show a positive correlation between the minimum temperature and the maximum temperature values whereas a negative correlation emerges between daily rainfall and minimum temperature values as well as for daily rainfall and maximum temperature values. These results suggest the possibility to estimate the global and diffuse solar radiation using more reliable climatologic parameters for optimizing solar energy collected by solar panels.

  20. Techno-economic and life-cycle modeling and analysis of various energy storage technologies coupled with a solar photovoltaic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Brian Andrew

    Renewable energies, such as wind and solar, are a growing piece of global energy consumption. The chief motivation to develop renewable energy is two-fold: reducing carbon dioxide emissions and reducing dependence on diminishing fossil fuel supplies. Energy storage is critical to the growth of renewable energy because it allows for renewably-generated electricity to be consumed at times when renewable sources are unavailable, and it also enhances power quality (maintaining voltage and frequency) on an electric grid which becomes increasingly unstable as more renewable energy is added. There are numerous means of storing energy with different advantages, but none has emerged as the clear solution of choice for renewable energy storage. This thesis attempts to explore the current and developing state of energy storage and how it can be efficiently implemented with crystalline silicon solar photovotlaics, which has a minimum expected lifetime of 25 years assumed in this thesis. A method of uniformly comparing vastly different energy storage technologies using empirical data was proposed. Energy storage technologies were compared based on both economic valuation over the system life and cradle-to-gate pollution rates for systems with electrochemical batteries. For stationary, non-space-constrained settings, lead-acid batteries proved to be the most economical. Carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries were competitive, showing promise as an energy storage technology. Lithium-ion batteries showed the lowest pollution rate of electrochemical batteries examined, but both lithium-ion and lead-acid batteries produce comparable carbon dioxide to coal-derived electricity.

  1. The development and utilization of solar photovoltaic cells: An assessment of the potential for a new energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, K. J.

    1981-01-01

    The Government set the goal of accelerating the adaptation of photovoltaics by reducing system costs to a competitive level and overcoming the technical, institutional, legal, environmental, and social barriers impeding the diffusion of photovoltaic technology. The technology of silicon solar arrays was examined and the status of development efforts are reviewed. The political, legal, economic, social, and environmental issues are discussed, and several methods for selecting development projects are described. A number of market forecasting techniques, including time trend, judgemental, and econometric methods, were reviewed, and the results of these models are presented.

  2. Energy Conversion: Nano Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, Muhammad; Yap, Chi Chin; Mat Salleh, Muhamad

    2009-09-01

    Problems of fossil-fuel-induced climate change have sparked a demand for sustainable energy supply for all sectors of economy. Most laboratories continue to search for new materials and new technique to generate clean energy at affordable cost. Nanotechnology can play a major role in solving the energy problem. The prospect for solar energy using Si-based technology is not encouraging. Si photovoltaics can produce electricity at 20-30 c//kWhr with about 25% efficiency. Nanoparticles have a strong capacity to absorb light and generate more electrons for current as discovered in the recent work of organic and dye-sensitized cell. Using cheap preparation technique such as screen-printing and self-assembly growth, organic cells shows a strong potential for commercialization. Thin Films research group at National University Malaysia has been actively involved in these areas, and in this seminar, we will present a review works on nanomaterials for solar cells and particularly on hybrid organic solar cell based on ZnO nanorod arrays. The organic layer consisting of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene] (MEHPPV) and [6, 6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid 3-ethylthiophene ester (PCBE) was spin-coated on ZnO nanorod arrays. ZnO nanorod arrays were grown on FTO glass substrates which were pre-coated with ZnO nanoparticles using a low temperature chemical solution method. A gold electrode was used as the top contact. The device gave a short circuit current density of 2.49×10-4 mA/cm2 and an open circuit voltage of 0.45 V under illumination of a projector halogen light at 100 mW/cm2.

  3. Applications of solar reforming technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiewak, I. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel); Tyner, C.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Langnickel, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany)

    1993-11-01

    Research in recent years has demonstrated the efficient use of solar thermal energy for driving endothermic chemical reforming reactions in which hydrocarbons are reacted to form synthesis gas (syngas). Closed-loop reforming/methanation systems can be used for storage and transport of process heat and for short-term storage for peaking power generation. Open-loop systems can be used for direct fuel production; for production of syngas feedstock for further processing to specialty chemicals and plastics and bulk ammonia, hydrogen, and liquid fuels; and directly for industrial processes such as iron ore reduction. In addition, reforming of organic chemical wastes and hazardous materials can be accomplished using the high-efficiency destruction capabilities of steam reforming. To help identify the most promising areas for future development of this technology, we discuss in this paper the economics and market potential of these applications.

  4. Silicon nanowires for photovoltaic solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kui-Qing; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2011-01-11

    Semiconductor nanowires are attracting intense interest as a promising material for solar energy conversion for the new-generation photovoltaic (PV) technology. In particular, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are under active investigation for PV applications because they offer novel approaches for solar-to-electric energy conversion leading to high-efficiency devices via simple manufacturing. This article reviews the recent developments in the utilization of SiNWs for PV applications, the relationship between SiNW-based PV device structure and performance, and the challenges to obtaining high-performance cost-effective solar cells.

  5. A solar energy controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurentiu, A.

    1981-05-30

    A simplified design of a flat solar energy collector with an absorber made from plastic, and a housing stamped from polyethylene with a thermal insulation layer made from porous plastic is patented. The thermal insulation layer is also stamped out as a hole part in the necessary shape. A transparency made from transparent plastic in the form of a cover is applied to the housing. The cover has edges that attach to the vertical walls of the housing. In order to improve the seal of the internal area of the collector, the edges of the transparency fit into the gap between the vertical walls of the housing and the attachment piece on the walls. The collector is characterized by simplicity in assembly and low cost.

  6. Oxygenic photosynthesis: translation to solar fuel technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian David Janna Olmos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mitigation of man-made climate change, rapid depletion of readily available fossil fuel reserves and facing the growing energy demand that faces mankind in the near future drive the rapid development of economically viable, renewable energy production technologies. It is very likely that greenhouse gas emissions will lead to the significant climate change over the next fifty years. World energy consumption has doubled over the last twenty-five years, and is expected to double again in the next quarter of the 21st century. Our biosphere is at the verge of a severe energy crisis that can no longer be overlooked. Solar radiation represents the most abundant source of clean, renewable energy that is readily available for conversion to solar fuels. Developing clean technologies that utilize practically inexhaustible solar energy that reaches our planet and convert it into the high energy density solar fuels provides an attractive solution to resolving the global energy crisis that mankind faces in the not too distant future. Nature’s oxygenic photosynthesis is the most fundamental process that has sustained life on Earth for more than 3.5 billion years through conversion of solar energy into energy of chemical bonds captured in biomass, food and fossil fuels. It is this process that has led to evolution of various forms of life as we know them today. Recent advances in imitating the natural process of photosynthesis by developing biohybrid and synthetic “artificial leaves” capable of solar energy conversion into clean fuels and other high value products, as well as advances in the mechanistic and structural aspects of the natural solar energy converters, photosystem I and photosystem II, allow to address the main challenges: how to maximize solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency, and most importantly: how to store the energy efficiently and use it without significant losses. Last but not least, the question of how to make the process of solar

  7. Hydrogen production from solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstadt, M. M.; Cox, K. E.

    1975-01-01

    Three alternatives for hydrogen production from solar energy have been analyzed on both efficiency and economic grounds. The analysis shows that the alternative using solar energy followed by thermochemical decomposition of water to produce hydrogen is the optimum one. The other schemes considered were the direct conversion of solar energy to electricity by silicon cells and water electrolysis, and the use of solar energy to power a vapor cycle followed by electrical generation and electrolysis. The capital cost of hydrogen via the thermochemical alternative was estimated at $575/kW of hydrogen output or $3.15/million Btu. Although this cost appears high when compared with hydrogen from other primary energy sources or from fossil fuel, environmental and social costs which favor solar energy may prove this scheme feasible in the future.

  8. Solar Photovoltaics Technology: The Revolution Begins . . .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmerski, Lawrence

    2009-11-01

    The prospects of current and coming solar-photovoltaic (PV) technologies are envisioned, arguing this solar-electricity source is at a tipping point in the complex worldwide energy outlook. The emphasis of this presentation is on R&D advances (cell, materials, and module options), with indications of the limitations and strengths of crystalline (Si and GaAs) and thin-film (a-Si:H, Si, Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2, CdTe). The contributions and technological pathways for now and near-term technologies (silicon, III-Vs, and thin films) and status and forecasts for next- generation PV (organics, nanotechnologies, non-conventional junction approaches) are evaluated. Recent advances in concentrators with efficiencies headed toward 50%, new directions for thin films (20% and beyond), and materials/device technology issues are discussed in terms of technology progress. Insights into technical and other investments needed to tip photovoltaics to its next level of contribution as a significant clean-energy partner in the world energy portfolio. The need for R&D accelerating the now and imminent (evolutionary) technologies balanced with work in mid-term (disruptive) approaches is highlighted. Moreover, technology progress and ownership for next generation solar PV mandates a balanced investment in research on longer-term (the revolution needs revolutionary approaches to sustain itself) technologies (quantum dots, multi-multijunctions, intermediate-band concepts, nanotubes, bio-inspired, thermophotonics, solar hydrogen. . . ) having high-risk, but extremely high performance and cost returns for our next generations of energy consumers. Issues relating to manufacturing are explored-especially with the requirements for the next-generation technologies. This presentation provides insights into how this technology has developed-and where the R&D investments should be made and we can expect to be by this mid-21st century.

  9. Control of Solar Energy Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Camacho, Eduardo F; Rubio, Francisco R; Martínez, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Control of Solar Energy Systems details the main solar energy systems, problems involved with their control, and how control systems can help in increasing their efficiency.  After a brief introduction to the fundamental concepts associated with the use of solar energy in both photovoltaic and thermal plants, specific issues related to control of solar systems are embarked upon. Thermal energy systems are then explored in depth, as well as  other solar energy applications such as solar furnaces and solar refrigeration systems. Problems of variable generation profile and of the contribution of many solar plants to the same grid system are considered with the necessary integrated and supervisory control solutions being discussed. The text includes material on: ·         A comparison of basic and advanced control methods for parabolic troughs from PID to nonlinear model-based control; ·         solar towers and solar tracking; ·         heliostat calibration, characterization and off...

  10. Photovoltaic solar energy; Energia solar fotovoltaica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraidenraich, Naum; Tiba, Chigueru; Vilela, Olga de Castro; Barbosa, Elielza Moura de Souza [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco(UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear (DEN). Grupo de Pesquisas em Fontes Alternativas de Energia

    2003-07-01

    This chapter gives an overview on energy generation from thermal solar energy, analysing the international markets of the photovoltaic modules, the changes which are being produced in the application character, the environmental phenomena resulting from the modules production, briefly describes the physical phenomena explaining the photovoltaic effect, analyses the process of module price formation and performs the energy costs resultant for the user and subsides politics being practiced in various countries.

  11. Bioinspired fractal electrodes for solar energy storages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekkekara, Litty V; Gu, Min

    2017-03-31

    Solar energy storage is an emerging technology which can promote the solar energy as the primary source of electricity. Recent development of laser scribed graphene electrodes exhibiting a high electrical conductivity have enabled a green technology platform for supercapacitor-based energy storage, resulting in cost-effective, environment-friendly features, and consequent readiness for on-chip integration. Due to the limitation of the ion-accessible active porous surface area, the energy densities of these supercapacitors are restricted below ~3 × 10(-3) Whcm(-3). In this paper, we demonstrate a new design of biomimetic laser scribed graphene electrodes for solar energy storage, which embraces the structure of Fern leaves characterized by the geometric family of space filling curves of fractals. This new conceptual design removes the limit of the conventional planar supercapacitors by significantly increasing the ratio of active surface area to volume of the new electrodes and reducing the electrolyte ionic path. The attained energy density is thus significantly increased to ~10(-1) Whcm(-3)- more than 30 times higher than that achievable by the planar electrodes with ~95% coulombic efficiency of the solar energy storage. The energy storages with these novel electrodes open the prospects of efficient self-powered and solar-powered wearable, flexible and portable applications.

  12. Bioinspired fractal electrodes for solar energy storages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekkekara, Litty V.; Gu, Min

    2017-03-01

    Solar energy storage is an emerging technology which can promote the solar energy as the primary source of electricity. Recent development of laser scribed graphene electrodes exhibiting a high electrical conductivity have enabled a green technology platform for supercapacitor-based energy storage, resulting in cost-effective, environment-friendly features, and consequent readiness for on-chip integration. Due to the limitation of the ion-accessible active porous surface area, the energy densities of these supercapacitors are restricted below ~3 × 10-3 Whcm-3. In this paper, we demonstrate a new design of biomimetic laser scribed graphene electrodes for solar energy storage, which embraces the structure of Fern leaves characterized by the geometric family of space filling curves of fractals. This new conceptual design removes the limit of the conventional planar supercapacitors by significantly increasing the ratio of active surface area to volume of the new electrodes and reducing the electrolyte ionic path. The attained energy density is thus significantly increased to ~10-1 Whcm-3- more than 30 times higher than that achievable by the planar electrodes with ~95% coulombic efficiency of the solar energy storage. The energy storages with these novel electrodes open the prospects of efficient self-powered and solar-powered wearable, flexible and portable applications.

  13. Bioinspired fractal electrodes for solar energy storages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekkekara, Litty V.; Gu, Min

    2017-01-01

    Solar energy storage is an emerging technology which can promote the solar energy as the primary source of electricity. Recent development of laser scribed graphene electrodes exhibiting a high electrical conductivity have enabled a green technology platform for supercapacitor-based energy storage, resulting in cost-effective, environment-friendly features, and consequent readiness for on-chip integration. Due to the limitation of the ion-accessible active porous surface area, the energy densities of these supercapacitors are restricted below ~3 × 10−3 Whcm−3. In this paper, we demonstrate a new design of biomimetic laser scribed graphene electrodes for solar energy storage, which embraces the structure of Fern leaves characterized by the geometric family of space filling curves of fractals. This new conceptual design removes the limit of the conventional planar supercapacitors by significantly increasing the ratio of active surface area to volume of the new electrodes and reducing the electrolyte ionic path. The attained energy density is thus significantly increased to ~10−1 Whcm−3- more than 30 times higher than that achievable by the planar electrodes with ~95% coulombic efficiency of the solar energy storage. The energy storages with these novel electrodes open the prospects of efficient self-powered and solar-powered wearable, flexible and portable applications. PMID:28361924

  14. Concentrating Solar Power. Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    Concentrating solar power can contribute significantly to the world's energy supply. As shown in this roadmap, this decade is a critical window of opportunity during which CSP could become a competitive source of electrical power to meet peak and intermediate loads in the sunniest parts of the world. This roadmap identifies technology, economy and policy goals and milestones needed to support the development and deployment of CSP, as well as ongoing advanced research in CSF. It also sets out the need for governments to implement strong, balanced policies that favour rapid technological progress, cost reductions and expanded industrial manufacturing of CSP equipment to enable mass deployment. Importantly, this roadmap also establishes a foundation for greater international collaboration. The overall aim of this roadmap is to identify actions required - on the part of all stakeholders - to accelerate CSP deployment globally. Many countries, particularly in emerging regions, are only just beginning to develop CSP. Accordingly, milestone dates should be considered as indicative of urgency, rather than as absolutes. This roadmap is a work in progress. As global CSP efforts advance and an increasing number of CSP applications are developed, new data will provide the basis for updated analysis. The IEA will continue to track the evolution of CSP technology and its impacts on markets, the power sector and regulatory environments, and will update its analysis and set additional tasks and milestones as new learning comes to light.

  15. Photovoltaic solar energy at CEMIG - Electric Power Company of Minas Gerais state, Brazil - a technology viable for the rural pre-electrification in the state of Minas Gerais; Energia solar fotovoltaica na CEMIG - uma tecnologia viavel para a pre-eletrificacao rural em Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, A.S.A.C.; Carvalho, F.W.; Franca, E.; Tome, J.L.; Villefort, M.H.; Rezende, M.; Araujo, L.A.; Rosa, J.G.F.; Burgoa, J.A. [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, (Brazil)]. E-mail: asacd@cemig.com.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the development of using the photovoltaic solar energy by CEMIG - Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais, from the evaluation phase of photovoltaic energy technology to the large scale use of the photovoltaic systems in the 'Solar Light Program - Rural Pre-electrification with Voltaic Systems'. The paper also discusses the sustainability model of the photovoltaic technology.

  16. Improved High-Energy Response of AlGaAs/GaAs Solar Cells Using a Low-Cost Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorzad, Camron D.; Zhao, Xin; Harotoonian, Vache; Woodall, Jerry M.

    2016-12-01

    We report on an AlGaAs/GaAs solar cell with a significantly increased high-energy response that was produced via a modified liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) technique. This technique uses a one-step process in which the solid-liquid equilibrium Al-Ga-As:Zn melt in contact with an n-type vendor GaAs substrate simultaneously getters impurities in the substrate that shorten minority carrier lifetimes, diffuses Zn into the substrate to create a p- n junction, and forms a thin p-AlGaAs window layer that enables more high-energy light to be efficiently absorbed. Unlike conventional LPE, this process is performed isothermally. In our "double Al" method, the ratio of Al in the melt ("Al melt ratio") that was used in our process was two times more than what was previously reported in the record 1977 International Business Machines (IBM) solar cell. Photoluminescence (PL) results showed our double Al sample yielded a response to 405 nm light ("blue light"), which was more than twice as intense as the response from our replicated IBM cell. The original 1977 cell had a low-intensity spectral response to photon wavelengths under 443 nm (Woodall and Hovel in Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 29:176, 1990). Secondary ion mass spectrometry results confirmed the increased blue light response was due to a large reduction in AlGaAs window layer thickness. These results proved increasing the Al melt ratio broadens the spectrum of light that can be transmitted through the window layer into the active GaAs region for absorption, increasing the overall solar cell efficiency. Our enhanced double Al method can pave the way for large-scale manufacturing of low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells.

  17. 太阳能技术在“绿色凹宅”中的应用%Application of Solar Energy Technology in Green Concave House

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫理莉

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduced the application of solar energy technology in green concave house.The grid-connection photovoltaic power generation was used,which sent the redundant power back to the power network.The photovoltaic solar-thermal integrated solar panels provided the output of electricity and daily at the same time.The smart home system provided the comfortable environment for green concave house.The green concave house is a successful and low energy consumption example,which could provide references for the area of abundant solar energy and dispersal residence.%介绍了太阳能技术在“绿色凹宅”中的应用。采用的并网型太阳能光伏发电系统,当有余电时可回馈电网。铺设的光伏光热一体化太阳能板,在电力输出的同时提供生活热水。智能家居系统给“绿色凹宅”提供舒适的环境。“绿色凹宅”是一个比较成功的环保、低能耗的住宅实例,对太阳能资源丰富而又居住分散的地区有很好的借鉴意义。

  18. Long term vision on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico: Solar energy. Second Part: Technologies for the advantage of the solar energy (Annexe 6-II in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Vision a largo plazo sobre la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico: Energia solar. Segunda Parte: Tecnologias para el aprovechamiento de la energia solar (Anexo 6-II en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada Gasca, Claudio A; Arancibia Bulnes, Camilo A; Dorantes Rodriguez, Ruben; Islas Samperio, Jorge; Muhlia Velasquez, Agustin [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    Usually one distinguishes two main types of systems of advantage of the solar energy: the photovoltaic and the photo thermal ones. The first ones are those based on the photovoltaic effect, which allows the direct conversion of the energy of the solar radiation in electrical energy. The second ones transform the solar energy into heat, which can be used in a large variety of processes. By the degree of development of both technologies it is advisable to present them in different sections. Also, there is a great variety of technologies of photo thermal systems that we have classified as technologies for the termosolar generation of electrical power, whose temperatures of operation are high, technologies the solar heating at low temperatures and technologies for industrial heat process. [Spanish] Se suele distinguir dos tipos principales de sistemas de aprovechamiento de la energia solar: los fotovoltaicos y los fototermicos. Los primeros son aquellos basados en el efecto fotovoltaico, que permite la conversion directa de la energia de la radiacion solar en energia electrica. Los segundos transforman la energia solar en calor, el cual puede ser utilizado en una gran variedad de procesos. Por el grado de desarrollo de ambas tecnologias es conveniente presentarlas en secciones diferentes. Asi mismo, existe una gran variedad de tecnologias de sistemas fototermicos que hemos clasificado en tecnologias para la generacion termosolar de potencia electrica, cuyas temperaturas de operacion son altas, tecnologias para el calentamiento solar a bajas temperaturas y tecnologias para calor de proceso industrial.

  19. Renewable Energy: Markets and Prospects by Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This information paper accompanies the IEA publication Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice (IEA, 2011a). It provides more detailed data and analysis, and explores the markets, policies and prospects for a number of renewable energy technologies. This paper provides a discussion of ten technology areas: bioenergy for electricity and heat, biofuels, geothermal energy, hydro energy, ocean energy, solar energy (solar photovoltaics, concentrating solar power, and solar heating), and wind energy (onshore and offshore). Each technology discussion includes: the current technical and market status; the current costs of energy production and cost trends; the policy environment; the potential and projections for the future; and an analysis of the prospects and key hurdles to future expansion.

  20. General solar energy information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    This report describes the results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on general solar energy. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 13 groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: Loan Officers, Real Estate Appraisers, Tax Assessors, Insurers, Lawyers, Utility Representatives, Public Interest Group Representatives, Information and Agricultural Representatives, Public Interest Group Representatives, Information and Agricultural Specialists at State Cooperative Extension Service Offices, and State Energy Office Representatives. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  1. 美国太阳能发电技术及产业发展%Technology Progress and Industrial Developmentof U.S. Solar Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    禹庚

    2015-01-01

    Based on empirical study of the U.S. milestone achievements in 2013 and 2014 which are called the year of utility-scale PV solar power and the year of utility-scale CSP(Concentrating Solar Power) respectively, the article analyses the thrust forces produced by technology innovation and preferential policies on the U.S. solar power technology and industry. It argues that it is technology innovation and policies that safeguard the U.S. solar technology and industry on a fast track with features as lower cost, higher efifciency and booming market. With optimistic expectation, the U.S. solar power will be able to fully compete with traditional fossil energy by 2020, a target set by DOE’s SunShot Initiative.%本文以2013年美国多个超大规模光伏电站并网发电、2014年多个超大规模聚热太阳能电站投产为主要研究对象,分析了技术创新驱动和产业扶持政策对美国太阳能发电技术及大规模商业应用发展的推动作用,以及由此引发的效能提升、价格下降、供需市场兴旺,乐观预见美国太阳能发电产业的未来发展。

  2. Current Renewable Energy Technologies and Future Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Stephen W [ORNL; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Ward, Christina D [ORNL; Smith, Barton [ORNL; Grubb, Kimberly R [ORNL; Lee, Russell [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    The generally acknowledged sources of renewable energy are wind, geothermal, biomass, solar, hydropower, and hydrogen. Renewable energy technologies are crucial to the production and utilization of energy from these regenerative and virtually inexhaustible sources. Furthermore, renewable energy technologies provide benefits beyond the establishment of sustainable energy resources. For example, these technologies produce negligible amounts of greenhouse gases and other pollutants in providing energy, and they exploit domestically available energy sources, thereby reducing our dependence on both the importation of fossil fuels and the use of nuclear fuels. The market price of renewable energy technologies does not reflect the economic value of these added benefits.

  3. Solar energy perspectives for public power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodley, N. H.

    1979-06-01

    Perspectives on the utilization of solar energy for electricity production and thermal energy utilization by the public are briefly discussed. Wind energy conversion, biomass conversion, solar thermal, OTEC, photovoltaics, and solar heating and cooling are discussed. (WHK)

  4. Materials science for solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Granqvist, CG

    1991-01-01

    Rapid advances in materials technology are creating many novel forms of coatings for energy efficient applications in solar energy. Insulating heat mirrors, selective absorbers, transparent insulation and fluorescent concentrators are already available commercially. Radiative cooling, electrochromic windows and polymeric light pipes hold promise for future development, while chemical and photochemical processes are being considered for energy storage. This book investigates new material advances as well as applications, costs, reliability and industrial production of existing materials. Each c

  5. Solar photovoltaics - An aerospace technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, J. V.

    1977-01-01

    Specific problems affecting the development of low-cost silicon solar array power sources are discussed, taking into account the potential of realizing less than $0.50/per peak watt of silicon solar array technology. A utilization of less expensive processes for the manufacture of pure silicon and more economical procedures of silicon crystal and wafer production appear desirable. Attention is given to a sheet growth process example and a concept of pulsed processing for automated cell production.

  6. Technical use of solar energy: Conversion from solar to thermal energy, solar cooling and thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafa, A.; Fisch, N.; Hahne, E.; Kraus, K.; Seemann, D.; Seifert, B.; Sohns, J.; Schetter, G.; Schweigerer, W.

    1983-12-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies in the field of solar energy utilization are reviewed. Specific topics considered are: flat plate water collectors, solar absorbers, air collectors, solar absorption cooling, solar simulators, aquifiers, latent heat stores, and space heating systems.

  7. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-01-29

    The focus of this report is the U.S. solar electricity market, including photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. The report is organized into five chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of global and U.S. installation trends. Chapter 2 presents production and shipment data, material and supply chain issues, and solar industry employment trends. Chapter 3 presents cost, price, and performance trends. Chapter 4 discusses policy and market drivers such as recently passed federal legislation, state and local policies, and developments in project financing. Chapter 5 provides data on private investment trends and near-term market forecasts.

  8. Technology computer aided design of 29.5% efficient perovskite/interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction mechanically stacked tandem solar cell for energy-efficient applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rahul; Chaujar, Rishu

    2017-04-01

    A 29.5% efficient perovskite/SiC passivated interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction (IBC-SiHJ) mechanically stacked tandem solar cell device has been designed and simulated. This is a substantial improvement of 40% and 15%, respectively, compared to the transparent perovskite solar cell (21.1%) and Si solar cell (25.6%) operated individually. The perovskite solar cell has been used as a top subcell, whereas 250- and 25-μm-thick IBC-SiHJ solar cells have been used as bottom subcells. The realistic technology computer aided design analysis has been performed to understand the physical processes in the device and to make reliable predictions of the behavior. The performance of the top subcell has been obtained for different acceptor densities and hole mobility in Spiro-MeOTAD along with the impact of counter electrode work function. To incorporate the effect of material quality, the influence of carrier lifetimes has also been studied for perovskite top and IBC-SiHJ bottom subcells. The optical and electrical behavior of the devices has been obtained for both standalone as well as tandem configuration. Results reported in this study reveal that the proposed four-terminal tandem device may open a new door for cost-effective and energy-efficient applications.

  9. Hydrogen energy systems technology study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The paper discusses the objectives of a hydrogen energy systems technology study directed toward determining future demand for hydrogen based on current trends and anticipated new uses and identifying the critical research and technology advancements required to meet this need with allowance for raw material limitations, economics, and environmental effects. Attention is focused on historic production and use of hydrogen, scenarios used as a basis for projections, projections of energy sources and uses, supply options, and technology requirements and needs. The study found more than a billion dollar annual usage of hydrogen, dominated by chemical-industry needs, supplied mostly from natural gas and petroleum feedstocks. Evaluation of the progress in developing nuclear fusion and solar energy sources relative to hydrogen production will be necessary to direct the pace and character of research and technology work in the advanced water-splitting areas.

  10. Review of feasible solar energy applications to water processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, J.; Malato, S.; Fernandez-Ibanez, P.; Alarcon, D.; Gernjak, W.; Maldonado, M.I. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas-Plataforma Solar de Almeria (CIEMAT-PSA), Tabernas (Almeria) (Spain)

    2009-08-15

    In the context of an upcoming energy crisis due to the decline of the Oil Era, water problems are expected to substantially worsen. And vice versa, due to the close relationship between water and energy issues, water problems are also expected to contribute to increased energy problems. Furthermore, environmental considerations, such as global warming, will surely add significant pressure. In this scenario, renewable energies are rapidly increasing their contribution to the global mix, with solar energy clearly having the greatest potential, and in view of the worldwide coincidence that where there is water stress and/or scarcity, there are also good solar radiation levels, the conclusion seems clear suitable technologies must be developed to permit the use of solar energy to simultaneously help solve energy and water problems. The main solar energy applications for water processes presented in this paper are: (1) solar desalination; (2) solar detoxification and; (3) solar disinfection. (author)

  11. New Sunshine Project for fiscal 1997 on the international cooperation project. Cooperation in solar energy technologies among Japan, Australia and other countries; 1997 nendo new sunshine keikaku kokusai kyoryoku jigyo. Nichigo nado taiyo energy gijutsu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes the state of progress in the cooperation in solar energy technologies among Japan, Australia and other country, the memorandum concluded for the new project, and the activity report on the NEDO/MUERI project. The progress in the cooperation in solar energy technologies among Japan, Australia and other country is divided into that of the new project and that of the continued project. The former relates to the start of the long-term endurance test project for photovoltaic solar modules in Oman. The location of the endurance test is the Sultan Qaboos University in the suburb of Muscat. Modules subjected to the endurance test consist of ten modules of five types. The test will be performed on air temperature, humidity, wind directions, insolation on horizontal surface, insolation on slanted surface, ultraviolet ray intensity, module temperatures, and electric characteristics of the modules. The continued project is an outdoor endurance test for the photovoltaic solar modules begun in fiscal 1996, which is executed by the Murdock University Energy Research Institute (MUERI). The endurance test locations were selected at Darwin, Alice Springs and Perth. This paper reports the photovoltaic solar module endurance test and investigation, as well as the periodical consultations as the activity report of the NEDO/MUERI project. (NEDO)

  12. Renewable energy forecasts for solar applications : an Environment Canada perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulin, L. [Environment Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Meteorological Service of Canada

    2006-07-01

    The Meteorological Service of Canada has made weather datasets available in real-time on the Internet, for use by those with an interest in solar applications. Ensemble weather models can be used to produce medium range forecasts of weather events and to predict the likely available kilowatt-hours (kWhrs) of solar energy. As such, solar sites can maximize their harvest and use of solar energy. This presentation highlighted several different types of renewable energy forecasts obtained from weather models, including forecasts of expected kWhrs from solar panels and wind turbines, daily forecasts of expected solar heated water volumes and forecasts of water collection potential from impending precipitation events. The value of renewable energy forecasts in helping the solar energy sector monitor daily energy loads as well as daily and weekly solar energy supply was emphasized. It was suggested that renewable energy forecasts could raise public awareness of the potential of solar energy applications and help promote the solar energy market. Vendors of solar technology can also use the forecasts to help customers harmonize predicted solar energy coming to their sites with daily energy use patterns. figs.

  13. Port of Galveston Solar Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcioni, Diane [Port of Galveston (POG), Galveston, TX (United States); Cuclis, Alex [Houston Advanced Research Center, The Woodlands, TX (United States); Freundlich, Alex [Univ. of Houston, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-03-31

    This study on the performance characteristics of existing solar technologies in a maritime environment was funded by an award given to The Port of Galveston (POG) from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The study includes research performed by The Center for Advanced Materials at the University of Houston (UH). The UH researchers examined how solar cell efficiencies and life spans can be improved by examining the performance of a variety of antireflective (AR) coatings mounted on the top of one of the POG’s Cruise Terminals. Supplemental supporting research was performed at the UH laboratories. An educational Kiosk was constructed with a 55” display screen providing information about solar energy, the research work UH performed at POG and real time data from the solar panels located on the roof of the Cruise Terminal. The Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) managed the project.

  14. Solar Energy and the Western Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The Western Asian countries receive the most abundant solar radiation of the world. They also have enormous reserves of oil and natural gas. But the world reserves of those fuels will certainly diminish greatly as the worldwide demand for energy will increase steadily in the coming decades. And the suppliers of energy will have to contend with public concerns about the polluting effects of those fuels and the possible dangers of nuclear energy. Clearly a power source based on an non exhaustible and non-polluting fuel could be expected to find a role. It now appears that such a source is at hand in the solar energy. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations' Agenda 21, we suggest to Western Asian countries, the study and own development of the following technologies based on solar energy; and comment about them: *photo-voltaic solar cell power plants - in the future, its cost per kilowatt-hour will probably be competitive as to other sources of electrical energy. A new technique, the solar non-imaging concentrator, with amorphous silicon-based thin films solar cells at the focus of the concentrators, can collect and intensify solar radiation far better than conventional concentrators do, thus reducing much more the cost; *bio-gas - using biological gas to produce energy and for heating/cooling purposes; *wind generation of electricity - it's nowadays, a non-expensive technique; *water pump for irrigation and human consuming, driving their power from photovoltaic cells; *and the study and own development of solar lasers for peaceful scientific studies. In this new kind of laser, the external necessary pumping energy comes from the high intensity of sunlight, produced with non-imaging concentrators. Solar lasers can give unexpected new great uses for mankind. Those achievements will require international cooperation and transfer of information, sustained research and development work, and some initial subsides by independent governments. Solar

  15. Passive solar energy information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1980-11-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on passive solar heating and cooling are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from seven passive groups respondents are analyzed in this report: Federally Funded Researchers, Manufacturer Representatives, Architects, Builders, Educators, Cooperative Extension Service County Agents, and Homeowners. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  16. Solar energy: principles and possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    As the world faces an impending dearth of fossil fuels, most immediately oil, alternative sources of energy must be found. 174 PW worth of energy falls onto the top of the Earth's atmosphere in the form of sunlight which is almost 10,000 times the total amount of energy used by humans on Earth, as taken from all sources, oil, coal, natural gas, nuclear and hydroelectric power combined. If even a fraction of this could be harvested efficiently, the energy crunch could in principle be averted. Various means for garnering energy from the Sun are presented, including photovoltaics (PV), thin film solar cells, quantum dot cells, concentrating PV and thermal solar power stations, which are more efficient in practical terms. Finally the prospects of space based (satellite) solar power are considered. The caveat is that even if the entire world electricity budget could be met using solar energy, the remaining 80% of energy which is not used as electricity but thermal power (heat) still needs to be found in the absence of fossil fuels. Most pressingly, the decline of cheap plentiful crude oil (peak oil) will not find a substitution via solar unless a mainly electrified transportation system is devised and it is debatable that there is sufficient time and conventional energy remaining to accomplish this. The inevitable contraction of transportation will default a deconstruction of the globalised world economy into that of a system of localised communities.

  17. Promoting Renewable Energy Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole Jess; Skytte, Klaus

    % of its annual electricity production. In this paper, we present and discuss the Danish experience as a case of promoting renewable energy technologies. The development path of the two technologies has been very different. Wind power is considered an outright success with fast deployment to decreasing...... technology and its particular context, it is possible to formulate some general principles that can help to create an effective and efficient policy for promoting new renewable energy technologies....

  18. Promoting Renewable Energy Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole Jess; Skytte, Klaus

    % of its annual electricity production. In this paper, we present and discuss the Danish experience as a case of promoting renewable energy technologies. The development path of the two technologies has been very different. Wind power is considered an outright success with fast deployment to decreasing...... technology and its particular context, it is possible to formulate some general principles that can help to create an effective and efficient policy for promoting new renewable energy technologies....

  19. Solar energy research and development: program balance. Annex, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    Each of the seven solar energy technologies that have been assessed in the study are treated: photovoltaic devices, solar thermal power systems, wind energy systems, solar heating and cooling systems, agricultural and industrial heat processes, biomass conversion technologies, and ocean thermal energy conversion systems. A brief technical overview of storage for solar electric technologies is presented and some principles concerning how different levels of success on electrical storage can affect the commercial viability of solar electric options are discussed. A description is given of the solar penetration model that was developed and applied as an analytical tool in the study. This computer model has served the primary purpose of evaluating the competiveness of the solar energy systems in the markets in which they are expected to compete relative to that of the alternative energy sources. This is done under a variety of energy supply, demand, and price conditions. The seven sections treating the solar energy technologies contain discussions on each of six subject areas: description of the technology; economic projections; the potential contribution of the technology in different marketplaces; environmental considerations; international potential; and the present and possible future emphases within the RD and D program. The priority item for each of the technology sections has been the documentation of the economic projections.

  20. Solar and Wind Technologies for Hydrogen Production Report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2005-12-01

    DOE's Solar and Wind Technologies for Hydrogen Production Report to Congress summarizes the technology roadmaps for solar- and wind-based hydrogen production. Published in December 2005, it fulfills the requirement under section 812 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

  1. Distributed Energy Technology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) is an extension of the power electronics testing capabilities of the Photovoltaic System Evaluation Laboratory...

  2. Barriers to the Diffusion of Solar Thermal Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Despite its considerable potential in household, domestic and industry sectors, the possible contribution of solar heat is often neglected in many academic and institutional energy projections and scenarios. This is best explained by the frequent failure to distinguish heat and work as two different forms of energy transfers. As a result, policy makers in many countries or States have tended to pay lesser attention to solar thermal technologies than to other renewable energy technologies.

  3. 论被动式太阳能技术引入屋顶节能%Passive solar energy technology in residential roof energy saving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔明敏

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyzes the roof energy consumption of houses,points out the introduction of passive solar energy technique to roof energy-saving,adopts the optimal roof forms and adjustment of thermal effect of roof surface,and has the sufficient use of energy,so as to realize the sus-tainable development for the zero energy consumption of houses.%对住宅的屋顶能耗进行了分析,提出了将被动式太阳能技术引入住宅屋顶节能的概念,并利用优化屋顶形式、调控屋顶表面热效应等手段,对能源进行充分利用,以实现住宅零能耗的可持续发展追求。

  4. Chemistry of Personalized Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocera, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    Personalized energy (PE) is a transformative idea that provides a new modality for the planet’s energy future. By providing solar energy to the individual, an energy supply becomes secure and available to people of both legacy and non-legacy worlds, and minimally contributes to increasing the anthropogenic level of carbon dioxide. Because PE will be possible only if solar energy is available 24 hours a day, 7 day a week, the key enabler for solar PE is an inexpensive storage mechanism. HX (X = halide or OH−) splitting is a fuel-forming reaction of sufficient energy density for large scale solar storage but the reaction relies on chemical transformations that are not understood at the most basic science level. Critical among these are multielectron transfers that are proton-coupled and involve the activation of bonds in energy poor substrates. The chemistry of these three italicized areas is developed, and from this platform, discovery paths leading to new HX and H2O splitting catalysts are delineated. For the case of the water splitting catalyst, it captures many of the functional elements of photosynthesis. In doing so, a highly manufacturable and inexpensive method has been discovered for solar PE storage. PMID:19775081

  5. Estimating Solar Energy Potential in Buildings on a Global Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrichenko, Ksenia

    2015-01-01

    This chapter contributes to the debate around net-zero energy concept from a global perspective. By means of comprehensive modelling, it analyses how much global building energy consumption could be reduced through utilisation of building-integrated solar energy technologies and energy......-efficiency improvements. Valuable insights on the locations and building types, in which it is feasible to achieve a net-zero level of energy performance through solar energy utilisation, are presented in world maps....

  6. Nanomaterials for solar energy

    KAUST Repository

    Revaprasadu, Neerish

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured metal chalcogenides of the elements copper, iron, tin, lead and cadmium have attracted interest in their use as colloidal nanocrystal inks for solar cells. Some of these materials have the advantages of being available in abundance and having low toxicity. Developing methods for the combination of the elements to produce binary, ternary and quaternary compounds has dominated research in the field. This chapter will provide the most recent developments (from year 2012 onwards) for the synthesis and use of colloidal nanocrystal inks for solar cell applications. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.

  7. New technologies of the energy 1. The renewable energies; Nouvelles technologies de l'energie 1. Les energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabonnadiere, J.C

    2006-07-01

    This book, devoted to the renewable energies, is the first of three volumes taking stock on the new technologies of the energy situation. The first part presents the solar energy (thermal photovoltaic and thermodynamic), completed by a chapter on the wind energy. An important part is devoted to new hydraulic energies with the sea energies and the very little hydroelectricity and in particular the exploitation of the energy of the drinking water and wastes water pipelines. (A.L.B.)

  8. Photochemical conversion of solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzani, Vincenzo; Credi, Alberto; Venturi, Margherita

    2008-01-01

    Energy is the most important issue of the 21st century. About 85% of our energy comes from fossil fuels, a finite resource unevenly distributed beneath the Earth's surface. Reserves of fossil fuels are progressively decreasing, and their continued use produces harmful effects such as pollution that threatens human health and greenhouse gases associated with global warming. Prompt global action to solve the energy crisis is therefore needed. To pursue such an action, we are urged to save energy and to use energy in more efficient ways, but we are also forced to find alternative energy sources, the most convenient of which is solar energy for several reasons. The sun continuously provides the Earth with a huge amount of energy, fairly distributed all over the world. Its enormous potential as a clean, abundant, and economical energy source, however, cannot be exploited unless it is converted into useful forms of energy. This Review starts with a brief description of the mechanism at the basis of the natural photosynthesis and, then, reports the results obtained so far in the field of photochemical conversion of solar energy. The "grand challenge" for chemists is to find a convenient means for artificial conversion of solar energy into fuels. If chemists succeed to create an artificial photosynthetic process, "... life and civilization will continue as long as the sun shines!", as the Italian scientist Giacomo Ciamician forecast almost one hundred years ago.

  9. How to solve materials and design problems in solar heating and cooling. Energy technology review No. 77

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, D.S.; Oberoi, H.S.; Weinstein, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    A broad range of difficulties encountered in active and passive solar space heating systems and active solar space cooling systems is covered. The problems include design errors, installation mistakes, inadequate durability of materials, unacceptable reliability of components, and wide variations in performance and operation of different solar systems. Feedback from designers and manufacturers involved in the solar market is summarized. The designers' experiences with and criticisms of solar components are presented, followed by the manufacturers' replies to the various problems encountered. Information is presented on the performance and operation of solar heating and cooling systems so as to enable future designs to maximize performance and eliminate costly errors. (LEW)

  10. A Systematic Evaluation Model for Solar Cell Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Fu Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuels, including coal, petroleum, natural gas, and nuclear energy, are the primary electricity sources currently. However, with depletion of fossil fuels, global warming, nuclear crisis, and increasing environmental consciousness, the demand for renewable energy resources has skyrocketed. Solar energy is one of the most popular renewable energy resources for meeting global energy demands. Even though there are abundant studies on various solar technology developments, there is a lack of studies on solar technology evaluation and selection. Therefore, this research develops a model using interpretive structural modeling (ISM, benefits, opportunities, costs, and risks concept (BOCR, and fuzzy analytic network process (FANP to aggregate experts' opinions in evaluating current available solar cell technology. A case study in a photovoltaics (PV firm is used to examine the practicality of the proposed model in selecting the most suitable technology for the firm in manufacturing new products.

  11. U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon is an award-winning program that challenges 20 collegiate teams to design, build, and operate solar-powered houses that are cost-effective, energy-efficient, and attractive. In addition to showcasing the cost savings and environmental benefits of market-ready solar technologies, the event encourages participating students to think in new ways about incorporating practical, affordable clean-energy solutions into residential applications.

  12. Solar technologies and the soft path: an empirical examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodwick, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    A US national probability sample of 2023 traditional energy users and a purposive sample of 3809 solar energy technology owners are compared to assess whether those who owned solar energy technologies in 1980 have more soft path preferences (SPP) (e.g., attitudes and behaviors compatible with soft energy path developments) than do those who did not own such technologies. It is suggested that SPP is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the social structural transformation of society to the soft energy path proposed by Amory Lovins. A soft-path preferences scale is developed. The scale values for solar and nonsolar homeowners, for active and passive solar technology owners, and for those owing the technologies for four different time periods are compared. The nonsolar homeowners, passive technology owners, and those who owned the technologies from one to five years have the highest SPP scores. The greatest differences were found in the dimension of natural resources conservation. Partial least squares structural equation modeling is used to examine an extension and specification of Lovins' theory of soft-energy-path development. A model is created which focuses on the process of SPP development. Energy vulnerability needs, contextual resources, type of solar technologies, technological problems, and evaluation are the independent variables of the model.

  13. Solar technology - A whether report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finneran, K.

    1983-03-01

    Progress in the use of solar energy for producing large quantities of electrical power is assessed. The practicality of different applications of solar energy has been demonstrated, and present activity focuses on reducing production costs, enhancing efficiency, and improving reliability. Solar cell production reached 6 MW in 1982, but cuts in government research funding will delay the arrival of cost-competitive photovoltaics for commercial applications in developed countries. Research is expanding on amorphous Si cells, which are cheaper to produce while having lower efficiencies than single crystal cells. An estimated 60,000-80,000 passive solar houses have been constructed since 1978, and work is proceeding on better thermal control in the houses and more elegant storage techniques, such as long-lasting phase change materials. Industrially, a 114-unit array of parabolic concentrators producing 3 MW is providing steam for electricity and processing in a clothing factory. Tests of the 10 MWe Solar One heliostat array power plant in Barstow, CA have encouraged plans for a 100 MWe plant.

  14. Bionic models for new sustainable energy technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tributsch, H. [Hahn-Meitner Inst., Dept. Solare Energetik, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Within the boundary conditions of an abundant, but diluted solar energy supply nature has successfully evolved sophisticated regenerative energy technologies, which are not yet familiar to human engineering tradition. Since until the middle of this century a substantial contribution of renewable energy to global energy consumption is required in order to limit environmental deterioration, bionic technologies may contribute to the development of commercially affordable technical options. Four biological energy technologies have been selected as examples to discuss the challenges, both in scientific and technological terms, as well as the material research aspects involved: photovoltaics based on irreversible kinetics, tensile water technology, solar powered protonic energy circuits, fuel cell catalysis based on abundant transition metals. (orig.)

  15. A solar energy collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilyev, L.L.; Avakyan, Yu V.; Dabagyan, T.N.; Grakovich, L.P.; Khustalev, D.K.; Morgun, V.A.; Vartanyan, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    During collector operation, solar emission is absorbed by the evaporator section of the heating tube; the degree of blackness of the forward wall of the section is increased significantly by the use of corrugations in this section. Boiling of the working fluid in the longitudinal slotted channels is accompanied by outbursts of the steam fluid mixture in the direction of the forward wall, resulting in wetting of the longitudinal corrugation on this wall. In this solar collector, there is a continuous flow of the working fluid onto the internal surface of the leading wall of the evaporation section of the heat tube; the working fluid evaporation process is accelerated by the spraying resulting from the popping of vapor bubbles.

  16. Renewable Energy Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Michael K.; Carter, Vinson R.

    2010-01-01

    In many ways the field of renewable energy technology is being introduced to a society that has little knowledge or background with anything beyond traditional exhaustible forms of energy and power. Dotson (2009) noted that the real challenge is to inform and educate the citizenry of the renewable energy potential through the development of…

  17. Renewable Energy Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Michael K.; Carter, Vinson R.

    2010-01-01

    In many ways the field of renewable energy technology is being introduced to a society that has little knowledge or background with anything beyond traditional exhaustible forms of energy and power. Dotson (2009) noted that the real challenge is to inform and educate the citizenry of the renewable energy potential through the development of…

  18. Solar energy program. Annual report, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-02-01

    this annual report describes the work done at Argonne National Laboratory on the Solar Energy Program during FY 1978 (July 1, 1977 to June 30, 1978). Areas included in this report are solar energy collection, heating and cooling, thermal energy storage, ocean thermal energy conversion, photovoltaics, satellite power systems, bioconversion, central receiver solar thermal power, and wind energy conversion.

  19. Solar Energy-An Everyday Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keister, Carole; Cornell, Lu Beth

    1978-01-01

    Describes a solar energy research project sponsored by the Energy Research and Development Administration and conducted at Timonium School in Maryland. Elementary student involvement in solar energy studies resulting from the project is noted. (MDR)

  20. Solar Energy-An Everyday Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keister, Carole; Cornell, Lu Beth

    1978-01-01

    Describes a solar energy research project sponsored by the Energy Research and Development Administration and conducted at Timonium School in Maryland. Elementary student involvement in solar energy studies resulting from the project is noted. (MDR)

  1. Nontechnical Barriers to Solar Energy Use: Review of Recent Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margolis, R.; Zuboy, J.

    2006-09-01

    This paper reviews the nontechnical barriers to solar energy use, drawing on recent literature to help identify key barriers that must be addressed as part of the Technology Acceptance efforts under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar America Initiative. A broad literature search yielded more than 400 references, which were narrowed to 19 recent documents on nontechnical barriers to the use of solar energy and other energy efficiency and renewable energy (EE/RE) technologies. Some of the most frequently identified barriers included lack of government policy supporting EE/RE, lack of information dissemination and consumer awareness about energy and EE/RE, high cost of solar and other EE/RE technologies compared with conventional energy, and inadequate financing options for EE/RE projects.

  2. Effects of solar photovoltaic technology on the environment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Liqiang; Zhang, Yajuan

    2017-08-31

    Among the various types of renewable energy, solar photovoltaic has elicited the most attention because of its low pollution, abundant reserve, and endless supply. Solar photovoltaic technology generates both positive and negative effects on the environment. The environmental loss of 0.00666 yuan/kWh from solar photovoltaic technology is lower than that from coal-fired power generation (0.05216 yuan/kWh). The negative effects of solar photovoltaic system production include wastewater and waste gas pollutions, the representatives of which contain fluorine, chromium with wastewater and hydrogen fluoride, and silicon tetrachloride gas. Solar panels are also a source of light pollution. Improper disposal of solar cells that have reached the end of their service life harms the environment through the stench they produce and the damage they cause to the soil. So, the positive and negative effects of green energy photovoltaic power generation technology on the environment should be considered.

  3. Solar energy powered microbial fuel cell with a reversible bioelectrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    The solar energy powered microbial fuel cell is an emerging technology for electricity generation via electrochemically active microorganisms fueled by solar energy via in situ photosynthesized metabolites from algae, cyanobacteria, or living higher plants. A general problem with microbial fuel cell

  4. Green cooperative communication network using solar energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay kumar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy has experienced phenomenal growth in recent years due to both technological improvements resulting in cost reductions and government policies supportive of renewable energy development and utilization. This study analyzes the technical, economic and policy aspects of solar energy development and deployment. While the cost of solar energy has declined rapidly in the recent past, it still remains much higher than the cost of conventional energy technologies. Like other renewable energy technologies, solar energy benefits from fiscal and regulatory incentives and mandates, including tax credits and exemptions, feed-in-tariff, preferential interest rates, renewable portfolio standards and voluntary green power programs in many countries. Potential expansion of carbon credit markets also would provide additional incentives to solar energy deployment; however, the scale of incentives provided by the existing carbon market instruments, such as the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol, is limited. Despite the huge technical potential, development and large-scale, market-driven deployment of solar energy technologies worldwide still has to overcome a number of technical and financial barriers. Unless these barriers are overcome, maintaining and increasing electricity supplies from solar energy will require continuation of potentially costly policy support. Indexing terms/

  5. Solar energy engineering processes and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kalogirou, Soteris A

    2013-01-01

    As perhaps the most promising of all the renewable energy sources available today, solar energy is becoming increasingly important in the drive to achieve energy independence and climate balance. This new book is the masterwork from world-renowned expert Dr. Soteris Kalogirou, who has championed solar energy for decades. The book includes all areas of solar energy engineering, from the fundamentals to the highest level of current research. The author includes pivotal subjects such as solar collectors, solar water heating, solar space heating and cooling, industrial process heat, solar desalina

  6. Solar energy engineering processes and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kalogirou, Soteris A

    2009-01-01

    As perhaps the most promising of all the renewable energy sources available today, solar energy is becoming increasingly important in the drive to achieve energy independence and climate balance. This new book is the masterwork from world-renowned expert Dr. Soteris Kalogirou, who has championed solar energy for decades. The book includes all areas of solar energy engineering, from the fundamentals to the highest level of current research. The author includes pivotal subjects such as solar collectors, solar water heating, solar space heating and cooling, industrial process heat, solar desalina

  7. Nanophysics of solar and renewable energy

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Edward L

    2012-01-01

    This easy accessible textbook provides an overview of solar to electric energy conversion, followed by a detailed look at one aspect, namely photovoltaics, including the underlying principles and fabrication methods. Professor Wolf, an experienced author and teacher, reviews such green technologies as solar-heated-steam power, hydrogen, and ""artificial leaf"" approaches, as well as nuclear fusion. Throughout the book, carefully chosen, up-to-date examples are used to illustrate important concepts and research tools.The opening chapters give a broad and exhaustive survey of long term energ

  8. Research and development of utilization technology of solar thermal system for industrial and other use. Research and development of key technology (energy conversion on technology using chemical reactions); Sangyoyo nado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Yoso gijutsu no kenkyu (kagaku energy henkan gijutsu no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takita, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for energy conversion technology using chemical reactions by the aid of solar energy. The demonstration runs were conducted by a bench-scale unit, which was operated stably for 100h, to produce promising results. The catalyst exhibits stable performance, without showing a sign of deactivation. It is found that the heat pump system works well, without being interfered with accumulated by-products. A heat of approximately 2,100kcal/h is recovered. It is confirmed that steam of 150{degree}C and 200{degree}C is generated from hot water of 80{degree}C and 95{degree}C, respectively. The bench-scale runs show a thermal efficiency of around 10%, which is lower than the target level. However, the runs with hydrogen-occluding alloy attain a process thermal efficiency of 30%. The system in which solar collector and chemical heat pump units are combined is evaluated with respect to its economic efficiency and operability for its eventual commercialization. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Short review on solar energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herez, Amal; Ramadan, Mohamad; Abdulhay, Bakri; Khaled, Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    Solar energy can be utilized mainly in heat generation and electricity production. International energy agency (IEA) shows, in a comparative study on the world energy consumption that in 2050 solar arrays installation will provide about 45% of world energy demand. Solar energy is one of the most important renewable energy source which plays a great role in providing energy solutions. As known there is wide variety of types of collectors and applications of solar energy. This paper aimed to make a short review on solar energy systems, according to types of collectors and applications used.

  10. Solar Energy for Rural Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsalam, Tarek I.; Darwish, Ziad; Hatem, Tarek M.

    Egypt is currently experiencing the symptoms of an energy crisis, such as electricity outage and high deficit, due to increasing rates of fossil fuels consumption. Conversely, Egypt has a high solar availability of more than 18.5 MJ daily. Additionally, Egypt has large uninhabited deserts on both sides of the Nile valley and Sinai Peninsula, which both represent more than 96.5 % of the nation's total land area. Therefore, solar energy is one of the promising solutions for the energy shortage in Egypt. Furthermore, these vast lands are advantageous for commissioning large-scaled solar power projects, not only in terms of space availability, but also of availability of high quality silicon (sand) required for manufacturing silicon wafers used in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Also, rural Egypt is considered market a gap for investors, due to low local competition, and numerous remote areas that are not connected to the national electricity grid. Nevertheless, there are some obstacles that hinder the progress of solar energy in Egypt; for instance, the lack of local manufacturing capabilities, security, and turbulent market in addition to other challenges. This paper exhibits an experience of the authors designing and installing decentralized PV solar systems, with a total rated power of about 11 kW, installed at two rural villages in at the suburbs of Fayoum city, in addition to a conceptual design of a utility scale, 2 MW, PV power plant to be installed in Kuraymat. The outcomes of this experience asserted that solar PV systems can be a more technically and economically feasible solution for the energy problem in rural villages.

  11. Technology Roadmaps: Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Wind energy is perhaps the most advanced of the 'new' renewable energy technologies, but there is still much work to be done. This roadmap identifies the key tasks that must be undertaken in order to achieve a vision of over 2 000 GW of wind energy capacity by 2050. Governments, industry, research institutions and the wider energy sector will need to work together to achieve this goal. Best technology and policy practice must be identified and exchanged with emerging economy partners, to enable the most cost-effective and beneficial development.

  12. Technology Roadmap: Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-03-01

    Energy storage technologies are valuable components in most energy systems and could be an important tool in achieving a low-carbon future. These technologies allow for the decoupling of energy supply and demand, in essence providing a valuable resource to system operators. There are many cases where energy storage deployment is competitive or near-competitive in today's energy system. However, regulatory and market conditions are frequently ill-equipped to compensate storage for the suite of services that it can provide. Furthermore, some technologies are still too expensive relative to other competing technologies (e.g. flexible generation and new transmission lines in electricity systems). One of the key goals of this new roadmap is to understand and communicate the value of energy storage to energy system stakeholders. This will include concepts that address the current status of deployment and predicted evolution in the context of current and future energy system needs by using a ''systems perspective'' rather than looking at storage technologies in isolation.

  13. Energy Technology Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Anmeldelse af bogen: Energy Technology Innovation – Learning from Historical Successes and Failures, A. Grubler, C. Wilson (eds.) Cambridge University Press, New York (2014) 387p., ISBN: 978-1-107-02322-2......Anmeldelse af bogen: Energy Technology Innovation – Learning from Historical Successes and Failures, A. Grubler, C. Wilson (eds.) Cambridge University Press, New York (2014) 387p., ISBN: 978-1-107-02322-2...

  14. Towards increasing the photon harvesting in bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells. : Electrochemical, Radiational, and Thermal Energy Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winder, Christoph; Loi, Maria A.; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar; Denk, Patrick; Padinger, Franz; Hummelen, Jan C.; Janssen, Rene A. J.; Gouloumis, Andreas; Vazquez, Purificacion; Torres, Tomas

    2003-01-01

    Org. solar cells based on interpenetrating networks of conjugated polymer donors and fullerene-based acceptors with MA 1.5 efficiencies up to 3% were presented recently. For further improvement of the efficiency, the absorption of the solar light should be increased. This can be done by matching the

  15. Solar energy parking canopy demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cylwik, Joe [City of Big Bear Lake, Big Bear, CA (United States); David, Lawrence [City of Big Bear Lake, Big Bear, CA (United States)

    2015-09-24

    The goal of this pilot/demonstration program is to measure the viability of using solar photovoltaic (PV) technology at three locations in a mountain community environment given the harsh weather conditions. An additional goal is to reduce long-term operational costs, minimize green house gas emissions, lower the dependency on energy produced from fossil fuels, and improve the working environment and health of city employees and residents.

  16. Solar energy and substainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Maria Carmen; Nalin, Olivier

    2010-05-01

    At the dawn of the 21st century, the world population doesn't stop rising. More than ever, energy and environment problems remain at the heart of our society concerns. What will we leave to the future generations ? Therefore, a twenty pupil class of 4e (13 and 14 year old pupils) has made a specific work about this topic, called "solar power and sustainable development". Initially, the pupils participated to the settlement of a meteorological station on the school grounds. This station, which provides readings about temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, sun radiations, wind power and wind heading is fed by photovoltaic cells and thus works independently. The pupils have then come to realize the ecological and practical interests of such a functioning (e.g. : for the latter : neither batteries nor electrical wires are needed). These past few years, in Provence (a highly sunny region), many solar panel installations have been created and many private house roofs have been equipped with photovoltaic cells. Indeed, this energy presents some significant assets : it is free, clean and will never run out. The village of Vinon sur Verdon, where stands our college, is partly fed by a solar panel park, located a few kilometers away. Strongly sensitive to the assets of this energy source, the pupils have made a poster asserting the benefits of solar power. Another side of solar energy has been asserted : the output of hot sanitary water. They have built a miniature on this topic. In order to be thorough, some elements remain in shadow, such as environment impacts done by the making, the transport and the recycling of solar panels that will be brought up in a collaboration with research establishments.

  17. Application of diffusion research to solar energy policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessner, J. D.; Posner, D.; Shoemaker, F.; Shama, A.

    1979-03-01

    This paper examines two types of information requirements that appear to be basic to DOE solar-energy-policy decisions: (1) how can the future market success of solar energy technologies be estimated, and (2) what factors influence the adoption of solar energy technologies, and what specific programs could promote solar energy adoption most effectively. This paper assesses the ability of a body of research, referred to here as diffusion research, to supply information that could partially satisfy these requirements. This assessment proceeds, first, by defining in greater detail a series of policy issues that face DOE. These are divided into cost reduction and performance improvement issues which include issues confronting the technology development component of the solar energy program, and barriers and incentives issues which are most relevant to problems of solar energy application. Second, these issues are translated into a series of questions that the diffusion approach can help resolve. Third, various elements within diffusion research are assessed in terms of their abilities to answer policy questions. Finally, the strengths and limitations of current knowledge about the diffusion of innovations are summarized, the applicability of both existing knowledge and the diffusion approach to the identified solar-energy-policy issues are discussed, and ways are suggested in which diffusion approaches can be modified and existing knowledge employed to meet short- and long-term goals of DOE. The inquiry covers the field of classical diffusion research, market research and consumer behavior, communication research, and solar-energy market-penetration modeling.

  18. SOLAR ENERGY POLICY DEVELOPMENTS IN EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela PÃCE?ILÃ

    2015-01-01

    Solar energy is one of the most important renewable energy sources in Europe offering new possibilities to generate electricity and heat. In this context, the study provides accurate information about researches that characterize the solar resource and investigates the potential of solar energy in European countries. The analysis is also focused on the current status of market development including photovoltaic capacity, electricity production from solar photovoltaic power, solar thermal capa...

  19. Food dehydration by solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, H R; Salunkhe, D K

    1982-01-01

    Solar driers that are currently being investigated for drying of agricultural products can be divided into two major divisions, depending upon how they transfer the incident solar energy to the product to be dried. These two divisions are direct and indirect drying, with some work also being done on combination drying procedures. In direct solar driers, the product to be dried is usually either inside a tent, greenhouse, or a glass-topped box, where the product to be dried is heated by the direct rays from the sun and the moist air is removed by ambient wind movement. These dryers do accelerate moisture loss rate and the product is usually safe from inclement weather. These dryers usually do not require fans for forced air circulation. With indirect drying, the opposite is true, where most require powered fans for forced air circulation. With this type of dryer, both flatplate and inflated tube solar heat absorbers are used, with each offering certain advantages. Also, combination dryers have been built that utilize both direct and indirect principles. Product evaluation of solar dried foods indicate that in most cases the physical properties, flavor, and vitamin A and C retention were as good as, or better than, conventional dried foods. The economics of the solar systems indicate that most drying procedures are economically feasible for use in small-scale operations only, with the exception of grain drying.

  20. Technology Roadmaps: Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This nuclear energy roadmap has been prepared jointly by the IEA and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). Unlike most other low-carbon energy sources, nuclear energy is a mature technology that has been in use for more than 50 years. The latest designs for nuclear power plants build on this experience to offer enhanced safety and performance, and are ready for wider deployment over the next few years. Several countries are reactivating dormant nuclear programmes, while others are considering nuclear for the first time. China in particular is already embarking on a rapid nuclear expansion. In the longer term, there is great potential for new developments in nuclear energy technology to enhance nuclear's role in a sustainable energy future.

  1. Mobil Solar Energy Corporation thin EFG octagons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalejs, J. P.

    1994-06-01

    Mobil Solar Energy Corporation manufactures photovoltaic modules based on its unique Edge-defined Film-fed Growth (EFG) process for producing octagon-shaped hollow polycrystalline silicon tubes. The octagons are cut by lasers into 100 mm x 100 mm wafers which are suitable for solar cell processing. This process avoids slicing, grinding and polishing operations which are wasteful of material and are typical of most other wafer production methods. EFG wafers are fabricated into solar cells and modules using processes that have been specially developed to allow scaling up to high throughput rates. The goals of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology Initiative (PVMaT) program at Mobil Solar were to improve the EFG manufacturing line through technology advances that accelerate cost reduction in production and stimulate market growth for its product. The program was structured into three main tasks: to decrease silicon utilization by lowering wafer thickness from 400 to 200 (mu)m; to enhance laser cutting yields and throughput while improving the wafer strength; and to raise crystal growth productivity and yield. The technical problems faced and the advances made in the Mobil Solar PVMaT program are described. The author concludes with a presentation of the results of a detailed cost model for EFT module production. This model describes the accelerated reductions in manufacturing costs which are already in place and the future benefits anticipated to result from the technical achievements of the PVMaT program.

  2. Solar energy and the aeronautics industry. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, L.

    1985-01-01

    An introduction to the physical aspects of solar energy, incidental energy and variations in solar flux is presented, along with an explanation of the physical principles of obtaining solar energy. The history of the application of solar energy to aeronautics, including the Gossamer Penguin and the Solar Challenger is given. Finally, an analysis of the possibilities of using a reaction motor with hybrid propulsion combining solar energy with traditional fuels as well as calculations of the proposed cycle and its mode of operation are given.

  3. California solar energy study: decision-analysis panel report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margolin, J.B.; Misch, M.R.

    1979-09-01

    In order to investigate motivations behind an individual's decision to purchase or not to purchase a solar energy system for a home, the California Energy Commission initiated a comprehensive survey program to analyze, in some depth, attitudes toward solar energy use. As part of that program, the CEC contracted for a series of panels comprised of homogenous groups of individuals who were not solar adopters, to probe for underlying attitudes about solar and, through the group dynamics process, elicit information which generally cannot be obtained using a standard questionnaire. The results shed additional light on consumer perceptions about the energy situation, the solar industry, economics, government's role and acceptance of the technology which, in turn, affect the individual's decision to adopt or not to adopt a solar energy device.

  4. Energy technology for transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloth, M. [H2 Logic (Denmark); Schroeder Pedersen, A. [Risoe National Lab. - DTU (Denmark)

    2007-11-15

    World energy demand for transport has increased significantly for many years. This trend is projected to continue in the years to come, one reason being that large and rapidly developing economies bring increasing demand for the transport of goods and people, including rising transport demand due to greater integration of developing countries in the international trade. Transport not only account for approximately 20 % of the total world energy consumption, but is almost entirely based on limited and expensive fossil energy resources. Technology development and economic incentives are key areas in bringing clean energy to the transportation sector. This chapter recommends that technology development must aim to make each link of the energy conversion chain cheaper, cleaner and more efficient. It should be driven by public-private partnerships, with a funding basis balance that reflects the nearness of each technology to commercial application. Onboard storage, for instance, still needs basic research, whereas fuel cells are already competitive in certain markets. For consumers, fossil fuels are certain to remain the cheapest option for transport as long as energy prices do not reflect the cost of environmental damage. To reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from transport, governments are recommended to set up strong economic or other incentives to encourage consumers to opt for low-carbon vehicles or public transport. As well as reducing environmental damage, such measures could generate money to support research and development in clean energy technologies. (BA)

  5. Quality-assurance needs and goals in solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, G. E.

    1980-07-01

    A discussion of the status of quality assurance activities in solar energy conversion technologies and of the needs for further efforts in this area is presented. The importance of reliability and quality assurance activities to various end users is briefly discussed. Some details of such activities in wind, active heating and cooling, and photovoltaic technologies are given. Suggestions for an inegrated reliability, quality assurance program are presented and their importance to the growth of solar energy application is discussed.

  6. Solar Technology Validation Project - Utah State Energy Program (Met Station): Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-367-09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, S.

    2013-08-01

    Under this Agreement, NREL will work with Participant to improve concentrating solar power system performance characterizations. This work includes, but is not limited to, research and development of methods for acquiring renewable resource characterization information using site-specific measurements of solar radiation and meteorological conditions; collecting system performance data; and developing tools for improving the design, installation, operation, and maintenance of solar energy conversion systems. This work will be conducted at NREL and Participant facilities.

  7. Solar cells: the bases of photovoltaic energy; Cellules solaires: les bases de l'energie photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labouret, A.; Cumunel, P.; Braun, J.P.; Faraggi, B.

    2005-10-15

    This book presents in a theoretical and practical way all the aspects of photovoltaic conversion technology: insolation and solar radiation, solar cells and energy storage, photovoltaic energy uses, and some simple examples of realizations with solar cells and solar panels. (J.S.)

  8. Reducing fuel usage through applications of conservation and solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, E. K.; Hooker, D. W.

    1980-04-01

    Solar thermal technology, coupled with aggressive conservation measures, offers the prospect of greatly reducing the dependence of industry on oil and natural gas. The near-term market for solar technology is largely in industrial processes operating at temperatures below 288/sup 0/C (550/sup 0/F). Such process heat can be supplied by the relatively unsophisticated solar equipment available today. The number and diversity of industrial plants using process heat at this temperature allows favorable matches between solar technologies and industrial processes. The problems involved with the installation and maintenance of conservation and solar equipment are similar. Both compete for scarce investment capital, and each complicates industrial operations and increases maintenance requirements. Technological innovations requiring new types of equipment and reducing the temperature requirements of industrial processes favor the introduction of solar hardware. The industrial case studies program at the Solar Energy Research Institute has examined technical, economic, and other problems facing the near-term application of solar thermal technology to provide industrial process heat. The plant engineer is in the front line of any measure to reduce energy consumption or to supplement existing fuel supplies. The conditions most favorable to the integration of solar technology are presented and illustrated with examples from actual industrial plants.

  9. Renewable Energy: Solar Fuels GRC and GRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Nathan [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Gray, Nancy Ryan [Gordon Research Conferences, West Kingston, RI (United States)

    2010-02-26

    sources from a carbon-neutral source. Sunlight is by far the most abundant global carbon-neutral energy resource. More solar energy strikes the surface of the earth in one hour than is obtained from all of the fossil fuels consumed globally in a year. Sunlight may be used to power the planet. However, it is intermittent, and therefore it must be converted to electricity or stored chemical fuel to be used on a large scale. The 'grand challenge' of using the sun as a future energy source faces daunting challenges - large expanses of fundamental science and technology await discovery. A viable solar energy conversion scheme must result in a 10-50 fold decrease in the cost-to-efficiency ratio for the production of stored fuels, and must be stable and robust for a 20-30 year period. To reduce the cost of installed solar energy conversion systems to $0.20/peak watt of solar radiation, a cost level that would make them economically attractive in today's energy market, will require revolutionary technologies. This GRC seeks to present a forum for the underlying science needed to permit future generations to use the sun as a renewable and sustainable primary energy source. Speakers will discuss recent advances in homoogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis of multi-electron transfer processes of importance to solar fuel production, such as water oxidation and reduction, and carbon dioxide reduction. Speakers will also discuss advances in scaleably manufacturable systems for the capture and conversion of sunlight into electrical charges that can be readily coupled into, and utilized for, fuel production in an integrated system.

  10. Solar power generation technology, new concepts & policy

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, P Jayarama

    2012-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the current state of affairs in the field of solar power engineering from a global perspective. In four parts, this well-researched volume informs about (1) established solar PV (photovoltaic) technologies; (2) third-generation PV technologies based on new materials with potential for low-cost large-scale production; (3) solar cell technology based on new (third-generation) concepts such as quantum dot solar cells and nano wire solar cells using silicon and compound semiconductors; and (4) economic implications and effects, as well as policies and incentives i

  11. Forecasting the Development of Different Solar Cell Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Arturo Morales-Acevedo; Gaspar Casados-Cruz

    2013-01-01

    Solar cells are made of several materials and device structures with the main goal of having maximum efficiency at low cost. Some types of solar cells have shown a rapid efficiency progress whereas others seem to remain constant as a consequence of different factors such as the technological and economic ones. Using information published by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) about the increase of solar cells record efficiency, we apply a simple mathematical model to estimate the ...

  12. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program TPP Final Report - A Value Chain Partnership to Accelerate U.S. PV Industry Growth, GE Global Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Tolliver; Danielle Merfeld; Charles Korman; James Rand; Tom McNulty; Neil Johnson; Dennis Coyle

    2009-07-31

    General Electric’s (GE) DOE Solar Energy Technologies TPP program encompassesd development in critical areas of the photovoltaic value chain that affected the LCOE for systems in the U.S. This was a complete view across the value chain, from materials to rooftops, to identify opportunities for cost reductions in order to realize the Department of Energy’s cost targets for 2010 and 2015. GE identified a number of strategic partners with proven leadership in their respective technology areas to accelerate along the path to commercialization. GE targeted both residential and commercial rooftop scale systems. To achieve these goals, General Electric and its partners investigated three photovoltaic pathways that included bifacial high-efficiency silicon cells and modules, low-cost multicrystalline silicon cells and modules and flexible thin film modules. In addition to these technologies, the balance of system for residential and commercial installations were also investigated. Innovative system installation strategies were pursed as an additional avenue for cost reduction.

  13. Status note on solar cell technology; Statusnotat om solcelleteknologi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This status note briefly describes development and perspectives for solar cell technology internationally and nationally. The note will form part of the background for a coming proposal for a national solar cell strategy. The strategy will be prepared by the Danish Energy Authority in collaboration with the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation, Elkraft System, Eltra, representatives from the industry and others. The proposal is expected to give an overall picture of Danish R and D niches and opportunities within solar cell technology. (BA)

  14. Drying and energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, A

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of essential topics related to conventional and advanced drying and energy technologies, especially motivated by increased industry and academic interest. The main topics discussed are: theory and applications of drying, emerging topics in drying technology, innovations and trends in drying, thermo-hydro-chemical-mechanical behaviors of porous materials in drying, and drying equipment and energy. Since the topics covered are inter- and multi-disciplinary, the book offers an excellent source of information for engineers, energy specialists, scientists, researchers, graduate students, and leaders of industrial companies. This book is divided into several chapters focusing on the engineering, science and technology applied in essential industrial processes used for raw materials and products.

  15. Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 1: Solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The utilization of solar energy to meet the energy needs of the U.S. is discussed. Topics discussed include: availability of solar energy, solar energy collectors, heating for houses and buildings, solar water heater, electric power generation, and ocean thermal power.

  16. NEMO: Advanced energy systems and technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, P.

    In this report, the contents and major results of the national research program on advanced energy system and technologies (NEMO) are presented. The NEMO-program was one of the energy research programs of the Ministry of Trade and Industry during 1988-1992. Helsinki University of Technology had the responsibility of the overall coordination of the program. NEMO has been the largest resource allocation into advanced energy systems in Finland so far. The total budget was 70 million FIM. The focus of the program has been in solar energy, wind power, and energy storage. Hydrogen and fuel cells have been included in smaller amount. On all major fields of the NEMO-program, useful and high quality results have been obtained. Results of international significance include among others arctic wind energy, new approaches for the energy storage problem in solar energy applications, and the development of a completely new storage battery. International collaboration has been given high priority. The NEMO-program has also been active in informing the industries of the various business and utilization possibilities that advanced energy technologies offer. For example, major demonstration plants of each technology group have been realized. It is recommended that the further R and D should be still more focused on commercial applications. Through research efforts at universities, a good technology base should be maintained, whereas the industries should take a stronger position in commercializing new technology. Parallel to technology R and D, more public resources should be allocated for market introduction.

  17. Annual review of solar energy. Period of review: 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-10-01

    A general review of national solar energy programs is provided. An executive summary and a brief history of the Federal solar energy program are presented. The issues and implications of the National Energy Plan that relate to solar energy development ae discussed. An overview is provided of the present Federal solar energy program, including the activities of several Federal agencies outside the Department of Energy. Some of the non-Federal solar energy programs ae reviewed, including international programs in which the U.S. has some role, programs of state and local governments, college and university programs, the work of private industry, and individual and small scale activities. A synposis of the major categories of solar technology is provided. Each chapter discusses a particular technology area and includes a basic technological description; a summary of the goals and activities of the Federal R and D program for the technology; significant events and development of the past year; and a brief overview of problems, uncertainties, and dissenting views. Three appendices include a synopsis of major energy events of 1977; a glossary of technical terms, abbreviations, and acronyms, and a table of conversion factors. (MHR)

  18. From Solar Cookers Towards Viable Solar Cooking Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Bashir

    1997-01-01

    A broader concept of technology encompassing the technical and the societal aspects is introduced. Viability of technology and technological development process from a socio-technical view- point is discussed. Based on the above, the question of securing viability of solar cooking technology...... is taken up. It is discussed that actor- approach can operationally relate the abstract societal factors with those of technical aspects. Some concrete measures regarding application of solar cooker projects are drawn from the discussion: solar cooking projects should a) be based on user and producer...

  19. Water Desalination Systems Powered by Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barseghyan, A.

    2015-12-01

    The supply of potable water from polluted rivers, lakes, unsafe wells, etc. is a problem of high priority. One of the most effective methods to obtain low cost drinking water is desalination. Advanced water treatment system powered by Solar Energy and based on electrodialysis for water desalination and purification, is suggested. Technological and economic evaluations and the benefits of the suggested system are discussed. The Advanced Water Treatment System proposed clears water not only from different salts, but also from some infections, thus decreasing the count of diseases which are caused by the usage of non-clear water. Using Solar Energy makes the system stand alone which is convenient to use in places where power supply is problem.

  20. Full environmental life cycle cost analysis of concentrating solar power technology: contribution of externalities to overall energy costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corona, B.; Cerrajero, E.; San Miguel, G.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the use of Full Environmental Life Cycle Costing (FeLCC) methodology to evaluate the economic performance of a 50 MW parabolic trough Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plant operating in hybrid mode with different natural gas inputs (between 0% and 30%). The analy

  1. Full environmental life cycle cost analysis of concentrating solar power technology: contribution of externalities to overall energy costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corona, B.; Cerrajero, E.; San Miguel, G.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the use of Full Environmental Life Cycle Costing (FeLCC) methodology to evaluate the economic performance of a 50 MW parabolic trough Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plant operating in hybrid mode with different natural gas inputs (between 0% and 30%). The

  2. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Wormser Columbia, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Energy System is not economically beneficial under the assumed economic conditions at the sites considered. Economic benefits from this system depend on decreasing the initial investment and the continued increase in the cost of conventional energy. Decreasing the cost depends on favorable tax treatment and continuing development of solar energy technology. Fuel cost would have to increase drastically while the cost of the system would have to remain constant or decrease for the system to become economically feasible.

  3. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R.B.; Bathgate, M.B.; Crawford, R.B.; McCaleb, C.S.; Prono, J.K. (eds.)

    1976-05-01

    The chief objective of LLL's biomedical and environmental research program is to enlarge mankind's understanding of the implications of energy-related chemical and radioactive effluents in the biosphere. The effluents are studied at their sources, during transport through the environment, and at impact on critical resources, important ecosystems, and man himself. We are pursuing several projects to acquire such knowledge in time to guide the development of energy technologies toward safe, reasonable, and optimal choices.

  4. Increased use of solar energy in commercial buildings by integrating energy storage.

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Nina

    2016-01-01

    From a comparison of available thermal energy storage (TES) technologies it can be concluded that the most mature and suitable storage methods for modern commercial buildings in Sweden are storage tanks, either for heat or cold energy, and underground storage solutions such as borehole thermal energy storage (BTES), aquifer storage and energy piles. In this study an integrated solar energy storage system for heating purpose has been designed with BTES, hot water storage tank(s) and solar ther...

  5. Solar energy utilization by physical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M

    1974-04-19

    On the basis of the estimated contributions of these differing methods of the utilization of solar energy, their total energy delivery impact on the projected U.S. energy economy (9) can be evaluated (Fig. 5). Despite this late energy impact, the actual sales of solar energy utilization equipment will be significant at an early date. Potential sales in photovoltaic arrays alone could exceed $400 million by 1980, in order to meet the projected capacity buildup (10). Ultimately, the total energy utilization equipment industry should attain an annual sales volume of several tens of billion dollars in the United States, comparable to that of several other energy related industries. Varying amounts of technology development are required to assure the technical and economic feasibility of the different solar energy utilization methods. Several of these developments are far enough along that the paths can be analyzed from the present time to the time of demonstration of technical and economic feasibility, and from there to production and marketing readiness. After that point, a period of market introduction will follow, which will differ in duration according to the type of market addressed. It may be noted that the present rush to find relief from the current energy problem, or to be an early leader in entering a new market, can entail shortcuts in sound engineering practice, particularly in the areas of design for durability and easy maintenance, or of proper application engineering. The result can be loss of customer acceptance, as has been experienced in the past with various products, including solar water heaters. Since this could cause considerable delay in achieving the expected total energy impact, it will be important to spend adequate time at this stage for thorough development. Two other aspects are worth mentioning. The first is concerned with the economic impacts. Upon reflection on this point, one will observe that largescale solar energy utilization will

  6. Wuestite - a solar energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenkaff, A.; Nueesch, P.; Wokaun, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Reller, A. [Hamburg Univ., Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    Hydrogen is produced when Wuestite (Fe{sub 1-y}O) is oxidised by water. This reaction is part of a two-step thermochemical metal oxide cycle for the storage of solar energy in the form of chemical energy carriers, characterised by a high chemical potential. The reaction was studied in a tubular furnace with on-line gas analysis and further characterised in detail by DTA und high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction. The influence of non-stoichiometry, morphology and temperature on the mechanism and kinetics of the water-splitting reaction was determined. (author) 3 figs., tabs., 3 refs.

  7. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory publishes the Energy and Technology Review Monthly. This periodical reviews progress mode is selected programs at the laboratory. This issue includes articles on in-situ coal gasification, on chromosomal aberrations in human sperm, on high speed cell sorting and on supercomputers.

  8. Nuclear energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buden, David

    1992-01-01

    An overview of space nuclear energy technologies is presented. The development and characteristics of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) and space nuclear power reactors are discussed. In addition, the policy and issues related to public safety and the use of nuclear power sources in space are addressed.

  9. Energy efficient and solar construction. Themes 2008; Energieeffizientes und solares Bauen. Themen 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadermann, Gerd (ed.)

    2009-04-15

    Within the annual meeting of the Renewable Energy Research Association (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) at 29th to 30th September, 2008, the lectures were held to the following themes: (a) Energy efficient and solar construction - a change of paradigm; (b) Revolution in construction technology; (c) Energetic sanitation of old buildings; (d) Innovative technologies of energy supply; (e) Integrated facility management; (f) Demonstration and practice of new technologies; (g) Market, politics, and sustainability.

  10. Flexible implementation of rigid solar cell technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollowell, Andrew E.

    2010-08-01

    As a source of clean, remote energy, photovoltaic (PV) systems are an important area of research. The majority of solar cells are rigid materials with negligible flexibility. Flexible PV systems possess many advantages, such as being transportable and incorporable on diverse structures. Amorphous silicon and organic PV systems are flexible; however, they lack the efficiency and lifetime of rigid cells. There is also a need for PV systems that are light weight, especially in space and flight applications. We propose a solution to this problem by arranging rigid cells onto a flexible substrate creating efficient, light weight, and flexible devices. To date, we have created a working prototype of our design using the 1.1cm x 1cm Emcore cells. We have achieved a better power to weight ratio than commercially available PowerFilm{reg_sign}, which uses thin film silicon yielding .034W/gram. We have also tested our concept with other types of cells and verified that our methods are able to be adapted to any rigid solar cell technology. This allows us to use the highest efficiency devices despite their physical characteristics. Depending on the cell size we use, we can rival the curvature of most available flexible PV devices. We have shown how the benefits of rigid solar cells can be integrated into flexible applications, allowing performance that surpasses alternative technologies.

  11. The solar energy belongs to the heat set. Renewable heating technology; Die Sonne gehoert ins Heizpaket. Erneuerbare Heiztechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-07-01

    Throw away the patchwork. The producers increasingly combine several sources of energy in a plant. The goal: lower energy consumption and a better climate protection. The contribution under consideration presents six combined solutions.

  12. Application of Solar Energy to Air Conditioning Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M, Nash J; J, Harstad A

    1976-11-01

    The results of a survey of solar energy system applications of air conditioning are summarized. Techniques discussed are both solar powered (absorption cycle and the heat engine/ Rankine cycle) and solar related (heat pump). Brief descriptions of the physical implications of various air conditioning techniques, discussions of status, proposed technological improvements, methods of utilization and simulation models are presented, along with an extensive bibliography of related literature.

  13. Application of solar energy to air conditioning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, J. M.; Harstad, A. J.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a survey of solar energy system applications of air conditioning are summarized. Techniques discussed are both solar powered (absorption cycle and the heat engine/Rankine cycle) and solar related (heat pump). Brief descriptions of the physical implications of various air conditioning techniques, discussions of status, proposed technological improvements, methods of utilization and simulation models are presented, along with an extensive bibliography of related literature.

  14. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

  15. From Molecular Electronics to Solar Thermal Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stine Tetzschner

    The Sun's signicant resource potential provides a solution for the world's increasing energy demand in a sustainable and responsible manner. However, the intrinsic property of the on-o cycles of the solar irradiation, i.e. daynight, sunny-cloudy, and summer-winter, constitutes a signicant challenge...... for the utilization of solar energy. An eective technology for storing the solar energy is required. This thesis focuses on solar thermal energy storage in molecules, since it oers a very compact and eective storage method. The rst chapter after the introduction of the thesis, chapter two, introduces the fundamental...... properties of the molecule, i.e. the electronic behaviour of the molecule in dierent environments, which is a key property for investigations of solar energy storage. The main focus of the research is on the electron transport in the Coulomb blockade regime. The third chapter goes into the challenge...

  16. Technology Roadmaps: Solar Heating and Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The solar heating and cooling (SHC) roadmap outlines a pathway for solar energy to supply almost one sixth (18 EJ) of the world’s total energy use for both heating and cooling by 2050. This would save some 800 megatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year; more than the total CO2 emissions in Germany in 2009. While solar heating and cooling today makes a modest contribution to world energy demand, the roadmap envisages that if concerted action is taken by governments and industry, solar energy could annually produce more than 16% of total final energy use for low temperature heat and nearly 17% for cooling. Given that global energy demand for heat represents almost half of the world’s final energy use – more than the combined global demand for electricity and transport – solar heat can make a significant contribution in both tackling climate change and strengthening energy security.

  17. Technology Roadmaps: Solar Heating and Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    The solar heating and cooling (SHC) roadmap outlines a pathway for solar energy to supply almost one sixth (18 EJ) of the world's total energy use for both heating and cooling by 2050. This would save some 800 megatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year; more than the total CO2 emissions in Germany in 2009. While solar heating and cooling today makes a modest contribution to world energy demand, the roadmap envisages that if concerted action is taken by governments and industry, solar energy could annually produce more than 16% of total final energy use for low temperature heat and nearly 17% for cooling. Given that global energy demand for heat represents almost half of the world's final energy use -- more than the combined global demand for electricity and transport -- solar heat can make a significant contribution in both tackling climate change and strengthening energy security.

  18. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.P.; Hagstroem, M.T.; Lund, P.H. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics; Leppaenen, J.R.; Nieminen, J.P. [Neste Oy (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Hydrogen based energy storage options for solar energy systems was studied in order to improve their overall performance. A 1 kW photovoltaic hydrogen (PV-H2) pilot-plant and commercial prototype were constructed and a numerical simulation program H2PHOTO for system design and optimisation was developed. Furthermore, a comprehensive understanding of conversion (electrolysers and fuel cells) and storage (metal hydrides) technologies was acquired by the project partners. The PV-H{sub 2} power system provides a self-sufficient solution for applications in remote locations far from electric grids and maintenance services. (orig.)

  19. Long-term goals for solar thermal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, T.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Brown, D.R.

    1985-05-01

    This document describes long-term performance and cost goals for three solar thermal technologies. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) developed these goals in support of the Draft Five Year Research and Development Plan for the National Solar Thermal Technology Program (DOE 1984b). These technology goals are intended to provide targets that, if met, will lead to the widespread use of solar thermal technologies in the marketplace. Goals were developed for three technologies and two applications: central receiver and dish technologies for utility-generated electricity applications, and central receiver, dish, and trough technologies for industrial process heat applications. These technologies and applications were chosen because they are the primary technologies and applications that have been researched by DOE in the past. System goals were developed through analysis of future price projections for energy sources competing with solar thermal in the middle-to-late 1990's time frame. The system goals selected were levelized energy costs of $0.05/kWh for electricity and $9/MBtu for industrial process heat (1984 $). Component goals established to meet system goals were developed based upon projections of solar thermal component performance and cost which could be achieved in the same time frame.

  20. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for earth science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A teaching manual is provided to aid teachers in introducing renewable energy topics to earth science students. The main emphasis is placed on solar energy. Activities for the student include a study of the greenhouse effect, solar gain for home heating, measuring solar radiation, and the construction of a model solar still to obtain fresh water. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate a solar still, the greenhouse effect and measurement of the altitude and azimuth of the sun are included. (BCS)

  1. CURRENT TRENDS IN THE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanya Zhivkova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy represents the amount of solar radiation per unit time on unit area. Solar energy is used to obtain thermal energy through solar, and electrical energy through exist for solar energy: passive and active. The utilization of solar energy is essential for the development of human civilization.

  2. Solar-energy storage-systems analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, R W

    1981-04-01

    Systems analysis activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) related to energy storage in solar applications are described, and the purpose, methods and, where available, the results of each study are summarized. Areas of investigation include storage of electrical and thermal energy in solar total energy systems, a theoretical investigation of the value of storage, and the national fuel displacement potential of semi-passive solar storage walls. Investigations of the cost effectiveness of a spectrum of passive solar storage devices and the value of several possible improvements in these devices constitutes BNL's contribution to the Solar Applications Analysis for Energy Storage (SAAES) project.

  3. Directed-energy process technology efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, P.

    1985-06-01

    A summary of directed-energy process technology for solar cells was presented. This technology is defined as directing energy or mass to specific areas on solar cells to produce a desired effect in contrast to exposing a cell to a thermal or mass flow environment. Some of these second generation processing techniques are: ion implantation; microwave-enhanced chemical vapor deposition; rapid thermal processing; and the use of lasers for cutting, assisting in metallization, assisting in deposition, and drive-in of liquid dopants. Advantages of directed energy techniques are: surface heating resulting in the bulk of the cell material being cooler and unchanged; better process control yields; better junction profiles, junction depths, and metal sintering; lower energy consumption during processing and smaller factory space requirements. These advantages should result in higher-efficiency cells at lower costs. The results of the numerous contracted efforts were presented as well as the application potentials of these new technologies.

  4. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowers, I.F.; Crawford, R.B.; Esser, M.A.; Lien, P.L.; O' Neal, E.; Van Dyke, P. (eds.)

    1982-07-01

    The state of the laboratory address by LLNL Director Roger Batzel is summarized, and a breakdown of the laboratory funding is given. The Livermore defense-related committment is described, including the design and development of advanced nuclear weapons as well as research in inertial confinement fusion, nonnuclear ordnance, and particle beam technology. LLNL is also applying its scientific and engineering resources to the dual challenge of meeting future energy needs without degrading the quality of the biosphere. Some representative examples are given of the supporting groups vital for providing the specialized expertise and new technologies required by the laboratory's major research programs. (GHT)

  5. Energy conservation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtright, H.A. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The conservation of energy through the efficiency improvement of existing end-uses and the development of new technologies to replace less efficient systems is an important component of the overall effort to reduce greenhouse gases which may contribute to global climate change. Even though uncertainties exist on the degree and causes of global warming, efficiency improvements in end-use applications remain in the best interest of utilities, their customers and society because efficiency improvements not only reduce environmental exposures but also contribute to industrial productivity, business cost reductions and consumer savings in energy costs.

  6. Research and development of utilization technology of solar thermal energy system for industrial and other use. Research and development of solar system (investigation of popular type snow melting systems); Sangyoyo nado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Solar system no chosa kenkyu (fukyugata yusetsu system no kenkyu chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takita, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for investigation for popular type snow melting systems using solar energy. Two types of technologies are proposed to utilize solar energy for snow melting in winter and create comfortable environments. One is combined (active plus passive) type, which transfers solar heat it collects by the whole wall surfaces to an attic to heat it totally, and makes the whole roof as a radiator to melt snow. However, heat radiated from the roof is insufficient to melt all snow on the roof, allowing it to remain to an extent that it works as an insulator. The other is active type, which transfers heat it collects by the collector to the heat storage tank, from which heat is extracted in winter for various purposes, including snow melting. Such a system must store heat for an extended period, for which a highly insulating heat storage tank is proposed to balance capacity of heat storage between seasons and building size.

  7. Solar breeder: Energy payback time for silicon photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindmayer, J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy expenditures of the prevailing manufacturing technology of terrestrial photovoltaic cells and panels were evaluated, including silicon reduction, silicon refinement, crystal growth, cell processing and panel building. Energy expenditures include direct energy, indirect energy, and energy in the form of equipment and overhead expenses. Payback times were development using a conventional solar cell as a test vehicle which allows for the comparison of its energy generating capability with the energies expended during the production process. It was found that the energy payback time for a typical solar panel produced by the prevailing technology is 6.4 years. Furthermore, this value drops to 3.8 years under more favorable conditions. Moreover, since the major energy use reductions in terrestrial manufacturing have occurred in cell processing, this payback time directly illustrates the areas where major future energy reductions can be made -- silicon refinement, crystal growth, and panel building.

  8. Introductory guide to solar energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cawood, WN

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available an extra tank to pre-heat the water supplied to the geyser. Solar water heaters can also be added to a system where an appliance such as a solid fuel stove or gas water heater is employed, with a useful saving in fuel. The following diagrams illustrate... were imminent. From what was said earlier it is obvious that the sun must eventually supply most of the earth's energy needs. In several parts of the world hot air engines that take their heat from the sun are in use to drive water pumps. One...

  9. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, P.S. (ed.)

    1983-06-01

    Research activities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are described in the Energy and Technology Review. This issue includes articles on measuring chromosome changes in people exposed to cigarette smoke, sloshing-ion experiments in the tandem mirror experiment, aluminum-air battery development, and a speech by Edward Teller on national defense. Abstracts of the first three have been prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  10. Use of solar energy to produce process heat for industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.

    1980-04-01

    The role of solar energy in supplying heat and hot water to residential and commercial buildings is familiar. On the other hand, the role that solar energy may play in displacing imported energy supplies in the industrial and utility sectors often goes unrecognized. The versatility of solar technology lends itself well to applications in industry; particularly to the supplemental supply of process heat of all kinds. The realization of that potential will depend, however, on the identification of the most suitable applications and locations for industrial solar energy and the continued improvement in cost, durability, and reliability of solar equipment. The status of solar thermal technology for industrial process heat applications is surveyed, including a description of current costs and operating histories. Because the current status is unsatisfactory in view of the goals established by President Carter for solar industrial energy, the most important objectives to be met in improving system performance, reducing cost, and identifying markets for solar IPH are outlined. The effect of government tax policy will be of little impact until technical efficiency and cost effectiveness are significantly improved.

  11. Wind energy technology developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Hauge; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2014-01-01

    turbine blades and towers are very large series-produced components, which costs and quality are strongly dependent on the manufacturing methods. The industrial wind energy sector is well developed in Denmark, and the competitive advantage of the Danish sector and the potential for job creation......This chapter describes the present mainstream development of the wind turbine technology at present. The turbine technology development trend is characterized by up-scaling to turbines with larger capacity for both onshore and offshore applications, larger rotors and new drivetrain solution......, including the direct-drive solution without gearbox. The technology solutions are strongly influenced by the development of the international industry with a global market for components and a trend towards a “shared” development effort in collaboration between the OEM’s and component sub-suppliers. Wind...

  12. Basic research needs in seven energy-related technologies, conservation, conversion, transmission and storage, environmental fission, fossil, geothermal, and solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    This volume comprises seven studies performed by seven groups at seven national laboratories. The laboratories were selected because of their assigned lead roles in research pertaining to the respective technologies. Researches were requested to solicit views of other workers in the fields.

  13. Federal technology alert. Parabolic-trough solar water heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    Parabolic-trough solar water heating is a well-proven renewable energy technology with considerable potential for application at Federal facilities. For the US, parabolic-trough water-heating systems are most cost effective in the Southwest where direct solar radiation is high. Jails, hospitals, barracks, and other facilities that consistently use large volumes of hot water are particularly good candidates, as are facilities with central plants for district heating. As with any renewable energy or energy efficiency technology requiring significant initial capital investment, the primary condition that will make a parabolic-trough system economically viable is if it is replacing expensive conventional water heating. In combination with absorption cooling systems, parabolic-trough collectors can also be used for air-conditioning. Industrial Solar Technology (IST) of Golden, Colorado, is the sole current manufacturer of parabolic-trough solar water heating systems. IST has an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract with the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to finance and install parabolic-trough solar water heating on an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) basis for any Federal facility that requests it and for which it proves viable. For an ESPC project, the facility does not pay for design, capital equipment, or installation. Instead, it pays only for guaranteed energy savings. Preparing and implementing delivery or task orders against the IDIQ is much simpler than the standard procurement process. This Federal Technology Alert (FTA) of the New Technology Demonstration Program is one of a series of guides to renewable energy and new energy-efficient technologies.

  14. Closed landfills to solar energy power plants: Estimating the solar potential of closed landfills in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsell, Devon R.

    Solar radiation is a promising source of renewable energy because it is abundant and the technologies to harvest it are quickly improving. An ongoing challenge is to find suitable and effective areas to implement solar energy technologies without causing ecological harm. In this regard, one type of land use that has been largely overlooked for siting solar technologies is closed or soon to be closed landfills. Utilizing Geographic Information System (GIS) based solar modeling; this study makes an inventory of solar generation potential for such sites in the state of California. The study takes account of various site characteristics in relation to the siting needs of photovoltaic (PV) geomembrane and dish-Stirling technologies (e.g., size, topography, closing date, solar insolation, presence of landfill gas recovery projects, and proximity to transmission grids and roads). This study reaches the three principal conclusions. First, with an estimated annual solar electricity generation potential of 3.7 million megawatt hours (MWh), closed or soon to be closed landfill sites could provide an amount of power significantly larger than California's current solar electric generation. Secondly, the possibility of combining PV geomembrane, dish-Stirling, and landfill gas (LFG) to energy technologies at particular sites deserves further investigation. Lastly, there are many assumptions, challenges, and limitations in conducting inventory studies of solar potential for specific sites, including the difficulty in finding accurate data regarding the location and attributes of potential landfills to be analyzed in the study. Furthermore, solar modeling necessarily simplifies a complex phenomenon, namely incoming solar radiation. Additionally, site visits, while necessary for finding details of the site, are largely impractical for a large scale study.

  15. Biomimetic utilization of solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhabiev, T. S.; Shilov, Aleksandr E.

    2012-12-01

    The most interesting recent publications dealing with so-called artificial photosynthesis, i.e., the development of photocatalytic converters of solar energy to the chemical bond energy using the fundamental principles of natural oxygenic photosynthesis, are discussed. The key stages of photosynthesis that should be reproduced in the artificial converters include light harvesting and transport of the light quantum to reaction centres where photoinduced charge separation occurs to give elementary reducing agents and oxidants (electrons and holes). The dark catalytic reactions involving the elementary reducing agents and oxidants give stable end products, namely, dioxygen and carbohydrates in the natural photosynthesis or dioxygen and hydrogen in the artificial photosynthesis. The bibliography includes 99 references.

  16. Survey of state approaches to solar energy incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, S. B.

    1979-07-01

    A comprehensive survey is presented of state statutes designed to encourage the application of solar technology. A large majority of the states have enacted financial incentives designed to stimulate solar energy use. Commonly, these incentives include preferential property tax treatment of solar systems, and income tax benefits to solar users. There are a wide variety of other tax breaks as well, including excise and franchise tax incentives. Some states have recently developed loan or grant programs for solar installations. Other states have addressed aspects of real property and land-use planning law, which have served as barriers to either the installation of solar technology or access to sunlight. In addition to removing such obstacles as restrictive convenants and zoning limitations, the legislation of several states provides affirmative recognition of the potential of real property law to serve as a spur to solar development, through solar easements, planning and zoning, and public nuisance. A small number of states have legislated in the field of utility regulation, addressing important questions of (1) nondiscriminatory rates for utility backup to solar systems and public utility commissions, and (2) utility involvement in solar energy applicatons.

  17. Renewable energy-driven innovative energy-efficient desalination technologies

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2014-04-13

    Globally, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) desalinates the largest capacity of seawater but through energy-intensive thermal processes such as multi-stage flash (MSF) distillation (>10 kW h per m3 of desalinated water, including electrical and thermal energies). In other regions where fossil energy is more expensive and not subsidized, seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is the most common desalination technology but it is still energy-intensive (3-4 kW h_e/m3). Both processes therefore lead to the emission of significant amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Moreover, MSF and SWRO technologies are most often used for large desalination facilities serving urban centers with centralized water distribution systems and power grids. While renewable energy (RE) sources could be used to serve centralized systems in urban centers and thus provide an opportunity to make desalination greener, they are mostly used to serve rural communities off of the grid. In the KSA, solar and geothermal energy are of most relevance in terms of local conditions. Our group is focusing on developing new desalination processes, adsorption desalination (AD) and membrane distillation (MD), which can be driven by waste heat, geothermal or solar energy. A demonstration solar-powered AD facility has been constructed and a life cycle assessment showed that a specific energy consumption of <1.5 kW h_e/m3 is possible. An innovative hybrid approach has also been explored which would combine solar and geothermal energy using an alternating 12-h cycle to reduce the probability of depleting the heat source within the geothermal reservoir and provide the most effective use of RE without the need for energy storage. This paper highlights the use of RE for desalination in KSA with a focus on our group\\'s contribution in developing innovative low energy-driven desalination technologies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Organoruthenium Complexes for Solar Energy Harvesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wadman, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges of this time is providing the world with the energy it needs to sustain human kind's current standard of living. Solar energy is the most abundant and ubiquitous renewable energy source available, and as such it holds great promises. Traditionally, the field of solar e

  19. The thermodynamic solar energy; Le solaire thermodynamique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivoire, B. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS-IMP), 66 - Perpignan (France)

    2002-04-01

    The thermodynamic solar energy is the technic in the whole aiming to transform the solar radiation energy in high temperature heat and then in mechanical energy by a thermodynamic cycle. These technic are most often at an experimental scale. This paper describes and analyzes the research programs developed in the advanced countries, since 1980. (A.L.B.)

  20. Combined solar collector and energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R. N. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

  1. Technology simulation set: Multi-layered glazing. A part of an IEA working document. IEA Task 13 ``Advanced solar low-energy buildings``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittchen, K.B.

    1992-12-31

    This report gives an overview and some hints about the possibilities for simulating multi-layered glazing systems in building simulation programs. The thermal and optical processes taking part in the energy transport through a window are discussed in separate sections in this report. Most programs calculate the losses through a window in a routine differing from the routine calculating the gains through a window as these are two completely different physical processes that describe the two types of energy transport. The part of the window-model dealing with gains from transmitted solar energy is the one which is subject to the largest uncertainties in the simple routines which most programs use. Therefore, this problem is given the major emphasis in this report. The work is meant as a support to the IEA task XIII ``Advanced Solar Low-Energy Buildings`` for simulating advanced and innovative energy conservation features in future buildings. (au)

  2. Solar Energy Cell with Rare Earth Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Baojun; Yang Tao; Zhou Yao; Zhou Meng; Fu Xiliang; Fu Li

    2004-01-01

    The characteristic of the solar energy cell with the rare earth film according to theory of molecular structure was introduced.When sunlight shines, the molecules of the rare earth film can absorb energy of the photon and jump to the excited state from the basic state, and play a role in storing solar energy.When sunlight do not shine, the electron of the excited state returns to the basic state, the rare earth film can automatically give out light and shine to surface of the solar cell, which can make solar cell continuously generate electric current.The rare earth film can absorb direct,scattering sunlight, and increase density of solar energy to reach surface of the solar cell, and play focusing function.The rare earth film can bear 350 ~ 500 ℃, which make the solar cell be able to utilize the focusing function system.Because after luminescence of the rare earth film, it can release again the absorbed solar energy through 1 ~ 8 h, and play a role in storing solar energy; The solar cell with the rare-earth film can generate electricity during night and cloudy days, and remarkably increase efficiency of the solar cell.

  3. Facing technological challenges of Solar Updraft Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, F.; Borri, C.; Harte, R.; Krätzig, W. B.; Niemann, H.-J.

    2015-01-01

    The Solar Updraft Power Plant technology addresses a very challenging idea of combining two kinds of renewable energy: wind and solar. The working principle is simple: a Solar Updraft Power Plant (SUPP) consists of a collector area to heat the air due to the wide-banded ultra-violet solar radiation, the high-rise solar tower to updraft the heated air to the atmosphere, and in between the power conversion unit, where a system of coupled turbines and generators transforms the stream of heated air into electric power. A good efficiency of the power plant can only be reached with extra-large dimensions of the tower and/or the collector area. The paper presents an up-to-date review of the SUPP technology, focusing on the multi-physics modeling of the power plant, on the structural behavior of the tower and, last but not least, on the modeling of the stochastic wind loading process.

  4. The age of alternative energies: the current status of new energy technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Y.

    1986-01-01

    This paper outlines Japan's Sunshine Project and presents the current status of the principal research and development programs involved. These are as follows: 1) solar energy (solar photovoltaic power generation, solar energy systems for industrial use); 2) geothermal energy (technology for geothermal exploration and excavation, hydrothermal power generation, discovery of high-temperature rock); 3) coal energy (coal liquefaction and gasification technology); 4) hydrogen energy (technology for production, transport, storage and utilization of hydrogen); 5) others (wind power and ocean thermal power generation). 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Survey for making a data book on the new energy technological development. Waste-fueled power generation, solar heat utilization, geothermal power generation, clean energy vehicles, coal liquefaction/gasification, and traversal themes; Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa. Haikibutsu hatsuden, taiyonetsu riyo, chinetsu hatsuden, clean energy jidosha, sekitan ekika, gas ka oyobi odanteki tema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The paper concerns the following six fields among the fields of new energy technology: the waste-fueled power generation, solar heat utilization, geothermal power generation, clean energy vehicles, coal liquefaction and coal gasification. The up-to-date data made public were collected and classified into the following items: outline of systems, specific examples of the introduction in Japan and other countries, policies/laws and rules/subsidy systems, production quantity/actual amount of introduction/projected amount of introduction (target), cost, terminology, listing of main related companies and groups, etc. Further, arrangement was traversally conducted on the outlook of the energy introduction by the Japanese government and measures taken for development of new energy by Japan and other countries. Namely, the items of the book are as follows: classification of new energy, outlook for energy supply/demand, cost of new energy technology (power generation) and outlook for the introduction, menus of buying surplus electricity of electric companies, policies/laws and rules/subsidy systems concerning the new energy introduction in Japan and overseas, and a list of organizations engaged in the new energy technological development.

  6. The necessity of solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovejoy, D.

    1996-09-01

    The idea of limits to growth has, understandably, achieved notoriety since the days of Malthus and, more recently, the Club of Rome. However, there must be some limits to the ability of the Earth to sustain a growing population. Fortunately, population models suggest that the world`s population will probably level out at about two to three times the present numbers over the next hundred years. The question is whether the Earth`s resources are sufficient to sustain that population at a high standard of living for all. In this the key issue is energy. It is clear that present trends in energy consumption, especially oil, cannot be sustained much longer. Regardless of this, however, prudence demands a drastic reduction in fossil fuel consumption, in view of the possibility of global warming. It can be shown that, combined with greatly improved energy efficiency, a transition to a solar (renewable) energy based economy capable of sustaining the anticipated growth in the world economy, is possible, but the constraints are extremely tight. (Author)

  7. The Solar Energy Timetable. Worldwatch Paper 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Denis

    This publication proposes a timetable for converting the world economy to solar energy. The contents include: (1) A solar-powered world by 2025; (2) Heating and cooling; (3) Renewable fuels; (4) Electricity; (5) Getting there from here; and (6) Notes. Numerous facts are presented within these sections. International solar research programs are…

  8. Research and Development Needs for Building-Integrated Solar Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-01-01

    The Building Technologies Office (BTO) has identified Building Integrated Solar Technologies (BIST) as a potentially valuable piece of the comprehensive pathway to help achieve its goal of reducing energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings by 50% by the year 2030. This report helps to identify the key research and development (R&D) needs that will be required for BIST to make a substantial contribution toward that goal. BIST include technologies for space heating and cooling, water heating, hybrid photovoltaic-thermal systems (PV/T), active solar lighting, and building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV).

  9. False Dawn of a Solar Age: A History of Solar Heating and Power During the Energy Crisis, 1973-1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavo, Jordan Michael

    The unfolding of the energy crisis in the early 1970s brought solar to the fore as a topic for national discussion. National dialogues about solar power and national energy policy were one way that Americans interpreted their present and envisioned their nation's future. Yet, policy makers and the general public considered alternative energies, including solar, largely based on the economic conditions of their eras, considerations that, at least until the Reagan era, often transcended political ideologies and parties. Energy prices and the emerging political expediency of replacing fossil fuels were the primary drivers in shaping federal energy policies and public interest during this era. Enthusiasm for solar power often corresponded to the market price of petroleum. By the late 1970s, a lot of people believed the same. Amid growing public enthusiasm, President Carter eventually came out strongly in favor of solar energy, mounting solar panels on the White House and unveiling a plan to procure 20% of the nation's energy from the sun by the year 2000. During the 1960s and 1970s, Americans changed their energy values in response to concerns over environmentalism and the antinuclear movement. Pollution, environmental disasters, and energy crises during the 1960s and 1970s brought terms like "clean energy" and "renewable energy" into the national lexicon, and solar often served as the most prominent symbol of those ideas. At the same time, advocates presented solar as a stark contrast to nuclear: solar energy made life on earth possible; nuclear energy made it perilous. Science fiction and futurism shaped the American popular imagination through its presentation of solar technology. Each genre suffused the other and ingrained in the American national consciousness a sense of grandiose wonderment about the potential for solar energy, a potential that often did not match the contemporary applications for solar technology. The emergence of solar industries alarmed oil

  10. Department of Energy Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    I-AL95 6A4~LA 1 UWCL*SSZFZKD F/G LO/1 H?. . 12 113l2i 2 -lll 1 36 II IIlIg.- I1I25 11UG’-- 11.6 L 0 tRiso -R-559 Department of N Energy Technology...of neutron flux distribution and absolute thermal flux. - Neutron activation analysis . - Gamma spectroscopy with scintillation detector. - Measurements...Electric design, and a very detailed experimental program has been conduc’ed for the two first fuel cycles (General Electric, 1976 ), yielding a unique

  11. An Integrative STEM Aproach to Teaching Solar Energy Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Bill; Mona, Lynn; Stout, Heath; Bierly, Mike; McAninch, Steve

    2015-01-01

    "Against the backdrop of the daunting carbon-neutral energy needs of our global future, the largest gap between our present use of solar energy and its enormous undeveloped potential defines a compelling imperative for science and technology in the 21st century" (Lewis & Norcera 2006). Concurrently, the United States educational…

  12. An Integrative STEM Aproach to Teaching Solar Energy Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Bill; Mona, Lynn; Stout, Heath; Bierly, Mike; McAninch, Steve

    2015-01-01

    "Against the backdrop of the daunting carbon-neutral energy needs of our global future, the largest gap between our present use of solar energy and its enormous undeveloped potential defines a compelling imperative for science and technology in the 21st century" (Lewis & Norcera 2006). Concurrently, the United States educational…

  13. 太阳能供暖与制蒸馏水综合应用技术%Comprehensive application technology of solar energy heating and distilled water system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任胜义; 宋秀静

    2012-01-01

    在非供暖期,为了维护太阳能供暖系统的完好,避免太阳能集热器因干烧导致损坏,提出了一种太阳能供暖与制蒸馏水综合应用技术方案.通过对太阳能集热供暖设施进行技术改造,使太阳能集热装置在冬季用于建筑供暖,在非供暖期用于制蒸馏水,提高了太阳能集热系统的利用率.%During the non-heating period, in order to avoid the problem that the solar collectors are damaged due to the dry burning and maintain the integrity of the solar heating system, an integrated solution of applied technique is achieved to develop a solar heating system as well as a distilled water system. Through the technological innovation of the solar collector and heating facilities, the solar collector device can be used for building heating in winter and used for water distilling during non -heating period to improve the utilization of the solar collector system.

  14. Solar energy resources not accounted in Brazilian National Energy Balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Paulo Cesar da Costa [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: pinheiro@netuno.Lcc.ufmg.br, pinheiro@demec.ufmg.br

    2009-07-01

    The main development vector of a society is the energy. The solar energy is the main energy source on the planet earth. Brazil is a tropical country, and the incident solar energy on its soil (15 trillion MWh/year) is 20,000 times its annual oil production. Several uses of solar energy are part of our lives in a so natural way that it despised in the consumption and use energy balance. In Brazil, solar energy is used directly in many activities and not accounted for in Energy Balance (BEN 2007), consisting of a virtual power generation. This work aims to make a preliminary assessment of solar energy used in different segments of the Brazilian economy. (author)

  15. Annual highlights of the energy technology programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    The Energy Storage and Conversion Division reports summary activities in the following: electrolysis-based hydrogen energy storage systems; an electrochemically regenerative hydrogen--halogen energy storage system; fuel cells (materials and electrolysis); high temperature water electrolysis; hydrogen energy storage systems for automobile propulsion; program planning for research related to energy conservation; New York Energy Office oil retrofit pilot program; burner-boiler/furnace testing; and proposed programs. The Engineering Division reports on solar-assisted heat pump systems; solar cooling subsystems and systems; solar demonstration project in Northeast U.S.; hardware simulators for tests of solar cooling/heating systems; fossil-energy programs; catalytic process for conversion of synthesis gas to methanol; coal-fired heater; coal/oil mixture combustion; rotating fluidized bed containing limestone for removal of sulfur from hot gases; improved oil and gas burners; residue and waste fuels; and proposed programs. The Conservation Program Management Group reports on conservation program management; space conditioning, diagnostics, and controls technology for conservation in buildings; and energy conservation in residential buildings. Funding for 1978 and 1979 for each program is indicated. (MCW)

  16. Physical Limits of Solar Energy Conversion in the Earth System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidon, Axel; Miller, Lee; Gans, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy provides by far the greatest potential for energy generation among all forms of renewable energy. Yet, just as for any form of energy conversion, it is subject to physical limits. Here we review the physical limits that determine how much energy can potentially be generated out of sunlight using a combination of thermodynamics and observed climatic variables. We first explain how the first and second law of thermodynamics constrain energy conversions and thereby the generation of renewable energy, and how this applies to the conversions of solar radiation within the Earth system. These limits are applied to the conversion of direct and diffuse solar radiation - which relates to concentrated solar power (CSP) and photovoltaic (PV) technologies as well as biomass production or any other photochemical conversion - as well as solar radiative heating, which generates atmospheric motion and thus relates to wind power technologies. When these conversion limits are applied to observed data sets of solar radiation at the land surface, it is estimated that direct concentrated solar power has a potential on land of up to 11.6 PW (1 PW=10(15) W), whereas photovoltaic power has a potential of up to 16.3 PW. Both biomass and wind power operate at much lower efficiencies, so their potentials of about 0.3 and 0.1 PW are much lower. These estimates are considerably lower than the incoming flux of solar radiation of 175 PW. When compared to a 2012 primary energy demand of 17 TW, the most direct uses of solar radiation, e.g., by CSP or PV, have thus by far the greatest potential to yield renewable energy requiring the least space to satisfy the human energy demand. Further conversions into solar-based fuels would be reduced by further losses which would lower these potentials. The substantially greater potential of solar-based renewable energy compared to other forms of renewable energy simply reflects much fewer and lower unavoidable conversion losses when solar

  17. Conservation and solar energy program: congressional budget request, FY 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    Funding summaries are presented for the Conservation and Solar Energy Program funding information and program overview on energy conservation (Volume 7 of 7, DOE/CR-0011/2) are included for the Buildings and Community Systems, Industrial, Transportation; State and Local, Multi-Sector, Energy Impact Assistance, and Residential/Commercial retrofit programs. Funding information and program overviews on solar technology (Volume 2 of 7, DOE/CR-011/2) are included for Active and Passive Solar Heating and Cooling, Photovoltaics Energy Systems, Solar Thermal Power Systems, Biomass Energy Systems, Wind Energy Conversion Systems, Ocean Systems, Solar International Activities, Solar Information Systems, SERI Facility, MX-RES, Program Direction, and Alcohol Fuels programs. Information and overviews on energy production, demonstration, and distribution (Volume 6 of 7, DOE/CR-0011/2) are given for the solar program. A funding summary and a program overview are included for electrochemical and physical and chemical storage systems as appearing in DOE/CR-0011/2, Volume 3 of 7. Relevant tabulated data from the FY 1981. Request to the Congress are presented for Supplementals, Rescissions, and Deferrals. (MCW)

  18. Photovoltaics: A Solar Technology for Powering Tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavin, Christopher

    1983-01-01

    Photovoltaics, the technology that converts sunlight directly into electricity, may soon be a reliable power source for the world's poor. The one major challenge is cost reduction. Many topics are discussed, including solar powering the Third World, designing the solar building, investing in the sun, and the future of photovoltaics. (NW)

  19. Solar Sail Propulsion Technology at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Charles Les

    2007-01-01

    NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program developed the first generation of solar sail propulsion systems sufficient to accomplish inner solar system science and exploration missions. These first generation solar sails, when operational, will range in size from 40 meters to well over 100 meters in diameter and have an area density of less than 13 grams per square meter. A rigorous, multi-year technology development effort culminated in 2005 with the testing of two different 20-m solar sail systems under thermal vacuum conditions. This effort provided a number of significant insights into the optimal design and expected performance of solar sails as well as an understanding of the methods and costs of building and using them. In addition, solar sail orbital analysis tools for mission design were developed and tested. Laboratory simulations of the effects of long-term space radiation exposure were also conducted on two candidate solar sail materials. Detailed radiation and charging environments were defined for mission trajectories outside the protection of the earth's magnetosphere, in the solar wind environment. These were used in other analytical tools to prove the adequacy of sail design features for accommodating the harsh space environment. The presentation will describe the status of solar sail propulsion within NASA, near-term solar sail mission applications, and near-term plans for further development.

  20. Finnish energy technology programmes 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Finnish Technology Development Centre (Tekes) is responsible for the financing of research and development in the field of energy production technology. A considerable part of the financing goes to technology programmes. Each technology programme involves major Finnish institutions - companies, research institutes, universities and other relevant interests. Many of the energy technology programmes running in 1998 were launched collectively in 1993 and will be completed at the end of 1998. They are complemented by a number of other energy-related technology programmes, each with a timetable of its own. Because energy production technology is horizontal by nature, it is closely connected with research and development in other fields, too, and is an important aspect in several other Tekes technology programmes. For this reason this brochure also presents technology programmes where energy is only one of the aspects considered but which nevertheless contribute considerably to research and development in the energy production sector

  1. Modular High-Energy Systems for Solar Power Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Joe T.; Carrington, Connie K.; Marzwell, Neville I.; Mankins, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Modular High-Energy Systems are Stepping Stones to provide capabilities for energy-rich infrastructure located in space to support a variety of exploration scenarios as well as provide a supplemental source of energy during peak demands to ground grid systems. Abundant renewable energy at lunar or other locations could support propellant production and storage in refueling scenarios that enable affordable exploration. Renewable energy platforms in geosynchronous Earth orbits can collect and transmit power to satellites, or to Earth-surface locations. Energy-rich space technologies also enable the use of electric-powered propulsion systems that could efficiently deliver cargo and exploration facilities to remote locations. A first step to an energy-rich space infrastructure is a 100-kWe class solar-powered platform in Earth orbit. The platform would utilize advanced technologies in solar power collection and generation, power management and distribution, thermal management, electric propulsion, wireless avionics, autonomous in space rendezvous and docking, servicing, and robotic assembly. It would also provide an energy-rich free-flying platform to demonstrate in space a portfolio of technology flight experiments. This paper summary a preliminary design concept for a 100-kWe solar-powered satellite system to demonstrate in-flight a variety of advanced technologies, each as a separate payload. These technologies include, but are not limited to state-of-the-art solar concentrators, highly efficient multi-junction solar cells, integrated thermal management on the arrays, and innovative deployable structure design and packaging to enable the 100-kW satellite feasible to launch on one existing launch vehicle. Higher voltage arrays and power distribution systems (PDS) reduce or eliminate the need for massive power converters, and could enable direct-drive of high-voltage solar electric thrusters.

  2. Energy and Technology Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, W.J. [ed.

    1993-08-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was established in 1952 to do research on nuclear weapons and magnetic fusion energy. Since then, we other major programs have been added including laser fusion, and laser isotope separation, biomedical and environmental science, strategic defense and applied energy technology. These programs, in turn, require research in basic scientific disciplines, including chemistry and materials science, computer science and technology, engineering and physics. In this issue, Herald Brown, the Laboratory`s third director and now counselor at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, reminisces about his years at Livermore and comments about the Laboratory`s role in the future. Also an article on visualizing dynamic systems in three dimensions is presented. Researchers can use our interactive algorithms to translate massive quantities of numerical data into visual form and can assign the visual markers of their choice to represent three- dimensional phenomena in a two-dimensional setting, such as a monitor screen. Major work has been done in the visualization of climate modeling, but the algorithms can be used for visualizing virtually any phenomena.

  3. Nuclear Processes at Solar Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Broggini, C

    2003-01-01

    LUNA, Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics at Gran Sasso, is measuring fusion cross sections down to the energy of the nucleosynthesis inside stars. Outstanding results obtained up to now are the cross-section measurements within the Gamow peak of the Sun of $^{3}He(^{3}He,2p)^{4}He$ and the $D(p,\\gamma)^{3}He$. The former plays a big role in the proton-proton chain, largely affecting the calculated solar neutrino luminosity, whereas the latter is the reaction that rules the proto-star life during the pre-main sequence phase. The implications of such measurements will be discussed. Preliminary results obtained last year on the study of $^{14}N(p,\\gamma)^{15}O$, the slowest reaction of the CNO cycle, will also be shown.

  4. Solar Energy Generation in Three Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardi, Marco; Wan, Jin H; Villalon, Rachelle; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2011-01-01

    Optimizing the conversion of solar energy to electricity is central to the World's future energy economy. Flat photovoltaic panels are commonly deployed in residential and commercial rooftop installations without sun tracking systems and using simple installation guidelines to optimize solar energy collection. Large-scale solar energy generation plants use bulky and expensive sun trackers to avoid cosine losses from photovoltaic panels or to concentrate sunlight with mirrors onto heating fluids.[1,2] However, none of these systems take advantage of the three-dimensional nature of our biosphere, so that solar energy collection largely occurs on flat structures in contrast with what is commonly observed in Nature.[3,4] Here we formulate, solve computationally and study experimentally the problem of collecting solar energy in three-dimensions.[5] We demonstrate that absorbers and reflectors can be combined in the absence of sun tracking to build three-dimensional photovoltaic (3DPV) structures that can generate ...

  5. Solar energy education. Renewable energy activities for general science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Renewable energy topics are integrated with the study of general science. The literature is provided in the form of a teaching manual and includes such topics as passive solar homes, siting a home for solar energy, and wind power for the home. Other energy topics are explored through library research activities. (BCS)

  6. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    An instructional aid for teachers is presented that will allow biology students the opportunity to learn about renewable energy sources. Some of the school activities include using leaves as collectors of solar energy, solar energy stored in wood, and a fuel value test for green and dry woods. A study of organic wastes as a source of fuel is included. (BCS)

  7. Feasibility study. Solar energy in Norway; Mulighetsstudie. Solenergi i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Una; Bernhard, Peter; Salvesen, Fritjof; Bugge, Lars; Andresen, Inger; Simonsen, Ingeborg

    2011-07-01

    On behalf of Enova KanEnergi and SINTEF summarized the results of the project 'Feasibility study. Solar energy' in a report. The purpose of this report is to outline an overview of the potential for solar energy in Norway to be realized until 2020. This is a survey of the status of technology and associated costs related to energy production, as well as a description of the market conditions. This report is a contribution to Enova's ongoing strategy and development. (eb)

  8. Nanostructured Solar Irradiation Control Materials for Solar Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jinho; Marshall, I. A.; Torrico, M. N.; Taylor, C. R.; Ely, Jeffry; Henderson, Angel Z.; Kim, J.-W.; Sauti, G.; Gibbons, L. J.; Park, C.; Lowther, S. E.; Lillehei, P. T.; Bryant, R. G.

    2012-01-01

    Tailoring the solar absorptivity (alpha(sub s)) and thermal emissivity (epsilon(sub T)) of materials constitutes an innovative approach to solar energy control and energy conversion. Numerous ceramic and metallic materials are currently available for solar absorbance/thermal emittance control. However, conventional metal oxides and dielectric/metal/dielectric multi-coatings have limited utility due to residual shear stresses resulting from the different coefficient of thermal expansion of the layered materials. This research presents an alternate approach based on nanoparticle-filled polymers to afford mechanically durable solar-absorptive and thermally-emissive polymer nanocomposites. The alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) were measured with various nano inclusions, such as carbon nanophase particles (CNPs), at different concentrations. Research has shown that adding only 5 wt% CNPs increased the alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) by a factor of about 47 and 2, respectively, compared to the pristine polymer. The effect of solar irradiation control of the nanocomposite on solar energy conversion was studied. The solar irradiation control coatings increased the power generation of solar thermoelectric cells by more than 380% compared to that of a control power cell without solar irradiation control coatings.

  9. Role of Concentrating Solar Power in Integrating Solar and Wind Energy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.

    2015-06-03

    As wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) increase in penetration it is increasingly important to examine enabling technologies that can help integrate these resources at large scale. Concentrating solar power (CSP) when deployed with thermal energy storage (TES) can provide multiple services that can help integrate variable generation (VG) resources such as wind and PV. CSP with TES can provide firm, highly flexible capacity, reducing minimum generation constraints which limit penetration and results in curtailment. By acting as an enabling technology, CSP can complement PV and wind, substantially increasing their penetration in locations with adequate solar resource.

  10. No Photon Left Behind: Advanced Optics at ARPA-E for Buildings and Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branz, Howard M.

    2015-04-01

    Key technology challenges in building efficiency and solar energy utilization require transformational optics, plasmonics and photonics technologies. We describe advanced optical technologies funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy. Buildings technologies include a passive daytime photonic cooler, infra-red computer vision mapping for energy audit, and dual-band electrochromic windows based on plasmonic absorption. Solar technologies include novel hybrid energy converters that combine high-efficiency photovoltaics with concentrating solar thermal collection and storage. Because the marginal cost of thermal energy storage is low, these systems enable generation of inexpensive and dispatchable solar energy that can be deployed when the sun doesn't shine. The solar technologies under development include nanoparticle plasmonic spectrum splitting, Rugate filter interference structures and photovoltaic cells that can operate efficiently at over 400° C.

  11. Fiscal 1997 report on the survey for a data book on new energy technology development. Waste power generation, solar energy utilization. geothermal power generation, clean energy vehicles, coal liquefaction/gasification, and traverse themes; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa (haikibutsu hatsuden, taiyonetsu riyo, chinetsu hatsuden, clean energy jidosha, sekitan ekika gas ka oyobi odanteki theme)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper collected and arranged data on new energy technology. As to the waste power generation, in terms of general waste, 161 places have power generation facilities, 657,000 kW in output, as of the end of FY 1996. Out of them, 100 facilities (scale of output: 555,000 kW) are selling power. In terms of industrial waste, 53 places (209,000 kW) have power generation facilities. The output will be 2 million kW in FY 2000. In relation to the solar energy utilization, the number of solar systems introduced in FY 1996 is 25,000, that of water heating appliances produced in FY 1996 is 170,000. Geothermal power of 494,000 kW and 37,000 kW was introduced for electric power industry use and private use, respectively. Clean energy vehicles have not been so much spread, but the hybrid car was put on sale in 1997. Concerning the coal liquefaction, the R and D were made at a pilot plant of NEDOL process, and operation started in 1997. As to the coal gasification, investigational study and element study on the demonstration plant are being conducted in FY 1997 and 1998, making use of the research results obtained from the existing pilot plant of coal gasification combined power generation

  12. Solar energy grid integration systems : final report of the Florida Solar Energy Center Team.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropp, Michael (Northern Plains Power Technologies, Brookings, SD); Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Schaffer, Alan (Lakeland Electric Utilities, Lakeland, FL); Katz, Stanley (Satcon Technology Corporation, Boston, MA); Perkinson, Jim (Satcon Technology Corporation, Boston, MA); Bower, Ward Isaac; Prestero, Mark (Satcon Technology Corporation, Boston, MA); Casey, Leo (Satcon Technology Corporation, Boston, MA); Moaveni, Houtan (Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL); Click, David (Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL); Davis, Kristopher (Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL); Reedy, Robert (Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL); Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2012-03-01

    Initiated in 2008, the Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) program is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the program have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding utility-scale penetration and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the electric grid. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), its partners, and Sandia National Laboratories have successfully collaborated to complete the work under the third and final stage of the SEGIS initiative. The SEGIS program was a three-year, three-stage project that include conceptual design and market analysis in Stage 1, prototype development and testing in Stage 2, and moving toward commercialization in Stage 3. Under this program, the FSEC SEGIS team developed a comprehensive vision that has guided technology development that sets one methodology for merging photovoltaic (PV) and smart-grid technologies. The FSEC team's objective in the SEGIS project is to remove barriers to large-scale general integration of PV and to enhance the value proposition of photovoltaic energy by enabling PV to act as much as possible as if it were at the very least equivalent to a conventional utility power plant. It was immediately apparent that the advanced power electronics of these advanced inverters will go far beyond conventional power plants, making high penetrations of PV not just acceptable, but desirable. This report summarizes a three-year effort to develop, validate and commercialize Grid-Smart Inverters for wider photovoltaic utilization, particularly in the utility sector.

  13. Triplet-triplet annihilation photon-upconversion: towards solar energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Victor; Dzebo, Damir; Abrahamsson, Maria; Albinsson, Bo; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper

    2014-06-14

    Solar power production and solar energy storage are important research areas for development of technologies that can facilitate a transition to a future society independent of fossil fuel based energy sources. Devices for direct conversion of solar photons suffer from poor efficiencies due to spectrum losses, which are caused by energy mismatch between the optical absorption of the devices and the broadband irradiation provided by the sun. In this context, photon-upconversion technologies are becoming increasingly interesting since they might offer an efficient way of converting low energy solar energy photons into higher energy photons, ideal for solar power production and solar energy storage. This perspective discusses recent progress in triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) photon-upconversion systems and devices for solar energy applications. Furthermore, challenges with evaluation of the efficiency of TTA-photon-upconversion systems are discussed and a general approach for evaluation and comparison of existing systems is suggested.

  14. Organohalide Perovskites for Solar Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qianqian; Armin, Ardalan; Burn, Paul L; Meredith, Paul

    2016-03-15

    Lead-based organohalide perovskites have recently emerged as arguably the most promising of all next generation thin film solar cell technologies. Power conversion efficiencies have reached 20% in less than 5 years, and their application to other optoelectronic device platforms such as photodetectors and light emitting diodes is being increasingly reported. Organohalide perovskites can be solution processed or evaporated at low temperatures to form simple thin film photojunctions, thus delivering the potential for the holy grail of high efficiency, low embedded energy, and low cost photovoltaics. The initial device-driven "perovskite fever" has more recently given way to efforts to better understand how these materials work in solar cells, and deeper elucidation of their structure-property relationships. In this Account, we focus on this element of organohalide perovskite chemistry and physics in particular examining critical electro-optical, morphological, and architectural phenomena. We first examine basic crystal and chemical structure, and how this impacts important solar-cell related properties such as the optical gap. We then turn to deeper electronic phenomena such as carrier mobilities, trap densities, and recombination dynamics, as well as examining ionic and dielectric properties and how these two types of physics impact each other. The issue of whether organohalide perovskites are predominantly nonexcitonic at room temperature is currently a matter of some debate, and we summarize the evidence for what appears to be the emerging field consensus: an exciton binding energy of order 10 meV. Having discussed the important basic chemistry and physics we turn to more device-related considerations including processing, morphology, architecture, thin film electro-optics and interfacial energetics. These phenomena directly impact solar cell performance parameters such as open circuit voltage, short circuit current density, internal and external quantum efficiency

  15. Wind loads on solar energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, B.J.M. van; Geurts, C.P.W.; Borsboom, W.A.; Blackmore, P.

    2005-01-01

    Wind loads on solar energy systems are not covered by current wind loading standards. This paper describes results of a parametric study into the wind loads 0on solar energy systems,. which are placed on flat roofs. Wind tunnel measurements have been carried out on a number of configurations. The

  16. Wind loads on solar energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, B.J.M. van; Geurts, C.P.W.; Borsboom, W.A.; Blackmore, P.

    2005-01-01

    Wind loads on solar energy systems are not covered by current wind loading standards. This paper describes results of a parametric study into the wind loads 0on solar energy systems,. which are placed on flat roofs. Wind tunnel measurements have been carried out on a number of configurations. The re

  17. Solar energy for industrial process heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Findings of study of potential use for solar energy utilization by California dairy industry, prove that applicable solar energy system furnish much of heat needed for milk processing with large savings in expenditures for oil and gas and ensurance of adequate readily available sources of process heat.

  18. Projects in a Solar Energy Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Richard H.

    1983-01-01

    Describes student projects on applications of solar energy optics to home design. Project criterion (requiring sketches and detailed calculations of time rate of energy flow/production) is that half the heat for the heating season be taken from the solar resource; calculations must be based on meteorological data for a specific location. (JM)

  19. Wind loads on solar energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, B.J.M. van; Geurts, C.P.W.; Borsboom, W.A.; Blackmore, P.

    2005-01-01

    Wind loads on solar energy systems are not covered by current wind loading standards. This paper describes results of a parametric study into the wind loads 0on solar energy systems,. which are placed on flat roofs. Wind tunnel measurements have been carried out on a number of configurations. The re

  20. Photovoltaic Solar Energy : From Fundamentals to Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Verlinden, P.J.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Freundlich, A.

    2016-01-01

    Solar PV is now the third most important renewable energy source, after hydro and wind power, in terms of global installed capacity. Bringing together the expertise of international PV specialists Photovoltaic Solar Energy: From Fundamentals to Applications provides a comprehensive and up-to-date

  1. Photovoltaic Solar Energy - From Fundamentals to Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, A.H.M.E.; Verlinden, P.J.; Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Freundlich, A.

    2017-01-01

    Solar PV is now the third most important renewable energy source, after hydro and wind power, in terms of global installed capacity. Bringing together the expertise of international PV specialists Photovoltaic Solar Energy: From Fundamentals to Applications provides a comprehensive and up-to-date ac

  2. Economic and environmental benefits of technology fusion of solar photovoltaics with alternative technologies

    OpenAIRE

    De Schepper, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Technology fusion refers to the blending of several previously separate fields of existing technology, creating novel markets and growth opportunities. In technology fusion, one plus one equals three. This is indeed the case when fusing solar PV with alternative technologies: besides greenhouse gas emission reductions, additional advantages such as the savings of scarce land area, grid independency, diminishment of the effect of power variability of intermittent clean energy sources, and incr...

  3. Research of Solar Energy Technology in Thermal Power Enterprises Building%太阳能技术在火电企业房屋建筑的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕利辉

    2014-01-01

    The rational use of energy and new energy explor- ation is the focus of the development of national energy tec- hnology today. How to effectively improve the efficiency of energy use has become an important factor affecting the deve- lopment of the national economy. In this paper, through the analysis of the necessity of building energy saving in thermal power plant, and the combination of solar energy characteri- stics, the author discusses the feasibility of solar energy in bu- ilding energy saving in thermal power plant.%能源合理利用和新能源探索是当今国家能源科技发展的重点。如何有效提高能源利用效率,已经成为了影响国民经济发展的重要因素。本文通过分析火电厂建筑节能的必然性,并结合太阳能的特点,探讨了太阳能在火电厂建筑节能的可行性。

  4. From Solar Cookers Towards Viable Solar Cooking Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Bashir

    1997-01-01

    A broader concept of technology encompassing the technical and the societal aspects is introduced. Viability of technology and technological development process from a socio-technical view- point is discussed. Based on the above, the question of securing viability of solar cooking technology is t...... studies to understand their priorities and opportunities related with the process of technological development; b) be multi-disciplinary, flexible and long-term; facilitate co-working of users, producers, political actors and other actors in the process....

  5. Thermal utilisation of solar energy: Croatian National Energy Program SUNEN, 1998-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankovic, Bernard; Jedrisko, Claudia [Rijeka Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Rijeka (Croatia); Hrastnik, Branimir [Energy Inst. `Hrvoje Pozar`, Zagreb (Croatia)

    1999-01-01

    In the paper, thermal use of solar energy as well as prospects and problems of its utilisation in Croatia have been given. The National Solar Energy Program, SUNEN, has been established to stimulate the usage of solar energy. The main goals of the program are the assessment of technical and economically viable solar potential in order to define real objectives and tasks to provide use of exploitable indigenous clean and renewable energy potential. The Program addresses benefits, the most promising solar applications and solar potential. Much attention has been given to identification of obstacles and barriers in the process of solar technology dissemination. SUNEN is an initiative to increase solar energy use and to become more compatible with the present renewable energy sources policy in EU and Mediterranean countries. The program proposes twelve different types of thermal solar energy systems, which could be multiplied up to 28 000 installations until the year 2010 with annual heat recovery of approximately 1,5 TWh (5,4 PJ). (Author)

  6. Department of Energy solar process heat program: FY 1991 solar process heat prefeasibility studies activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, R.

    1992-11-01

    During fiscal year (FY) 1991, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Process Heat Program implemented a Solar Process Heat Prefeasibility Studies activity. For Program purposes, a prefeasibility study is an engineering assessment that investigates the technical and economic feasibility of a solar system for a specific application for a specific end-user. The study includes an assessment of institutional issues (e.g., financing, availability of insurance, etc.) that impact the feasibility of the proposed solar project. Solar process heat technology covers solar thermal energy systems (utilizing flat plate or concentrating solar collectors) for water heating, water preheating, cooling/refrigeration, steam generation, ventilation air heating/preheating, etc., for applications in industry, commerce, and government. The studies are selected for funding through a competitive solicitation. For FY-91, six projects were selected for funding. As of 31 Aug. 1992, three teams had completed their studies. This paper describes the prefeasibility studies activity, presents the results from the study performed by United Solar Technologies, and summarizes the conclusions from the studies that have been completed to date and their implications for the Solar Process Heat Program.

  7. Solar Thermal Energy Storage in a Photochromic Macrocycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasceanu, Alexandru; Broman, Søren L; Hansen, Anne S; Skov, Anders B; Cacciarini, Martina; Kadziola, Anders; Kjaergaard, Henrik G; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted

    2016-07-25

    The conversion and efficient storage of solar energy is recognized to hold significant potential with regard to future energy solutions. Molecular solar thermal batteries based on photochromic systems exemplify one possible technology able to harness and apply this potential. Herein is described the synthesis of a macrocycle based on a dimer of the dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene (DHA/VHF) photo/thermal couple. By taking advantage of conformational strain, this DHA-DHA macrocycle presents an improved ability to absorb and store incident light energy in chemical bonds (VHF-VHF). A stepwise energy release over two sequential ring-closing reactions (VHF→DHA) combines the advantages of an initially fast discharge, hypothetically addressing immediate energy consumption needs, followed by a slow process for consistent, long-term use. This exemplifies another step forward in the molecular engineering and design of functional organic materials towards solar thermal energy storage and release.

  8. Energy supply technologies. Nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritsen, Bent.; Nonboel, E. [Risoe National Lab. - DTU (Denmark); Vuori, S. [VTT (Finland)

    2007-11-15

    Nuclear power has long been controversial, especially in Europe, with concerns over the safety of nuclear installations, radioactive waste, and proliferation of nuclear weapon materials. Globally, however, renewed interest in nuclear energy has been sparked by concerns for energy security, economic development, and commitment to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Nuclear fission is a major source of energy that is free from CO{sub 2} emissions. It provides 15 % of the world's electricity and 7 % of total primary energy consumption. Around 440 nuclear reactors are currently generating power in 31 countries, with largest capacity in Europe, the USA and Southeast Asia. Non-electricity applications are few at present, but include process heat, hydrogen production, ship propulsion, and desalination. Nuclear power is characterised by high construction costs and a relatively long construction period, but low operating and maintenance expenses, including fuel. Most nuclear power plants in the USA and Europe have second-generation light water reactors (LWRs), while the plants now being built in Southeast Asia are of third-generation design. The Evolutionary Power Reactor (EPR) under construction in Finland, and the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) being developed in South Africa, are both of types referred to as Generation III+. From 2020-30 onwards fourth-generation reactors are expected to provide improved fuel utilisation and economics. Nuclear power does not form part of the Danish energy mix and at present there seems to be little political will to change this position. As a result Denmark has relatively little expertise in nuclear power. However, since nuclear power provides a substantial share of Europe's electricity, Denmark should ensure that it has expertise to advise the government and the public on nuclear issues. (BA)

  9. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poggio, A.J. (ed.)

    1988-10-01

    This issue of Energy and Technology Review contains: Neutron Penumbral Imaging of Laser-Fusion Targets--using our new penumbral-imaging diagnostic, we have obtained the first images that can be used to measure directly the deuterium-tritium burn region in laser-driven fusion targets; Computed Tomography for Nondestructive Evaluation--various computed tomography systems and computational techniques are used in nondestructive evaluation; Three-Dimensional Image Analysis for Studying Nuclear Chromatin Structure--we have developed an optic-electronic system for acquiring cross-sectional views of cell nuclei, and computer codes to analyze these images and reconstruct the three-dimensional structures they represent; Imaging in the Nuclear Test Program--advanced techniques produce images of unprecedented detail and resolution from Nevada Test Site data; and Computational X-Ray Holography--visible-light experiments and numerically simulated holograms test our ideas about an x-ray microscope for biological research.

  10. NASA Solar Sail Propulsion Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Montgomery, Edward E.; Young, Roy; Adams, Charles

    2007-01-01

    NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program has developed the first generation of solar sail propulsion systems sufficient to accomplish inner solar system science and exploration missions. These first generation solar sails, when operational, will range in size from 40 meters to well over 100 meters in diameter and have an areal density of less than 13 grams per square meter. A rigorous, multi-year technology development effort culminated in 2005 with the testing of two different 20-m solar sail systems under thermal vacuum conditions. The first system, developed by ATK Space Systems of Goleta, California, uses rigid booms to deploy and stabilize the sail. In the second approach, L'Garde, Inc. of Tustin, California uses inflatable booms that rigidize in the coldness of space to accomplish sail deployment. This effort provided a number of significant insights into the optimal design and expected performance of solar sails as well as an understanding of the methods and costs of building and using them. In a separate effort, solar sail orbital analysis tools for mission design were developed and tested. Laboratory simulations of the effects of long-term space radiation exposure were also conducted on two candidate solar sail materials. Detailed radiation and charging environments were defined for mission trajectories outside the protection of the earth's magnetosphere, in the solar wind environment. These were used in other analytical tools to prove the adequacy of sail design features for accommodating the harsh space environment. Preceding and in conjunction with these technology efforts, NASA sponsored several mission application studies for solar sails. Potential missions include those that would be flown in the near term to study the sun and be used in space weather prediction to one that would use an evolved sail capability to support humanity's first mission into nearby interstellar space. This paper will describe the status of solar sail propulsion within

  11. Ultrafast Electron Dynamics in Solar Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponseca, Carlito S; Chábera, Pavel; Uhlig, Jens; Persson, Petter; Sundström, Villy

    2017-08-23

    Electrons are the workhorses of solar energy conversion. Conversion of the energy of light to electricity in photovoltaics, or to energy-rich molecules (solar fuel) through photocatalytic processes, invariably starts with photoinduced generation of energy-rich electrons. The harvesting of these electrons in practical devices rests on a series of electron transfer processes whose dynamics and efficiencies determine the function of materials and devices. To capture the energy of a photogenerated electron-hole pair in a solar cell material, charges of opposite sign have to be separated against electrostatic attractions, prevented from recombining and being transported through the active material to electrodes where they can be extracted. In photocatalytic solar fuel production, these electron processes are coupled to chemical reactions leading to storage of the energy of light in chemical bonds. With the focus on the ultrafast time scale, we here discuss the light-induced electron processes underlying the function of several molecular and hybrid materials currently under development for solar energy applications in dye or quantum dot-sensitized solar cells, polymer-fullerene polymer solar cells, organometal halide perovskite solar cells, and finally some photocatalytic systems.

  12. The UK solar energy resource and the impact of climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Burnett, Dougal; Barbour, Edward; Harrison, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Solar energy use in the UK is increasing dramatically, providing both heat energy and generation of electricity. This trend is expected to continue due to solar technologies becoming cheaper and more readily available along with low carbon government legislation such as the Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) and Feed in Tariffs (FiTs) supporting solar energy deployment. However, the effects of climate change on the solar resource remain largely unstudied. Climate change affects cloud cover charac...

  13. Investigation of Solar and Solar-Gas Thermal Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Zupa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the investigation of solar thermal sources of electrical and heat energy as well as the investigation of hybrid solar-gas thermal sources of electrical and heat energy (so called photothermal sources. Photothermal sources presented here utilize computer-controlled injection of the conversion fluid into special capillary porous substance that is adjusted to direct temperature treatment by the concentrated thermal radiation absorption.

  14. A review of solar energy based heat and power generation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish; Bühler, Fabian; Andreasen, Jesper Graa

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of solar energy based technologies has attracted increased interest in recent times in order to satisfy the various energy demands of our society. This paper presents a thorough review of the open literature on solar energy based heat and power plants. In order to limit the scope...... of the review, only fully renewable plants with at least the production of electricity and heat/hot water for end use are considered. These include solar photovoltaic and solar thermal based plants with both concentrating and non-concentrating collectors in both solar-only and solar-hybrid configurations....... The paper also presents a selection of case studies for the evaluation of solar energy based combined heat and power generation possibility in Denmark. The considered technologies for the case studies are (1) solar photovoltaic modules, (2) solar flat plate collectors, (3) a ground source heat pump, (4...

  15. Energy Systems and Technologies for the coming Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderberg Petersen, Leif; Larsen, Hans Hvidtfeldt

    Risø International Energy Conference 2011 took place 10 – 12 May 2011. The conference focused on: - Future global energy development options, scenarios and policy issues - Intelligent energy systems of the future, including the interaction between supply and end-use - New and emerging technologies...... for the extended utilisation of sustainable energy - Distributed energy production technologies such as fuel cells, hydrogen, bioenergy, wind, hydro, wave, solar and geothermal - Centralised energy production technologies such as clean coal technologies, CCS and nuclear - Renewable energy for the transport sector...

  16. Forecasting the Development of Different Solar Cell Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Morales-Acevedo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar cells are made of several materials and device structures with the main goal of having maximum efficiency at low cost. Some types of solar cells have shown a rapid efficiency progress whereas others seem to remain constant as a consequence of different factors such as the technological and economic ones. Using information published by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL about the increase of solar cells record efficiency, we apply a simple mathematical model to estimate the evolution in the near future for the different cell technologies. Here, as an example, we use data for solar cells made with representative materials and structures of each of the three “PV generations.”

  17. Solar building construction - new technologies; Solares Bauen - Neue Technologien fuer Gebaeude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luther, J.; Voss, K.; Wittwer, V. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany). Abt. ``Thermische und Optische Systeme``

    1998-02-01

    There is an increasing demand for integrated building concepts in order to reduce energy consumption. Building design, construction and heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) technology are decisive in this respect. Thus, an essentially higher energy efficiency is achieved and solar energy becomes the main energy source. An `active building envelope` assumes the task of controlling the energy flows between inside and outside. This paper reports on new components, system concepts and planning tools for solar building. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer zukuenftige Bauten werden in hohem Masse Forderungen nach integrierten Konzepten zur Begrenzung des Energieverbrauchs gestellt. Gestalt, Konstruktion und Klimatechnik sind dabei massgebliche Einflussfaktoren. Hierdurch wird eine wesentlich hoehere Energieeffizienz erzielt und Solarenergie kann die uebrigen Energiequellen zurueckdraengen. Eine `aktive Gebaeudehuelle` uebernimmt die Aufgabe, den Energiefluss zwischen Innen und Aussen zu steuern. Der Beitrag berichtet ueber neue Komponenten, Systemkonzepte und Planungswerkzeuge fuer das Solare Bauen. (orig.)

  18. High temperature solar thermal technology: The North Africa Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    High temperature solar thermal (HTST) technology offers an attractive option for both industrialized and non-industrialized countries to generate electricity and industrial process steam. The purpose of this report is to assess the potential market for solar thermal applications in the North African countries of Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. North Africa was selected because of its outstanding solar resource base and the variety of applications to be found there. Diminishing oil and gas resources, coupled with expanding energy needs, opens a large potential market for the US industry. The US high temperature solar trough industry has little competition globally and could build a large market in these areas. The US is already familiar with certain solar markets in North Africa due to the supplying of substantial quantities of US-manufactured flat plate collectors to this region.

  19. High temperature solar thermal technology: The North Africa Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    High temperature solar thermal (HTST) technology offers an attractive option for both industrialized and non-industrialized countries to generate electricity and industrial process steam. The purpose of this report is to assess the potential market for solar thermal applications in the North African countries of Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. North Africa was selected because of its outstanding solar resource base and the variety of applications to be found there. Diminishing oil and gas resources, coupled with expanding energy needs, opens a large potential market for the US industry. The US high temperature solar trough industry has little competition globally and could build a large market in these areas. The US is already familiar with certain solar markets in North Africa due to the supplying of substantial quantities of US-manufactured flat plate collectors to this region.

  20. Solar energy: a viable alternative energy source; Energia solar: uma fonte de energia alternativa viavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiros Mattoso e Sousa, Karla de; Sousa, Renato M.A. de [KR Consultoria Projetos e Edificacoes Ltda., MG (Brazil)

    1997-01-01

    This work describes the advantages of using solar energy for water heating instead of conventional systems. Also, the socio and environmental benefits are specified. Finally, the different stages, by which the carrying out of a solar energy project goes through are described, starting by a technical and economical analysis, followed by calculations, and the installation of the solar system. 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Perovskite solar cells: an emerging photovoltaic technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam-Gyu Park

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Perovskite solar cells based on organometal halides represent an emerging photovoltaic technology. Perovskite solar cells stem from dye-sensitized solar cells. In a liquid-based dye-sensitized solar cell structure, the adsorption of methylammonium lead halide perovskite on a nanocrystalline TiO2 surface produces a photocurrent with a power conversion efficiency (PCE of around 3–4%, as first discovered in 2009. The PCE was doubled after 2 years by optimizing the perovskite coating conditions. However, the liquid-based perovskite solar cell receives little attention because of its stability issues, including instant dissolution of the perovskite in a liquid electrolyte. A long-term, stable, and high efficiency (∼10% perovskite solar cell was developed in 2012 by substituting the solid hole conductor with a liquid electrolyte. Efficiencies have quickly risen to 18% in just 2 years. Since PCE values over 20% are realistically anticipated with the use of cheap organometal halide perovskite materials, perovskite solar cells are a promising photovoltaic technology. In this review, the opto-electronic properties of perovskite materials and recent progresses in perovskite solar cells are described. In addition, comments on the issues to current and future challenges are mentioned.

  2. Status of solar sail technology within NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Young, Roy; Montgomery, Edward; Alhorn, Dean

    2011-12-01

    In the early 2000s, NASA made substantial progress in the development of solar sail propulsion systems for use in robotic science and exploration of the solar system. Two different 20-m solar sail systems were produced. NASA has successfully completed functional vacuum testing in their Glenn Research Center's Space Power Facility at Plum Brook Station, Ohio. The sails were designed and developed by Alliant Techsystems Space Systems and L'Garde, respectively. The sail systems consist of a central structure with four deployable booms that support each sail. These sail designs are robust enough for deployment in a one-atmosphere, one-gravity environment and are scalable to much larger solar sails - perhaps as large as 150 m on a side. Computation modeling and analytical simulations were performed in order to assess the scalability of the technology to the larger sizes that are required to implement the first generation of missions using solar sails. Furthermore, life and space environmental effects testing of sail and component materials was also conducted.NASA terminated funding for solar sails and other advanced space propulsion technologies shortly after these ground demonstrations were completed. In order to capitalize on the $30 M investment made in solar sail technology to that point, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center funded the NanoSail-D, a subscale solar sail system designed for possible small spacecraft applications. The NanoSail-D mission flew on board a Falcon-1 rocket, launched August 2, 2008. As a result of the failure of that rocket, the NanoSail-D was never successfully given the opportunity to achieve orbit. The NanoSail-D flight spare was flown in the Fall of 2010. This review paper summarizes NASA's investment in solar sail technology to date and discusses future opportunities.

  3. SWOT analysis of the renewable energy sources in Romania - case study: solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupu, A. G.; Dumencu, A.; Atanasiu, M. V.; Panaite, C. E.; Dumitrașcu, Gh; Popescu, A.

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of energy sector worldwide triggered intense preoccupation on both finding alternative renewable energy sources and environmental issues. Romania is considered to have technological potential and geographical location suitable to renewable energy usage for electricity generation. But this high potential is not fully exploited in the context of policies and regulations adopted globally, and more specific, European Union (EU) environmental and energy strategies and legislation related to renewable energy sources. This SWOT analysis of solar energy source presents the state of the art, potential and future prospects for development of renewable energy in Romania. The analysis concluded that the development of solar energy sector in Romania depends largely on: viability of legislative framework on renewable energy sources, increased subsidies for solar R&D, simplified methodology of green certificates, and educating the public, investors, developers and decision-makers.

  4. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Colt Pueblo, Pueblo, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Energy System is not economically beneficial under the assumed economic conditions at Pueblo, Colorado; Yosemite, California; Albuquerque, New Mexico; Fort Worth, Texas; and Washington, D.C. Economic benefits from this system depend on decreasing the initial investment and the continued increase in the cost of conventional energy. Decreasing the cost depends on favorable tax treatment and continuing development of solar energy technology. Fuel cost would have to increase drastically while the cost of the system would have to remain constant or decrease for the system to become economically feasible.

  5. Solar Technology Test, Evaluation, and Data Collection: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-279

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albin, David S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-08

    Under this Agreement, NREL will work with Abengoa Solar Inc. on the testing, evaluation, and collection of data related to Abengoa Solar Inc. solar technologies and systems. This work includes, but is not limited to, testing and evaluation of solar component and system technologies, data collection and monitoring, performance evaluation, reliability testing, thermal energy storage integration, solar resource measurement and forecasting, grid impact testing, and analysis. This work will be conducted at NREL, SolarTAC (Aurora), and other field test locations.

  6. Solar Energy Campaign. 2008 Norwegian student-based web campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, Scott

    2009-07-01

    Student research campaigns (forskningskampanjer) have been an annual event in connection to Research Days (Forskningsdagene) since 2003 in Norway. The campaigns invite students from all over the country to participate in a common scientific research event, always connected to a special environmentally related theme - for example Air Quality in the Classroom (2003), Pollution along Roads (2004), Bacteria in Drinking Water (2005), and The Rain Check (2006). The year 2008, as with previous years, was overshadowed by the topic of climate change, and the specific role of humans. The research campaign theme for 2008 fit well into this focus: the potential benefits of solar energy as an alternative energy source. The campaign also was aligned with the Research Days theme of alternative energy sources and technologies. The campaign included the hands-on activity of assembling a solar panel and taking measurements with the device to determine efficiency, as well as a questionnaire to record the results and ask deeper questions regarding alternative energy and climate change. The results gained from data analysis of the campaign show that students were able to gain maximum efficient solar power from the devices they constructed, which gave them a solid understanding of solar power technology. Analysis of the campaign questionnaire in regards to the activity shows that students believe that solar energy should be better utilized as an energy source in Norway. (Also in Norwegian OR 24/2009). (Author)

  7. Solar/hydrogen systems technologies. Volume II (Part 1 of 2). Solar/hydrogen systems assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, W. J.D.; Foster, R. W.; Tison, R. R.; Hanson, J. A.

    1980-06-02

    Volume II of the Solar/Hydrogen Systems Assessment contract report (2 volumes) is basically a technological source book. Relying heavily on expert contributions, it comprehensively reviews constituent technologies from which can be assembled a wide range of specific solar/hydrogen systems. Covered here are both direct and indirect solar energy conversion technologies; respectively, those that utilize solar radiant energy input directly and immediately, and those that absorb energy from a physical intermediary, previously energized by the sun. Solar-operated hydrogen energy production technologies are also covered in the report. The single most prominent of these is water electrolysis. Utilization of solar-produced hydrogen is outside the scope of the volume. However, the important hydrogen delivery step is treated under the delivery sub-steps of hydrogen transmission, distribution and storage. An exemplary use of the presented information is in the synthesis and analysis of those solar/hydrogen system candidates documented in the report's Volume I. Morever, it is intended that broad use be made of this technology information in the implementation of future solar/hydrogen systems. Such systems, configured on either a distributed or a central-plant basis, or both, may well be of major significance in effecting an ultimate transition to renewable energy systems.

  8. Solar/hydrogen systems technologies. Volume II (Part 2 of 2). Solar/hydrogen systems assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, W. J.D.; Foster, R. W.; Tison, R. R.; Hanson, J. A.

    1980-06-02

    Volume II of the Solar/Hydrogen Systems Assessment contract report (2 volumes) is basically a technological source book. Relying heavily on expert contributions, it comprehensively reviews constituent technologies from which can be assembled a wide range of specific solar/hydrogen systems. Covered here are both direct and indirect solar energy conversion technologies; respectively, those that utilize solar radiant energy input directly and immediately, and those that absorb energy from a physical intermediary, previously energized by the sun. Solar-operated hydrogen energy production technologies are also covered in the report. The single most prominent of these is water electrolysis. Utilization of solar-produced hydrogen is outside the scope of the volume. However, the important hydrogen delivery step is treated under the delivery sub-steps of hydrogen transmission, distribution and storage. An exemplary use of the presented information is in the synthesis and analysis of those solar/hydrogen system candidates documented in the report's Volume I. Moreover, it is intended that broad use be made of this technology information in the implementation of future solar/hydrogen systems. Such systems, configured on either a distributed or a central-plant basis, or both, may well be a major significance in effecting an ultimate transition to renewable energy systems.

  9. Impact of Financial Structure on the Cost of Solar Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.; Kreycik, C.; Bird, L.; Schwabe, P.; Cory, K.

    2012-03-01

    To stimulate investment in renewable energy generation projects, the federal government developed a series of support structures that reduce taxes for eligible investors--the investment tax credit, the production tax credit, and accelerated depreciation. The nature of these tax incentives often requires an outside investor and a complex financial arrangement to allocate risk and reward among the parties. These financial arrangements are generally categorized as 'advanced financial structures.' Among renewable energy technologies, advanced financial structures were first widely deployed by the wind industry and are now being explored by the solar industry to support significant scale-up in project development. This report describes four of the most prevalent financial structures used by the renewable sector and evaluates the impact of financial structure on energy costs for utility-scale solar projects that use photovoltaic and concentrating solar power technologies.

  10. Potency of Solar Energy Applications in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Abyor Handayani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, 80% of conventional energy is used to fulfill general public's needs andindustries. The depletion of oil and gas reserves and rapid growth in conventional energyconsumption have continuously forced us to discover renewable energy sources, like solar, wind,biomass, and hydropower, to support economic development in the future. Solar energy travels at aspeed of 186,000 miles per second. Only a small part of the radiant energy that the sun emits intospace ever reaches the Earth, but that is more than enough to supply all our energy demand.Indonesia is a tropical country and located in the equator line, so it has an abundant potential ofsolar energy. Most of Indonesian area get enough intensity of solar radiation with the average dailyradiation around 4 kWh/m2. Basically, the solar systems use solar collectors and concentrators forcollecting, storing, and using solar radiation to be applied for the benefit of domestics, commercials,and industrials. Common applications for solar thermal energy used in industry are the SWHs, solardryers, space heating, cooling systems and water desalination.

  11. Hydrogen Storage Technologies for Future Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuster, Patrick; Alekseev, Alexander; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2017-06-07

    Future energy systems will be determined by the increasing relevance of solar and wind energy. Crude oil and gas prices are expected to increase in the long run, and penalties for CO2 emissions will become a relevant economic factor. Solar- and wind-powered electricity will become significantly cheaper, such that hydrogen produced from electrolysis will be competitively priced against hydrogen manufactured from natural gas. However, to handle the unsteadiness of system input from fluctuating energy sources, energy storage technologies that cover the full scale of power (in megawatts) and energy storage amounts (in megawatt hours) are required. Hydrogen, in particular, is a promising secondary energy vector for storing, transporting, and distributing large and very large amounts of energy at the gigawatt-hour and terawatt-hour scales. However, we also discuss energy storage at the 120-200-kWh scale, for example, for onboard hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles using compressed hydrogen storage. This article focuses on the characteristics and development potential of hydrogen storage technologies in light of such a changing energy system and its related challenges. Technological factors that influence the dynamics, flexibility, and operating costs of unsteady operation are therefore highlighted in particular. Moreover, the potential for using renewable hydrogen in the mobility sector, industrial production, and the heat market is discussed, as this potential may determine to a significant extent the future economic value of hydrogen storage technology as it applies to other industries. This evaluation elucidates known and well-established options for hydrogen storage and may guide the development and direction of newer, less developed technologies.

  12. The silicon solar satellite power system - A net energy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, B.; Naughton, J. P.

    The physical aspects and net energy balance of a Satellite Solar Power System (SSPS) are examined. The feasibility of operating with or without laser annealing for the cells, possible variations in the total system costs, the projected worth of the energy, and the R&D costs are explored. The energy needed to mine, refine, fabricate, manufacture, launch, and maintain the SSPS materials and structures are included in the energy analysis, and cost-to-energy ratio of energy used to energy produced graphs are provided for the cases of the use or non-use of laser annealing for radiation protection for the solar cells. The resulting energy ratios indicate that the reference SSPS compares unfavorably with coal or nuclear earth-based plants, although further research is necessary to determine what level of technology is actually required for construction of the SSPS.

  13. High Energy Particles in the Solar Corona

    CERN Document Server

    Widom, A; Larsen, L

    2008-01-01

    Collective Ampere law interactions producing magnetic flux tubes piercing through sunspots into and then out of the solar corona allow for low energy nuclear reactions in a steady state and high energy particle reactions if a magnetic flux tube explodes in a violent event such as a solar flare. Filamentous flux tubes themselves are vortices of Ampere currents circulating around in a tornado fashion in a roughly cylindrical geometry. The magnetic field lines are parallel to and largely confined within the core of the vortex. The vortices may thereby be viewed as long current carrying coils surrounding magnetic flux and subject to inductive Faraday and Ampere laws. These laws set the energy scales of (i) low energy solar nuclear reactions which may regularly occur and (ii) high energy electro-weak interactions which occur when magnetic flux coils explode into violent episodic events such as solar flares or coronal mass ejections.

  14. Solar energy storage researchers information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar energy storage are described. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 2 groups of researchers are analyzed: DOE-Funded Researchers and Non-DOE-Funded Researchers. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  15. Thermal energy storage for CSP (Concentrating Solar Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Py Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The major advantage of concentrating solar power before photovoltaic is the possibility to store thermal energy at large scale allowing dispatchability. Then, only CSP solar power plants including thermal storage can be operated 24 h/day using exclusively the solar resource. Nevertheless, due to a too low availability in mined nitrate salts, the actual mature technology of the two tanks molten salts cannot be applied to achieve the expected international share in the power production for 2050. Then alternative storage materials are under studies such as natural rocks and recycled ceramics made from industrial wastes. The present paper is a review of those alternative approaches.

  16. Thermal energy storage for CSP (Concentrating Solar Power)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Py, Xavier; Sadiki, Najim; Olives, Régis; Goetz, Vincent; Falcoz, Quentin

    2017-07-01

    The major advantage of concentrating solar power before photovoltaic is the possibility to store thermal energy at large scale allowing dispatchability. Then, only CSP solar power plants including thermal storage can be operated 24 h/day using exclusively the solar resource. Nevertheless, due to a too low availability in mined nitrate salts, the actual mature technology of the two tanks molten salts cannot be applied to achieve the expected international share in the power production for 2050. Then alternative storage materials are under studies such as natural rocks and recycled ceramics made from industrial wastes. The present paper is a review of those alternative approaches.

  17. Scientific challenges in sustainable energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan

    2006-04-01

    We describe and evaluate the technical, political, and economic challenges involved with widespread adoption of renewable energy technologies. First, we estimate fossil fuel resources and reserves and, together with the current and projected global primary power production rates, estimate the remaining years of oil, gas, and coal. We then compare the conventional price of fossil energy with that from renewable energy technologies (wind, solar thermal, solar electric, biomass, hydroelectric, and geothermal) to evaluate the potential for a transition to renewable energy in the next 20-50 years. Secondly, we evaluate - per the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - the greenhouse constraint on carbon-based power consumption as an unpriced externality to fossil-fuel use, considering global population growth, increased global gross domestic product, and increased energy efficiency per unit GDP. This constraint is projected to drive the demand for carbon-free power well beyond that produced by conventional supply/demand pricing tradeoffs, to levels far greater than current renewable energy demand. Thirdly, we evaluate the level and timescale of R&D investment needed to produce the required quantity of carbon-free power by the 2050 timeframe. Fourth, we evaluate the energy potential of various renewable energy resources to ascertain which resources are adequately available globally to support the projected demand. Fifth, we evaluate the challenges to the chemical sciences to enable the cost-effective production of carbon-free power required. Finally, we discuss the effects of a change in primary power technology on the energy supply infrastructure and discuss the impact of such a change on the modes of energy consumption by the energy consumer and additional demands on the chemical sciences to support such a transition in energy supply.

  18. 76 FR 60475 - Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC, for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC, for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project... 2009 (Recovery Act), to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC (TSE), for construction and start-up of the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project (the Project). The Project is a proposed 110- megawatt solar power...

  19. OUT Success Stories: Solar Hot Water Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyne, R.

    2000-08-01

    Solar hot water technology was made great strides in the past two decades. Every home, commercial building, and industrial facility requires hot water. DOE has helped to develop reliable and durable solar hot water systems. For industrial applications, the growth potential lies in large-scale systems, using flat-plate and trough-type collectors. Flat-plate collectors are commonly used in residential hot water systems and can be integrated into the architectural design of the building.

  20. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report: January 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-01-01

    This report focuses on the U.S. solar electricity market, including photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. The report provides an overview of global and U.S. installation trends. It also presents production and shipment data, material and supply chain issues, and solar industry employment trends. It also presents cost, price, and performance trends; and discusses policy and market drivers such as recently passed federal legislation, state and local policies, and developments in project financing. The final chapter provides data on private investment trends and near-term market forecasts.

  1. Renewable Energy Solar Power Surges On

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID HENDRICKSON

    2006-01-01

    @@ With the increased focus and attention solar power is receiving around the world as a potentially significant energy alternative, it makes sense that China's solar enterprises are today doing big business and raking in massive profits. Among the most notable returns have been those of newcomer Suntech Power Holdings.

  2. Neutrino Cross Sections at Solar Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strigari, Louis

    2017-01-01

    I will review neutrino nucleus cross section measurements and uncertainties for energies applicable to solar neutrinos. I will discuss how these cross sections are important for interpreting solar neutrino experimental data, and highlight the most important neutrino-nucleus interactions that will be relevant for forthcoming dark matter direct detection experiments. NSF PHY-1522717.

  3. Dormitory Solar-Energy-System Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    102-page report analyzes long-term economic performance of a prepackaged solar energy assembly system at a dormitory installation and extrapolates to four additional sites about the U.S. Method of evaluation is f-chart procedure for solar-heating and domestic hotwater systems.

  4. Progress in sustainable energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Dincer, Ibrahim; Kucuk, Haydar

    2014-01-01

    This multi-disciplinary volume presents information on the state-of-the-art in sustainable energy technologies key to tackling the world's energy challenges and achieving environmentally benign solutions. Its unique amalgamation of the latest technical information, research findings and examples of successfully applied new developments in the area of sustainable energy will be of keen interest to engineers, students, practitioners, scientists and researchers working with sustainable energy technologies. Problem statements, projections, new concepts, models, experiments, measurements and simula

  5. Energy transfer in the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelbring, H.

    2013-12-01

    Different types of energy transfer are presented from the literature and are approached and commented on. It follows from these articles that energy transfer in addition to solar irradiation is less well understood by contemporary scientist. The transformation of energy between kinetic and potential energy in planetary orbits might be of crucial importance for understanding energy transfer between celestial bodies and the development of commensurabilities. There is evidence pointing to interactions (friction) between space and satellites producing volcanism. The reversible transfer of energy between the orbit of Moon and Earth's rotational energy is crucial to the creation of the 13.6-day and 27.3-day periods in both solar variables and Earth bound climate variables. It is hypothesized that the Earth-Moon system is modulating the sunspot numbers and creating both these periods, and that the great planets are responsible for the 11 yr solar cycle.

  6. DAPHNE: Energy Generation and storage, using Solar Sails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argelagós Palau, Ana Maria; Savio Bradford, Brandon

    Space travel is still in it's adolescent stages. Having embarked beyond the limit of our atmosphere for a mere 50 years, it is easy to imagine how much is yet to be discovered, in other solar systems and our own. One of the main factors that slow us down is the need for Energy. Long distance space travel requires a lot of energy, both for propulsion and operations alike. The principle of solar sails shows that the momentum of solar energy can be used beneficially, as can be seen in NASA's Sun-Jammer project. So, why not generate energy from this system? The DAPHNE system will utilize the simple principle of wind mills that is used here on Earth; using the force created by Solar wind to rotate an axle that in turn, generates energy. And this mill can be used to recharge spacecraft that need to fly further than it's own initial energy system will allow. Another benefit to developing this system is the fact that it is an alternative to nuclear energy generation for space, that a lot of modern research is being done on. The DAPHNE system can be considered a solution to long term propellant storage in space for interplanetary and interstellar travel. This paper proposes the design of an energy recharge technology, we called DAPHNE, which will utilize Nanotechnology, using solar sails to generate and store energy for future long-distance space craft to dock with, recharge and continue on their journey/mission. Examples of spacecraft in development that might benefit from a recharging station are the LISA Pathfinder, terrestrial exploration missions and eventually, the long interstellar missions that will be launched in the distant future. Thereby, allowing mankind to push the boundaries of our solar system and accelerate our ability to know what's out there. This technology would help the future generations of Space researchers move further than we can.

  7. Integrated photoelectrochemical energy storage: solar hydrogen generation and supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xinhui; Luo, Jingshan; Zeng, Zhiyuan; Guan, Cao; Zhang, Yongqi; Tu, Jiangping; Zhang, Hua; Fan, Hong Jin

    2012-01-01

    Current solar energy harvest and storage are so far realized by independent technologies (such as solar cell and batteries), by which only a fraction of solar energy is utilized. It is highly desirable to improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy. Here, we construct an integrated photoelectrochemical device with simultaneous supercapacitor and hydrogen evolution functions based on TiO(2)/transition metal hydroxides/oxides core/shell nanorod arrays. The feasibility of solar-driven pseudocapacitance is clearly demonstrated, and the charge/discharge is indicated by reversible color changes (photochromism). In such an integrated device, the photogenerated electrons are utilized for H(2) generation and holes for pseudocapacitive charging, so that both the reductive and oxidative energies are captured and converted. Specific capacitances of 482 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) and 287 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) are obtained with TiO(2)/Ni(OH)(2) nanorod arrays. This study provides a new research strategy for integrated pseudocapacitor and solar energy application.

  8. Land use and environmental impacts of decentralized solar energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twiss, R.H.; Smith, P.L.; Gatzke, A.E.; McCreary, S.T.

    1980-01-01

    The physical, spatial and land-use impacts of decentralized solar technologies applied at the community level by the year 2000 are examined. The results of the study are intended to provide a basis for evaluating the way in which a shift toward reliance on decentralized energy technologies may eventually alter community form. Six land-use types representative of those found in most US cities are analyzed according to solar penetration levels identified in the maximum solar scenario for the year 2000. The scenario is translated into shares of end use demand in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. These proportions become the scenario goals to be met by the use of decentralized solar energy systems. The percentage of total energy demand is assumed to be 36.5 percent, 18.8 percent and 22.6 percent in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors respectively. The community level scenario stipulated that a certain percentage of the total demand be met by on-site solar collection, i.e. photovoltaic and thermal collectors, and by passive design. This on-site solar goal is 31.9 percent (residential), 16.8 percent (commercial) and 13.1 percent (industrial).

  9. Solar hybrid power plants: Solar energy contribution in reaching full dispatchability and firmness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servert, Jorge F.; López, Diego; Cerrajero, Eduardo; Rocha, Alberto R.; Pereira, Daniel; Gonzalez, Lucía

    2016-05-01

    Renewable energies for electricity generation have always been considered as a risk for the electricity system due to its lack of dispatchability and firmness. Renewable energies penetration is constrained to strong grids or else its production must be limited to ensure grid stability, which is kept by the usage of hydropower energy or fossil-fueled power plants. CSP technology has an opportunity to arise not only as a dispatchable and firm technology, but also as an alternative that improves grid stability. To achieve that objective, solar hybrid configurations are being developed, being the most representative three different solutions: SAPG, ISCC and HYSOL. A reference scenario in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has been defined to compare these solutions, which have been modelled, simulated and evaluated in terms of dispatchability and firmness using ratios defined by the authors. The results show that: a) SAPG obtains the highest firmness KPI values, but no operation constraints have been considered for the coal boiler and the solar energy contribution is limited to 1.7%, b) ISCC provides dispatchable and firm electricity production but its solar energy contribution is limited to a 6.4%, and c) HYSOL presents the higher solar energy contribution of all the technologies considered: 66.0% while providing dispatchable and firm generation in similar conditions as SAPG and ISCC.

  10. Light and energy and architecture. Potentials in transparent solar cells; Lys og energi og arkitektur. Potentialer i transparente solceller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Ellen Kathrine; Hilberth, T.R.; Munk, L.

    2008-04-15

    This publication aims to inspire and challenge to: 1) transform energy technology to architectural potentials, 2) introduce visions about daylight's potential into the energy debate, and 3) develop new strategies for interdisciplinary collaboration. In addition to converting solar energy to electricity transparent solar cells can be integrated into glass facades and thereby regulate indoor climate and daylight intake. Furthermore solar cells can contribute new visual dimensions. (BA)

  11. Active Solar Energy Use Approaching Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NikouJavadiEshkalak,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, sustainability becomes one of the most important issues that should be taken into consideration in various fields especially in architecture. Our responsibility for the future generation insinuates us for using renewable energy sources and integrating this pioneer system into the built environment. Although the world is facing problems of fossil fuel resources but unfortunately Utilization of solar energy received limited attention until recently. However, Integrating of active solar energy devices into the building envelopes is one of the good strategies for heat producing and power generating simultaneously from the same building. This paper discusses some characteristics about integration of PV s and solar thermal collectors. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to find suitable and possible ways of PV s and solar thermal collector's building integration in order to increasing energy efficiency without any impact on architectural features. \\

  12. Photovoltaic solar energy. Proceedings; Photovoltaische Solarenergie. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Within the 21st symposium 'Photovoltaic Solar Energy' of the Ostbayerisches Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V. (Regensburg, Federal Republic of Germany) at Banz Monastery (Bad Staffelstein, Federal Republic of Germany) between 8th and 10th March, 2006, the following lessons were held: (1) Basic conditions for a market support programme in the European context (EEG) (Winfried Hoffmann); (2) Actual developments in the German market of photovoltaics (Gerhard Stryi-Hipp); (3) Become a part of the global economic survey of Task 2 ''PV cost over time'' (Thomas Nordmann); (4) The market of photovoltaic will be a European market in the future (Murray Cameron); (5) Development and state of the art of the photovoltaic industry in the Peoples Republic of China (Frank Haugwitz); (6) Silicon for the photovoltaic industry (Karl Hesse); (7) Cell technology: Impulses for a cost effective photovoltaic with valuable silicon (Rolf Brendel); (8) Thin-film solar modules for the photovoltaic - state of the art and industrial perspectives (Michael Powalla); (9) Modules - bottleneck and flood of orders: How to act an installer? (Helmut Godard); (10) Photovoltaic open-field systems - Actual experiences and conflict lines (Ole Langniss); (11) Comparison of actual and future trends of Balance-of-System costs for large scale ground based PV systems with crystalline and thin-film modules (Manfred Baechler); (12) Financing PX projects from a Bank perspective (Joachim Treder); (13) Criteria of quality for solar fonds - Criteria of evaluation for capital investors and self-commitment for emission houses (Ulla Meixner); (14) Analysis of the distribution pathways for photovoltaic plants from the manufacturer to the final customer considering the decreasing demand and increasing prices (Michael Forst); (15) Solar power 2005 - Evaluation of real operational data of 1,000 plants in Germany (Gerd Heilscher); (16) Improvement of PV-inverter efficiency - targets, pathways

  13. Solar to fuels conversion technologies: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuller, Harry L

    2017-01-01

    To meet increasing energy needs, while limiting greenhouse gas emissions over the coming decades, power capacity on a large scale will need to be provided from renewable sources, with solar expected to play a central role. While the focus to date has been on electricity generation via photovoltaic (PV) cells, electricity production currently accounts for only about one-third of total primary energy consumption. As a consequence, solar-to-fuel conversion will need to play an increasingly important role and, thereby, satisfy the need to replace high energy density fossil fuels with cleaner alternatives that remain easy to transport and store. The solar refinery concept (Herron et al. in Energy Environ Sci 8:126-157, 2015), in which captured solar radiation provides energy in the form of heat, electricity or photons, used to convert the basic chemical feedstocks CO2 and H2O into fuels, is reviewed as are the key conversion processes based on (1) combined PV and electrolysis, (2) photoelectrochemically driven electrolysis and (3) thermochemical processes, all focused on initially converting H2O and CO2 to H2 and CO. Recent advances, as well as remaining challenges, associated with solar-to-fuel conversion are discussed, as is the need for an intensive research and development effort to bring such processes to scale.

  14. Production, consumption and research on solar energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz-Casado, Elias; Lascurain-Sánchez, Maria Luisa; Serrano-Lopez, Antonio Eleazar

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of scientific publications on solar energy was conducted to determine whether public interest in the subject is mirrored by more intense research in the area. To this end, the research published by Spain and Germany, the two EU countries with the highest installed photovoltaic capacit...... intense. The main conclusion is the divergence in Germany and Spain between solar energy demand/output growth, being exponential, and the growth of research papers on the subject, which is linear...

  15. Nordic energy technology scoreboard. Full version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiltkou, Antje; Iversen, Eric; Scortato, Lisa

    2010-07-01

    The Nordic Energy Technology Scoreboard provides a tool for understanding the state of low-carbon energy technology development in the Nordic region. It assesses the five Nordic countries of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, alongside reference countries and regions including: The United Kingdom, Germany, Spain, Portugal, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Austria, USA, Japan and the EU 27. It focuses on five low-carbon energy technologies: Wind, photovoltaic (PV) solar, bio-fuels, geothermal, and carbon capture and storage (CCS). This scoreboard was developed as a pilot project with a limited scope of technologies, countries and indicators. In addition to providing a tool for decision-makers, it aimed to act as a catalyst for the future development of scoreboards and a vehicle to promote better data collection. Low-carbon energy technologies are not easy to measure. This is due to a variety of factors that much be kept in account when developing scoreboards for this purpose. Many low-carbon technologies are still at immature stages of development. Sound comparable data requires common definitions and standards to be adopted before collection can even take place. This process often lags behind the development of low-carbon technologies, and there are therefore considerable data availability and categorisation issues. The diversity of technologies and their different stages of development hamper comparability. The IEA classifies low-carbon technologies into three categories. The most mature includes hydropower, onshore wind, biomass CHP, and geothermal energy, the second most mature includes PV solar and offshore wind power, while the least mature includes concentrating solar power, CCS and ocean energy. This is problematic as less mature technologies are underrepresented in later stages of the innovation system. Many low-carbon technologies are systemic, meaning progress in developing one technology may hinge on developments in a connected technology

  16. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selden, R.W.

    1977-05-01

    Topics covered include: geothermal energy development at LLL, energy conversion engineering, continuing education at LLL, and the Western states uranium resource survey. Separate abstracts were prepared for 3 sections. (MCG)

  17. Industrial energy conservation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, P.S.; Williams, M.A. (eds.)

    1980-01-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 60 papers included in this volume, all of which will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA); 21 were selected for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (MCW)

  18. Industrial Energy Conservation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 55 papers presented in this volume, all of which will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA); 18 were selected for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (MCW)

  19. Morgantown Energy Technology Center, technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This document has been prepared by the DOE Environmental Management (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) to highlight its research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities funded through the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). Technologies and processes described have the potential to enhance DOE`s cleanup and waste management efforts, as well as improve US industry`s competitiveness in global environmental markets. METC`s R&D programs are focused on commercialization of technologies that will be carried out in the private sector. META has solicited two PRDAs for EM. The first, in the area of groundwater and soil technologies, resulted in twenty-one contact awards to private sector and university technology developers. The second PRDA solicited novel decontamination and decommissioning technologies and resulted in eighteen contract awards. In addition to the PRDAs, METC solicited the first EM ROA in 1993. The ROA solicited research in a broad range of EM-related topics including in situ remediation, characterization, sensors, and monitoring technologies, efficient separation technologies, mixed waste treatment technologies, and robotics. This document describes these technology development activities.

  20. Solar energy control system. [temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, J. R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A solar energy control system for a hot air type solar energy heating system wherein thermocouples are arranged to sense the temperature of a solar collector, a space to be heated, and a top and bottom of a heat storage unit is disclosed. Pertinent thermocouples are differentially connected together, and these are employed to effect the operation of dampers, a fan, and an auxiliary heat source. In accomplishing this, the differential outputs from the thermocouples are amplified by a single amplifier by multiplexing techniques. Additionally, the amplifier is corrected as to offset by including as one multiplex channel a common reference signal.

  1. Solar energy thermalization and storage device

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, J.F.

    A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent is described. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

  2. Solar power and policy powerlessness − perceptions of persuasion in distributed residential solar energy policy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed residential solar energy (photovoltaic technologies have been praised as a mechanism to not only increase the penetration of renewable energy but engage the community in a clean energy revolution. In spite of this it is unclear how much potential there is for stakeholders to influence processes around the adoption of solar energy, including policy development and regulation. As part of a wider research project assessing the social acceptance of residential solar energy in Western Australia a variety of stakeholders, including public servants, network operators, Members of Parliament, energy advocates, renewable energy industry members and community members, were asked whether they thought they had the potential to influence solar policy. The objective of this research was to highlight positions of influence over policy development. In total 23 interviews with regional Western Australian householders and 32 interviews with members of industry and government were undertaken between May and October 2015. Most respondents believed that they had previously, or could in future, influence solar policy by taking advantage of networks of influence. However, stakeholders perceived as having policy influence did not necessarily demonstrate the capacity to influence policy beyond providing information to decision-makers, namely Cabinet members. Instead, networks of renewable energy advocates, industry and community members could apply political pressure through petitions, media coverage and liaising with parliamentarians to develop support for policy changes. Furthermore, while policies for the promotion of solar energy, and renewable energy more generally, could be implemented at various levels of government, only those policies delivered at the state level could address socio-political barriers to renewable energy adoption. These barriers include: a lack of political will and funding to overcome technical issues with network connection

  3. Projects from Federal Region IX: Department of Energy Appropriate Energy Technology Program. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, C.W.; Clark, H.R.; Kay, J.; Lucarelli, F.B.; Rizer, S.

    1980-01-01

    Details and progress of appropriate energy technology programs in Region IX are presented. In Arizona, the projects are Solar Hot Water for the Prescott Adult Center and Solar Prototype House for a Residential Community. In California, the projects are Solar AquaDome Demonstration Project; Solar Powered Liquid Circulating Pump; Appropriate Energy Technology Resource Center; Digester for Wastewater Grown Aquatic Plants; Performance Characteristics of an Anaerobic Wastewater Lagoon Primary Treatment System; Appropriate Energy/Energy Conservation Demonstration Project; Solar Energy for Composting Toilets; Dry Creek Rancheria Solar Demonstration Projects; Demonstration for Energy Retrofit Analysis and Implementation; and Active Solar Space Heating System for the Integral Urban House. In Hawaii, the projects are: Java Plum Electric; Low-Cost Pond Digesters for Hawaiian Pig Farm Energy Needs; Solar Beeswax Melter; Methane Gas Plant for Operating Boilers and Generating Steam; and Solar Water Heating in Sugarcane Seed-Treatment Plants. A Wind-Powered Lighted Navigation Buoys Project for Guam is also described. A revised description of the Biogas Energy for Hawaiian Small Farms and Homesteads is given in an appendix.

  4. Solar energy utilization in the USSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpilrain, E. E.

    1991-05-01

    The conditions for solar energy utilization in the USSR are not too favorable. Only in the country's southern regions is there sufficient insolation to make solar energy utilization economic. In higher latitudes, only seasonal use of solar energy is reasonable. Up to now, the main application of solar energy has been to produce low-temperature heat for hot water production, drying of agricultural goods, space heating and thermal treatment of concrete. A substantial proportion of the solar heating installations are flat plate solar collectors. The total installed area of solar collectors slightly exceeds 100,000 square meters. The collectors are produced by large- and small-scale industry. Where selective coatings are applied to the absorber plates, black nickel or chromium are the main coating materials. Recently launched new projects aim to develop and produce advanced collectors, with enhanced efficiency and reliability. There has been substantial progress in developing photovoltaic (PV) cells for space applications, but terrestrial application of PV is still in a very early stage. Annual production of PV cells totals about 100 kW, based on mono- or polycrystalline silicon. R&D work on thin-film PV cells is in progress. Work is in progress on the development of automated production lines to manufacture 1 MW/yr of crystalline and amorphous silicon. A 5-MW tower-type demonstration plant, with a circular heliostat field, uses steam as the working fluid. Experience with this plant has revealed several disadvantages, including commonwealth of independent states.

  5. Emerging wind energy technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Flemming; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will discuss emerging technologies that are expected to continue the development of the wind sector to embrace new markets and to become even more competitive.......This chapter will discuss emerging technologies that are expected to continue the development of the wind sector to embrace new markets and to become even more competitive....

  6. Environmental benefits of domestic solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalogirou, Soteris A. [Higher Technical Inst., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2004-11-01

    All nations of the world depend on fossil fuels for their energy needs. However the obligation to reduce CO{sub 2} and other gaseous emissions in order to be in conformity with the Kyoto agreement is the reason behind which countries turn to non-polluting renewable energy sources. In this paper the pollution caused by the burning of fossil fuels is initially presented followed by a study on the environmental protection offered by the two most widely used renewable energy systems, i.e. solar water heating and solar space heating. The results presented in this paper show that by using solar energy, considerable amounts of greenhouse polluting gases are avoided. For the case of a domestic water heating system, the saving, compared to a conventional system, is about 80% with electricity or Diesel backup and is about 75% with both electricity and Diesel backup. In the case of space heating and hot water systems the saving is about 40%. It should be noted, however, that in the latter, much greater quantities of pollutant gases are avoided. Additionally, all systems investigated give positive and very promising financial characteristics. With respect to life cycle assessment of the systems, the energy spent for manufacture and installation of the solar systems is recouped in about 1.2 years, whereas the payback time with respect to emissions produced from the embodied energy required for the manufacture and installation of the systems varies from a few months to 9.5 years according to the fuel and the particular pollutant considered. Moreover, due to the higher solar contribution, solar water heating systems have much shorter payback times than solar space heating systems. It can, therefore, be concluded that solar energy systems offer significant protection to the environment and should be employed whenever possible in order to achieve a sustainable future. (Author)

  7. The new energy technologies in Australia; Les nouvelles technologies de l'energie en Australie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Gleuher, M.; Farhi, R

    2005-06-15

    The large dependence of Australia on the fossil fuels leads to an great emission of carbon dioxide. The Australia is thus the first greenhouse gases emitter per habitant, in the world. In spite of its sufficient fossil fuels reserves, the Australia increases its production of clean energies and the research programs in the domain of the new energies technology. After a presentation of the australia situation, the authors detail the government measures in favor of the new energy technologies and the situation of the hydroelectricity, the wind energy, the wave and tidal energy, the biomass, the biofuels, the solar energy, the ''clean'' coal, the hydrogen and the geothermal energy. (A.L.B.)

  8. The HESP (High Energy Solar Physics) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, K.

    1986-01-01

    A project for space observations of solar flares for the coming solar maximum phase is briefly described. The main objective is to make a comprehensive study of high energy phenomena of flares through simultaneous imagings in both hard and soft X-rays. The project will be performed with collaboration from US scientists. The HESP (High Energy Solar Physics) WG of ISAS (Institute of Space and Astronautical Sciences) has extensively discussed future aspects of space observations of high energy phenomena of solar flares based on successful results of the Hinotori mission, and proposed a comprehensive research program for the next solar maximum, called the HESP (SOLAR-A) project. The objective of the HESP project is to make a comprehensive study of both high energy phenomena of flares and quiet structures including pre-flare states, which have been left uncovered by SMM and Hinotori. For such a study simultaneous imagings with better resolutions in space and time in a wide range of energy will be extremely important.

  9. Groove / Solar energy cataloque; Groove aurinkoenergian yritysluettelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    According to Tekes, renewable energy offer Finnish companies opportunities for renewal and international growth. Especially in the field of solar energy, development is fast and the market is growing rapidly. The purpose of this catalogue is to provide information about organizations active in the field of solar energy so that different players can find each other more easily. Information is provided about organizations active both on the supply side (solar energy solution and service providers) and demand side (cities, construction contractors, real estate owners) as well as research teams at universities and research centers. We hope that this catalogue will help different actors to find each other both nationally and internationally so that good development and demonstration projects in the field of solar energy can get started. Tekes participates for instance in Solar Eranet, a joint effort of several funding organizations in Europe support transnational solar projects. This catalogue is provided by Tekes program Groove - Growth from renewables. Tekes' programmes and initiatives are topical entities targeted at financial and expert service areas. Within the programmes and initiatives, businesses and public research units can develop new know-how, build networks and have an impact on the development of their field. (orig.)

  10. Key energy technologies for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holst Joergensen, Birte

    2005-09-01

    The report is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. The outline of the report is: 1) In the introductory section, energy technologies are defined and for analytical reasons further narrowed down; 2) The description of the socio-economic challenges facing Europe in the energy field is based on the analysis made by the International Energy Agency going back to 1970 and with forecasts to 2030. Both the world situation and the European situation are described. This section also contains an overview of the main EU policy responses to energy. Both EU energy R and D as well as Member State energy R and D resources are described in view of international efforts; 3) The description of the science and technology base is made for selected energy technologies, including energy efficiency, biomass, hydrogen, and fuel cells, photovoltaics, clean fossil fuel technologies and CO{sub 2} capture and storage, nuclear fission and fusion. When possible, a SWOT is made for each technology and finally summarised; 4) The forward look highlights some of the key problems and uncertainties related to the future energy situation. Examples of recent energy foresights are given, including national energy foresights in Sweden and the UK as well as links to a number of regional and national foresights and roadmaps; 5) Appendix 1 contains a short description of key international organisations dealing with energy technologies and energy research. (ln)

  11. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Solar

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  12. Renewable energy technologies and its adaptation in an urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thampi, K. Ravindranathan, E-mail: ravindranathan.thampi@ucd.ie; Byrne, Owen, E-mail: ravindranathan.thampi@ucd.ie; Surolia, Praveen K., E-mail: ravindranathan.thampi@ucd.ie [SFI Strategic Research Cluster in Solar Energy Conversion, School of Chemical and Bioprocess Engineering, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2014-01-28

    This general article is based on the inaugural talk delivered at the opening of OMTAT 2013 conference. It notes that the integration of renewable energy sources into living and transport sectors presents a daunting task, still. In spite of the fact that the earth and its atmosphere continually receive 1.7 × 10{sup 17} watts of radiation from the sun, in the portfolio of sustainable and environment friendly energy options, which is about 16% of the world’s energy consumption and mostly met by biomass, only a paltry 0.04% is accredited to solar. First and second generation solar cells offer mature technologies for applications. The most important difficulty with regards to integration with structures is not only the additional cost, but also the lack of sufficient knowledge in managing the available energy smartly and efficiently. The incorporation of PV as a part of building fabric greatly reduces the overall costs compared with retrofitting. BIPV (Building Integrated photovoltaic) is a critical technology for establishing aesthetically pleasing solar structures. Infusing PV and building elements is greatly simplified with some of the second generation thin film technologies now manufactured as flexible panels. The same holds true for 3{sup rd} generation technologies under development such as, and dye- and quantum dot- sensitized solar cells. Additionally, these technologies offer transparent or translucent solar cells for incorporation into windows and skylights. This review deals with the present state of solar cell technologies suitable for BIPV and the status of BIPV applications and its future prospects.

  13. Renewable energy technologies and its adaptation in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thampi, K. Ravindranathan; Byrne, Owen; Surolia, Praveen K.

    2014-01-01

    This general article is based on the inaugural talk delivered at the opening of OMTAT 2013 conference. It notes that the integration of renewable energy sources into living and transport sectors presents a daunting task, still. In spite of the fact that the earth and its atmosphere continually receive 1.7 × 1017 watts of radiation from the sun, in the portfolio of sustainable and environment friendly energy options, which is about 16% of the world's energy consumption and mostly met by biomass, only a paltry 0.04% is accredited to solar. First and second generation solar cells offer mature technologies for applications. The most important difficulty with regards to integration with structures is not only the additional cost, but also the lack of sufficient knowledge in managing the available energy smartly and efficiently. The incorporation of PV as a part of building fabric greatly reduces the overall costs compared with retrofitting. BIPV (Building Integrated photovoltaic) is a critical technology for establishing aesthetically pleasing solar structures. Infusing PV and building elements is greatly simplified with some of the second generation thin film technologies now manufactured as flexible panels. The same holds true for 3rd generation technologies under development such as, and dye- and quantum dot- sensitized solar cells. Additionally, these technologies offer transparent or translucent solar cells for incorporation into windows and skylights. This review deals with the present state of solar cell technologies suitable for BIPV and the status of BIPV applications and its future prospects.

  14. Harnessing Solar Energy for Every Home: Energy Saving Applications

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Most of the present day resources of energy are limited and irreplaceable. The next generation will face acute energy crisis if alternate resources of energy are not developed concurrently. Increasing cost and import of conventional resources have bad effect on the economy of a country, and the only cheaper solution is “unlimited power” from the sun. The use of solar energy is so far limited in household applications. In fact, if we harness only 0.0034 percent of the solar energy reaching the...

  15. Test results, Industrial Solar Technology parabolic trough solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudley, V.E. [EG and G MSI, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evans, L.R.; Matthews, C.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Industrial Solar Technology are cost-sharing development of advanced parabolic trough technology. As part of this effort, several configurations of an IST solar collector were tested to determine the collector efficiency and thermal losses with black chrome and black nickel receiver selective coatings, combined with aluminized film and silver film reflectors, using standard Pyrex{reg_sign} and anti-reflective coated Pyrex{reg_sign} glass receiver envelopes. The development effort has been successful, producing an advanced collector with 77% optical efficiency, using silver-film reflectors, a black nickel receiver coating, and a solgel anti-reflective glass receiver envelope. For each receiver configuration, performance equations were empirically derived relating collector efficiency and thermal losses to the operating temperature. Finally, equations were derived showing collector performance as a function of input insolation value, incident angle, and operating temperature.

  16. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a... § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation provided in § 203.18(a) may be increased by up... to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any...

  17. Implications of solar energy alternatives for community design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A.; Steinitz, C.

    1980-06-01

    A graduate-level studio at the Harvard School of Design explored how a policy of solar-based energy independence will influence the design of a new community of approximately 4500 housing units and other uses. Three large sites outside Tucson (a cooling problem), Atlanta (a humidity problem), and Boston (a heating problem) were selected. Each is typical of its region. A single program was assumed and designed for. Each site had two teams, one following a compact approach and one following a more dispersed approach. Each was free to choose the most appropriate mix of (solar) technology and scale, and was free to integrate energy and community in the design as it saw fit. These choice and integration issues are key areas where our experience may be of interest to those involved in community design and solar energy.

  18. Solar energy estimation using REST2 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rizwan, Majid Jamil, D. P. Kothari

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The network of solar energy measuring stations is relatively rare through out the world. In India, only IMD (India Meteorological Department Pune provides data for quite few stations, which is considered as the base data for research purposes. However, hourly data of measured energy is not available, even for those stations where measurement has already been done. Due to lack of hourly measured data, the estimation of solar energy at the earth’s surface is required. In the proposed study, hourly solar energy is estimated at four important Indian stations namely New Delhi, Mumbai, Pune and Jaipur keeping in mind their different climatic conditions. For this study, REST2 (Reference Evaluation of Solar Transmittance, 2 bands, a high performance parametric model for the estimation of solar energy is used. REST2 derivation uses the two-band scheme as used in the CPCR2 (Code for Physical Computation of Radiation, 2 bands but CPCR2 does not include NO2 absorption, which is an important parameter for estimating solar energy. In this study, using ground measurements during 1986-2000 as reference, a MATLAB program is written to evaluate the performance of REST2 model at four proposed stations. The solar energy at four stations throughout the year is estimated and compared with CPCR2. The results obtained from REST2 model show the good agreement against the measured data on horizontal surface. The study reveals that REST2 models performs better and evaluate the best results as compared to the other existing models under cloudless sky for Indian climatic conditions.

  19. Solar energy conversion by photocatalytic overall water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-07-04

    Summary: Solar energy is abundant and renewable energy: however, extensive conversion of the solar energy can only be achieved by large-scale collection of solar flux. The technology that satisfies this requirement must be as simple as possible to reduce capital cost. Overall water splitting (OWS) by powder-form photocatalysts directly produces H2 as a chemical energy in a single reactor, which does not require any complicated parabolic mirrors and electronic devices. Because of its simplicity and low capital cost, it has tremendous potential to become the major technology of solar energy conversion. To achieve the OWS efficiently, the development of efficient photocatalysts is mandatory. The OWS hotocatalysis involves the electrocatalys is for both water reduction and oxidation on the surafce of photocatalysts, which is driven by particular semiconductors that absorb photons to generate excited carriers. Such photocatalysts must be designed to maximize the charge separation efficiency at the catalyst-semiconductor and semiconductor-electrolyte interface. In addition the low-overpotential electrocatalyts towards water redox reactions should be insensitive to the back-reaction of the produced H2 and O2 that produces H2O. In this presentation, some recent progress on the topic of the OWS in our group will be discussed.

  20. Next generation solar energy. From fundamentals to applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Within the International Conference between 12th and 14th December, 2011 in Erlangen (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were presented: (1) The opto-electronic physics required to approach the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit (E. Yablonovitch); (2) The Shockley-Queisser-limit and beyond (G.H. Bauer); (3) Designing composite nanomaterials for photovoltaic devices (B. Rech); (4) Light-Material interactions in energy conversion (H. Atwater); (5) Functional imaging of hybrid nanostructures - Visualizing mechanisms of solar energy utilization (L. Lauhon); (6) Are photosynthetic proteins suitable for PV applications (Y. Rosenwaks); (7) Detailed balance limit in photovoltaic systems (U. Rau); (8) Plasmonics and nanophotonics for next generation photovoltaics (E. Garnett); (9) Dispersion, wave propagation and efficiency analysis of nanowire solar cells (B. Witzigmann); (10) Application of nanostructures to next generation photovoltaics - Opportunities and challenges from an industrial research perspective (L. Tsakalakos); (11) Triplet states in organic and organometallic photovoltaic cells (K.S. Schanze); (12) New photoelectrode architectures (J.T. Hupp); (13) Dendrimers for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications (P. Ceroni); (14) Photon management with luminescent materials (J. Goldschmidt); (15) Economical aspects of next generation solar cell technologies (W. Hoffmann); (16) Scalability in solar energy conversion - First-row transition metal-based chromophores for dye-sensitized solar cells (J. McCusker); (17) Designing organic materials for photovoltaic devices (A. Harriman); (18) Molecular photovoltaics - What can we learn from model studies (B. Albinsson); (19) Porphyrin-sensitised titanium dioxide solar cells (D. Officer); (20) Light-harvesting: Charge separation, and charge-transportation properties of novel materials for organic photovoltaics (H. Imahori); (21) Phthalocyanines for molecular photovoltaics (T. Torres); (22) Photophysics of

  1. Economic Feasibility and Market Readiness of Solar Technologies. Draft Final Report. Volume I.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaim, Silvio J.; Buchanan, Deborah L.; Christmas, Susan; Fellhauer, Cheryl; Glenn, Barbara; Ketels, Peter A.; Levary, Arnon; Mourning, Pete; Steggerda, Paul; Trivedi, Harit; Witholder, Robert E.

    1978-09-01

    Systems descriptions, costs, technical and market readiness assessments are reported for ten solar technologies: solar heating and cooling of buildings (SHACOB), passive, agricultural and industrial process heat (A/IPH), biomass, ocean thermal (OTEC), wind (WECS), solar thermal electric, photovoltaics, satellite power station (SPS), and solar total energy systems (STES). Study objectives, scope, and methods. are presented. of Joint Task The cost and market analyses portion 5213/6103 will be used to make commercialization assessments in the conclusions of. the final report.

  2. Energy and Technology Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bookless, W.A.; Quirk, W.J. [eds.

    1994-06-01

    This report discusses: The Clementine satellite, the first US satellite to the Moon in more than two decades, sent back more than 1.5 million images of the lunar surface using cameras designed and calibrated by LLNL. An LLNL-developed laser ranger provided information that will be used to construct a relief map of the Moon`s surface; and Uncertainty and the Federal Role in Science and Technology, Ralph E. Gomory was a recent participate in the Director`s Distinguished Lecturer Series at LLNL. In his lecture, he addressed some of the tensions, conflicts, and possible goals related to federal support for science and technology.

  3. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shay, H.D.; Crawford; Genin, M.S.; Prono, J.K.; Staehie, J.T. (eds.)

    1978-03-01

    A report is given on the accomplishments of the energy and environmental research and on the unclassified portion of the weapons program at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory for the month of March, 1978. (PMA)

  4. Mass properties survey of solar array technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Robert

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the technologies, electrical performance, and mass characteristics of many of the presently available and the more advanced developmental space solar array technologies is presented. Qualitative trends and quantitative mass estimates as total array output power is increased from 1 kW to 5 kW at End of Life (EOL) from a single wing are shown. The array technologies are part of a database supporting an ongoing solar power subsystem model development for top level subsystem and technology analyses. The model is used to estimate the overall electrical and thermal performance of the complete subsystem, and then calculate the mass and volume of the array, batteries, power management, and thermal control elements as an initial sizing. The array types considered here include planar rigid panel designs, flexible and rigid fold-out planar arrays, and two concentrator designs, one with one critical axis and the other with two critical axes. Solar cell technologies of Si, GaAs, and InP were included in the analyses. Comparisons were made at the array level; hinges, booms, harnesses, support structures, power transfer, and launch retention mountings were included. It is important to note that the results presented are approximations, and in some cases revised or modified performance and mass estimates of specific designs.

  5. Rosier future for solar energy conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jianlan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Recent progress in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) research and development,which use innovative light-harvesting dye (the "sensitizer") to improve the optical absorption coefficient of the stained nanostructured electrodes,might color our seemingly dimming future energy security with a tint of rose,despite the looming depletion of fossil fuels.Costing only 10~20% as its silicon counterparts,the new devices might make it affordable for much more people to utilize solar energy,a handy renewable energy source.

  6. Economic and Environmental Consequences of Widespread Expansion of Solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, Gaurav

    The purpose of the thesis is to examine the sustainability of an expansion in solar energy subject to resource constraints of Indium. Coal and natural gas are taken as competitors for solar in the energy market. The consumer electronics market also competes with solar PV production because of Indium's use in the manufacturing of LCD screens. A partial equilibrium model is made which determines the rate of extraction of indium, coal and natural gas endogenously. Consumer demand is modeled by the use of cost shares. Generation of electricity and production of LCDs are modeled using Constant Elasticity of Substitution functions. Initial production capacity for both electricity and LCD is considered in the model. The model then endogenously determines the level of investment required. Model simulations are performed to predict the extraction paths and production levels for a timeline of 100 years. A sensitivity analysis is performed to see the reaction of the model to changes in consumer demand and learning rates in solar energy. The response of the model to imposition of various emission caps is also shown. Results of the model show that indium scarcity prevents solar from expanding significantly to a level where it can take over from non-renewable sources of energy. Increased research in solar technologies would not be of much help unless more Indium is available, either by recycling of solar PVs and LCDs or searching for alternate technologies to manufacture LCD screes. Emission caps are able to control excessive usage of fossil fuels and preserve them for a longer time.

  7. Using Solar Energy to Desalinate Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Harry Z.

    1978-01-01

    Material presented is adapted from Desalination with Solar Energy, a paper presented before the International Symposium on Energy Sources and Development, held in Spain in 1977. Desalination systems energized by the sun, conditions governing their efficiency, and their costs are discussed. (HM)

  8. Energy Primer: Solar, Water, Wind, and Biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portola Inst., Inc., Menlo Park, CA.

    This is a comprehensive, fairly technical book about renewable forms of energy--solar, water, wind, and biofuels. The biofuels section covers biomass energy, agriculture, aquaculture, alcohol, methane, and wood. The focus is on small-scale systems which can be applied to the needs of the individual, small group, or community. More than one-fourth…

  9. Energy Primer: Solar, Water, Wind, and Biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portola Inst., Inc., Menlo Park, CA.

    This is a comprehensive, fairly technical book about renewable forms of energy--solar, water, wind, and biofuels. The biofuels section covers biomass energy, agriculture, aquaculture, alcohol, methane, and wood. The focus is on small-scale systems which can be applied to the needs of the individual, small group, or community. More than one-fourth…

  10. Role of the vapor compression cycle in solar energy utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kush, Jr, E A

    1978-01-01

    The vapor compression cycle lends itself to solar energy utilization in two important ways. Its ability to utilize a relatively low temperature heat supply to produce space heating via heat pumps allows the use of solar input to the evaporator to provide potential Coefficients of Performance which are 2 to 3 times higher than present electric driven heat pumps, and the use of relatively inexpensive solar collectors is possible since the collection temperatures can be low grade. Secondly, the compression process of the vapor cycle can be powered by a solar-driven heat engine, typically using a Rankine cycle, for solar cooling purposes. Discriminating coupling of solar with vapor compression allows the well-developed technology and manufacturing capability of the vapor compression industry to be brought into play in the solar field, widening its base and promoting its diversification. The cycle thermodynamics, potential practical hardware, and R and D projects in both of these areas are reviewed. Particular attention is given to the Solar Assisted Heat Pump and its characteristics and the heat pump simulator activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  11. Energy, Economic, and Environmental Benefits of the Solar America Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grover, S.

    2007-08-01

    The President's Solar America Initiative (SAI) was launched in January 2006 as part of the administration's Advanced Energy Initiative. The SAI is being led by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP), with NREL providing analytical and technical support. The SAI has a goal of installing 5-10 GW of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States by 2015 and 70-100 GW of PV systems in the United States by 2030. To make PV cost-competitive with other energy resources, this requires that the installed cost of PV fall from approximately $8/Wdc in 2005 to $3.3/Wdc in 2015 and $2.5/Wdc in 2030. This report presents estimates of the potential energy, economic, and environmental benefits that could result should the SAI PV installation goals be achieved.

  12. Energy and Technology Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bookless, W.A.; McElroy, L.; Wheatcraft, D.; Middleton, C.; Shang, S. [eds.

    1994-10-01

    Two articles are included: the industrial computing initiative, and artificial hip joints (applying weapons expertise to medical technology). Three research highlights (briefs) are included: KEN project (face recognition), modeling groundwater flow and chemical migration, and gas and oil national information infrastructure.

  13. Novel Thermal Storage Technologies for Concentrating Solar Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neti, Sudhakar [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics; Oztekin, Alparslan [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Chen, John [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Tuzla, Kemal [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Misiolek, Wojciech [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    2013-06-20

    The technologies that are to be developed in this work will enable storage of thermal energy in 100 MWe solar energy plants for 6-24 hours at temperatures around 300°C and 850°C using encapsulated phase change materials (EPCM). Several encapsulated phase change materials have been identified, fabricated and proven with calorimetry. Two of these materials have been tested in an airflow experiment. A cost analysis for these thermal energy storage systems has also been conducted that met the targets established at the initiation of the project.

  14. Technologies for building integrated energy supply; Teknologier for bygningsintegreret energiforsyning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katic, I.

    2011-07-15

    The current report is part of the deliverables from the project ''Building Integrated Energy Supply'' supported by the Danish Energy Authority R and D program. It describes a range of technologies for individual supply of heat and/or electricity to dwellings with respect to their stage of development and possible application in the near future. Energy supply of buildings is becoming more and more complex, partly as a result of increasing demands for comfort, efficiency and reduced emissions, partly as a result of rising oil prices and improved competitiveness of alternative energy sources. The days where ordinary boilers were the dominant source of individual supply of dwellings are becoming past these years. The challenge of the new range of technologies lies to a high extent in the fluctuating nature of their energy conversion and their interaction with the supply grids for heat and electricity. There is thus an increasing demand to understand the nature of the different supply technologies, besides a regular update of their economical key figures. The technologies briefly described in this study are: Solar heating, passive solar energy, biofuel boilers, heat pumps, micro CHP, solar photovoltaic and energy storage systems. The selected technologies are all assessed to play an important role in future's mix of supply technologies in Denmark, especially heat pumps and solar. (Author)

  15. Solar energy system with wind vane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grip, Robert E

    2015-11-03

    A solar energy system including a pedestal defining a longitudinal axis, a frame that is supported by the pedestal and that is rotateable relative to the pedestal about the longitudinal axis, the frame including at least one solar device, and a wind vane operatively connected to the frame to urge the frame relative to the pedestal about the longitudinal axis in response to wind acting on the wind vane.

  16. Reliability engineering in solar energy: workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, G.

    1980-03-01

    A workshop to reveal the scope of reliability-related activities in solar energy conversion projects and in nonsolar segments of industry is described. Two reliability programs, one in heating and cooling and one in photovoltaics, are explicated. This document also presents general suggestions for the establishment of a unified program for reliability, durability, maintainability, and safety (RDM and S) in present and future solar projects.

  17. Reliability engineering in solar energy: workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, G.

    1980-03-01

    A workshop to reveal the scope of reliability-related activities in solar energy conversion projects and in nonsolar segments of industry is described. Two reliability programs, one in heating and cooling and one in photovoltaics, are explicated. This document also presents general suggestions for the establishment of a unified program for reliability, durability, maintainability, and safety (RDM and S) in present and future solar projects.

  18. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

  19. Gas and energy technology 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    Norway has a long tradition as an energy producing nation. No other country administers equally large quantities of energy compared to the number of inhabitants. Norway faces great challenges concerning the ambitions of utilizing natural gas power and living up to its Kyoto protocol pledges. Tekna would like to contribute to increased knowledge about natural gas and energy, its possibilities and technical challenges. Topics treated include carrying and employing natural gas, aspects of technology, energy and environment, hydrogen as energy carrier, as well as other energy alternatives, CO{sub 2} capture and the value chain connected to it.

  20. Predictive Factors Associated with Solar Energy Development in Laikipia District Central Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Wambuguh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of sunlight and the availability affordable solar technologies in many areas far from grid-based electricity has sparked the development of renewable energy technologies (RETs which tap solar radiation energy to provide electricity. A study on solar photovoltaics (SPVs use and utilization took place in the Wiyumiririe Location of Kenya. A purposive randomized convenience sample of 246 households was selected and landowner interviews conducted guided by a questionnaire, followed by field surveys and observations. Although solar energy contributed less than a quarter of total household energy needs, residents specifically associated it with specific developmental initiatives. Correlation and logistic regression model analyses showed that solar power development was closely associated (and thus can be predicted from five main independent variables. The findings of the study allowed the development of a probabilistic model general enough to be applicable elsewhere in the development of alternative energy resources particularly those based on solar input.

  1. High efficiency nanostructured thin film solar cells for energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welser, Roger E.; Sood, Ashok K.; Lewis, Jay S.; Dhar, Nibir K.; Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal S.

    2016-05-01

    Thin-film III-V materials are an attractive candidate material for solar energy harvesting devices capable of supplying portable and mobile power in both terrestrial and space environments. Nanostructured quantum well and quantum dot solar cells are being widely investigated as a means of extending infrared absorption and enhancing photovoltaic device performance. In this paper, we will review recent progress on realizing high-voltage InGaAs/GaAs quantum well solar cells that operate at or near the radiative limit of performance. These high-voltage nanostructured device designs provide a pathway to enhance the performance of existing device technologies, and can also be leveraged for next-generation solar cells.

  2. Noise-control needs in the developing energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keast, D.N.

    1978-03-01

    The noise characteristics of existing energy conversion technologies, e.g., from obtaining and processing fossil fuels to power plants operations, and of developing energy technologies (wind, geothermal sources, solar energy or fusion systems) are discussed in terms of the effects of noise on humans, animals, structures, and equipment and methods for noise control. Regulations for noise control are described. Recommendations are made for further research on noise control and noise effects. (LCL)

  3. Solar wind-magnetosphere energy input functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargatze, L.F.; McPherron, R.L.; Baker, D.N.

    1985-01-01

    A new formula for the solar wind-magnetosphere energy input parameter, P/sub i/, is sought by applying the constraints imposed by dimensional analysis. Applying these constraints yields a general equation for P/sub i/ which is equal to rho V/sup 3/l/sub CF//sup 2/F(M/sub A/,theta) where, rho V/sup 3/ is the solar wind kinetic energy density and l/sub CF//sup 2/ is the scale size of the magnetosphere's effective energy ''collection'' region. The function F which depends on M/sub A/, the Alfven Mach number, and on theta, the interplanetary magnetic field clock angle is included in the general equation for P/sub i/ in order to model the magnetohydrodynamic processes which are responsible for solar wind-magnetosphere energy transfer. By assuming the form of the function F, it is possible to further constrain the formula for P/sub i/. This is accomplished by using solar wind data, geomagnetic activity indices, and simple statistical methods. It is found that P/sub i/ is proportional to (rho V/sup 2/)/sup 1/6/VBG(theta) where, rho V/sup 2/ is the solar wind dynamic pressure and VBG(theta) is a rectified version of the solar wind motional electric field. Furthermore, it is found that G(theta), the gating function which modulates the energy input to the magnetosphere, is well represented by a ''leaky'' rectifier function such as sin/sup 4/(theta/2). This function allows for enhanced energy input when the interplanetary magnetic field is oriented southward. This function also allows for some energy input when the interplanetary magnetic field is oriented northward. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, W.J.; Canada, J.; de Vore, L.; Gleason, K.; Kirvel, R.D.; Kroopnick, H.; McElroy, L.

    1994-04-01

    This issue highlights the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s 1993 accomplishments in our mission areas and core programs: economic competitiveness, national security, energy, the environment, lasers, biology and biotechnology, engineering, physics, chemistry, materials science, computers and computing, and science and math education. Secondary topics include: nonproliferation, arms control, international security, environmental remediation, and waste management.

  5. Battery energy storage technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Max D.; Carr, Dodd S.

    1993-03-01

    Battery energy storage systems, comprising lead-acid batteries, power conversion systems, and control systems, are used by three main groups: power generating utilities, power distributing utilities, and major power consumers (such as electric furnace foundries). The principal advantages of battery energy storage systems to generating utilities include load leveling, frequency control, spinning reserve, modular construction, convenient siting, no emissions, and investment deferral for new generation and transmission equipment. Power distributing utilities and major power consumers can avoid costly demand changes by discharging their batteries at peak periods and then recharging with lower cost off-peak power (say, at night). Battery energy storage systems are most cost effective when designed for discharge periods of less than 5 h; other systems (for example, pumped water storage) are better suited for longer discharges. It is estimated that by the year 2000 there will be a potential need for 4000 MW of battery energy storage. New construction of five plants totaling 100 MW is presently scheduled for completion by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority between 1992 and 1995.

  6. Semiconductor-based Multilayer Selective Solar Absorber for Unconcentrated Solar Thermal Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nathan H; Chen, Zhen; Fan, Shanhui; Minnich, Austin J

    2017-07-13

    Solar thermal energy conversion has attracted substantial renewed interest due to its applications in industrial heating, air conditioning, and electricity generation. Achieving stagnation temperatures exceeding 200 °C, pertinent to these technologies, with unconcentrated sunlight requires spectrally selective absorbers with exceptionally low emissivity in the thermal wavelength range and high visible absorptivity for the solar spectrum. In this Communication, we report a semiconductor-based multilayer selective absorber that exploits the sharp drop in optical absorption at the bandgap energy to achieve a measured absorptance of 76% at solar wavelengths and a low emittance of approximately 5% at thermal wavelengths. In field tests, we obtain a peak temperature of 225 °C, comparable to that achieved with state-of-the-art selective surfaces. With straightforward optimization to improve solar absorption, our work shows the potential for unconcentrated solar thermal systems to reach stagnation temperatures exceeding 300 °C, thereby eliminating the need for solar concentrators for mid-temperature solar applications such as supplying process heat.

  7. Renewable Energy Feasibility Study Leading to Development of the Native Spirit Solar Energy Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carolyn Stewart; Tracey LeBeau

    2008-01-31

    DOE-funded renewable energy feasibility study conducted by Red Mountain Tribal Energy on behalf of the Southwest Tribal Energy Consortium (SWTEC). During the course of the study, SWTEC members considered multiple options for the organization structure, selected a proposed organization structure, and drafted a Memorandum of Understanding for the SWTEC organization. High-level resource assessments for SWTEC members were completed; surveys were developed and completed to determine each member’s interest in multiple participation options, including on-reservation projects. With the survey inputs in mind, multiple energy project options were identified and evaluated on a high-level basis. That process led to a narrowing of the field of technology options to solar generation, specifically, utility-scale Concentrating Solar-Powered Generation projects, with a specific, tentative project location identified at the Fort Mojave Indian Reservation -- the Native Spirit Solar Energy Facility.

  8. Solar Energy Economics Revisited: The Promise and Challenge of Orbiting Reflectors for World Energy Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billman, Kenneth W.; Gilbreath, William P.; Bowen, Stuart W.

    1978-01-01

    A system of orbiting, large-area, low mass density reflector satellites which provide nearly continuous solar energy to a world-distributed set of conversion sites is examined under the criteria for any potential new energy system: technical feasibility, significant and renewable energy impact, economic feasibility and social/political acceptability. Although many technical issues need further study, reasonable advances in space technology appear sufficient to implement the system. The enhanced insolation is shown to greatly improve the economic competitiveness of solar-electric generation to circa 1995 fossil/nuclear alternatives. The system is shown to have the potential for supplying a significant fraction of future domestic and world energy needs. Finally, the environmental and social issues, including a means for financing such a large shift to a world solar energy dependence, is addressed.

  9. Solar Energy Potential Assessment in the Algerian South Area: Case of Ghardaïa Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacem Gairaa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its geographical position in the solar belt, Algeria is blessed with an abundance of solar energy and has the opportunity to utilize this bounty of natural energy effectively, promoting a clean environment and developing renewable energy technologies in the region. This paper assesses and analyses the solar energy potential in Ghardaïa area (south Algeria to help users for solar energy applications. A database of solar radiation components has been employed for this purpose. The data presented in the paper are compared with other data supplied by renowned regional and international establishments, such as the solar atlas for the Mediterranean and the NASA. The frequency and the hourly distribution of solar radiation components indicate that the region is considered as an economical area and favorable for solar applications, such as the photovoltaic and the concentrating solar power (CSP technologies. In addition to solar radiation, data of two functions, namely, clearness index and sunshine fraction have been examined; their results specify that the site has a clear sky conditions in most time of the year. In general, the obtained results illustrate that the site under consideration can use solar energy as a promising solution to conventional energy.

  10. Application research of solar energy optoelectronic system in the design of culture square

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Qi Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years,as people worsen recognition of revival environment and world energy issue,they have started caring about solar energy,which is convenient to achieve, cheap and renewable clean energy,called the 21 century golden energy.Now our project each of designer need worth thinking is how to apply clean and energy-saving solar energy optoelectronic system to square landscape design. To survey and study about solar energy optoelectronic technology in the culture square design has vital influence from the point of economic and social sustainable development and earth ecology.

  11. Ecological and economical aspects of solar energy use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobczyk Wiktoria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural environment is devastated by the industry and by households, which use fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas for heating water and buildings as well as for generating electricity. One of the ways to limit the degradation of the environment and the usage of natural resources is to use unconventional and renewable resources and to implement energy-saving technologies in construction, industry and households. A dynamic development of systems based on renewable energy sources such as biomass, water, wind, heat from inside the Earth and sunbeams has recently occurred in the whole world. This thesis is related to the purest and the least onerous for environment source of energy which is undoubtedly the energy that comes directly from the solar radiation. In this article the solar energy application is presented, taking into account its impact on the environment and financial costs of developing solar techniques. The installation of alternative energy sources are entitled to grants and credits, which reduces the investment costs. Ecological effects, although immeasurable, are significant and definitely testify in favor of the solar system.

  12. Luminescent solar concentrators and all-inorganic nanoparticle solar cells for solar energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholin, Veronica

    Increasing energy demand and the parallel increase of greenhouse gas emissions are challenging researchers to find new and cleaner energy sources. Solar energy harvesting is arguably the most promising candidate for replacing fossil-fuel power generation. Photovoltaics are the most direct way of collecting solar energy; cost continues to hinder large-scale implementation of photovoltaics, however. Therefore, alternative technologies that will allow the extraction of solar power, while maintaining the overall costs of fabrication, installation, collection, and distribution low, must be explored. This thesis focuses on the fabrication and testing of two types of devices that step up to this challenge: the luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) and all-inorganic nanoparticle solar cells. In these devices I make use of novel materials, semiconducting polymers and inorganic nanoparticles, both of which have lower costs than the crystalline materials used in the fabrication of traditional photovoltaics. Furthermore, the cost of manufacturing LSCs and the nanoparticle solar cells is lower than the manufacturing cost of traditional optics-based concentrators and crystalline solar cells. An LSC is essentially a slab of luminescent material that acts as a planar light pipe. The LSC absorbs incoming photons and channels fluoresced photons toward appropriately located solar cells, which perform the photovoltaic conversion. By covering large areas with relatively inexpensive fluorescing organic dyes or semiconducting polymers, the area of solar cell needed is greatly reduced. Because semiconducting polymers and quantum dots may have small absorption/emission band overlaps, tunable absorption, and longer lifetimes, they are good candidates for LSC fabrication, promising improvement with respect to laser dyes traditionally used to fabricate LSCs. Here the efficiency of LSCs consisting of liquid solutions of semiconducting polymers encased in glass was measured and compared to the

  13. Adaptability of solar energy conversion systems on ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visa, I.; Cotorcea, A.; Neagoe, M.; Moldovan, M.

    2016-08-01

    International trade of goods largely uses maritime/transoceanic ships driven by engines using fossil fuels. This two centuries tradition is technologically mature but significantly adds to the CO2 emissions; therefore, recent trends focus on on-board implementation of systems converting the solar energy into power (photovoltaic systems) or heat (solar-thermal systems). These systems are carbon-emissions free but are still under research and plenty of effort is devoted to fast reach maturity and feasibility. Unlike the systems implemented in a specific continental location, the design of solar energy conversion systems installed on shipboard has to face the problem generated by the system base motion along with the ship travelling on routes at different latitudes: the navigation direction and sense and roll-pitch combined motion with reduced amplitude, but with relatively high frequency. These raise highly interesting challenges in the design and development of mechanical systems that support the maximal output in terms of electricity or heat. The paper addresses the modelling of the relative position of a solar energy conversion surface installed on a ship according to the current position of the sun; the model is based on the navigation trajectory/route, ship motion generated by waves and the relative sun-earth motion. The model describes the incidence angle of the sunray on the conversion surface through five characteristic angles: three used to define the ship orientation and two for the solar angles; based on, their influence on the efficiency in solar energy collection is analyzed by numerical simulations and appropriate recommendations are formulated for increasing the solar energy conversion systems adaptability on ships.

  14. Solar energy program evaluation: an introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    deLeon, P.

    1979-09-01

    The Program Evaluation Methodology provides an overview of the practice and methodology of program evaluation and defines more precisely the evaluation techniques and methodologies that would be most appropriate to government organizations which are actively involved in the research, development, and commercialization of solar energy systems. Formal evaluation cannot be treated as a single methodological approach for assessing a program. There are four basic types of evaluation designs - the pre-experimental design; the quasi-experimental design based on time series; the quasi-experimental design based on comparison groups; and the true experimental design. This report is organized to first introduce the role and issues of evaluation. This is to provide a set of issues to organize the subsequent sections detailing the national solar energy programs. Then, these two themes are integrated by examining the evaluation strategies and methodologies tailored to fit the particular needs of the various individual solar energy programs. (MCW)

  15. The Texas Instruments Solar Energy System development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. L.

    The system is described, showing that energy conversion and storage functions are combined in a novel way. Here, small silicon solar cells are immersed in an electrolyte and the current generated by the cells is used directly to electrolyze a halogen acid, for example, HBr. The hydrogen and bromine produced can be stored separately until needed and then recombined in a fuel cell to give electrical energy on demand. The fuel cell HBr product is returned to the solar chemical convertor, thus completing the closed loop energy cycle. In summarizing the achievements to date, it is noted that feasibility demonstration of a 13% array electrical efficiency prepared by a laboratory process and 10% array efficiencies have been obtained from potentially scalable solar cell and array processes.

  16. Surface Plasmon-Assisted Solar Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodekatos, Georgios; Schünemann, Stefan; Tüysüz, Harun

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) from plasmonic noble metals in combination with semiconductors promises great improvements for visible light-driven photocatalysis, in particular for energy conversion. This review summarizes the basic principles of plasmonic photocatalysis, giving a comprehensive overview about the proposed mechanisms for enhancing the performance of photocatalytically active semiconductors with plasmonic devices and their applications for surface plasmon-assisted solar energy conversion. The main focus is on gold and, to a lesser extent, silver nanoparticles in combination with titania as semiconductor and their usage as active plasmonic photocatalysts. Recent advances in water splitting, hydrogen generation with sacrificial organic compounds, and CO2 reduction to hydrocarbons for solar fuel production are highlighted. Finally, further improvements for plasmonic photocatalysts, regarding performance, stability, and economic feasibility, are discussed for surface plasmon-assisted solar energy conversion.

  17. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-10-01

    Three review articles are presented. The first describes the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory role in the research and development of oil-shale retorting technology through its studies of the relevant chemical and physical processes, mathematical models, and new retorting concepts. Second is a discussion of investigation of properties of dense molecular fluids at high pressures and temperatures to improve understanding of high-explosive behavior, giant-planet structure, and hydrodynamic shock interactions. Third, by totally computerizing the triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer system, the laboratory has produced a general-purpose instrument of unrivaled speed, selectivity, and adaptability for the analysis and identification of trace organic constituents in complex chemical mixtures. (GHT)

  18. Solar technology applications: a survey of solar powered irrigation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newkirk, H.W.

    1978-04-17

    Published information on solar powered irrigation systems is presented. Thermal solar systems, thermoelectric solar systems, and photovoltaic solar systems are included. A bibliography and survey of on-going work is presented. (WHK)

  19. Study plan for critical renewable energy storage technology (CREST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Now is the time to plan to integrate significant quantities of distributed renewable energy into the electricity grid. Concerns about climate change, the adoption of state-level renewable portfolio standards and incentives, and accelerated cost reductions are driving steep growth in U.S. renewable energy technologies. The number of distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) installations and wind farms are growing rapidly. The potential for concentrated solar power (CSP) also continues to grow. As renewable energy technologies mature, they can provide a significant share of our nation’s electricity requirements.

  20. Design of nitride semiconductors for solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakutayev, Andriy

    2016-01-01

    Nitride semiconductors are a promising class of materials for solar energy conversion applications, such as photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical cells. Nitrides can have better solar absorption and electrical transport properties than the more widely studied oxides, as well as the potential for better scalability than other pnictides or chalcogenides. In addition, nitrides are also relatively unexplored compared to other chemistries, so they provide a great opportunity for new materials discovery. This paper reviews the recent advances in the design of novel semiconducting nitrides for solar energy conversion technologies. Both binary and multinary nitrides are discussed, with a range of metal chemistries (Cu3N, ZnSnN2, Sn3N4, etc.) and crystal structures (delafossite, perovskite, spinel, etc.), including a brief overview of wurtzite III-N materials and devices. The current scientific challenges and promising future directions in the field are also highlighted.