WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology solar energy

  1. Solar Energy Technologies Office Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2018-03-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Office (SETO) supports early-stage research and development to improve the affordability, reliability, and performance of solar technologies on the grid. The office invests in innovative research efforts that securely integrate more solar energy into the grid, enhance the use and storage of solar energy, and lower solar electricity costs.

  2. Household appliances using solar energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, H.

    2000-01-01

    Many solar energy technologies are now sufficiently developed to make it possible to use these to replace some of our conventional energy sources, but still need improvement and reduction in cost. It is, therefore, necessary to focus attention on household uses of solar energy. This paper describes the recent developments and current position in respect of several such devices, which include; solar cooker, with curved concentrator, Panel Cooker, Solar Dryer, solar water heater, Solar Still, Solar Water Pump, Solar Water Disinfection, Solar space Heating and greenhouse solar Reflectors, Development and Extension activities on these should be taken up at various levels. (author)

  3. Solar energy: Technology and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    It is pointed out that in 1970 the total energy consumed in the U.S. was equal to the energy of sunlight received by only 0.15% of the land area of the continental U.S. The utilization of solar energy might, therefore, provide an approach for solving the energy crisis produced by the consumption of irreplaceable fossil fuels at a steadily increasing rate. Questions regarding the availability of solar energy are discussed along with the design of solar energy collectors and various approaches for heating houses and buildings by utilizing solar radiation. Other subjects considered are related to the heating of water partly or entirely with solar energy, the design of air conditioning systems based on the use of solar energy, electric power generation by a solar thermal and a photovoltaic approach, solar total energy systems, industrial and agricultural applications of solar energy, solar stills, the utilization of ocean thermal power, power systems based on the use of wind, and solar-energy power systems making use of geosynchronous power plants.

  4. Development of technologies for solar energy utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    With relation to the development of photovoltaic power systems for practical use, studies were made on thin-substrate polycrystalline solar cells and thin-film solar cells as manufacturing technology for solar cells for practical use. The technological development for super-high efficiency solar cells was also being advanced. Besides, the research and development have been conducted of evaluation technology for photovoltaic power systems and systems to utilize the photovoltaic power generation and peripheral technologies. The demonstrative research on photovoltaic power systems was continued. The international cooperative research on photovoltaic power systems was also made. The development of a manufacturing system for compound semiconductors for solar cells was carried out. As to the development of solar energy system technologies for industrial use, a study of elemental technologies was first made, and next the development of an advanced heat process type solar energy system was commenced. In addition, the research on passive solar systems was made. An investigational study was carried out of technologies for solar cities and solar energy snow melting systems. As international joint projects, studies were made of solar heat timber/cacao drying plants, etc. The paper also commented on projects for international cooperation for the technological development of solar energy utilization systems. 26 figs., 15 tabs.

  5. The export of Dutch solar energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The use of solar energy technology is on the up. In 1997 circa 8000 solar energy systems were installed in the Netherlands, compared to 100 systems in 1988. Solar energy installations, manufactured in the Netherlands, are also sold and installed in other European countries. The market grows by 55% per year. An overview is given of the principles and components of installed and exported solar heating systems, with special attention for the drain-back system

  6. Technology assessment of solar energy utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, F.

    1985-11-01

    The general objectives and methods of Technology Assessment (TA) are outlined. Typical analysis steps of a TA for solar energy are reviewed: description of the technology and its further development; identification of impact areas; analysis of boundary conditions and definition of scenarios; market penetration of solar technologies; projection of consequences in areas of impact; and assessment of impacts and identification of options for action.

  7. Solar energy – new photovoltaic technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer-Larsen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Solar energy technologies directly convert sunlight into electricity and heat, or power chemical reactions that convert simple molecules into synthetic chemicals and fuels. The sun is by far the most abundant source of energy, and a sustainable society will need to rely on solar energy as one...... of its major energy sources. Solar energy is a focus point in many strategies for a sustainable energy supply. The European Commission’s Strategic Energy Plan (SET-plan) envisages a Solar Europe Initiative, where photovoltaics and concentrated solar power (CSP) supply as much power as wind mills...... in the future. Much focus is directed towards photovoltaics presently. Installation of solar cell occurs at an unprecedented pace and the expectations of the photovoltaics industry are high: a total PV capacity of 40 GW by 2012 as reported by a recent study. The talk progresses from general solar energy topics...

  8. Solar Energy: Its Technologies and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auh, P. C.

    1978-06-01

    Solar heat, as a potential source of clean energy, is available to all of us. Extensive R and D efforts are being made to effectively utilize this renewable energy source. A variety of different technologies for utilizing solar energy have been proven to be technically feasible. Here, some of the most promising technologies and their applications are briefly described. These are: Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings (SHACOB), Solar Thermal Energy Conversion (STC), Wind Energy Conversion (WECS), Bioconversion to Fuels (BCF), Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), and Photovoltaic Electric Power Systems (PEPS). Special emphasis is placed on the discussion of the SHACOB technologies, since the technologies are being expeditiously developed for the near commercialization.

  9. Summary of solar energy technology characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alessio, Dr., Gregory J.; Blaunstein, Dr., Robert R.

    1980-09-01

    This report summarizes the design, operating, energy, environmental, and economic characteristics of 38 model solar systems used in the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems Project including solar heating and cooling of buildings, agricultural and industrial process heat, solar electric conversion, and industrial biomass systems. The generic systems designs utilized in this report were based on systems studies and mission analyses performed by the DOE National Laboratories and the MITRE Corporation. The purpose of those studies were to formulate materials and engineering cost data and performance data of solar equipment once mass produced.

  10. Technology Roadmaps: Solar photovoltaic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Solar PV power is a commercially available and reliable technology with a significant potential for long-term growth in nearly all world regions. This roadmap estimates that by 2050, PV will provide around 11% of global electricity production and avoid 2.3 gigatonnes (Gt) of CO2 emissions per year. Achieving this roadmap's vision will require an effective, long-term and balanced policy effort in the next decade to allow for optimal technology progress, cost reduction and ramp-up of industrial manufacturing for mass deployment. Governments will need to provide long-term targets and supporting policies to build confidence for investments in manufacturing capacity and deployment of PV systems. PV will achieve grid parity -- i.e. competitiveness with electricity grid retail prices -- by 2020 in many regions. As grid parity is achieved, the policy framework should evolve towards fostering self-sustained markets, with the progressive phase-out of economic incentives, but maintaining grid access guarantees and sustained R&D support.

  11. Technology Roadmaps: Solar photovoltaic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Solar PV power is a commercially available and reliable technology with a significant potential for long-term growth in nearly all world regions. This roadmap estimates that by 2050, PV will provide around 11% of global electricity production and avoid 2.3 gigatonnes (Gt) of CO2 emissions per year. Achieving this roadmap's vision will require an effective, long-term and balanced policy effort in the next decade to allow for optimal technology progress, cost reduction and ramp-up of industrial manufacturing for mass deployment. Governments will need to provide long-term targets and supporting policies to build confidence for investments in manufacturing capacity and deployment of PV systems. PV will achieve grid parity -- i.e. competitiveness with electricity grid retail prices -- by 2020 in many regions. As grid parity is achieved, the policy framework should evolve towards fostering self-sustained markets, with the progressive phase-out of economic incentives, but maintaining grid access guarantees and sustained R&D support.

  12. Environmental impacts from the solar energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Frantzeskaki, Niki; Gekas, Vassilis

    2005-01-01

    Solar energy systems (photovoltaics, solar thermal, solar power) provide significant environmental benefits in comparison to the conventional energy sources, thus contributing, to the sustainable development of human activities. Sometimes however, their wide scale deployment has to face potential negative environmental implications. These potential problems seem to be a strong barrier for a further dissemination of these systems in some consumers. To cope with these problems this paper presents an overview of an Environmental Impact Assessment. We assess the potential environmental intrusions in order to ameliorate them with new technological innovations and good practices in the future power systems. The analysis provides the potential burdens to the environment, which include - during the construction, the installation and the demolition phases, as well as especially in the case of the central solar technologies - noise and visual intrusion, greenhouse gas emissions, water and soil pollution, energy consumption, labour accidents, impact on archaeological sites or on sensitive ecosystems, negative and positive socio-economic effects

  13. Solar energy photovoltaic technology: proficiency and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Total is committed to making the best possible of the planet's fossil fuel reserves while fostering the emergence of other solutions, notably by developing effective alternatives. Total involves in photovoltaics when it founded in 1983 Total Energies, renamed Tenesol in 2005, a world leader in the design and installation of photovoltaic solar power systems. This document presents Total's activities in the domain: the global challenge of energy sources and the environment, the energy collecting by photovoltaic electricity, the silicon technology for cell production, solar panels and systems to distribute energy, research and development to secure the future. (A.L.B.)

  14. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program: Overview and Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-05-01

    A non-technical overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technologies Program, including sections on photovoltaics (PV), concentrating solar power, and solar heating and lighting R&D.

  15. Solar Energy Technologies Program Newsletter - July 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-07-01

    This quarterly newsletter is intended for participants and stakeholders in the DOE Solar Program. The content includes features on technology development, market transformation, and policy analysis for solar. Highlights include solar industry updates, DOE funding opportunity announcements and awards, and national laboratory technology developments.

  16. Solar energy utilizing technology for future cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Kei

    1987-11-20

    This report proposes solar energy utilizing technologies for future cities, centering on a system that uses Fresnel lenses and optical fiber cables. This system selects out beams in the visible range and the energy can be sent to end terminals constantly as long as sunlight is available. Optical energy is concentrated 4,000-fold. The system can provide long-distance projection of parallel rays. It will be helpful for efficient utilization of light in cities and can increase the degree of freedom in carrying out urban development. The total efficiency for the introduction into optical fiber can be up to 40 percent. With no heating coil incorporated, there is no danger of fire. The standard size of a light condenser is 2 m in dome diameter and 2.5 m in height. Auxiliary artificial light is used for backup purposes when it is cloudy. Heat pumps operating on solar thermal energy are employed to maintain air conditioning for 24 hours a day in order to ensure the establishment of an environment where residential areas exist in the neighborhood of office areas. Seven automatic solar light collection and transfer systems are currently in practical use at the Arc Hills building. The combination of Fresnel lens and optical fiber is more than six times as high in efficiency as a reflecting mirror. (5 figs, 3 tabs, 8 photos, 6 refs)

  17. Our prodigal sun. [solar energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Characteristics of the sun are reported indicating it as a source of energy. Data from several space missions are discussed, and the solar activity cycle is presented. The corona, flares, prominences, spots, and wind of the sun are also discussed.

  18. Building Design Guidelines for Solar Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givoni, B.

    1989-01-01

    There are two main objectives to this publication. The first is to find out the communalities in the experience gained in previous studies and in actual applications of solar technologies in buildings, residential as well as nonresidential. The second objective is to review innovative concepts and products which may have an impact on future developments and applications of solar technologies in buildings. The available information and common lessons were collated and presented in a form which, hopefully, is useful for architects and solar engineers, as well as for teachers of "solar architecture" and students in Architectural Schools. The publication is based mainly on the collection and analysis of relevant information. The information included previous studies in which the performance of solar buildings was evaluated, as well as the personal experience of the Author and the research consultants. The state of the art, as indicated by these studies and personal experience, was summarized and has served as basis for the development of the Design Guidelines. In addition to the summary of the state of the art, as was already applied in solar buildings, an account was given of innovative concepts and products. Such innovations have occurred in the areas of thermal storage by Phase Change Materials (PCM) and in glazing with specialized or changeable properties. Interesting concepts were also developed for light transfer, which may enable to transfer sunlight to the core areas of large multi story nonresidential buildings. These innovations may have a significant impact on future developments of solar technologies and their applications in buildings.

  19. Here comes the sun. Solar energy technology in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Wees, G.

    1998-01-01

    An overview is given of the energy policy in the USA with respect to solar energy technology and the marketing of solar energy applications. In particular, attention is paid to the Million Solar Roofs programme, small-scale and medium-scale photovoltaic (PV) systems (Residential PV and Utility Scale PV), solar thermal systems (Parabolic Trough, Power tower, and Solar Dish/Engine). Also examples of passive solar systems are given. Finally, a number of aspects with regard to market implementation, e.g. net-metering. 9 refs

  20. Assessing Rare Metal Availability Challenges for Solar Energy Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Grandell

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is commonly seen as a future energy source with significant potential. Ruthenium, gallium, indium and several other rare elements are common and vital components of many solar energy technologies, including dye-sensitized solar cells, CIGS cells and various artificial photosynthesis approaches. This study surveys solar energy technologies and their reliance on rare metals such as indium, gallium, and ruthenium. Several of these rare materials do not occur as primary ores, and are found as byproducts associated with primary base metal ores. This will have an impact on future production trends and the availability for various applications. In addition, the geological reserves of many vital metals are scarce and severely limit the potential of certain solar energy technologies. It is the conclusion of this study that certain solar energy concepts are unrealistic in terms of achieving TW scales.

  1. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program: FY 2004 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-10-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2004 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2004. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  2. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2006 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2006 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2005. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  3. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program 2007 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2007 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program from October 2006 to September 2007. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  4. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-03-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2005. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program?s national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  5. Solar Energy Technologies Program Newsletter - Fourth Quarter 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2009-12-31

    The Fourth Quarter 2009 edition of the Solar Energy Technologies Program newsletter summarizes the activities for the past three months, funding opportunities, highlights from the national labs, and upcoming events.

  6. Frameworks for Understanding and Promoting Solar Energy Technology Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Schelly

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the contrasting theories of metabolic rift and ecological modernization theory (EMT are applied to the same empirical phenomenon. Metabolic rift argues that the natural metabolic relationship between humans and nature has been fractured through modernization, industrialization and urbanization. EMT, in contrast, argues that societies in an advanced state of industrialization adopt ecologically benign production technologies and political policies, suggesting that modern societies could be on course to alleviate the ecological damage caused by capitalism. These two theories are fundamentally different in their assumptions about modern economies and technologies, yet both can be used as a theoretical lens to examine the phenomenon of solar energy technology adoption. Furthermore, both theories shed light on the increasing adoption of solar energy technologies in both “developing” and “developed” regions and the potential social conditions for promoting renewable energy technology adoption.

  7. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutula, Raymond A. [DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2006-03-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the program for fiscal year 2005. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program’s national laboratories and university and industry partners.

  8. Effective use of solar and biogas energy technology in companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerr-Pucher, J. [Clean Energy, Radolfzell (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Summary: In Germany and Europe the use of biogas and solar energy technology in enterprises is still in its infancy. The high growth rate of biogas and solar energy power is due to investments made by private households and agriculture. For medium-sized enterprises and large-scale enterprises the investment conditions obviously are not attractive enough, with one exception: enterprises that are manufacturing solar installations and offer, as a second pillar, concepts for their economical operation. Since the amendment of the EEG the demand for biogas installations considerably increased - exclusively in the agricultural sector. Enterprises from the food and beverage sector for instance only slowly discover this market. In the photovoltaic sector the situation is quite different. A real boom started 1998 in Germany. Main investors are farmers just as in the biogas area because their houses often have large roof surfaces and they can purchase via special associations large quantities of solar modules. The second important factor is the demand of ecologically oriented private households for small installations. Very seldom it is possible to motivate enterprises to equip the roofs of their plants with photovoltaic cells. It depends on the ecological orientation of enterprises and on communicative aspects. An early example is Mercedes-Benz. In 1995, world's largest photovoltaic solar power plant was installed in Untertuerkheim. Currently there are only a few industrial solar thermal model projects. In 2006, a medium-sized brewery has set up world's first 'solar' brewing plant. Contrary to the photovoltaic sector manufacturers of solar thermal systems must at first develop sustainable concepts. In contrast to the EEG (Renewable Energy Sources Act) for electricity generation there is no legal basis for solar thermal systems. Many European countries (Spain, Italy, Greece) have adopted regulations similarly to EEG. An expansion of the use of regenerative

  9. 78 FR 31997 - Greatmat Technology Corp., Kentucky USA Energy, Inc., Solar Energy Ltd., and Visiphor Corp...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Greatmat Technology Corp., Kentucky USA Energy, Inc., Solar Energy Ltd., and Visiphor Corp., Order of Suspension of Trading May 23, 2013. It appears... concerning the securities of Solar Energy Ltd. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period...

  10. Solar Energy Technologies and the Utilization on Native American Tribal Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Kathryn [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    2017-08-31

    As an undergraduate researcher, I worked on a new technology called nanofluid-based direct absorption solar collectors (DASC) which is a type of solar water heater that has the potential to be more efficient than traditional solar water heaters. Because of my experience with this type of technology, I decided to look into other types of solar energy technologies which could be used on Native American tribal lands. Some types of solar energy technologies that I wanted to focus on are photovoltaic solar energy systems, passive solar design, and solar water heaters.

  11. Solar Energy Technologies Program: Multi-Year Technical Plan 2003-2007 and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-01-01

    This publication charts a 5-year planning cycle for the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program. The document includes anticipated technical plans for the next 5 years for photovoltaics, concentrating solar power, solar water and space heating, solar hybrid lighting, and other new concepts that can take advantage of the solar resource. Solar energy is described as a clean, abundant, renewable energy resource that can benefit the nation by diversifying our energy supply.

  12. Solar energy: photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetzberger, A.; Voss, B.; Knobloch, J.

    1994-01-01

    This textbooks covers the following topics: foundations of photovoltaics, solar energy, P-N junctions, physics of solar cells, high-efficiency solar cells, technology of Si solar cells, other solar cells, photovoltaic applications. (orig.)

  13. Dish concentrators for solar thermal energy: Status and technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1982-01-01

    Point-focusing concentrators under consideration for solar thermal energy use are reviewed. These concentrators differ in such characteristics as optical configuration, optical materials, structure for support of the optical elements and of the receiver, mount, foundation, drive, controls and enclosure. Concentrator performance and cost are considered. Technology development is outlined, including wind loads and aerodynamics; precipitation, sand, and seismic considerations; and maintenance and cleaning.

  14. Potential displacement of petroleum imports by solar energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLeon, P.; Jackson, B.L.; McNown, R.F.; Mahrenholz, G.J.

    1980-05-01

    The United States currently imports close to half of its petroleum requirements. This report delineates the economic, social, and political costs of such a foreign oil dependency. These costs are often intangible, but combined they clearly constitute a greater price for imported petroleum than the strictly economic cost. If we can assume that imported oil imposes significant socioeconomic costs upon the American economy and society, one way to reduce these costs is to develop alternative, domestic energy sources - such as solar energy technologies - which can displace foreign petroleum. The second half of this report estimates that by the year 2000, solar energy technologies can displace 3.6 quads of petroleum. This figure includes solar energy applications in utilities, industrial and agricultural process heat, and transportation. The estimate can be treated as a lower bound; if the United States were to achieve the proposed goal of 20 quads by 2000, the amount of displaced oil probably would be greater. Although all the displaced oil would not be imported, the reduction in imported petroleum would relieve many of the conditions that increase the present cost of foreign oil to the American consumer.

  15. Dish concentrators for solar thermal energy - Status and technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1981-01-01

    Comparisons are presented of point-focusing, or 'dish' solar concentrator system features, development status, and performance levels demonstrated to date. In addition to the requirements of good optical efficiency and high geometric concentration ratios, the most important future consideration in solar thermal energy dish concentrator design will be the reduction of installed and lifetime costs, as well as the materials and labor costs of production. It is determined that technology development initiatives are needed in such areas as optical materials, design wind speeds and wind loads, structural configuration and materials resistance to prolonged exposure, and the maintenance of optical surfaces. The testing of complete concentrator systems, with energy-converting receivers and controls, is also necessary. Both reflector and Fresnel lens concentrator systems are considered.

  16. Solar Energy Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar Energy Basics Solar Energy Basics Solar is the Latin word for sun-a powerful source of energy that can be used to heat, cool, and light our homes and businesses. That's because more energy from the technologies convert sunlight to usable energy for buildings. The most commonly used solar technologies for

  17. United States Department of Energy solar receiver technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimas, P. C.; Diver, R. B.; Chavez, J. M.

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), through Sandia National Laboratories, has been conducting a Solar Thermal Receiver Technology Development Program, which maintains a balance between analytical modeling, bench and small scale testing, and experimentation conducted at scales representative of commercially-sized equipment. Central receiver activities emphasize molten salt-based systems on large scales and volumetric devices in the modeling and small scale testing. These receivers are expected to be utilized in solar power plants rated between 100 and 200 MW. Distributed receiver research focuses on liquid metal refluxing devices. These are intended to mate parabolic dish concentrators with Stirling cycle engines in the 5 to 25 kW(sub e) power range. The effort in the area of volumetric receivers is less intensive and highly cooperative in nature. A ceramic foam absorber of Sandia design was successfully tested on the 200 kW(sub t) test bed at Plataforma Solar during 1989. Material integrity during the approximately 90-test series was excellent. Significant progress has been made with parabolic dish concentrator-mounted receivers using liquid metals (sodium or a potassium/sodium mixture) as heat transport media. Sandia has successfully solar-tested a pool boiling reflux receiver sized to power a 25 kW Stirling engine. Boiling stability and transient operation were both excellent. This document describes these activities in detail and will outline plans for future development.

  18. The Role of Solar Technology Programs In Meeting Our Energy Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Ivan E.; Larson, Milton E.

    1978-01-01

    Elements to be included in a solar energy technology training program offered in postsecondary institutions are listed. The article examines various present and future energy sources and describes the solar energy system, stressing the immediate need for training programs for solar energy technicians. (MF)

  19. Solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role solar energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include the solar resource, solar architecture including passive solar design and solar collectors, solar-thermal concentrating systems including parabolic troughs and dishes and central receivers, photovoltaic cells including photovoltaic systems for home use, and environmental, health and safety issues

  20. A strategic research agenda for photovoltaic solar energy technology : report of the EU PV technology platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinke, W.C.; Zolingen, van R.J.C.; Ballif, C.; Bett, A.; Dimmler, B.; Dimova-Malinovska, D.; Fath, P.; Ferrazza, F.; Gabler, H.-J.; Hall, M.; Marti, A.; Mason, N.; Mellikov, E.; Milner, A.; Mogensen, P.; Panhuber, C.; Pearsall, N.; Poortmans, J.; Protogeropoulos, C.; Sarre, G.; Sarti, D.; Strauss, P.; Topic, M.; Zdanowicz, T.

    2007-01-01

    The EU PV Technology Platform [1] aims at joining forces on a European level to contribute to the further development of photovoltaic solar energy into a competitive technology that can be applied on a large scale and to the strengthening of the position of the European PV industry on the global

  1. Capture, transformation and conversion of the solar energy by the technologies of concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferriere, A.; Flamant, G.

    2003-01-01

    The specificities of the solar technologies at concentration are: high energy efficiency with increasing possibilities and the possibility of storage the solar energy by heat for a local and short dated utilization or by chemical storage (hydrogen for instance) for a delayed utilization or far from the capture area. This document takes stock on the concentration solar techniques, the electric power production by concentrated solar energy and the performance of concentrated solar plants, the industrial american experience of the SEGS plants, the hydrogen production by concentrated solar energy and discusses the scientific and technological locks. (A.L.B.)

  2. Solar energy and conservation technologies for Caribbean Tourist Facilities (CTF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary objectives of the Caribbean Tourist Facilities (CTF) project were to develop and publish materials and conduct workshops on solar energy and conservation technologies that would directly address the needs and interests of tourist facilities in the Caribbean basin. Past contacts with the Caribbean and US tourist industries indicated that decision-makers remained unconvinced that renewable technologies could have a significant impact on development and operation costs or that renewable energy products and services suited their needs. In order to assure that the materials and programs developed were responsive to the Caribbean tourist industry and U.S. conservation and renewable energy industries, marketing research with potential end users and the organizations and associations that serve those users was included as an underlying task in the project. The tasks outlined in the CTF Statement of Work included conference planning, gathering of field data, development of educational materials, and conduct of workshop(s). In addition to providing a chronicle of the fulfillment of those tasks, this final report includes suggestions for distributing the documents developed during the project, venues for future workshops, and other technology transfer and market influence strategies.

  3. US public policy and emerging technologies: the case of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahm, Dianne

    1993-01-01

    Public policy is generally believed to have an effect on the emergence and rate of diffusion of technology. Solar energy technologies are no exception. This article explores the relationship between a variety of United States (US) public policies and the emergence and diffusion of solar energy technologies using data gathered as part of the National Solar Energy Policy Study. The article presents findings regarding the status and policy position of US renewable energy research and development (R and D) and manufacturing organizations. Specific policy options which could be adopted to speed emergence and diffusion of solar energy technology products are discussed. (Author)

  4. Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  5. Solar energy photovoltaic technology: proficiency and performance; L'energie solaire maitrise et performance photovoltaiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Total is committed to making the best possible of the planet's fossil fuel reserves while fostering the emergence of other solutions, notably by developing effective alternatives. Total involves in photovoltaics when it founded in 1983 Total Energies, renamed Tenesol in 2005, a world leader in the design and installation of photovoltaic solar power systems. This document presents Total's activities in the domain: the global challenge of energy sources and the environment, the energy collecting by photovoltaic electricity, the silicon technology for cell production, solar panels and systems to distribute energy, research and development to secure the future. (A.L.B.)

  6. Solar Energy Innovation Network | Solar Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Innovation Network Solar Energy Innovation Network The Solar Energy Innovation Network grid. Text version The Solar Energy Innovation Network is a collaborative research effort administered (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Office to develop and demonstrate new ways for solar energy to improve

  7. Solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, D.

    1981-01-01

    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  8. Social acceptance of solar energy technologies in China-End users' perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xueliang; Zuo Jian; Ma Chunyuan

    2011-01-01

    Energy is essential to human beings. The increasing demand of energy has triggered the public scrutiny on the sustainability issues associated with the energy production and transmission. There have been a large number of studies focusing on reducing the environmental impacts associated with the energy sector. Renewable energy sources such as solar energy have been prompted to mitigate these environmental impacts. This research adopted a quantitative approach to investigate the social acceptance of solar energy technologies from end users' perspective in Shandong province, China. A large scale questionnaire survey was conducted. The results show that there is a considerable high level of social acceptance and public awareness of solar water heater. However, another major application of solar energy, solar PV has not gained a high level of social acceptance or public awareness in Shandong. This study provides useful references for policy makers to further promote the utilization of solar energy innovations. - Research Highlights: → Social acceptance of solar energy technologies from end users' perspective is investigated by a large scale questionnaire survey. → Higher level of social acceptance and public awareness of solar water heater than solar PV. → Impact factors for social acceptance of solar energy technologies are analyzed.

  9. The other aspect of solar energy utilization. Solar technologies export enhancement: A central European point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, C. J.; Nitsch, J.; Klaiss, H.; Voigt, C.

    1985-11-01

    It is shown that solar energy utilization can, on a moderate scale, supplement the indigenous energy supply of the Federal Republic of Germany. It can contribute to the prevention of fatal ecological damage, open an attractive export market and, in the long run, prepare ground for North-South compensation, where energy-poor but technology rich countries cooperate with countries of the Third World, which are often rich in raw materials and are situated in the solar belt of the world, for the benefit of the implementation of a solar industry or the production of a marketable synthetic solar energy carrier.

  10. Technology development and application of solar energy in desalination: MEDRC contribution

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2011-12-01

    Desalination has become one of the sources for water supply in several countries especially in the Middle East and North Africa region. There is a great potential to develop solar desalination technologies especially in this region where solar source is abundantly available. The success in implementing solar technologies in desalination at a commercial scale depends on the improvements to convert solar energy into electrical and/or thermal energies economically as desalination processes need these types of energies. Since desalination is energy intensive, the wider use of solar technologies in desalination will eventually increase the demand on these technologies, making it possible to go for mass production of photovoltaic (PV) cells, collectors and solar thermal power plants. This would ultimately lead to the reduction in the costs of these technologies. The energy consumed by desalination processes has been significantly reduced in the last decade meaning that, if solar technologies are to be used, less PV modules and area for collectors would be needed. The main aspects to be addressed to make solar desalination a viable option in remote location applications is to develop new materials or improve existing solar collectors and find the best combinations to couple the different desalination processes with appropriate solar collector. In the objective to promote solar desalination in MENA, the Middle East Desalination Research Center has concentrated on various aspects of solar desalination in the last twelve years by sponsoring 17 research projects on different technologies and Software packages development for coupling desalination and renewable energy systems to address the limitations of solar desalination and develop new desalination technologies and hybrid systems suitable for remote areas. A brief description of some of these projects is highlighted in this paper. The full details of all these projects are available the Centers website. © 2011 Elsevier

  11. Society, religion and technology: the Iona solar energy project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrie, J G

    1980-01-01

    The philosophical and religious reasoning behind the Iona solar energy hot water heater is discussed. Conservation, non-pollution, and sharing of the earth's resources are the main themes. Iona, a Scottish island, is visited for one week by groups (50 in each group) of young people for a total of a quarter million people from April to October. The technical objectives are summarized: (1) use solar energy to provide at least 1/2 of the hot water needs and (2) build a system with a payback period of 5 years or less. Solar insolation at Iona is about 700 kWh/m/sup 2/ per season, so 16.5 m/sup 2/ of solar collectors is required at a cost of less than 450 pounds. A closed system with a 750 l roof tank is described. Efficiency was greater than expected and cost objectives were surpassed. An analysis was performed to estimate the cost of a similar system elsewhere. Visual displays on the system are described which serve as an example to the young visitors of the benefits of solar energy. 11 references. (MJJ)

  12. Solar energy an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Mackay, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Solar Energy presents an introduction to all aspects of solar energy, from photovoltaic devices to active and passive solar thermal energy conversion, giving both a detailed and broad perspective of the field. It is aimed at the beginner involved in solar energy or a related field, or for someone wanting to gain a broader perspective of solar energy technologies. A chapter considering solar radiation, basic principles applied to solar energy, semiconductor physics, and light absorption brings the reader on equal footing with the technology of either solar generated electrical current or useful heat. Details of how a solar cell works and then production of current from a photovoltaic device is discussed. Characterization of a solar cell is examined, allowing one the ability to interpret the current-voltage relation, followed by discussion of parameter extraction from this relation. This information can be used to understand what limits the performance of a given solar cell with the potential to optimize its pe...

  13. Solar Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

  14. Alternatives in solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

  15. Solar Energy and Other Appropriate Technologies for Small ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Region 2 research demonstration project presentation studied the efficacy of sustainable solar-powered water delivery and monitoring systems to reduce the economic burden of operating and maintaining Non-PRASA drinking water systems and to reduce the impact of climate change resulting from the use of fossil fuels in Puerto Rico. In Puerto Rico, petroleum (65%), natural gas (18%) and coal (16%) are imported to generate electricity resulting in electrical rates that are more than twice the US average. In 2012, only 1% of electricity came from renewable energy (US Energy Information Administration). One major cost for electricity for small communities in Puerto Rico is the transfer, treatment and distribution of drinking water. These small communities (Non-PRASA communities) are not able to afford electrical costs and many have abandoned their groundwater sources and reverted to unfiltered surface water systems, creating serious public health risks and non-compliance. Many Non-PRASA groundwater systems (141 out of 247) could use solar-powered pumps to extract and deliver groundwater. Solar power would also extend the life of system electrical components by improving the quality of electrical power supply. Solar power as a renewable energy source for Non-PRASA water systems is a viable approach that also reduces the impact of climate change in the Caribbean.

  16. Capture, transformation and conversion of the solar energy by the technologies of concentration; Captation, transformation et conversion de l'energie solaire par les technologies a concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferriere, A.; Flamant, G

    2003-07-01

    The specificities of the solar technologies at concentration are: high energy efficiency with increasing possibilities and the possibility of storage the solar energy by heat for a local and short dated utilization or by chemical storage (hydrogen for instance) for a delayed utilization or far from the capture area. This document takes stock on the concentration solar techniques, the electric power production by concentrated solar energy and the performance of concentrated solar plants, the industrial american experience of the SEGS plants, the hydrogen production by concentrated solar energy and discusses the scientific and technological locks. (A.L.B.)

  17. Parabolic trough solar concentrators: a technology which can contribute towards pakistan's energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masood, R.

    2013-01-01

    The utilization of solar thermal energy has got prime importance in Pakistan due to the current energy scarcity and escalating cost scenario in the country. Parabolic Trough Solar Concentrator is one of the most reliable technologies for utilization of solar thermal energy. In solar thermal power generation, Parabolic Trough Solar Concentrators are most successful as almost 96 percent of total solar thermal power is generated across the world by utilizing this technology. Its high reliability, operational compatibility, comparative low cost and high efficiency adds to its high value among other resources. Fortunately, Pakistan lies in the high Solar Insolation Zone; thus, a huge potential exists to benefit from this technology. This technology may cater to the Pakistan's seasonal increased electricity demand. Apart from electric power generation, this technology may also have cost-effective solutions for Pakistan's other industries, like steam generation, preheating of boiler make-up water, air-conditioning, and hot water production for food, textile, dairy and leather industries. However, economic justification of such projects would be possible only on accomplishing an indigenous technology base. Globally, this is a proven technology, but in Pakistan there is hardly any development in this field. In this study, an effort has been made by designing and fabricating an experimental Parabolic Trough Solar Water Heater by utilizing locally available materials and manufacturing capabilities. On achieving encouraging results, a solar boiler (steam generator) is proposed to be manufactured locally. (author)

  18. Solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruisheer, N.

    1992-01-01

    In five brief articles product information is given on solar energy applications with special attention to the Netherlands. After an introduction on solar energy availability in the Netherlands the developments in solar boiler techniques are dealt with. Solar water heaters have advantages for the environment, and government subsidies stimulate different uses of such water heaters. Also the developments of solar cells show good prospects, not only for developing countries, but also for the industrialized countries. In brief the developments in solar energy storage and the connection of solar equipment to the grid are discussed. Finally attention is paid to the applications of passive solar energy in the housing construction, the use of transparent thermal insulation and the developments of translucent materials. 18 figs., 18 ills

  19. Energy Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Reviewed are technological problems faced in energy production including locating, recovering, developing, storing, and distributing energy in clean, convenient, economical, and environmentally satisfactory manners. The energy resources of coal, oil, natural gas, hydroelectric power, nuclear energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, winds, tides,…

  20. International energy technology collaboration and climate change mitigation. Case study 1. Concentrating Solar Power Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philibert, C. [Energy and Environment Division, International Energy Agency IEA, Paris (France)

    2004-07-01

    international collaboration by describing the globalisation of the economy and current efforts of technology collaboration and transfer. Finally, it considers various ways to strengthen international energy technology collaboration. This paper is one of six case-studies designed in an effort to provide practical insights on the role international technology collaboration could play to achieve the objectives of the UNFCCC. They will all consider the past achievements of international technology collaboration, and the role it could play in helping to develop and disseminate new technologies in the future: what worked, what did not work and why, and what lessons might be drawn from past experiences. Most case studies consider energy technologies that could help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. A few others consider areas not directly related to greenhouse gas emissions but where international technology collaboration has proven particularly successful in the past. This case study reviews past and current experience in international collaboration in the field of concentrating solar technologies in order to identify lessons that may be relevant for more general climate-friendly technology collaboration. It presents concentrating solar technologies in their current status, recent achievements and development prospects. It analyses the present successes and failures of different forms of international collaboration in this field, and draws lessons for further elaboration of international technology collaboration in addressing climate change.

  1. Enhancing information for solar and wind energy technology deployment in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Martins, Fernando, E-mail: fernando.martins@inpe.br [Centro de Ciencia do Sistema Terrestre-Instituto Nacisonal de Pesquisas Espaciais (Earth System Center-National Institute for Space Research), P.O. Box 515, 12245-970, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil); Pereira, Enio Bueno, E-mail: enio.pereira@inpe.br [Centro de Ciencia do Sistema Terrestre-Instituto Nacisonal de Pesquisas Espaciais (Earth System Center-National Institute for Space Research), P.O. Box 515, 12245-970, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    Brazil's primary energy matrix is based on more than 47% of renewables, and more than 85% of its electricity is generated by hydro power sources. Despite this large fraction of renewable energy resources, less than 0.3% of the national energy supply comes from solar or wind sources. This paper presents a diagnostic review on the penetration of the solar and wind energy technologies in Brazil. It also includes a survey of the latest government policies and incentives for renewable energies deployment by entrepreneurs, industry and commercial and residential consumers. In addition, the paper analyses how to best meet the requirements for policy support and information technology to boost the deployment of solar technology and wind energy in Brazil. This study was mostly based on results of a widely distributed survey covering key issues, and also by personal interviews carried out with key stakeholders in order to better understand the issues highlighted in the survey responses. The study pointed out some of the main obstacles to effectively promote and improve government policies and actions for investment in solar and wind energy market in Brazil. - Highlights: > Current status on the solar and wind energy deployment in Brazil is presented. > Policy framework required to support solar and wind energy was discussed. > Study was based on responses for consultations with key stakeholders. > Worthiness Index was established to rank the stakeholders outlooks. > Energy price, human resources and tax reductions were indicated as priority.

  2. Enhancing information for solar and wind energy technology deployment in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Martins, Fernando; Pereira, Enio Bueno

    2011-01-01

    Brazil's primary energy matrix is based on more than 47% of renewables, and more than 85% of its electricity is generated by hydro power sources. Despite this large fraction of renewable energy resources, less than 0.3% of the national energy supply comes from solar or wind sources. This paper presents a diagnostic review on the penetration of the solar and wind energy technologies in Brazil. It also includes a survey of the latest government policies and incentives for renewable energies deployment by entrepreneurs, industry and commercial and residential consumers. In addition, the paper analyses how to best meet the requirements for policy support and information technology to boost the deployment of solar technology and wind energy in Brazil. This study was mostly based on results of a widely distributed survey covering key issues, and also by personal interviews carried out with key stakeholders in order to better understand the issues highlighted in the survey responses. The study pointed out some of the main obstacles to effectively promote and improve government policies and actions for investment in solar and wind energy market in Brazil. - Highlights: → Current status on the solar and wind energy deployment in Brazil is presented. → Policy framework required to support solar and wind energy was discussed. → Study was based on responses for consultations with key stakeholders. → Worthiness Index was established to rank the stakeholders outlooks. → Energy price, human resources and tax reductions were indicated as priority.

  3. Solar-driven refrigeration technologies; Koeltechnologieen op zonne-energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Cillis, S.; Infante Ferreira, C.A. [Technische Universiteit Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Krieg, J. [Unilever Foods and Health Research Institute, Vlaardingen (Netherlands)

    2005-12-01

    A review is presented of solar driven refrigeration technologies. A subdivision is made between electric driven and thermal driven systems. Their potential and stage of development are discussed. The electric driven systems include Stirling, thermo-acoustic, thermoelectric, electrochemical and membrane assisted absorption systems. The thermal driven systems include absorption and adsorption systems. A model is used to compare the performance of the different solutions. [Dutch] Dit artikel geeft een overzicht van zon-aangedreven koeltechnologieen. Er wordt onderscheid gemaakt tussen elektrisch en thermisch aangedreven systemen. Hun potentieel en niveau van ontwikkeling worden besproken. De elektrisch aangedreven systemen omvatten Stirling, thermo-akoestisch, thermo-elektrisch, elektrochemisch en membraanondersteund absorptiesystemen.De warmte-aangedreven systemen omvatten absorptie en adsorptie. Er wordt gebruik gemaakt van een model om de prestaties van de verschillende alternatieven onderling te vergelijken.

  4. Solar Energy: Heat Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  5. Solar Energy Technologies Program FY08 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-05-01

    These reports chronicle the research and development (R&D) results of the Solar Program for the fiscal year. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories and its university and industry partners within PV R&D, Solar Thermal R&D, which encompasses solar water heating and concentrating solar power (CSP), and other subprograms.

  6. Solar energy promises realized?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudshoff, B.

    2010-01-01

    The US market for solar cells grew 36% in 2009. Thousands of new jobs were created, many millions are invested and new businesses see new opportunities. Optimism among investors, incentivising government policy and new technological developments all contribute to these positive developments. This article provides an update of the incentive measures and their effects and a brief overview of the three solar energy technologies: photovoltaic (PV), solar thermal and concentrated solar power (CSP) [nl

  7. Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building Design and Construction, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Describes 21 completed projects now using solar energy for heating, cooling, or electricity. Included are elementary schools in Atlanta and San Diego, a technical school in Detroit, and Trinity University in San Antonio, Texas. (MLF)

  8. Evolutionary analysis of technological innovations: the example of solar photovoltaic and wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taillant, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is to study the building up and the development of technologies for renewable energies considered as environmental radical innovations. In a first part, the author discusses the systemic aspects of innovation and the environmental challenges associated with energy technologies. He examines the main evolutions of energy systems over a long period. In a second part, he addresses innovation incentives in the case of environmental technologies and within the frame of the neo-classical economic theory. The next parts aim at presenting the theoretical framework of the evolutionary analysis of innovation and technical change, and at applying it to the case of technological innovations for renewable energies (photovoltaic and wind energy). World PV market trends are discussed and the technological competition context of this sector is analysed. The evolution of the solar PV technological system in Germany is discussed, as well as the specific case of development of the wind energy technological system in Denmark

  9. Technology for Bayton-cycle powerplants using solar and nuclear energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Brayton cycle gas turbines have the potential to use either solar heat or nuclear reactors for generating from tens of kilowatts to tens of megawatts of power in space, all this from a single technology for the power generating system. Their development for solar energy dynamic power generation for the space station could be the first step in an evolution of such powerplants for a very wide range of applications. At the low power level of only 10 kWe, a power generating system has already demonstrated overall efficiency of 0.29 and operated 38 000 hr. Tests of improved components show that these components would raise that efficiency to 0.32, a value twice that demonstrated by any alternate concept. Because of this high efficiency, solar Brayton cycle power generators offer the potential to increase power per unit of solar collector area to levels exceeding four times that from photovoltaic powerplants using present technology for silicon solar cells. The technologies for solar mirrors and heat receivers are reviewed and assessed. This Brayton technology for solar powerplants is equally suitable for use with the nuclear reactors. The available long time creep data on the tantalum alloy ASTAR-811C show that such Brayton cycles can evolve to cycle peak temperatures of 1500 K (2240 F). And this same technology can be extended to generate 10 to 100 MW in space by exploiting existing technology for terrestrial gas turbines in the fields of both aircraft propulsion and stationary power generation.

  10. Solar technology. The energy of the future: Bases, applications, perspectives. Solartechnik. Die Energie der Zukunft: Grundlagen, Anwendungen, Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tintrup, E.

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, the extensive use of fossil fuels has seriously aggravated environmental problems. They may be partially countered with the aid of renewable energy sources. This non-fiction book deals with the bases of solar technology in popular language. It also discusses in detail economic and political aspects associated with the launching of this technology. Finally, it provides hints for the self-construction of solar collectors and photovoltaic systems. (BWI).

  11. Considerations for Solar Energy Technologies to Make Progress Towards Grid Price Parity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhouse, Michael; Fu, Ran; Chung, Donald; Horowitz, Kelsey; Remo, Timothy; Feldman, David; Margolis, Robert

    2015-11-07

    In this seminar the component costs for solar photovoltaics module and system prices will be highlighted. As a basis for comparison to other renewable and traditional energy options, the metric of focus will be total lifecycle cost-of-energy (LCOE). Several innovations to traditional photovoltaics technologies (including crystalline silicon, CdTe, and CIGS) and developing technologies (including organics and perovskites) that may close the gaps in LCOE will be discussed.

  12. Passive solar technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D

    1981-04-01

    The present status of passive solar technology is summarized, including passive solar heating, cooling and daylighting. The key roles of the passive solar system designer and of innovation in the building industry are described. After definitions of passive design and a summary of passive design principles are given, performance and costs of passive solar technology are discussed. Passive energy design concepts or methods are then considered in the context of the overall process by which building decisions are made to achieve the integration of new techniques into conventional design. (LEW).

  13. Solar Lighting Technologies for Highway Green Rest Areas in China: Energy Saving Economic and Environmental Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, taking Lushan West Sea highway green rest area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the suitable types, applicability, advantages, and effective methods of solar lighting technologies for highway rest area were determined based on the analysis of characteristics of highway green rest area. It was proved that solar lighting technologies including the natural light guidance system, solar LED lighting, and maximizing natural light penetration were quite suitable for highway rest area in terms of lighting effects and energy and economic efficiency. The illuminance comparison of light guidance system with electrical lighting was made based on the on-site experiment. Also, the feasibility of natural light guidance system was well verified in terms of the lighting demand of the visitor centre in the rest area by the illuminance simulation analysis. The evaluation of the energy saving, economic benefits, and environmental effects of solar lighting technologies for highway rest area was, respectively, made in detail. It was proved that the application of solar technology for green lighting of highway rest facilities not only could have considerable energy saving capacity and achieve high economic benefits, but also make great contributions to the reduction of environment pollution.

  14. 2010 Solar Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 2010 Solar Technologies Market Report details the market conditions and trends for photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. Produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the report provides a comprehensive overview of the solar electricity market and identifies successes and trends within the market from both global and national perspectives.

  15. Renewable energy technology for off-grid power generation solar hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Azhar Abd Rahman

    2006-01-01

    Off-grid power generation is meant to supply remote or rural area, where grid connection is almost impossible in terms of cost and geography, such as island, aborigine's villages, and areas where nature preservation is concern. Harnessing an abundance renewable energy sources using versatile hybrid power systems can offer the best, least-cost alternative solution for extending modern energy services to remote and isolated communities. The conventional method for off-grid power generation is using diesel generator with a renewable energy (RE) technology utilizing solar photovoltaic, wind, biomass, biogas and/or mini/micro hydro. A hybrid technology is a combination of multiple source of energy; such as RE and diesel generator and may also include energy storage such as battery. In our design, the concept of solar hybrid system is a combination of solar with diesel genset and battery as an energy storage. The main objective of the system are to reduce the cost of operation and maintenance, cost of logistic and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission. The operational concept of solar hybrid system is that solar will be the first choice of supplying load and excess energy produced will be stored in battery. Genset will be a secondary source of energy. The system is controlled by a microprocessor-based controlled to manage the energy supplied and load demand. The solar hybrid system consists of one or two diesel generator with electronic control system, lead-acid battery system, solar PV, inverter module and system controller with remote monitoring capability. The benefits of solar hybrid system are: Improved reliability, Improved energy services, reduced emissions and pollution, provide continuous power supply, increased operational life, reduced cost, and more efficient use of power. Currently, such system has been installed at Middle and Top Station of Langkawi Cable Car, Langkawi and Aborigines Village Kg Denai, Rompin, Pahang. The technology is considered new in Malaysia

  16. Techno-economical study of solar energy technologies in Russia and in Israel and development of conceptions for the use of solar energy in various fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, D.; Saksonov, G.; Kiselman, U.; Shpielrain, E.

    1993-01-01

    A techno-economical study was made on the Russian and Israeli solar energy research and development and application. The main objective were to evaluate the present state of art in both countries and to identify topics of mutual interest for cooperation on research and development and application including commercialization. The Israeli and Russian teams have visited many institutions and have consulted with many people involved in solar energy work, and have analyzed the following main topics: Low potential solar heat, electricity production via thermodynamic cycles, electricity production via photovoltaic cells and solar energy for technological processes. A wide variety of subjects were identified to have potential for cooperation, and a number of institutes and scientists and engineers have expressed interest in joint work. In the proposed course of action we gave higher priorities for cooperation on photovoltaic cells, parabolic troughs and DSG development, solar tower and high temperature technology, solar collectors and heating and cooling systems. Except perhaps for water heating, the economic analysis shows marginal to poor economics for solar energy utilization. Depending on fuel costs and additional restrictions planned on fuels combustion, the economics may change in some cases, for example for solar ponds. (authors)

  17. Solar Hydrogen Energy Systems Science and Technology for the Hydrogen Economy

    CERN Document Server

    Zini, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    It is just a matter of time when fossil fuels will become unavailable or uneconomical to retrieve. On top of that, their environmental impact is already too severe. Renewable energy sources can be considered as the most important substitute to fossil energy, since they are inexhaustible and have a very low, if none, impact on the environment. Still, their unevenness and unpredictability are drawbacks that must be dealt with in order to guarantee a reliable and steady energy supply to the final user. Hydrogen can be the answer to these problems. This book presents the readers with the modeling, functioning and implementation of solar hydrogen energy systems, which efficiently combine different technologies to convert, store and use renewable energy. Sources like solar photovoltaic or wind, technologies like electrolysis, fuel cells, traditional and advanced hydrogen storage are discussed and evaluated together with system management and output performance. Examples are also given to show how these systems are ...

  18. Technology assessment of solar-energy systems. Materials resource and hazardous materials impacts of solar deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Y. M.; Tahami, J. E.

    1982-04-01

    The materials-resource and hazardous-materials impacts were determined by examining the type and quantity of materials used in the manufacture, construction, installation, operation and maintenance of solar systems. The materials requirements were compared with US materials supply and demand data to determine if potential problems exist in terms of future availability of domestic supply and increased dependence on foreign sources of supply. Hazardous materials were evaluated in terms of public and occupational health hazards and explosive and fire hazards. It is concluded that: although large amounts of materials would be required, the US had sufficient industrial capacity to produce those materials; (2) postulated growth in solar technology deployment during the period 1995-2000 could cause some production shortfalls in the steel and copper industry; the U.S. could increase its import reliance for certain materials such as silver, iron ore, and copper; however, shifts to other materials such as aluminum and polyvinylchloride could alleviate some of these problems.

  19. Implementing Solar Technologies at Airports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, A.; Romero, R.

    2014-07-01

    Federal agencies, such as the Department of Defense and Department of Homeland Security, as well as numerous private entities are actively pursuing the installation of solar technologies to help reduce fossil fuel energy use and associated emissions, meet sustainability goals, and create more robust or reliable operations. One potential approach identified for siting solar technologies is the installation of solar energy technologies at airports and airfields, which present a significant opportunity for hosting solar technologies due to large amounts of open land. This report focuses largely on the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA's) policies toward siting solar technologies at airports.

  20. Performance analysis of a co-generation system using solar energy and SOFC technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akikur, R.K.; Saidur, R.; Ping, H.W.; Ullah, K.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new concept of a cogeneration system is proposed and investigated. • The system comprises solar collector, PV, SOFC and heat exchanger. • 83.6% Power and heat generation efficiency has been found at fuel cell mode. • 85.1% Efficiency of SOSE has been found at H2 production mode. • The heat to power ratio of SOFC mode has been found about 0.917. - Abstract: Due to the increasing future energy demands and global warming, the renewable alternative energy sources and the efficient power systems have been getting importance over the last few decades. Among the renewable energy technologies, the solar energy coupling with fuel cell technology will be the promising possibilities for the future green energy solutions. Fuel cell cogeneration is an auspicious technology that can potentially reduce the energy consumption and environmental impact associated with serving building electrical and thermal demands. In this study, performance assessment of a co-generation system is presented to deliver electrical and thermal energy using the solar energy and the reversible solid oxide fuel cell. A mathematical model of the co-generation system is developed. To illustrate the performance, the system is considered in three operation modes: a solar-solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) mode, which is low solar radiation time when the solar photovoltaic (PV) and SOFC are used for electric and heat load supply; a solar-solid oxide steam electrolyzer (SOSE) mode, which is high solar radiation time when PV is used for power supply to the electrical load and to the steam electrolyzer to generate hydrogen (H 2 ); and a SOFC mode, which is the power and heat generation mode of reversible SOFC using the storage H 2 at night time. Also the effects of solar radiation on the system performances and the effects of temperature on RSOFC are analyzed. In this study, 100 kW electric loads are considered and analyzed for the power and heat generation in those three modes to evaluate

  1. Solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistler, J.

    1981-08-05

    The photovoltaic generator is the central part of all solar systems. Flat solar cells embedded in glass are preferred which can also convert diffuse solar radiation. Hybrid modules generate electrical and thermal energy simultaneously. With decreasing generator cost, the cost of energy storage becomes critical. Development activities are mostly directed on the development of stationary lead accumulator batteries and the electronic charging and protective systems. The block diagram of the current converter is presented, and applications of solar systems in domestic heating engineering, transportation technology, communications, and hydrological engineering. Solar villages are recommended which, established in bilateral cooperation with Third World authorities, may demonstrate the advantages of solar energy in heat and electric power generation.

  2. Collecting Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Alexander

    This solar energy learning module for use with junior high school students offers a list of activities, a pre-post test, job titles, basic solar energy vocabulary, and diagrams of solar energy collectors and installations. The purpose is to familiarize students with applications of solar energy and titles of jobs where this knowledge could be…

  3. New technology to collect solar energy: non-imaging focusing heliostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok Keong Chong; Bahrom Sanugi; Chen, L.C.; Jasmy Yunus; Kannan, K.S.; Lim, B.H.; Lim, C.S.; Noriah Bidin; Omar Aliman; Sahar Salehan; Shaikh Ab Rezan; Tam, C.M.; Tan, K.K.; Chen, Y.T.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we report a non-imaging focusing heliostat with multi-faceted plane mirrors for the effective use of solar energy. The non-imaging heliostat demonstrates a new technology to track the sun radiation and then concentrating it onto a stationary receiver by a mere single reflection. Deviated from the conventional method, one of the rotation axes is reoriented in a way that can significantly reduce the number of motors. The feasibility of the new scheme has been proved by a 25-mirrors-heliostat in Universiti Technologi Malaysia (UTM) campus. (Author)

  4. Solar energy collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brin, Raymond L.; Pace, Thomas L.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a solar energy collector comprising solar energy absorbing material within chamber having a transparent wall, solar energy being transmitted through the transparent wall, and efficiently absorbed by the absorbing material, for transfer to a heat transfer fluid. The solar energy absorbing material, of generally foraminous nature, absorbs and transmits the solar energy with improved efficiency.

  5. Solar '80s: A Teacher's Handbook for Solar Energy Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaHart, David E.

    This guide is intended to assist the teacher in exploring energy issues and the technology of solar energy conversion and associated technologies. Sections of the guide include: (1) Rationale; (2) Technology Overview; (3) Sun Day Suggestions for School; (4) Backyard Solar Water Heater; (5) Solar Tea; (6) Biogas; (7) Solar Cells; (8) Economics; (9)…

  6. Technology development and application of solar energy in desalination: MEDRC contribution

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, NorEddine; Reddy, V. K.; Abu-Arabi, Mousa K.

    2011-01-01

    Desalination has become one of the sources for water supply in several countries especially in the Middle East and North Africa region. There is a great potential to develop solar desalination technologies especially in this region where solar

  7. Solar Energy and You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    This booklet provides an introduction to solar energy by discussing: (1) how a home is heated; (2) how solar energy can help in the heating process; (3) the characteristics of passive solar houses; (4) the characteristics of active solar houses; (5) how solar heat is stored; and (6) other uses of solar energy. Also provided are 10 questions to…

  8. Photovoltaic Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez N, J.C.; Leal C, H.

    1998-01-01

    A short historical review of the technological advances; the current state and the perspectives of the materials for photovoltaic applications is made. Thereinafter, the general aspects of the physical principles and fundamental parameters that govern the operation of the solar cells are described. To way of the example, a methodology for the design and facilities size of a photovoltaic system is applied. Finally, the perspectives of photovoltaic solar energy in relationship to the market and political of development are mentioned

  9. Solar energy applications in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilenikhena, P.A.; Ezemonye, L.I.N.

    2010-09-15

    Solar radiation being abundantly present in Nigeria was one area of focus in renewable energy sources. Researches were carried out and technologies produced for direct harnessing of the energy in six energy centres across the country. Some state governments in collaboration with non-governmental agencies also sponsored solar energy projects in some villages that are not connected to the national grid.

  10. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  11. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  12. Potential of HVAC and solar technologies for hospital retrofit to reduce heating energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Octavian G.; Abrudan, Ancuta C.; Adace, Dan S.; Pocola, Adrian G.; Balan, Mugur C.

    2018-02-01

    The study presents a combination of several energy efficient technologies together with their potential to reduce the energy consumption and to increase the comfort through the retrofit of a hospital building. The existing situation is characterized by an old and inefficient heating system, by the complete missing of any ventilation and by no cooling. The retrofit proposal includes thermal insulation and a distributed HVAC system consisting of several units that includes air to air heat exchangers and air to air heat pumps. A condensing boiler was also considered for heating. A solar thermal system for preparing domestic hot water and a solar photovoltaic system to assist the HVAC units are also proposed. Heat transfer principles are used for modelling the thermal response of the building to the environmental parameters and thermodynamic principles are used for modelling the behaviour of HVAC, solar thermal system and photovoltaic system. All the components of the heating loads were determined for one year period. The study reveals the capacity of the proposed systems to provide ventilation and thermal comfort with a global reduction of energy consumption of 71.6 %.

  13. Research and development of utilization technology of solar thermal system for industrial and other use. Research and development of solar system (research for solar/energy-conservation technology retrofitted to existing buildings); Sangyoyo nado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Solar system no chosa kenkyu (solar toshi muke gijutsu ni kansuru chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takita, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for solar/energy-conversion technologies retrofitted to existing buildings. The estimated effects and economic viability of retrofitting technologies show that they bring very high energy-saving effects when applied to heating and hot water supply, which consume a large portion of energy, but relatively low energy-saving effects when applied to cooling, solar walls, glazed balconies and transparent insulators. The study on applicability of these technologies in Japan indicates that the technologies which can recover cost within an average life time are those applied to windows, solar collector systems for hot water supply and heating, and transparent insulators. Although these technologies are low in applicability to cooling viewed from the angle of cost recovery, retrofitted radiation type cooling systems improve not only cooling and energy-saving effects but also comfortableness.

  14. Optical materials technology for energy efficiency and solar energy conversion 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granqvist, C.G.; Lampert, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: smart window coatings; Transparent infrared reflectors; Holographic concentrators and reflectors; Solar collecting devices; Solar absorber coatings; Optical properties and durability

  15. Implementing a solar energy technology in Canada: The costs, benefits, and role of government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, M K

    1978-01-01

    Canadian studies on the cost of solar energy to the user are described. Realistic estimates are developed of the initial capital cost and comparative lifetime costs of solar and conventional heating systems. Interfacing solar home heating with electric utilities is also discussed, along with the social benefits of solar space and water heating. Results are presented of a Canada-wide survey of public attitudes to the energy situation in general and to solar energy in particular. A computer simulation was used to examine the cost to the government and effects on the lifetime cost to the user of various incentive schemes to encourage solar use. Optimal government strategy is suggested and recommendations implied by the analyses in this study are made. It was found that not only is a package-designed solar heating system cost-effective when compared with conventional systems, but the public is eager and receptive to large-scale solar use. 14 refs.

  16. Solar energy. [New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benseman, R.

    1977-10-15

    The potential for solar space heating and solar water heating in New Zealand is discussed. Available solar energy in New Zealand is indicated, and the economics of solar space and water heating is considered. (WHK)

  17. Laser microprocessing technologies for automotive, flexible electronics, and solar energy sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikumb, Suwas; Bathe, Ravi; Knopf, George K.

    2014-10-01

    Laser microprocessing technologies offer an important tool to fulfill the needs of many industrial sectors. In particular, there is growing interest in applications of these processes in the manufacturing areas such as automotive parts fabrication, printable electronics and solar energy panels. The technology is primarily driven by our understanding of the fundamental laser-material interaction, process control strategies and the advancement of significant fabrication experience over the past few years. The wide-ranging operating parameters available with respect to power, pulse width variation, beam quality, higher repetition rates as well as precise control of the energy deposition through programmable pulse shaping technologies, enables pre-defined material removal, selective scribing of individual layer within a stacked multi-layer thin film structure, texturing of material surfaces as well as precise introduction of heat into the material to monitor its characteristic properties are a few examples. In this research, results in the area of laser surface texturing of metals for added hydrodynamic lubricity to reduce friction, processing of ink-jet printed graphene oxide for flexible printed electronic circuit fabrication and scribing of multi-layer thin films for the development of photovoltaic CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) interconnects for solar panel devices will be discussed.

  18. Solar Technology Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Bob

    2011-04-27

    The Department of Energy, Golden Field Office, awarded a grant to the UNLV Research Foundation (UNLVRF) on August 1, 2005 to develop a solar and renewable energy information center. The Solar Technology Center (STC) is to be developed in two phases, with Phase I consisting of all activities necessary to determine feasibility of the project, including design and engineering, identification of land access issues and permitting necessary to determine project viability without permanently disturbing the project site, and completion of a National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Environmental Assessment. Phase II is the installation of infrastructure and related structures, which leads to commencement of operations of the STC. The STC is located in the Boulder City designated 3,000-acre Eldorado Valley Energy Zone, approximately 15 miles southwest of downtown Boulder City and fronting on Eldorado Valley Drive. The 33-acre vacant parcel has been leased to the Nevada Test Site Development Corporation (NTSDC) by Boulder City to accommodate a planned facility that will be synergistic with present and planned energy projects in the Zone. The parcel will be developed by the UNLVRF. The NTSDC is the economic development arm of the UNLVRF. UNLVRF will be the entity responsible for overseeing the lease and the development project to assure compliance with the lease stipulations established by Boulder City. The STC will be operated and maintained by University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) and its Center for Energy Research (UNLV-CER). Land parcels in the Eldorado Valley Energy Zone near the 33-acre lease are committed to the construction and operation of an electrical grid connected solar energy production facility. Other projects supporting renewable and solar technologies have been developed within the energy zone, with several more developments in the horizon.

  19. Advanced Heat/Mass Exchanger Technology for Geothermal and Solar Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiner, Miles [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Childress, Amy [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Hiibel, Sage [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Kim, Kwang [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Park, Chanwoo [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Wirtz, Richard [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-12-16

    Northern Nevada has abundant geothermal and solar energy resources, and these renewable energy sources provide an ample opportunity to produce economically viable power. Heat/mass exchangers are essential components to any energy conversion system. Improvements in the heat/mass exchange process will lead to smaller, less costly (more efficient) systems. There is an emerging heat transfer technology, based on micro/nano/molecular-scale surface science that can be applied to heat/mass exchanger design. The objective is to develop and characterize unique coating materials, surface configurations and membranes capable of accommodating a 10-fold increase in heat/mass exchanger performance via phase change processes (boiling, condensation, etc.) and single phase convective heat/mass transfer.

  20. Solar energy for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkmann, Rainer

    1998-01-01

    The virtues of solar energy are extolled. The greenhouse gas aspect is mentioned but the main thrust of the paper is the technology and applications such as domestic water heating, combined water and space heating, swimming pools, industrial heating and air conditioning. Statistical data for the present European market, sales and installed collector area are given. (UK)

  1. Solar Photovoltaic Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenreich, Henry; Martin, John H.

    1979-01-01

    The goals of solar photovoltaic technology in contributing to America's future energy needs are presented in this study conducted by the American Physical Society. Although the time needed for photovoltaics to become popular is several decades away, according to the author, short-range applications are given. (Author/SA)

  2. Emerging Solar Technologies: Perovskite Solar Cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    energy technologies and ... cost-effective and feasible non-silicon solar cell technologies. ..... storing in the air for long periods, and the stability reached up to .... [12] Y Liu, L A Renna, M Bag, Z A Page, P Kim, J Choi, T Emrick, D Venkatara-.

  3. Collection of outlines of Sunshine Program achievement reports for fiscal 1989. Solar energy (Light utilizing technology and heat utilizing technology); 1989 nendo sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Taiyo energy (hikari riyo gijutsu / netsu riyo gijutsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-04-01

    Collected concerning the research and development of photovoltaic power systems are the basic research on solar cells; research and development of new-type photovoltaic power systems; and research and development of amorphous solar cells. Collected concerning the development of technologies for the practical application of photovoltaic power systems are the research on the practical application of new-type solar cells; research on the practical application of amorphous solar cells; research and development of solar cell evaluation systems; research and development of peripheral technologies; research and development of photovoltaic power-aided systems; research and development of centralized photovoltaic power systems; and research and development of photothermal hybrid photovoltaic power systems. Collected concerning heat application technologies are the research and development of solar thermal energy systems; development of practical application technologies for solar systems for industrial use etc.; and cooperative projects between Japan and Australia etc. on solar energy technologies. (NEDO)

  4. Historical Analysis of Investment in Solar Energy Technologies (2000-2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, C. E.; Margolis, R. M.; Bartlett, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    The solar energy industry experienced unprecedented growth in the eight years from 2000 to 2007, with explosive growth occurring in the latter half of this period. From 2004 to 2007, global private sector investment in solar energy increased by almost twenty-fold, marking a dramatic increase in the short span of four years. This paper examines the timing, magnitude, focus and location of various forms of investment in the solar energy sector. It analyzes their trends to provide an understanding of the growth of the solar industry during the past eight years and to identify emerging themes in this rapidly evolving industry.

  5. Research and development of utilization technology of solar thermal energy system for industrial and other use. International joint technology development for solar energy utilization systems; Sangyoyo nado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Taiyo energy riyo system kokusai kyodo gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takita, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for international joint technology development for solar energy utilization systems. The joint study with an Indonesian research institute takes a model of lumber drying plant for the design and feasibility study. All the parts it needs are technically available in Indonesia, except carbon fiber sheets and electronic devices for controlling purposes. The drying cost is higher than that of a plant which procures charge-free wood fuel, but lower than that of a plant which procures fuel at 30$/t. A cacao drying plant model is also studied. The feasibility study shows that the initial investment for the blowing-up model is much higher by 60% to 100% than that for the conventional plant. Its fuel cost is lower by 11% than that of residual oil but 27% higher than that of wood. 4 figs.

  6. Self-sustained cabinet based on fuel cell technology and solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Rafael Augusto de Oliveira; Valentim, Rafael Bertier; Glir, Joao Raphael Zanlorensi; Stall, Alexandre; Sommer, Elise Meister; Sanches, Luciana Schimidilin; Dias, Fernando Gallego; Korndorfer, Heitor Medeiros de Albuquerque; Vargas, Jose Viriato Coelho [Universidade Federal do Parana (DEMEC/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Email: rafaelcorrea123@hotmail.com; Ordonez, Juan Carlos [Florida State University, Tallahasse, Florida (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Center for Advanced Power Systems

    2010-07-01

    Along the past few years, there has been intensive research on clean and renewable energy production. Two main reasons have been pointed out: pollution caused by oil based fuels consumption and their availability diminution, which increases their production costs. Fuel Cells have shown to be a clean and renewable energy source, which reveals them as a promising solution, although their technology needs further development. Fuel Cells produce electricity, water and heat consuming hydrogen and oxygen, this provided pure or from a natural air source. Present research has combined different equipment to compose a self-sustaining fuel cells technology based cabinet for energy production, which is a Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFC). This system contains: fuel cells stack, electrolyzer, photovoltaic panel, batteries, current inverter and a charge controller. Photovoltaic panel charges the batteries, while charge controller controls the batteries loading. Batteries are connected to an inverter which converts direct current into alternating current. Inverter is connected to an electrolyzer (Hogen GC 600) which splits the water molecule into hydrogen and oxygen molecules. Produced hydrogen supplies the fuel cell stack and the oxygen is released directly to the atmosphere. Fuel cell stacks power production is transformed into mechanical energy by a fan. Electrical power generated by Ballard stack is 5.124 W, with a voltage of 36.6 V and current of 0.14 A. The system proved to have a great efficiency and to be capable to assemble two renewable energy sources (solar and fuel cell technology) in a self-sustainable cabinet. It has also been shown that equipment such as Electrolyzer, Fuel Cell Stack and Photovoltaic panel can be fit together in the order to produce energy. Therefore, research on Fuel Cells Regenerative System reveals great importance for developing a new, clean, renewable and regenerative energy production system. (author)

  7. Solar energy perspectives in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In a context combining climate change, energy supply crisis, an increased interest in solar energy, a strongly increasing market of solar installations, new technologies, a promotion of the development of the use solar energy in France and a fast development of the water heater and photovoltaic generator markets in France, this report proposes a wide overview of the past, present and future development of solar energy. It discusses the evolution of the French national energy policy and of the solar energy within this policy. It presents and discusses the solar energy resources, their strengths and weaknesses, their geographical and time distribution. It describes the various uses and applications of solar energy in buildings, discusses different aspects of this market (actors, economical data, evolutions, public incentives, perspectives). Then, it describes and discusses technical and economical aspects of two important technologies, the photovoltaic solar energy and the thermodynamic conversion of solar energy. Public incentives, laws and regulations, technical and economic aspects of the connection to the distribution network are then discussed. Some recommendations and ideas are formulated concerning research activities, industrial development, quality of equipment and facilities, personnel education, investment needs

  8. Evaluating the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in electric power systems utilizing energy storage and other enabling technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denholm, Paul; Margolis, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate technologies that will enable solar photovoltaics (PV) to overcome the limits of traditional electric power systems. We performed simulations of a large utility system using hourly solar insolation and load data and attempted to provide up to 50% of this system's energy from PV. We considered several methods to avoid the limits of unusable PV that result at high penetration due to the use of inflexible baseload generators. The enabling technologies considered in this work are increased system flexibility, load shifting via demand responsive appliances, and energy storage

  9. Utilization of photovoltaic solar energy technology for rural electricity supply at Sabah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Noh Dalimin

    1996-01-01

    The conversion of sunlight to electrical energy using photovoltaic systems for lighting, water pumping, telecommunications and vaccine refrigeration are already proven, commercially available and in many, are economically viable. More and more houses in rural areas of Sabah are connected to solar powered infra structural development needs such as street lights, radio repeater station, telecommunication and high-voltage beacons. To meet the infra structural and environmental challenges, especially in remote locations and with prospects of greater economic competitiveness, central and distributed grid connected photovoltaic systems are now being evaluated in Mandahan, Papar and in Marak Parak, Kota Marudu. This paper reports on the progress with the application of the technology and the prospects for wider dissemination

  10. Solar thermal energy utilization. German studies on technology and application. Vol. 1. General investigations on energy availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, M. (Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DFVLR), Koeln (Germany, F.R.). Hauptabteilung Energietechnik) (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    The first volume of a three-volume series titled 'Solar thermal energy utilization' comprises three papers dealing with general investigations into energy availability. Their titles are: Yearly yield of solar CRS-process heat and temperature of reaction; - literature survey in the field of primary and secondary concentrating solar energy systems concerning the choice and manufacturing process of suitable materials; - considerations and proposals for future research and development of high temperature solar processes. Each of the three chapters was abstracted for entry into the database. (HWJ).

  11. Solar Cooker Technological Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Bashir

    1997-01-01

    The challenges which solar cooking technology is facing right now is discussed. Based on a field study in Madras and Gujarat, it is asserted that there is an important incompatibility between the technology and the every day real-life conditions of the "users" of solar cooker. An evaluation report...... on a solar cooker technology in Burkina Faso supports the findings of the study. It is concluded that the users and other important actors have to be incorporated in the technological development process of solar cookers in the future....

  12. Candidate thermal energy storage technologies for solar industrial process heat applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    A number of candidate thermal energy storage system elements were identified as having the potential for the successful application of solar industrial process heat. These elements which include storage media, containment and heat exchange are shown.

  13. 17th Business Report Meeting of New Energy Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). Section Meeting on Solar Technology; Dai 17 kai jigyo hokokukai. Taiyo gijutsu bunkakai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    In this section meeting, reports were made on the following themes: 1) outline of NEDO solar technology development; 2) commercialization study of thin film polycrystal solar cell production technology; 3) development of CdTe solar cell module production technology; 4) R and D of construction material monolithic solar cell modules; 5) development of the project overseas for solar energy technology development. In 1), outlined were the development of commercialization technology of photovoltaic power system, internationally joint demonstration development of photovoltaic power system, development of production facilities of solar cell use compound semiconductors, development of commercialization technology of solar system for industrial use, etc., and a large wind power system. In 2), the results of the study 'low cost Si substrate production by continuous cast method' were reported. In 3), the results were reported of the increase in efficiency and development of low cost production technology for large area modules. In 4), 3 kinds and 6 systems of R and D for house roofs and building walls were conducted, and possibilities of commercialization were obtained in terms of performance and economical efficiency as construction material. In 5), with the use of natural conditions and social systems in Nepal, Mongol, Thailand and Malaysia, the development for commercialization of this system is being made by joint research with each country. (NEDO)

  14. Parameterization models for solar radiation and solar technology applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Samy A.

    2008-01-01

    Solar radiation is very important for the evaluation and wide use of solar renewable energy systems. The development of calibration procedures for broadband solar radiation photometric instrumentation and the improvement of broadband solar radiation measurement accuracy have been done. An improved diffuse sky reference and photometric calibration and characterization software for outdoor pyranometer calibrations are outlined. Parameterizations for direct beam, total hemispherical and diffuse sky radiation and solar radiation technology are briefly reviewed. The uncertainties for various broadband solar radiations of solar energy and atmospheric effects are discussed. The varying responsivities of solar radiation with meteorological, statistical and climatological parameters and possibility atmospheric conditions was examined

  15. Parameterization models for solar radiation and solar technology applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Samy A. [National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Solar and Space Department, Marsed Street, Helwan, 11421 Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-08-15

    Solar radiation is very important for the evaluation and wide use of solar renewable energy systems. The development of calibration procedures for broadband solar radiation photometric instrumentation and the improvement of broadband solar radiation measurement accuracy have been done. An improved diffuse sky reference and photometric calibration and characterization software for outdoor pyranometer calibrations are outlined. Parameterizations for direct beam, total hemispherical and diffuse sky radiation and solar radiation technology are briefly reviewed. The uncertainties for various broadband solar radiations of solar energy and atmospheric effects are discussed. The varying responsivities of solar radiation with meteorological, statistical and climatological parameters and possibility atmospheric conditions was examined. (author)

  16. Long-Term Monitoring of Utility-Scale Solar Energy Development and Application of Remote Sensing Technologies: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Yuki [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Division; Grippo, Mark A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Division; Smith, Karen P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Division

    2014-09-30

    In anticipation of increased utility-scale solar energy development over the next 20 to 50 years, federal agencies and other organizations have identified a need to develop comprehensive long-term monitoring programs specific to solar energy development. Increasingly, stakeholders are requesting that federal agencies, such as the U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management (BLM), develop rigorous and comprehensive long-term monitoring programs. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) is assisting the BLM in developing an effective long-term monitoring plan as required by the BLM Solar Energy Program to study the environmental effects of solar energy development. The monitoring data can be used to protect land resources from harmful development practices while at the same time reducing restrictions on utility-scale solar energy development that are determined to be unnecessary. The development of a long-term monitoring plan that incorporates regional datasets, prioritizes requirements in the context of landscape-scale conditions and trends, and integrates cost-effective data collection methods (such as remote sensing technologies) will translate into lower monitoring costs and increased certainty for solar developers regarding requirements for developing projects on public lands. This outcome will support U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Sunshot Program goals. For this reason, the DOE provided funding for the work presented in this report.

  17. Overview of Opportunities for Co-Location of Solar Energy Technologies and Vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beatty, Brenda [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hill, Graham [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Large-scale solar facilities have the potential to contribute significantly to national electricity production. Many solar installations are large-scale or utility-scale, with a capacity over 1 MW and connected directly to the electric grid. Large-scale solar facilities offer an opportunity to achieve economies of scale in solar deployment, yet there have been concerns about the amount of land required for solar projects and the impact of solar projects on local habitat. During the site preparation phase for utility-scale solar facilities, developers often grade land and remove all vegetation to minimize installation and operational costs, prevent plants from shading panels, and minimize potential fire or wildlife risks. However, the common site preparation practice of removing vegetation can be avoided in certain circumstances, and there have been successful examples where solar facilities have been co-located with agricultural operations or have native vegetation growing beneath the panels. In this study we outline some of the impacts that large-scale solar facilities can have on the local environment, provide examples of installations where impacts have been minimized through co-location with vegetation, characterize the types of co-location, and give an overview of the potential benefits from co-location of solar energy projects and vegetation. The varieties of co-location can be replicated or modified for site-specific use at other solar energy installations around the world. We conclude with opportunities to improve upon our understanding of ways to reduce the environmental impacts of large-scale solar installations.

  18. Alternative energy technologies for private households - diffusion of solar collector systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krusche, H

    1979-01-01

    The study gives an estimate of the market potential for solar collectors in the Federal Republic of Germany and reports the results of a survey of first generation private users. It shows that these first users of solar collectors have social and personal charactristics similar to innovators in other areas as described in adoption and diffusion research. Compared with the average houseowner, first users of solar collectors tend to be younger, earn more and be better educated; to be professionally involved with building and heating and have some technical training; to be active information seekers and media users; to be socially active and well-integrated; to actively promote further diffusion of solar collectors. The study also shows that solar collectors are used for the purpose of room heating to an unexpectedly high degree; that the level of satisfaction with appliances and service is unexpectedly high and that the social environment of first users shows very little resistance to the introduction of solar collectors. Finally, it is shown that first users are more ecologically conscious than the average houseowner. The majority of first users attributes their decision to adopt solar technology to a lesser degree or at least not more than equally to economic-technical considerations than to ecological considerations. First users are generally fascinated by technically sweet consumption goods and can be characterized as technical optimists in their outlook on the future. Conclusions for social marketing of solar technology for the private household are drawn.

  19. Solar low energy dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hestnes, Anne Grete

    2000-01-01

    By now, a lot has been learnt about how to reduce energy use in dwellings using solar and low energy technologies, and many good examples can be found throughout Europe. Still, they are not quite the common feature we would expect them to be, i.e. they have not really penetrated the market. The reason for this is in part a result of the fact that the designers and developers of these buildings have not looked at what the market wants and needs, but rather at how to use a set of given technologies. The buildings are the result of a technology push rather than a market pull and have therefore, often, been detached or semidetached dwellings with different solar technologies added on in less than optimal ways. In order to increase market penetration, it is time to look at the market trends and relate to these. Fortunately, quite a few European architects have realized this and have started designing somewhat different residential buildings. The paper focuses on examples of the new trends in solar residential architecture and by that, hopefully, it shows that we are on the right track. (au)

  20. Public policy performance for social development : solar energy approach to assess technological outcome in Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas-Aquino, A.R.; Matsumoto-Kuwabara, Y.; Kleiche Dray, Mina

    2017-01-01

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is the most populated urban area in the country. In 2010, MCMA required 14.8% of total energy domestic demand, but greenhouse gas emissions accounted for 7.7% of domestic emissions. Mexico has massive renewable energy potential that could be harnessed through solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. The problem to explore is the relationship between local and federal public strategies in MCMA and their stance on energy transition concern, social empowerment, ne...

  1. Solar cell array design handbook - The principles and technology of photovoltaic energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenbach, H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar cell array design and technology for ground-based and space applications are discussed from the user's point of view. Solar array systems are described, with attention given to array concepts, historical development, applications and performance, and the analysis of array characteristics, circuits, components, performance and reliability is examined. Aspects of solar cell array design considered include the design process, photovoltaic system and detailed array design, and the design of array thermal, radiation shielding and electromagnetic components. Attention is then given to the characteristics and design of the separate components of solar arrays, including the solar cells, optical elements and mechanical elements, and the fabrication, testing, environmental conditions and effects and material properties of arrays and their components are discussed.

  2. Application of an electrochemical chlorine-generation system combined with solar energy as appropriate technology for water disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jusol; Park, Chan Gyu; Yoon, Jeyong

    2013-02-01

    Affordable water disinfection is key to reducing the waterborne disease experienced worldwide where resources are limited. A simple electrochemical system that can generate chlorine as a disinfectant from the electrolysis of sodium chloride is an appropriate technology to produce clean water, particularly if driven by solar energy. This study examined the affordability of an electrochemical chlorine generation system using solar energy and developed the necessary design information for its implementation. A two-electrode batch reactor, equipped with commercial IrO(2)-coated electrodes and a solar panel (approximate area 0.2 m(2)), was used to produce chlorine from a 35g/L solution of NaCl. Within 1 h, sufficient chlorine (0.8 g) was generated to produce clean drinking water for about 80 people for 1 day (target microorganism: Escherichia coli; daily drinking water requirement: 2 L per person; chlorine demand: 4 mg/L; solar power: 650 W/m(2) in Seoul, Korea. Small household batteries were demonstrated to be a suitable alternative power source when there is insufficient solar irradiation. Using a 1 m(2) solar panel, the reactor would take only 15 min in Seoul, Korea, or 7 min in the tropics (solar power 1300 W/m(2)), to generate 1 g of chlorine. The solar-powered electrochemical chlorine generation system for which design information is provided here is a simple and affordable way to produce chlorine with which to convert contaminated water into clean drinking water.

  3. Hydrogen from solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-04-01

    The long-range options of energy sources are the breeding reactor, nuclear fusion, and solar energy. Concerning solar energy three systems are being developed: First the photovoltaic cells which are almost ready for industrial production, but which are still too expensive - at least today. Secondly the thermal utilization of solar radiation. Compared to these, thirdly, the photobiological and photochemical possibilities of solar energy utilization have been somewhat neglected so far. However, the photolysis of water by solar energy is a very promising option for future energy demands. This can be done by making use of the photo-synthetic splitting of water in technical facilities or with semiconductors.

  4. Solar Thermal Energy; Energia Solar Termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Martinez, M; Cuesta-Santianes, M J; Cabrera Jimenez, J A

    2008-07-01

    Approximately, 50 % of worldwide primary energy consumption is done in the form of heat in applications with a temperature lower than 250 degree centigree (low-medium temperature heat). These data clearly demonstrate the great potential of solar thermal energy to substitute conventional fossil fuels, which are becoming more expensive and are responsible for global warming. Low-medium temperature solar thermal energy is mainly used to obtain domestic hot water and provide space heating. Active solar thermal systems are those related to the use of solar thermal collectors. This study is dealing with low temperature solar thermal applications, mainly focusing on active solar thermal systems. This kind of systems has been extensively growing worldwide during the last years. At the end of 2006, the collector capacity in operation worldwide equalled 127.8 GWth. The technology is considered to be already developed and actions should be aimed at favouring a greater market penetration: diffusion, financial support, regulations establishment, etc. China and USA are the leading countries with a technology based on evacuated tube collectors and unglazed collectors, respectively. The rest of the world markets are dominated by the flat glazed collectors technology. (Author) 15 refs.

  5. Solar energy enters the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coehoorn, M.; Sinke, W.C.

    1995-11-01

    Everybody agrees that there is a bright future for solar energy. After two decades of research and development, the market introduction of solar hot water systems is now taking off. In several countries, including the Netherlands, preparations are also underway for the large-scale introduction of photovoltaic systems. Although the share of thermal and photovoltaic solar energy in the energy supply sector in the Netherlands is very small (0.1 PJ) there are signs of imminent change. According to the Follow-up Policy Document on Energy Conservation, the share of solar energy should increase to 7 PJ by the year 2010. After years of concentrating on research and development, it is now generally recognised that it is time to introduce these technologies onto the market in order to realize the long-term objectives. In this respect, thermal solar energy is ahead of photovoltaics. 4 ills

  6. Solar Energy Perspectives In Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsan, M.N.H.

    2010-01-01

    Egypt belongs to the global sun-belt. The country is in advantageous position with solar energy. In 1991 solar atlas for Egypt was issued indicating that the country enjoys 2900-3200 hours of sunshine annually with annual direct normal energy density 1970-3200 kWh/m2 and technical solar-thermal electricity generating potential of 73.6 Peta watt hour (PWh). Egypt was among the first countries to utilize solar energy. In 1910, a practical industrial scale solar system engine was built at Maadi south to Cairo using solar thermal parabolic collectors. The engine was used to produce steam which drove a series of large water pumps for irrigation. Nowadays utilization of solar energy includes use of photovoltaic cells, solar water heating and solar thermal power. Use of solar thermal technology may include both electricity generation and water desalination, which is advantageous for Egypt taking in consideration its shortage in water supply. The article discusses perspectives of solar energy in Egypt and developmental trends till 2050

  7. Introduction to the study of solar technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touchais, M

    1979-01-01

    The conversion of solar energy to meet the world's energy requirements by means of solar technology is discussed as preface to an introductory course in solar technology. The significance of the energy crisis of 1973 to the development of alternative sources of energy, primarily solar, is considered, and the amount of recoverable solar energy incident on the earth is estimated to be able to supply the world's energy demand. The various means of solar energy conversion, including thermal, chemical in the form of hydrogen or methane, and direct or thermal electrical, are examined, and areas of these technologies requiring further experimental investigation are indicated. Solar technology is presented as the science of the artificial applications of solar energy, with mention of its associated disciplines, and the deficiencies of the solar technology developed prior to the energy crisis are exposed. Goals for contemporary instruction in solar technology are then derived, the introductory course is outlined, and bibliographic references are presented. Differences between the sources of solar and traditional energies are also discussed.

  8. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  9. Solar energy - status and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahm, P. [PA Energy A/S, Malling (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    Solar energy in terms of thermal Solar Hot Water systems and electricity producing Photovoltaics contribute at present only to the global energy supply at a fraction of 1 %. However, the potential for solar energy is immense: the earth receives in 1 hour from the sun the equivalent of the present annual global energy supply. Solar energy is one of the emerging renewable energy technologies still not competitive, but exhibiting both technical and economic potential to be so inside 10-15 years. There is basically no necessary 'technology jumps' as prerequisites, but such a development will demand a favorable political climate. Growing political awareness, driven partly by environmental concerns partly by concerns about security of energy supply, of the need to promote solar energy and renewables, e.g. on global level spurred on by the recent UN/IPCC report and on an EU level by the EC commitment to reach 20 % renewables in the electricity supply by 2010 and 20 % renewables in the overall energy production by 2020, appears to ensure the necessary future political support for renewables, but not necessarily for solar energy technologies, in particular photovoltaics's, which is still not yet competitive to other renewables although exhibiting a tremendous potential. (au)

  10. Overcoming the lock-out of renewable energy technologies in Spain: The cases of wind and solar electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, Pablo del [Department of Spanish and International Economics, Econometrics and History and Economic Institutions, Facultad de Ciencias Juridicas y Sociales de Toledo, C/Cobertizo de S. Pedro Martir s/n, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Toledo-45071 (Spain); Unruh, Gregory [Alumni Association Chair for Corporate Sustainability, Center for Eco-Intelligent Management, Instituto de Empresa, Serrano, 105 Madrid-28006 (Spain)

    2007-09-15

    This paper applies an evolutionary economics framework to analyse the factors leading to lock-out of renewable energy technologies (RETs). The cases of wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) in Spain are empirically analysed. The paper shows that a wide array of interrelated factors (technoeconomic characteristics of technology components, system-level infrastructure and institutional factors) can create both barriers to the wide diffusion of RETs and can also be drivers that foster an escape from a lock-in situation. Based on this analysis, the paper suggests several policy measures which may help to overcome the lock-out of promising renewable energy technologies. (author)

  11. Solar energy emplacement developer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Michael; Sauls, Bob

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary design was developed for a Lunar Power System (LPS) composed of photovoltaic arrays and microwave reflectors fabricated from lunar materials. The LPS will collect solar energy on the surface of the Moon, transform it into microwave energy, and beam it back to Earth where it will be converted into usable energy. The Solar Energy Emplacement Developer (SEED) proposed will use a similar sort of solar energy collection and dispersement to power the systems that will construct the LPS.

  12. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Lotsch, H.K.V; U.Hoffmann, Volker; Rhodes, William T; Asakura, Toshimitsu; Brenner, Karl-Heinz; Hänsch, Theodor W; Kamiya, Takeshi; Krausz, Ferenc; Monemar, Bo; Venghaus, Herbert; Weber, Horst; Weinfurter, Harald

    2005-01-01

    This comprehensive description and discussion of photovoltaics (PV) is presented at a level that makes it accessible to the interested academic. Starting with an historical overview, the text outlines the relevance of photovoltaics today and in the future. Then follows an introduction to the physical background of solar cells and the most important materials and technologies, with particular emphasis placed on future developments and prospects. The book goes beyond technology by also describing the path from the cell to the module to the system, proceeding to important applications, such as grid-connected and stand-alone systems. The composition and development of the markets and the role of PV in future energy systems are also considered. Finally, the discussion turns to the future structure of energy supplies, expected to comprise more distributed generation, and addresses synergies and competition from other carbon-free energy sources.

  13. Can Integrated Micro-Optical Concentrator Technology Revolutionize Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Solar Energy Harvesting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Michael W.

    2015-12-01

    The economies-of-scale and enhanced performance of integrated micro-technologies have repeatedly delivered disruptive market impact. Examples range from microelectronics to displays to lighting. However, integrated micro-scale technologies have yet to be applied in a transformational way to solar photovoltaic panels. The recently announced Micro-scale Optimized Solar-cell Arrays with Integrated Concentration (MOSAIC) program aims to create a new paradigm in solar photovoltaic panel technology based on the incorporation of micro-concentrating photo-voltaic (μ-CPV) cells. As depicted in Figure 1, MOSAIC will integrate arrays of micro-optical concentrating elements and micro-scale PV elements to achieve the same aggregated collection area and high conversion efficiency of a conventional (i.e., macro-scale) CPV approach, but with the low profile and mass, and hopefully cost, of a conventional non-concentrated PV panel. The reduced size and weight, and enhanced wiring complexity, of the MOSAIC approach provide the opportunity to access the high-performance/low-cost region between the conventional CPV and flat-plate (1-sun) PV domains shown in Figure 2. Accessing this portion of the graph in Figure 2 will expand the geographic and market reach of flat-plate PV. This talk reviews the motivation and goals for the MOSAIC program. The diversity of the technical approaches to micro-concentration, embedded solar tracking, and hybrid direct/diffuse solar resource collection found in the MOSAIC portfolio of projects will also be highlighted.

  14. Solar Energy Technician/Installer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2007-01-01

    Solar power (also known as solar energy) is solar radiation emitted from the sun. Large panels that absorb the sun's energy as the sun beats down on them gather solar power. The energy in the rays can be used for heat (solar thermal energy) or converted to electricity (photovoltaic energy). Each solar energy project, from conception to…

  15. Solar energy guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentz, A.; Winter, R.

    1993-07-01

    Many aspects with regard to the practical use of solar energy are discussed. This guide is aimed at informing local and regional administrators, committee members of housing corporations and public utilities and public relations officers on the possibilities to use solar energy. In chapter one an overview is given of the use of solar energy in the housing sector, the recreational sector, agricultural sector, industry, trade and other sectors. In the chapters two, three and four attention is paid to passive solar energy, active thermal solar energy and photovoltaic energy respectively. In the chapters five and six aspects concerning the implementation of solar energy systems in practice are discussed. First an outline of the parties involved in implementing solar energy is given: the municipality, the energy utility, the province, local authorities, advisors, housing constructors and the occupants of the buildings. Then attention is paid to the consequences of implementing solar energy for the building inspection and regulations, the finances, energy savings and the environment. In chapter seven an overview is given of the subsidy regulations of the European Community, the Dutch national and local governments. Chapter contains addresses of solar thermal systems, photovoltaic systems and other institutes operating in the field of solar energy, as well as the titles of a number of brochures and courses. 51 figs., 7 tabs., 86 refs

  16. Energy cost unit of street and park lighting system with solar technology for a more friendly city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warman, E.; Nasution, F. S.; Fahmi, F.

    2018-03-01

    Street and park lighting system is part of a basic infrastructure need to be available in such a friendly city. Enough light will provide more comfort to citizens, especially at night since its function to illuminate roads and park environments around the covered area. The necessity to add more and more lighting around the city caused the rapid growth of the street and park lighting system while the power from PLN (national electricity company) is insufficient and the cost is getting higher. Therefore, it is necessary to consider other energy sources that are economical, environmentally friendly with good continuity. Indonesia, which located on the equator, have benefited from getting solar radiation throughout the year. This free solar radiation can be utilized as an energy source converted by solar cells to empower street and park lighting system. In this study, we planned the street and park lighting with solar technology as alternatives. It was found that for Kota Medan itself, an average solar radiation intensity of 3,454.17 Wh / m2 / day is available. By using prediction and projection method, it was calculated that the energy cost unit for this system was at Rp 3,455.19 per kWh. This cost was higher than normal energy cost unit but can answer the scarcity of energy availability for street and park lighting system

  17. Solar energy modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, R. R. (Inventor); Mcdougal, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A module is described with a receiver having a solar energy acceptance opening and supported by a mounting ring along the optic axis of a parabolic mirror in coaxial alignment for receiving solar energy from the mirror, and a solar flux modulator plate for varying the quantity of solar energy flux received by the acceptance opening of the module. The modulator plate is characterized by an annular, plate-like body, the internal diameter of which is equal to or slightly greater than the diameter of the solar energy acceptance opening of the receiver. Slave cylinders are connected to the modulator plate for supporting the plate for axial displacement along the axis of the mirror, therby shading the opening with respect to solar energy flux reflected from the surface of the mirror to the solar energy acceptance opening.

  18. Advanced Methods for Incorporating Solar Energy Technologies into Electric Sector Capacity-Expansion Models: Literature Review and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, P.; Eurek, K.; Margolis, R.

    2014-07-01

    Because solar power is a rapidly growing component of the electricity system, robust representations of solar technologies should be included in capacity-expansion models. This is a challenge because modeling the electricity system--and, in particular, modeling solar integration within that system--is a complex endeavor. This report highlights the major challenges of incorporating solar technologies into capacity-expansion models and shows examples of how specific models address those challenges. These challenges include modeling non-dispatchable technologies, determining which solar technologies to model, choosing a spatial resolution, incorporating a solar resource assessment, and accounting for solar generation variability and uncertainty.

  19. Solar Energy Technology Office Portfolio Review: Promotion of PV Soft Cost Reductions in the Southeastern US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-12-20

    From 2016-2021, the installed solar capacity in South Carolina will mushroom from less than 20 megawatts to more than 300 megawatts. Concurrently, the number of customer-sited, load-centered solar generation is expected to grow from less than 500 statewide to as many as 10,000 by 2021. This growth is anticipated to be the direct result of a landmark state policy initiative, Act 236, passed by the South Carolina General Assembly and signed into law by the Governor in June of 2014. Local policy makers in South Carolina are ill-equipped to handle the onslaught of solar permitting and zoning requests expected over the next five years. Similarly, the state’s building inspectors, first responders, and tax assessors know little about photovoltaic (PV) technology and best practices. Finally, South Carolina’s workforce and workforce trainers are underprepared to benefit from the tremendous opportunity created by the passage of Act 236. Each of these deficits in knowledge of and preparedness for solar PV translates into higher “soft costs” of installed solar PV in South Carolina. Currently, we estimate that the installed costs of residential rooftop solar are as much as 25 percent higher than the national average. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), together with almost a dozen electricity stakeholders in the Southeast, proposes to create a replicable model for solar PV soft cost reduction in South Carolina through human capacity-building at the local level and direct efforts to harmonize policy at the inter-county or regional level. The primary goal of this effort is to close the gap between South Carolina installed costs of residential rooftop solar and national averages. The secondary goal is to develop a portable and replicable model that can be applied to other jurisdictions in the Southeastern US.

  20. Solar energy in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvirin, Y.; Zamkow, S.

    1993-01-01

    The state of Israel has been a pioneer in the solar energy development and utilization since it was founded. In the 50's solar domestic home heaters became commercially available. At the same time research work has been started in different areas of solar energy, which led to more advanced solar systems for additional applications. The presentation includes some details of commercial utilization of solar energy and a brief description of the main Research and Development projects in industry, universities and research institutes. (authors)

  1. Solar Energy in the Home. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, Allen A.; Woodland, James A.

    Recommended for grades 10-12 physical, earth, or general science classes, this 5-7 day unit is designed to give students a general understanding of solar energy and its use as a viable alternative to present energy sources. Along with this technology, students examine several factors of solar energy which influence the choice of solar home site…

  2. Solar Technology Curriculum, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward County Community Coll., Liberal, KS.

    This curriculum guide contains lecture outlines and handouts for training solar technicians in the installation, maintenance, and repair of solar energy hot water and space heating systems. The curriculum consists of four modular units developed to provide a model through which community colleges and area vocational/technical schools can respond…

  3. The thermodynamic solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivoire, B.

    2002-04-01

    The thermodynamic solar energy is the technic in the whole aiming to transform the solar radiation energy in high temperature heat and then in mechanical energy by a thermodynamic cycle. These technic are most often at an experimental scale. This paper describes and analyzes the research programs developed in the advanced countries, since 1980. (A.L.B.)

  4. The Application Study in Solar Energy Technology for Highway Service Area: A Case Study of West Lushan Highway Low-Carbon Service Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of research works have been made concerning highway service area or solar technology and acquired great achievements. However, unfortunately, few works have been made combining the two topics together of highway service areas and solar energy saving to make a systemic research on solar technology application for highway service area. In this paper, taking West Lushan highway low-carbon service area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the advantages, technical principles, and application methods of solar energy technology for highway service area including solar photoelectric technology and solar water heating technology were discussed based on the analysis of characteristics of highway low-carbon service area; the system types, operation mode, and installing tilt angle of the two kinds of solar systems suitable for highway service areas were confirmed. It was proved that the reduction of the cost by electricity savings of solar system was huge. Taking the investment of the solar systems into account, the payback period of solar photoelectric systems and solar water heating systems was calculated. The economic effect of the solar systems in West Lushan highway service area during the effective operation periods was also calculated and proved very considerable.

  5. Thermal solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.C.; Leal C, H.

    1998-01-01

    Some relative aspects to the development and current state of thermal solar energy are summarized, so much at domestic level as international. To facilitate the criteria understanding as the size of the facilities in thermal solar systems, topics as availability of the solar resource and its interactions with the matter are included. Finally, some perspectives for the development of this energetic alternative are presented

  6. Solar energy sciences and engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Enteria, Napoleon

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy is available all over the world in different intensities. Theoretically, the solar energy available on the surface of the earth is enough to support the energy requirements of the entire planet. However, in reality, progress and development of solar science and technology depends to a large extent on human desires and needs. This is due to the various barriers to overcome and to deal with the economics of practical utilization of solar energy.This book will introduce the rapid development and progress in the field of solar energy applications for science and technology: the advanc

  7. Environmental and solar energy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, Z.I.

    2003-01-01

    Technologies for fossil fuel extraction, transportation, processing and their use have harmful impact on the environment which cause direct and indirect negative impact on human heath, animals, crops and structure etc. The end use of all the fossil fuels is combustion irrespective of the final purpose i.e. heating, electricity production and motive power for transportation. The main constituents of fossil fuels are carbon and hydrogen but some other ingredients, which are originally in the fuel e.g. sulfur or are added during refining e.g. lead, alcohol etc. Combustion of the fossil fuel produces various gases (CO/sub x/, SO/sub x/ NO/sub x/, CH,), soot, ash, droplets of tar and other organic compounds, which are all released into the atmosphere. High rate of population growth and industrialization in the developing countries are causing unsustainable use of forest resources and fossil fuels, hence, are serious hurdles in environmental improvement. The situation in Pakistan is even worse as it has very limited fossil fuels and 40% of its commercial energy requirement are to be imported every year. Renewable energy technologies on the other hand, can play a vital role in improving the environmental condition globally. Pakistan Council of Renewable Energy Technologies (PCRET) is working in the field of renewable energy technologies. The Council has developed solar modules and solar thermal devices including solar cookers, solar dryers, solar stills and solar water heaters. The paper describes these devices and contribution they can make towards the improvement of environment. (author)

  8. Collection of outlines of Sunshine Program achievement reports for fiscal 1988. Solar energy (Light utilizing technology and heat utilizing technology); 1988 nendo sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Taiyo energy (hikari riyo gijutsu / netsu riyo gijutsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-04-01

    Collected concerning the research and development of photovoltaic power systems are the basic research on solar cells; research and development of new-type photovoltaic power systems; and research and development of amorphous solar cells. Collected concerning the development of technologies for the practical application of photovoltaic power systems are the experiment, refining, and verification of low-cost silicon; experiment, fabrication, and verification of solar panels; research on the practical application of high-efficiency crystal-based solar cells; research and development of amorphous solar cells; research and development of solar cell evaluation systems; development of peripheral technologies; research and development of photovoltaic power-aided systems; research and development of centralized photovoltaic power systems; and development of photothermal hybrid type photovoltaic power systems. Collected concerning heat-utilizing technologies are the research and development of solar thermal electric power generation systems; research and development of solar air-conditioners and hot water supply systems; and development of practical application technologies for industrial solar systems. Collected also are international cooperative projects on solar energy technologies. (NEDO)

  9. Assessment of Solar Energy Dissemination and Application in Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The study report addresses the following issues in the Zambian context: previous studies on solar energy, government policy on renewable energy, system designs, benefits of solar energy technologies, affordable solar energy equipment by target groups, barriers to solar energy technology diffusion, credit schemes for potential users. 13 refs., 5 figs., 22 tabs

  10. Research progress about chemical energy storage of solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haifeng; Xie, Gengxin; Jie, Zheng; Hui, Xiong; Yang, Duan; Du, Chaojun

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, the application of solar energy has been shown obvious advantages. Solar energy is being discontinuity and inhomogeneity, so energy storage technology becomes the key to the popularization and utilization of solar energy. Chemical storage is the most efficient way to store and transport solar energy. In the first and the second section of this paper, we discuss two aspects about the solar energy collector / reactor, and solar energy storage technology by hydrogen production, respectively. The third section describes the basic application of solar energy storage system, and proposes an association system by combining solar energy storage and power equipment. The fourth section briefly describes several research directions which need to be strengthened.

  11. The Application Study in Solar Energy Technology for Highway Service Area: A Case Study of West Lushan Highway Low-Carbon Service Area in China

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Xiaochun; Shen, Yi; Shao, Shegang

    2015-01-01

    A lot of research works have been made concerning highway service area or solar technology and acquired great achievements. However, unfortunately, few works have been made combining the two topics together of highway service areas and solar energy saving to make a systemic research on solar technology application for highway service area. In this paper, taking West Lushan highway low-carbon service area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the advantages, technical principles, and...

  12. Solar India - 82: national solar energy convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This document is the proceedings of the Solar India - 82 conference, which was held 17-19 December 1982. The papers are organized into functional groupings which include: (1) solar radiation, (2) flat plate solar collectors and solar water heaters, (3) solar concentrators, (4) solar air heaters and dryers, (5) solar ponds and energy storage, (6) solar cookers, (7) solar stills, (8) selective coatings, (9) photovoltaics, (10) space heating and cooling, (11) bio-energy, and (12) miscellaneous papers. The vast majority of the papers describe work carried out in India, the vast majority of the papers also contain relatively readable abstracts.

  13. Solar energy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa, D.; Slaoui, A.; Soler, R.; Bermudez, V.

    2009-01-01

    Written by a group of five French experts who visited several research centres, innovating companies and solar power stations in the United States, this report first proposes an overview of solar energy in the United States, indicating and commenting the respective shares of different renewable energies in the production, focusing on the photovoltaic energy production and its RD sector. The second part presents industrial and research activities in the solar sector, and more specifically photovoltaic technologies (silicon and thin layer technology) and solar concentrators (thermal solar concentrators, photovoltaic concentrators). The last chapter presents the academic research activities in different universities (California Tech Beckman Institute, Stanford, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Colorado School of Mines)

  14. NASA energy technology applications program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-05

    The NASA Energy Technology Applications Program is reviewed. This program covers the following points: 1. wind generation of electricity; 2. photovoltaic solar cells; 3. satellite power systems; 4. direct solar heating and cooling; 5. solar thermal power plants; 6. energy storage; 7. advanced ground propulsion; 8. stationary on-site power supply; 9. advanced coal extraction; 10. magnetic heat pump; 11. aeronautics.

  15. Solar energy harvesting by magnetic-semiconductor nanoheterostructure in water treatment technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodi, Vahid; Bastami, Tahereh Rohani; Ahmadpour, Ali

    2018-03-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of toxic organic pollutants in the wastewater using dispersed semiconductor nanophotocatalysts has a number of advantages such as high activity, cost effectiveness, and utilization of free solar energy. However, it is difficult to recover and recycle nanophotocatalysts since the fine dispersed nanoparticles are easily suspended in waters. Furthermore, a large amount of photocatalysts will lead to color contamination. Thus, it is necessary to prepare photocatalysts with easy separation for the reusable application. To take advantage of high photocatalysis activity and reusability, magnetic photocatalysts with separation function were utilized. In this review, the photocatalytic principle, structure, and application of the magnetic-semiconductor nanoheterostructure photocatalysts under solar light are evaluated. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  16. Solar Energy Measurement Using Arduino

    OpenAIRE

    Jumaat Siti Amely; Othman Mohamad Hilmi

    2018-01-01

    This project aims to develop a measurement of solar energy using Arduino Board technology. In this research, four parameters that been measured are temperature, light intensity, voltage and current. The temperature was measured using temperature sensor. The light intensity was measured using light dependent resistor (LDR) sensor. The voltage was measured using the voltage divider because the voltage generated by the solar panel are large for the Arduino as receiver. Lastly for the current was...

  17. Solar Renewable Energy. Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Marion; And Others

    This unit develops the concept of solar energy as a renewable resource. It includes: (1) an introductory section (developing understandings of photosynthesis and impact of solar energy); (2) information on solar energy use (including applications and geographic limitations of solar energy use); and (3) future considerations of solar energy…

  18. Solar energy in buildings: Implications for California energy policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshberg, A. S.; Davis, E. S.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of the potential of active solar energy systems for buildings in California is summarized. The technology used for solar heating, cooling, and water heating in buildings is discussed. The major California weather zones and the solar energy designs are described, as well as the sizing of solar energy systems and their performance. The cost of solar energy systems is given both at current prices and at prices consistent with optimistic estimates for the cost of collectors. The main institutional barriers to the wide spread use of solar energy are summarized.

  19. Priority to solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berner, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    There are many different combinations of solar heating systems and heat pumps in the market; some of them differ considerably in terms of the design concept, control management and storage technology. One thing they all have in common is that solar heating comes first.

  20. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 2: Assumptions, methodology and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.

  1. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 2: Assumptions, methodology and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.

  2. Solar applications analysis for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, T.

    1980-01-01

    The role of energy storage as it relates to solar energy systems is considered. Storage technologies to support solar energy applications, the status of storage technologies, requirements and specifications for storage technologies, and the adequacy of the current storage research and development program to meet these requirements are among the factors discussed. Emphasis is placed on identification of where the greatest potential exists for energy storage in support of those solar energy systems which could have a significant impact on the U.S. energy mix.

  3. Solar energy in Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, H.

    1981-12-01

    The past, present, and future of Peru is discussed in terms of solar energy development and the social, economic, climatic, and technical factors involved. It is pointed out that there are 3 geographical divisions in Peru including: (1) the foggy coastal strip where rain is infrequent, insolation is low and population is high; (2) the mountainous Andes region with high insolation and many populated high mountain valleys; and (3) the rainy, Amazon basin covered with jungle, and sparcely populated with high but inconsistent insolation. Since there is little competition with other forms of energy, solar energy shows promise. Passive solar heating of buildings, particularly in the Andes region, is described, as well as the use of solar water heaters. Prototypes are described and illustrated. Industrial use of solar heated water in the wool industry as well as solar food drying and solar desalination are discussed. High temperature applications (electrical generators and refrigeration) as well as photovoltaic systems are discussed briefly. It is concluded that social and political factors are holding back the development of solar energy but a start (in the form of prototypes and demonstration programs) is being made. (MJJ)

  4. The Solar Energy Notebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankins, William H., III; Wilson, David A.

    This publication is a handbook for the do-it-yourselfer or anyone else interested in solar space and water heating. Described are methods for calculating sun angles, available energy, heating requirements, and solar heat storage. Also described are collector and system designs with mention of some design problems to avoid. Climatological data for…

  5. Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photovoltaic Technology Basics Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics Solar cells, also called found in sand) created an electric charge when exposed to sunlight. Soon solar cells were being used to power space satellites and smaller items like calculators and watches. Photo of a large silicon solar

  6. 77 FR 76109 - IAS Energy, Inc., IB3 Networks, Inc., IBroadband, Inc., ICP Solar Technologies, Inc., IdentiPHI...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ...., IBroadband, Inc., ICP Solar Technologies, Inc., IdentiPHI, Inc., iDNA, Inc., Immune Network Ltd., Inca Designs, Inc., Indico Technologies, Inc. (n/k/a Indico Resources Ltd.), Infopage, Inc. (a/k/a Tamija Gold... securities of ICP Solar Technologies, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period...

  7. Solar thermal energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Karl W. (Inventor); Dustin, Miles O. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A plurality of heat pipes in a shell receive concentrated solar energy and transfer the energy to a heat activated system. To provide for even distribution of the energy despite uneven impingement of solar energy on the heat pipes, absence of solar energy at times, or failure of one or more of the heat pipes, energy storage means are disposed on the heat pipes which extend through a heat pipe thermal coupling means into the heat activated device. To enhance energy transfer to the heat activated device, the heat pipe coupling cavity means may be provided with extensions into the device. For use with a Stirling engine having passages for working gas, heat transfer members may be positioned to contact the gas and the heat pipes. The shell may be divided into sections by transverse walls. To prevent cavity working fluid from collecting in the extensions, a porous body is positioned in the cavity.

  8. Solar energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Sorensen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    While solar is the fastest-growing energy source in the world, key concerns around solar power's inherent variability threaten to de-rail that scale-up . Currently, integration of intermittent solar resources into the grid creates added complication to load management, leading some utilities to reject it altogether, while other operators may penalize the producers via rate increases or force solar developers to include storage devices on-site to smooth out power delivery at the point of production. However these efforts at mitigation unfold, it is increasingly clear to parties on all sides th

  9. Solar energy policy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-08-17

    A number of memoranda and reports are collected which deal with evaluations of solar energy policy options, including direct and indirect labor impacts and costs of different options and consumer protection. (LEW)

  10. Public policy performance for social development: solar energy approach to assess technological outcome in Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas-Aquino, Angel Raúl; Matsumoto-Kuwabara, Y; Kleiche-Dray, M

    2017-11-01

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is the most populated urban area in the country. In 2010, MCMA required 14.8% of total energy domestic demand, but greenhouse gas emissions accounted for 7.7% of domestic emissions. Mexico has massive renewable energy potential that could be harnessed through solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. The problem to explore is the relationship between local and federal public strategies in MCMA and their stance on energy transition concern, social empowerment, new technology appropriation, and the will to boost social development and urban sustainability. A public policy typology was conducted through instruments of State intervention approach, based on political agenda articulation and environmental local interactions. Social equality is encouraged by means of forthright funding and in-kind support and energy policies focus on non-renewable energy subsidies and electric transmission infrastructure investment. There is a lack of vision for using PV technology as a guiding axis for marginalized population development. It is essential to promote economic and political rearrangement in order to level and structure environmental governance. It is essential to understand people's representation about their own needs along with renewable energy.

  11. Solar Preheated Ventilation - Innovative Solar Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gaberson, Howard

    1999-01-01

    .... This innovative technology applies to both new construction or rehabilitation projects. This TDS introduces this low maintenance solar technology for consideration in all future industrial ventilation or HVAC projects...

  12. Employment factors for wind and solar energy technologies: A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cameron, L.; van der Zwaan, B.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an up-to-date literature review on employment opportunities associated with the deployment of renewable energy technology. We identified approximately 70 studies and data sources published over the past decade that report analysed or observed employment impacts of renewable

  13. Lessons learned from solar energy projects in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huraib, F.S.; Hasnain, S.M.; Alawaji, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the lessons learned from the major RD and D activities at Energy Research Institute (ERI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in the field of solar energy. Photovoltaic, solar thermal dishes, solar water heating, solar water pumping and desalination, solar hydrogen production and utilization are some of the areas studied for solar energy applications. Recommendations and guidelines for future solar energy research, development, demonstration and dissemination in Saudi Arabia are also given. (Author)

  14. Insights on Technology Innovation - A Review of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon Competition Entries 2002-2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Joseph J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doris, Elizabeth S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Farrar, Sara L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Decathlon is a collegiate competition that challenges student teams to design and build full-size, solar-powered houses. Because of balanced design priorities of architecture, engineering, innovation, performance, and energy use, teams have focused on a range of technologies in the built environment, from wall materials to home control systems, from electric lighting to HVAC equipment, and from geothermal to solar photovoltaic technology. This report provides insights into building technology innovation from a review of the Solar Decathlon competition entry designs, anecdotal experiences, and related market reports. The report describes example case studies of the evolution of technology solutions over time to illustrate the innovative, market-driving nature of the Solar Decathlon. It charts technologies utilized in the team designs over seven competitions and compares those to broader market adoption. It is meant to illustrate the technology innovation aspects of the competition, not to be a comprehensive or quantitative analysis. Solar Decathlon also has impacts on public perception of innovative technologies as well as workforce development through the thousands of participating students. The focus of these case studies is to showcase how it contributes to marketplace adoption of innovative energy technologies.

  15. Electrochemical solar energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerischer, H.

    1991-01-01

    The principles of solar energy conversion in photoelectrochemical cells are briefly reviewed. Cells for the generation of electric power and for energy storage in form of electrochemical energy are described. These systems are compared with solid state photovoltaic devices, and the inherent difficulties for the operation of the electrochemical systems are analyzed. (author). 28 refs, 10 figs

  16. Integrated solar energy system optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S. K.

    1982-11-01

    The computer program SYSOPT, intended as a tool for optimizing the subsystem sizing, performance, and economics of integrated wind and solar energy systems, is presented. The modular structure of the methodology additionally allows simulations when the solar subsystems are combined with conventional technologies, e.g., a utility grid. Hourly energy/mass flow balances are computed for interconnection points, yielding optimized sizing and time-dependent operation of various subsystems. The program requires meteorological data, such as insolation, diurnal and seasonal variations, and wind speed at the hub height of a wind turbine, all of which can be taken from simulations like the TRNSYS program. Examples are provided for optimization of a solar-powered (wind turbine and parabolic trough-Rankine generator) desalinization plant, and a design analysis for a solar powered greenhouse.

  17. Solar energy developments: photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivoththaman, S.

    2006-01-01

    The annual photovoltaic (PV) energy production crossed the 1 Gigawatt mark a couple of years ago, and continues to grow at rates exceeding 40%. The cost of PV has been continuously dropping due to increased production and also thanks to the technological advances made over the past two decades at the material, device, and system levels. Although PV is still considered expensive, cost-competitiveness is expected to be achieved in the next 5-10 years. With the current PV market 90% dominated by crystalline silicon (Si) material, advances are being made in tackling the Si shortage issue, and new approaches in feedstock refinement are getting shape. On the other hand, progress is being made on thin film-based advanced devices and on novel organic semiconductors. Novel concepts based on quantum physics and nanotechnology do have the ability to improve device performance beyond traditional theoretical limits. The domination of Si is expected to shift when these next generation technologies mature into industry-level scalability. On the system level, advanced back-end electronics provides more efficient power conditioning for modern PV modules. Systems level combinations such as solar thermal/PV hybrids and PV/hydrogen systems are also promising. An overview of recent technology developments will be presented with highlights in the Canadian scenario. (author)

  18. Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy data - over 200 satellite-derived meteorology and solar energy parameters, monthly averaged from 22 years of data, global solar...

  19. The Energy Crisis and Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockris, J. O'M.

    1974-01-01

    Examines the status of the energy crisis in Australia. Outlines energy alternatives for the 1990's and describes the present status of solar energy research and the economics of solar energy systems. (GS)

  20. Teaching Children to Value Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugerat, Muhamad; Saker, Salem; Odeh, Saeed; Agbaria, Adnan

    2011-01-01

    In this educational initiative, we suggest to build a real model of solar village inside the school, which uses only solar energy. These educational initiatives emphasize the importance of energy for a technological society and the advantage of alternative energy sources. In this scientific educational initiative, the pupils in three elementary…

  1. Can industry afford solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreith, F.; Bezdek, R.

    1983-03-01

    Falling oil prices and conservation measures have reduced the economic impetus to develop new energy sources, thus decreasing the urgency for bringing solar conversion technologies to commercial readiness at an early date. However, the capability for solar to deliver thermal energy for industrial uses is proven. A year-round operation would be three times as effective as home heating, which is necessary only part of the year. Flat plate, parabolic trough, and solar tower power plant demonstration projects, though uneconomically operated, have revealed engineering factors necessary for successful use of solar-derived heat for industrial applications. Areas of concern have been categorized as technology comparisons, load temperatures, plant size, location, end-use, backup requirements, and storage costs. Tax incentives have, however, supported home heating and not industrial uses, and government subsidies have historically gone to conventional energy sources. Tax credit programs which could lead to a 20% market penetration by solar energy in the industrial sector by the year 2000 are presented.

  2. Socio-geographic perception in the diffusion of innovation: Solar energy technology in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEachern, Menzie [Alberta Environment, 7th Floor, Oxbridge Place, 9820-106 Street, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Hanson, Susan [Department of Geography, Clark University, 950 Main Street, Worcester, MA 01610 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Understandings of the diffusion process have tended to emphasize either the adoption perspective, which focuses on individual characteristics, or the market perspective, which focuses on institutional context. In this paper we bring these two perspectives together by recognizing that people are embedded in socio-geographic contexts that affect their perceptions of their situations, which in turn shape the innovativeness of individuals and places. Focusing on the diffusion of Solar Home Systems (SHS) in Sri Lanka, we explore the role of context at the village (by comparing adoption rates among villages) and individual (by comparing time-to-adoption among household decision makers in a case-study village) scales. At the village scale, we find that expectations of government policy based on interactions related to ethnicity and politicians' previous power-grid connection promises are significant drivers of SHS adoption, along with perceived tolerance levels in the village for non-conformist behavior. Among household decision makers within the case-study village, we analyze relative adoption time and the duration of the innovation-decision process and find that perceiving strong village-level social control inhibits SHS adoption decision making. The results add to innovation diffusion theory and provide policy recommendations for agencies promoting solar energy in developing countries. (author)

  3. Socio-geographic perception in the diffusion of innovation: Solar energy technology in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEachern, Menzie; Hanson, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Understandings of the diffusion process have tended to emphasize either the adoption perspective, which focuses on individual characteristics, or the market perspective, which focuses on institutional context. In this paper we bring these two perspectives together by recognizing that people are embedded in socio-geographic contexts that affect their perceptions of their situations, which in turn shape the innovativeness of individuals and places. Focusing on the diffusion of Solar Home Systems (SHS) in Sri Lanka, we explore the role of context at the village (by comparing adoption rates among villages) and individual (by comparing time-to-adoption among household decision makers in a case-study village) scales. At the village scale, we find that expectations of government policy based on interactions related to ethnicity and politicians' previous power-grid connection promises are significant drivers of SHS adoption, along with perceived tolerance levels in the village for non-conformist behavior. Among household decision makers within the case-study village, we analyze relative adoption time and the duration of the innovation-decision process and find that perceiving strong village-level social control inhibits SHS adoption decision making. The results add to innovation diffusion theory and provide policy recommendations for agencies promoting solar energy in developing countries

  4. Introductory guide to solar energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cawood, WN

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available amount of solar energy. It is one thing for environmentalists to advocate a dramatic change over to solar energy but quite another to implement this, as it would obviously be unthinkable to scrap all fossil fuel technology unless a global catastrophe... is one built in New Mexico to suit a climate which is considerably more extreme than that found on the highveld. (See illustration, which applies to the northern hemisphere.) Instead of simply filling the sub-floor level of this home with soil...

  5. Solar energy. Usage of the solar energy in other forms of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruevski, Trpe

    2004-01-01

    Solar energy, which was a utopian dream forty years ago, is today already on the market, particularly for specialized uses and in remote areas. After a brief description of the solar energy usage, the theory, technology and applications of photovoltaic cells are presented

  6. Surface meteorology and Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    The Release 5.1 Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data contains parameters formulated for assessing and designing renewable energy systems. Parameters fall under 11 categories including: Solar cooking, solar thermal applications, solar geometry, tilted solar panels, energy storage systems, surplus product storage systems, cloud information, temperature, wind, other meteorological factors, and supporting information. This latest release contains new parameters based on recommendations by the renewable energy industry and it is more accurate than previous releases. On-line plotting capabilities allow quick evaluation of potential renewable energy projects for any region of the world. The SSE data set is formulated from NASA satellite- and reanalysis-derived insolation and meteorological data for the 10-year period July 1983 through June 1993. Results are provided for 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude grid cells over the globe. Average daily and monthly measurements for 1195 World Radiation Data Centre ground sites are also available. [Mission Objectives] The SSE project contains insolation and meteorology data intended to aid in the development of renewable energy systems. Collaboration between SSE and technology industries such as the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables ( HOMER ) may aid in designing electric power systems that employ some combination of wind turbines, photovoltaic panels, or diesel generators to produce electricity. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1993-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

  7. Emerging technologies to power next generation mobile electronic devices using solar energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dewei JIA; Yubo DUAN; Jing LIU

    2009-01-01

    Mobile electronic devices such as MP3, mobile phones, and wearable or implanted medical devices have already or will soon become a necessity in peoples' lives.However, the further development of these devices is restricted not only by the inconvenient charging process of the power module, but also by the soaring prices of fossil fuel and its downstream chain of electricity manipulation.In view of the huge amount of solar energy fueling the world biochemically and thermally, a carry-on electricity harvester embedded in portable devices is emerging as a most noteworthy research area and engineering practice for a cost efficient solution. Such a parasitic problem is intrinsic in the next generation portable devices. This paper is dedicated to presenting an overview of the photovoltaic strategy in the chain as a reference for researchers and practitioners committed to solving the problem.

  8. Bright Idea: Solar Energy Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri State Dept. of Natural Resources, Jefferson City.

    This booklet is intended to address questions most frequently asked about solar energy. It provides basic information and a starting point for prospective solar energy users. Information includes discussion of solar space heating, solar water heating, and solar greenhouses. (Author/RE)

  9. An innovation management approach for renewable energy deployment. The case of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shum, Kwok L.; Watanabe, Chihiro

    2009-01-01

    In the discussion of renewable energy deployment, one key concern is the various types of barriers that renewable energy needs to overcome before it can make its way into the mainstream. These barriers increasingly shift from the technical to the economic and institutional. The most general types of barriers are due to technological 'lock-out' or to carbon 'lock-in' [. Understanding carbon lock-in. Energy Policy 28(12), 817-830 (Elsevier)]. These barriers necessitate the development of a strategic approach to deploy or introduce renewable energy technology. Existing energy policy has mostly relied upon financial subsidies, market-based instruments such as renewable portfolio standards, and production tax credits to stimulate the installation and use of equipment to generate electricity from renewable sources. These strategies target mostly system-level decisions of end users. The purpose of this paper is to present an innovation perspective on the renewable energy deployment process by introducing the innovation value-added chain (IVC) framework. The analytical objective of IVC is to evaluate the impact of a new innovation on the various stakeholders and players in the development and deployment processes. A deployment or innovation strategy that causes minimal disruption, enhances existing competencies, or expedites new learning by the players has a higher chance to succeed. We draw upon two sets of system integration costs data for grid-connected distributed photovoltaic (PV) systems in Japan and the United States and demonstrate conspicuously different dynamic learning behaviors. These two deployment models can be understood in terms of how the IVCs are organized and how PV system integration projects are performed in the field. In addition, IVC-based findings can inform the targeted application of conventional financial subsidies for learning investment not only at the PV system level, but also at the (localized) system integration level. This would involve

  10. Solar energy in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eijpe, H.A.

    1996-01-01

    One of the Dutch energy distribution companies (REMU) applies integrated passive, thermal and photovoltaic solar energy systems in fifty newly built dwellings in Amersfoort, Netherlands. The houses are equipped with a combi-boiler (solar energy and natural gas) and 22.5m 2 photovoltaic panels to produce electricity. Six houses are equipped with an electric heat pump, while the other 44 houses have a high-efficiency low-NO x combi-boiler. The experiences with the project so-far are outlined. 6 figs., 1 tab., 10 refs

  11. Solar Energy Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Solar energy furnishes all of the heating and hot water needs, plus 80 percent of the air conditioning, for the two-story Reedy Creek building. A unique feature of this installation is that the 16 semi-cylindrical solar collectors (center photo on opposite page with closeup of a single collector below it) are not mounted atop the roof as is customary, they actually are the roof. This arrangement eliminates the usual trusses, corrugated decking and insulating concrete in roof construction; that, in turn, reduces overall building costs and makes the solar installation more attractive economically. The Reedy Creek collectors were designed and manufactured by AAI Corporation of Baltimore, Maryland.

  12. Energy from solar balloons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grena, Roberto [C. R. Casaccia, via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Roma (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    Solar balloons are hot air balloons in which the air is heated directly by the sun, by means of a black absorber. The lift force of a tethered solar balloon can be used to produce energy by activating a generator during the ascending motion of the balloon. The hot air is then discharged when the balloon reaches a predefined maximum height. A preliminary study is presented, along with an efficiency estimation and some considerations on possible realistic configurations. (author)

  13. Solar energy after Fukushima: the new deal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisgibault, Louis

    2011-01-01

    This document contains a brief presentation, the preface, and the table of contents of a book which addresses the major technological, regulatory and geostrategic challenges for solar energy in the current energy context. The author outlines the strong emergence of China in this sector, but also that of new opportunities in Africa, and the need for France to strengthen European-Mediterranean collaborations in order not to definitely loose a leadership position. While referring to the environmental context, to practical examples and installations, the author explains the difficult taking off of solar energy before March 2011, why the Fukushima is a turning point for solar energy, and why solar energy will prevail

  14. Energy research and energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Research and development in the field of energy technologies was and still is a rational necessity of our time. However, the current point of main effort has shifted from security of supply to environmental compatibility and safety of the technological processes used. Nuclear fusion is not expected to provide an extension of currently available energy resources until the middle of the next century. Its technological translation will be measured by the same conditions and issues of political acceptance that are relevant to nuclear technology today. Approaches in the major research establishments to studies of regenerative energy systems as elements of modern energy management have led to research and development programs on solar and hydrogen technologies as well as energy storage. The percentage these systems might achieve in a secured energy supply of European national economies is controversial yet today. In the future, the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Grossforschungseinrichtungen (AGF) (Cooperative of Major Research Establishments) will predominantly focus on nuclear safety research and on areas of nuclear waste disposal, which will continue to be a national task even after a reorganization of cooperation in Europe. In addition, they will above all assume tasks of nuclear plant safety research within international cooperation programs based on government agreements, in order to maintain access for the Federal Republic of Germany to an advancing development of nuclear technology in a concurrent partnership with other countries. (orig./HSCH) [de

  15. Clean energy utilization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Takuya

    1992-01-01

    The technical development of clean energy including the utilization of solar energy was begun in 1973 at the time of the oil crisis, and about 20 years elapsed. Also in Japan, the electric power buying system by electric power companies for solar light electric power and wind electric power has been started in 1992, namely their value as a merchandise was recognized. As for these two technologies, the works of making the international standards and JIS were begun. The range of clean energy or natural energy is wide, and its kinds are many. The utilization of solar heat and the electric power generation utilizing waves, tide and geotherm already reached the stage of practical use. Generally in order to practically use new energy, the problem of price must be solved, but the price is largely dependent on the degree of spread. Also the reliability, durability and safety must be ensured, and the easiness of use, effectiveness and trouble-saving maintenance and operation are required. For the purpose, it is important to packaging those skillfully in a system. The cases of intelligent natural energy systems are shown. Solar light and wind electric power generation systems and the technology of transporting clean energy are described. (K.I.)

  16. Solar thermal collectors at design and technology activity days

    OpenAIRE

    Petrina, Darinka

    2016-01-01

    Thesis encompases usage of renewable resources of energy, especially solar energy, which is essential for our future. On one hand, certain ways of exploiting solar energy (with solar cells) have been well established and is included in the Design and technology curriculum, on the other hand however, solar thermal collectors have not been recognized enough in spite of their distribution, applicability and environmentally friendly technology. Consequently thesis emphasizes the usage of solar en...

  17. Photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gottfried H

    2015-01-01

    This concise primer on photovoltaic solar energy conversion invites readers to reflect on the conversion of solar light into energy at the most fundamental level and encourages newcomers to the field to help find meaningful answers on how photovoltaic solar energy conversion can work (better), eventually contributing to its ongoing advancement. The book is based on lectures given to graduate students in the Physics Department at the University of Oldenburg over the last two decades, yet also provides an easy-to-follow introduction for doctoral and postdoctoral students from related disciplines such as the materials sciences and electrical engineering. Inspired by classic textbooks in the field, it reflects the author’s own ideas on how to understand, visualize and eventually teach the microscopic physical mechanisms and effects, while keeping the text as concise as possible so as to introduce interested readers to the field and balancing essential knowledge with open questions.

  18. A rare good thing: the Hopi Solar Project and barriers to the use of renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, D.

    1995-01-01

    One example of a non-profit renewable energy technology (RET) is the Hopi Solar Program (HSP) in Second Mesa, Arizona. Since 1990 the HSP has provided or upgraded solar systems for 50 homes. Most of the systems are owned by Hopis. It was suggested that although non-profit RETs would be in public interest, market-oriented governments and corporation have avoided development of an international network of RETs because they would upset the existing social order and affect short-term profits. Several benefits of RETs were described. It was noted that development of RETs was modular, i.e. manufacturing and distribution could be undertaken on a small scale. Solar panel plants could be operated with a minimum of personnel and capital. Programs such as HSP also would provide power to homes not on the electric utility grid. HSP does not have to contend with pricing policies and monopoly bargaining power of electric utilities. Power generated by RETs could also be transferred to the electric grid. The need for, and the feasibility of an international network of RETs was also addressed

  19. Solar Spots - Activities to Introduce Solar Energy into the K-8 Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longe, Karen M.; McClelland, Michael J.

    Following an introduction to solar technology which reviews solar heating and cooling, passive solar systems (direct gain systems, thermal storage walls, sun spaces, roof ponds, and convection loops), active solar systems, solar electricity (photovoltaic and solar thermal conversion systems), wind energy, and biomass, activities to introduce solar…

  20. Solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz I

    2012-01-01

    Finally filling a gap in the literature for a text that also adopts the chemist?s view of this hot topic, Prof Likhtenshtein, an experienced author and internationally renowned scientist, considers different physical and engineering aspects in solar energy conversion. From theory to real-life systems, he shows exactly which chemical reactions take place when converting light energy, providing an overview of the chemical perspective from fundamentals to molecular harvesting systems and solar cells. This essential guide will thus help researchers in academia and industry better understa

  1. Experimental study on comprehensive utilization of solar energy and energy balance in an integrated solar house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Huawei; Liu, Yuting; Shen, Jinqiu; Xiang, Can; He, Sinian; Wan, Zhongmin; Jiang, Meng; Duan, Chen; Shu, Shuiming

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Active and passive solar house technology is integrated in the solar house. • Solar thermal system and solar photoelectric system are measured and analyzed. • Energy balance and energy consumption are analyzed with valuable experimental data. • “Zero energy consumption” is truly achieved with the solar supply rate of 1.19 in winter. - Abstract: An integrated solar house with numerous advanced envelops is designed and constructed to investigate the comprehensive utilization of solar energy, energy efficiency and energy balance, which combines active solar house technology with passive solar house technology including solar photovoltaic system, solar water heating system, direct-gain door and windows. Solar radiation intensity, performance of the photovoltaic system, water temperature, and indoor and outdoor temperature are measured, results of the experiments indicate that solar glass window on the south wall can maintain the average indoor temperature at 21.4 °C in the case of average outdoor temperature at 11.2 °C without any external heat supply. The output current of the solar photovoltaic system shows the same trend as solar radiation intensity. When the intensity is 619.7 W/m"2, the instantaneous generation power could reach a value of 781.9 W, cumulative capacity throughout the day achieves 4.56 kW h and photovoltaic conversion efficiency 9.8%. When the average intensity throughout a day is 358 W/m"2, the solar water heating system could help to raise the temperature of 450 L water by 30 °C with its heat collecting efficiency being 37.4%. Through the analysis of the overall energy system in the solar house, it can be derived that this solar house could achieve “zero energy consumption” in winter with the solar supply rate at 1.19.

  2. Solar energy in Norway; Solstroem i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorud, Bjoern; Nordal, Siv Helen; Bugge, Lars; Authen, Mari L.; Bernhard, Peter

    2012-10-15

    Enova SF produced in 2010/11 a report that described the potential of solar energy until 2020. Developments in the market for the production of electricity from solar energy happens so fast that it is prepared a new report describing the market and technology per 2012. (eb)

  3. 2015 Plan. Project 4: electric power supply, technologies, cost and availability. Sub-project alternative energy sources: solar, eolic, shale, ocean, hydrogen, organic wastes, peat and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    Several aspects of solar, eolic and ocean energy and shale, peat lignite, hydrogen and organic waste in Brazil are described, including reserves, potential, technology economy and environment. Based in data and information presented in this report, the necessity of a more detailed survey with the potential of alternative energy sources in Brazil, emphasizing the more promiser regions is also mentioned. (C.G.C.)

  4. Comparing solar energy alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J R

    1984-01-01

    The paper outlines a computational procedure for comparing the merits of alternative processes to convert solar radiation to heat, electrical power, or chemical energy. The procedure uses the ratio of equipment investment to useful work as an index. Comparisons with conversion counterparts based on conventional fuels are also facilitated by examining this index. The procedure is illustrated by comparisons of (1) photovoltaic converters of differing efficiencies; (2) photovoltaic converters with and without focusing concentrators; (3) photovoltaic conversion plus electrolysis vs photocatalysis for the production of hydrogen; (4) photovoltaic conversion plus plasma arcs vs photocatalysis for nitrogen fixation. Estimates for conventionally-fuelled processes are included for comparison. The reasons why solar-based concepts fare poorly in such comparisons are traced to the low energy density of solar radiation and its low stream time factor resulting from the limited number of daylight hours available and clouds obscuring the sun.

  5. Comparing solar energy alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J R

    1984-01-01

    This paper outlines a computational procedure for comparing the merits of alternative processes to convert solar radiation to heat, electrical power, or chemical energy. The procedure uses the ratio of equipment investment to useful work as an index. Comparisons with conversion counterparts based on conventional fuels are also facilitated by examining this index. The procedure is illustrated by comparisons of (1) photovoltaic converters of differing efficiencies; (2) photovoltaic converters with and without focusing concentrators; (3) photovoltaic conversion plus electrolysis vs photocatalysis for the production of hydrogen; (4) photovoltaic conversion plus plasma arcs vs photocatalysis for nitrogen fixation. Estimates for conventionally-fuelled processes are included for comparison. The reasons why solar-based concepts fare poorly in such comparisons are traced to the low energy density of solar radiation and its low stream time factor resulting from the limited number of daylight hours available and clouds obscuring the sun. 11 references.

  6. Solar nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tlalka, R.

    1977-01-01

    Brief characteristics are given of solar radiation and of its spectral range. The relation is derived for the gas pressure in the centre of the Sun and the mechanism is described of particle interactions in the Sun. Using the Eddington model the basic nuclear reactions in the Sun are described, namely the proton-proton chain and the C-N cycle. The energy transfer is discussed from the Sun to the boundaries of the Earth atmosphere and inside the atmosphere. The measurement of solar energy is conducted with actinometers, i.e., pyrheliometers, pyranometers and combinations thereof. The results of solar radiation measurement in different weather conditions are graphically represented. (J.B.)

  7. Employment impacts of solar energy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetin, Muejgan; Egrican, Niluefer

    2011-01-01

    Solar energy is considered a key source for the future, not only for Turkey, also for all of the world. Therefore the development and usage of solar energy technologies are increasingly becoming vital for sustainable economic development. The main objective of this study is investigating the employment effects of solar energy industry in Turkey. Some independent reports and studies, which analyze the economic and employment impacts of solar energy industry in the world have been reviewed. A wide range of methods have been used in those studies in order to calculate and to predict the employment effects. Using the capacity targets of the photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) plants in the solar Roadmap of Turkey, the prediction of the direct and indirect employment impacts to Turkey's economy is possible. As a result, solar energy in Turkey would be the primary source of energy demand and would have a big employment effects on the economics. That can only be achieved with the support of governmental feed-in tariff policies of solar energy and by increasing research-development funds. - Highlights: → The objective of the study, is investigating employment effects of solar energy. → Using the capacity targets of the PV and CSP plants in solar roadmap of Turkey. → Direct employment has been calculated by constructing of the solar power plant. → If multiplier effect is accepted as 2, total employment will be doubled. → Validity of the figures depends on the government's policies.

  8. Providing all global energy with wind, water, and solar power, Part I: Technologies, energy resources, quantities and areas of infrastructure, and materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Mark Z., E-mail: jacobson@stanford.ed [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4020 (United States); Delucchi, Mark A., E-mail: madelucchi@ucdavis.ed [Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Climate change, pollution, and energy insecurity are among the greatest problems of our time. Addressing them requires major changes in our energy infrastructure. Here, we analyze the feasibility of providing worldwide energy for all purposes (electric power, transportation, heating/cooling, etc.) from wind, water, and sunlight (WWS). In Part I, we discuss WWS energy system characteristics, current and future energy demand, availability of WWS resources, numbers of WWS devices, and area and material requirements. In Part II, we address variability, economics, and policy of WWS energy. We estimate that {approx}3,800,000 5 MW wind turbines, {approx}49,000 300 MW concentrated solar plants, {approx}40,000 300 MW solar PV power plants, {approx}1.7 billion 3 kW rooftop PV systems, {approx}5350 100 MW geothermal power plants, {approx}270 new 1300 MW hydroelectric power plants, {approx}720,000 0.75 MW wave devices, and {approx}490,000 1 MW tidal turbines can power a 2030 WWS world that uses electricity and electrolytic hydrogen for all purposes. Such a WWS infrastructure reduces world power demand by 30% and requires only {approx}0.41% and {approx}0.59% more of the world's land for footprint and spacing, respectively. We suggest producing all new energy with WWS by 2030 and replacing the pre-existing energy by 2050. Barriers to the plan are primarily social and political, not technological or economic. The energy cost in a WWS world should be similar to that today. - Research highlights: {yields} Replacing world energy with wind, water, and sun (WWS) reduces world power demand 30%. {yields} WWS for world requires only 0.41% and 0.51% more world land for footprint and spacing, respectively. {yields} Practical to provide 100% new energy with WWS by 2030 and replace existing energy by 2050.

  9. Solar photovoltaic markets, economics, technology, and potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blais, J.M.J.; Molinski, T.S. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)]|[Emerging Energy Systems, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2008-07-01

    Solar Photovoltaics (PV) are solid state semiconductor electronic devices that transform infrared, visible, or ultraviolet light energy from the sun directly into electrical energy. Selenium was used to create the first solar cell in 1883. In 1954, Bell Laboratories developed the modern day silicon solar cell, whereby impurities were added to silicon through a process called doping. Silicon doped with boron results in a positive electrical charge, while silicon doped with phosphorous results in a negative electrical charge. The atom collision from photons in sunlight provides the necessary energy to free a trapped electron in the doped silicon, which then may flow through a wire creating an electric current. Many different materials besides silicon are used to create solar cells, such as plastics, organic compounds, and theoretically even special paints, while other doping agents besides boron and phosphorous are also used, such as arsenic and gallium. This paper provided an introduction to solar PV and world solar PV growth and markets. A review of solar PV economics was also included. In 2008, the total installed costs of solar photovoltaic cells were in the range of 7 to 10 Canadian dollars. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of solar PV were presented. Solar technologies under research and development were also discussed and assessed. It was concluded that although solar PV was one of the most expensive forms of renewable generation, there is great potential for solar PV to gain broader based application as costs continue to drop. 11 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  10. Solar energy for electricity and fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inganäs, Olle; Sundström, Villy

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy conversion into electricity by photovoltaic modules is now a mature technology. We discuss the need for materials and device developments using conventional silicon and other materials, pointing to the need to use scalable materials and to reduce the energy payback time. Storage of solar energy can be achieved using the energy of light to produce a fuel. We discuss how this can be achieved in a direct process mimicking the photosynthetic processes, using synthetic organic, inorganic, or hybrid materials for light collection and catalysis. We also briefly discuss challenges and needs for large-scale implementation of direct solar fuel technologies.

  11. Solar 92: The 1992 American Solar Energy Society annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burley, S.; Arden, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this symposium is to document the lessons learned from federal and state policies and programs in the late 1970's and 1980's aimed at promoting consumer use of solar energy. During this period the primary emphasis was on solar thermal technologies and passive solar design that could be used at the residential level, though there was also some information on stand-alone photovoltaic systems as well

  12. Solar Energy Now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Harvey, Ed.

    Twenty articles addressing different aspects of solar energy are compiled in this book. They represent the views of different governmental and non-governmental organizations, members of congress, and other individuals including, for example, Barry Commoner and Amory Lovins. Topics discussed include the need for federal support, passive solar…

  13. Solar energy application, economics, and public perception

    CERN Document Server

    Adaramola, Muyiwa

    2015-01-01

    Due to climate change, the rise in energy demand, and issues of energy security, more countries are being forced to reexamine their energy policies and consider more renewable sources of energy. Solar power is expected to play a significant role in the changing face of energy economies, due in a large part to the recent technological advances in the field and the significant decrease in cost. This book describes these advances and examines the current state of solar power from a variety of angles. The various sections of the book cover the following topics: an overview of hybrid solar energy s

  14. Solar energy: a UK assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    A panel convened by UK-ISES to analyze all aspects of solar energy systems and to assess the potential for solar energy utilization and research and development needs in the UK and for export is reported. Topics covered include: solar energy in relation to other energy sources; international solar energy research and development program; the physical nature of solar energy and its availability in the UK and other countries; thermal collection, storage, and low-temperature applications; solar energy and architecture; solar thermal power systems; solar cells; agricultural and biological systems; photochemical systems; social, legal, and political considerations with particular reference to the UK; and future policy on solar research and development for the UK. (WDM)

  15. Energy consumption and technological developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okorokov, V.R.

    1990-02-01

    The paper determines an outline of the world energy prospects based on principal trends of the development of energy consumption analysed over the long past period. According to the author's conclusion the development of energy systems will be determined in the nearest future (30 - 40 years) by contemporary energy technologies based on the exploitation of traditional energy resources but in the far future technologies based on the exploitation of thermonuclear and solar energy will play the decisive role. (author)

  16. Solar energy for electricity and fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Ingan?s, Olle; Sundstr?m, Villy

    2015-01-01

    Solar energy conversion into electricity by photovoltaic modules is now a mature technology. We discuss the need for materials and device developments using conventional silicon and other materials, pointing to the need to use scalable materials and to reduce the energy payback time. Storage of solar energy can be achieved using the energy of light to produce a fuel. We discuss how this can be achieved in a direct process mimicking the photosynthetic processes, using synthetic organic, inorga...

  17. The Determinant of US Consumers Attitudes toward Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy provides several significant advantages, such as reduction of the CO[subscript 2] emissions, increase of energy supply diversification, security of energy, and regional/national energy independence. Due to the reduced installation cost and the rapid advances in solar energy technology, the installed capacity of solar power has been…

  18. New energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt-Kuester, W J; Wagner, H F

    1977-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, analyses and forecasts of the energy supply and energy consumption have revealed five major sectors in which extensive R and D activities should be carried out: nuclear energy, coal technology, the utilization of solar energy, techniques for the economical use of energy, and nuclear fusion. Of these sectors, only nuclear energy will be able to make a major contribution to our energy supply both in the near future and over a longer period. The available capacity for mining the large deposits of coal in the Federal Republic of Germany can be increased only gradually and will therefore not make an appreciable contribution until a later date. Another fact to be considered is that a rapidly expanding utilization of this source of energy entails very heavy pollution of the environment. The utilization of solar energy in Central Europe will probably be possible only for supplying warm water for industry and for heating buildings. In the long term, solar energy will contribute only a small percentage of energy to the supply required by the Federal Republic of Germany. Intensive efforts are being made to develop technologies for the more economical use of energy. The priorities in this sector are the installation of district heating systems using waste heat from power stations, and the improved heat insulation of houses. It is not anticipated that the technical utilization of nuclear fusion will be introduced before the end of this century. Nonetheless, this source of energy still constitutes a possibility offering an extremely great potential in the long term, with the result that every effort is being made to put it to good use. The work being carried out in this field in the Federal Republic of Germany is being closely coordinated with the relevant activities undertaken by the other member countries of the European Community.

  19. Solar energy in Amersfoort, Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eijpe, H.A.

    1997-01-01

    For the first time in the world a newly to be built housing area (Nieuwland in Amersfoort, Netherlands) will be constructed, exclusively on the basis of sustainability. First, the use of three forms of solar energy conversion techniques (thermal solar energy, passive solar energy and photovoltaic energy) is going to be integrated in 50 rental houses. At the end of this century 10,000 m 2 of solar cells will be installed with a capacity of 1 MWp. 2 figs

  20. NREL Solar Cell Wins Federal Technology Transfer Prize | News | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar Cell Wins Federal Technology Transfer Prize News Release: NREL Solar Cell Wins Federal Technology Transfer Prize May 7, 2009 A new class of ultra-light, high-efficiency solar cells developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory has been awarded a national prize

  1. Solar driven technologies for hydrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medojević Milovan M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind that the production of hydrogen based on renewable energy sources, without doubt, is an important aspect to be taken into account when considering the potential of this gas, where as particularly interesting technologies stand out the ones which are based on the use of solar energy to produce hydrogen. The goal of this paper provides basic technological trajectories, with the possibility of combining, for solar driven hydrogen production, such as: electrochemical, photochemical and thermochemical process. Furthermore, the paper presents an analysis of those technologies from a technical as well as economic point of view. In addition, the paper aims to draw attention to the fact that the generation of hydrogen using renewable energy should be imposed as a logical and proper way to store solar energy in the form of chemical energy.

  2. Solar Flares and the High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Gordon D.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Solar flares are the biggest explosions in the solar system. They are important both for understanding explosive events in the Universe and for their impact on human technology and communications. The satellite-based HESSI is designed to study the explosive release of energy and the acceleration of electrons, protons, and other charged particles to high energies in solar flares. HESSI produces "color" movies of the Sun in high-energy X rays and gamma rays radiated by these energetic particles. HESSI's X-ray and gamma-ray images of flares are obtained using techniques similar to those used in radio interferometry. Ground-based radio observations of the Sun provide an important complement to the HESSI observations of solar flares. I will describe the HESSI Project and the high-energy aspects of solar flares, and how these relate to radio astronomy techniques and observations.

  3. The solar energy in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocquet, L.

    2004-05-01

    The solar energy is an important characteristic of Israel, listed in its history and its development. This document presents the solar energy applications in the country in many domains: the solar energy for residential houses, the applications in the agricultural and industrial sectors and the research and development programs. (A.L.B.)

  4. Research opportunities to advance solar energy utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan S

    2016-01-22

    Major developments, as well as remaining challenges and the associated research opportunities, are evaluated for three technologically distinct approaches to solar energy utilization: solar electricity, solar thermal, and solar fuels technologies. Much progress has been made, but research opportunities are still present for all approaches. Both evolutionary and revolutionary technology development, involving foundational research, applied research, learning by doing, demonstration projects, and deployment at scale will be needed to continue this technology-innovation ecosystem. Most of the approaches still offer the potential to provide much higher efficiencies, much lower costs, improved scalability, and new functionality, relative to the embodiments of solar energy-conversion systems that have been developed to date. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Community impediments to implementation of solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, M. D.; Armstrong, J. E.

    1979-11-01

    The complete array of institutional problems expected to energy when solar technology are implemented on a national scale is assembled. The findings of the study are presented in two formats. First, the results are organized by the time frames of delays in solar implementation caused by the inherent difficulties a national energy policy would encounter in changing the way a given institution responds to specific solar technologies. Delay categories of 10 years or more, 6 to 8 years, and 3 to 5 years were selected; all were assigned under the assumption that a strong national policy promoting adoption of solar technologies would be in effect. The second format constitutes a description of the difficulties at the community level, associated with implementing each solar technology. (MHR)

  6. Sustained orderly development of the solar electric technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the need of electric utilities to support the commercialization of solar electric technologies now in order to have the technology available for future energy resources. The topics of the article include deteriorating opportunities, sustained orderly development of solar electric technologies, historical aspects, and market forces in the solar electric industry

  7. Report on the FY 1999 survey for making a data book related to new energy technology development. Trends of solar energy utilization, waste power generation, clean energy vehicle, geothermal power generation, clean coal technology, other new energy technology and new energy technology development; 1999 nendo shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa hokokusho. Taiyonetsu riyo, haikibutsu hatsuden, clean energy jidosha, chinetsu hatsuden, clean coal technology, sonota no shin energy gijutsu, shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kanren doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The paper collected/arranged the most up-to-date data made public in the new energy technology field. As to the solar energy utilization, the utilization is on the decrease with the beginning of the 1980s as a peak, and the solar systems introduced in FY 1998 totaled 15,000 and the water heaters 56,000. The waste power generation is showing a steady growth both in the general use and in the industrial use, and the introduction of 5 million KW is expected for FY 2010. The sale of the hybrid car started at the end of 1997, and the subjects are the price/performance/fuel supply system. Concerning the geothermal power generation, 497,000 KW and 36,000 KW were introduced for business use and non-utility use, respectively. Japan ranks sixth among nations of the world. Relating to the coal liquefaction, the pilot plant (PP) of Japan's original bituminous coal liquefaction NEDOL process finished operation in 1998, and the construction of technology package, international cooperation, etc. are being conducted. About the coal gasification, the construction of demonstrative equipment and operation are planned during FY 2002 - FY 2007, making use of the PP achievements of IGCC. In regard to the biomass-based waste power generation, the lignocellulose system is large in potential quantity. As to the hydrogen energy, the WE-NET project entered Period II. With respect to the ocean thermal energy conversion, the demonstrative study started. In relation to the wave power generation, a small size of approximately several hundred W was commercialized. (NEDO)

  8. Solar energy powered microbial fuel cell with a reversible bioelectrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    The solar energy powered microbial fuel cell is an emerging technology for electricity generation via electrochemically active microorganisms fueled by solar energy via in situ photosynthesized metabolites from algae, cyanobacteria, or living higher plants. A general problem with microbial fuel

  9. Solar Energy and Other Appropriate Technologies for Small Potable Water Systems in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Region 2 research demonstration project presentation studied the efficacy of sustainable solar-powered water delivery and monitoring systems to reduce the economic burden of operating and maintaining Non-PRASA drinking water systems and to reduce the impact of climate change...

  10. Technology Learning Activities. Design Brief--Measuring Inaccessible Distances. Alternative Energy Sources: Designing a Wind Powered Generator. Alternative Energy Sources: Designing a Hot Dog Heater Using Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    These three learning activities are on measuring accessible distances, designing a wind powered generator, and designing a hot dog heater using solar energy. Each activity includes description of context, objectives, list of materials and equipment, challenge to students, and evaluation questions. (SK)

  11. How solar energy and electrochemical technologies may help developing countries and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marini, S.; Strada, C.; Villa, M.; Berrettoni, M.; Zerlia, T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The failure of large scale solar/hydrogen projects in developing countries is analyzed. • Controlling the pH of Oceans with a solar chloralkali process is found too costly. • A zero-emission chloralkali plant in Sahara may compete with polluting EU plants. • A new process of syngas + Cl 2 production from CO 2 + HCl may have “negative emissions”. - Abstract: The policies of curbing CO 2 emissions have worked poorly on a global scale and an economically sound proposal of bringing electric power to Europe from an Algerian solar hub has just been dismissed. With reference to the Algerian – European relationships, we analyze the broad context where an environmental policy benefitting both developing and developed countries can be put in place. We then discuss the connection between anthropogenic CO 2 emissions and acidification of Oceans along with a geo-engineering proposal aimed at solving these pressing problems with large-scale solar-powered chloralkali plants. While the cost of sequestering a ton of CO 2 with dedicated chloralkali plants is unacceptably high, it is economically and environmentally sound to replace an existing European Cl 2 plant (consuming fossils) with a solar-powered plant in Algeria. If the Algerian plant uses a new, more efficient chloralkali process, it will be competitive with existing European plants even at the current low market value of the carbon emission credits. We finally explore the possibility of coupling Cl 2 production with CO 2 reuse and syngas production through a novel electrochemical process

  12. Understanding Stakeholders’ Views and the Influence of the Socio-Cultural Dimension on the Adoption of Solar Energy Technology in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houda Elmustapha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In light of climate change and global commitments, a great amount of programs and policies have been implemented by governments targeting the diffusion of renewable energy technologies. Successful diffusion relies on the understanding, persuasion and acceptance by consumers and other stakeholders. This article investigates the views, roles and influence of stakeholders on the adoption of solar energy technology in Lebanon. The main research questions are: What are the stakeholders’ views, roles and influence on the diffusion process of solar energy technologies? And are specific socio-cultural factors therein that influenced adoption? The influence of different stakeholders (end users, public representatives, banking sector, suppliers, consultants and NGOs was assessed via qualitative data analysis, in particular semi-structured interviews. Our research perspective combines grounded and critical theoretical approaches with a case study research design allowing for a semi-inductive process to elaborate and complement new insights to the current body of literature on adoption of clean technology innovation, with a particular focus on the socio-cultural dimension. The results show that contextual factors, specifically related to the social, cultural, geographic and market dimensions, played a crucial role in shaping market development, especially in relation to the uptake of solar energy technology by different consumer groups. Based on the results of this study we argue that more scholarly attention should be awarded to the influence of the socio-cultural dimension and stakeholders’ perspectives on adoption of renewable energy technology.

  13. Direct solar energy and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdani, A.J.

    1997-01-01

    Solar energy, which was a utopian dream forty years ago, is today already on the market, particularly for specialized uses and in remote areas. Even solar cells are now on the eve of becoming economically competitive. After a brief account of solar-cell theory, this paper gives the essential details of Photovoltaic Module Manufacturing Technologies, Single Crystal Technology, Fabrication of Wafers, Fabrication of Solar Cell, Photovoltaic Module, Multi Crystalline Silicon, Amorphous Silicon Cell. Semi-conductor based Thin-Film Technology (other than silicon), Copper-Indium Di selenide (IS), Gallium Arsenide, Multi-Junction Devices, as well as Technologies for Improving Conversion Efficiencies, Criteria for high-efficiency Cells and Module Fabrication. It concludes with a section on Direct Utilisation of solar energy, in which a brief description is presented on Solar Thermal Devices, Solar Water Heaters, Calculating hot-water requirements, Solar Stills, Solar Drying, Concentrator Collectors and, finally Measurement of the Solar Resource. At the end, there is a useful Appendix on World-Wide Photovoltaic Cell/Module Manufacturing Capacity Expansion Profile. (author)

  14. Determinants of Trade with Solar Energy Technology Components: Evidence on the Porter Hypothesis?

    OpenAIRE

    Felix Groba

    2011-01-01

    Studies analyzing renewable energy market development usually investigate additional capacity or investment. Characteristics, roles and determinants of cross border trade with renewable energy system components remain blurred. Environmental regulation and renewable energy policies are important in promoting renewable energy use. Yet, the effect of respective policies on determining exports remains ambiguous. The Porter hypothesis and the lead market literature argue that environmental regulat...

  15. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, S.; Margolis, R.; Barbose, G.; Bartlett, J.; Cory, K.; Couture, T.; DeCesaro, J.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Frickel, M.; Hemmeline, C.; Mendelsohn, T.; Ong, S.; Pak, A.; Poole, L.; Peterman, C.; Schwabe, P.; Soni, A.; Speer, B.; Wiser, R.; Zuboy, J.; James, T.

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this report is the U.S. solar electricity market, including photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. The report is organized into five chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of global and U.S. installation trends. Chapter 2 presents production and shipment data, material and supply chain issues, and solar industry employment trends. Chapter 3 presents cost, price, and performance trends. Chapter 4 discusses policy and market drivers such as recently passed federal legislation, state and local policies, and developments in project financing. Chapter 5 provides data on private investment trends and near-term market forecasts. Highlights of this report include: (1) The global PV industry has seen impressive growth rates in cell/module production during the past decade, with a 10-year compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 46% and a 5-year CAGR of 56% through 2008. (2) Thin-film PV technologies have grown faster than crystalline silicon over the past 5 years, with a 10-year CAGR of 47% and a 5-year CAGR of 87% for thin-film shipments through 2008. (3) Global installed PV capacity increased by 6.0 GW in 2008, a 152% increase over 2.4 GW installed in 2007. (4) The United States installed 0.34 GW of PV capacity in 2008, a 63% increase over 0.21 GW in 2007. (5) Global average PV module prices dropped 23% from $4.75/W in 1998 to $3.65/W in 2008. (6) Federal legislation, including the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (EESA, October 2008) and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA, February 2009), is providing unprecedented levels of support for the U.S. solar industry. (7) In 2008, global private-sector investment in solar energy technology topped $16 billion, including almost $4 billion invested in the United States. (8) Solar PV market forecasts made in early 2009 anticipate global PV production and demand to increase fourfold between 2008 and 2012, reaching roughly 20 GW of production and demand by 2012. (9

  16. Solar Energy Development PEIS Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    skip navigation Solar Energy Development Programmatic EIS Home About the EIS Public Involvement Solar Energy Solar Energy Zones Maps Documents secondary menu News Frequently Asked Questions Glossary E the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern

  17. Solar Energy Systems for Ohioan Residential Homeowners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Rickey D.

    Dwindling nonrenewable energy resources and rising energy costs have forced the United States to develop alternative renewable energy sources. The United States' solar energy industry has seen an upsurge in recent years, and photovoltaic holds considerable promise as a renewable energy technology. The purpose of this case study was to explore homeowner's awareness of the benefits of solar energy. Disruptive-innovation theory was used to explore marketing strategies for conveying information to homeowners about access to new solar energy products and services. Twenty residential homeowners were interviewed face-to-face to explore (a) perceived benefits of solar energy in their county in Ohio, and (b) perceptions on the rationale behind the marketing strategy of solar energy systems sold for residential use. The study findings used inductive analyses and coding interpretation to explore the participants' responses that revealed 3 themes: the existence of environmental benefits for using solar energy systems, the expensive cost of equipment associated with government incentives, and the lack of marketing information that is available for consumer use. The implications for positive social change include the potential to enable corporate leaders, small business owners, and entrepreneurs to develop marketing strategies for renewable energy systems. These strategies may promote use of solar energy systems as a clean, renewable, and affordable alternative electricity energy source for the 21st century.

  18. The marketing of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coehoorn, M.; Sinke, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    After two decades of research and development the market introduction of solar water heaters finally is developing rapidly. In a number of progressive countries, amongst which the Netherlands, preparations are made for the large-scale introduction of photovoltaic (PV) power systems. A brief overview is given of market introduction activities with regard to solar energy applications in several countries. Also attention is paid to new technological developments for the improvement of solar boilers: the Integrated Collector Storage system, the integration of the storage tank in the solar water heater (combi-boiler), and the new principle for a combined system for the production of hot tap water and space heating, the so-called solar-gas-combi. The Dutch-developed boilers, however, must compete with the the foreign thermosyphon boilers, although these boilers probably require more maintenance than the Dutch boilers. The market for PV-systems is still in its infancy. The marketing efforts and research activities in Japan, USA and European countries for PV-systems are briefly discussed. Although financial incentives from the national governments are still necessary contributions from other market parties for the development of PV-systems are expected. 4 ills

  19. The SERI solar energy storage program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, R. J.; Wright, J. D.; Wyman, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    In support of the DOE thermal and chemical energy storage program, the solar energy storage program (SERI) provides research on advanced technologies, systems analyses, and assessments of thermal energy storage for solar applications in support of the Thermal and Chemical Energy Storage Program of the DOE Division of Energy Storage Systems. Currently, research is in progress on direct contact latent heat storage and thermochemical energy storage and transport. Systems analyses are being performed of thermal energy storage for solar thermal applications, and surveys and assessments are being prepared of thermal energy storage in solar applications. A ranking methodology for comparing thermal storage systems (performance and cost) is presented. Research in latent heat storage and thermochemical storage and transport is reported.

  20. Public Policies of Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouvier, Yves; Pehlivanian, Sophie; Teissier, Pierre; Chauvin-Michel, Marion; Forget, Marie; Raymond, Roland; Hyun Jin Yu, Julie; Popiolek, Nathalie; Guthleben, Denis

    2013-01-01

    This dossier about the Public Policies of Solar Energy brings together the presentations given in June 2013 at a colloquium organised by the Savoie university of Chambery (France): Introduction (Yves Bouvier, Sophie Pehlivanian); Passive solar energy in the shade of the French energy policy, 1945-1986 (Pierre Teissier); Solar architectures and energy policies in France: from oil crisis to solar crisis (Marion Chauvin-Michel); Sun in media, between promotion and contestation (Sophie Pehlivanian); Public policies of solar energy and territorial jurisdictions: the example of village photovoltaic power plants (Marie Forget); Energy social system and ordinary creative movement (Roland Raymond); The Historical Evolution of South Korea's Solar PV Policies since the 1970's (Julie Hyun Jin Yu, Nathalie Popiolek); Research on solar energy from yesterday to the present day: an historical project (Denis Guthleben); Photovoltaic power: public policies and economical consequences. The French choices in the international context - 1973-2013 (Alain Ricaud)

  1. Thin film solar cell technology in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, W.; Sittinger, V.; Szyszka, B.

    2005-01-01

    Within the scope of limited nonrenewable energy resources and the limited capacity of the ecosystem for greenhouse gases and nuclear waste, sustainability is one important target in the future. Different energy scenarios showed the huge potential for photovoltaics (PV) to solve this energy problem. Nevertheless, in the last decade, PV had an average growth rate of over 20% per year. In 2002, the solar industry delivered more than 500 MWp/year of photovoltaic generators [A. Jaeger-Waldau, A European Roadmap for PV R and D, E-MRS Spring Meeting, (2003)]. More than 85% of the current production involves crystalline silicon technologies. These technologies still have a high cost reduction potential, but this will be limited by the silicon feedstock. On the other hand the so-called second generation thin film solar cells based on a-Si, Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S 2 (CIGS) or CdTe have material thicknesses of a few microns as a result of their direct band gap. Also, the possibility of circuit integration offers an additional cost reduction potential. Especially in Germany, there are a few companies who focus on thin film solar cells. Today, there are two manufacturers with production lines: the Phototronics (PST) division of RWE-Schott Solar with a-Si thin film technology and the former Antec Solar GmbH (now Antec Solar Energy GmbH) featuring the CdTe technology. A pilot line based on CIGS technology is run by Wuerth Solar GmbH. There is also a variety of research activity at other companies, namely, at Shell Solar, Sulfurcell Solartechnik GmbH, Solarion GmbH and the CIS-Solartechnik GmbH. We will give an overview on research activity on various thin film technologies, as well as different manufacturing and production processes in the companies mentioned above. (Author)

  2. Solar cell materials developing technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Conibeer, Gavin J

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a comparison of solar cell materials, including both new materials based on organics, nanostructures and novel inorganics and developments in more traditional photovoltaic materials. It surveys the materials and materials trends in the field including third generation solar cells (multiple energy level cells, thermal approaches and the modification of the solar spectrum) with an eye firmly on low costs, energy efficiency and the use of abundant non-toxic materials.

  3. Solar-energy drying systems. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Atul; Chen, C.R.; Vu Lan, Nguyen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kun Shan University, 949, Da-Wan Road, Yung-Kang City, Tainan Hsien 71003 (China)

    2009-08-15

    In many countries of the world, the use of solar thermal systems in the agricultural area to conserve vegetables, fruits, coffee and other crops has shown to be practical, economical and the responsible approach environmentally. Solar heating systems to dry food and other crops can improve the quality of the product, while reducing wasted produce and traditional fuels - thus improving the quality of life, however the availability of good information is lacking in many of the countries where solar food processing systems are most needed. Solar food dryers are available in a range of size and design and are used for drying various food products. It is found that various types of driers are available to suit the needs of farmers. Therefore, selection of dryers for a particular application is largely a decision based on what is available and the types of dryers currently used widely. A comprehensive review of the various designs, details of construction and operational principles of the wide variety of practically realized designs of solar-energy drying systems reported previously is presented. A systematic approach for the classification of solar-energy dryers has been evolved. Two generic groups of solar-energy dryers can be identified, viz. passive or natural-circulation solar-energy dryers and active or forced-convection solar-energy dryers. Some very recent developments in solar drying technology are highlighted. (author)

  4. Technology Roadmaps: Concentrating Solar Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The emerging technology known as concentrating solar power, or CSP, holds much promise for countries with plenty of sunshine and clear skies. Its electrical output matches well the shifting daily demand for electricity in places where airconditioning systems are spreading. When backed up by thermal storage facilities and combustible fuel, it offers utilities electricity that can be dispatched when required, enabling it to be used for base, shoulder and peak loads. Within about one to two decades, it will be able to compete with coal plants that emit high levels of CO2. The sunniest regions, such as North Africa, may be able to export surplus solar electricity to neighbouring regions, such as Europe, where demand for electricity from renewable sources is strong. In the medium-to-longer term, concentrating solar facilities can also produce hydrogen, which can be blended with natural gas, and provide low-carbon liquid fuels for transport and other end-use sectors. For CSP to claim its share of the coming energy revolution, concerted action is required over the next ten years by scientists, industry, governments, financing institutions and the public. This roadmap is intended to help drive these indispensable developments.

  5. Achievement report for fiscal 1983 on Sunshine Program-entrusted survey and research. Cooperative project between Japan and Australia, etc., on solar energy technology (Cooperation between Japan and France on solar energy technology); 1983 nendo Nichigonado taiyo energy gijutsu kyoryoku jigyo seika hokokusho. Nichifutsu taiyo energy gijutsu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-03-01

    This paper reports a survey on solar heat utilization technologies conducted in fiscal 1983 in accordance with a scientific cooperation agreement signed by the Japanese Government and the French Government. The survey was carried out by two employees with the solar technology development office of the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization who were dispatched to France on a tour in the period March 13-24. Concerning the 'French Photovoltaic Program 1982-1986,' knowledge on the goal of the program, long-term research and development, and budgetary matters were obtained at the AFME (French Energy Management Agency) head office and its branches. Relations of AFME with EC (European Community) projects were clarified. The photovoltaic power system (50kW) of Nice Airport is one of the EC projects, and was built thanks to financial aids by EC and AFME. The power system is now in service as a power source for electronic equipment in the airport management building and for taxi lights installed on the ground. The CGE (Compagnie General d'Electricite) central laboratory and the Rhone Poulenc Specialites Chimique were visited, when information on the research and development of a ribbon crystal pulling process and solar-grade silicon was acquired. (NEDO)

  6. Solar energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jacob

    1978-01-01

    An improved long-life design for solar energy receivers provides for greatly reduced thermally induced stress and permits the utilization of less expensive heat exchanger materials while maintaining receiver efficiencies in excess of 85% without undue expenditure of energy to circulate the working fluid. In one embodiment, the flow index for the receiver is first set as close as practical to a value such that the Graetz number yields the optimal heat transfer coefficient per unit of pumping energy, in this case, 6. The convective index for the receiver is then set as closely as practical to two times the flow index so as to obtain optimal efficiency per unit mass of material.

  7. Solar thermal technology report, FY 1981. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The activities of the Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Technology Program are discussed. Highlights of technical activities and brief descriptions of each technology are given. Solar thermal conversion concepts are discussed in detail, particularily concentrating collectors and salt-gradient solar ponds.

  8. Solar energy, architecture and climate in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo B, J.

    1983-01-01

    In Colombia, the climatological conditions are such that with a possible serious appropriate technology to use the solar energy in the cities when the electricity rationing increases, for the illumination, the refrigeration, the electricity production, the heating, etc. The use of the solar energy is also been worth to look for a better adaptation between climate and architecture. In this sense, the article exposes some of the existent possibilities of application of the solar energy for the comfort of the habitat, possibilities of high efficiency and low cost that can be easily applicable in Colombia

  9. Public policies for the development of solar photovoltaic energy and the impacts on dynamics of technology systems and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Hyun Jin Julie

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, climate change has been a subject of serious international negotiations. Solar photovoltaic (PV) energy has caught the eyes of many governments as one of the front-runner technologies for the low carbon energy transition in the global community. Solar PV systems have experienced strong market growth over the last decade supported by favorable political reactions in the energy transition context. However, despite these favorable conditions, paradoxically, the global PV market recently went through a chaotic time encountering the overproduction issue, the industry crisis and the long-lasting trade disputes. Furthermore, as the level of PV penetration increases, many problematics started to appear with negative systemic impacts on the electricity sector. This thesis started from these problematics to understand the PV policy mechanisms and the context change. In order to define those issues, a systemic approach is taken to provide an accurate comprehension of the overall mechanisms of PV public policies. The concrete systemic vision of PV policy mechanisms is constructed based on theoretical and historical analysis by defining key variables and the context (Part I). A retrospective analysis using the proposed mapping tools is conducted to understand critical limits and challenges of PV development and to identify risks factors in the sector (Part II). This thesis also demonstrates how the nature of policy context changes in combined with the dynamic features of the PV sector. This helps anticipate possible risks of PV development in the future. The thesis highlights the nationwide PV policy dynamics was broken with the arrival of China in the PV sector. Taken the defined critical limits and challenges into account, this thesis eventually proposes strategic orientations of PV development at the two dimensions from both national and international perspectives (Part III). At the national level, this thesis discusses on PV self-consumption as the

  10. Real goods solar living sourcebook your complete guide to living beyond the grid with renewable energy technologies and sustainable living

    CERN Document Server

    Schaeffer, John

    2014-01-01

    What book would you want if you were stranded on a desert island? Widely regarded as the ""bible"" of off-grid living, Real Goods Solar Living Source Book might be your best choice. With over six hundred thousand copies in print worldwide, it is the most comprehensive resource available for anyone interested in lessening their environmental footprint or increasing their energy independence. The Solar Living Sourcebook, Fourteenth Edition is the ultimate guide to renewable energy, sustainable living, natural and green building, off-grid living, and alternative transporta

  11. Solar applications of thermal energy storage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.; Taylor, L.; DeVries, J.; Heibein, S.

    1979-01-01

    A technology assessment is presented on solar energy systems which use thermal energy storage. The study includes characterization of the current state-of-the-art of thermal energy storage, an assessment of the energy storage needs of solar energy systems, and the synthesis of this information into preliminary design criteria which would form the basis for detailed designs of thermal energy storage. (MHR)

  12. Green cooperative communication network using solar energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay kumar; jaya diptilal; S.V charhate

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy has experienced phenomenal growth in recent years due to both technological improvements resulting in cost reductions and government policies supportive of renewable energy development and utilization. This study analyzes the technical, economic and policy aspects of solar energy development and deployment. While the cost of solar energy has declined rapidly in the recent past, it still remains much higher than the cost of conventional energy technologies. Like other ...

  13. The solar energy; L'Energie solaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-07-01

    This document provides information the today technology concerning the photovoltaic cells and presents the research programs in the domain: silver cells, black silicon, spherical cells, mini sensors, solar spectrum cells Hercules europe project of solar energy concentration. Many Internet addresses are provided. (A.L.B.)

  14. Solar Energy a Path to India's Prosperity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Yogender Pal; Singh, Arashdeep; Kannojiya, Vikas; Kesari, J. P.

    2018-05-01

    Solar energy technology has grabbed a worldwide interest and attention these days. India also, having a huge solar influx and potential, is not falling back to feed its energy demand through non-conventional energy sources such as concentrating solar power (CSP) and photovoltaic (PV). This work will try to add some comprehensive insight on solar energy framework, policy, outlook and socio-economic challenges of India. This includes its prominent areas of working such as grid independent and `utility-scale' power production using CSP or PV power plants, rural as well as urban electrification using PV, solar powered public transportation systems, solar power in agrarian society—water pumping, irrigation, waste management and so on and so forth. Despite the fact that, a vast legion of furtherance and advancement has been done during the last decade of solar energy maturation and proliferation, improvements could be suggested so as to augment the solar energy usage in contrast to conventional energy sources in India.

  15. Photovoltaic solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouratoglou, P.; Therond, P.G.

    2009-01-01

    The most important assets of photovoltaic energy for sustainable development are its simplicity (no need for complicated thermodynamical cycles) and the universal availability of the sun which explains its great popularity. The main restraint to its full development is the high cost of the technologies used. The silicon technology is the historical technology, it has high conversion rates but is expensive because of high fabrication costs. This technology represents 80% of the market. On the other hand the thin film technology with CdTe, CIS or CIGS is promising in terms of costs but requires research works to increase its conversion rate. Japan and Germany are the leader countries in terms of photovoltaic for research, industrial fabrication or state support, they are followed by Spain, Usa, and China. (A.C.)

  16. Solar energy implementation in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Museckaite, Rasa; Kevelaitis, Karolis; Obialo, Gaisva R.; Raudonis, Vytautas

    2009-01-01

    This research focuses on energy sector in Nigeria, more precisely, the electricity sector. The current situation in the Nigeria is that energy supply is not covering the energy demand. We made a research to investigate if solar energy could be a solution for the present situation in the mentioned country acting as a supportive energy supply. We analyzed both economical and environmental costs/benefits of implementation of solar energy system. We analyzed environmental aspect by comparing sola...

  17. Solar energy research and development: program balance. Annex, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    An evaluation of federal research, development, and demonstration options on solar energy is presented. This assessment treats seven groups of solar energy technologies: solar heating and cooling of buildings, agricultural and industrial process heat, biomass, photovoltaics, thermal power, wind, and ocean thermal energy conversion. The evaluation methodology is presented in detail. (MHR)

  18. Renewable energy worldwide outlooks: solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnell, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    Solar energy yield is weak because it is very diffuse. The solar energy depends on the weather. The collectors need the beam radiation. Wavelength is important for some applications that include not only the visible spectrum but also infrared and ultraviolet radiation. The areas of the greatest future population growth are high on solar energy resources. We have different types of conversion systems where energy can be converted from solar to electric or thermal energy. Photovoltaic cells are made of silicone or gallium arsenide, this latter for the space use. For the solar energy applications there is a storage problem: electric batteries or superconducting magnets. Today, the highest use of solar energy is in the low temperature thermal category with over 90% of the world contribution from this energy. The penetration of solar energy will be higher in rural areas than in urban regions. But there are technical, institutional, economic constraints. In spite of that the use of solar energy would be increasing and will go on to increase thereafter. The decreasing costs over time are a real phenomenon and there is a broad public support for increased use of that energy. 15 figs

  19. Support for solar energy collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Corey; Ardell-Smith, Zachary; Ciasulli, John; Jensen, Soren

    2016-11-01

    A solar energy collection system can include support devices configured to accommodate misalignment of components during assembly. For example, the system can include piles fixed to the earth and an adjustable bearing assembly at the upper end of the pile. The adjustable bearing assembly can include at least one of a vertical adjustment device, a lateral adjustment device and an angular adjustment device. The solar energy collection system can also include a plurality of solar energy collection device pre-wired together and mounted to a support member so as to form modular units. The system can also include enhanced supports for wire trays extending between rows of solar energy collection devices.

  20. Comparison of Different Technologies for Integrated Solar Combined Cycles: Analysis of Concentrating Technology and Solar Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rovira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the annual performance of Integrated Solar Combined Cycles (ISCCs using different solar concentration technologies: parabolic trough collectors (PTC, linear Fresnel reflectors (LFR and central tower receiver (CT. Each solar technology (i.e. PTC, LFR and CT is proposed to integrate solar energy into the combined cycle in two different ways. The first one is based on the use of solar energy to evaporate water of the steam cycle by means of direct steam generation (DSG, increasing the steam production of the high pressure level of the steam generator. The other one is based on the use of solar energy to preheat the pressurized air at the exit of the gas turbine compressor before it is introduced in the combustion chamber, reducing the fuel consumption. Results show that ISCC with DSG increases the yearly production while solar air heating reduces it due to the incremental pressure drop. However, air heating allows significantly higher solar-to-electricity efficiencies and lower heat rates. Regarding the solar technologies, PTC provides the best thermal results.

  1. When the solar energy pays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laramee, V.

    1997-01-01

    In the californian desert of Mojave, the three biggest solar power plants in the world produce 90% of world solar electric power. They have been operating for ten years, and their managers go on to improve them. These installations beat the productivity record every year, proving that the thermal solar energy can be competitive. (N.C.)

  2. Proceedings of the IASTED international conference on solar energy : SOE 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamza, M.H. [International Association of Science and Technology for Development, Calgary, AB (Canada)] (ed.)

    2009-07-01

    This solar energy conference was attended by international researchers and practitioners working with leading edge solar energy technology as well as related areas such as renewable energy and clean energy. The topics of discussion included nanotechnologies for solar energy; photovoltaic energy; solar fuel cells; solar-powered vehicles; solar thermal energy; thin film batteries; desalination systems; solar cooling; clean energy; renewable energy; biomass energy; sustainability; flexible solar cells; hybrid power generation; organic solar cells; remote sensing of solar radiation; solar thermal conversion; sustainable buildings; and thin film silicon solar cells. Some of the presentations discussed the application of solar energy in agriculture, environment, economics and home construction. The sessions were entitled: grid connection and energy conversion; photovoltaic and nanotechnology; solar energy and applications; and solar thermal energy. Seventeen of the 18 presentations have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.

  3. 'From graft to bottle'. Analysis of energy use in viticulture and wine production and the potential for solar renewable technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, M. [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of the Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Russell, J. [Appalachian State University, Boone, NC 28608 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    The practice of viticulture and winemaking is highly dependent upon the weather and climate. Any future changes in the seasons, their duration, local maximum, minimum and mean temperatures, frost occurrence and heat accumulation could have a major impact on the winegrowing areas of the world. Given that the winegrowing industry has substantial energy requirements and is directly influenced by any changes in climate, the industry should be at the forefront in promoting the case of energy efficiency and the adoption of renewable technologies. Solar renewables in the form of solar thermal and photovoltaics (PVs) offer a complimentary solution to many winegrowing processes. This paper examines the limited number of world wineries that have adopted solar renewables and presents a viable case for their wide scale integration into the industry. The paper presents a range of viticultural and winemaking processes where solar energy can be directly or indirectly applied and suggests the potential for solar energy in making substantial savings in both energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. In 2005, almost 8 million hectares were under vines producing 40.2 million tonnes of grapes for crushing. The total global energy use within the winemaking industry is estimated at over 105 PJ emitting nearly 16 million tonnes of CO{sub 2}. If ancillary industries, such as bottle making and transportation are included, the total carbon footprint of the industry is estimated at over 76 million tonnes of CO{sub 2}. This paper calculates that if the commercial winemaking establishments in the 'developed' wine producing regions of the world integrated a 'small' solar installation into their wineries, the potential savings are 18.3% or 19.24 PJ of the energy used in the global winemaking industry. (author)

  4. Applications of solar reforming technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiewak, I. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel); Tyner, C.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Langnickel, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany)

    1993-11-01

    Research in recent years has demonstrated the efficient use of solar thermal energy for driving endothermic chemical reforming reactions in which hydrocarbons are reacted to form synthesis gas (syngas). Closed-loop reforming/methanation systems can be used for storage and transport of process heat and for short-term storage for peaking power generation. Open-loop systems can be used for direct fuel production; for production of syngas feedstock for further processing to specialty chemicals and plastics and bulk ammonia, hydrogen, and liquid fuels; and directly for industrial processes such as iron ore reduction. In addition, reforming of organic chemical wastes and hazardous materials can be accomplished using the high-efficiency destruction capabilities of steam reforming. To help identify the most promising areas for future development of this technology, we discuss in this paper the economics and market potential of these applications.

  5. Oxygenic photosynthesis: translation to solar fuel technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian David Janna Olmos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mitigation of man-made climate change, rapid depletion of readily available fossil fuel reserves and facing the growing energy demand that faces mankind in the near future drive the rapid development of economically viable, renewable energy production technologies. It is very likely that greenhouse gas emissions will lead to the significant climate change over the next fifty years. World energy consumption has doubled over the last twenty-five years, and is expected to double again in the next quarter of the 21st century. Our biosphere is at the verge of a severe energy crisis that can no longer be overlooked. Solar radiation represents the most abundant source of clean, renewable energy that is readily available for conversion to solar fuels. Developing clean technologies that utilize practically inexhaustible solar energy that reaches our planet and convert it into the high energy density solar fuels provides an attractive solution to resolving the global energy crisis that mankind faces in the not too distant future. Nature’s oxygenic photosynthesis is the most fundamental process that has sustained life on Earth for more than 3.5 billion years through conversion of solar energy into energy of chemical bonds captured in biomass, food and fossil fuels. It is this process that has led to evolution of various forms of life as we know them today. Recent advances in imitating the natural process of photosynthesis by developing biohybrid and synthetic “artificial leaves” capable of solar energy conversion into clean fuels and other high value products, as well as advances in the mechanistic and structural aspects of the natural solar energy converters, photosystem I and photosystem II, allow to address the main challenges: how to maximize solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency, and most importantly: how to store the energy efficiently and use it without significant losses. Last but not least, the question of how to make the process of solar

  6. Developing solar energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alary-Grall, L.

    2003-01-01

    3 years ago the 'Soleil' program was launched and today 660.000 m 2 of solar cells have been installed which has made France to rank 4 behind Germany, Greece and Austria in terms of the use of solar energy. The 'Soleil' program, that will end in 2006, aims at developing solar energy in France and is composed of 4 axis: 1) the contribution to the funding of solar equipment through enticing financial helps, 2) the implementation of a quality plan for the installers of solar equipment, 3) the setting of a quality label for innovative and efficient solar equipment and 4) the promoting of solar energy to the professionals of the construction sector. (A.C.)

  7. Sustainable urban energy: Development of a mesoscale assessment model for solar reflective roof technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, J.H.; Carlson, J.; Golden, J.S.; Bryan, H.

    2010-01-01

    Buildings and other engineered structures that form cities are responsible for a significant portion of the global and local impacts of climate change. Consequently, the incorporation of building design strategies and materials such as the use of reflective roof materials, or 'cool' roofs, are being widely investigated. However, although their benefits for individual buildings have been studied, as yet there is little understanding of the potential benefits of urban scale implementation of such systems. Here we report the development of a new methodology for assessing the potential capacity and benefits of installing reflective roofs in an urbanized area. The new methodology combines remote sensing image data with a building energy computer simulation to quantify the current rooftop reflectivity and predict the potential benefits of albedo improvement. In addition to the direct electricity savings, cool roof systems reduce peak electrical demand in the month of August when the peak demand is at its highest in the case study area. Environmental benefits associated with lowering greenhouse-gas emissions are also substantial. The new methodology allows the calculation of payback periods to assist planners to evaluate the potential economic benefits of the widespread installation of cool roof systems. - Research highlights: →Integrated remote sensing technique into building energy simulation quantifies rooftop reflectivity and predicts the potential benefits of albedo improvement. →70% buildings can improve rooftop reflectivity. →Cool roof application can reduce the study area's electrical demand by 4.3%. →Payback period will be 7-11 years depending on low and high-end cool roof cost assumptions.

  8. Development of Lab-to-Fab Production Equipment Across Several Length Scales for Printed Energy Technologies, Including Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hösel, Markus; Dam, Henrik Friis; Krebs, Frederik C

    2015-01-01

    We describe and review how the scaling of printed energy technologies not only requires scaling of the input materials but also the machinery used in the processes. The general consensus that ultrafast processing of technologies with large energy capacity can only be realized using roll-to-roll m...

  9. Hydrogen production from solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstadt, M. M.; Cox, K. E.

    1975-01-01

    Three alternatives for hydrogen production from solar energy have been analyzed on both efficiency and economic grounds. The analysis shows that the alternative using solar energy followed by thermochemical decomposition of water to produce hydrogen is the optimum one. The other schemes considered were the direct conversion of solar energy to electricity by silicon cells and water electrolysis, and the use of solar energy to power a vapor cycle followed by electrical generation and electrolysis. The capital cost of hydrogen via the thermochemical alternative was estimated at $575/kW of hydrogen output or $3.15/million Btu. Although this cost appears high when compared with hydrogen from other primary energy sources or from fossil fuel, environmental and social costs which favor solar energy may prove this scheme feasible in the future.

  10. Concentrating Solar Power. Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    Concentrating solar power can contribute significantly to the world's energy supply. As shown in this roadmap, this decade is a critical window of opportunity during which CSP could become a competitive source of electrical power to meet peak and intermediate loads in the sunniest parts of the world. This roadmap identifies technology, economy and policy goals and milestones needed to support the development and deployment of CSP, as well as ongoing advanced research in CSF. It also sets out the need for governments to implement strong, balanced policies that favour rapid technological progress, cost reductions and expanded industrial manufacturing of CSP equipment to enable mass deployment. Importantly, this roadmap also establishes a foundation for greater international collaboration. The overall aim of this roadmap is to identify actions required - on the part of all stakeholders - to accelerate CSP deployment globally. Many countries, particularly in emerging regions, are only just beginning to develop CSP. Accordingly, milestone dates should be considered as indicative of urgency, rather than as absolutes. This roadmap is a work in progress. As global CSP efforts advance and an increasing number of CSP applications are developed, new data will provide the basis for updated analysis. The IEA will continue to track the evolution of CSP technology and its impacts on markets, the power sector and regulatory environments, and will update its analysis and set additional tasks and milestones as new learning comes to light.

  11. Solar energy market penetration models - Science or number mysticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, E. H., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The forecast market potential of a solar technology is an important factor determining its R&D funding. Since solar energy market penetration models are the method used to forecast market potential, they have a pivotal role in a solar technology's development. This paper critiques the applicability of the most common solar energy market penetration models. It is argued that the assumptions underlying the foundations of rigorously developed models, or the absence of a reasonable foundation for the remaining models, restrict their applicability.

  12. Silicon nanowires for photovoltaic solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kui-Qing; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2011-01-11

    Semiconductor nanowires are attracting intense interest as a promising material for solar energy conversion for the new-generation photovoltaic (PV) technology. In particular, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are under active investigation for PV applications because they offer novel approaches for solar-to-electric energy conversion leading to high-efficiency devices via simple manufacturing. This article reviews the recent developments in the utilization of SiNWs for PV applications, the relationship between SiNW-based PV device structure and performance, and the challenges to obtaining high-performance cost-effective solar cells.

  13. Control of Solar Energy Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Camacho, Eduardo F; Rubio, Francisco R; Martínez, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Control of Solar Energy Systems details the main solar energy systems, problems involved with their control, and how control systems can help in increasing their efficiency.  After a brief introduction to the fundamental concepts associated with the use of solar energy in both photovoltaic and thermal plants, specific issues related to control of solar systems are embarked upon. Thermal energy systems are then explored in depth, as well as  other solar energy applications such as solar furnaces and solar refrigeration systems. Problems of variable generation profile and of the contribution of many solar plants to the same grid system are considered with the necessary integrated and supervisory control solutions being discussed. The text includes material on: ·         A comparison of basic and advanced control methods for parabolic troughs from PID to nonlinear model-based control; ·         solar towers and solar tracking; ·         heliostat calibration, characterization and off...

  14. Solar Energy in the Nineteen Eighties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1979-01-01

    Solar energy is abundant inexhaustible and nonpolluting. Its utilization does not affect the climate, and it does not lend itself to military applications. The solar-thermal, solar-electric and solar-chemical options are available. The production of low-temperature heat for warm water and for space heating, of enormous importance in the energy budget, is economic already now in many situations. Technical progress is still considerable. With the further rise in fuel prices the application will increase dramatically. Use of solar heat for large-scale generation of electricity, i.e. of power on the basis of the solar-thermal option, should be approached cautiously. Possibilities include the tower concept and ocean thermal-electric conversion (OTEC). Investment would be large, and the technology hard. Better long-term chances may be given, for decentralized application in developing countries, to the farm concept. In contrast, the chances for cheap small-scale, and later large-scale, use of solar semiconductor cells (solar-electric option) are most favourable. Technical progress is rapid, and prices drop precipitously. For the production of fuel, the solar-chemical option is in the foreground. Gaseous, liquid and convenient solid fuels can be obtained from biomass, especially by fermentation. At the moment, biogenic wastes are already available in relatively large amounts. Subsequently, energy farming is to be introduced. Biomass converted to hydrogen can be employed for production of electricity by means of fuel cells. In the more distant future, hydrogen is to be made abiotically by photolysis of water, and is to be introduced into a hydrogen economy. Probably the technology will be based on the application of synthetic membranes. It is possible that regenerative solar energy in all its forms can in the end replace all existing energy used by man. This substitution will s however, be a gradual process. (author)

  15. EDITORIAL: Renewing energy technology Renewing energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2011-06-01

    Renewable energy is now a mainstream concern among businesses and governments across the world, and could be considered a characteristic preoccupation of our time. It is interesting to note that many of the energy technologies currently being developed date back to very different eras, and even predate the industrial revolution. The fuel cell was first invented as long ago as 1838 by the Swiss--German chemist Christian Friedrich Schönbein [1], and the idea of harnessing solar power dates back to ancient Greece [2]. The enduring fascination with new means of harnessing energy is no doubt linked to man's innate delight in expending it, whether it be to satisfy the drive of curiosity, or from a hunger for entertainment, or to power automated labour-saving devices. But this must be galvanized by the sustained ability to improve device performance, unearthing original science, and asking new questions, for example regarding the durability of photovoltaic devices [3]. As in so many fields, advances in hydrogen storage technology for fuel cells have benefited significantly from nanotechnology. The idea is that the kinetics of hydrogen uptake and release may be reduced by decreasing the particle size. An understanding of how effective this may be has been hampered by limited knowledge of the way the thermodynamics are affected by atom or molecule cluster size. Detailed calculations of individual atoms in clusters are limited by computational resources as to the number of atoms that can studied, and other innovative approaches that deal with force fields derived by extrapolating the difference between the properties of clusters and bulk matter require labour-intensive modifications when extending such studies to new materials. In [4], researchers in the US use an alternative approach, considering the nanoparticle as having the same crystal structure as the bulk but relaxing the few layers of atoms near the surface. The favourable features of nanostructures for catalysis

  16. Solar Energy Measurement Using Arduino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumaat Siti Amely

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This project aims to develop a measurement of solar energy using Arduino Board technology. In this research, four parameters that been measured are temperature, light intensity, voltage and current. The temperature was measured using temperature sensor. The light intensity was measured using light dependent resistor (LDR sensor. The voltage was measured using the voltage divider because the voltage generated by the solar panel are large for the Arduino as receiver. Lastly for the current was measured using the current sensor module that can sense the current generated by the solar panel. These parameters as the input value for the Arduino and the output was display at the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD screen. The LCD screen display output of the temperature, the light intensity, the voltage and the current value. The purpose of Arduino to convert the analog input of parameter to the digital output and display via LCD screen. Other than that, this project also involve with a design to ensure that device case are easy to be carry around.

  17. Bioinspired fractal electrodes for solar energy storages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekkekara, Litty V; Gu, Min

    2017-03-31

    Solar energy storage is an emerging technology which can promote the solar energy as the primary source of electricity. Recent development of laser scribed graphene electrodes exhibiting a high electrical conductivity have enabled a green technology platform for supercapacitor-based energy storage, resulting in cost-effective, environment-friendly features, and consequent readiness for on-chip integration. Due to the limitation of the ion-accessible active porous surface area, the energy densities of these supercapacitors are restricted below ~3 × 10 -3  Whcm -3 . In this paper, we demonstrate a new design of biomimetic laser scribed graphene electrodes for solar energy storage, which embraces the structure of Fern leaves characterized by the geometric family of space filling curves of fractals. This new conceptual design removes the limit of the conventional planar supercapacitors by significantly increasing the ratio of active surface area to volume of the new electrodes and reducing the electrolyte ionic path. The attained energy density is thus significantly increased to ~10 -1  Whcm -3 - more than 30 times higher than that achievable by the planar electrodes with ~95% coulombic efficiency of the solar energy storage. The energy storages with these novel electrodes open the prospects of efficient self-powered and solar-powered wearable, flexible and portable applications.

  18. Bioinspired fractal electrodes for solar energy storages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekkekara, Litty V.; Gu, Min

    2017-03-01

    Solar energy storage is an emerging technology which can promote the solar energy as the primary source of electricity. Recent development of laser scribed graphene electrodes exhibiting a high electrical conductivity have enabled a green technology platform for supercapacitor-based energy storage, resulting in cost-effective, environment-friendly features, and consequent readiness for on-chip integration. Due to the limitation of the ion-accessible active porous surface area, the energy densities of these supercapacitors are restricted below ~3 × 10-3 Whcm-3. In this paper, we demonstrate a new design of biomimetic laser scribed graphene electrodes for solar energy storage, which embraces the structure of Fern leaves characterized by the geometric family of space filling curves of fractals. This new conceptual design removes the limit of the conventional planar supercapacitors by significantly increasing the ratio of active surface area to volume of the new electrodes and reducing the electrolyte ionic path. The attained energy density is thus significantly increased to ~10-1 Whcm-3- more than 30 times higher than that achievable by the planar electrodes with ~95% coulombic efficiency of the solar energy storage. The energy storages with these novel electrodes open the prospects of efficient self-powered and solar-powered wearable, flexible and portable applications.

  19. Public acceptance of renewable energy technologies from an abstract versus concrete perspective and the positive imagery of solar power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sütterlin, Bernadette; Siegrist, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Public acceptance and perception of renewable energy sources are key factors for successfully accomplishing an energy transition. In this light, developing effective policy and communication measures necessitates understanding how people perceive energy systems. Accordingly, the present study aimed to shed light on people's imagery of solar power, one of the renewable energy sources with the highest potential. Results revealed that almost unanimously people associate solar power with highly positive imagery and that visual characteristics are especially prevalent. The successful realization of renewable energy projects requires policymakers to draw on reliable data about public acceptance of renewables. In response to this need, the present study examined whether assessing public acceptance of renewables on a more concrete level (i.e., by addressing drawbacks) can result in a different, more reliable acceptance rating than assessment on an abstract level, as done at present in opinion polls. Results showed that people do not think about drawbacks related to renewables when they consider it from a general, more abstract, perspective. However, when downsides are specifically addressed, people integrate these into their evaluation, thus diminishing acceptance. Even the highly positive imagery of solar power is relativized and acceptance decreases. These findings have several important implications for policymakers. - Highlights: • Evaluating renewables on a concrete rather than abstract level decreases acceptance. • People are less likely to consider drawbacks when assessing renewables on an abstract level. • On a concrete level, people consider drawbacks, even if not personally affected. • Public acceptance assessed on a concrete level provides a more valid base for policy decisions. • People almost unanimously hold a strongly positive imagery of solar power.

  20. The development and utilization of solar photovoltaic cells: An assessment of the potential for a new energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, K. J.

    1981-01-01

    The Government set the goal of accelerating the adaptation of photovoltaics by reducing system costs to a competitive level and overcoming the technical, institutional, legal, environmental, and social barriers impeding the diffusion of photovoltaic technology. The technology of silicon solar arrays was examined and the status of development efforts are reviewed. The political, legal, economic, social, and environmental issues are discussed, and several methods for selecting development projects are described. A number of market forecasting techniques, including time trend, judgemental, and econometric methods, were reviewed, and the results of these models are presented.

  1. Techno-economic and life-cycle modeling and analysis of various energy storage technologies coupled with a solar photovoltaic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Brian Andrew

    Renewable energies, such as wind and solar, are a growing piece of global energy consumption. The chief motivation to develop renewable energy is two-fold: reducing carbon dioxide emissions and reducing dependence on diminishing fossil fuel supplies. Energy storage is critical to the growth of renewable energy because it allows for renewably-generated electricity to be consumed at times when renewable sources are unavailable, and it also enhances power quality (maintaining voltage and frequency) on an electric grid which becomes increasingly unstable as more renewable energy is added. There are numerous means of storing energy with different advantages, but none has emerged as the clear solution of choice for renewable energy storage. This thesis attempts to explore the current and developing state of energy storage and how it can be efficiently implemented with crystalline silicon solar photovotlaics, which has a minimum expected lifetime of 25 years assumed in this thesis. A method of uniformly comparing vastly different energy storage technologies using empirical data was proposed. Energy storage technologies were compared based on both economic valuation over the system life and cradle-to-gate pollution rates for systems with electrochemical batteries. For stationary, non-space-constrained settings, lead-acid batteries proved to be the most economical. Carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries were competitive, showing promise as an energy storage technology. Lithium-ion batteries showed the lowest pollution rate of electrochemical batteries examined, but both lithium-ion and lead-acid batteries produce comparable carbon dioxide to coal-derived electricity.

  2. Wind and solar energy incentives in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleghani, G.; Kazemi Karegar, H.

    2006-01-01

    Incentive have yet been viewed as a means of supporting technological developments until a new technology becomes cost competitive wind based electricity is not jet generally competitive with alternate sources of electricity such as fossil fuels. This paper presents the potential for wind and solar in Iran and shows how much electric energy is now produced by renewable power plants compared to steam and gas. The importance of renewable energy effects on Iran environment and economy is also discussed and the issue of the contribution of renewable energy for producing electricity in the future will be shown. Also this paper highlights the ability of Iran to manufacture the components of the wind turbine and solar system locally, and its effect on the price of wind turbine and solar energy

  3. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-01-29

    The focus of this report is the U.S. solar electricity market, including photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. The report is organized into five chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of global and U.S. installation trends. Chapter 2 presents production and shipment data, material and supply chain issues, and solar industry employment trends. Chapter 3 presents cost, price, and performance trends. Chapter 4 discusses policy and market drivers such as recently passed federal legislation, state and local policies, and developments in project financing. Chapter 5 provides data on private investment trends and near-term market forecasts.

  4. General solar energy information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    This report describes the results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on general solar energy. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 13 groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: Loan Officers, Real Estate Appraisers, Tax Assessors, Insurers, Lawyers, Utility Representatives, Public Interest Group Representatives, Information and Agricultural Representatives, Public Interest Group Representatives, Information and Agricultural Specialists at State Cooperative Extension Service Offices, and State Energy Office Representatives. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  5. Masterplan Solar Energy; Masterplan Zonne-energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Amerongen, G. [vAConsult, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Verkaik, P. [BDA Dak- en Gevelopleidingen, Gorinchem (Netherlands); Derksen, A. [ISSO, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Gramsbergen, E. [Gramsbergen Solar, Veldhoven (Netherlands); Cromwijk, J. [DWA installatie- en energieadvies, Bodegraven (Netherlands)

    2009-10-15

    The demand for solar energy installations is increasing. The quality of the offered products and services must therefore be safeguarded. This master plan addresses that need and contributes to a structural improvement of the quality of installed solar energy systems. [Dutch] De vraag naar zonne-energie installaties groeit. De kwaliteit van de aangeboden producten en diensten moet dan ook goed gewaarborgd blijven. Dit masterplan voorziet daarin en draagt bij aan een structurele verbetering van de kwaliteit van geinstalleerde zonne-energiesystemen.

  6. The Solar Energy Trifecta: Solar + Storage + Net Metering | State, Local,

    Science.gov (United States)

    and Tribal Governments | NREL The Solar Energy Trifecta: Solar + Storage + Net Metering The Solar Energy Trifecta: Solar + Storage + Net Metering February 12, 2018 by Benjamin Mow Massachusetts (DPU) seeking an advisory ruling on the eligibility of pairing solar-plus-storage systems with current

  7. Long term vision on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico: Solar energy. Second Part: Technologies for the advantage of the solar energy (Annexe 6-II in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Vision a largo plazo sobre la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico: Energia solar. Segunda Parte: Tecnologias para el aprovechamiento de la energia solar (Anexo 6-II en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada Gasca, Claudio A; Arancibia Bulnes, Camilo A; Dorantes Rodriguez, Ruben; Islas Samperio, Jorge; Muhlia Velasquez, Agustin [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    Usually one distinguishes two main types of systems of advantage of the solar energy: the photovoltaic and the photo thermal ones. The first ones are those based on the photovoltaic effect, which allows the direct conversion of the energy of the solar radiation in electrical energy. The second ones transform the solar energy into heat, which can be used in a large variety of processes. By the degree of development of both technologies it is advisable to present them in different sections. Also, there is a great variety of technologies of photo thermal systems that we have classified as technologies for the termosolar generation of electrical power, whose temperatures of operation are high, technologies the solar heating at low temperatures and technologies for industrial heat process. [Spanish] Se suele distinguir dos tipos principales de sistemas de aprovechamiento de la energia solar: los fotovoltaicos y los fototermicos. Los primeros son aquellos basados en el efecto fotovoltaico, que permite la conversion directa de la energia de la radiacion solar en energia electrica. Los segundos transforman la energia solar en calor, el cual puede ser utilizado en una gran variedad de procesos. Por el grado de desarrollo de ambas tecnologias es conveniente presentarlas en secciones diferentes. Asi mismo, existe una gran variedad de tecnologias de sistemas fototermicos que hemos clasificado en tecnologias para la generacion termosolar de potencia electrica, cuyas temperaturas de operacion son altas, tecnologias para el calentamiento solar a bajas temperaturas y tecnologias para calor de proceso industrial.

  8. Long term vision on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico: Solar energy. Second Part: Technologies for the advantage of the solar energy (Annexe 6-II in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Vision a largo plazo sobre la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico: Energia solar. Segunda Parte: Tecnologias para el aprovechamiento de la energia solar (Anexo 6-II en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada Gasca, Claudio A; Arancibia Bulnes, Camilo A; Dorantes Rodriguez, Ruben; Islas Samperio, Jorge; Muhlia Velasquez, Agustin [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    Usually one distinguishes two main types of systems of advantage of the solar energy: the photovoltaic and the photo thermal ones. The first ones are those based on the photovoltaic effect, which allows the direct conversion of the energy of the solar radiation in electrical energy. The second ones transform the solar energy into heat, which can be used in a large variety of processes. By the degree of development of both technologies it is advisable to present them in different sections. Also, there is a great variety of technologies of photo thermal systems that we have classified as technologies for the termosolar generation of electrical power, whose temperatures of operation are high, technologies the solar heating at low temperatures and technologies for industrial heat process. [Spanish] Se suele distinguir dos tipos principales de sistemas de aprovechamiento de la energia solar: los fotovoltaicos y los fototermicos. Los primeros son aquellos basados en el efecto fotovoltaico, que permite la conversion directa de la energia de la radiacion solar en energia electrica. Los segundos transforman la energia solar en calor, el cual puede ser utilizado en una gran variedad de procesos. Por el grado de desarrollo de ambas tecnologias es conveniente presentarlas en secciones diferentes. Asi mismo, existe una gran variedad de tecnologias de sistemas fototermicos que hemos clasificado en tecnologias para la generacion termosolar de potencia electrica, cuyas temperaturas de operacion son altas, tecnologias para el calentamiento solar a bajas temperaturas y tecnologias para calor de proceso industrial.

  9. 太阳能技术在“绿色凹宅”中的应用%Application of Solar Energy Technology in Green Concave House

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫理莉

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduced the application of solar energy technology in green concave house.The grid-connection photovoltaic power generation was used,which sent the redundant power back to the power network.The photovoltaic solar-thermal integrated solar panels provided the output of electricity and daily at the same time.The smart home system provided the comfortable environment for green concave house.The green concave house is a successful and low energy consumption example,which could provide references for the area of abundant solar energy and dispersal residence.%介绍了太阳能技术在“绿色凹宅”中的应用。采用的并网型太阳能光伏发电系统,当有余电时可回馈电网。铺设的光伏光热一体化太阳能板,在电力输出的同时提供生活热水。智能家居系统给“绿色凹宅”提供舒适的环境。“绿色凹宅”是一个比较成功的环保、低能耗的住宅实例,对太阳能资源丰富而又居住分散的地区有很好的借鉴意义。

  10. Models for efficient integration of solar energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder

    the available flexibility in the system. In the present thesis methods related to operation of solar energy systems and for optimal energy use in buildings are presented. Two approaches for forecasting of solar power based on numerical weather predictions (NWPs) are presented, they are applied to forecast......Efficient operation of energy systems with substantial amount of renewable energy production is becoming increasingly important. Renewables are dependent on the weather conditions and are therefore by nature volatile and uncontrollable, opposed to traditional energy production based on combustion....... The "smart grid" is a broad term for the technology for addressing the challenge of operating the grid with a large share of renewables. The "smart" part is formed by technologies, which models the properties of the systems and efficiently adapt the load to the volatile energy production, by using...

  11. Recent advances in solar photovoltaic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshihiro Hamakawa

    2000-01-01

    The current state of the art in recent progress of Japanese photovoltaic activities are overviewed. Firstly, a new strategy for the renewable energy promotion so called Fundamental Principle to promote New Energy Developments and Utilization, and its action planning for PV technology up to year of 2010 are introduced. The program structure and some tangible actions such as tax reduction for investment in the renewable energy plants, government financial support of 2/3 subsidy of PV system developments for public facilities namely as PV Field Test Experiments, and a 1/2 subsidy for the private solar house as PV House Monitor Plan are presented. Secondly, some new topics in the field of solar cell production technology in Japan and also statistics of the solar cell module productions for three kinds of silicon basis solar cells are summarized. Progress of the conversion efficiency in various types of solar cells are also surveyed. In the final part of paper possible new roles to contribute to the global environmental issues by the PV system developments are proposed. (Author)

  12. Protocol Monitoring Passive Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Ham, E.R.; Bosselaar, L.

    1998-01-01

    A method has been developed by means of which the contribution of passive solar energy to the Dutch energy balance can be quantified univocally. The contribution was 57 PJ in 1990 and also 57 PJ in 1995. The efficiency of passive solar energy systems increased from -31.5% to -28.1% in the period 1990-1995, mainly as a result of the use of extra insulating glazing. As a result of the reduction of energy consumption for heating in houses it is expected that the extra contribution of 2 PJ will not be realized in the year 2010. It is suggested that the method to determine the absolute contribution of passive solar energy to the energy demand of dwellings is to be included in the protocol monitoring renewable energy. For the method to be included in the energy statistics of Statistics Netherlands (CBS) it can be considered only to take into account the difference compared to 1990. 11 refs

  13. Solar energy conversion. Chemical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). Dept. of Chemistry

    2012-07-01

    Finally filling a gap in the literature for a text that also adopts the chemist's view of this hot topic, Professor Likhtenshtein, an experienced author and internationally renowned scientist, considers different physical and engineering aspects in solar energy conversion. From theory to real-life systems, he shows exactly which chemical reactions take place when converting light energy, providing an overview of the chemical perspective from fundamentals to molecular harvesting systems and solar cells. This essential guide will thus help researchers in academia and industry better understand solar energy conversion, and so ultimately help this promising, multibillion euro/dollar field to expand. (orig.)

  14. Materials science for solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Granqvist, CG

    1991-01-01

    Rapid advances in materials technology are creating many novel forms of coatings for energy efficient applications in solar energy. Insulating heat mirrors, selective absorbers, transparent insulation and fluorescent concentrators are already available commercially. Radiative cooling, electrochromic windows and polymeric light pipes hold promise for future development, while chemical and photochemical processes are being considered for energy storage. This book investigates new material advances as well as applications, costs, reliability and industrial production of existing materials. Each c

  15. The cost - effective solar energy applications in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pape, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper outlines several cost-effective solar energy application in Canada, and estimates the GHG emission reduction potential for each. The applications include: (1) passive solar building design; (2) solar water heating applications; (3) solar photovoltaics for remote power; and (4) solar assisted space heating and cooling in industrial buildings. Each technology is briefly profiled in terms of functionality, cost characteristics, energy production characteristics and potential emission reduction benefits. Real-life examples of each application are also included. Finally, the paper concludes on the potential role of solar energy in the reduction of Canadian GHG emissions. (author)

  16. Optical materials technology for energy efficiency and solar energy conversion III; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, August 21-23, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    Transparent heat mirror films are discussed, taking into account bandgap widening in heavily doped oxide semiconductors used as transparent heat-reflectors, the characterization of a low emissivity coating in large scale production, an exact analysis of radiative and conductive heat transfer through radiative gray films, and process control for sputter deposition of low emissivity films in large scale production. Other topics explored are related to optical switching materials, selective absorber coatings, general solar optical materials and instrumentation, and technical needs of the energy related coatings industry and the building sciences. Attention is given to electrochromic coatings for 'smart windows', materials for electrochromic windows, optical frequencies free electron scattering studies on electrochromic materials for variable reflectivity windows, progress on solar absorber selective paint research, complex index interference films on metal substrates, luminescent solar concentrator daylighting, and research on passive solar materials in Canada.

  17. Development in fiscal 1998 of technology to put solar systems for industrial use into practical use. International joint technology development for solar energy utilization systems; 1998 nendo sangyoyo nado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyo energy riyo system kokusai kyodo gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The solar energy utilizing technologies having been developed under the Sunshine Project were used to have executed the international joint technology development on the 'solar heat utilizing drying system' in the Republic of Indonesia. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1998. In operating the pilot plant, three operational experiments out of seven experiments were carried out only by Indonesian engineers. As a result of the drying experiments, the heat collecting characteristics of the collector were as about half at 19 to 30% as the efficiency assumed in the design of 50%. The reason for this can be attributed to the fact that the cover glass used in the demonstration test in Japan had light permeability of about 87%, but the cover glass used in the test plant was made of frosted glass whose light permeability was about 37%. This glass is the only glass available for a heat collector in the solar heat hot water device in Indonesia, but is unsuitable for the heat collector. Another cause was that the insolation at the site was lower by about 30% than the one used at the design stage. (NEDO)

  18. Development in fiscal 1998 of technology to put solar systems for industrial use into practical use. International joint technology development for solar energy utilization systems; 1998 nendo sangyoyo nado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyo energy riyo system kokusai kyodo gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The solar energy utilizing technologies having been developed under the Sunshine Project were used to have executed the international joint technology development on the 'solar heat utilizing drying system' in the Republic of Indonesia. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1998. In operating the pilot plant, three operational experiments out of seven experiments were carried out only by Indonesian engineers. As a result of the drying experiments, the heat collecting characteristics of the collector were as about half at 19 to 30% as the efficiency assumed in the design of 50%. The reason for this can be attributed to the fact that the cover glass used in the demonstration test in Japan had light permeability of about 87%, but the cover glass used in the test plant was made of frosted glass whose light permeability was about 37%. This glass is the only glass available for a heat collector in the solar heat hot water device in Indonesia, but is unsuitable for the heat collector. Another cause was that the insolation at the site was lower by about 30% than the one used at the design stage. (NEDO)

  19. Limitation of solar energy and wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R. S.

    2008-01-01

    Wind turbines, solar energy collectors and photovoltaic cells have been popular sources of electricity since the oil crisis in the late seventies, and they are increasingly favored by many scientists and much of the public as methods for reducing global warming. The older wind farms in California are outdated. New wind turbines have not followed, primarily because of competition from lower-cost natural gas. The Times urges increased federal and state subsidies for the wind and solar industries. The primary reason that wind and solar energies have not made inroads in the past, and will never supply more than a few percentage points of the world's electrical energy, is their unpredictable variations in time and their constant need for back-ups. The only non-carbon-dioxide-emitting generator capable of backing up wind and solar energy and replacing coal and gas generators is nuclear fission. Nuclear power may be the practical solution to global warming, after all.

  20. Technology computer aided design of 29.5% efficient perovskite/interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction mechanically stacked tandem solar cell for energy-efficient applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rahul; Chaujar, Rishu

    2017-04-01

    A 29.5% efficient perovskite/SiC passivated interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction (IBC-SiHJ) mechanically stacked tandem solar cell device has been designed and simulated. This is a substantial improvement of 40% and 15%, respectively, compared to the transparent perovskite solar cell (21.1%) and Si solar cell (25.6%) operated individually. The perovskite solar cell has been used as a top subcell, whereas 250- and 25-μm-thick IBC-SiHJ solar cells have been used as bottom subcells. The realistic technology computer aided design analysis has been performed to understand the physical processes in the device and to make reliable predictions of the behavior. The performance of the top subcell has been obtained for different acceptor densities and hole mobility in Spiro-MeOTAD along with the impact of counter electrode work function. To incorporate the effect of material quality, the influence of carrier lifetimes has also been studied for perovskite top and IBC-SiHJ bottom subcells. The optical and electrical behavior of the devices has been obtained for both standalone as well as tandem configuration. Results reported in this study reveal that the proposed four-terminal tandem device may open a new door for cost-effective and energy-efficient applications.

  1. Nanomaterials for solar energy

    KAUST Repository

    Revaprasadu, Neerish; Bakr, Osman; Ramasamy, Karthik; Malik, Mohammad A.

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured metal chalcogenides of the elements copper, iron, tin, lead and cadmium have attracted interest in their use as colloidal nanocrystal inks for solar cells. Some of these materials have the advantages of being available in abundance

  2. Solar energy. Inexhaustible, clean, profitable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, S.

    2001-01-01

    The growth of US dollar together with the crisis of euro are producing a strong increase in the cost of traditional energy sources: oil and natural gas. Therefore, it is the ideal situation for boosting the alternative energy sources, above all the solar energy which is the most promising [it

  3. Solar energy storage and utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S. W.; Bloom, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    A method of storing solar energy in the ground for heating residential buildings is described. The method would utilize heat exchanger pipes with a circulating fluid to transfer the energy beneath the surface as well as to extract the stored energy.

  4. Port of Galveston Solar Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcioni, Diane [Port of Galveston (POG), Galveston, TX (United States); Cuclis, Alex [Houston Advanced Research Center, The Woodlands, TX (United States); Freundlich, Alex [Univ. of Houston, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-03-31

    This study on the performance characteristics of existing solar technologies in a maritime environment was funded by an award given to The Port of Galveston (POG) from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The study includes research performed by The Center for Advanced Materials at the University of Houston (UH). The UH researchers examined how solar cell efficiencies and life spans can be improved by examining the performance of a variety of antireflective (AR) coatings mounted on the top of one of the POG’s Cruise Terminals. Supplemental supporting research was performed at the UH laboratories. An educational Kiosk was constructed with a 55” display screen providing information about solar energy, the research work UH performed at POG and real time data from the solar panels located on the roof of the Cruise Terminal. The Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) managed the project.

  5. Solar Energy and the Western Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The Western Asian countries receive the most abundant solar radiation of the world. They also have enormous reserves of oil and natural gas. But the world reserves of those fuels will certainly diminish greatly as the worldwide demand for energy will increase steadily in the coming decades. And the suppliers of energy will have to contend with public concerns about the polluting effects of those fuels and the possible dangers of nuclear energy. Clearly a power source based on an non exhaustible and non-polluting fuel could be expected to find a role. It now appears that such a source is at hand in the solar energy. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations' Agenda 21, we suggest to Western Asian countries, the study and own development of the following technologies based on solar energy; and comment about them: *photo-voltaic solar cell power plants - in the future, its cost per kilowatt-hour will probably be competitive as to other sources of electrical energy. A new technique, the solar non-imaging concentrator, with amorphous silicon-based thin films solar cells at the focus of the concentrators, can collect and intensify solar radiation far better than conventional concentrators do, thus reducing much more the cost; *bio-gas - using biological gas to produce energy and for heating/cooling purposes; *wind generation of electricity - it's nowadays, a non-expensive technique; *water pump for irrigation and human consuming, driving their power from photovoltaic cells; *and the study and own development of solar lasers for peaceful scientific studies. In this new kind of laser, the external necessary pumping energy comes from the high intensity of sunlight, produced with non-imaging concentrators. Solar lasers can give unexpected new great uses for mankind. Those achievements will require international cooperation and transfer of information, sustained research and development work, and some initial subsides by independent governments. Solar

  6. Passive solar energy information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1980-11-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on passive solar heating and cooling are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from seven passive groups respondents are analyzed in this report: Federally Funded Researchers, Manufacturer Representatives, Architects, Builders, Educators, Cooperative Extension Service County Agents, and Homeowners. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  7. Fiscal 1993 international joint projects under New Sunshine Program. Surveys of bilateral cooperation and solar energy technology; 1993 nendo kokusai kyoryoku jigyo nikokukan kyoryoku taiyo energy gijutsu ni kakawaru gijutsu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Concerning bilateral projects, overseas surveys were conducted about Japan-Australian and Japan-US technical cooperation. Concerning technological development, information was collected at the Solar World Congress of the International Solar Energy Society (ISES), and information was collected and opinions were exchanged at the 15th International Conference on Amorphous Semiconductors. A survey was conducted of Russia's development of solar cells and of their performance evaluation, and an overseas survey was conducted of the development of spaceborne photovoltaic power generation system practicalization technology. Surveys were conducted of international joint projects for the development of photovoltaic power generation system practicalization technology in Europe and the US. Overseas surveys were conducted of international joint projects concerning the development of photovoltaic power generation system practicalization technology, and a survey was conducted of the research and development of photovoltaic power generation in the US and of the state of introduction and diffusion of the same. A survey was also conducted of the state of element technology development for solar energy utilization in Europe. (NEDO)

  8. Fiscal 1993 international joint projects under New Sunshine Program. Surveys of bilateral cooperation and solar energy technology; 1993 nendo kokusai kyoryoku jigyo nikokukan kyoryoku taiyo energy gijutsu ni kakawaru gijutsu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Concerning bilateral projects, overseas surveys were conducted about Japan-Australian and Japan-US technical cooperation. Concerning technological development, information was collected at the Solar World Congress of the International Solar Energy Society (ISES), and information was collected and opinions were exchanged at the 15th International Conference on Amorphous Semiconductors. A survey was conducted of Russia's development of solar cells and of their performance evaluation, and an overseas survey was conducted of the development of spaceborne photovoltaic power generation system practicalization technology. Surveys were conducted of international joint projects for the development of photovoltaic power generation system practicalization technology in Europe and the US. Overseas surveys were conducted of international joint projects concerning the development of photovoltaic power generation system practicalization technology, and a survey was conducted of the research and development of photovoltaic power generation in the US and of the state of introduction and diffusion of the same. A survey was also conducted of the state of element technology development for solar energy utilization in Europe. (NEDO)

  9. A low energy solar town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svendsen, Svend; Balocco, Carla

    1998-12-31

    The use of solar energy at large scale is necessary to support the energy savings and a more efficient energy use, like besides the quality of the ambient and the quality of the available energy sources. The solar heating systems with seasonal storage can be combined with heat from refuse incineration plants and other renewable heat sources. These systems combined with district heating are an example of the sustainable energy planning and the reduction of the environmental stress. Strategies for sustainability in the settlements can be defined by and energy model to planning that individuates development and economic and financial supports to. The aim of the work concerns the development of a small sun city with no use of fossil fuels. The new low energy solar town is an idealised urban an energy system. The studied settlement regards one thousand new low-energy houses supplied by a district heating with a central solar heating system with seasonal heat storage. The heating and ventilation demand in the studied low energy buildings are less than 40 kWh/m{sup 2}/year, the electricity demand is less than 2000 kWh per house year. The result of the work is an useful tool to the energy planning of the urban areas and it is also a necessary support to the political and energetic decisions. (EG) 58 refs.

  10. A low energy solar town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svendsen, Svend; Balocco, Carla

    1998-01-01

    The use of solar energy at large scale is necessary to support the energy savings and a more efficient energy use, like besides the quality of the ambient and the quality of the available energy sources. The solar heating systems with seasonal storage can be combined with heat from refuse incineration plants and other renewable heat sources. These systems combined with district heating are an example of the sustainable energy planning and the reduction of the environmental stress. Strategies for sustainability in the settlements can be defined by and energy model to planning that individuates development and economic and financial supports to. The aim of the work concerns the development of a small sun city with no use of fossil fuels. The new low energy solar town is an idealised urban an energy system. The studied settlement regards one thousand new low-energy houses supplied by a district heating with a central solar heating system with seasonal heat storage. The heating and ventilation demand in the studied low energy buildings are less than 40 kWh/m 2 /year, the electricity demand is less than 2000 kWh per house year. The result of the work is an useful tool to the energy planning of the urban areas and it is also a necessary support to the political and energetic decisions. (EG) 58 refs

  11. Northeast Solar Energy Market Coalition (NESEMC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabago, Karl R. [Pace Energy and Climate Center Pace University School of Law

    2018-03-31

    The Northeast Solar Energy Market Coalition (NESEMC) brought together solar energy business associations and other stakeholders in the Northeast to harmonize regional solar energy policy and advance the solar energy market. The Coalition was managed by the Pace Energy and Climate Center, a project of the Pace University Elisabeth Haub School of Law. The NESEMC was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative as a cooperative agreement through 2017 as part of Solar Market Pathways.

  12. Energy management using solar and fuel cell based appliances in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of doing this diffusion models has been to forecast the demand of electricity and look for the measures that could be implemented to meet their energy demand. The demand of the energy could be met by using non conventional energy sources especially solar photovoltaic and solar thermal technologies.

  13. Barriers to the Diffusion of Solar Thermal Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Despite its considerable potential in household, domestic and industry sectors, the possible contribution of solar heat is often neglected in many academic and institutional energy projections and scenarios. This is best explained by the frequent failure to distinguish heat and work as two different forms of energy transfers. As a result, policy makers in many countries or States have tended to pay lesser attention to solar thermal technologies than to other renewable energy technologies.

  14. Better chances for photovoltaic solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinke, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of solar energy based on the policy to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide and acidifying pollutants, and the desire to save energy, in particular with regard to the increase of energy consumption, which can be expected to occur in the near future in developing countries. After a brief introduction on the efficiencies of monocrystalline silicon (m-Si), polycrystalline silicon (p-Si) and amorphous silicon (a-Si) solar cells realized sofar, attention is paid to two remarkable developments in solar cell research. One is at Texas Instruments where silicon balls in aluminium foil are fabricated, for which the average energy efficiency realized sofar is 10% for small surfaces (10 cm 2 ). The cell is called the spheral solar cell. A second development is at the Federal Institute for Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland, where the researchers O'Regan and Graetzel reported on the development of a photo-electrochemical solar cell with a high efficiency and good stability. Their cell is dye sensitized, which means that the light absorption function of the cell is separated from the load transport function. Finally brief attention is paid to the introduction and use of solar home systems in Indonesia. 5 figs

  15. New Sunshine Project for fiscal 1997 on the international cooperation project. Cooperation in solar energy technologies among Japan, Australia and other countries; 1997 nendo new sunshine keikaku kokusai kyoryoku jigyo. Nichigo nado taiyo energy gijutsu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes the state of progress in the cooperation in solar energy technologies among Japan, Australia and other country, the memorandum concluded for the new project, and the activity report on the NEDO/MUERI project. The progress in the cooperation in solar energy technologies among Japan, Australia and other country is divided into that of the new project and that of the continued project. The former relates to the start of the long-term endurance test project for photovoltaic solar modules in Oman. The location of the endurance test is the Sultan Qaboos University in the suburb of Muscat. Modules subjected to the endurance test consist of ten modules of five types. The test will be performed on air temperature, humidity, wind directions, insolation on horizontal surface, insolation on slanted surface, ultraviolet ray intensity, module temperatures, and electric characteristics of the modules. The continued project is an outdoor endurance test for the photovoltaic solar modules begun in fiscal 1996, which is executed by the Murdock University Energy Research Institute (MUERI). The endurance test locations were selected at Darwin, Alice Springs and Perth. This paper reports the photovoltaic solar module endurance test and investigation, as well as the periodical consultations as the activity report of the NEDO/MUERI project. (NEDO)

  16. Nanomaterials for solar energy

    KAUST Repository

    Revaprasadu, Neerish

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured metal chalcogenides of the elements copper, iron, tin, lead and cadmium have attracted interest in their use as colloidal nanocrystal inks for solar cells. Some of these materials have the advantages of being available in abundance and having low toxicity. Developing methods for the combination of the elements to produce binary, ternary and quaternary compounds has dominated research in the field. This chapter will provide the most recent developments (from year 2012 onwards) for the synthesis and use of colloidal nanocrystal inks for solar cell applications. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.

  17. Solar based water treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Hyder, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    In developing countries, the quality of drinking water is so poor that reports of 80% diseases from water-related causes is no surprise (Tebbet, 90). Frequently, there are reports in press of outbreak of epidemics in cities due to the unhygienic drinking-water. The state of affairs in the rural areas can be well imagined, where majority of the people live with no piped water. This paper describes the solar-based methods of removing organic pollutants from waste-water (also called Advanced Oxidation Technologies) and solar desalination. Experimental results of a simple solar water-sterilization technique have been discussed, along with suggestions to enhance the performance of this technique. (author)

  18. Employment from Solar Energy: A Bright but Partly Cloudy Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, K. K.; Santini, D. J.

    A comparison of quantitative and qualitative employment effects of solar and conventional systems can prove the increased employment postulated as one of the significant secondary benefits of a shift from conventional to solar energy use. Current quantitative employment estimates show solar technology-induced employment to be generally greater…

  19. Renewable Energy: Markets and Prospects by Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This information paper accompanies the IEA publication Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice (IEA, 2011a). It provides more detailed data and analysis, and explores the markets, policies and prospects for a number of renewable energy technologies. This paper provides a discussion of ten technology areas: bioenergy for electricity and heat, biofuels, geothermal energy, hydro energy, ocean energy, solar energy (solar photovoltaics, concentrating solar power, and solar heating), and wind energy (onshore and offshore). Each technology discussion includes: the current technical and market status; the current costs of energy production and cost trends; the policy environment; the potential and projections for the future; and an analysis of the prospects and key hurdles to future expansion.

  20. Weather-power station. Solar energy, wind energy, water energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatta, M

    1975-10-02

    A combined power station is described, which enables one to convert solar energy and wind energy into other forms of energy. The plant consists of a water-filled boiler, in which solar energy heats the water by concentration, solar cells, and finally wind rotors, which transform wind energy into electrical energy. The transformed energy is partly available as steam heat, partly as mechanical or electrical energy. The plant can be used for supplying heating systems or electrolysis equipment. Finally, by incorporating suitable motors, a mobile version of the system can be produced.

  1. PHOTOELECTROCHEMICAL SOLAR ENERGY CONVERSION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    on indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) used as a photoactive electrode; amorphous ... The polymer electrolyte was prepared by dissolving 309 mg of POMOE in 25 mL .... The VOC of Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) based solar cells is strongly correlated ...

  2. Estimating Solar Energy Potential in Buildings on a Global Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrichenko, Ksenia

    2015-01-01

    This chapter contributes to the debate around net-zero energy concept from a global perspective. By means of comprehensive modelling, it analyses how much global building energy consumption could be reduced through utilisation of building-integrated solar energy technologies and energy......-efficiency improvements. Valuable insights on the locations and building types, in which it is feasible to achieve a net-zero level of energy performance through solar energy utilisation, are presented in world maps....

  3. Thermal solar energy. Collective domestic hot water installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, Cedric; Chauvet, Chrystele; Fourrier, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    This brochure, edited by ADEME, the French office for energy management and sustainable development, gives a basic outlook on the way to complete the installation of a collective domestic water solar heating system. After some recall of what is solar energy, the thermal solar technology and the energy savings it may induce, this document presents the main hydraulic configurations of a solar heating system with water storage, the dimensioning of a solar water heating system and its cost estimation, the installation and the commissioning of the system, the monitoring and maintenance operations

  4. How to solve materials and design problems in solar heating and cooling. Energy technology review No. 77

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, D.S.; Oberoi, H.S.; Weinstein, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    A broad range of difficulties encountered in active and passive solar space heating systems and active solar space cooling systems is covered. The problems include design errors, installation mistakes, inadequate durability of materials, unacceptable reliability of components, and wide variations in performance and operation of different solar systems. Feedback from designers and manufacturers involved in the solar market is summarized. The designers' experiences with and criticisms of solar components are presented, followed by the manufacturers' replies to the various problems encountered. Information is presented on the performance and operation of solar heating and cooling systems so as to enable future designs to maximize performance and eliminate costly errors. (LEW)

  5. Sustainable desalination using solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gude, Veera Gnaneswar; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany

    2010-01-01

    Global potable water demand is expected to grow, particularly in areas where freshwater supplies are limited. Production and supply of potable water requires significant amounts of energy, which is currently being derived from nonrenewable fossil fuels. Since energy production from fossil fuels also requires water, current practice of potable water supply powered by fossil fuel derived energy is not a sustainable approach. In this paper, a sustainable phase-change desalination process is presented that is driven solely by solar energy without any reliance on grid power. This process exploits natural gravity and barometric pressure head to maintain near vacuum conditions in an evaporation chamber. Because of the vacuum conditions, evaporation occurs at near ambient temperature, with minimal thermal energy input for phase change. This configuration enables the process to be driven by low-grade heat sources such as solar energy or waste heat streams. Results of theoretical analysis and prototype scale experimental studies conducted to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of operating the process using solar energy are presented. Predictions made by the theoretical model correlated well with measured performance data with r 2 > 0.94. Test results showed that, using direct solar energy alone, the system could produce up to 7.5 L/day of freshwater per m 2 of evaporator area. With the addition of a photovoltaic panel area of 6 m 2 , the system could produce up to 12 L/day of freshwater per m 2 of evaporator area, at efficiencies ranging from 65% to 90%. Average specific energy need of this process is 2930 kJ/kg of freshwater, all of which can be derived from solar energy, making it a sustainable and clean process.

  6. Effects of solar photovoltaic technology on the environment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Liqiang; Zhang, Yajuan

    2017-10-01

    Among the various types of renewable energy, solar photovoltaic has elicited the most attention because of its low pollution, abundant reserve, and endless supply. Solar photovoltaic technology generates both positive and negative effects on the environment. The environmental loss of 0.00666 yuan/kWh from solar photovoltaic technology is lower than that from coal-fired power generation (0.05216 yuan/kWh). The negative effects of solar photovoltaic system production include wastewater and waste gas pollutions, the representatives of which contain fluorine, chromium with wastewater and hydrogen fluoride, and silicon tetrachloride gas. Solar panels are also a source of light pollution. Improper disposal of solar cells that have reached the end of their service life harms the environment through the stench they produce and the damage they cause to the soil. So, the positive and negative effects of green energy photovoltaic power generation technology on the environment should be considered.

  7. Solar Energy: Topographical Asset for Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervez Hameed Shaikh; Faheemullah Shaikh; Mushtaq Mirani

    2013-01-01

    The primary energy supply of Pakistan in the financial year 2009-10 was 63.088 million tonnes of oil equivalent (MTOE). Globally, renewable energies generation is around (19%) [1]. Pakistan has a yearly average solar energy shining potential of about 19 Mega Joules per square meter, with 7.6 hours per day with an average solar radiation of 5-7 kW h/(m 2 day). An alarming stage for the government to take serious steps to tackle energy demand, in vision to inclining oil markets, depletion of gas reserves, huge electricity demand and supply gap, lessening of forest reserves, calamity (floods, heavy rainfalls, earth quakes, melting of glaciers etc.), Kyoto bindings etc. All these factors are indicating for the transition towards renewable energy technologies. (authors)

  8. Current Renewable Energy Technologies and Future Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Stephen W [ORNL; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Ward, Christina D [ORNL; Smith, Barton [ORNL; Grubb, Kimberly R [ORNL; Lee, Russell [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    The generally acknowledged sources of renewable energy are wind, geothermal, biomass, solar, hydropower, and hydrogen. Renewable energy technologies are crucial to the production and utilization of energy from these regenerative and virtually inexhaustible sources. Furthermore, renewable energy technologies provide benefits beyond the establishment of sustainable energy resources. For example, these technologies produce negligible amounts of greenhouse gases and other pollutants in providing energy, and they exploit domestically available energy sources, thereby reducing our dependence on both the importation of fossil fuels and the use of nuclear fuels. The market price of renewable energy technologies does not reflect the economic value of these added benefits.

  9. Solar Energy - It's Growth, Development, and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis Solar Energy Resources with Additional Information Solar has played a major role in solar energy development through previous research and ongoing activities . As a result of research and development, the "cost of solar energy has been reduced 100-fold

  10. Solar Energy Evolution and Diffusion Studies Webinars | Solar Research |

    Science.gov (United States)

    NREL Studies Webinars Solar Energy Evolution and Diffusion Studies Webinars These webinars . Department of Energy's Solar Energy Evolution and Diffusion Studies (SEEDS) program. SEEDS 2017-2019 Study Residential Solar July 20, 2017 Presenters: Kiran Lakkaraju, Sandia National Laboratories Yevgeniy Vorobeychik

  11. In the world of solar technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomson, T.

    1993-01-01

    The paper gives a short survey of the development of solar electrical and thermal technologies. The thermal solar technology is also applicable in Estonia with the view of using our local industrial potential. The theoretical solar resource in Estonia is 977 kWh/m 2 per year, which will make it possible to build (central) heating systems with partial solar fraction by using the method of seasonal storage. The technological solar resource can be improved by using an inter medial storage and heat pump between the solar collector and the main storage in the process of charging. (author). fig., 2 refs

  12. Solar Energy-An Everyday Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keister, Carole; Cornell, Lu Beth

    1978-01-01

    Describes a solar energy research project sponsored by the Energy Research and Development Administration and conducted at Timonium School in Maryland. Elementary student involvement in solar energy studies resulting from the project is noted. (MDR)

  13. Solar energy engineering processes and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kalogirou, Soteris A

    2009-01-01

    As perhaps the most promising of all the renewable energy sources available today, solar energy is becoming increasingly important in the drive to achieve energy independence and climate balance. This new book is the masterwork from world-renowned expert Dr. Soteris Kalogirou, who has championed solar energy for decades. The book includes all areas of solar energy engineering, from the fundamentals to the highest level of current research. The author includes pivotal subjects such as solar collectors, solar water heating, solar space heating and cooling, industrial process heat, solar desalina

  14. Solar energy engineering processes and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kalogirou, Soteris A

    2013-01-01

    As perhaps the most promising of all the renewable energy sources available today, solar energy is becoming increasingly important in the drive to achieve energy independence and climate balance. This new book is the masterwork from world-renowned expert Dr. Soteris Kalogirou, who has championed solar energy for decades. The book includes all areas of solar energy engineering, from the fundamentals to the highest level of current research. The author includes pivotal subjects such as solar collectors, solar water heating, solar space heating and cooling, industrial process heat, solar desalina

  15. Solar energy's economic and social benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheer, H.

    1995-01-01

    There are numerous indications that solar energy is far more than a mere stopgap measure to escape from the present environmental crisis. These include the natural as well as the developed, and still developing, technological potential of solar energy; the vast opportunities offered by abandoning destructive energy sources; and, not least, the new industrial perspectives arising from the conversion of our energy system. In addition to the environmental benefits, solar energy will bring about major economic and social gains. The creation of a solar energy system offers an unexpected and unique chance to release industrial society from the harmful consequences of the Industrial Revolution and to make available its positive accomplishments - particularly the social, democratic and cultural opportunities made possible by freeing mankind from slave labour - to all of mankind. Destruction of the environment is the greatest danger for industrialized societies pursuing economic growth, but it is not the only one. The Western high culture of welfare states is evidently a thing of the past. Created by the pressure of social movements that emerged in the Industrial Revolution, they stabilized capitalism by making it more responsive to the social needs in its strongholds. But both old and new contradictions, as well as the growth of welfare costs, lead to the conclusion that the future of the industrial system is increasingly seen only in terms of jettisoning its social obligations. Political democracy will then once more be in danger. Modern history is unable to provide an example of a stable democracy based on permanent mass misery

  16. FY 1998 annual report on the solar energy technology research and development working group. 19th R and D activity report; 1998 nendo taiyo gijutsu bunkakai. Dai 19 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    Summarized herein are the FY 1998 R and D activities by the solar energy R and D working group, extracted from the 19th R and D activity report by NEDO. Mr. Kadoi, a NEDO's director, gave a lecture titled (Expectation on and problems involved in power generation by solar light and wind power), and Mr. Kamon, a managing researcher of NEDO's solar technology development group, reported (Technological development trends of solar technology development group). The other topics reported by the individual groups include development of large-size wind power generation systems, development of techniques for increasing throughputs of high-efficiency, large-area amorphous solar cells, development of techniques for manufacturing high-reliability CdTe solar cell modules, development of techniques for manufacturing CIS solar cell modules, analysis/assessment of thin-film silicon-based solar cells, development of processes for manufacturing silicon of rationalized energy use, R and D of (new multi-layer structure) modules assembled into building materials to form monolithic structures, and development of techniques for manufacturing amorphous thin-film polycrystalline silicon hybrid thin- film solar cells. (NEDO)

  17. FY 1998 annual report on the solar energy technology research and development working group. 19th R and D activity report; 1998 nendo taiyo gijutsu bunkakai. Dai 19 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    Summarized herein are the FY 1998 R and D activities by the solar energy R and D working group, extracted from the 19th R and D activity report by NEDO. Mr. Kadoi, a NEDO's director, gave a lecture titled (Expectation on and problems involved in power generation by solar light and wind power), and Mr. Kamon, a managing researcher of NEDO's solar technology development group, reported (Technological development trends of solar technology development group). The other topics reported by the individual groups include development of large-size wind power generation systems, development of techniques for increasing throughputs of high-efficiency, large-area amorphous solar cells, development of techniques for manufacturing high-reliability CdTe solar cell modules, development of techniques for manufacturing CIS solar cell modules, analysis/assessment of thin-film silicon-based solar cells, development of processes for manufacturing silicon of rationalized energy use, R and D of (new multi-layer structure) modules assembled into building materials to form monolithic structures, and development of techniques for manufacturing amorphous thin-film polycrystalline silicon hybrid thin- film solar cells. (NEDO)

  18. Innovation in concentrating solar power technologies: A study drawing on patent data

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Frauke G.; Hooper, Elizabeth; Wand, Robert; Zloczysti, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Better understanding the innovative process of renewable energy technologies is important for tackling climate change. Though concentrating solar power is receiving growing interest, innovation studies so far have explored innovative activity in solar technologies in general, ignoring the major differences between solar photovoltaic and solar thermal technologies. This study relies on patent data to examine international innovative activity in concentrating solar power technologies. Our uniqu...

  19. Photovoltaic conversion of the solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordillo G, Gerardo

    1998-01-01

    In this work, a short description of the basic aspect of the performance of homojunction solar cells and of the technological aspects of the fabrication of low cost thin film solar cells is made. Special emphasis on the historical aspects of the evolution of the conversion efficiency of photovoltaic devices based on crystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, Cd Te and CulnSe 2 is also made. The state of art of the technology of photovoltaic devices and modules is additionally presented. The contribution to the development of high efficiency solar cells and modules, carried out by research centers of universities such us: Stuttgart university (Germany), Stockholm university (Sweden), University of South Florida (USA), university of south gales (Australia), by the national renewable energy laboratory of USA and by research centers of companies such us: Matsushita (Japan), BP-solar (England), Boeing (USA), Arco solar (USA), Siemens (Germany) etc. are specially emphasized. Additionally, a section concerning economical aspect of the photovoltaic generation of electric energy is enclosed. In this section an overview of the evolution of price and world market of photovoltaic system is presented

  20. A survey of some solar energy retrofits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The report briefly describes a survey of some solar energy retrofits, such as solar heaters and Trombe walls, that can be easily adapted into existing buildings belonging to the Department. With their relatively high cost, commercial solar heaters ha...

  1. The Evaluation of Science Learning Program, Technology and Society Application of Audio Bio Harmonic System with Solar Energy to Improve Crop Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rosana

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges in science learning is how to integrate a wide range of basic scientific concepts of physics, chemistry, and biology into an integrated learning material. Research-based teaching material in this area is still very poor and does not much involve students of science education in its implementation as part of the learning program science technology and society (STS. The purpose of this study is to get the result of evaluation of the teaching and learning of STS in the form of public service in Kulon Progo, Yogyakarta. The program to improve crop productivity through the application of Audio Bio Harmonic System (ABHS with solar energy have been selected for utilizing the natural animal sounds to open stomata of the leaves conducted during foliar fertilization, making it suitable for integrated science lessons. Component of evaluation model used is Stufflebeam model evaluation (CIPP. CIPP evaluation in these activities resulted in two aspects: The first aspect was improving the skills of students and farmers in using ABHS, and these two aspects, namely food crop productivity; (1 cayenne increased 76.4%, (2 increased red onions (56.3% and (3 of maize increased by 67.8%. Besides, it was also the effect of the application of ABHS on the rate of plant growth. The outcome of this study is the STS teaching materials and appropriate technology of ABHS with solar energy.

  2. The thermal solar energy - September 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.

    2010-01-01

    The author first notices that the use of solar heat to produce electricity is much lesser known than the production of electricity by photovoltaic effect. He also notices that few efforts have been made in France to develop this technology (thermal solar energy, also called helio-thermodynamics). He evokes the Themis project and also some initiatives in Spain and in California. He recalls some data about solar heat, presents the solar concentration technique which either uses a parabolic configuration (point focus concentration) or a cylindrical and parabolic configuration (line concentration system). He briefly presents the different techniques used to transform solar heat into electricity and to store the electricity. He briefly presents different solutions which have been tested over the past years in France, Germany, Spain, California and Israel (tower and air, gas and Stirling cycle, tower and direct vapour production, cylindrical-parabolic collector). He discusses the effect of intermittency and the French context, and questions and discusses the choice between thermal and photovoltaic solar energy (advantages and drawbacks)

  3. The role of Solar thermal in Future Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Hansen, Kenneth

    This report deals with solar thermal technologies and investigates possible roles for solar thermal in future energy systems for four national energy systems; Germany, Austria, Italy and Denmark. The project period started in January 2014 and finished by October 2017. This report is based...

  4. Solar Energy for Rural Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsalam, Tarek I.; Darwish, Ziad; Hatem, Tarek M.

    Egypt is currently experiencing the symptoms of an energy crisis, such as electricity outage and high deficit, due to increasing rates of fossil fuels consumption. Conversely, Egypt has a high solar availability of more than 18.5 MJ daily. Additionally, Egypt has large uninhabited deserts on both sides of the Nile valley and Sinai Peninsula, which both represent more than 96.5 % of the nation's total land area. Therefore, solar energy is one of the promising solutions for the energy shortage in Egypt. Furthermore, these vast lands are advantageous for commissioning large-scaled solar power projects, not only in terms of space availability, but also of availability of high quality silicon (sand) required for manufacturing silicon wafers used in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Also, rural Egypt is considered market a gap for investors, due to low local competition, and numerous remote areas that are not connected to the national electricity grid. Nevertheless, there are some obstacles that hinder the progress of solar energy in Egypt; for instance, the lack of local manufacturing capabilities, security, and turbulent market in addition to other challenges. This paper exhibits an experience of the authors designing and installing decentralized PV solar systems, with a total rated power of about 11 kW, installed at two rural villages in at the suburbs of Fayoum city, in addition to a conceptual design of a utility scale, 2 MW, PV power plant to be installed in Kuraymat. The outcomes of this experience asserted that solar PV systems can be a more technically and economically feasible solution for the energy problem in rural villages.

  5. A study of solar energy entrepreneurs and financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, R.K.

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, a description is given about entrepreneurs to start a business of renewable energy technologies as solar photovoltaic, solar water heating systems which are well established products in the market. Some points are mentioned to establish a successful business as quality assurance, marketing and sell skills etc. The purpose of this study is to boost the confidence in solar energy entrepreneurs. Technical specifications of solar home systems, solar street lighting system, solar photovoltaic water pumping and 2.5 KW solar photovoltaic power plant have been provided in Annexure-I. The list of maximum prices has been given in Annexure-ll and a list of empanelled manufactures/suppliers of various solar photovoltaic (SPV) systems under the Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources, MNES (Government of India) has been also mentioned in Annexure-lll. (author)

  6. Nontechnical Barriers to Solar Energy Use: Review of Recent Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margolis, R.; Zuboy, J.

    2006-09-01

    This paper reviews the nontechnical barriers to solar energy use, drawing on recent literature to help identify key barriers that must be addressed as part of the Technology Acceptance efforts under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar America Initiative. A broad literature search yielded more than 400 references, which were narrowed to 19 recent documents on nontechnical barriers to the use of solar energy and other energy efficiency and renewable energy (EE/RE) technologies. Some of the most frequently identified barriers included lack of government policy supporting EE/RE, lack of information dissemination and consumer awareness about energy and EE/RE, high cost of solar and other EE/RE technologies compared with conventional energy, and inadequate financing options for EE/RE projects.

  7. Climate information for the application of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles-Gil, S.

    1997-01-01

    In view of population growth, industrialization and urbanization which provoked increasing energy demand there has been an increasing interest in developing new technologies that use various renewable energy sources and have less environmental impact, such as solar, wind, tidal and biomass. Solar energy is one of the energy resources with a wide geographical distribution. Nowadays, its contribution to the world's energy supply is very small, but it is considered an important long term option which will satisfy, together with conventional energy sources, the future energy needs of the world. The main objective of this work is to report the actual uses of the principal types of solar energy systems, based on their climatic, technological and economical context. This is to improve the dissemination of information on the application of climate knowledge and data, especially by national meteorological services, with the purpose to improve the planning, design and operation of solar energy systems, as well as facilitate their more widespread use

  8. Solar energy operated still

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F A

    1977-03-31

    A silicon membrane that is permeable to the vapour of a liquid to be distilled, is seeded with a light-absorbing pigment, and used in conjunction with a light-transparent material in one of three configurations as a solar powered still. In the first configuration, the membrane is in the form of a corrugated surface welded to the transparent material along the corrugations, forming a series of channel-like air chambers. This assembly floats on the liquid, the transparent side being on top and exposed to the sun. Vapour condensing in the channels is collected. In the second configuration, the liquid is contained between a sheet of transparent material on top, and a sheet of membrane material underneath. Vapour condenses in a chamber beneath. In the third configuration, membrane material is in the form of a pipe containing the liquid. A second concentral pipe of transparent material surrounds it and ensures collection of the condensate.

  9. Nanophysics of solar and renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Edward L.

    2012-01-01

    This easy accessible textbook provides an overview of solar to electric energy conversion, followed by a detailed look at one aspect, namely photovoltaics, including the underlying principles and fabrication methods. The author, an experienced author and teacher, reviews such green technologies as solar-heated-steam power, hydrogen, and thermoelectric generation, as well as nuclear fusion. Throughout the book, carefully chosen, up-to-date examples are used to illustrate important concepts and research tools. The opening chapters give a broad and exhaustive survey of long term energy resources, reviewing current and potential types of solar driven energy sources. The core part of the text on solar energy conversion discusses different concepts for generating electric power, followed by a profound presentation of the underlying semiconductor physics and rounded off by a look at efficiency and third-generation concepts. The concluding section offers a rough analysis of the economics relevant to the large-scale adoption of photovoltaic conversion with a discussion of such issues as durability, manufacturability and cost, as well as the importance of storage. The book is self-contained so as to be suitable for students with introductory calculus-based courses in physics, chemistry, or engineering. It introduces concepts in quantum mechanics, atomic and molecular physics, plus the solid state and semiconductor junction physics needed to attain a quantitative understanding of the current status of this field. With its comments on economic aspects, it is also a useful tool for those readers interested in a career in alternative energy. (orig.)

  10. Nanophysics of solar and renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Edward L. [New York Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States). Polytechnic Institute

    2012-11-01

    This easy accessible textbook provides an overview of solar to electric energy conversion, followed by a detailed look at one aspect, namely photovoltaics, including the underlying principles and fabrication methods. The author, an experienced author and teacher, reviews such green technologies as solar-heated-steam power, hydrogen, and thermoelectric generation, as well as nuclear fusion. Throughout the book, carefully chosen, up-to-date examples are used to illustrate important concepts and research tools. The opening chapters give a broad and exhaustive survey of long term energy resources, reviewing current and potential types of solar driven energy sources. The core part of the text on solar energy conversion discusses different concepts for generating electric power, followed by a profound presentation of the underlying semiconductor physics and rounded off by a look at efficiency and third-generation concepts. The concluding section offers a rough analysis of the economics relevant to the large-scale adoption of photovoltaic conversion with a discussion of such issues as durability, manufacturability and cost, as well as the importance of storage. The book is self-contained so as to be suitable for students with introductory calculus-based courses in physics, chemistry, or engineering. It introduces concepts in quantum mechanics, atomic and molecular physics, plus the solid state and semiconductor junction physics needed to attain a quantitative understanding of the current status of this field. With its comments on economic aspects, it is also a useful tool for those readers interested in a career in alternative energy. (orig.)

  11. Energy situation and perspectives of using solar energy in Crimea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanova, I.I.; Mashkara, O.G.; Vikhorev, Yu.A.; Sokolovskaya, N.I.

    1997-01-01

    The article presents the talk on the energy situation and perspectives of the use of solar energy in Crimea, Ukraine, given at the International Workshop on applied solar energy held in Tashkent(Uzbekistan) in June 1997. The main use of solar energy is solar energy heating systems developed and produced in Crimea. The project of 100 MWt solar power plant is proposed for construction in Crimea and will improve ecological situation in resort area. (A.A.D.)

  12. Nuclear energy + solar energy, why not?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez C, I.; Nelson E, P.

    2016-09-01

    Clean energies such as nuclear and solar are part of the solution to the energy dependence that we face today and also help us to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions, thus avoiding a global average temperature increase that is irreversible and harmful to all living beings on the planet. Independently the nuclear and solar energies have had a great development in recent years, so in this work we set ourselves the task of creating a synergy between them. First, we conducted a survey of different people involved in the area of energy (energy efficiency, clean energy and renewable sources) in order to know if the area of which they are part influences with respect to the impression that they have of safety in terms of supply, return on investment and safety to the health and environment of another energy source for which we use a correlation analysis. With the results obtained we propose to use photo thermic solar energy as a support to reduce the frequency of accidents by station blackout and we perform the analysis of the combination using the methodology of Probabilistic Analysis of Security with the help of SAPHIRE 7 software to realize the event trees by station blackout of a nuclear power plant and faults for a photo-thermal solar plant. Finally, the decrease in the probability of station blackout from the proposed combination is quantified. The results were favorable to indicate that the probability of station blackout is reduced in half and that is why is suggested to continue studying the combination. (Author)

  13. Solar energy in Germany: a national commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    This document presents some key information and figures about the development of solar energy in Germany: national energy plan and share of solar energy in the German energy mix, the photovoltaic industry: a dynamic industry which creates jobs, 2006-2012 evolution of photovoltaic power plant costs, solar thermal resource potentialities and effective exploitation

  14. Photovoltaic solar energy; Photovoltaische Solarenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the 27th symposium of the Ostbayerische Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V. (Regensburg, Federal Republic of Germany) from 29th February to 02th March, 2012, at Banz monastery near Bad Staffelstein (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) EEG 12: State of the art and impacts (K. Freier); (2) Promising markets - PV market potentials Europe (M. Lohr); (3) Expansion requires restructuring - Research promotion for renewable energy and renewable energy supply systems (K. Deller); (4) Fields of application and potentials of photovoltaics in Germany without an enhanced EEG compensation (V. Quaschning); (5) ''Smart Solar Grid'' - Results of the analysis and solar roof potential of the first test area of the public utility Ulm (H. Ruf); (6) Power limitation at PV plants - Adjustment of modelling methods and comparison of different location (J. von Appen); (7) Exploitations to the power limitation till to 70 % of the module capacity (B. Giesler); (8) Actual procedural results of the clearing house EEG to photovoltaics and modifications at PV by means of the EEG 2012 (M. Winkler); (9) Grid integration of PV plants from a legal point of view (M. von Oppen); (10) EEG 2012 - Abetment or brake? PV and other renewable energies in comparison (M. Reichmuth); (11) On the precision of radiation and photovoltaics component models (J. Schumacher); (12) Impact of global radiation data with different properties on the performance ratio and prognosticated energy efficiency of photovoltaic power plants (M. Egler); (13) Quantification of superelevations of irradiation in high-resolution DWD datasets for different locations in Germany (M. Zehner); (14) Prognosis of the regional PV performance with measuring data of PV plant and satellite pictures (Y.-M. Saint-Drenan); (15) Photovoltaics and wind power: perfectly complementing power technologies using Central Germany as an example (C. Breyer); (16) Which and how much storages are necessary

  15. SOLAR ENERGY POLICY DEVELOPMENTS IN EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela PÃCE?ILÃ

    2015-01-01

    Solar energy is one of the most important renewable energy sources in Europe offering new possibilities to generate electricity and heat. In this context, the study provides accurate information about researches that characterize the solar resource and investigates the potential of solar energy in European countries. The analysis is also focused on the current status of market development including photovoltaic capacity, electricity production from solar photovoltaic power, solar thermal capa...

  16. Energy Release in Solar Flares,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    Plasma Research, Stanford University P. Kaufmanu CRAA/CNPq -Conseiho lacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico, Slo Paulo, SP, Brasil D.F...three phases of energy release in solar flares (Sturrock, 1980). However, a recent article by Feldman e a.. (1982) points to a significant

  17. Steam generation from solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozzi, M.

    2001-01-01

    The vapor for thermoelectric use is one of the most promoted methods for electric power generation from solar energy. The new plants are becoming more and more safe, and anyway in some cases the natural gas makes easy the production of electricity [it

  18. Solar energy in Uruguay. Increase the use of solar panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, V.

    2010-01-01

    This article is about the future of the solar energy in Uruguay. The main aspects of this kind of energy are solar thermic which is used for cooking food and heating water through solar collectors as well as the photovoltaics which allows the generation of electricity

  19. Promoting renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenaa Jensen, S.

    2004-06-01

    Technologies using renewable energy sources are receiving increasing interest from both public authorities and power producing companies, mainly because of the environmental advantages they procure in comparison with conventional energy sources. These technologies can be substitution for conventional energy sources and limit damage to the environment. Furthermore, several of the renewable energy technologies satisfy an increasing political goal of self-sufficiency within energy production. The subject of this thesis is promotion of renewable technologies. The primary goal is to increase understanding on how technological development takes place, and establish a theoretical framework that can assist in the construction of policy strategies including instruments for promotion of renewable energy technologies. Technological development is analysed by through quantitative and qualitative methods. (BA)

  20. Solar energy systems: assessment of present and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehne, H.-M.; Aulich, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the present state and the future potential of solar thermal and photovoltaic (PV) technologies, and examines both the environmental implications of these technologies and the economics which determine their viability in the energy market. Although some significant cost reductions have been achieved, particularly in PV technology, solar conversion technologies are still not generally competitive against conventional fuels, and future cost reductions may be limited. It is argued that fiscal measures will be necessary if solar conversion technologies are to make a significant global impact. (Author)

  1. Solar energy: from shadow to bright spot?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    It seems that the solar energy is developing, especially more in the thermal sector that in the photovoltaic. The result is a bad place for the France. In 200 the national production part was only 10% of the world production and 2% in 2002. The France passed from fifth to tenth place in five years. This document takes stock on the technology and the economical sector. Examples are presented. (A.L.B.)

  2. Solar energy parking canopy demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cylwik, Joe [City of Big Bear Lake, Big Bear, CA (United States); David, Lawrence [City of Big Bear Lake, Big Bear, CA (United States)

    2015-09-24

    The goal of this pilot/demonstration program is to measure the viability of using solar photovoltaic (PV) technology at three locations in a mountain community environment given the harsh weather conditions. An additional goal is to reduce long-term operational costs, minimize green house gas emissions, lower the dependency on energy produced from fossil fuels, and improve the working environment and health of city employees and residents.

  3. Research and development of utilization technology of solar thermal system for industrial and other use. Research and development of key technology (energy conversion on technology using chemical reactions); Sangyoyo nado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Yoso gijutsu no kenkyu (kagaku energy henkan gijutsu no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takita, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for energy conversion technology using chemical reactions by the aid of solar energy. The demonstration runs were conducted by a bench-scale unit, which was operated stably for 100h, to produce promising results. The catalyst exhibits stable performance, without showing a sign of deactivation. It is found that the heat pump system works well, without being interfered with accumulated by-products. A heat of approximately 2,100kcal/h is recovered. It is confirmed that steam of 150{degree}C and 200{degree}C is generated from hot water of 80{degree}C and 95{degree}C, respectively. The bench-scale runs show a thermal efficiency of around 10%, which is lower than the target level. However, the runs with hydrogen-occluding alloy attain a process thermal efficiency of 30%. The system in which solar collector and chemical heat pump units are combined is evaluated with respect to its economic efficiency and operability for its eventual commercialization. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Application of diffusion research to solar energy policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessner, J. D.; Posner, D.; Shoemaker, F.; Shama, A.

    1979-03-01

    This paper examines two types of information requirements that appear to be basic to DOE solar-energy-policy decisions: (1) how can the future market success of solar energy technologies be estimated, and (2) what factors influence the adoption of solar energy technologies, and what specific programs could promote solar energy adoption most effectively. This paper assesses the ability of a body of research, referred to here as diffusion research, to supply information that could partially satisfy these requirements. This assessment proceeds, first, by defining in greater detail a series of policy issues that face DOE. These are divided into cost reduction and performance improvement issues which include issues confronting the technology development component of the solar energy program, and barriers and incentives issues which are most relevant to problems of solar energy application. Second, these issues are translated into a series of questions that the diffusion approach can help resolve. Third, various elements within diffusion research are assessed in terms of their abilities to answer policy questions. Finally, the strengths and limitations of current knowledge about the diffusion of innovations are summarized, the applicability of both existing knowledge and the diffusion approach to the identified solar-energy-policy issues are discussed, and ways are suggested in which diffusion approaches can be modified and existing knowledge employed to meet short- and long-term goals of DOE. The inquiry covers the field of classical diffusion research, market research and consumer behavior, communication research, and solar-energy market-penetration modeling.

  5. New technologies of the energy 1. The renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabonnadiere, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    This book, devoted to the renewable energies, is the first of three volumes taking stock on the new technologies of the energy situation. The first part presents the solar energy (thermal photovoltaic and thermodynamic), completed by a chapter on the wind energy. An important part is devoted to new hydraulic energies with the sea energies and the very little hydroelectricity and in particular the exploitation of the energy of the drinking water and wastes water pipelines. (A.L.B.)

  6. Solar energy and the aeronautics industry. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, L.

    1985-01-01

    An introduction to the physical aspects of solar energy, incidental energy and variations in solar flux is presented, along with an explanation of the physical principles of obtaining solar energy. The history of the application of solar energy to aeronautics, including the Gossamer Penguin and the Solar Challenger is given. Finally, an analysis of the possibilities of using a reaction motor with hybrid propulsion combining solar energy with traditional fuels as well as calculations of the proposed cycle and its mode of operation are given.

  7. Villa Design and Solar Energy Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Olofsson, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This paper goes through solar energy and what uses it has. It is also a guide in the choice of solar collectors for the real estate that I have drawn for the thesis work. Solar energy is a renewable source of energy from the Sun's light. Energy can be used to produce both heat and electricity through solar collectors and solar cells. Some of the benefits of solar energy is that it is completely free to extract, environmentally friendly and virtually maintenance-free. Disadvantages are that th...

  8. Biomass and Solar Technologies Lauded | News | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    4 » Biomass and Solar Technologies Lauded News Release: Biomass and Solar Technologies Lauded July security and reduce our reliance on foreign sources of oil." The Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Biomass Cellulose to Sugars technology is expected to allow a wide range of biomass resources to be used to produce

  9. Solar-assisted low energy dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esbensen, T V

    1980-02-01

    The Zero Energy House Group was formed as a subproject of the CCMS Solar Energy Pilot Study in 1974 by seven participating countries experimenting with solar-assisted low-energy dwellings for temperate and northern European climatic conditions. A Zero Energy House is one in which solar energy is used to meet the reduced energy needs of buildings incorporating various thermal energy conservation features. This final report of the Zero Energy House Group includes brief descriptions of 13 major low-energy dwellings in the participating CCMS countries. An overall assessment of the state-of-the-art in solar-assisted low-energy dwellings is also included.

  10. Proceedings of the Canadian Solar Industries Association Solar Forum 2005 : sunny days ahead : a forum on solar energy for government officials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Solar energy is the fastest growing energy source in the world. Government involvement is critical in the deployment of solar energy. This forum focused on the application of solar energy in government facilities. The forum was divided into 3 sessions: (1) solar technologies and markets; (2) government initiatives that support solar energy; and (3) the use of solar energy on government facilities in Canada. The current state of solar technologies and products in Canada was reviewed. Solar thermal markets were discussed with reference to passive solar energy and photovoltaic applications. On-site solar generation for federal facilities was discussed, and various federal initiatives were reviewed. Issues concerning Ontario's standard offer contract program were discussed. Government users and buyers of solar products spoke of their experiences in using solar energy and the challenges that were faced. The role that solar energy can play in reducing government costs was discussed, as well as the impact of solar energy on the environment. Opportunities and barriers to the use of solar energy in Canada were explored. The conference featured 14 presentations, of which 2 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  11. Survey and research achievement report for fiscal 1980 on patent and information under Sunshine Program. Survey of information on new energy technology development (Solar energy); 1980 nendo tokkyo joho chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu joho chosa (taiyohen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    Solar energy as defined by the United States includes hydroelectric power, biomass, and the ocean. The short-term strategy deals with passive solar air-conditioning, hydroelectric power, and biomass direct combustion. The medium-term strategy involves positive heating and wind power. The long-term strategy covers heat for agriculture, photovoltaic power, and OTEC (ocean thermal energy conversion), and the ultralong-term strategy covers power generation in space and photochemical conversion. Canada is behind other countries in the conversion of solar energy into power, and solar energy is used but passively as heat source, this because this country is rich in other resources. In West Germany, solar energy may be exploited for hot-water supply and heating at high latitudes, but it is not likely that it will be used for power generation. Home heating offers some appeal since potential demand for it is great. In Britain, the use of solar energy is not a pressing matter, this because systems for effective use of coal have long been established at homes, society, and industries in this country, rich in coal resources and enjoying oil from the North Sea oil field. France's efforts include biomass exploitation. In its development efforts, importance is attached to home heating, hot-water supply, and biomass. Next comes the conversion into power of solar energy. Photocells are also a subject of research and development. (NEDO)

  12. Survey and research achievement report for fiscal 1980 on patent and information under Sunshine Program. Survey of information on new energy technology development (Solar energy); 1980 nendo tokkyo joho chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu joho chosa (taiyohen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    Solar energy as defined by the United States includes hydroelectric power, biomass, and the ocean. The short-term strategy deals with passive solar air-conditioning, hydroelectric power, and biomass direct combustion. The medium-term strategy involves positive heating and wind power. The long-term strategy covers heat for agriculture, photovoltaic power, and OTEC (ocean thermal energy conversion), and the ultralong-term strategy covers power generation in space and photochemical conversion. Canada is behind other countries in the conversion of solar energy into power, and solar energy is used but passively as heat source, this because this country is rich in other resources. In West Germany, solar energy may be exploited for hot-water supply and heating at high latitudes, but it is not likely that it will be used for power generation. Home heating offers some appeal since potential demand for it is great. In Britain, the use of solar energy is not a pressing matter, this because systems for effective use of coal have long been established at homes, society, and industries in this country, rich in coal resources and enjoying oil from the North Sea oil field. France's efforts include biomass exploitation. In its development efforts, importance is attached to home heating, hot-water supply, and biomass. Next comes the conversion into power of solar energy. Photocells are also a subject of research and development. (NEDO)

  13. Solar Energy - An Option for Future Energy Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Peter E.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the exponential growth of energy consumption and future consequences. Possible methods of converting solar energy to power such as direct energy conversion, focusing collectors, selective rediation absorbers, ocean thermal gradient, and space solar power are considered. (DF)

  14. From Solar Cookers Towards Viable Solar Cooking Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Bashir

    1997-01-01

    A broader concept of technology encompassing the technical and the societal aspects is introduced. Viability of technology and technological development process from a socio-technical view- point is discussed. Based on the above, the question of securing viability of solar cooking technology...... is taken up. It is discussed that actor- approach can operationally relate the abstract societal factors with those of technical aspects. Some concrete measures regarding application of solar cooker projects are drawn from the discussion: solar cooking projects should a) be based on user and producer...

  15. Solar energy`s economic and social benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, H. [Bundeshaus, Bonn (Germany)

    1995-08-01

    There are numerous indications that solar energy is far more than a mere stopgap measure to escape from the present environmental crisis. These include the natural as well as the developed, and still developing, technological potential of solar energy; the vast opportunities offered by abandoning destructive energy sources; and, not least, the new industrial perspectives arising from the conversion of our energy system. In addition to the environmental benefits, solar energy will bring about major economic and social gains. The creation of a solar energy system offers an unexpected and unique chance to release industrial society from the harmful consequences of the Industrial Revolution and to make available its positive accomplishments - particularly the social, democratic and cultural opportunities made possible by freeing mankind from slave labour - to all of mankind. Destruction of the environment is the greatest danger for industrialized societies pursuing economic growth, but it is not the only one. The Western high culture of welfare states is evidently a thing of the past. Created by the pressure of social movements that emerged in the Industrial Revolution, they stabilized capitalism by making it more responsive to the social needs in its strongholds. But both old and new contradictions, as well as the growth of welfare costs, lead to the conclusion that the future of the industrial system is increasingly seen only in terms of jettisoning its social obligations. Political democracy will then once more be in danger. Modern history is unable to provide an example of a stable democracy based on permanent mass misery

  16. New energy technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michrowski, A [ed.

    1990-01-01

    A conference was held to exchange information on energy systems which draw on natural supply, do not release residue, are inexpensive, and are universally applicable. Some of these systems are still in the theoretical stage and derive from research on the vacuum of space-time, magnetic fields, and ether physics. Papers were presented on fundamentals of zero-point energy or electrogravitational systems, propulsion systems relying on inertial forces, solar collectors, improved internal combustion engines and electric motors, solar cells, aneutronic (nonradioactive) nuclear power development, charged-aerosol air purifiers, and wireless transmission of electrical power. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 16 papers from this conference.

  17. Solar thermal energy conversion to electrical power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinh, Anh-Khoi; González, Ivan; Fournier, Luc; Pelletier, Rémi; Sandoval V, Juan C.; Lesage, Frédéric J.

    2014-01-01

    The conversion of solar energy to electricity currently relies primarily on the photovoltaic effect in which photon bombardment of photovoltaic cells drives an electromotive force within the material. Alternatively, recent studies have investigated the potential of converting solar radiation to electricity by way of the Seebeck effect in which charge carrier mobility is generated by an asymmetric thermal differential. The present study builds upon these latest advancements in the state-of-the-art of thermoelectric system management by combining solar evacuated tube technology with commercially available Bismuth Telluride semiconductor modules. The target heat source is solar radiation and the target heat sink is thermal convection into the ambient air relying on wind aided forced convection. These sources of energy are reproduced in a laboratory controlled environment in order to maintain a thermal dipole across a thermoelectric module. The apparatus is then tested in a natural environment. The novelty of the present work lies in a net thermoelectric power gain for ambient environment applications and an experimental validation of theoretical electrical characteristics relative to a varying electrical load. - Highlights: • Solar radiation maintains a thermal tension which drives an electromotive force. • Voltage, current and electric power are reported and discussed. • Theoretical optimal thermoelectric conversion predictions are presented. • Theory is validated with experimentally measured data

  18. Promoting renewable energy technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.J.; Skytte, K.

    2004-01-01

    % of its annual electricity production. In this paper, we present and discuss the Danish experience as a case of promoting renewable energy technologies. The development path of the two technologies has been very different. Wind power is considered an outright success with fast deployment to decreasing...... technology and its particular context, it is possible to formulate some general principles that can help to create an effective and efficient policy for promoting new renewable energy technologies....

  19. Distributed Energy Technology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) is an extension of the power electronics testing capabilities of the Photovoltaic System Evaluation Laboratory...

  20. The Department of Energy`s Solar Industrial Program: 1995 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    During 1995, the Department of Energy`s Solar Industrial (SI) Program worked to bring the benefits of solar energy to America`s industrial sector. Scientists and engineers within the program continued the basic research, applied engineering, and economic analyses that have been at the heart of the Program`s success since its inception in 1989. In 1995, all three of the SI Program`s primary areas of research and development--solar detoxification, advanced solar processes, and solar process heat--succeeded in increasing the contribution made by renewable and energy-efficient technologies to American industry`s sustainable energy future. The Solar Detoxification Program develops solar-based pollution control technologies for destroying hazardous environmental contaminants. The Advanced Solar Processes Program investigates industrial uses of highly concentrated solar energy. The Solar Process Heat Program conducts the investigations and analyses that help energy planners determine when solar heating technologies--like those that produce industrial-scale quantities of hot water, hot air, and steam--can be applied cost effectively. The remainder of this report highlights the research and development conducted within in each of these subprograms during 1995.

  1. Economic viability of wind and solar energy for industrial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashkari, Z.F.

    1994-01-01

    Non conventional energy sources have begun to move from fringes of technological possibility towards commercial viability. Out of the four sources, i e. solar, wind, biogas and minimicro hydel the first two viz. wind and solar energy are of relevance for industries in western region of India. This has to be seen in the context of developments in technology and hence economics both worldwide and in India. (author)

  2. Challenges in amorphous silicon solar cell technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaaij, van R.A.C.M.M.; Zeman, M.; Korevaar, B.A.; Smit, C.; Metselaar, J.W.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon is nowadays extensively used for a range of devices, amongst others solar cells, Solar cell technology has matured over the last two decades and resulted in conversion efficiencies in excess of 15%. In this paper the operation of amorphous silicon solar cells is

  3. Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 1: Solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The utilization of solar energy to meet the energy needs of the U.S. is discussed. Topics discussed include: availability of solar energy, solar energy collectors, heating for houses and buildings, solar water heater, electric power generation, and ocean thermal power.

  4. Solar energy options: Technical economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visentin, R

    1982-01-01

    A general system approach on the earth suggests the conversion and distribution of solar energy as electricity, gas, solid and liquid fuels; the historical trend in energy management techniques is in favour of this hard technical proposal, because experience there exists on methods of transmission or transportation of previous kinds of energy vectors mentioned, and small changes in lifestyles toward energy conservation have to be considered in the final uses of the energy. Less hard system technologies will permit direct heat and electricity production close to the channels of energy consumptions; these systems will function as energy savers and their full exploitation implies greater impacts on energy use and lifestyles. As a general trend for government policies as well as for public decision impact on the social decision process, the proliferation of solar systems would permit to produce energy for the 'flowing energetic consumptions' (civil, transportation, agriculture, telecommunications, lighting, etc.) while the not renewable fuels could be properly invested in the production of strategic or durable materials; in this scheme the role of renewable resources is well defined to stabilize the whole civil system in which we are at present organized.

  5. Renewable Energy: Solar Fuels GRC and GRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Nathan [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Gray, Nancy Ryan [Gordon Research Conferences, West Kingston, RI (United States)

    2010-02-26

    sources from a carbon-neutral source. Sunlight is by far the most abundant global carbon-neutral energy resource. More solar energy strikes the surface of the earth in one hour than is obtained from all of the fossil fuels consumed globally in a year. Sunlight may be used to power the planet. However, it is intermittent, and therefore it must be converted to electricity or stored chemical fuel to be used on a large scale. The 'grand challenge' of using the sun as a future energy source faces daunting challenges - large expanses of fundamental science and technology await discovery. A viable solar energy conversion scheme must result in a 10-50 fold decrease in the cost-to-efficiency ratio for the production of stored fuels, and must be stable and robust for a 20-30 year period. To reduce the cost of installed solar energy conversion systems to $0.20/peak watt of solar radiation, a cost level that would make them economically attractive in today's energy market, will require revolutionary technologies. This GRC seeks to present a forum for the underlying science needed to permit future generations to use the sun as a renewable and sustainable primary energy source. Speakers will discuss recent advances in homoogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis of multi-electron transfer processes of importance to solar fuel production, such as water oxidation and reduction, and carbon dioxide reduction. Speakers will also discuss advances in scaleably manufacturable systems for the capture and conversion of sunlight into electrical charges that can be readily coupled into, and utilized for, fuel production in an integrated system.

  6. 太阳能/热泵技术在木材干燥领域的应用%Application of solar energy and heat pump technology in wood drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周琪; 赵文欣

    2017-01-01

    提出在家具行业领域,采用太阳能/热泵技术替代传统能源.介绍太阳能及热泵技术的基本原理及应用范围.通过太阳能/热泵技术在江西家具行业的应用,分析该技术的主要特点及注意事项.太阳能/热泵综合能源技术应用在家具行业可实现节能环保,具有推广价值.%The paper puts forward the use of integrated energy technology with solar energy and heat pump to replace traditional en?ergyin the field of furniture industry. This paper introduces the basic principle and application of solar energy and heat pump technology. Through the application of solar energy and heat pump technology in Jiangxi, this paper analyzes the main features of the technology and the matters needing attention. Solar+heat pump technology in the furniture industry has the advantages of energy saving and environ?mental protection and has the promotion value.

  7. Energy requirement for the production of silicon solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindmayer, J.; Wihl, M.; Scheinine, A.; Rosenfield, T.; Wrigley, C. Y.; Morrison, A.; Anderson, J.; Clifford, A.; Lafky, W.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a study to investigate the feasibility of manufacturing photovoltaic solar array modules by the use of energy obtained from similar or identical photovoltaic sources are presented. The primary objective of this investigation was the characterization of the energy requirements of current and developing technologies which comprise the photovoltaic field. For cross-checking the energies of prevailing technologies data were also used and the wide-range assessment of alternative technologies included different refinement methods, various ways of producing light sheets, semicrystalline cells, etc. Energy data are utilized to model the behavior of a future solar breeder plant under various operational conditions.

  8. A Review of Solar Energy and the Built Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raha Sulaiman

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar Energy has been acknowledged as a free and infinite source of energy. In Built Environment (BE, solar energy has been used since pre-historic time. Many improvements and technologies .have been developed with respect to their potential. As solar supplies free energy, the issues with regard to their development in the BE will be examined. The solar energy is used in building either in Passive Solar Design (PSD or Active Solar Design (ASD. Rapid development in BE has caused global warming effect where the heating and cooling of the building contribute to half the total energy consumption of the nation and the construction industry leading to CO2 emission level at 300 million tonnes. It is found that solar energy produces different energy performances which result from different building technique that affected the environment in various ways. Whether or not the energy performances depend on the materials used, the equipment installed in the building or the energy sources supplied to the building , the improvement and development of solar energy still continues and grows.

  9. Technology Roadmaps: Solar Heating and Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    The solar heating and cooling (SHC) roadmap outlines a pathway for solar energy to supply almost one sixth (18 EJ) of the world's total energy use for both heating and cooling by 2050. This would save some 800 megatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year; more than the total CO2 emissions in Germany in 2009. While solar heating and cooling today makes a modest contribution to world energy demand, the roadmap envisages that if concerted action is taken by governments and industry, solar energy could annually produce more than 16% of total final energy use for low temperature heat and nearly 17% for cooling. Given that global energy demand for heat represents almost half of the world's final energy use -- more than the combined global demand for electricity and transport -- solar heat can make a significant contribution in both tackling climate change and strengthening energy security.

  10. Technology Roadmaps: Solar Heating and Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The solar heating and cooling (SHC) roadmap outlines a pathway for solar energy to supply almost one sixth (18 EJ) of the world’s total energy use for both heating and cooling by 2050. This would save some 800 megatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year; more than the total CO2 emissions in Germany in 2009. While solar heating and cooling today makes a modest contribution to world energy demand, the roadmap envisages that if concerted action is taken by governments and industry, solar energy could annually produce more than 16% of total final energy use for low temperature heat and nearly 17% for cooling. Given that global energy demand for heat represents almost half of the world’s final energy use – more than the combined global demand for electricity and transport – solar heat can make a significant contribution in both tackling climate change and strengthening energy security.

  11. Solar technologies for buildings. Fundamentals and practice examples. 2. rev. ed.; Solare Technologien fuer Gebaeude. Grundlagen und Praxisbeispiele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eicker, Ursula

    2012-07-01

    Active and passive utilization of solar energy makes a significant contribution to energy supply in buildings. Solar heating and cooling systems, photovoltaic energy conversion systems and efficient daylighting and passive solar systems are available on the market and need to gain acceptance. The book presents the physical fundamentals and calculated examples for students. It also addresses engineers in practice, who are given concrete design procedures for solar technologies in domestic and administrative buildings. Subjects are, among others: Energy consumption of buildings and solar coverage potential - meteorological basis - solar powered heating - solar cooling - grid-connected photovoltaic systems - thermal analysis of building-integrated solar components - passive utilization of solar energy - lighting engineering and utilization of daylight.

  12. Solar Energy: Potential Powerhouse for Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallion, Tom

    1976-01-01

    Components of solar energy systems are described, the development of the solar industry discussed, and implications are drawn for employment opportunities in industries (which may expand into new, solar-related areas) and in the professions, from law to sales, upon the advent of solar heating. (AJ)

  13. Solar energy utilization by solar cells and superblack absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnet, D; Selders, M

    1975-10-31

    A review is presented of the physical principles responsible for the characteristics of solar cells, with particular reference to Si homojunction and CdS--Cu/sub 2/S thin film devices. Electric power generation from solar cells still appears uncompetitive economically except in special circumstances, but heating from solar energy using selective absorbers with low reemission is more promising.

  14. Solar photovoltaic power generation system and understanding of green energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Chun Sik

    2004-03-01

    This book introduces sunlight generation system and green energy, which includes new and renewable energy such as photovoltaic power generation, solar thermal, wind power, bio energy, waste energy, geothermal energy, ocean energy and fuel cell photovoltaic industry like summary, technology trend, market trend, development strategy of the industry in Korea, and other countries, design of photovoltaic power generation system supporting policy and related business of new and renewable energy.

  15. Scenarios for solar thermal energy applications in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, F.R.; Abreu, S.L.; Pereira, E.B.

    2012-01-01

    The Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) database is used to prepare and discuss scenarios for solar thermal applications in Brazil. The paper discusses low temperature applications (small and large scale water heating) and solar power plants for electricity production (concentrated solar power plants and solar chimney plants) in Brazil. The results demonstrate the feasibility of large-scale application of solar energy for water heating and electricity generation in Brazil. Payback periods for water heating systems are typically below 4 years if they were used to replace residential electric showerheads in low-income families. Large-scale water heating systems also present high feasibility and many commercial companies are adopting this technology to reduce operational costs. The best sites to set up CSP plants are in the Brazilian semi-arid region where the annual energy achieves 2.2 MW h/m 2 and averages of daily solar irradiation are larger than 5.0 kW h/m 2 /day. The western area of Brazilian Northeastern region meets all technical requirements to exploit solar thermal energy for electricity generation based on solar chimney technology. Highlights: ► Scenarios for solar thermal applications are presented. ► Payback is typically below 4 years for small scale water heating systems. ► Large-scale water heating systems also present high feasibility. ► The Brazilian semi-arid region is the best sites for CSP and chimney tower plants.

  16. A sunny future: expert elicitation of China's solar photovoltaic technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Long T.; Branstetter, Lee; Azevedo, Inês L.

    2018-03-01

    China has emerged as the global manufacturing center for solar photovoltaic (PV) products. Chinese firms have entered all stages of the supply chain, producing most of the installed solar modules around the world. Meanwhile, production costs are at record lows. The decisions that Chinese solar producers make today will influence the path for the solar industry and its role towards de-carbonization of global energy systems in the years to come. However, to date, there have been no assessments of the future costs and efficiency of solar PV systems produced by the Chinese PV industry. We perform an expert elicitation to assess the technological and non-technological factors that led to the success of China’s silicon PV industry as well as likely future costs and performance. Experts evaluated key metrics such as efficiency, costs, and commercial viability of 17 silicon and non-silicon solar PV technologies by 2030. Silicon-based technologies will continue to be the mainstream product for large-scale electricity generation application in the near future, with module efficiency reaching as high as 23% and production cost as low as 0.24/W. The levelized cost of electricity for solar will be around 34/MWh, allowing solar PV to be competitive with traditional energy resources like coal. The industry’s future developments may be affected by overinvestment, overcapacity, and singular short-term focus.

  17. Annual review of solar energy. Period of review: 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-10-01

    A general review of national solar energy programs is provided. An executive summary and a brief history of the Federal solar energy program are presented. The issues and implications of the National Energy Plan that relate to solar energy development ae discussed. An overview is provided of the present Federal solar energy program, including the activities of several Federal agencies outside the Department of Energy. Some of the non-Federal solar energy programs ae reviewed, including international programs in which the U.S. has some role, programs of state and local governments, college and university programs, the work of private industry, and individual and small scale activities. A synposis of the major categories of solar technology is provided. Each chapter discusses a particular technology area and includes a basic technological description; a summary of the goals and activities of the Federal R and D program for the technology; significant events and development of the past year; and a brief overview of problems, uncertainties, and dissenting views. Three appendices include a synopsis of major energy events of 1977; a glossary of technical terms, abbreviations, and acronyms, and a table of conversion factors. (MHR)

  18. Wuestite - a solar energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenkaff, A; Nueesch, P; Wokaun, A [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Reller, A [Hamburg Univ., Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    Hydrogen is produced when Wuestite (Fe{sub 1-y}O) is oxidised by water. This reaction is part of a two-step thermochemical metal oxide cycle for the storage of solar energy in the form of chemical energy carriers, characterised by a high chemical potential. The reaction was studied in a tubular furnace with on-line gas analysis and further characterised in detail by DTA und high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction. The influence of non-stoichiometry, morphology and temperature on the mechanism and kinetics of the water-splitting reaction was determined. (author) 3 figs., tabs., 3 refs.

  19. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Wormser Columbia, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Energy System is not economically beneficial under the assumed economic conditions at the sites considered. Economic benefits from this system depend on decreasing the initial investment and the continued increase in the cost of conventional energy. Decreasing the cost depends on favorable tax treatment and continuing development of solar energy technology. Fuel cost would have to increase drastically while the cost of the system would have to remain constant or decrease for the system to become economically feasible.

  20. Solar energy utilization by physical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M

    1974-04-19

    On the basis of the estimated contributions of these differing methods of the utilization of solar energy, their total energy delivery impact on the projected U.S. energy economy (9) can be evaluated (Fig. 5). Despite this late energy impact, the actual sales of solar energy utilization equipment will be significant at an early date. Potential sales in photovoltaic arrays alone could exceed $400 million by 1980, in order to meet the projected capacity buildup (10). Ultimately, the total energy utilization equipment industry should attain an annual sales volume of several tens of billion dollars in the United States, comparable to that of several other energy related industries. Varying amounts of technology development are required to assure the technical and economic feasibility of the different solar energy utilization methods. Several of these developments are far enough along that the paths can be analyzed from the present time to the time of demonstration of technical and economic feasibility, and from there to production and marketing readiness. After that point, a period of market introduction will follow, which will differ in duration according to the type of market addressed. It may be noted that the present rush to find relief from the current energy problem, or to be an early leader in entering a new market, can entail shortcuts in sound engineering practice, particularly in the areas of design for durability and easy maintenance, or of proper application engineering. The result can be loss of customer acceptance, as has been experienced in the past with various products, including solar water heaters. Since this could cause considerable delay in achieving the expected total energy impact, it will be important to spend adequate time at this stage for thorough development. Two other aspects are worth mentioning. The first is concerned with the economic impacts. Upon reflection on this point, one will observe that largescale solar energy utilization will

  1. Full environmental life cycle cost analysis of concentrating solar power technology: contribution of externalities to overall energy costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corona, B.; Cerrajero, E.; San Miguel, G.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the use of Full Environmental Life Cycle Costing (FeLCC) methodology to evaluate the economic performance of a 50 MW parabolic trough Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plant operating in hybrid mode with different natural gas inputs (between 0% and 30%). The

  2. Application of solar energy to air conditioning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, J. M.; Harstad, A. J.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a survey of solar energy system applications of air conditioning are summarized. Techniques discussed are both solar powered (absorption cycle and the heat engine/Rankine cycle) and solar related (heat pump). Brief descriptions of the physical implications of various air conditioning techniques, discussions of status, proposed technological improvements, methods of utilization and simulation models are presented, along with an extensive bibliography of related literature.

  3. CURRENT TRENDS IN THE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanya Zhivkova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy represents the amount of solar radiation per unit time on unit area. Solar energy is used to obtain thermal energy through solar, and electrical energy through exist for solar energy: passive and active. The utilization of solar energy is essential for the development of human civilization.

  4. CURRENT TRENDS IN THE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY

    OpenAIRE

    Vanya Zhivkova

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy represents the amount of solar radiation per unit time on unit area. Solar energy is used to obtain thermal energy through solar, and electrical energy through exist for solar energy: passive and active. The utilization of solar energy is essential for the development of human civilization.

  5. From Molecular Electronics to Solar Thermal Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stine Tetzschner

    The Sun's signicant resource potential provides a solution for the world's increasing energy demand in a sustainable and responsible manner. However, the intrinsic property of the on-o cycles of the solar irradiation, i.e. daynight, sunny-cloudy, and summer-winter, constitutes a signicant challenge...... for the utilization of solar energy. An eective technology for storing the solar energy is required. This thesis focuses on solar thermal energy storage in molecules, since it oers a very compact and eective storage method. The rst chapter after the introduction of the thesis, chapter two, introduces the fundamental...... properties of the molecule, i.e. the electronic behaviour of the molecule in dierent environments, which is a key property for investigations of solar energy storage. The main focus of the research is on the electron transport in the Coulomb blockade regime. The third chapter goes into the challenge...

  6. Energy efficient and solar construction. Themes 2008; Energieeffizientes und solares Bauen. Themen 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadermann, Gerd (ed.)

    2009-04-15

    Within the annual meeting of the Renewable Energy Research Association (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) at 29th to 30th September, 2008, the lectures were held to the following themes: (a) Energy efficient and solar construction - a change of paradigm; (b) Revolution in construction technology; (c) Energetic sanitation of old buildings; (d) Innovative technologies of energy supply; (e) Integrated facility management; (f) Demonstration and practice of new technologies; (g) Market, politics, and sustainability.

  7. Renewable Energy Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Michael K.; Carter, Vinson R.

    2010-01-01

    In many ways the field of renewable energy technology is being introduced to a society that has little knowledge or background with anything beyond traditional exhaustible forms of energy and power. Dotson (2009) noted that the real challenge is to inform and educate the citizenry of the renewable energy potential through the development of…

  8. Energy and technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirk, W.J.; Bookless, W.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the United States Department of Energy, was established in 1952 to do research on nuclear weapons and magnetic fusion energy. Since then, in response to new national needs, we have added other major programs, including technology transfer, laser science (fusion, isotope separation, materials processing), biology and biotechnology, environmental research and remediation, arms control and nonproliferation, advanced defense technology, and applied energy technology. These programs, in turn, require research in basic scientific disciplines, including chemistry and materials science, computing science and technology, engineering, and physics. The Laboratory also carries out a variety of projects for other federal agencies. Energy and Technology Review is published monthly to report on unclassified work in all our programs. This issue reviews work performed in the areas of modified retoring for waste treatment and underground stripping to remove contamination

  9. Concentrating solar power: a sustainable and renewable way to get energy from solar light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montecchi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Solar light irradiating the Earth is a great sustainable and renewable power source. In concentrating solar power plants, mirrors are used to redirect the solar light toward a small area where a receiver captures and converts it into thermal-energy which can be stored. ENEA has been developing the parabolic-trough Italian technology, as well as several facilities for the component characterization. The paper reports on some of those which are purely optical instruments [it

  10. Proceedings of the General Committee for solar thermal energy 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loyen, Richard; Gibert, Francois; Porcheyre, Edwige; Laplagne, Valerie; Lambertucci, Stefano; Hauser, Eva; Delmas, Pierre; Mozas, Kevin; Servier, Gerard; Girard, Jean-Paul; Haim, Philippe; Gendron, Marc; Haas, Benjamin; Leclech, Rodrigue; Eberhardt, Mathieu; Bettwy, Fabrice; Berthomieu, Nadine; Barais, Claire; Mingant, Sylvie; Daniel, Charles; GODIN, Olivier; PELe, Charles; Benabdelkarim, Mohamed; Brottier, Laetitia; Cholin, Xavier; Mugnier, Daniel; Marchal, David; Khebchache, Bouzid

    2017-10-01

    The contributions of this conference first proposed an overview of the status and perspectives of the solar thermal energy sector with a presentation of the present situation and perspectives for the French market, and an overview of situations and initiatives in neighbouring European countries. A second session addressed the possible new economical and marketing models able to face challenges of solar thermal energy in 2018 with focuses on heat kWh purchase, on supply portage through a global operator contract (design-realisation-exploitation-maintenance contracts or CREM contracts, energy performance contracts or CPE), and on issues related to building renovation (solar-gas synergy) and to new buildings (regulatory evolution, E+C label). The third session proposed examples of local good practices: development of solar thermal networks in Auvergne-Rhone-Alpes with the development of these networks and a support to commissioners, ADEME's support with patrimony-rehabilitation contracts, and the solar policy implemented by the Brest metropole. A technological focus was then proposed. It addressed communications about the SOCOL approach, concentration-based solar technology (technology, applications, realisations), and solar heating (assets in new and renovated buildings). Before a synthesis, two interventions addressed the production of solar electron and calories, and works performed on the increase of the solar coverage rate

  11. The new energy technologies in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gleuher, M.; Farhi, R.

    2005-06-01

    The large dependence of Australia on the fossil fuels leads to an great emission of carbon dioxide. The Australia is thus the first greenhouse gases emitter per habitant, in the world. In spite of its sufficient fossil fuels reserves, the Australia increases its production of clean energies and the research programs in the domain of the new energies technology. After a presentation of the australia situation, the authors detail the government measures in favor of the new energy technologies and the situation of the hydroelectricity, the wind energy, the wave and tidal energy, the biomass, the biofuels, the solar energy, the ''clean'' coal, the hydrogen and the geothermal energy. (A.L.B.)

  12. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

  13. Advances in solar thermal energy in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco Noceto, P.

    2012-01-01

    This article is about the law 18585 which declared de solar thermal energy as national interest. This law establishes the obligation to incorporate solar heating systems in health care centers, hotels and sports clubs.

  14. Solar energy: an environment friendly reliable and sustainable source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, M.A.; Akhtar, W.

    2011-01-01

    The rapid enhancement in consumption of fossil fuels in order to meet the day-to day increasing energy requirements has blown a danger sign for all nations. Global warming effect has compelled researchers to discover other techniques of energy generation instead of traditional ways in order to reduce adverse effects on global terrain. Renewable energy resources have got attention of global entrepreneurs due to their long lasting availability and environment friendliness. Solar technology is finding increased application in both domestic and military application. This paper discusses the ideas behind the art of design of solar cells and their historical developments. It also covers the kind of techniques/ methodologies used for solar energy conversion into electrical energy with comparison between different renewable technologies and solar technology. This paper gives the brief review of world energy resources and their consumption v/s Solar energy production percentage. Researchers in the field of energy generation have impressed by the Prodigious results of Renewable Energies. Today's most of the high ranked international universities of developed countries in collaboration with government/ industries have been carrying on advance researches in the field of renewable technologies. (author)

  15. Economic analysis of flat plate collectors of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozsabuncuoglu, I.H.

    1995-01-01

    Although solar energy potential in Turkey is far more than its total annual energy consumption, because of technical, economic and efficiency problems it cannot be harnessed to its fullest extent. Solar energy collecting systems have an initial cost two to five times higher than alternatives using electricity, LPG, fuel or other solid energy sources. However, their annual repair and maintenance costs are much lower than alternatives due to high energy prices. Solar systems with inflated annual costs have a minimum present value of US$867.19. Solar energy systems can be recommended for the countries that want a dependable and environmentally sound energy source. However, investment in R and D activities is necessary to reduce total cost of the system through improved efficiency and better production technology. (author)

  16. Research and development of utilization technology of solar thermal energy system for industrial and other use. Research and development of solar system (investigation of popular type snow melting systems); Sangyoyo nado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Solar system no chosa kenkyu (fukyugata yusetsu system no kenkyu chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takita, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for investigation for popular type snow melting systems using solar energy. Two types of technologies are proposed to utilize solar energy for snow melting in winter and create comfortable environments. One is combined (active plus passive) type, which transfers solar heat it collects by the whole wall surfaces to an attic to heat it totally, and makes the whole roof as a radiator to melt snow. However, heat radiated from the roof is insufficient to melt all snow on the roof, allowing it to remain to an extent that it works as an insulator. The other is active type, which transfers heat it collects by the collector to the heat storage tank, from which heat is extracted in winter for various purposes, including snow melting. Such a system must store heat for an extended period, for which a highly insulating heat storage tank is proposed to balance capacity of heat storage between seasons and building size.

  17. Technology Roadmaps: Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Wind energy is perhaps the most advanced of the 'new' renewable energy technologies, but there is still much work to be done. This roadmap identifies the key tasks that must be undertaken in order to achieve a vision of over 2 000 GW of wind energy capacity by 2050. Governments, industry, research institutions and the wider energy sector will need to work together to achieve this goal. Best technology and policy practice must be identified and exchanged with emerging economy partners, to enable the most cost-effective and beneficial development.

  18. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.P.; Hagstroem, M.T.; Lund, P.H. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics; Leppaenen, J.R.; Nieminen, J.P. [Neste Oy (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Hydrogen based energy storage options for solar energy systems was studied in order to improve their overall performance. A 1 kW photovoltaic hydrogen (PV-H2) pilot-plant and commercial prototype were constructed and a numerical simulation program H2PHOTO for system design and optimisation was developed. Furthermore, a comprehensive understanding of conversion (electrolysers and fuel cells) and storage (metal hydrides) technologies was acquired by the project partners. The PV-H{sub 2} power system provides a self-sufficient solution for applications in remote locations far from electric grids and maintenance services. (orig.)

  19. Technology Roadmap: Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-03-01

    Energy storage technologies are valuable components in most energy systems and could be an important tool in achieving a low-carbon future. These technologies allow for the decoupling of energy supply and demand, in essence providing a valuable resource to system operators. There are many cases where energy storage deployment is competitive or near-competitive in today's energy system. However, regulatory and market conditions are frequently ill-equipped to compensate storage for the suite of services that it can provide. Furthermore, some technologies are still too expensive relative to other competing technologies (e.g. flexible generation and new transmission lines in electricity systems). One of the key goals of this new roadmap is to understand and communicate the value of energy storage to energy system stakeholders. This will include concepts that address the current status of deployment and predicted evolution in the context of current and future energy system needs by using a ''systems perspective'' rather than looking at storage technologies in isolation.

  20. Department of energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    The general development of the Department of Energy Technology at Risoe during 1982 is presented, and the activities within the major subject fields are described in some detail. List of staff, publications and computer programs are included. (author)

  1. Simulation of Solar Energy Use in Livelihood of Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lvocich, I. Ya; Preobrazhenskiy, A. P.; Choporov, O. N.

    2017-11-01

    Solar energy can be considered as the most technological and economical type of renewable energy. The purpose of the paper is to increase the efficiency of solar energy utilization on the basis of the mathematical simulation of the solar collector. A mathematical model of the radiant heat transfer vacuum solar collector is clarified. The model was based on the process of radiative heat transfer between glass and copper walls with the defined blackness degrees. A mathematical model of the ether phase transition point is developed. The dependence of the reservoir walls temperature change on the ambient temperature over time is obtained. The results of the paper can be useful for the development of prospective sources using solar energy.

  2. New energy technologies. Research program proposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the most promising program propositions of research and development and the public financing needed for their realization. The concerned technologies are: the hydrogen and the fuel cell PAN-H, the separation and the storage of the CO 2 , the photovoltaic solar electricity, the PREBAT program of the building energy recovery and the bio-energies. (A.L.B.)

  3. More Efficient Solar Thermal-Energy Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, M. O.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal stresses and reradiation reduced. Improved design for solar thermal-energy receiver overcomes three major deficiencies of solar dynamic receivers described in literature. Concentrator and receiver part of solar-thermal-energy system. Receiver divided into radiation section and storage section. Concentrated solar radiation falls on boiling ends of heat pipes, which transmit heat to thermal-energy-storage medium. Receiver used in number of applications to produce thermal energy directly for use or to store thermal energy for subsequent use in heat engine.

  4. Use of solar energy in agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordaunet, L.; Vassbotn, T.; Naavik, G.; Lillevik, O.

    1982-04-01

    The report discusses some materials for utilization of solar energy in agriculture. Accessible data on solar radiation are prepared with a view to practical use in different parts of the country. Physical conditions regarding the mode of operation of different solar collectors are examined, and some methods of transitory storage of solar energy are described. Fields in which practical use of solar energy can be urgent are discussed. These are: water heating and drying of hay and grain. Some practical examples are given. 53 drawings, 9 tables.

  5. Federal technology alert. Parabolic-trough solar water heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    Parabolic-trough solar water heating is a well-proven renewable energy technology with considerable potential for application at Federal facilities. For the US, parabolic-trough water-heating systems are most cost effective in the Southwest where direct solar radiation is high. Jails, hospitals, barracks, and other facilities that consistently use large volumes of hot water are particularly good candidates, as are facilities with central plants for district heating. As with any renewable energy or energy efficiency technology requiring significant initial capital investment, the primary condition that will make a parabolic-trough system economically viable is if it is replacing expensive conventional water heating. In combination with absorption cooling systems, parabolic-trough collectors can also be used for air-conditioning. Industrial Solar Technology (IST) of Golden, Colorado, is the sole current manufacturer of parabolic-trough solar water heating systems. IST has an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract with the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to finance and install parabolic-trough solar water heating on an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) basis for any Federal facility that requests it and for which it proves viable. For an ESPC project, the facility does not pay for design, capital equipment, or installation. Instead, it pays only for guaranteed energy savings. Preparing and implementing delivery or task orders against the IDIQ is much simpler than the standard procurement process. This Federal Technology Alert (FTA) of the New Technology Demonstration Program is one of a series of guides to renewable energy and new energy-efficient technologies.

  6. Solar Thermal energy strategic road-map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafner, Bernd; Godin, Olivier; Villier, Dominique; Petit, J.F.; Demangeon, Elsa; Laplagne, Valerie; Loyen, Richard; Mugnier, Daniel; Filloux, Alain; Frichet, Jean-Claude; Aubert, Elisabeth; Cherepanova, Margarita; Guilmin, Audrey; Dicostanzo, Catherine; Papillon, Philippe; Caccavelli, Dominique; Cholin, Xavier; Leger, Emmanuel; Gevaudan, Alain; Coulaud, Celine; Morlot, Rodolphe; Khebchache, Bouzid; Parrouffe, Jean-Michel; Clement, Daniel; Tonnet, Nicolas

    2012-11-01

    The French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME) manages a fund dedicated to new energy technologies. Since 2008 this fund has funded 'research demonstrators' to implement testing of technologies that are in an experimental stage, between research and industrial deployment. ADEME coordinates a group of experts who are charged with drawing up a strategic road-map prior to each Call for Expressions of Interest. The aims of the solar thermal road-map are: - to highlight the industrial, technological, environmental and societal issues at stake; - to elaborate coherent, consistent and shared visions of the technologies and/or socio-technical systems outlined in the road-map; - to underscore the technological, organisational and socioeconomic barriers and bottlenecks to be overcome in order to achieve these visions; - to link priority research topics to a timetable of goals for technology availability and deployment that is consistent with the stated objectives; - to give priority to research needs and research demonstrators that will serve as the basis for: 1 - calls for expression of interest issued by the Research Demonstrators Fund, 2 - the research programming process at ADEME and more broadly at the Agence nationale de la recherche (ANR) and the Comite strategique national sur la recherche sur l'energie. Research priorities and needs for demonstrators are determined by the intersection of visions and bottlenecks. They also take into account industrial and research capacity in France. The road-maps may also refer to exemplary research demonstrators abroad that are in the forefront of technological progress, and make recommendations regarding industrial policy. These road-maps are the result of collective work by a group of experts appointed by the Steering Committee (Comite de pilotage, COPIL) of the Research Demonstrators Fund for new energy technologies. The members of this group are actors in research, drawn from industry, research bodies and research

  7. Facing technological challenges of Solar Updraft Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, F.; Borri, C.; Harte, R.; Krätzig, W. B.; Niemann, H.-J.

    2015-01-01

    The Solar Updraft Power Plant technology addresses a very challenging idea of combining two kinds of renewable energy: wind and solar. The working principle is simple: a Solar Updraft Power Plant (SUPP) consists of a collector area to heat the air due to the wide-banded ultra-violet solar radiation, the high-rise solar tower to updraft the heated air to the atmosphere, and in between the power conversion unit, where a system of coupled turbines and generators transforms the stream of heated air into electric power. A good efficiency of the power plant can only be reached with extra-large dimensions of the tower and/or the collector area. The paper presents an up-to-date review of the SUPP technology, focusing on the multi-physics modeling of the power plant, on the structural behavior of the tower and, last but not least, on the modeling of the stochastic wind loading process.

  8. Proceedings of the Canadian Solar Buildings Conference : the 31. annual conference of the Solar Energy Society of Canada Inc. and the 1. Canadian Solar Buildings Research Network conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athienitis, A.; Charron, R.; Karava, P.; Stylianou, M.; Tzempelikos, A.

    2006-01-01

    The first conference organized by the newly established Canadian Solar Buildings Research Network (SBRN) was held in conjunction with the thirty-first annual conference of the Solar Energy Society of Canada Inc (SESCI). The conference was attended by top researchers from 10 Canadian Universities to promote innovative research and development in solar energy applications and to advance the awareness of solar energy in Canada. It featured special events such as trade shows, photovoltaic workshops, a course in ESP-r simulation, tours of solar houses and other events focused on the economic, environmental and socio-economic benefits of solar technology, including the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. SBRN was founded on the premise that university researchers should focus on solar energy applications for buildings. Several presentations proposed action plans to accelerate the implementation of solar energy through the use of innovative building technologies and sustainable energy policies. Other major issues of interest were also discussed, including the development of the net-zero energy solar home and grid-connection issues. The sessions of the conference were entitled: solar thermal systems; solar electricity; building integrated photovoltaic systems; design issues and tools; integrating PV and solar thermal in buildings; daylighting and solar radiation modeling; fenestration and shading; PV manufacturing and solar electricity resources. The proceedings featured 41 refereed papers and 13 poster presentations, all of which have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  9. Solar Energy and the United Nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1976-01-01

    Some applications of solar power have an easy technology, and are a matter for the present or immediate future. The methods for the large-scale production of electricity, however, cannot mature before the end of the century, even if determined efforts are begun now. May it be recalled that some 30 years also elapsed between the discovery of nuclear fission and the start of the first economic nuclear power stations. Investments into R and D were thus needed for decades. In nuclear science, it was relatively easy to find the finance because the military was interested. But in view of its tremendous importance for the welfare of mankind it should be at least equally easy to bridge the gap in respect to solar power. May it be underlined that far more money has indeed been found, and is being found, for CERN in Geneva, which is of purely scientific-academic interest and cannot promise much valuable practical 'spin-off'. The United Nations, the countries of the First, Second and Third World, ought to shoulder their responsibility in respect to solar energy. Energetic steps towards the founding of the International Solar Power Institute should be taken right now. (author)

  10. Solar on the brink : more and more engineers are being asked to integrate solar technologies into building designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, I.

    2010-01-01

    Methods of integrating solar technologies into building designs were discussed in this article. Ontario's feed-in-tariff (FIT) program will make Ontario a centre for solar technology and is expected to generate new jobs in the alternative energy industry. While photovoltaic (PV) systems eliminate the need for building new electricity and distribution networks, PV systems are the least efficient solar technology in relation to economics, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) offsets, and energy generation. Many buildings in Canada have significant ventilation air heating loads that are not best served by heat recovery technologies. The economic performance of solar thermal systems can only be understood in relation to the operational efficiency of a building's heating plant. Solar PV systems can provide returns on investment when considered alongside Ontario's FIT program tariffs. Without the tariffs, many payback periods are in excess of PV system product lifetimes. Maintenance contracts and budgets must be carefully considered when commissioning solar energy projects. 3 figs.

  11. Solar energy in the Northern Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djuikom, M.; Ndjomaha, Ch.; Vandenbergh, M.

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, the Cameroon Ministry of the Environment and Forestry has initiated a research project for studying the promotion of renewable energies and their impact on rural development. This work has been realized jointly with the department of Economy and Rural Development of the Agronomic University of Gembloux (Belgium), the Centre Des Etudes de L'Environnement et de Developpement du Cameroun (CEDC, Maroua) and the Institut fur Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET, Germany). This initiative comes when the electricity sector in Cameroon has been facing important changes (Privatization of the national company of electricity, creation of a rural electrification agency, multiplication of the dialogues and seminars around the strategies of promotion for renewable energies, frequent black-outs during the dry season). The first objective of the project is to contribute to a better knowledge of the situation of the use of renewable energies in Cameroon. Therefore, Mrs Marthe Djuikom undertook from July to September 2003 a socio-economic survey on the use of solar energy in the northern Cameroon. The next step will be the creation of an energy program at the CEDC with the following tasks: promotion of photovoltaic technology, support of local and international synergies on the organisational aspects, training, information and coordination of reflexions at the local level for the promotion of rural electrification projects. (authors)

  12. Material Technologies Developments for Solar Hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrafiotis, C.; Pagkoura, C.; Lorentzou, S.; Hoguet, J.C.; Konstandopoulos, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    The present work presents recent activities of our Laboratory in the field of solar-aided hydrogen production materials and reactor technologies that can be fully integrated into solar thermal power plants. Emphasis is given on structured monolithic solar reactors where ceramic supports optimized to absorb solar radiation and develop sufficiently high temperatures, are coated with active materials to perform a variety of 'solar-aided' reactions such as water splitting or natural gas reforming. Particular examples discussed include properties'' assessment of monolithic ceramic honeycombs used as volumetric solar thermal reactors/receivers, synthesis of active water-splitting redox materials for the production of hydrogen and their tailored deposition upon porous supports and design, operation simulation and performance optimization of structured monolithic solar hydrogen production reactors. (authors)

  13. Extended Temperature Solar Cell Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Jenkins, Phillip; Scheiman, David; Rafaelle, Ryne

    2004-01-01

    Future NASA missions will require solar cells to operate both in regimes closer to the sun, and farther from the sun, where the operating temperatures will be higher and lower than standard operational conditions. NASA Glenn is engaged in testing solar cells under extended temperature ranges, developing theoretical models of cell operation as a function of temperature, and in developing technology for improving the performance of solar cells for both high and low temperature operation.

  14. Survey of state approaches to solar energy incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, S. B.

    1979-07-01

    A comprehensive survey is presented of state statutes designed to encourage the application of solar technology. A large majority of the states have enacted financial incentives designed to stimulate solar energy use. Commonly, these incentives include preferential property tax treatment of solar systems, and income tax benefits to solar users. There are a wide variety of other tax breaks as well, including excise and franchise tax incentives. Some states have recently developed loan or grant programs for solar installations. Other states have addressed aspects of real property and land-use planning law, which have served as barriers to either the installation of solar technology or access to sunlight. In addition to removing such obstacles as restrictive convenants and zoning limitations, the legislation of several states provides affirmative recognition of the potential of real property law to serve as a spur to solar development, through solar easements, planning and zoning, and public nuisance. A small number of states have legislated in the field of utility regulation, addressing important questions of (1) nondiscriminatory rates for utility backup to solar systems and public utility commissions, and (2) utility involvement in solar energy applicatons.

  15. Solar breeder: Energy payback time for silicon photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindmayer, J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy expenditures of the prevailing manufacturing technology of terrestrial photovoltaic cells and panels were evaluated, including silicon reduction, silicon refinement, crystal growth, cell processing and panel building. Energy expenditures include direct energy, indirect energy, and energy in the form of equipment and overhead expenses. Payback times were development using a conventional solar cell as a test vehicle which allows for the comparison of its energy generating capability with the energies expended during the production process. It was found that the energy payback time for a typical solar panel produced by the prevailing technology is 6.4 years. Furthermore, this value drops to 3.8 years under more favorable conditions. Moreover, since the major energy use reductions in terrestrial manufacturing have occurred in cell processing, this payback time directly illustrates the areas where major future energy reductions can be made -- silicon refinement, crystal growth, and panel building.

  16. Spatio-temporal mapping of solar energy potential of Dutse, Jigawa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficient solar energy harnessing technology is required for sustainability and effective utilization of the resource. In this work, a survey of solar energy potential of Dutse, Jigawa state Nigeria was carried out with the aim of identifying the best location for optimal performance of solar energy power plant. Elevation information ...

  17. Energy: the solar hydrogen alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocheris, J O.M.

    1977-01-01

    The author argues that nuclear and solar energy should begin replacing conventional fossil sources as soon as possible because oil, gas and even coal supplies will be depleted within decades. A hydrogen economy would introduce major technical problems but its chief benefits are that it permits energy storage in a post fossil fuel era when electricity is expected to play a major role. It can be converted to electricity, cleanly and efficiently with fuel cells and in liquid form can be burnt as jet fuel. Hydrogen can also be burnt in internal combustion engines although less efficiently in fuel cells. However, although hydrogen is clean and efficient, technical development is still needed to reduce its cost and to cope with safety problems. The book contains a wealth of technical information and is a valuable reference on a topic of growing importance.

  18. Understanding China's renewable energy technology exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jialu; Goldstein, Don

    2013-01-01

    China became a major player in renewable energy (RE) technology during the 2000s. Chinese solar PV cell and module makers quickly dominated global sales in that industry, while the country's wind turbine producers became poised for significant exports after capturing their rapidly growing home market. In countries like the US, Chinese RE technology strength has been met with claims of excessive governmental support of exports. This study examines to what extent Chinese firms' solar PV and wind technology successes have been enabled by policy supports, and whether those policies appear to have been driven by broader goals versus RE export promotion per se. The evidence suggests that governmental policy toward both wind and solar originated in a push for export-competitive Chinese companies. But the specifics differed substantially due to the particular requirements of building technological capabilities in each: export readiness necessitated substantial support for domestic installation of wind but not solar PV power. The findings also suggest that as the decade of the 2000s progressed, environmental goals played an increasing role alongside export promotion in motivating and shaping Chinese RE technology policies. - Highlights: ► Export policy in the rise of Chinese renewable energy technologies is studied. ► Policy supported wind turbine firms' capabilities via domestic uptake, not exports. ► Pre-2009 solar module exports enjoyed, but did not depend on, export subsidies. ► Renewables development also fit wider technology and environmental policy goals.

  19. Technology Roadmaps: Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This nuclear energy roadmap has been prepared jointly by the IEA and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). Unlike most other low-carbon energy sources, nuclear energy is a mature technology that has been in use for more than 50 years. The latest designs for nuclear power plants build on this experience to offer enhanced safety and performance, and are ready for wider deployment over the next few years. Several countries are reactivating dormant nuclear programmes, while others are considering nuclear for the first time. China in particular is already embarking on a rapid nuclear expansion. In the longer term, there is great potential for new developments in nuclear energy technology to enhance nuclear's role in a sustainable energy future.

  20. The thermodynamic solar energy; Le solaire thermodynamique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivoire, B. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS-IMP), 66 - Perpignan (France)

    2002-04-01

    The thermodynamic solar energy is the technic in the whole aiming to transform the solar radiation energy in high temperature heat and then in mechanical energy by a thermodynamic cycle. These technic are most often at an experimental scale. This paper describes and analyzes the research programs developed in the advanced countries, since 1980. (A.L.B.)

  1. Combined solar collector and energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R. N. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

  2. Organoruthenium Complexes for Solar Energy Harvesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wadman, S.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834084

    2008-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges of this time is providing the world with the energy it needs to sustain human kind's current standard of living. Solar energy is the most abundant and ubiquitous renewable energy source available, and as such it holds great promises. Traditionally, the field of solar

  3. Energy efficiency of a solar domestic hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukowski, Miroslaw

    2017-11-01

    The solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system located on the campus of Bialystok University of Technology is the object of the research described in the current paper. The solar thermal system is composed of 35 flat plate collectors, 21 evacuated tube collectors and eight hot water tanks with the capacity of 1 m3 of each. Solar facility is equipped with hardware for automatic data collection. Additionally, the weather station located on the roof of the building provides measurements of basic parameters of ambient air and solar radiation. The main objective of Regional Operational Program was the assessment of the effectiveness of this solar energy technology in the climatic conditions of the north-eastern Poland. Energy efficiency of SDHW system was defined in this research as the ratio between the useful heat energy supplied to the domestic hot water system and solar energy incident on the surface of solar panels. Heat loss from water storage tanks, and from the pipe network to the surrounding air, as well as the electrical energy consumed by the pumps have been included in the calculations. The paper presents the detailed results and conclusions obtained from this energy analysis.

  4. Solar Sail Propulsion Technology at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Charles Les

    2007-01-01

    NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program developed the first generation of solar sail propulsion systems sufficient to accomplish inner solar system science and exploration missions. These first generation solar sails, when operational, will range in size from 40 meters to well over 100 meters in diameter and have an area density of less than 13 grams per square meter. A rigorous, multi-year technology development effort culminated in 2005 with the testing of two different 20-m solar sail systems under thermal vacuum conditions. This effort provided a number of significant insights into the optimal design and expected performance of solar sails as well as an understanding of the methods and costs of building and using them. In addition, solar sail orbital analysis tools for mission design were developed and tested. Laboratory simulations of the effects of long-term space radiation exposure were also conducted on two candidate solar sail materials. Detailed radiation and charging environments were defined for mission trajectories outside the protection of the earth's magnetosphere, in the solar wind environment. These were used in other analytical tools to prove the adequacy of sail design features for accommodating the harsh space environment. The presentation will describe the status of solar sail propulsion within NASA, near-term solar sail mission applications, and near-term plans for further development.

  5. Solar energy in Primorskiy Krai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalev, O.P.; Volkov, A.V. [Inst. of Marine Technology Problems Far Eastern Branch Russian Academic Science (IMTP FEB RAS), Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    In 1979 in the Pacific Oceanological Institute of FESC there were started investigations in the field of renewable energy sources (the group of ocean power-engineering was organized) which have been continued till present time in the laboratory of non-traditional energetics of IMTP FEB RAS. During this time the following expeditions were carried out by research workers: in Tugursky Bay (1981) and in Pendzinky Lip (1982, 1983) for investigations of tidal mode in the places which are promising for building tidal power stations; marine expeditions (1985, 1987) for investigating power resources in the Seychelles area, and an expedition to Cape Shmidt - for carrying out experimental freezing of seawater layers on particular parts of an icy moorage of a sea port in the course of its restoration. Now theoretical and experimental researches in the field of using solar energy, energy due to salinity gradients, biomass energy etc., are being carried out at the laboratory. Experimental installations for transformation of these types of energy were created which were tested both in laboratory and in natural conditions. (orig.)

  6. False Dawn of a Solar Age: A History of Solar Heating and Power During the Energy Crisis, 1973-1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavo, Jordan Michael

    The unfolding of the energy crisis in the early 1970s brought solar to the fore as a topic for national discussion. National dialogues about solar power and national energy policy were one way that Americans interpreted their present and envisioned their nation's future. Yet, policy makers and the general public considered alternative energies, including solar, largely based on the economic conditions of their eras, considerations that, at least until the Reagan era, often transcended political ideologies and parties. Energy prices and the emerging political expediency of replacing fossil fuels were the primary drivers in shaping federal energy policies and public interest during this era. Enthusiasm for solar power often corresponded to the market price of petroleum. By the late 1970s, a lot of people believed the same. Amid growing public enthusiasm, President Carter eventually came out strongly in favor of solar energy, mounting solar panels on the White House and unveiling a plan to procure 20% of the nation's energy from the sun by the year 2000. During the 1960s and 1970s, Americans changed their energy values in response to concerns over environmentalism and the antinuclear movement. Pollution, environmental disasters, and energy crises during the 1960s and 1970s brought terms like "clean energy" and "renewable energy" into the national lexicon, and solar often served as the most prominent symbol of those ideas. At the same time, advocates presented solar as a stark contrast to nuclear: solar energy made life on earth possible; nuclear energy made it perilous. Science fiction and futurism shaped the American popular imagination through its presentation of solar technology. Each genre suffused the other and ingrained in the American national consciousness a sense of grandiose wonderment about the potential for solar energy, a potential that often did not match the contemporary applications for solar technology. The emergence of solar industries alarmed oil

  7. New energy technologies in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Singapore is considered as an interesting example: this country has become the third world oil refining centre and the first Asian oil trade place, but has also implemented a series of strategic measures to promote a sustainable development. The Singapore Green Plan was launched in 1992 and defines important objectives in terms of reduction of carbon emissions, of water consumption, of improvement of waste management services, and so on. This policy results in investments in experimental programs for the development of new energy technologies. This paper presents the public actors (institutions and public agencies) and their projects, the academic projects and programs, and the private sector projects. These programs and projects are concerning the search for clean energies, the development of the solar capacity, various renewable energies, or the automotive industry (projects conducted by Bosch, Renault and Nissan, Daimler, this last one on biofuels)

  8. Microelectronics in energy technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeding, D; Jesse, G

    1984-07-01

    This meeting, which will take place on the 16th and 17th of October 1984 at the Old Opera House at Frankfurt on Main, in the context of the VDE Congress, will consist of 14 lectures on the state of the application of microelectronics to energy technology, and give its participants information on and a chance for discussion of this subject. The meeting will cover the following subjects: Microelectronics in energy supply undertakings; Microelectronics in the automation of power stations; Microelectronics in switchgear and transmission networks; Microelectronics in measurement technology; Microelectronics in lighting technology; Microelectronics in drive technology; Microelectronics in railway technology. The following shortened versions of these lectures are intended to motivate people to visit this event and to prepare contributions to and questions for the discussions.

  9. The Role of the Department of Defense (DoD) in Solar Energy Research, Development and Diffusion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benham, Jr., William T; Cabral, III, Noel J

    2008-01-01

    ... for a national transformation toward a new energy future. This report examines the feasibility of niche solar energy applications and the methods that DoD might positively impact solar energy research, development and technology diffusion.

  10. Adaptive, full-spectrum solar energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.

    2003-08-05

    An adaptive full spectrum solar energy system having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one hybrid luminaire, at least one hybrid photobioreactor, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator, each hybrid luminaire, and each hybrid photobioreactor. A lighting control system operates each component.

  11. Solar Energy for Pacific Northwest Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, John S.

    Data presented in this report indicate that solar space and water heating are possible in the Pacific Northwest. The first section of the report contains solar records from several stations in the region illustrating space heating needs that could be met, on an average daily basis, by solar energy. The data are summarized, and some preliminary…

  12. Research and Development Needs for Building-Integrated Solar Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-01-01

    The Building Technologies Office (BTO) has identified Building Integrated Solar Technologies (BIST) as a potentially valuable piece of the comprehensive pathway to help achieve its goal of reducing energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings by 50% by the year 2030. This report helps to identify the key research and development (R&D) needs that will be required for BIST to make a substantial contribution toward that goal. BIST include technologies for space heating and cooling, water heating, hybrid photovoltaic-thermal systems (PV/T), active solar lighting, and building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV).

  13. New energy technologies. Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report on the new energy technologies has been written by a working group on request of the French ministry of economy, finances and industry, of the ministry of ecology and sustainable development, of the ministry of research and new technologies and of the ministry of industry. The mission of the working group is to identify goals and priority ways for the French and European research about the new technologies of energy and to propose some recommendations about the evolution of research incentive and sustain systems in order to reach these goals. The working group has taken into consideration the overall stakes linked with energy and not only the climatic change. About this last point, only the carbon dioxide emissions have been considered because they represent 90% of the greenhouse gases emissions linked with the energy sector. A diagnosis is made first about the present day context inside which the new technologies will have to fit with. Using this diagnosis, the research topics and projects to be considered as priorities for the short-, medium- and long-term have been identified: energy efficiency in transports, in dwellings/tertiary buildings and in the industry, development for the first half of the 21. century of an energy mix combining nuclear, fossil-fuels and renewable energy sources. (J.S.)

  14. Status and outlook of solar energy use in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, U.K.

    2003-01-01

    Pakistan is an energy deficient country, where a large fraction of the population still does not have access to modern day energy services such as electricity. This is due to very limited fossil fuel resources and poor economy, which restrains the import of fossil fuels on a large scale. To overcome energy shortage, Pakistan needs to develop its indigenous energy resources like hydropower, solar and wind. Pakistan lies in an area of one of the highest solar insolation in the world. This vast potential can be exploited to produce electricity, which could be provided to off-grid communities in the northern hilly area and the southern and western deserts. Applications other than electricity production such as solar water heaters and solar cookers also have vast applications. All this will help in both reducing the import of fossil fuels and dependency of people on fuel wood, which in turn will provide some respite for the dwindling forest reserves of Pakistan. Accordingly, the status and outlook of solar energy use in Pakistan is discussed in this paper. In addition, the role of R and D organizations in the promotion of solar energy technologies in Pakistan is also presented including a description of some proposed projects. It is concluded that the current infrastructure has not been able to advance the status of solar energy of Pakistan. Significant efforts are needed to effectively utilize this cheap renewable energy source. (author)

  15. Basic research needs in seven energy-related technologies, conservation, conversion, transmission and storage, environmental fission, fossil, geothermal, and solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    This volume comprises seven studies performed by seven groups at seven national laboratories. The laboratories were selected because of their assigned lead roles in research pertaining to the respective technologies. Researches were requested to solicit views of other workers in the fields.

  16. Solar energy; Product information. Zonne-energie; Produktinformatie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruisheer, N

    1992-03-20

    In five brief articles product information is given on solar energy applications with special attention to the Netherlands. After an introduction on solar energy availability in the Netherlands the developments in solar boiler techniques are dealt with. Solar water heaters have advantages for the environment, and government subsidies stimulate different uses of such water heaters. Also the developments of solar cells show good prospects, not only for developing countries, but also for the industrialized countries. In brief the developments in solar energy storage and the connection of solar equipment to the grid are discussed. Finally attention is paid to the applications of passive solar energy in the housing construction, the use of transparent thermal insulation and the developments of translucent materials. 18 figs., 18 ills.

  17. Nanostructured Solar Irradiation Control Materials for Solar Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jinho; Marshall, I. A.; Torrico, M. N.; Taylor, C. R.; Ely, Jeffry; Henderson, Angel Z.; Kim, J.-W.; Sauti, G.; Gibbons, L. J.; Park, C.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Tailoring the solar absorptivity (alpha(sub s)) and thermal emissivity (epsilon(sub T)) of materials constitutes an innovative approach to solar energy control and energy conversion. Numerous ceramic and metallic materials are currently available for solar absorbance/thermal emittance control. However, conventional metal oxides and dielectric/metal/dielectric multi-coatings have limited utility due to residual shear stresses resulting from the different coefficient of thermal expansion of the layered materials. This research presents an alternate approach based on nanoparticle-filled polymers to afford mechanically durable solar-absorptive and thermally-emissive polymer nanocomposites. The alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) were measured with various nano inclusions, such as carbon nanophase particles (CNPs), at different concentrations. Research has shown that adding only 5 wt% CNPs increased the alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) by a factor of about 47 and 2, respectively, compared to the pristine polymer. The effect of solar irradiation control of the nanocomposite on solar energy conversion was studied. The solar irradiation control coatings increased the power generation of solar thermoelectric cells by more than 380% compared to that of a control power cell without solar irradiation control coatings.

  18. The necessity of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovejoy, D.

    1996-01-01

    The idea of limits to growth has, understandably, achieved notoriety since the days of Malthus and, more recently, the Club of Rome. However, there must be some limits to the ability of the Earth to sustain a growing population. Fortunately, population models suggest that the world's population will probably level out at about two to three times the present numbers over the next hundred years. The question is whether the Earth's resources are sufficient to sustain that population at a high standard of living for all. In this the key issue is energy. It is clear that present trends in energy consumption, especially oil, cannot be sustained much longer. Regardless of this, however, prudence demands a drastic reduction in fossil fuel consumption, in view of the possibility of global warming. It can be shown that, combined with greatly improved energy efficiency, a transition to a solar (renewable) energy based economy capable of sustaining the anticipated growth in the world economy, is possible, but the constraints are extremely tight. (Author)

  19. Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This report presents the environmental problems which may arise with the further development of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion, one of the eight Federally-funded solar technologies. To provide a background for this environmental analysis, the history and basic concepts of the technology are reviewed, as are its economic and resource requirements.…

  20. Spectrally selective solar energy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikkens, M.

    1981-01-01

    The performance and properties of spectrally selective materials are considered and, in particular, the selective absorption of solar radiation by free electrons is discussed, both in a homogeneous material in which these electrons are strongly scattered, and in a composite material consisting of small metal particles in a dielectric host. Such materials can be used as selective absorbers if they are deposited as a thin film onto a metal substrate, the latter providing the required low emittance. This type of selective surfaces is produced by reactive sputtering of Ni in an Ar/CH 4 gas mixture. This method can yield Ni films with a considerable carbon concentration. The carbon concentration can be varied over a wide range by adjusting the partial methane pressure. The associated experimental techniques are discussed. As the carbon concentration increases, the structure of the films changes from a Ni phase in which carbon is dissolved, via an intermediate Ni 3 C phase into an amorphous carbon phase with a high electrical resistivity in which small nickel particles are embedded. Both mechanisms of selective absorption by free electrons are observed and are found to be well described by rather simple models. The best selectivity is obtained at high carbon concentrations where the films consist of nickel particles in carbon. Depending on the film thickness and the substrate material, the solar absorptance varies between 0.78 and 0.90, while the thermal emittance varies between 0.025 and 0.04. Since the films are found to be stable at 400 0 C in vacuum, it appears that these films are good candidates for application in photothermal solar energy conversion at temperature levels around 200 0 C and higher. (Auth.)

  1. Photovoltaic solar energy: State of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Sinke, W.C.

    1993-03-01

    Attention is paid to developments in the Netherlands of all aspects of photovoltaic (PV) energy: solar cells, components, PV-systems and all kinds of applications. Efficiencies of the present solar cell types still increase, varying from more than 10% for organic/TiO 2 solar cells to 33% for GaAs/GaSb concentrator tandem solar cells. 3 figs., 2 ills., 1 tab

  2. Dye solar cells: a different approach to solar energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available An attractive and cheaper alternative to siliconbased photovoltaic (PV) cells for the conversion of solar light into electrical energy is to utilise dyeadsorbed, large-band-gap metal oxide materials such as TiO2 to absorb the solar light...

  3. A Feasibility Study for Solar Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Technical Inst., Waco. Research Div.

    Job opportunities in the field of solar energy will increase steadily in Texas during the next few years as indicated by a survey of ninety-nine businesses currently involved in the solar industry. In 1979 the industry will need 108 installers/repairman and 17 technicians, while by 1983 it will need 260 installers/repairmen and 114 technicians.…

  4. Physical Limits of Solar Energy Conversion in the Earth System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidon, Axel; Miller, Lee; Gans, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy provides by far the greatest potential for energy generation among all forms of renewable energy. Yet, just as for any form of energy conversion, it is subject to physical limits. Here we review the physical limits that determine how much energy can potentially be generated out of sunlight using a combination of thermodynamics and observed climatic variables. We first explain how the first and second law of thermodynamics constrain energy conversions and thereby the generation of renewable energy, and how this applies to the conversions of solar radiation within the Earth system. These limits are applied to the conversion of direct and diffuse solar radiation - which relates to concentrated solar power (CSP) and photovoltaic (PV) technologies as well as biomass production or any other photochemical conversion - as well as solar radiative heating, which generates atmospheric motion and thus relates to wind power technologies. When these conversion limits are applied to observed data sets of solar radiation at the land surface, it is estimated that direct concentrated solar power has a potential on land of up to 11.6 PW (1 PW=10(15) W), whereas photovoltaic power has a potential of up to 16.3 PW. Both biomass and wind power operate at much lower efficiencies, so their potentials of about 0.3 and 0.1 PW are much lower. These estimates are considerably lower than the incoming flux of solar radiation of 175 PW. When compared to a 2012 primary energy demand of 17 TW, the most direct uses of solar radiation, e.g., by CSP or PV, have thus by far the greatest potential to yield renewable energy requiring the least space to satisfy the human energy demand. Further conversions into solar-based fuels would be reduced by further losses which would lower these potentials. The substantially greater potential of solar-based renewable energy compared to other forms of renewable energy simply reflects much fewer and lower unavoidable conversion losses when solar

  5. 基于太阳能技术的西藏负能耗绿色建筑设计%Design of Green Buildings with Negative Energy Consumption in Tibet Based on Solar Energy Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉; 严李强; 董学卓; 李越华; 赵敏

    2018-01-01

    The design of green building in Tibet is based on the principle of green low -carbon, safety and health, appropriate cost, and the ingenious combination of buildings and green energy technology. With the design of Tibetan houses as the basis,it applies temperature difference-photovoltaic hybrid power generation roof, solar energy temperature difference power generation wall, photovoltaic louver,flexible film battery curtain, passive solar energy utilization technology to provide energy for the buildings in the premise of not violating the Tibetan architectural style,and then achieves energy output by the distributed generation technology. And it proposes the movable wall and removable wall to change the layout of the building, to achieve the purpose of energy saving. Furthermore, it applies the ecological technology to combine the intelligent greenhouse with the building, and adds various control modules of ecological factors in the intelligent greenhouse to realize the recycling of the material.%本着绿色低碳、安全健康、成本适当、建筑与绿色能源技术巧妙结合的原则,以藏式民居的设计为基础,在不违背藏式建筑风格的前提下,应用温差-光伏混合发电屋顶、太阳能温差发电墙、光伏百叶窗、柔性薄膜电池窗帘和被动太阳能利用技术给建筑提供能源,并用分布式发电并网技术实现能源输出.并且提出可移动墙、可拆除墙改变建筑的布局,实现建筑节能的目的.应用生态学技术将智能温室与建筑巧妙地结合,在智能温室内增加各项生态因子控制模块,实现物质循环再生.

  6. Drying and energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, A

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of essential topics related to conventional and advanced drying and energy technologies, especially motivated by increased industry and academic interest. The main topics discussed are: theory and applications of drying, emerging topics in drying technology, innovations and trends in drying, thermo-hydro-chemical-mechanical behaviors of porous materials in drying, and drying equipment and energy. Since the topics covered are inter- and multi-disciplinary, the book offers an excellent source of information for engineers, energy specialists, scientists, researchers, graduate students, and leaders of industrial companies. This book is divided into several chapters focusing on the engineering, science and technology applied in essential industrial processes used for raw materials and products.

  7. Conservation and solar energy program: congressional budget request, FY 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    Funding summaries are presented for the Conservation and Solar Energy Program funding information and program overview on energy conservation (Volume 7 of 7, DOE/CR-0011/2) are included for the Buildings and Community Systems, Industrial, Transportation; State and Local, Multi-Sector, Energy Impact Assistance, and Residential/Commercial retrofit programs. Funding information and program overviews on solar technology (Volume 2 of 7, DOE/CR-011/2) are included for Active and Passive Solar Heating and Cooling, Photovoltaics Energy Systems, Solar Thermal Power Systems, Biomass Energy Systems, Wind Energy Conversion Systems, Ocean Systems, Solar International Activities, Solar Information Systems, SERI Facility, MX-RES, Program Direction, and Alcohol Fuels programs. Information and overviews on energy production, demonstration, and distribution (Volume 6 of 7, DOE/CR-0011/2) are given for the solar program. A funding summary and a program overview are included for electrochemical and physical and chemical storage systems as appearing in DOE/CR-0011/2, Volume 3 of 7. Relevant tabulated data from the FY 1981. Request to the Congress are presented for Supplementals, Rescissions, and Deferrals. (MCW)

  8. NASA Solar Sail Propulsion Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Montgomery, Edward E.; Young, Roy; Adams, Charles

    2007-01-01

    NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program has developed the first generation of solar sail propulsion systems sufficient to accomplish inner solar system science and exploration missions. These first generation solar sails, when operational, will range in size from 40 meters to well over 100 meters in diameter and have an areal density of less than 13 grams per square meter. A rigorous, multi-year technology development effort culminated in 2005 with the testing of two different 20-m solar sail systems under thermal vacuum conditions. The first system, developed by ATK Space Systems of Goleta, California, uses rigid booms to deploy and stabilize the sail. In the second approach, L'Garde, Inc. of Tustin, California uses inflatable booms that rigidize in the coldness of space to accomplish sail deployment. This effort provided a number of significant insights into the optimal design and expected performance of solar sails as well as an understanding of the methods and costs of building and using them. In a separate effort, solar sail orbital analysis tools for mission design were developed and tested. Laboratory simulations of the effects of long-term space radiation exposure were also conducted on two candidate solar sail materials. Detailed radiation and charging environments were defined for mission trajectories outside the protection of the earth's magnetosphere, in the solar wind environment. These were used in other analytical tools to prove the adequacy of sail design features for accommodating the harsh space environment. Preceding and in conjunction with these technology efforts, NASA sponsored several mission application studies for solar sails. Potential missions include those that would be flown in the near term to study the sun and be used in space weather prediction to one that would use an evolved sail capability to support humanity's first mission into nearby interstellar space. This paper will describe the status of solar sail propulsion within

  9. Fiscal 2000 achievement report. Development of energy use rationalization-oriented silicon manufacturing process (Survey and study of analysis of commercialization of solar-grade silicon material manufacturing technology); 2000 nendo shin energy sangyo gijutsu sogo kaihatsu kiko kyodo kenkyu gyomu seika hokokusho. Energy shiyo gorika silicon seizo process kaihatsu (Taiyodenchiyou silicon genryo seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The trend of technology development, problems harbored therein, trend of the market, and the like were investigated for supporting the development of technologies for the mass production and commercialization of solar-grade silicon materials. Concerning the future of production enhancement and cost reduction in the manufacture of polycrystalline silicon solar cells, studies were made from the technological viewpoint. The results are shown below. It is estimated that approximately 4,500 tons of material silicon will be necessary in 2005 and 6,500-10,700 tons in 2010. Since the melting purification method of NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) now under development step by step toward commercialization as well as the conventional source will provide the necessary amount of material silicon, it is inferred that the development of solar cells will go on without any restraint originating in the semiconductor industry. With the commercialization of the technologies so far developed and the development/commercialization of the fast-acting high-performance solar cell technology, probabilities are high that the polycrystalline silicon solar cell manufacturing cost in 2010 will be as low as to be on the 100 yen/W (93-118 yen/W) level which is the level now held up as the goal. (NEDO)

  10. Solar energy futures in a Western European context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakicenovic, N; Messner, S

    1983-02-01

    The study considers three limiting scenarios that specify possible but not necessarily likely transitions to sustainable energy futures for Western Europe. Two scenarios consider exclusively solar futures--one based on centralized solar technologies (Hard scenario) and the other on decentralized, user-oriented technologies (Soft scenario). The third scenario, based on nuclear technologies, incorporates an intermediate degree of centralization in the energy system and serves as a comparison to the two exclusively solar scenarios. All three scenarios lead to sustainable energy futures before the year 2100, which is the time horizon of the study. While all three scenarios eliminate Western Europe's dependence on domestic and foreign fossil energy sources, the Hard Solar scenario requires substantial imports of solar produced hydrogen. The scenarios are based on dynamic balances of energy demand and supply using detailed models to achieve consistency. The overall implications of each scenario are that fundamental but different changes of the whole energy system, economic structure and life-styles are necessary in order to achieve sustainable energy futures in Western Europe.

  11. Solar energy futures in a Western European context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakicenovic, N; Messner, S

    1983-02-01

    The study considers three limiting scenarios that specify possible but not necessarily likely transitions to sustainable energy future for Western Europe. Two scenarios consider exclusively solar futures - one based on centralized solar technologies (hard scenario) and the other on decentralized, user-oriented technologies (soft scenario). The third scenario, based on nuclear technologies, incorporates an intermediate degree of centralization in the energy system and serves as a comparison to the two exclusively solar scenarios. All three scenarios lead to sustainable energy futures before the year 2100, which is the time horizon of the study. While all three scenarios eliminate Western Europe's dependence on domestic and foreign fossil energy sources, the Hard Solar scenario requires substantial imports of solar produced hydrogen. The scenarios are based on dynamic balances of energy demand and supply using detailed models to achieve consistency. The overall implications of each scenario are that fundamental but different changes of the whole energy system, economic structure and life-styles are necessary in order to achieve sustainable energy futures in Western Europe.

  12. Protocol Monitoring Passive Solar Energy. Background document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Ham, E.R.

    1998-01-01

    A method has been developed by means of which the contribution of passive solar energy to the Dutch energy balance can be quantified univocally. The monitoring will be directed at the absolute amount of used solar energy, the relative contribution of passive solar energy to the energy demand in the Netherlands, and the average efficiency of passive solar energy systems. Based on a model of the total building stock the quantities to be monitored can be determined. The most important parameters in the model are: the window surface per orientation, the average U-value (heat transfer coefficient) of windows, the average ZTA-value (incoming solar radiation factor) of windows, and the presence of sun lounges and atriums

  13. An Integrative STEM Aproach to Teaching Solar Energy Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Bill; Mona, Lynn; Stout, Heath; Bierly, Mike; McAninch, Steve

    2015-01-01

    "Against the backdrop of the daunting carbon-neutral energy needs of our global future, the largest gap between our present use of solar energy and its enormous undeveloped potential defines a compelling imperative for science and technology in the 21st century" (Lewis & Norcera 2006). Concurrently, the United States educational…

  14. Solar Decathlon 2002: Energy We Can Live With (Program Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-09-01

    This program brochure will be handed out to the teams, sponsors, and some attendees to provide a brief overview of the competition and the fourteen entries. The brochure also outlines the sponsors reasons for participating in the Solar Decathlon. The U.S. Department of Energy is proud to sponsor the first-ever Solar Decathlon, a college and university competition that brings together our nation's brightest minds to demonstrate practical ways of producing and using energy efficiently in the home. The Solar Decathlon consists of 10 contests that encompass all the ways in which we use energy in our daily lives--from livability and comfort to daily chores and home-based work to getting around town. Sunlight is the only source of energy that can be used to generate the thermal, electrical, and mechanical power needed to compete in the 10 contests. The best looking house that can produce the most energy and use that energy the most efficiently will win. Energy efficiency and solar technologies are available for the home today, and they are affordable. At the same time, the designs of these homes are attractive and livable. The Solar Decathlon will prove that investment in renewable energy and energy-efficient technologies can reduce our dependence on foreign oil, improve human health, conserve natural resources, and create markets for American products around the world.

  15. Solar heating - a major source of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosselaar, L.

    2001-01-01

    Actions that can be taken to increase the uptake of technology for solar water heaters and solar buildings are discussed. An overview of existing technology covers solar water heating, solar buildings, space heating, solar cooling, solar drying, solar desalination. Solar water heating, solar buildings and solar crop drying are discussed individually under the sub-headings of (a) the technology; (b) the market; (c) potential; (d) economics and (e) market acceleration strategies. Other subjects discussed are market acceleration, main opportunities, R and D needs and conclusions. The IEA solar heating and solar cooling programme is described

  16. Energy, technology, development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldemberg, J [Ministerio da Educacao, Brasilia (Brazil)

    1992-02-01

    Energy and technology are essential ingredients of development, it is only through their use that it became possible to sustain a population of almost 5 billion on Earth. The challenges to eradicate poverty and underdevelopment in developing countries in the face of strong population increases can only be successfully met with the use of advanced technology, leapfrogging the path followed in the past by today's industrialized countries. It is shown in the paper that energy consumption can be decoupled from economic development. Such possibility will contribute significantly in achieving sustainable development. 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Solar energy resources not accounted in Brazilian National Energy Balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Paulo Cesar da Costa [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: pinheiro@netuno.Lcc.ufmg.br, pinheiro@demec.ufmg.br

    2009-07-01

    The main development vector of a society is the energy. The solar energy is the main energy source on the planet earth. Brazil is a tropical country, and the incident solar energy on its soil (15 trillion MWh/year) is 20,000 times its annual oil production. Several uses of solar energy are part of our lives in a so natural way that it despised in the consumption and use energy balance. In Brazil, solar energy is used directly in many activities and not accounted for in Energy Balance (BEN 2007), consisting of a virtual power generation. This work aims to make a preliminary assessment of solar energy used in different segments of the Brazilian economy. (author)

  18. Energy and technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, R.B.; Bathgate, M.B.; Crawford, R.B.; McCaleb, C.S.; Prono, J.K.

    1976-05-01

    The chief objective of LLL's biomedical and environmental research program is to enlarge mankind's understanding of the implications of energy-related chemical and radioactive effluents in the biosphere. The effluents are studied at their sources, during transport through the environment, and at impact on critical resources, important ecosystems, and man himself. We are pursuing several projects to acquire such knowledge in time to guide the development of energy technologies toward safe, reasonable, and optimal choices

  19. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R.B.; Bathgate, M.B.; Crawford, R.B.; McCaleb, C.S.; Prono, J.K. (eds.)

    1976-05-01

    The chief objective of LLL's biomedical and environmental research program is to enlarge mankind's understanding of the implications of energy-related chemical and radioactive effluents in the biosphere. The effluents are studied at their sources, during transport through the environment, and at impact on critical resources, important ecosystems, and man himself. We are pursuing several projects to acquire such knowledge in time to guide the development of energy technologies toward safe, reasonable, and optimal choices.

  20. Solar Energy Educational Material, Activities and Science Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis Solar Energy Educational Materials Solar with glasses " ;The sun has produced energy for billions of years. Solar energy is the solar radiation that reaches the earth. Solar energy can be converted directly or indirectly into other forms of energy, such as

  1. Geothermal energy technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Geothermal energy research and development by the Sunshine Project is subdivided into five major categories: exploration and exploitation technology, hot-water power generation technology, volcanic power generation technology, environmental conservation and multi-use technology, and equipment materials research. The programs are being carried out by various National Research Institutes, universities, and private industry. During 1976 and 1977, studies were made of the extent of resources, reservoir structure, ground water movement, and neotectonics at the Onikobe and Hachimantai geothermal fields. Studies to be performed in the near future include the use of new prospecting methods, including artificial magnetotellurics, heat balance calculation, brightspot techniques, and remote sensing, as well as laboratory studies of the physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of rock. Studies are continuing in the areas of ore formation in geothermal environments, hot-dry-rock drilling and fracturing, large scale prospecting technology, high temperature-pressure drilling muds and well cements, and arsenic removal techniques.

  2. Investigation of Solar and Solar-Gas Thermal Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Herec; Jan Zupa

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with the investigation of solar thermal sources of electrical and heat energy as well as the investigation of hybrid solar-gas thermal sources of electrical and heat energy (so called photothermal sources). Photothermal sources presented here utilize computer-controlled injection of the conversion fluid into special capillary porous substance that is adjusted to direct temperature treatment by the concentrated thermal radiation absorption.

  3. Photovoltaic Solar Energy : From Fundamentals to Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Verlinden, P.J.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Freundlich, A.

    2016-01-01

    Solar PV is now the third most important renewable energy source, after hydro and wind power, in terms of global installed capacity. Bringing together the expertise of international PV specialists Photovoltaic Solar Energy: From Fundamentals to Applications provides a comprehensive and up-to-date

  4. Solar Energy for Space Heating & Hot Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This pamphlet reviews the direct transfer of solar energy into heat, particularly for the purpose of providing space and hot water heating needs. Owners of buildings and homes are provided with a basic understanding of solar heating and hot water systems: what they are, how they perform, the energy savings possible, and the cost factors involved.…

  5. Directed-energy process technology efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, P.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of directed-energy process technology for solar cells was presented. This technology is defined as directing energy or mass to specific areas on solar cells to produce a desired effect in contrast to exposing a cell to a thermal or mass flow environment. Some of these second generation processing techniques are: ion implantation; microwave-enhanced chemical vapor deposition; rapid thermal processing; and the use of lasers for cutting, assisting in metallization, assisting in deposition, and drive-in of liquid dopants. Advantages of directed energy techniques are: surface heating resulting in the bulk of the cell material being cooler and unchanged; better process control yields; better junction profiles, junction depths, and metal sintering; lower energy consumption during processing and smaller factory space requirements. These advantages should result in higher-efficiency cells at lower costs. The results of the numerous contracted efforts were presented as well as the application potentials of these new technologies.

  6. Solar building construction - new technologies; Solares Bauen - Neue Technologien fuer Gebaeude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luther, J.; Voss, K.; Wittwer, V. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany). Abt. ``Thermische und Optische Systeme``

    1998-02-01

    There is an increasing demand for integrated building concepts in order to reduce energy consumption. Building design, construction and heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) technology are decisive in this respect. Thus, an essentially higher energy efficiency is achieved and solar energy becomes the main energy source. An `active building envelope` assumes the task of controlling the energy flows between inside and outside. This paper reports on new components, system concepts and planning tools for solar building. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer zukuenftige Bauten werden in hohem Masse Forderungen nach integrierten Konzepten zur Begrenzung des Energieverbrauchs gestellt. Gestalt, Konstruktion und Klimatechnik sind dabei massgebliche Einflussfaktoren. Hierdurch wird eine wesentlich hoehere Energieeffizienz erzielt und Solarenergie kann die uebrigen Energiequellen zurueckdraengen. Eine `aktive Gebaeudehuelle` uebernimmt die Aufgabe, den Energiefluss zwischen Innen und Aussen zu steuern. Der Beitrag berichtet ueber neue Komponenten, Systemkonzepte und Planungswerkzeuge fuer das Solare Bauen. (orig.)

  7. High temperature solar thermal technology: The North Africa Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    High temperature solar thermal (HTST) technology offers an attractive option for both industrialized and non-industrialized countries to generate electricity and industrial process steam. The purpose of this report is to assess the potential market for solar thermal applications in the North African countries of Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. North Africa was selected because of its outstanding solar resource base and the variety of applications to be found there. Diminishing oil and gas resources, coupled with expanding energy needs, opens a large potential market for the US industry. The US high temperature solar trough industry has little competition globally and could build a large market in these areas. The US is already familiar with certain solar markets in North Africa due to the supplying of substantial quantities of US-manufactured flat plate collectors to this region.

  8. Organohalide Perovskites for Solar Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qianqian; Armin, Ardalan; Burn, Paul L; Meredith, Paul

    2016-03-15

    Lead-based organohalide perovskites have recently emerged as arguably the most promising of all next generation thin film solar cell technologies. Power conversion efficiencies have reached 20% in less than 5 years, and their application to other optoelectronic device platforms such as photodetectors and light emitting diodes is being increasingly reported. Organohalide perovskites can be solution processed or evaporated at low temperatures to form simple thin film photojunctions, thus delivering the potential for the holy grail of high efficiency, low embedded energy, and low cost photovoltaics. The initial device-driven "perovskite fever" has more recently given way to efforts to better understand how these materials work in solar cells, and deeper elucidation of their structure-property relationships. In this Account, we focus on this element of organohalide perovskite chemistry and physics in particular examining critical electro-optical, morphological, and architectural phenomena. We first examine basic crystal and chemical structure, and how this impacts important solar-cell related properties such as the optical gap. We then turn to deeper electronic phenomena such as carrier mobilities, trap densities, and recombination dynamics, as well as examining ionic and dielectric properties and how these two types of physics impact each other. The issue of whether organohalide perovskites are predominantly nonexcitonic at room temperature is currently a matter of some debate, and we summarize the evidence for what appears to be the emerging field consensus: an exciton binding energy of order 10 meV. Having discussed the important basic chemistry and physics we turn to more device-related considerations including processing, morphology, architecture, thin film electro-optics and interfacial energetics. These phenomena directly impact solar cell performance parameters such as open circuit voltage, short circuit current density, internal and external quantum efficiency

  9. Feasibility study. Solar energy in Norway; Mulighetsstudie. Solenergi i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Una; Bernhard, Peter; Salvesen, Fritjof; Bugge, Lars; Andresen, Inger; Simonsen, Ingeborg

    2011-07-01

    On behalf of Enova KanEnergi and SINTEF summarized the results of the project 'Feasibility study. Solar energy' in a report. The purpose of this report is to outline an overview of the potential for solar energy in Norway to be realized until 2020. This is a survey of the status of technology and associated costs related to energy production, as well as a description of the market conditions. This report is a contribution to Enova's ongoing strategy and development. (eb)

  10. Potency of Solar Energy Applications in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Handayani, Noer Abyor; Ariyanti, Dessy

    2012-01-01

    Currently, 80% of conventional energy is used to fulfill general public's needs andindustries. The depletion of oil and gas reserves and rapid growth in conventional energyconsumption have continuously forced us to discover renewable energy sources, like solar, wind,biomass, and hydropower, to support economic development in the future. Solar energy travels at aspeed of 186,000 miles per second. Only a small part of the radiant energy that the sun emits intospace ever reaches the Earth, but t...

  11. Solar energy grid integration systems : final report of the Florida Solar Energy Center Team.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropp, Michael (Northern Plains Power Technologies, Brookings, SD); Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Schaffer, Alan (Lakeland Electric Utilities, Lakeland, FL); Katz, Stanley (Satcon Technology Corporation, Boston, MA); Perkinson, Jim (Satcon Technology Corporation, Boston, MA); Bower, Ward Isaac; Prestero, Mark (Satcon Technology Corporation, Boston, MA); Casey, Leo (Satcon Technology Corporation, Boston, MA); Moaveni, Houtan (Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL); Click, David (Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL); Davis, Kristopher (Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL); Reedy, Robert (Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL); Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2012-03-01

    Initiated in 2008, the Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) program is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the program have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding utility-scale penetration and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the electric grid. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), its partners, and Sandia National Laboratories have successfully collaborated to complete the work under the third and final stage of the SEGIS initiative. The SEGIS program was a three-year, three-stage project that include conceptual design and market analysis in Stage 1, prototype development and testing in Stage 2, and moving toward commercialization in Stage 3. Under this program, the FSEC SEGIS team developed a comprehensive vision that has guided technology development that sets one methodology for merging photovoltaic (PV) and smart-grid technologies. The FSEC team's objective in the SEGIS project is to remove barriers to large-scale general integration of PV and to enhance the value proposition of photovoltaic energy by enabling PV to act as much as possible as if it were at the very least equivalent to a conventional utility power plant. It was immediately apparent that the advanced power electronics of these advanced inverters will go far beyond conventional power plants, making high penetrations of PV not just acceptable, but desirable. This report summarizes a three-year effort to develop, validate and commercialize Grid-Smart Inverters for wider photovoltaic utilization, particularly in the utility sector.

  12. The technical use of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahne, E.

    1993-01-01

    For all considerations on energy, information on energy-quantity and energy-value is necessary. Such information is presented for Germany as an example for an industrialized country. The application of solar heat for an Institute building is presented for a pilot project at the University Stuttgart. With unglazed solar collectors, a flooded pebble-bed store and a heat pump, about 60% of the Institute's heat demand can be supplied by solar energy. With the experience gained from this project, large district heating systems are designed for two different locations in Germany under differing conditions. For solar assisted house heating and domestic hot water, heat costs are obtained which are about twice the present heat cost in Germany. If solar energy assists domestic hot water production and house heating, costs can be achieved which are below present conventional heat cost. In addition, it will also reduce air pollution. (author). 9 figs., 6 tabs

  13. Shedding light on solar technologies-A techno-economic assessment and its policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Michael; Schmidt, Tobias S.; Wiederkehr, David; Schneider, Malte

    2011-01-01

    Solar power technologies will have to become a major pillar in the world's future energy system to combat climate change and resource depletion. However, it is unclear which solar technology is and will prove most viable. Therefore, a comprehensive comparative assessment of solar technologies along the key quantitative and qualitative competitiveness criteria is needed. Based on a literature review and detailed techno-economic modeling for 2010 and 2020 in five locations, we provide such an assessment for the three currently leading large-scale solar technologies. We show that today these technologies cannot yet compete with conventional forms of power generation but approach competitiveness around 2020 in favorable locations. Furthermore, from a global perspective we find that none of the solar technologies emerges as a clear winner and that cost of storing energy differs by technology and can change the order of competitiveness in some instances. Importantly, the competitiveness of the different technologies varies considerably across locations due to differences in, e.g., solar resource and discount rates. Based on this analysis, we discuss policy implications with regard to fostering the diffusion of solar technologies while increasing the efficiency of policy support through an adequate geographical allocation of solar technologies. - Highlights: → We conduct a comprehensive comparative assessment of solar technologies (CSP/PV). → While solar technologies approach competitiveness in 2020, no clear winner emerges. → Solar resource and discount rate heavily impact competitiveness of solar technologies. → Adequate geographical allocation of solar technologies increases policy efficiency. → Focus on key cost down levers and strategic co-benefits of solar technologies needed.

  14. Triplet-triplet annihilation photon-upconversion: towards solar energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Victor; Dzebo, Damir; Abrahamsson, Maria; Albinsson, Bo; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper

    2014-06-14

    Solar power production and solar energy storage are important research areas for development of technologies that can facilitate a transition to a future society independent of fossil fuel based energy sources. Devices for direct conversion of solar photons suffer from poor efficiencies due to spectrum losses, which are caused by energy mismatch between the optical absorption of the devices and the broadband irradiation provided by the sun. In this context, photon-upconversion technologies are becoming increasingly interesting since they might offer an efficient way of converting low energy solar energy photons into higher energy photons, ideal for solar power production and solar energy storage. This perspective discusses recent progress in triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) photon-upconversion systems and devices for solar energy applications. Furthermore, challenges with evaluation of the efficiency of TTA-photon-upconversion systems are discussed and a general approach for evaluation and comparison of existing systems is suggested.

  15. Status of Solar Sail Technology Within NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Young, Roy; Montgomery, Edward; Alhorn, Dean

    2010-01-01

    In the early 2000s, NASA made substantial progress in the development of solar sail propulsion systems for use in robotic science and exploration of the solar system. Two different 20-m solar sail systems were produced and they successfully completed functional vacuum testing in NASA Glenn Research Center's (GRC's) Space Power Facility at Plum Brook Station, Ohio. The sails were designed and developed by ATK Space Systems and L Garde, respectively. The sail systems consist of a central structure with four deployable booms that support the sails. These sail designs are robust enough for deployment in a one-atmosphere, one-gravity environment and were scalable to much larger solar sails perhaps as large as 150 m on a side. Computation modeling and analytical simulations were also performed to assess the scalability of the technology to the large sizes required to implement the first generation of missions using solar sails. Life and space environmental effects testing of sail and component materials were also conducted. NASA terminated funding for solar sails and other advanced space propulsion technologies shortly after these ground demonstrations were completed. In order to capitalize on the $30M investment made in solar sail technology to that point, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) funded the NanoSail-D, a subscale solar sail system designed for possible small spacecraft applications. The NanoSail-D mission flew on board the ill-fated Falcon-1 Rocket launched August 2, 2008, and due to the failure of that rocket, never achieved orbit. The NanoSail-D flight spare will be flown in the Fall of 2010. This paper will summarize NASA's investment in solar sail technology to-date and discuss future opportunities

  16. Status of solar sail technology within NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Young, Roy; Montgomery, Edward; Alhorn, Dean

    2011-12-01

    In the early 2000s, NASA made substantial progress in the development of solar sail propulsion systems for use in robotic science and exploration of the solar system. Two different 20-m solar sail systems were produced. NASA has successfully completed functional vacuum testing in their Glenn Research Center's Space Power Facility at Plum Brook Station, Ohio. The sails were designed and developed by Alliant Techsystems Space Systems and L'Garde, respectively. The sail systems consist of a central structure with four deployable booms that support each sail. These sail designs are robust enough for deployment in a one-atmosphere, one-gravity environment and are scalable to much larger solar sails - perhaps as large as 150 m on a side. Computation modeling and analytical simulations were performed in order to assess the scalability of the technology to the larger sizes that are required to implement the first generation of missions using solar sails. Furthermore, life and space environmental effects testing of sail and component materials was also conducted.NASA terminated funding for solar sails and other advanced space propulsion technologies shortly after these ground demonstrations were completed. In order to capitalize on the $30 M investment made in solar sail technology to that point, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center funded the NanoSail-D, a subscale solar sail system designed for possible small spacecraft applications. The NanoSail-D mission flew on board a Falcon-1 rocket, launched August 2, 2008. As a result of the failure of that rocket, the NanoSail-D was never successfully given the opportunity to achieve orbit. The NanoSail-D flight spare was flown in the Fall of 2010. This review paper summarizes NASA's investment in solar sail technology to date and discusses future opportunities.

  17. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for chemistry and physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Information on renewable energy sources is provided for students in this teachers' guide. With the chemistry and physics student in mind, solar energy topics such as absorber plate coatings for solar collectors and energy collection and storage methods are studied. (BCS)

  18. Nuclear energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buden, David

    1992-01-01

    An overview of space nuclear energy technologies is presented. The development and characteristics of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) and space nuclear power reactors are discussed. In addition, the policy and issues related to public safety and the use of nuclear power sources in space are addressed.

  19. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory publishes the Energy and Technology Review Monthly. This periodical reviews progress mode is selected programs at the laboratory. This issue includes articles on in-situ coal gasification, on chromosomal aberrations in human sperm, on high speed cell sorting and on supercomputers.

  20. Energy and technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, R.B.; McCleb, C.S.; Prono, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    Brief discussions of research progress on the following topics are given: (1) lasers and laser applications, (2) advanced energy systems, (3) science and technology, and (4) national security. Some experiments on the in-flight laser irradiation of ammonia pellets are discussed