WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology review november-december

  1. Energy & technology review, November--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, W.J.; Canada, J.; de Vore, L.; Gleason, K.; Kirvel, R.D.; Kroopnick, H.; McElroy, L. [eds.

    1993-11-01

    For the 40-plus years of the Cold War, both the United States and the Soviet Union built up nuclear stockpiles of tens of thousands of weapons. Now, as the Cold War has ended and tensions between the superpowers have subsided, the US faces the task of significantly reducing its nuclear arsenal. Many thousands of nuclear weapons are being removed from the stockpile as a result of recent treaties and unilateral decisions. This issue of Energy and Technology Review describes the Laboratory`s role in the nation`s effort to dismantle these weapons safely and rapidly. The dismantlement of the United States` nuclear weapons takes place at the Department of Energy`s Pantex facility near Amarillo, Texas. The first article in this issue summarizes the Laboratory`s involvement in dismantling Livermore-designed nuclear weapons. LLNL (like Los Alamos) has responsibility for the weapons it designed, from design concept to retirement. In the past, the responsibilities ended when the weapon was retired from the stockpile. Now however, the role has been extended to include dismantlement. The second article reports on an incident that occurred in November 1992, in which the pit of a W48 warhead cracked during dismantlement. The Laboratory was called upon to handle the pit safely and determine the causes of the cracking. The third article explores a variety of methods proposed for reusing the high explosives after they are removed from the weapon. In the past, Laboratory work on nuclear weapons focused primarily on design and development. However, as the size and composition of the US stockpile changes with evolving international conditions, they will be called upon with increasing frequency to provide the scientific and technical expertise needed to dismantle the nation`s retired nuclear weapons safely and efficiently.

  2. Science & Technology Review November/December 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bearinger, J P

    2008-10-07

    This months issue has the following articles: (1) Innovation Is Key to Prosperity and Security --Commentary by Erik J. Stenehjem; (2) Taking Ultrafast Snapshots of Material Changes--The dynamic transmission electron microscope captures images a million times faster than conventional instruments; (3) Automated Technology for Laser Fusion Systems--The first completely computer-controlled system for aligning laser beams is helping make fusion research possible; (4) Protecting the Nation through Secure Cargo--A new device tracks and monitors cargo containers during transit to improve national security; (5) Atom by Atom, Layer by Layer--Extremely thin sandwiches of materials called nanolaminates exhibit remarkable, highly useful properties; and (6) Predicting the Bizarre Properties of Plutonium--A supercomputing 'grand challenge' team has made highly precise predictions of the behavior of plutonium's most important solid phase.

  3. Peer Review of the Radioactive Waste Management Activities of COVRA, Netherlands, November-December 2009, Borssele, Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the management of radioactive waste is entrusted to the Centrale Organisatie Voor Radioactief Afval (COVRA), a State owned organization. COVRA is responsible for the predisposal management of all types of radioactive waste, as well as the siting and design of the planned deep geological disposal facility. As COVRA is a vital entity in the management of radioactive waste, an understanding was reached in the country on the necessity of a peer review of COVRA activities in an effort to improve public confidence and acceptability for the management of radioactive waste in the Netherlands. Against this backdrop, the Government of the Netherlands, through the Inspectorate of the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (the Ministry), requested the IAEA to conduct a peer review of the activities of COVRA. Accordingly, on the basis of its statutory mandate to establish safety standards and to provide for their application, the IAEA organized an independent peer review team and performed an extensive review of the waste management activities performed by COVRA. All the waste management activities of COVRA, in particular those relating to the predisposal management of radioactive waste and the planning of geological disposal in accordance with national policy, were evaluated against the relevant IAEA safety standards. Peer reviews are increasingly being acknowledged as an important component in building broader stakeholder confidence in the safety of facilities. The coming into force of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management has also focused attention on the demonstration of the safety of waste management facilities. This report presents the consensus view of the international group of experts convened by the IAEA to carry out the peer review. It will be of interest to organizations responsible for the development and operation of facilities for the disposal of

  4. Energy Matters, November/December 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericksen. E.; Sosa-Mallory, M.

    1999-12-01

    Energy Matters is an Office of Industrial Technologies bimonthly publication on energy efficiency opportunities. This issue's focus is on the future of industrial energy efficiency. The issue also contains articles on seven companies that are to receive cost-shared funding for plant-wide, energy efficiency assessments; submitting proposals to assess energy flow and steam system opportunities; partnering to save energy and money; and root cause failure analysis on AC induction motors. Also a special feature by Don Casada ''Lights that Shine Forever.''

  5. Safety Training: places available in November - December 2013

    CERN Multimedia

    Isabelle CUSATO, HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    There are places available in the forthcoming Safety courses. For updates and registrations, please refer to the Safety Training Catalogue (see here).   November - December 2013 (alphabetical order) Conduite de chariots élévateurs (Driving of forklifts) 04-NOV-13 to 05-NOV-13, 8.30 – 17.30, in French with handouts in English Conduite de plates-formes élévatrices mobiles de personnel (PEMP) (Driving of cherry-pickers) 09-DEC-13 to 10-DEC-13, 8.30 – 17.30, in French with handouts in English Habilitation électrique personnel électricien basse tension (Electrical habilitation for electricians in low voltage) 30-OCT-13 to 01-NOV-13, 9.00 – 17.30, in English 04-NOV-13 to 06-NOV-13, 9.00 – 17.30, in English Habilitation électrique personnel électricien basse et haute tensions (Electrical habilitation for electricians in low and high voltage) 16-DEC-13 to 19-DEC-13, 9.00 &...

  6. Safety Training: places available in November - December 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Isabelle CUSATO, HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    There are places available in the forthcoming Safety courses. For updates and registrations, please refer to the Safety Training Catalogue (see here).   November - December 2013 (alphabetical order) Conduite de chariots élévateurs (Driving of forklifts) 04-NOV-13 to 05-NOV-13, 8.30 – 17.30, in French with handouts in English Conduite de plates-formes élévatrices mobiles de personnel (PEMP) (Driving of cherry-pickers) 09-DEC-13 to 10-DEC-13, 8.30 – 17.30, in French with handouts in English Habilitation électrique personnel électricien basse tension (Electrical habilitation for electricians in low voltage) 30-OCT-13 to 01-NOV-13, 9.00 – 17.30, in English 04-NOV-13 to 06-NOV-13, 9.00 – 17.30, in English Habilitation électrique personnel électricien basse et haute tensions (Electrical habilitation for electricians in low and high voltage) 16-DEC-13 to 19-DEC-13, 9.00 &am...

  7. Safety Training - places available in November - December 2012

    CERN Multimedia

    Isabelle CUSATO, HSE Unit

    2012-01-01

    There are places available in the forthcoming Safety courses. For updates and registrations, please refer to the Safety Training Catalogue.   November - December 2012 (alphabetical order) Conduite de chariots élévateurs (Driving of Forklifts) 08-NOV-12 to 09-NOV-12, 8.30 – 17.30, in French 22-NOV-12 to 23-NOV-12, 8.30 – 17.30, in French 10-DEC-12 to 11-DEC-12, 8.30 – 17.30, in French With the possibility to have the handouts in English Conduite de plates-formes élévatrices mobiles de personnel (PEMP) (Driving of Cherry-pickers) 05-NOV-12 to 06-NOV-12, 8.30 – 17.30, in French 19-NOV-12 to 20-NOV-12, 8.30 – 17.30, in French With the possibility to have the handouts in English Echafaudages - Réception, conformité (Scaffolding – Reception and conformity) 20-NOV-12 to 21-NOV-12, 9.00 – 17.30, in French (outside CERN, Bourg-en-Bresse) First-Aiders – bas...

  8. Military Review. Volume 86, Number 6, November-December 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Centroamérica: de las guerras civiles a la ultraviolencia callejera,” La Hora (Guate- mala City), 30 March 2005, <sww.lahora.com.gt/05/03/30/paginas...Batos Locos (the crazy Boys) in Guatemala; La Mau Mau (derived from the name of rebels in Kenya and a new York gang in the 1950s) and La Maquina (the...machine) in el Salvador; La Mau Mau, Los Batos Locos, and Los Rockeros (the rockers) in Honduras; and the Gerber Boys and Los Charly in nicaragua.5

  9. Military Review. Volume 88, Number 6, November-December 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    in the 1920s, the father of psycho- analysis, sigmund Freud , turned that notion on its head through his studies of group psychology. Freud argued...Confident and Agile (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2006), 8-6. 6. Sigmund Freud , Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego (New

  10. Military Review. Volume 87, Number 6, November-December 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    placidia, weds the Gothic leader and Visigoths are made Roman in aquitaine.1 Nine centuries later. a wholly extravagant man, Roger de Flor, seals a...2-2. 7. l. r. Gay , Educational Research: Competencies for Analysis and Application, 5th ed. (Upper Saddle river, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996), 627. 8

  11. ELEC-2005 - Electronics in High Energy Physics: Autumn Term (November-December 2005)

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè

    2005-01-01

    ELEC-2005 is a new course series on modern electronics, given by CERN physicists and engineers within the framework of the 2005 Technical Training Programme, in an extended format of the ELEC-2002 course series. This new, comprehensive course series is designed for people who are not electronics specialists, for example physicists, engineers and technicians working at or visiting the laboratory, who use or will use electronics in their present or future activities, in particular in the context of the LHC accelerator and experiments. ELEC-2005 is composed of four Terms. The Winter (Introduction to electronics in HEP), Spring (Integrated circuits and VLSI technology for physics), and Summer (System electronics for physics: Issues) Terms already took place. The Autumn Term - Electronics applications in HEP experiments (November-December, 10 lectures) is still open for registration, and has started on November 8th with the following programme: Tuesday 8.11 - Tracking (Geoff Hall). Thursday 10.11 - Calorimetr...

  12. Army Logistician. Volume 38, Issue 6, November-December 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Department of Defense’s (DOD’s) Shown at left is a polymer/ single- walled carbon nanotube composite. Carbon nanotubes are stronger than steel but...operations. Nanoscale technology will permit the creation of materials with structurally superior shear strength, ten- sile strength, and compression...resolution of at least 300 dpi (.jpg or .tif). Photo prints may be submitted by mail. Please try to minimize use of PowerPoint charts; they usually

  13. Defense AT&L. Volume 43, Number 6, November-December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    relationships should also be carefully reviewed and periodically revisited. This logic can be flawed and change over time as we learn more and bet...and limits test for failure (the search for critical flaws ). These factors place early pressure on developers to main- tain schedule commitments...the art technologies — Microprocessors — Component miniaturization — Biometrics , solar energy — Fuel cells — Thin film membrane structures

  14. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 27, Number 6, November-December 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    the tallest mountain overlooking the valley. This new device supplied cell-phone-like connectivity to each Soldier throughout the area of operations...127 Gregory J. W. Urwin Reviewer: Lt Col Katherine A. Strus, USAF Near Miss: The Army Air Forces’ Guided Bomb Program in World War II...will occur in the early phases of exploitation and extraction. The Passages across the Top of the World The High North also holds the promise of a

  15. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Peoples of Asia and Africa, No. 6, November-December 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-07

    interest rates and changes in taxation ; and, "institu- tional" reforms, including review of the activity of state enterprises. The substance of the...34Within the framework of this credit, the Bank was insisting on an increase in taxation and the introduction of the principle of reimbursing spending...Orient over the West 6 197 Parnikel B.B. Who Taught the Malaysians Navigation? (The Problem of a Scientific Weltanschauung) ... 5 206 Lists of Works

  16. Loglines. November - December 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    AM My Na me is : Kevin G leaton I am: A progr am ana lyst fo r Defen se Log istics Agency Troop Support in the Continuo us Proce ss Improv ement...better serve our customers and support the secretary of defense’s cost savings and funding realignment initiatives. Improve DLA’s functional...price reductions of as much as 10 percent in selected material categories. Improve detection, deterrence and disposition of non-conforming/counterfeit

  17. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Space Biology & Aerospace Medicine, Vol. 21, No. 6, November-December 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-11

    of isolated caryopses and embryos of rice ( Oryza sativa ). Investigation of the dynamics of 30-day germination of caryopses in flight and control...criteria for assessment of the biological effect: shells broken (%), amount hatched and live nauplii on the 4th day after start of hatching to sexual...biostack. The genetic effect was assessed by counting the incidence of somatic variations in the first two leaves normally formed from primordia on

  18. Sscience & technology review; Science Technology Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This review is published ten times a year to communicate, to a broad audience, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s scientific and technological accomplishments, particularly in the Laboratory`s core mission areas - global security, energy and the environment, and bioscience and biotechnology. This review for the month of July 1996 discusses: Frontiers of research in advanced computations, The multibeam Fabry-Perot velocimeter: Efficient measurement of high velocities, High-tech tools for the American textile industry, and Rock mechanics: can the Tuff take the stress.

  19. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory publishes the Energy and Technology Review Monthly. This periodical reviews progress mode is selected programs at the laboratory. This issue includes articles on in-situ coal gasification, on chromosomal aberrations in human sperm, on high speed cell sorting and on supercomputers.

  20. Energy and technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory publishes the Energy and Technology Review Monthly. This periodical reviews progress mode is selected programs at the laboratory. This issue includes articles on in-situ coal gasification, on chromosomal aberrations in human sperm, on high speed cell sorting and on supercomputers

  1. Energy and technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirk, W.J.; Bookless, W.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the United States Department of Energy, was established in 1952 to do research on nuclear weapons and magnetic fusion energy. Since then, in response to new national needs, we have added other major programs, including technology transfer, laser science (fusion, isotope separation, materials processing), biology and biotechnology, environmental research and remediation, arms control and nonproliferation, advanced defense technology, and applied energy technology. These programs, in turn, require research in basic scientific disciplines, including chemistry and materials science, computing science and technology, engineering, and physics. The Laboratory also carries out a variety of projects for other federal agencies. Energy and Technology Review is published monthly to report on unclassified work in all our programs. This issue reviews work performed in the areas of modified retoring for waste treatment and underground stripping to remove contamination

  2. Science & technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This document is the August, 1995 issue of the Science and Technology review, a Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory publication. It contains two major articles, one on Scanning Tunneling Microscopy - as applied to materials engineering studies, and one on risk assessment, in this case looking primarily at a health care problem. Separate articles will be indexed from this journal to the energy database.

  3. Supercapacitors specialities - Technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Münchgesang, Wolfram; Meisner, Patrick; Yushin, Gleb

    2014-01-01

    Commercial electrochemical capacitors (supercapacitors) are not limited to mobile electronics anymore, but have reached the field of large-scale applications, like smart grid, wind turbines, power for large scale ground, water and aerial transportation, energy-efficient industrial equipment and others. This review gives a short overview of the current state-of-the-art of electrochemical capacitors, their commercial applications and the impact of technological development on performance

  4. Energy and technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.S.

    1983-06-01

    Research activities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are described in the Energy and Technology Review. This issue includes articles on measuring chromosome changes in people exposed to cigarette smoke, sloshing-ion experiments in the tandem mirror experiment, aluminum-air battery development, and a speech by Edward Teller on national defense. Abstracts of the first three have been prepared separately for the data base

  5. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, P.S. (ed.)

    1983-06-01

    Research activities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are described in the Energy and Technology Review. This issue includes articles on measuring chromosome changes in people exposed to cigarette smoke, sloshing-ion experiments in the tandem mirror experiment, aluminum-air battery development, and a speech by Edward Teller on national defense. Abstracts of the first three have been prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  6. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-10-01

    Three review articles are presented. The first describes the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory role in the research and development of oil-shale retorting technology through its studies of the relevant chemical and physical processes, mathematical models, and new retorting concepts. Second is a discussion of investigation of properties of dense molecular fluids at high pressures and temperatures to improve understanding of high-explosive behavior, giant-planet structure, and hydrodynamic shock interactions. Third, by totally computerizing the triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer system, the laboratory has produced a general-purpose instrument of unrivaled speed, selectivity, and adaptability for the analysis and identification of trace organic constituents in complex chemical mixtures. (GHT)

  7. Energy and technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    Three review articles are presented. The first describes the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory role in the research and development of oil-shale retorting technology through its studies of the relevant chemical and physical processes, mathematical models, and new retorting concepts. Second is a discussion of investigation of properties of dense molecular fluids at high pressures and temperatures to improve understanding of high-explosive behavior, giant-planet structure, and hydrodynamic shock interactions. Third, by totally computerizing the triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer system, the laboratory has produced a general-purpose instrument of unrivaled speed, selectivity, and adaptability for the analysis and identification of trace organic constituents in complex chemical mixtures

  8. Sscience ampersand technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This monthly science and technology review features a report about Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory work on an awesome, inevitable, unpredictable, and potentially dangerous natural phenomenon, lightning. This feature article tells of the development of guidance by Laboratory engineers on how to deal with the effects of lightning on Department of Energy facilities, especially those where nuclear and high explosive materials are handled and stored. Other topics are Groundwater Modeling: More Cost Effective Cleanup by Design, Dual- Band Infrared Computed Tomography: Searching for Hidden Defects, and Plating Shop Moves to Finish Off Waste

  9. Loglines. November-December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    sometimes priced several hundred percent higher. Now, strawberries cost $30 a case under the prime vendor, when before they might have cost $200...fact, much of DLA’s business in Afghanistan originates at DLA Europe & Africa, which is headquartered in Mine Resistant Ambush Protected vehicles...Schuylkill Arsenal, which was originally built as a U.S. Navy powder magazine on Gray’s Ferry Road in the southwest corner of Northwest at a cost of

  10. Earthquakes, November-December 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    Two major earthquakes occurred in the last 2 months of the year. A magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck San Juan Province, Argentina, on November 23, causing fatalities and damage. The second major earthquake was a magnitude 7.0 in the Bonin Islands region, an unpopulated area. On December 19, Iran experienced a destructive earthquake, which killed over 500.

  11. Loglines. November-December 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    excess material doesn’t equate to junk , but simply to material that isn’t needed very often or that is beyond the levels demanded by military...material costs; because we are a huge buyer of material. All those supply chains – food , fuel, medicine, repair parts, construction equipment...distribution of food and fuel. So looking to the future, I would expect to see DLA’s mission to expand even further. I don’t know what it’s going to look

  12. Nuclear technology review 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-08-01

    The unifying theme of the Nuclear Technology Review 2002 (NTR-2002) is the importance of innovation. Innovation makes it possible to step beyond incremental evolutionary improvements constrained by diminishing returns. For crop production and public health, for example, the sterile insect technique created a whole new path for future improvements, distinctly different from applying ever larger amounts of pesticides. Nuclear techniques offer a new and safer approach to removing the world's estimated 60,000,000 abandoned land mines. New precision techniques create the potential for ever less intrusive and more effective radiation treatments for cancer. For nuclear power continuing innovation will be a key factor in closing the projection gap between long term global energy scenarios in which nuclear power expands substantially and near term scenarios with only modest expansion or even decline. While the NTR-2002 presents a worldwide review of the state-of-the-art of nuclear science and technology, and not an annual report on IAEA activities, it notes areas where the Agency has a particularly important role to play. Part I of the NTR-2002 'Fundamentals of Nuclear Development', reviews developments in the field of nuclear, atomic and molecular data. Research reactors remain essential to progress in nuclear science and technology. Part I reviews advances in radioisotope production, the use of accelerators and neutron activation analysis relevant to applications ranging from medicine particularly the light against cancer to industry. Part I also reviews developments in nuclear instrumentation and nuclear fusion, particularly in connection with the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. Part II begins with a summary of nuclear power production in 2001. At the end of 2001 there were 438 nuclear power plants (NPPs) in operation, corresponding to a total capacity of 353 GW(e), more than 10000 reactor-years of cumulative operating experience and about 16% of global

  13. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poggio, A.J. (ed.)

    1988-10-01

    This issue of Energy and Technology Review contains: Neutron Penumbral Imaging of Laser-Fusion Targets--using our new penumbral-imaging diagnostic, we have obtained the first images that can be used to measure directly the deuterium-tritium burn region in laser-driven fusion targets; Computed Tomography for Nondestructive Evaluation--various computed tomography systems and computational techniques are used in nondestructive evaluation; Three-Dimensional Image Analysis for Studying Nuclear Chromatin Structure--we have developed an optic-electronic system for acquiring cross-sectional views of cell nuclei, and computer codes to analyze these images and reconstruct the three-dimensional structures they represent; Imaging in the Nuclear Test Program--advanced techniques produce images of unprecedented detail and resolution from Nevada Test Site data; and Computational X-Ray Holography--visible-light experiments and numerically simulated holograms test our ideas about an x-ray microscope for biological research.

  14. Nuclear technology review 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-08-01

    (e) unit in Germany and one 148 MW(e) unit in Japan. Current expansion and growth prospects are centred in Asia. Eighteen of the 31 reactors under construction at the end of 2003 are located in China, India, Japan, the Republic of Korea and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Twenty-one of the last 30 reactors to have been connected to the grid are in the Far East and South Asia. This years review also summarises the activities of the International Project On Innovative Nuclear Reactors And Fuel Cycles (INPRO), application of nuclear technology in environmental protection, water resources development, particularly desalination reactors, agriculture and human health

  15. Biodiesel production technologies: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shemelis Nigatu Gebremariam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a fuel with various benefits over the conventional diesel fuel. It is derived from renewable resources, it has less emission to environment, it is biodegradable so has very limited toxicity and above all its production can be decentralized so that it could have a potential in helping rural economies. However, there are also some worth mentioning challenges associated with production of biodiesel. Among them repeatedly mentioned are the cost of feedstock and the choice of convenient technology for efficient production of the fuel from diverse feedstock types. There are four main routes by which raw vegetable oil and/or animal fat can be made suitable for use as substituent fuel in diesel engines without modification. These are direct use or blending of oils, micro-emulsion, thermal cracking or pyrolysis and transesterification reaction. Due to the quality of the fuel produced, the transesterification method is the most preferred way to produce biodiesel from diverse feedstock types. Through this method, oils and fats (triglycerides are converted to their alkyl esters with reduced viscosity to near diesel fuel levels. There are different techniques to carry out transesterification reaction for biodiesel production. Each technique has its own advantages and disadvantages as well as its own specifically convenient feedstock character. There are also some very important reaction conditions to be given due attention in each of this techniques for efficient production of biodiesel, such as molar ratio of alcohol to oil, type and amount of catalyst, reaction temperature, reaction time, reaction medium, type and relative amount of solvents, among others. This review is meant to investigate the main transesterification techniques for biodiesel production in terms of their choice of feedstock character as well as their determinately required reaction conditions for efficient biodiesel production, so that to give an overview on their advantages

  16. Systematic review automation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects. We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time. PMID:25005128

  17. Rehabilitation Technology Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatherleigh Co., Ltd., New York, NY.

    Designed as a special continuing education program for rehabilitation professionals, this document is divided into five lessons. Lesson 1, "Technology Assessment: Determining the Needs" (Ricardo G. Cerna), includes discussion on technology assessment and determining the needs of the clients as well as different types of assistive…

  18. Science & Technology Review September 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duoss, Eric B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kotta, Paul R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meissner, Caryn N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chinn, Ken [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-16

    This is the September 2017 edition of the LLNL, Science and Technology Review. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we focus on science and technology research to ensure our nation’s security. We also apply that expertise to solve other important national problems in energy, bioscience, and the environment. Science & Technology Review is published eight times a year to communicate, to a broad audience, the Laboratory’s scientific and technological accomplishments in fulfilling its primary missions. The publication’s goal is to help readers understand these accomplishments and appreciate their value to the individual citizen, the nation, and the world.

  19. Energy and technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    Research is described in three areas, high-technology design of unconventional, nonnuclear weapons, a model for analyzing special nuclear materials safeguards decisions, and a nuclear weapons accident exercise (NUWAX-81)

  20. Nuclear Technology Review 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-08-01

    The year 2006 saw increasing activities in the field of nuclear power. Significant plans for expansion were announced in some countries and plans for introducing nuclear power in some others. The year began with announcements by both the Russian Federation and the United States of America of international fuel cycle proposals in anticipation of a substantial expansion of nuclear power worldwide. In January, Russian President Vladimir Putin outlined a proposal to create 'a system of international centres providing nuclear fuel cycle services, including enrichment, on a non-discriminatory basis and under the control of the IAEA'. In February, the USA proposed a Global Nuclear Energy Partnership to develop advanced recycling technologies that would not separate pure plutonium; international collaboration in supplying fuel for States which agree not to pursue enrichment and reprocessing; advanced reactors to consume recycled spent fuel while providing energy; and safe and secure small reactors suited to the needs of developing countries. New medium-term projections by the IAEA and the International Energy Agency present a picture with opportunities for substantial nuclear expansion, but still with notable uncertainty. A number of countries have announced plans for significant expansion: China, India, Japan, Pakistan, the Russian Federation and the Republic of Korea. Announcements of planned license applications by US companies and consortia mentioned approximately 25 new reactors. Two site preparation applications were submitted in Canada. A major energy review by the United Kingdom concluded that new nuclear power stations would make a significant contribution to meeting the UK's energy policy goals. Utilities from Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia launched a joint feasibility study of a new nuclear power plant to serve all three countries, and Belarus, Egypt, Indonesia, Nigeria and Turkey made announcements of steps they are taking toward their first nuclear power plants

  1. Energy and technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stowers, I.F.; Crawford, R.B.; Esser, M.A.; Lien, P.L.; O'Neal, E.; Van Dyke, P.

    1982-07-01

    The state of the laboratory address by LLNL Director Roger Batzel is summarized, and a breakdown of the laboratory funding is given. The Livermore defense-related committment is described, including the design and development of advanced nuclear weapons as well as research in inertial confinement fusion, nonnuclear ordnance, and particle beam technology. LLNL is also applying its scientific and engineering resources to the dual challenge of meeting future energy needs without degrading the quality of the biosphere. Some representative examples are given of the supporting groups vital for providing the specialized expertise and new technologies required by the laboratory's major research programs

  2. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowers, I.F.; Crawford, R.B.; Esser, M.A.; Lien, P.L.; O' Neal, E.; Van Dyke, P. (eds.)

    1982-07-01

    The state of the laboratory address by LLNL Director Roger Batzel is summarized, and a breakdown of the laboratory funding is given. The Livermore defense-related committment is described, including the design and development of advanced nuclear weapons as well as research in inertial confinement fusion, nonnuclear ordnance, and particle beam technology. LLNL is also applying its scientific and engineering resources to the dual challenge of meeting future energy needs without degrading the quality of the biosphere. Some representative examples are given of the supporting groups vital for providing the specialized expertise and new technologies required by the laboratory's major research programs. (GHT)

  3. Energy and technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, R.B.; McCleb, C.S.; Prono, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    Brief discussions of research progress on the following topics are given: (1) lasers and laser applications, (2) advanced energy systems, (3) science and technology, and (4) national security. Some experiments on the in-flight laser irradiation of ammonia pellets are discussed

  4. Energy and Technology Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bookless, W.A.; McElroy, L.; Wheatcraft, D.; Middleton, C.; Shang, S. [eds.

    1994-10-01

    Two articles are included: the industrial computing initiative, and artificial hip joints (applying weapons expertise to medical technology). Three research highlights (briefs) are included: KEN project (face recognition), modeling groundwater flow and chemical migration, and gas and oil national information infrastructure.

  5. Energy and Technology Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bookless, W.A.; McElroy, L.; Wheatcraft, D.; Middleton, C.; Shang, S.

    1994-10-01

    Two articles are included: the industrial computing initiative, and artificial hip joints (applying weapons expertise to medical technology). Three research highlights (briefs) are included: KEN project (face recognition), modeling groundwater flow and chemical migration, and gas and oil national information infrastructure

  6. Energy and Technology Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    This is the first of two issues commemorating the 30th anniversary of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The early history of the laboratory is reviewed, including: the LLNL-Nevada organization; project Plowshare; the chemistry and materials science department; and development of computer systems. (GHT)

  7. Energy and Technology Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    This is the first of two issues commemorating the 30th anniversary of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The early history of the laboratory is reviewed, including: the LLNL-Nevada organization; project Plowshare; the chemistry and materials science department; and development of computer systems

  8. Energy and technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    Research programs at LLNL are reviewed. This issue discusses validation of the pulsed-power design for FXR, the NOVA plasma shutter, thermal control of the MFTF superconducting magnet, a low-energy x-ray spectrometer for pulsed-source diagnostics, micromachining, the electronics engineer's design station, and brazing with a laser microtorch

  9. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R.B.; Bathgate, M.B.; Crawford, R.B.; McCaleb, C.S.; Prono, J.K. (eds.)

    1976-05-01

    The chief objective of LLL's biomedical and environmental research program is to enlarge mankind's understanding of the implications of energy-related chemical and radioactive effluents in the biosphere. The effluents are studied at their sources, during transport through the environment, and at impact on critical resources, important ecosystems, and man himself. We are pursuing several projects to acquire such knowledge in time to guide the development of energy technologies toward safe, reasonable, and optimal choices.

  10. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-08-01

    Three areas of research are discussed: microcomputer technology applied to inspecting machined parts to determine roundness in ultraprecision measurements; development of an electrolytic technique for preparing dinitrogen pentoxide as a potentially less expensive step in the large-scale synthesis of the explosive HMX; and the application of frequency conversion to short wavelengths in the Novette and Nova lasers to improve the performance of inertial-confinement fusion targets. (GHT)

  11. Review of encapsulation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaulis, L.

    1996-09-01

    The use of encapsulation technology to produce a compliant waste form is an outgrowth from existing polymer industry technology and applications. During the past 12 years, the Department of Energy (DOE) has been researching the use of this technology to treat mixed wastes (i.e., containing hazardous and radioactive wastes). The two primary encapsulation techniques are microencapsulation and macroencapsulation. Microencapsulation is the thorough mixing of a binding agent with a powdered waste, such as incinerator ash. Macroencapsulation coats the surface of bulk wastes, such as lead debris. Cement, modified cement, and polyethylene are the binding agents which have been researched the most. Cement and modified cement have been the most commonly used binding agents to date. However, recent research conducted by DOE laboratories have shown that polyethylene is more durable and cost effective than cements. The compressive strength, leachability, resistance to chemical degradation, etc., of polyethylene is significantly greater than that of cement and modified cement. Because higher waste loads can be used with polyethylene encapsulant, the total cost of polyethylene encapsulation is significantly less costly than cement treatment. The only research lacking in the assessment of polyethylene encapsulation treatment for mixed wastes is pilot and full-scale testing with actual waste materials. To date, only simulated wastes have been tested. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site had planned to conduct pilot studies using actual wastes during 1996. This experiment should provide similar results to the previous tests that used simulated wastes. If this hypothesis is validated as anticipated, it will be clear that polyethylene encapsulation should be pursued by DOE to produce compliant waste forms

  12. Energy and technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    Three areas of research are discussed: microcomputer technology applied to inspecting machined parts to determine roundness in ultraprecision measurements; development of an electrolytic technique for preparing dinitrogen pentoxide as a potentially less expensive step in the large-scale synthesis of the explosive HMX; and the application of frequency conversion to short wavelengths in the Novette and Nova lasers to improve the performance of inertial-confinement fusion targets

  13. Energy and technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, R.B.; Bathgate, M.B.; Crawford, R.B.; McCaleb, C.S.; Prono, J.K.

    1976-05-01

    The chief objective of LLL's biomedical and environmental research program is to enlarge mankind's understanding of the implications of energy-related chemical and radioactive effluents in the biosphere. The effluents are studied at their sources, during transport through the environment, and at impact on critical resources, important ecosystems, and man himself. We are pursuing several projects to acquire such knowledge in time to guide the development of energy technologies toward safe, reasonable, and optimal choices

  14. Energy and Technology Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    An overview is given of research programs at a two-stage light-gas gun facility. Representative gas-gun experiments are described, and the impact of this research on other LLNL programs and on high-pressure physics work in general are discussed. Particular applications reported include: measurement of equations of state for various materials, synthesis and study of novel materials, and studies of high explosives. Specialized diagnostic techniques for gas-gun experiments are reviewed

  15. Energy and technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    Brief reviews are presented of research programs at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. In one, fast and precise measurement techniques to meet the demanding specifications for microsphere targets used in inertial-confinement fusion experiments are described. Another program is described in which a Raman-spectroscopy microprobe is used to perform molecular-structure analyses on submicron-size particles. Finally, the first year of the controlled thermonuclear reactions program is described

  16. Energy and Technology Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-03-01

    An overview is given of research programs at a two-stage light-gas gun facility. Representative gas-gun experiments are described, and the impact of this research on other LLNL programs and on high-pressure physics work in general are discussed. Particular applications reported include: measurement of equations of state for various materials, synthesis and study of novel materials, and studies of high explosives. Specialized diagnostic techniques for gas-gun experiments are reviewed. (LEW)

  17. Energy and Technology Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, W.J. [ed.

    1993-08-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was established in 1952 to do research on nuclear weapons and magnetic fusion energy. Since then, we other major programs have been added including laser fusion, and laser isotope separation, biomedical and environmental science, strategic defense and applied energy technology. These programs, in turn, require research in basic scientific disciplines, including chemistry and materials science, computer science and technology, engineering and physics. In this issue, Herald Brown, the Laboratory`s third director and now counselor at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, reminisces about his years at Livermore and comments about the Laboratory`s role in the future. Also an article on visualizing dynamic systems in three dimensions is presented. Researchers can use our interactive algorithms to translate massive quantities of numerical data into visual form and can assign the visual markers of their choice to represent three- dimensional phenomena in a two-dimensional setting, such as a monitor screen. Major work has been done in the visualization of climate modeling, but the algorithms can be used for visualizing virtually any phenomena.

  18. Nuclear technology review 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-08-01

    Cadarache, France.The IAEA's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) grew to 24 members, with the addition in 2005 of Ukraine and the United States of America. Current INPRO activities include completion of a user manual on the INPRO methodology, application of the methodology to assessing innovative nuclear energy systems (INSs) in national and multinational studies, analyses of the role and structure of INSs in meeting energy demands in a sustainable manner, and selection of the most suitable areas for collaborative development. Developments in accelerator based techniques, production of radioisotopes and some novel uses of nanotechnology are also reported. Nuclear technologies continue to play key and often unique roles in food production and safety, in human and animal health, in water resource management and in the environment. Mutation breeding of crops, for example, has led to the use of previously unusable land in many countries for rice production. In human health, the use of stable isotopes is becoming an accepted tool for the development of nutrition programmes. Nuclear medicine is benefiting from technological advances in computing. Sustainable water management and desalination remain high on the international agenda. New developments in isotopic analysis of hydrological samples hold promise for increasing the use of isotopes in water resources management. Advances in sampling and analytical techniques have assisted in better understanding of the environment. Developments in all these areas are also reported

  19. Science & Technology Review: September 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Ramona L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meissner, Caryn N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chinn, Ken B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    This is the September issue of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Science & Technology Review, which communicates, to a broad audience, the Laboratory’s scientific and technological accomplishments in fulfilling its primary missions. This month, there are features on "Laboratory Investments Drive Computational Advances" and "Laying the Groundwork for Extreme-Scale Computing." Research highlights include "Nuclear Data Moves into the 21st Century", "Peering into the Future of Lick Observatory", and "Facility Drives Hydrogen Vehicle Innovations."

  20. Nuclear Technology Review 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-09-01

    In 2011, nuclear energy continued to play an important role in global electricity production despite the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP). Total generating nuclear power capacity was slightly lower than in previous years due to the permanent shutdown of 13 reactors in 2011, including 8 in Germany and 4 in Japan in the wake of the accident. However, there were 7 new grid connections compared to 5 in 2010, 2 in 2009 and none in 2008. Significant growth in the use of nuclear energy worldwide is still anticipated - between 35% and 100% by 2030 - although the Agency projections for 2030 are 7-8% lower than projections made in 2010. The factors that have contributed to an increased interest in nuclear power did not change: an increasing global demand for energy, concerns about climate change, energy security and uncertainty about fossil fuel supplies. Most of the growth is still expected in countries that already have operating NPPs, especially in Asia, with China and India remaining the main centres of expansion while the Russian Federation will also remain a centre of strong growth. The 7-8% drop in projected growth for 2030 reflects an accelerated phase-out of nuclear power in Germany, some immediate shutdowns and a government review of the planned expansion in Japan, as well as temporary delays in expansion in several other countries. Measures taken by countries as a result of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident have been varied. A number of countries announced reviews of their programmes. Belgium, Germany and Switzerland took additional steps to phase out nuclear power entirely while others re-emphasized their expansion plans. Many Member States carried out national safety assessment reviews in 2011 (often called 'stress tests'), and commitments were made to complete any remaining assessments promptly and to implement the necessary corrective action. In countries considering the introduction of nuclear power, interest remained strong

  1. Science & Technology Review June 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Ramona L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chinn, Ken B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kotta, Paul [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meissner, Caryn N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we focus on science and technology research to ensure our nation’s security. We also apply that expertise to solve other important national problems in energy, bioscience, and the environment. Science & Technology Review is published eight times a year to communicate, to a broad audience, the Laboratory’s scientific and technological accomplishments in fulfilling its primary missions. The publication’s goal is to help readers understand these accomplishments and appreciate their value to the individual citizen, the nation, and the world.

  2. Nuclear Technology Review 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-08-01

    , on a non-discriminatory basis and under the control of the IAEA. Nineteen countries signed a statement of principles of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, which aims at accelerating development and deployment of advanced fuel cycle technologies to foster development, improve the environment, and reduce the risk of nuclear proliferation. The NRC approved the release of most of the Big Rock Point nuclear power plant site and most of the Yankee Rowe nuclear power plant site for unrestricted public use. Thus, ten power plants around the world have been completely decommissioned with their sites released for unconditional use. Seventeen plants have been partially dismantled and safely enclosed. Thirty-two are being dismantled prior to eventual site release, and thirty-four reactors are undergoing minimum dismantling prior to long term enclosure. In September, the IAEA launched a new Network of Centres of Excellence for Decommissioning to improve the flow of knowledge and experience among those engaged in decommissioning and to encourage organizations in developed Member States to contribute to the activities of Member States requiring decommissioning assistance. Nuclear and isotopic techniques continue to make substantive contributions in agriculture, human health, the marine and terrestrial environments as well as in water resource management. In food and agriculture, plant mutation breeding is supporting the development of new varieties of crops that bring enhanced yields while also providing significant environmental benefits through reduced requirements for fertilizers and increased resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. The genetic enhancement of biomass crops is useful in responding to increasing demands for biofuels. In addition to the continuing use of irradiation for sanitary purposes, the use of irradiation for phytosanitary applications, especially those applications related to quarantine measures, is increasing.

  3. Nuclear Technology Review 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    In 2009, construction started on 12 new nuclear power reactors, the largest number since 1985, and projections of future nuclear power growth were once again revised upwards. However, only two new reactors were connected to the grid, and, with three reactors retired during the year, the total nuclear power capacity around the world dropped slightly for the second year in a row. Current expansion, as well as near term and long term growth prospects, remain centred in Asia. Ten of the 12 construction starts were in Asia, as were both of the new grid connections. Although the global financial crisis that started in the second half of 2008 did not dampen overall projections for nuclear power, it was cited as a contributing factor in near-term delays or postponements affecting nuclear projects in some regions of the world. In some European countries where previously there were restrictions on the future use of nuclear power, there was a trend towards reconsidering these policies. Interest in starting new nuclear power programmes remained high. Over 60 Member States have expressed to the IAEA interest in considering the introduction of nuclear power, and, in 2009, the IAEA conducted its first Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure Review missions in Jordan, Indonesia and Vietnam. Estimates of identified conventional uranium resources (at less than $130/kg U) increased slightly, due mainly to increases reported by Australia, Canada and Namibia. Uranium spot prices declined, and final data for 2009 are expected to show a consequent decrease in uranium exploration and development. The Board of Governors has authorized the IAEA Director General to sign an agreement with the Russian Federation to establish an international reserve of low enriched uranium (LEU). It would contain 120 tonnes of LEU that could be made available to a country affected by a non-commercial interruption of its LEU supply. The agreement between the IAEA and the Russian Federation was signed in March 2010

  4. Nuclear Technology Review 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-08-01

    The year 2008 was paradoxical for nuclear power. Projections of future growth were revised upwards, but no new reactors were connected to the grid. It was the first year since 1955 without at least one new reactor coming on-line. There were, however, ten construction starts, the most since 1985. At least until the global financial crisis, cost estimates reported for new nuclear reactors were often higher than those in previous years, particularly in regions with less recent experience in new construction. However, growth targets for nuclear power were raised in the Russian Federation, and similar considerations were under review in China. India negotiated a safeguards agreement with the Agency in August, and the Nuclear Suppliers Group subsequently exempted India from previous restrictions on nuclear trade, which should allow India to accelerate its planned expansion of nuclear power. In the USA, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) received combined licence (COL) applications for 26 new reactors. The US Department of Energy (USDOE) received 19 'Part I applications' for Federal loan guarantees to build 21 new reactors. Nonetheless, current expansion, as well as near term and long term growth prospects, remain centred in Asia. Of the ten construction starts in 2008, eight were in Asia. Twenty-eight of the 44 reactors under construction at the end of the year were in Asia, as were 28 of the last 39 new reactors to have been connected to the grid. Armenia joined the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan as members of the International Uranium Enrichment Centre in Angarsk, Siberia. The Ukrainian Government announced that Ukraine would also join. AREVA and USEC applied to the USDOE for loan guarantees for the construction of AREVA's proposed Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility and USEC's American Centrifuge Plant. Construction of an underground repository for low and medium level radioactive waste began at the former Konrad iron mine in Germany. The USDOE submitted a formal

  5. MIT jar test of the natural polymer chitosan with fresh pond water from the Cambridge Water Department, November-December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murcott, S.; Harleman, D.R.F.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) jar tests of chitosan using CWD (Cambridge Water Department Treatment Plant) water was to demonstrate the effectiveness of chitosan as a coagulant in drinking water applications. The approach was to compare the performance of the natural organic coagulant, chitosan, to the performance of alum and other chemical coagulants in terms of the parameters turbidity, color, pH and alkalinity. Twenty-five jar tests were conducted during November and December, 1992, at Parsons Laboratory, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

  6. Science& Technology Review November 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, D

    2003-11-01

    This issue of Science & Technology Review covers the following topics: (1) We Will Always Need Basic Science--Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia; (2) When Semiconductors Go Nano--experiments and computer simulations reveal some surprising behavior of semiconductors at the nanoscale; (3) Retinal Prosthesis Provides Hope for Restoring Sight--A microelectrode array is being developed for a retinal prosthesis; (4) Maglev on the Development Track for Urban Transportation--Inductrack, a Livermore concept to levitate train cars using permanent magnets, will be demonstrated on a 120-meter-long test track; and (5) Power Plant on a Chip Moves Closer to Reality--Laboratory-designed fuel processor gives power boost to dime-size fuel cell.

  7. Foundry Coating Technology: A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2011-01-01

    The importance of foundry coating in improving the surface quality of castings cannot be over emphasized. The appli-cation of mould and core washes creates a high thermal integrity barrier between the metal and the mould resulting in the reduction of the thermal shock experienced by the sand system....... These thermal shock leads to series of surface de-fects such as veining/finning, metal penetration, burn-on/in, scab, rat tail, erosion etc. The use of coatings reduces the tendency of occurrence of these defects. However, the understanding of the coating, its components, characteristics and mechanism of action...... is important. In this review, a detailed description of these topics and examples are provided where necessary. A potential area of research in foundry coating development, using sol-gel process is suggested. The application of sol-gel technology in the development of foundry coatings is a novel approach....

  8. Tidal energy - a technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.

    1991-01-01

    The tides are caused by gravitational attraction of the sun and the moon acting upon the world's oceans. This creates a clean renewable form of energy which can in principle be tapped for the benefit of mankind. This paper reviews the status of tidal energy, including the magnitude of the resource, the technology which is available for its extraction, the economics, possible environmental effects and non-technical barriers to its implementation. Although the total energy flux of the tides is large, at about 2 TW, in practice only a very small fraction of this total potential can be utilised in the foreseeable future. This is because the energy is spread diffusely over a wide area, requiring large and expensive plant for its collection, and is often available remote from centres of consumption. The best mechanism for exploiting tidal energy is to employ estuarine barrages at suitable sites with high tidal ranges. The technology is relatively mature and components are commercially available now. Also, many of the best sites for implementation have been identified. However, the pace and extent of commercial exploitation of tidal energy is likely to be significantly influenced, both by the treatment of environmental costs of competing fossil fuels, and by the availability of construction capital at modest real interest rates. The largest projects could require the involvement of national governments if they are to succeed. (author) 8 figs., 2 tabs., 19 refs

  9. Science& Technology Review October 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, D H

    2003-10-01

    The October 2003 issue of Science & Technology Review consists of the following articles: (1) Award-Winning Technologies from Collaborative Efforts--Commentary by Hal Graboske; (2) BASIS Counters Airborne Bioterrorism--The Biological Aerosol Sentry and Information System is the first integrated biodefense system; (3) In the Chips for the Coming Decade--A new system is the first full-field lithography tool for use at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths; (4) Smoothing the Way to Print the Next Generation of Computer Chips--With ion-beam thin-film planarization, the reticles and projection optics made for extreme ultraviolet lithography are nearly defect-free; (5) Eyes Can See Clearly Now--The MEMS-based adaptive optics phoropter improves the process of measuring and correcting eyesight aberrations; (6) This Switch Takes the Heat--A thermally compensated Q-switch reduces the light leakage on high-average-power lasers; (7) Laser Process Forms Thick, Curved Metal Parts--A new process shapes parts to exact specifications, improving their resistance to fatigue and corrosion cracking; and (8) Characterizing Tiny Objects without Damaging Them--Livermore researchers are developing nondestructive techniques to probe the Lilliputian world of mesoscale objects.

  10. Review of opening switch technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristiansen, M.; Schoenbach, K.M.; Schaefer, G.

    1984-01-01

    Review of opening switch technology is given. Classification of open switches applied in pulsed power technology is presented. The most familiar opening switches are fuses. It is shown that a strong oxidizer (H 2 O 2 in water), especially in combination with wires of Al, increases the maximum voltage. Thermally driven opening switches are the result of attempts to achive the speed and economy of fuse opening switches but with added advantage of repetitive operation. The search for coordinate materials for this type of opening switch is in its infancy and it is difficult to predict how successful such a switch may be. Explosive opening switches offer the possibility of precise timing and permit the delay before explosion to be controlled independently of current flowing through the switch. Plasma guns, dense plasma focus and MHD switches are also considered. Diffuse discharge opening switches are attractive for repetitive operation. The plasma erosion switch operates on a very short time scale of 10 ns to 100 ns, both to regard to conduction and opening times

  11. Microturbine Power Conversion Technology Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.

    2003-07-21

    In this study, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is performing a technology review to assess the market for commercially available power electronic converters that can be used to connect microturbines to either the electric grid or local loads. The intent of the review is to facilitate an assessment of the present status of marketed power conversion technology to determine how versatile the designs are for potentially providing different services to the grid based on changes in market direction, new industry standards, and the critical needs of the local service provider. The project includes data gathering efforts and documentation of the state-of-the-art design approaches that are being used by microturbine manufacturers in their power conversion electronics development and refinement. This project task entails a review of power converters used in microturbines sized between 20 kW and 1 MW. The power converters permit microturbine generators, with their non-synchronous, high frequency output, to interface with the grid or local loads. The power converters produce 50- to 60-Hz power that can be used for local loads or, using interface electronics, synchronized for connection to the local feeder and/or microgrid. The power electronics enable operation in a stand-alone mode as a voltage source or in grid-connect mode as a current source. Some microturbines are designed to automatically switch between the two modes. The information obtained in this data gathering effort will provide a basis for determining how close the microturbine industry is to providing services such as voltage regulation, combined control of both voltage and current, fast/seamless mode transfers, enhanced reliability, reduced cost converters, reactive power supply, power quality, and other ancillary services. Some power quality improvements will require the addition of storage devices; therefore, the task should also determine what must be done to enable the power conversion circuits to

  12. MSFC Technology Year in Review 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, David; Tinker, Mike

    2015-01-01

    MSFC has a strong diverse portfolio of technology development projects, ranging from flight projects to very low Technology Readiness Level (TRL) laboratory projects. The 2015 Year in Review highlights the Center's technology projects and celebrates their accomplishments to raise awareness of technology development work that is integral to the success of future Agency flight programs.

  13. 2017 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-11-01

    The 2017 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Report summarizes the feedback submitted by reviewers for the 109 Building Technologies Office (BTO) projects presented at the 2017 BTO Peer Review. The report presents an overview of the goals and activities under each technology program area, a summary of project scores for each program, and a brief analysis of general evaluation trends within each program area or its constituent subprograms.

  14. LogLines. November-December 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Programs Directorate and the individual responsible for implementing the BRAC A Sailor recharges oxygen bottles for a self -contained firefighting...made from both magnetic and adhesive The DAPS Travis team produced and delivered the customer’s order more than 7,500 miles away in just over a week. The...le arn ot her trans portat ion-re lated jobs s o I ca n perf orm t asks in mu ltiple subjec t are as. D DDE’s team spirit is som ething I

  15. Review of Desiccant Dehumidification Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A. A.

    1994-10-01

    This paper overviews applications of desiccant technology for dehumidifying commercial and institutional buildings. Because of various market, policy, and regulatory factors, this technology is especially attractive for dehumidification applications in the I990s.

  16. Mozambique Science, Technology and Innovation Review | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to strengthen the capacity of the Mozambique Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) to govern the country's science, technology and innovation (STI) system, and of researchers and policymakers to conduct systematic reviews of STI policy implementation. It will do so by supporting a review of the ...

  17. 2016 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Technologies Office

    2016-12-01

    The 2016 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Report summarizes the feedback submitted by reviewers of the 67 BTO projects presented at the 2016 BTO Peer Review. The report presents an overview of the goals and activities under each technology program area, a summary of project scores for each program, and a brief analysis of general evaluation trends within each program area or its constituent subprograms.

  18. Nuclear technology review 2005 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-08-01

    The year 2004 marked the 50th anniversary of civilian nuclear power generation. While the current outlook for nuclear energy remains mixed, there is clearly a sense of rising expectations. Both the OECD International Energy Agency and the IAEA adjusted their medium-term projections for nuclear power upwards. The IAEA now projects 423 - 592 GW(e) of nuclear power installed worldwide in 2030, compared to 366 GW(e) at the end of 2004. This is driven by nuclear power's performance record, by growing energy needs around the world coupled with rising oil and natural gas prices, by new environmental constraints including entry-into-force of the Kyoto Protocol, by concerns about energy supply security in a number of countries, and by ambitious expansion plans in several key countries. National research on advanced reactor designs continues on all reactor categories - water cooled, gas cooled, liquid metal cooled, and hybrid systems. Five members of the US-initiated Generation IV International Forum (GIF) signed a framework agreement on international collaboration in research and development on Generation IV nuclear energy systems in February 2005. The IAEA's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) grew to 23 members. It completed a series of case studies testing its assessment methodology and the final report on the updated INPRO methodology was published in December. The realization of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, ITER, came closer with the announcement on 28 June 2005 by the ITER parties. The aim of ITER is to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy by constructing a functional fusion power plant. Nuclear technology developments are rapid and cover many fields of application. Not all can be covered in this update review, but certain key areas and trends are covered where these are seen to be of significant interest to IAEA Member States, and which are of relevance to and have

  19. 2013 Bioenergy Technologies Office Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2013 U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office's Peer Review meeting.

  20. New nuclear technology; International developments. Review 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devell, L.; Aggeryd, I.; Hultgren, Aa.; Lundell, B.; Pedersen, T.

    1995-09-01

    A summary review of the development of new nuclear rector technology is presented in this report. Fuel cycle strategies and waste handling developments are also commented. Different plans for dismantling nuclear weapons are presented. 18 refs

  1. Energy technology review, July--August 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K.C. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    This issue of Energy Technology Review'' gives the annual review of the programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This State of the Laboratory issue includes discussions of all major programs: Defense Systems; Laser Research; Magnetic Fusion Energy; Energy and Earth Sciences; Environmental Technology Program; Biomedical and Environmental Science; Engineering; Physics; Chemistry and Materials Science; Computations; and Administrative and Institutional Services. An index is also given of the 1991 achievements with contact names and telephone number.

  2. Land 125 - Power Technologies Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    technology is a Canadian product, the “ Bionic Energy Harvester”, which is a knee brace that harvests energy from the motion of the knee joint. It is...Needs of Future Warriors. Washington D.C., USA: The National Academies Press, 2004. [2] Task Force Devil Combined Arms Assessment Team. The Modern

  3. Hazards Control Department annual technology review, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.; Anderson, K.J.

    1985-01-01

    The Annual Technology Review covers the period from October 1983 to September 1984. Topics reviewed include Nuclear Criticality Information System, nuclear dosimetry, personnel dosimetry, laser chemistry, electric filters and neutron spectrometry. Individual papers are indexed and abstracted for the data base. (DT)

  4. State of the technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spino, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a review of different behaviours of fuel elements in relation to fission gases. The influence of the fission gas level and its location regarding differential fuel structures is commented. The gas release process at high burnup is described and some topics that need to be further investigated are suggested. (author)

  5. Science & Technology Review September 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bearinger, J P

    2009-07-24

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Remembering the Laboratory's First Director - Commentary by Harold Brown; (2) Herbert F. York (1921-2009): A Life of Firsts, an Ambassador for Peace - The Laboratory's first director, who died on May 19, 2009, used his expertise in science and technology to advance arms control and prevent nuclear war; (3) Searching for Life in Extreme Environments - DNA will help researchers discover new marine species and prepare to search for life on other planets; (4) Energy Goes with the Flow - Lawrence Livermore is one of the few organizations that distills the big picture about energy resources and use into a concise diagram; and (5) The Radiant Side of Sound - An experimental method that converts sound waves into light may lead to new technologies for scientific and industrial applications.

  6. Energy & Technology Review, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, W.J.; Canada, J.; de Vore, L.; Gleason, K.; Kirvel, R.D.; Kroopnick, H.; McElroy, L.; Van Dyke, P. [eds.

    1994-03-01

    This monthly report of research activities at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory highlights three different research programs. First, the Forensic Science Center supports a broad range of analytical techniques that focus on detecting and analyzing chemical, biological, and nuclear species. Analyses are useful in the areas of nonproliferation, counterterrorism, and law enforcement. Second, starting in 1977, the laboratory initiated a series of studies to understand a high incidence of melanoma among employees. Continued study shows that mortality from this disease has decreased from the levels seen in the 1980`s. Third, to help coordinate the laboratory`s diverse research projects that can provide better healthcare tools to the public, the lab is creating the new Center for Healthcare Technologies.

  7. Science & Technology Review December 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinn, D J

    2007-10-24

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Homeland Security Begins Abroad--Commentary by John C. Doesburg; (2) Out of Harm's Way--New physical protection and accountability systems, together with a focus on security, safeguard nuclear materials in the Russian Federation; (3) A Calculated Journey to the Center of the Earth--Determining the permeability of partially melted metals in a mineral matrix unlocks secrets about the formation of Earth's core; (4) Wireless That Works--Communication technologies using ultrawideband radar are improving national security; and (5) Power to the People--Edward Teller envisioned safe and plentiful nuclear power for peaceful applications.

  8. Science & Technology Review March 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bearinger, J P

    2010-01-29

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Countering the Growing Chem-Bio Threat -- Commentary by Penrose (Parney) C. Albright; (2) Responding to a Terrorist Attack Involving Chemical Warfare Agents -- Livermore scientists are helping the nation strengthen plans to swiftly respond to an incident involving chemical warfare agents; (3) Revealing the Secrets of a Deadly Disease -- A Livermore-developed system helps scientists better understand how plague bacteria infect healthy host cells; (4) A New Application for a Weapons Code -- Simulations reveal for the first time how blast waves cause traumatic brain injuries; (5) Testing Valuable National Assets for X-Ray Damage -- Experiments at the National Ignition Facility are measuring the effects of radiation on critical systems; and (6) An Efficient Way to Harness the Sun's Power -- New solar thermal technology is designed to supply residential electric power at nearly half of the current retail price.

  9. 2013 Geothermal Technologies Office Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geothermal Technologies Office

    2014-01-01

    Geothermal Technologies Office conducted its annual program peer review in April of 2013. The review provided an independent, expert evaluation of the technical progress and merit of GTO-funded projects. Further, the review was a forum for feedback and recommendations on future GTO strategic planning. During the course of the peer review, DOE-funded projects were evaluated for 1) their contribution to the mission and goals of the GTO and 2) their progress against stated project objectives. Principal Investigators (PIs) came together in sessions organized by topic “tracks” to disseminate information, progress, and results to a panel of independent experts as well as attendees.

  10. Geothermal Technologies Program 2011 Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollett, Douglas [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Stillman, Greg [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-06-01

    On June 6-10, 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP or the Program) conducted its annual program peer review in Bethesda, Maryland. In accordance with the EERE Peer Review Guide, the review provides an independent, expert evaluation of the strategic goals and direction of the program and is a forum for feedback and recommendations on future program planning. The purpose of the review was to evaluate DOE-funded projects for their contribution to the mission and goals of the Program and to assess progress made against stated objectives.

  11. Ultrasonication and food technology: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishrat Majid

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With increasing consumers demand and tightening of food and environmental regulations, traditional food-processing techniques have lost their optimum performance which gave rise to new and powerful technologies. Ultrasonic is a one of the fast, versatile, emerging, and promising non-destructive green technology used in the food industry from last few years. The ultrasound is being carried out in various areas of food technology namely crystallization, freezing, bleaching, degassing, extraction, drying, filtration, emulsification, sterilization, cutting, etc. Ultrasound is being applied as an effective preservation tool in many food-processing fields viz. vegetables and fruits, cereal products, honey, gels, proteins, enzymes, microbial inactivation, cereal technology, water treatment, diary technology, etc. This review summarizes the latest knowledge on impact and application of ultrasound in food technology.

  12. Ensuring a Safe Technological Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Defense AT&L: November-December 2016 14 Ensuring a Safe Technological Revolution William E. Frazier, Ph.D. n Elizabeth L. McMichael n Jennifer...agility for increased innovation and performance capabilities, is the cusp of the AM technology revolution . AM provides the opportunity to truly...develops strategic plans for the research, development and transition of naval aviation technologies . He is a graduate of Drexel University, the Naval

  13. Science & Technology Review June 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyneer, L A

    2012-04-20

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) A New Era in Climate System Analysis - Commentary by William H. Goldstein; (2) Seeking Clues to Climate Change - By comparing past climate records with results from computer simulations, Livermore scientists can better understand why Earth's climate has changed and how it might change in the future; (3) Finding and Fixing a Supercomputer's Faults - Livermore experts have developed innovative methods to detect hardware faults in supercomputers and help applications recover from errors that do occur; (4) Targeting Ignition - Enhancements to the cryogenic targets for National Ignition Facility experiments are furthering work to achieve fusion ignition with energy gain; (5) Neural Implants Come of Age - A new generation of fully implantable, biocompatible neural prosthetics offers hope to patients with neurological impairment; and (6) Incubator Busy Growing Energy Technologies - Six collaborations with industrial partners are using the Laboratory's high-performance computing resources to find solutions to urgent energy-related problems.

  14. Science & Technology Review January/February 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, R. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meissner, C. N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kotta, P. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-12

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we focus on science and technology research to ensure our nation’s security. We also apply that expertise to solve other important national problems in energy, bioscience, and the environment. Science & Technology Review is published eight times a year to communicate, to a broad audience, the Laboratory’s scientific and technological accomplishments in fulfilling its primary missions. The publication’s goal is to help readers understand these accomplishments and appreciate their value to the individual citizen, the nation, and the world.

  15. Science & Technology Review October/November 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orme, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meissner, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kotta, P. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-11-05

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we focus on science and technology research to ensure our nation’s security. We also apply that expertise to solve other important national problems in energy, bioscience, and the environment. Science & Technology Review is published eight times a year to communicate, to a broad audience, the Laboratory’s scientific and technological accomplishments in fulfilling its primary missions. The publication’s goal is to help readers understand these accomplishments and appreciate their value to the individual citizen, the nation, and the world.

  16. Science & Technology Review January/February 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orme, C. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meissner, C. N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kotta, P. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-18

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we focus on science and technology research to ensure our nation’s security. We also apply that expertise to solve other important national problems in energy, bioscience, and the environment. Science & Technology Review is published eight times a year to communicate, to a broad audience, the Laboratory’s scientific and technological accomplishments in fulfilling its primary missions. The publication’s goal is to help readers understand these accomplishments and appreciate their value to the individual citizen, the nation, and the world.

  17. Book review Information and Communication Technologies for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book review. Information and Communication Technologies for Development in Africa: Volume 2. The Experience with Community Telecentres By Florence Etta and Sheila Parvyn-Wamahiu (2003). Kibet A Ngetich. Abstract. No Abstract Available Africa Development Vol. XXX (1&2) 2005: 254-256. Article Metrics. No metrics ...

  18. Book review Information and Communication Technologies for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book review. Information and Communication Technologies for Development in Africa: Volume 2. The Experience with Community Telecentres By Florence Etta and Sheila Parvyn-Wamahiu (2003). Kibet A Ngetich. Abstract. No Abstract Available Africa Development Vol. XXX (1&2) 2005: 254-256.

  19. Review of containment vent filter technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    The technology applied for the design and construction of containment vent filters is compiled and reviewed. The national positions leading to the selection of venting or method of filtration are extracted from position papers. Several areas of further information needs are identified

  20. Geothermal Technologies Office 2012 Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-04-01

    On May 7-10, 2012, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Geothermal Technologies Office conducted its annual program peer review in Westminster, CO. In accordance with the EERE Peer Review Guide, the review provides an independent, expert evaluation of the strategic goals and direction of the office and is a forum for feedback and recommendations on future office planning. The purpose of the review was to evaluate DOE-funded projects for their contribution to the mission and goals of the office and to assess progress made against stated objectives. Project scoring results, expert reviewer comments, and key findings and recommendations are included in this report.

  1. Advanced conversion technology review panel report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) established a DOE lead management team and an Advanced Conversion Technology Review Panel. The panel was tasked with providing the management team with an assessment and ranking of the three advanced conversion technologies. The three advanced conversion technologies were alkali metal thermal to electric converter (AMTEC), Stirling engine converter (SEC), and thermophotovoltaic (TPV). To rate and rank these three technologies, five criteria were developed: (1) Performance, (2) Development and Cost/Production and Cost/Schedule Risk, (3) Spacecraft Interface and Operations, (4) Ability to Scale Conversion, and (5) Safety. Discussed are the relative importance of each of these criteria and the rankings of the three advanced conversion technologies. It was the conclusion of the panel that the technology decision should be based on the risk that DOE and NASA are willing to accept. SEC is the most mature technology and would provide the lowest risk option. However, if more risk is acceptable, AMTEC not only provides benefits in the spacecraft interface but is also predicted to outperform the SEC. It was proposed that if AMTEC were selected, funding should be provided at a reasonable level to support back-up technology to be developed in a parallel fashion until AMTEC has proven its capability. The panel report and conclusion were provided to DOE in February 1997

  2. Science & Technology Review July/August 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Ramona L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meissner, Caryn N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chinn, Ken B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-07-18

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we focus on science and technology research to ensure our nation’s security. We also apply that expertise to solve other important national problems in energy, bioscience, and the environment. Science & Technology Review is published eight times a year to communicate, to a broad audience, the Laboratory’s scientific and technological accomplishments in fulfilling its primary missions. The publication’s goal is to help readers understand these accomplishments and appreciate their value to the individual citizen, the nation, and the world. In this issue for the months of July and August 2016, there are two features: one on Science and Technology in Support of Nuclear Nonproliferation, and another on Seeking Out Hidden Radioactive Materials. Then there are highlights are three research projects--on optics, plasma science, and the nature of neutrinos--along with a news section and patents and awards.

  3. Energy and Technology Review, August--September

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sefcik, J A [ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of Energy and Technology Review focuses on cooperative research and development agreements (CRADAs)-one of the Laboratory's most effective means of technology transfer. The first article chronicles the legislative evolution of these agreements. The second article examines the potential beneficial effects of CRADAs on the national economy and discusses their role in the development and marketing of Laboratory technologies. The third article provides information on how to initiate and develop CRADAs at LLNL, and the fourth and fifth articles describe the Laboratory's two most prominent technology transfer projects. One is a 30-month CRADA with General Motors to develop advanced lasers for cutting, welding, and heat-treating operations. The cover photograph shows this laser cutting through a piece of steel 1/16 of an inch thick. The other project is a three-year CRADA with Amoco, Chevron-Conoco, and Unocal to refine our oil shale retorting process.

  4. Review of Current Nuclear Vacuum System Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, M.; McCracken, J.; Shope, T.

    2003-01-01

    Nearly all industrial operations generate unwanted dust, particulate matter, and/or liquid wastes. Waste dust and particulates can be readily tracked to other work locations, and airborne particulates can be spread through ventilation systems to all locations within a building, and even vented outside the building - a serious concern for processes involving hazardous, radioactive, or nuclear materials. Several varieties of vacuum systems have been proposed and/or are commercially available for clean up of both solid and liquid hazardous and nuclear materials. A review of current technologies highlights both the advantages and disadvantages of the various systems, and demonstrates the need for a system designed to address issues specific to hazardous and nuclear material cleanup. A review of previous and current hazardous/nuclear material cleanup technologies is presented. From simple conventional vacuums modified for use in industrial operations, to systems specifically engineered for such purposes, the advantages and disadvantages are examined in light of the following criteria: minimal worker exposure; minimal secondary waste generation;reduced equipment maintenance and consumable parts; simplicity of design, yet fully compatible with all waste types; and ease of use. The work effort reviews past, existing and proposed technologies in light of such considerations. Accomplishments of selected systems are presented, including identified areas where technological improvements could be suggested

  5. Health effects of synfuels technology: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanathanan, L.P.; Reilly, C.A.; Marshall, S.A.; Wilzbach, K.E.

    1981-04-01

    This document contains annotated synopses of available information pertinent to health impacts of synthetic fuel technologies under development, and identifies needs for further information. The report focuses on carcinogenesis, which appears to be a special problem with coal conversion technologies. This review is intended to serve as a reference for the NEPA Affairs Division of DOE in its evaluation of the overall synthetic fuel program and specific projects in the program. Updated versions of this document are expected to be prepared annually or semiannually as new information becomes available.

  6. Emerging Technologies Landscape on Education. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis de la Fuente Valentin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a desk research that analysed available recent studies in the field of Technology Enhanced Learning. The desk research is focused on work produced in the frame of FP6 and FP7 European programs, in the area of Information and Communication Technologies. It concentrates in technologies that support existing forms of learning, and also in technologies that enhance new learning paradigms. This approach includes already adopted and successfully piloted technologies. The elaboration of the desk research had three main parts: firstly, the collection of documents from CORDIS and other institutions related to TEL research; secondly, the identification of relevant terms appearing in those documents and the elaboration of a thesaurus; and thirdly, a quantitative analysis of each term occurrences. Many of the identified technologies belong to the fields of interactive multimedia, Human-computer Interaction and-or related to recommendation and learning analytics. This study becomes a thorough review of the current state of these fields through the actual development of R&D European projects. This research, will be used as a basis to better understand the evolution of the sector, and to focus future research efforts on these sectors and their application to education.

  7. Medical imaging technology reviews and computational applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dewi, Dyah

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the latest research findings and reviews in the field of medical imaging technology, covering ultrasound diagnostics approaches for detecting osteoarthritis, breast carcinoma and cardiovascular conditions, image guided biopsy and segmentation techniques for detecting lung cancer, image fusion, and simulating fluid flows for cardiovascular applications. It offers a useful guide for students, lecturers and professional researchers in the fields of biomedical engineering and image processing.

  8. Science and Technology Review, August 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Failor, B.; Stull, S.; Wheatcraft, D. [eds.

    1996-08-01

    This review is published ten times a year to communicate, to a broad audience, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s scientific and technological accomplishments, particularly in the Laboratory`s core mission areas - global security, energy and the environment, and bioscience and biotechnology. Topics discussed in this August 1996 issue are: Keeping the nuclear stockpile safe, secure, and reliable; Molten salt takes the bang out of high explosives; Security clearances meet the electronic age; and Exploring oil fields with crosshole electromagnetic induction.

  9. 2012 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-26

    The 2012 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting was held May 14-18, 2012 in Crystal City, Virginia. The review encompassed all of the work done by the Hydrogen Program and the Vehicle Technologies Program: a total of 309 individual activities were reviewed for Vehicle Technologies, by a total of 189 reviewers. A total of 1,473 individual review responses were received for the technical reviews.

  10. Cesium and Strontium Separation Technologies Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. A. Todd; T. A. Todd; J. D. Law; R. S. Herbst

    2004-03-01

    Integral to the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program’s proposed closed nuclear fuel cycle, the fission products cesium and strontium in the dissolved spent nuclear fuel stream are to be separated and managed separately. A comprehensive literature survey is presented to identify cesium and strontium separation technologies that have the highest potential and to focus research and development efforts on these technologies. Removal of these high-heat-emitting fission products reduces the radiation fields in subsequent fuel cycle reprocessing streams and provides a significant short-term (100 yr) heat source reduction in the repository. This, along with separation of actinides, may provide a substantial future improvement in the amount of fuel that could be stored in a geologic repository. The survey and review of the candidate cesium and strontium separation technologies are presented herein. Because the AFCI program intends to manage cesium and strontium together, technologies that simultaneously separate both elements are of the greatest interest, relative to technologies that separate only one of the two elements.

  11. Cyclic distillation technology - A mini-review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bîldea, Costin Sorin; Pătruţ, Cătălin; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2016-01-01

    Process intensification in distillation systems has received much attention during the pastdecades, with the aim of increasing both energy and separation efficiency. Varioustechniques, such as internal heat-integrated distillation, membrane distillation, rotating packedbed, dividing-wall columns...... and reactive distillation were studied and reported in literature. All these techniques employ the conventional continuous counter-current contact of vapor andliquid phases. Cyclic distillation technology is based on an alternative operating mode usingseparate phase movement which leads to key practical...... advantages in both chemical andbiochemical processes. This article provides a mini-review of cyclic distillation technology.The topics covered include the working principle, design and control methods, main benefitsand limitations as well as current industrial applications. Cyclic distillation can...

  12. Science and Technology Review, September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Failor, B.; Upadhye, R.; Wheatcraft, D. [eds.

    1996-09-01

    This review is published ten times a year to communicate, to a broad audience, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s scientific and technological accomplishments in fulfilling its primary missions. The feature articles are `Taking Lasers beyond the National Ignition Facility` and `Jumpin` Jupiter! Metallic Hydrogen`. The first article describes the ultimate goal of laser fusion as the production of electricity by inertial confinement fusion. Advances in diode-laser technology promise to take another step closer to that goal. The latter article discusses a Laboratory team`s efforts to provide evidence for the metallization of hydrogen based on the team`s expertise in shock compression. A commentary on `The Next Frontiers of Advanced Lasers Research is provided, and a research highlight is given on `Modeling Human Joints and Prosthetic Implants.

  13. A comprehensive review on proppant technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Liang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main function of traditional proppants is to provide and maintain conductive fractures during well production where proppants should meet closure stress requirement and show resistance to diagenesis under downhole conditions. Many different proppants have been developed in the oil & gas industry, with various types, sizes, shapes, and applications. While most proppants are simply made of silica or ceramics, advanced proppants like ultra-lightweight proppant is also desirable since it reduces proppant settling and requires low viscosity fluids to transport. Additionally, multifunctional proppants may be used as a crude way to detect hydraulic fracture geometry or as matrices to slowly release downhole chemical additives, besides their basic function of maintaining conductive hydraulic fractures. Different from the conventional approach where proppant is pumped downhole in frac fluids, a revolutionary way to generate in-situ spherical proppants has been reported recently. This paper presents a comprehensive review of over 100 papers published in the past several decades on the subject. The objectives of this review study are to provide an overview of current proppant technologies, including different types, compositions, and shapes of proppants, new technologies to pump and organize proppants downhole such as channel fracturing, and also in-situ proppant generation. Finally, the paper sheds light on the current challenges and emphasizes needs for new proppant development for unconventional resources.

  14. A review of treatment technologies for MTBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, D.

    1995-01-01

    Available treatment technologies for methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) contamination in soil, groundwater, and recovered groundwater are reviewed and assessed. MTBE contamination is becoming an important issue due to the increasing prevalence and regulation of this gasoline additive. In addition, MTBE is more soluble and more mobile in groundwater than most hydrocarbons, so it is usually the first gasoline constituent to reach sensitive receptors. Treatment of MTBE is complicated by its Henry's constant, which is lower than most other gasoline constituents. Furthermore, evidence of biodegradability of MTBE is mixed, and MTBE does not degrade rapidly abiotically. Groundwater pumping is usually employed to contain and collect MTBE-contaminated groundwater, often successfully because of its high aqueous solubility. Air sparging/soil vapor extraction is also successfully employed to treat MTBE, but its effectiveness is reduced by the low Henry's constant of MTBE. Sparging and other aerobic bioremediation approaches are hampered by the poor biodegradability of MTBE. Oxidation technologies, such as ozone injection, hold promise for rapid in situ remediation of MTBE. Treatment of recovered groundwater contaminated with MTBE is also problematic. MTBE adsorbs poorly to granular activated carbon; advanced oxidation processes are effective on MTBE, but entail high capital and operating costs; bioreactors are of questionable effectiveness on MTBE. Air stripping is usually the most cost-effective treatment technology for MTBE so long as the off gas from the air stripper can be discharged without treatment. However, off gas treatment is expensive, so groundwater is sometimes heated to reduce the requirement for stripping air

  15. Science & Technology Review October/November 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, R. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meissner, C. N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kotta, P. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-11

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we focus on science and technology research to ensure our nation’s security. We also apply that expertise to solve other important national problems in energy, bioscience, and the environment. Science & Technology Review is published eight times a year to communicate, to a broad audience, the Laboratory’s scientific and technological accomplishments in fulfilling its primary missions. The publication’s goal is to help readers understand these accomplishments and appreciate their value to the individual citizen, the nation, and the world. The Laboratory is operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), for the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration. LLNS is a partnership involving Bechtel National, University of California, Babcock & Wilcox, Washington Division of URS Corporation, and Battelle in affiliation with Texas A&M University. More information about LLNS is available online at www.llnsllc.com. Please address any correspondence (including name and address changes) to S&TR, Mail Stop L-664, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551, or telephone (925) 423-3893. Our e-mail address is str-mail@llnl.gov. S&TR is available on the Web at str.llnl.gov.

  16. Review of ORNL's MSR technology and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, L.M.; Gat, U.; Del Cul, G.D.; Dai, S.; Williams, D.F.

    1996-01-01

    The current status of molten salt reactor development is discussed with reference to the experience from the Oak Ridge Molten Salt Reactor Experiment. Assessment of the future for this reactor system is reviewed with consideration of both advantages and disadvantages. Application of this concept to ADTT (accelerator driven transmutation technology) needs appears to be feasible by drawing on the MSRE experience. Key chemical considerations remain as: solubility, redox behavior, and chemical activity and their importance to ADTT planning is briefly explained. Priorities in the future development of molten salts for these applications are listed, with the foremost being the acceptance of the 2LiF-BeF 2 solvent system. 8 refs, 2 figs

  17. A review of magnetic heat pump technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barclay, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The area of technology classified as heat pumps generally refers to refrigerators, heat pumps and heat engines. This review is restricted to the literature on magnetic refrigerators and magnetic heat pumps which are referred to interchangeably. Significant progress has been made on the development of engineering prototypes of cryogenic, nonregenerative magnetic refrigerators utilizing conductive heat transfer in the 0.1 K to 20 K temperature range. Advances have also been made in analysis of regenerative magnetic refrigerators and heat pumps utilizing the active magnetic regeneration (AMR) concept. Units based on AMR are being modeled, designed and/or built to operate in various temperature ranges including 1.8-4.5 K, 4-15 K, 15-85 K, and 270-320 K. The near room temperature units have been scaled to 50 kW as both refrigerators and heat pumps. The progress of magnetic refrigeration over the last three years is summarized and discussed

  18. Biosensor technology for pesticides--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Neelam; Bhardwaj, Atul

    2015-03-01

    Pesticides, due to their lucrative outcomes, are majorly implicated in agricultural fields for crop production enhancement. Due to their pest removal properties, pesticides of various classes have been designed to persist in the environment over a longer duration after their application to achieve maximum effectiveness. Apart from their recalcitrant structure and agricultural benefits, pesticides also impose acute toxicological effects onto the other various life forms. Their accumulation in the living system may prove to be detrimental if established in higher concentrations. Thus, their prompt and accurate analysis is a crucial matter of concern. Conventional techniques like chromatographic techniques (HPLC, GC, etc.) used for pesticides detection are associated with various limitations like stumpy sensitivity and efficiency, time consumption, laboriousity, requirement of expensive equipments and highly trained technicians, and many more. So there is a need to recruit the methods which can detect these neurotoxic compounds sensitively, selectively, rapidly, and easily in the field. Present work is a brief review of the pesticide effects, their current usage scenario, permissible limits in various food stuffs and 21st century advancements of biosensor technology for pesticide detection. Due to their exceptional performance capabilities, easiness in operation and on-site working, numerous biosensors have been developed for bio-monitoring of various environmental samples for pesticide evaluation immensely throughout the globe. Till date, based on sensing element (enzyme based, antibody based, etc.) and type of detection method used (Electrochemical, optical, and piezoelectric, etc.), a number of biosensors have been developed for pesticide detection. In present communication, authors have summarized 21st century's approaches of biosensor technology for pesticide detection such as enzyme-based biosensors, immunosensors, aptamers, molecularly imprinted polymers, and

  19. Reviews on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apinan Soottitantawat

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC is one type of high temperature fuel cell that appears to be one of the most promising technology to provide the efficient and clean energy production for wide range of applications (from small units to large scale power plants. This paper reviews the current status and related researches on SOFC technologies. In details, the research trend for the development of SOFC components(i.e. anode, electrolyte, cathode, and interconnect are presented. Later, the current important designs of SOFC (i.e. Seal-less Tubular Design, Segmented Cell in Series Design, Monolithic Design and Flat Plate Design are exampled. In addition, the possible operations of SOFC (i.e. external reforming, indirect internal reforming, and direct internal reforming are discussed. Lastly, the research studies on applications of SOFCs with co-generation (i.e. SOFC with Combined Heat and Power (SOFC-CHP, SOFC with Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT and SOFC with chemical production are given.

  20. A systematic review of lifestyle monitoring technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownsell, Simon; Bradley, David; Blackburn, Steve; Cardinaux, Fabien; Hawley, Mark S

    2011-01-01

    The evidence base for lifestyle monitoring is relatively weak, even though there are significant numbers of commercial installations around the world. We conducted a literature review to summarize the current position with regard to lifestyle monitoring based on sensors in the home. In total, 74 papers met the inclusion criteria. Only four papers reported trials involving 20 or more subjects, with a further 21 papers reporting trials involving one or more subjects. Most papers (n = 49) were concerned with technology development. Motion detection was the most common of the technologies employed, followed by door and electrical appliance usage. The predominant monitoring strategy was that of detecting changes in activity. However, little attention has been given to determining when or how changes in the profile of activity should be used to raise a call for assistance from a health or care professional. Lifestyle monitoring remains a relatively immature research area in which there is little detailed understanding of how to provide comprehensive and effective systems.

  1. Review of Biojet Fuel Conversion Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei-Cheng [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tao, Ling [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markham, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yanan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Batan, Liaw [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Biomass-derived jet (biojet) fuel has become a key element in the aviation industry’s strategy to reduce operating costs and environmental impacts. Researchers from the oil-refining industry, the aviation industry, government, biofuel companies, agricultural organizations, and academia are working toward developing commercially viable and sustainable processes that produce long-lasting renewable jet fuels with low production costs and low greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, jet fuels must meet ASTM International specifications and potentially be a 100% drop-in replacement for the current petroleum jet fuel. The combustion characteristics and engine tests demonstrate the benefits of running the aviation gas turbine with biojet fuels. In this study, the current technologies for producing renewable jet fuels, categorized by alcohols-to-jet, oil-to-jet, syngas-to-jet, and sugar-to-jet pathways, are reviewed. The main challenges for each technology pathway, including feedstock availability, conceptual process design, process economics, life-cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, and commercial readiness, are discussed. Although the feedstock price and availability and energy intensity of the process are significant barriers, biomass-derived jet fuel has the potential to replace a significant portion of conventional jet fuel required to meet commercial and military demand.

  2. 2013 Building Technologies Office Program Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-11-01

    The 2013 Building Technologies Office Program Peer Review Report summarizes the results of the 2013 Building Technologies Office (BTO) peer review, which was held in Washington, D.C., on April 2–4, 2013. The review was attended by over 300 participants and included presentations on 59 BTO-funded projects: 29 from BTO’s Emerging Technologies Program, 20 from the Commercial Buildings Integration Program, 6 from the Residential Buildings Integration Program, and 4 from the Building Energy Codes Program. This report summarizes the scores and comments provided by the independent reviewers for each project.

  3. Science and Technology Review, June 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eimerl, D

    1999-01-01

    The following two abstracts are for the 2 feature stories in this issue of ''Science and Technology Review''. (1) ''Forewarnings of Coming Hazards''--The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore is an emergency response organization chartered to aid Department of Energy and Department of Defense sites when radioactive or toxic material is released into the atmosphere. Developed from studies beginning in the 1960s, it became a funded operational program in the late 1970s. Using an emergency response modeling system now in its third generation, ARAC scientists predict how atmospheric releases that could affect public health and safety will disperse. The ARAC system has evolved through experience gained during regular training exercises and in over 160 alerts and emergency responses to date. The work of ARAC scientists described in the article demonstrates the different modeling challenges they encounter in preparing for and responding to a variety of atmospheric emergencies. (2) ''Unraveling the Mystery of Detonation''--Laboratory experts in the detonation of high explosives are putting the computational power of the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) to the test. Their research centers on insensitive explosives, whose behavior during detonation is slower and more complex than that of sensitive explosives. The article features three research projects, which are exploring detonation from different angles: the initiation phase, the molecules produced during detonation, and further development of CHEETAH, a thermochemical detonation code. All research teams are using ASCI supercomputers, which have increased their ability to simulate the detonation process by a factor of 100,000

  4. Nuclear Technology Review 2013. Report by the Director General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    In response to requests by Member States, the Secretariat produces a comprehensive Nuclear Technology Review each year. Attached is this year's report, which highlights notable developments principally in 2012. The Nuclear Technology Review 2013 covers the following areas: power applications, atomic and nuclear data, accelerators and research reactors, and nuclear sciences and applications. Additional documentation associated with the Nuclear Technology Review 2013 is available on the Agency's website1 in English on nuclear hydrogen production technology and preliminary lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident for advanced nuclear power plant technology development. Information on the IAEA's activities related to nuclear science and technology can also be found in the IAEA's Annual Report 2012 (GC(57)/3), in particular the Technology section, and the Technical Cooperation Report for 2012 (GC(57)/INF/4). The document has been modified to take account, to the extent possible, of specific comments by the Board of Governors and other comments received from Member States. (author)

  5. Technology development multidimensional review for engineering and technology managers

    CERN Document Server

    Neshati, Ramin; Watt, Russell; Eastham, James

    2014-01-01

    Developing new products, services, systems, and processes has become an imperative for any firm expecting to thrive in today’s fast-paced and hyper-competitive environment.  This volume integrates academic and practical insights to present fresh perspectives on new product development and innovation, showcasing lessons learned on the technological frontier.  The first part emphasizes decision making.  The second part focuses on technology evaluation, including cost-benefit analysis, material selection, and scenarios. The third part features in-depth case studies to present innovation management tools, such as customer needs identification, technology standardization, and risk management. The fourth part highlights important international trends, such as globalization and outsourcing. Finally the fifth part explores social and political aspects.

  6. Science and Technology Peer Review: GPRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-30

    is secrecy: reviewer anonymity and reviewee non-anonymity ( Altura , 1990; Clayson, 1995; Gresty, 1995; Neetens, 1995). If honest and frank viewpoints...personal gain. BIBLIOGRAPHY Altura , B.T. 1990. Is Anonymous Peer-Review The Best Way To Review And Accept Manuscripts? In: Magnesium And Trace Elements. 9

  7. 2015 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-11-01

    The 2015 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) and Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR) was held June 8-12, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia. The review encompassed all of the work done by the FCTO and the VTO: 258 individual activities were reviewed for VTO, by 170 reviewers. A total of 1,095 individual review responses were received for the VTO technical reviews. The objective of the meeting was to review the accomplishments and plans for VTO over the previous 12 months, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academia to give inputs to DOE on the Office with a structured and formal methodology. The meeting also provided attendees with a forum for interaction and technology information transfer.

  8. 2014 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-11-01

    The 2014 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) and Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR) was held June 16-20, 2014, in Washington, DC. The review encompassed all of the work done by the FCTO and the VTO: a total of 295 individual activities were reviewed for VTO, by a total of 179 reviewers. A total of 1,354 individual review responses were received for the VTO technical reviews. The objective of the meeting was to review the accomplishments and plans for VTO over the previous 12 months, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academia to give inputs to DOE on the Office with a structured and formal methodology. The meeting also provided attendees with a forum for interaction and technology information transfer.

  9. 2013 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The 2013 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) and Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR) was held May 13-17, 2013, in Crystal City, Virginia. The review encompassed all of the work done by the FCTO and the VTO: a total of 287 individual activities were reviewed for VTO, by a total of 187 reviewers. A total of 1,382 individual review responses were received for the VTO technical reviews. The objective of the meeting was to review the accomplishments and plans for VTO over the previous 12 months, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academia to give inputs to DOE on the Office with a structured and formal methodology. The meeting also provided attendees with a forum for interaction and technology information transfer.

  10. Smart storage technologies applied to fresh foods: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyu; Zhang, Min; Gao, Zhongxue; Adhikari, Benu

    2017-06-30

    Fresh foods are perishable, seasonal and regional in nature and their storage, transportation, and preservation of freshness are quite challenging. Smart storage technologies can online detection and monitor the changes of quality parameters and storage environment of fresh foods during storage, so that operators can make timely adjustments to reduce the loss. This article reviews the smart storage technologies from two aspects: online detection technologies and smartly monitoring technologies for fresh foods. Online detection technologies include electronic nose, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), hyperspectral imaging and computer vision. Smartly monitoring technologies mainly include some intelligent indicators for monitoring the change of storage environment. Smart storage technologies applied to fresh foods need to be highly efficient and nondestructive and need to be competitively priced. In this work, we have critically reviewed the principles, applications, and development trends of smart storage technologies.

  11. Technological adjuncts to enhance current psychotherapy practices: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Bonnie A; Casey, Leanne M

    2011-04-01

    Although there are several of reviews of technology in psychology, none to date has focused on technological adjuncts for improving traditional face to face therapy. However, examination of response, adherence, and dropout rates suggests there is considerable scope for improving traditional face to face services. The purpose of this paper was to examine technological adjuncts used to enhance psychotherapy practice. This review focused only on those technologies designed to supplement or enhance traditional therapy methods. Adjuncts designed to reduce direct therapist contact or change the medium of communication were not included. Adjuncts reviewed were mobile phones, personal digital assistants, biofeedback and virtual reality. Limitations in the current literature and directions for future research were identified and discussed. This review provides a comprehensive examination of the way in which adjunctive technologies may be incorporated into face to face therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ec-135 Fiber Optic Technology Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jan R...; Hodges, Harry N.

    1984-10-01

    Fiber optic technology offers many advantages for upgrading nuclear survivability in systems such as the Airborne Command Post EC-135 aircraft, including weight and cost savings, EMI and EMC immunity, high data rates. The greatest advantage seen for nuclear survivable systems, however, is that a fiber optic system's EMP hardness can be maintained more easily with the use of fiber optics than with shielded cables or other protective methods. TRW recently completed a study to determine the feasibility of using fiber optic technology in an EC-135 aircraft environment. Since this study was conducted for a USAF Logistics Command Agency, a feasible system had to be one which could be realistically priced by an integrating contractor. Thus, any fiber optic approach would have to be well developed before it could be considered feasible. During the course of the study problem areas were encountered which are associated with the readiness of the technology for use rather than with the technology itself. These included connectors, standards, fiber radiation resistance, busing, maintenance, and logistics. Because these problems areas have not been resolved, it was concluded that fiber optic technology, despite its advantages, is not ready for directed procurement (i.e., included as a requirement in a prime mission equipment specification). However, offers by a manufacturer to use fiber optic technology in lieu of conventional technology should be considered. This paper treats these problems in more detail, addresses the areas which need further development, and discusses the hardness maintenance advantages of using fiber optic technology.

  13. Book Review: English Language Learning and Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Shojaei, Abouzar; Motallebzadeh, Khalil

    2016-01-01

    This book is a very helpful book which gives us information and knowledge of using technology in language learning and teaching. It contains detailed consideration to articulatory and auditory Language learning as well as to the practicalities of English language learning. The book discusses the relationship between English language learning and technology

  14. Laser technologies of ceramics treatment (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov, E.M.; Voronezhtsev, Yu.I.; Gol'dade, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    Publications on the laser technologies of ceramic coating production, ceramics treatment and ceramics manufacture are analyzed for the past 5 years. Features of production processes utilizing the interaction of laser radiation with ceramics and other substances which form the ceramics as a result of such interaction are considered. Possible ways of improving laser technologies of ceramics treatment are outlined

  15. Book Review: English Language Learning and Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Shojaei, Abouzar; Motallebzadeh, Khalil

    2016-01-01

    This book is a very helpful book which gives us information and knowledge of using technology in language learning and teaching. It contains detailed consideration to articulatory and auditory Language learning as well as to the practicalities of English language learning. The book discusses the relationship between English language learning and technology.

  16. Experience in Reviewing Small Modular Reactor Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Nabil Abdul Rahim; Alfred, S.L.; Phongsakorn, P.

    2015-01-01

    Malaysia is in the stage of conducting Preliminary Technical Feasibility Study for the Deployment of Small Modular Reactor (SMR). There are different types of SMR, some already under construction in Argentina (CAREM) and China (HTR-PM) - (light water reactor and high temperature reactor technologies), others with near-term deployment such as SMART in South Korea, ACP100 in China, mPower and NuScale in the US, and others with longer term deployment prospects (liquid-metal cooled reactor technologies). The study was mainly to get an overview of the technology available in the market. The SMR ranking in the study was done through listing out the most deployable technology in the market according to their types. As a new comer country, the proven technology with an excellent operation history will usually be the main consideration points. (author)

  17. Mozambique Science, Technology and Innovation Review | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... system, and of researchers and policymakers to conduct systematic reviews of STI policy implementation. It will do so by supporting a review of the implementation of the current strategy (2006-2016) and a study to assess the feasibility and likely structure of a multidisciplinary scientific and industrial research organization ...

  18. Science and Technology Review, December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhye, R.

    1997-12-01

    Featured articles in this issue cover progress in these areas: Advancing Technologies and Applications in Nondestructive Evaluation; Atomic Engineering with Multilayers; Marrying Astrophysics with the Earth; Continuing Work in Breast Cancer Detection Technologies. Furthermore, this issue lists patents issued to and/or the awards received by Laboratory employees. It also includes an index of the contents of all the issues published in calendar year 1997.

  19. 2017 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-10-31

    The 2017 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR) was held June 5-9, 2017, in Washington, DC. The review encompassed work done by the Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and VTO: 263 individual activities were reviewed for VTO by 191 reviewers. Exactly 1,241 individual review responses were received for the VTO technical reviews. The objective of the meeting was to review the accomplishments and plans for VTO over the previous 12 months, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academia to give inputs to DOE with a structured and formal methodology. The meeting also provided attendees with a forum for interaction and technology information transfer.

  20. 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-12-01

    The 2016 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR) was held June 6-9, 2016, in Washington, DC. The review encompassed work done by the Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and VTO: 226 individual activities were reviewed for VTO, by 171 reviewers. A total of 1,044 individual review responses were received for the VTO technical reviews. The objective of the meeting was to review the accomplishments and plans for VTO over the previous 12 months, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academia to give inputs to DOE with a structured and formal methodology. The meeting also provided attendees with a forum for interaction and technology information transfer.

  1. Science and Technology Peer Review: GPRA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kostoff, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    This report describes practical issues for federal agencies to consider if they choose program peer review for internal purposes and/ or to contribute to satisfying the requirements of the Government...

  2. Technology and innovation: 2010 a year in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanberg, Paul R; Vindrola-Padros, Cecilia; Eve, David J; Federoff, Howard J

    2011-01-01

    The following commentary provides a discussion of the articles published in Technology and Innovation in 2010 and where possible places them into context with those reported in Cell Transplantation. These articles can be divided into the following topics: a) models for innovation and technological commercialization, b) the ethical and legal consequences of the emergence of new technologies, c) research on novel technologies and methods, and d) the difficulties involved in peer review and scientific assessment. The articles shed light on the effects of technological innovation and commercialization on scientific ethical regulation, the establishment of legal standards for the protection of intellectual property, and the development of financial models.

  3. The paradox of imaging technology: A review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, F.J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to review the social scientific literature associated with medical imaging technology. Methods: An extensive search of published studies in nursing, psychology and anthropology was undertaken to support the radiography specific literature. Results: Following a broad definition of technology and its profound influence on society, an analysis of imaging literature revealed a complex relationship between technology and human interactions. Examples are cited for CT, MRI and ultrasound. Conclusion: It is suggested that any attempt to understand imaging technology must place at its centre the perspectives of patients and radiographers. Scientific descriptors must be balanced with equal deliberation given to 'soft technology'

  4. Immersive technology and the elderly: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Brett E; Uz, Cigdem

    2015-01-01

    Technologies that provide immersive experiences continue to become more ubiquitous across all age groups. This paper presents a review of the literature to provide a snapshot of the current state of research involving the use of immersive technologies and the elderly. A narrative literature review was conducted using the ScienceDirect, EBSCOhost, Springerlink and ERIC databases to summarize primary studies from which conclusions were drawn into a holistic interpretation. The majority of the studies examined the effect of immersive technologies on elder peoples' age-related declines, including sensory and motor changes (vision, hearing, motor skills), cognitive changes and social changes. Various immersive technologies have been described and tested to address these age-related changes, and have been categorized as 'games and simulations', 'robotics' and 'social technologies'. In most cases, promising results were found for immersive technologies to challenge age-related declines, especially through the increase of morale. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Technology in Social Work Education: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wretman, Christopher J.; Macy, Rebecca J.

    2016-01-01

    Given the growing prevalence of technology-based instruction, social work faculty need a clear understanding of the strengths and limitations of these methods. We systematically examined the evidence for technology-based instruction in social work education. Using comprehensive and rigorous methods, 38 articles were included in the review. Of…

  6. Advance in Bioaerosol Removal Technologies; A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Jonidi Jafari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioaerosols are air pollutants that affect human health in various routes. They are characteristically diverse; such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, that everyone has different characteristics and effects, various solutions and technologies are studied or applied for their removal and inactivation. Regarding to lack of specific and integrated publications about the different air quality guidelines for bioaerosols and the methods and technologies, attending to approach the standards, purpose of this study was set on the development of the issue. The importance of presence of bioaerosols in breathing air and related standards and guidelines, also controlling technologies such as filtration, ultraviolet (UV radiation, photo catalyst, temperature and electrostatic precipitators were surveyed in this study by using the scientific literature.Given the results, UV irradiation and photocatalytic methods are ineffective for allergens. In this way, filtration is unable for inactivation of the bioaerosols, then there is the threat that they can aerosolize again. Hence, these technologies individually cannot provide the air quality standards which have established for sensitive conditions such as operation rooms. Regarding the discussions, application of the methods that include collection and inactivation of the bioaerosols simultaneously, such as electrostatic precipitators, could be more effective in the likewise environments.

  7. Review of Trenchless Technologies' Successes and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... costly construction modifications, and use of substandard borrow material, environmental damage to the site, post construction remedial work, and even failure of a structure and subsequent litigation. Trenchless technology can be defined as the use of construction methods to install and repair underground infrastructure ...

  8. Technology Review for Mobile Multimedia Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styliaras, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, the technological advancement in mobile devices has made possible the development of hypermedia applications that exploit their features. A potential application domain for mobile devices is multimedia educational applications and modules. Such modules may be shared, commented and further reused under other circumstances through the…

  9. A Literature Review of Spreadsheet Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    It was estimated that there would be over 55 million end-user programmers in 2012 in many different fields such as engineering,insurance and banking, and the numbers are not expected to have dwindled since. Consequently, technological advancements of spreadsheets is of great interest to a wide...

  10. Army Sustainment. Volume 43, Issue 6, November-December 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    BaSic courSe, coMBineD loGiSticS captainS career courSe, naval School exploSive orDnance DiSpoSal, cheMical enerGetic courSe, anD unit MoveMent...board (JFUB) is a complex process that incorporates checks and balances designed to ensure that a unit’s operational needs are met and fraud , waste...the Department of Defense against fraud , waste, and abuse of the supply system. It allowed units down to the battalion level the opportunity to be

  11. Army Sustainment. Volume 42, Issue 6, November-December 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    area of expertise is by the regimental insignia that the officer wears and the regiment (TC, OD, or QM) with which he or she associates. We want...right: An auto body repairman and painter from Nepal applies a coat of Tan 686A, a paint meant for desert camouflage, on the wheels of a Stryker...was also held, along with workshops on air movement request procedures, auto - matic movement flow tracking in-transit visibility, BCS3 training

  12. Pathfinder. Volume 8, Number 6, November/December 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    permission, unless stated otherwise. If reproduced, credit the author and the “National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, the Pathfinder magazine.” Any... transferring information between multiple systems. Nevertheless, without an end-to-end TCPED process and the associated standards, policies and equipment in...Assistance Force requirement for Afghanistan Image Maps, products very similar to ICMs . To date, AGCHO has 50 AIM sheets in production. These carry

  13. Army Logistician. Volume 36, Issue 6, November-December 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    soldier, an Army or D efense civilian, or a contra ctor—you need not only to stay abreast of what is happening in Army and Defense logistics but also...movement would hit even stronger defenses than the ones currently to their front—which happened with the defenses of Rich- mond, Virginia, and Atlanta... Pocahontas , Iowa. TDA Unit (Large). Area Maintenance Support Activity 57 (Ground), Belton, Missouri. MTOE Company Without Property Book. 216th

  14. ITER ITA newsletter. No. 18, October-November-December 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    This issue of ITER ITA (ITER Transitional Arrangements) newsletter contains concise information about ITER related meetings, namely, the fourth preparatory meeting for ITER decision making, which was held at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna on 9 November 2004 and the 20th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, which was held on 1-6 November 2004 in Vilamoura, Portugal

  15. Trauma Reports. Volume 12, Number 6, November/December 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    contusions. A retrospective analysis involving ICU trauma patients with ARDS second- ary to pulmonary contusions showed benefit from increasing... neonates to improve gas exchange, reduce ventilator lung injury, and reduce levels of inflammatory media- tors. HFOV uses a constant mean airway

  16. Army Sustainment. Volume 47, Number 6. November-December 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    strategic and theater plans. By Kenneth R. Gaines and Dr. Reginald L. Snell 16 The Role of the Army’s Sustainment Think Tank in Force...Reginald L. Snell 22 Nonstandard Logistics Success in Unconventional Warfare Logistics support for special operations forces requires the right people...Setting and Supporting the Theater  By Kenneth R. Gaines and Dr. Reginald L. Snell RSOI 9 Army

  17. Environmental regulatory update table November--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Bock, R.E.; Mayer, S.J.; Salk, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated bi-monthly with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  18. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, November--December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Lewis, E.B.; Salk, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated bi-monthly wit information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  19. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, November--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.; Danford, G.S.; Lewis, E.B.

    1994-01-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated bi-monthly with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  20. ITER ITA newsletter No. 34, November-December 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    This issue of ITER ITA (ITER transitional arrangements) newsletter contains concise information about ITER related events such as the 21st IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, which was held in Chengdu, People's Republic of China, on 16-2 October 2006 and an exhibition in recognition of the Agency's support to the ITER Negotiations was organized at the Rotunda of the Vienna International Centre during the week 20-24 November 2006

  1. STANDING CONCERTATION COMMITTEE ORDINARY MEETINGS IN NOVEMBER & DECEMBER 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Original: English La version française de cet article paraîtra dans le prochain Bulletin hebdomadaire. These meetings were devoted to the main topics summarised below. 1-Follow-up of the meetings of TREF in October and the Finance Committee in November, and preparation for the Committee meetings in December The Chairman reported that the Management's proposals to adjust, on 1 January 2004, the salaries by 1.1%, on the basis of the calculated salary index, and the pensions by 0.7%, corresponding to the Geneva cost-of-living index, had received the support of TREF and would now be proposed by the Finance Committee for approval by Council in December. TREF had taken note of a factual status report regarding the first phase of recruitment of Local Staff and looked forward to a final report on overall implementation in June next year. TREF also gave its support to the Management's proposed modification to the Progressive Retirement Programme. Subject to some amendments and clarifications m...

  2. STANDING CONCERTATION COMMITTEE: ORDINARY MEETINGS IN NOVEMBER & DECEMBER 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Original: English These meetings were devoted to the main topics summarised below. 1-Follow-up of the meetings of TREF in October and the Finance Committee in November, and preparation for the Committee meetings in December The Chairman reported that the Management's proposals to adjust, on 1 January 2004, the salaries by 1.1%, on the basis of the calculated salary index, and the pensions by 0.7%, corresponding to the Geneva cost-of-living index, had received the support of TREF and would now be proposed by the Finance Committee for approval by Council in December. TREF had taken note of a factual status report regarding the first phase of recruitment of Local Staff and looked forward to a final report on overall implementation in June next year. TREF also gave its support to the Management's proposed modification to the Progressive Retirement Programme. Subject to some amendments and clarifications made at TREF and at the SCC, this proposal will be submitted for approval at the Finance Committee and Counci...

  3. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments, November-December 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-22

    11G379). 939. Mitrikov,M.P.; Dimitrov,D.A.; Metev,S. (. Exoelectron emission of laser evaporated beryllium oxide thin film detectors (in English...by laser (in Romanian). Prelucrari termice cu laseri. Bucharesti. Ed. Acad., 1987, 190 p. (RZFZA, 87/12L1124). 1038. International Summer School on

  4. CTC Sentinel. Volume 8, Issue 11, November/December 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-12

    al-Qa`ida before it, the Islamic State promotes the belief that the sooner Western ( infidel ) forces can be brought to engage the armies of the...days.33 The Islamic State would eventually respond indirectly in a video message mocking those fighting for the “ infidel MOC.”34 Even though this...often facilitated their travel and she took care of the finances of the little colony of expats that she had created there,” the judgment says. “She

  5. Army Logistician. Volume 40, Issue 6, November-December 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    the enemy’s economic supply chain by destroying merchant shipping. Allied navies sank 1,178 Japanese merchant ships compared to 214 Japanese naval...deliverables, and risk) as part of their logistics planning considerations. Of course, an occasional box of doughnuts is helpful, too; it’s all part...military, political, economic , psychological, and civic actions taken by a government to defeat an insurgency. Logisticians should understand the

  6. Surface Warfare, Concept to Reality November/December 1997

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sabalos, Nicholas

    1997-01-01

    In this issue we take a detailed look at concepts being examined by our warfighters, laboratories and industry to bring to today's waterfront prototypes of systems and combat capabilities the Surface...

  7. Pathfinder, Volume 7, Number 6, November/December 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    routes to the Black Sea using a relatively new method of analysis wherein marine analysts compare the Digital Nautical Chart ( DNC ®) data to...step ensures that the DNC ® is usable by mariners by validating how well the Navy’s digital chart system displays the DNC ® data. NGA’s Maritime Services

  8. CTC Sentinel. Volume 9, Issue 11, November/December 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    prison following a conviction for drug trafficking in April 2013.79 After initially joining Jaysh Mohamed Ash Sham, a fighting unit founded by an...blowback against Russia is escalating. As recently as November 13, 2016, Rus- sian police disrupted at the last minute a plot to punish the Rus- sian...have answered the calls to punish the “new eastern Crusaders” in Moscow.6 There have been few efforts to outline the successes and failures of

  9. Defense AT&L. November-December 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Pentagon do the big- brain work. Q As the Army realigns core competencies and resources into the four core enterprises, how is this affecting AMC? A No...trying to tie that all together? It seems that there would be significant challenges requiring a lot of brain power to synchronize and integrate...inspirational movie about a fighter, musician , actor, dancer, or wizard. Whether the hero is a young hopeful or a washed-up has-been, he or she

  10. ITER ITA newsletter. No. 26, November-December 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    This issue of ITER ITA (ITER transitional arrangements) newsletter contains concise information about two ITER related meetings including the eleventh ITER Negotiations Meeting (N-11) and the twelfth Negotiators' Standing Sub-Group (NSSG-12 convened on October 19-25, 2005 at the Kempinski Hotel Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China and fifth preparatory meeting for ITER decision making(High level negotiators from China, the European Union, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, and the United States of America met at the IAEA headquarters in Vienna on 7 November 2005 to advance the ITER Negotiations. This was the first such meeting since the successful resolution of the siting issue for ITER at the Meeting of Ministers in Moscow on 28 June 2005

  11. Rebuild America partner update, November--December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    This issue of the update includes articles on retrofitting Duke University facilities, energy efficiency updates to buildings in Portland, Oregon, Salisbury, North Carolina, Hawaii, Roanoke-Chowan, Virginia, and energy savings centered designs for lighting systems.

  12. 2009 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-01

    Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting to review the FY2008 accomplishments and FY2009 plans for the Vehicle Technologies Program, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academic to give inputs to DOE on the Program with a structured and formal methodology.

  13. Genetic use restriction technologies: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Luca

    2014-10-01

    Genetic use restriction technologies (GURTs), developed to secure return on investments through protection of plant varieties, are among the most controversial and opposed genetic engineering biotechnologies as they are perceived as a tool to force farmers to depend on multinational corporations' seed monopolies. In this work, the currently proposed strategies are described and compared with some of the principal techniques implemented for preventing transgene flow and/or seed saving, with a simultaneous analysis of the future perspectives of GURTs taking into account potential benefits, possible impacts on farmers and local plant genetic resources (PGR), hypothetical negative environmental issues and ethical concerns related to intellectual property that have led to the ban of this technology. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Modern Breast Cancer Detection: A Technological Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam B. Nover

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a serious threat worldwide and is the number two killer of women in the United States. The key to successful management is screening and early detection. What follows is a description of the state of the art in screening and detection for breast cancer as well as a discussion of new and emerging technologies. This paper aims to serve as a starting point for those who are not acquainted with this growing field.

  15. Science and technology review, October 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhye, R.

    1997-10-01

    This month`s issue contains articles entitled Livermore Science and Technology Garner Seven 1997 R&D 100 Awards; New Interferometer Measures to Atomic Dimensions; Compact More Powerful Chips from Virtually Defect-free Thin Film Systems, A New Precision Cutting Tool; The Femtosecond Laser; MELD: A CAD Tool for Photonoics Systems, The Tiltmeter: Tilting at Great Depths to Find Oil; Smaller Insulators Handle Higher Voltage; and Compact Storage Management Software: The Next Generation.

  16. Energy and technology review, March 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bookless, W.A.; Wheatcraft, D.

    1995-03-01

    This journal contains two feature articles. The first article reports on the background, design, and capabilities of the Portable Tritium Processing System currently being used to clean up and decontaminate the Laboratory's Tritium Facility. The second article discusses the development of a x-ray lasers as a probe to obtain high-resolution images of high-density plasmas produced at the Nova laser facility. Finally, two research programs are highlighted. They are silicon microcomponents and modern technology for advanced military training

  17. Modern breast cancer detection: a technological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nover, Adam B; Jagtap, Shami; Anjum, Waqas; Yegingil, Hakki; Shih, Wan Y; Shih, Wei-Heng; Brooks, Ari D

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is a serious threat worldwide and is the number two killer of women in the United States. The key to successful management is screening and early detection. What follows is a description of the state of the art in screening and detection for breast cancer as well as a discussion of new and emerging technologies. This paper aims to serve as a starting point for those who are not acquainted with this growing field.

  18. Multisensory Technology for Flavor Augmentation: A Mini Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Carlos; Obrist, Marianna; Petit, Olivia; Spence, Charles

    2018-01-01

    There is growing interest in the development of new technologies that capitalize on our emerging understanding of the multisensory influences on flavor perception in order to enhance human-food interaction design. This review focuses on the role of (extrinsic) visual, auditory, and haptic/tactile elements in modulating flavor perception and more generally, our food and drink experiences. We review some of the most exciting examples of recent multisensory technologies for augmenting such experiences. Here, we discuss applications for these technologies, for example, in the field of food experience design, in the support of healthy eating, and in the rapidly growing world of sensory marketing. However, as the review makes clear, while there are many opportunities for novel human-food interaction design, there are also a number of challenges that will need to be tackled before new technologies can be meaningfully integrated into our everyday food and drink experiences.

  19. Multisensory Technology for Flavor Augmentation: A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Velasco

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in the development of new technologies that capitalize on our emerging understanding of the multisensory influences on flavor perception in order to enhance human–food interaction design. This review focuses on the role of (extrinsic visual, auditory, and haptic/tactile elements in modulating flavor perception and more generally, our food and drink experiences. We review some of the most exciting examples of recent multisensory technologies for augmenting such experiences. Here, we discuss applications for these technologies, for example, in the field of food experience design, in the support of healthy eating, and in the rapidly growing world of sensory marketing. However, as the review makes clear, while there are many opportunities for novel human–food interaction design, there are also a number of challenges that will need to be tackled before new technologies can be meaningfully integrated into our everyday food and drink experiences.

  20. Information technologies to improve public health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhas, Melissa; Kuo, Mu-Hsing

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review examines a total of eighteen studies on the use of health information technologies to improve public health. Health information technologies are tools that allow for the management of health information in computerized systems. Health information technology, including electronic health records, computers/emails, social media, and cellphones/text messaging are becoming widespread and readily accessible to populations around the globe. In this review, the use of these technologies and interventions are discussed and evaluated for their potential to improve public health. This review found some good-quality evidence on the use of electronic health records and little good-quality evidence on the use of email, social media, cell phones and text messaging to improve healthcare, illustrating the need for further study in these areas.

  1. Proceedings of the fuels technology contractors review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, R.D. [ed.

    1993-11-01

    The Fuels Technology Contractors Review Meeting was held November 16-18, 1993, at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). METC periodically provides an opportunity to bring together all of the R&D participants in a DOE-sponsored contractors review meeting to present key results of their research and to provide technology transfer to the active research community and to the interested public. This meeting was previously called the Natural Gas Technology Contractors Review Meeting. This year it was expanded to include DOE-sponsored research on oil shale and tar sands and so was retitled the Fuels Technology Contractors Review Meeting. Current research activities include efforts in both natural gas and liquid fuels. The natural gas portion of the meeting included discussions of results summarizing work being conducted in fracture systems, both natural and induced; drilling, completion, and stimulation research; resource characterization; delivery and storage; gas to liquids research; and environmental issues. The meeting also included project and technology summaries on research in oil shale, tar sands, and mild coal gasification, and summaries of work in natural-gas fuel cells and natural-gas turbines. The format included oral and poster session presentations. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  2. Science and Technology Review October 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eimerl, D.

    1999-01-01

    The following titles are in the review: The Laboratory in the News; Commentary about the year's R and D 100 Honors; The Optical Modulator and Switch: Light on the Move; From Dinosaur Bones to Software, Gamma Rays Protect Property; High-Power Green Lasers Open up Precision Machining; Breakthrough Design for Accelerators; New Deposition System for the Microchip Revolution; and PEREGRINEtrademark Takes Aim at Cancer Tumors

  3. 2016 National Algal Biofuels Technology Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, Amanda [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bioenergy Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Wolfe, Alexis [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); English, Christine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bioenergy Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Ruddick, Colleen [BCS, Incorporated, Washington, DC (United States); Lambert, Devinn [Bioenergy Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, is committed to advancing the vision of a viable, sustainable domestic biomass industry that produces renewable biofuels, bioproducts, and biopower; enhances U.S. energy security; reduces our dependence on fossil fuels; provides environmental benefits; and creates economic opportunities across the nation. BETO’s goals are driven by various federal policies and laws, including the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). To accomplish its goals, BETO has undertaken a diverse portfolio of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities, in partnership with national laboratories, academia, and industry.

  4. Science and technology review, April 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Failor, B.; Stull, S. [eds.

    1996-04-01

    There are two main feature articles in this publication. The first article tells of how using off-the-shelf computers, state-of-the-art CCDs, and a network of collaborators, scientist at Lawrence Livermore National Lab explore the composition of dark matter. Indications are that MACHOs (MAssive Compact Halo Objects) make up the bulk of dark matter in the universe. The second article discusses a new breed of Livermore-developed, flywheel-based energy storage systems using new materials, new technologies, and new thinking to develop a new electromechanical battery. Patents and research highlights are also listed in this publication.

  5. Science & Technology Review May/June 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinn, D J

    2008-03-19

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Biomedical Technology Has a Home at Livermore--Commentary by Cherry A. Murray; (2) Shaping the Future of Aneurysm Treatments--Livermore foam devices may offer significant advantages for treating some forms of aneurysms; (3) Ring around a Stellar Shell: A Tale of Scientific Serendipity--Using a three-dimensional model, Livermore scientists have solved a long-standing puzzle of stellar evolution; and (4) On Assignment in Washington, DC--Livermore personnel in Washington, DC, support federal sponsors and become valuable assets to Laboratory programs.

  6. Acoustic Wave Filter Technology-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Clemens C W

    2017-09-01

    Today, acoustic filters are the filter technology to meet the requirements with respect to performance dictated by the cellular phone standards and their form factor. Around two billion cellular phones are sold every year, and smart phones are of a very high percentage of approximately two-thirds. Smart phones require a very high number of filter functions ranging from the low double-digit range up to almost triple digit numbers in the near future. In the frequency range up to 1 GHz, surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters are almost exclusively employed, while in the higher frequency range, bulk acoustic wave (BAW) and SAW filters are competing for their shares. Prerequisites for the success of acoustic filters were the availability of high-quality substrates, advanced and highly reproducible fabrication technologies, optimum filter techniques, precise simulation software, and advanced design tools that allow the fast and efficient design according to customer specifications. This paper will try to focus on innovations leading to high volume applications of intermediate frequency (IF) and radio frequency (RF) acoustic filters, e.g., TV IF filters, IF filters for cellular phones, and SAW/BAW RF filters for the RF front-end of cellular phones.

  7. Occupational Safety Review of High Technology Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Cadwallader

    2005-01-31

    This report contains reviews of operating experiences, selected accident events, and industrial safety performance indicators that document the performance of the major US DOE magnetic fusion experiments and particle accelerators. These data are useful to form a basis for the occupational safety level at matured research facilities with known sets of safety rules and regulations. Some of the issues discussed are radiation safety, electromagnetic energy exposure events, and some of the more widespread issues of working at height, equipment fires, confined space work, electrical work, and other industrial hazards. Nuclear power plant industrial safety data are also included for comparison.

  8. Deviation Among Technology Reviews: An Informative Enrichment of Technology Evolution Theory for Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Sood (Ashish); S. Stremersch (Stefan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractUnderstanding technological change is of critical importance to marketers, as it bears new markets, new brands, new customers, and new market leaders. This paper examines the deviation among reviews of a technology’s performance and its consequences for inferences on technology evolution

  9. Physiochemical technologies for HCB remediation and disposal: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Man; Yuan, Songhu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► HCB contamination is still a serious environmental problem. ► Physiochemical technologies for HCB remediation and disposal are reviewed. ► Perspectives for most remediation technologies are proposed. ► Pilot and large scale remediation and disposal are presented. - Abstract: Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is one of the 12 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) listed in “Stockholm Convention”. It is hydrophobic, toxic and persistent in the environment. Due to extensive use in the past, HCB contamination is still a serious environmental problem. Strong adsorption on solid particles makes the remediation difficult. This paper presents an overview of the physiochemical technologies for HCB remediation and disposal. The adsorption/desorption behavior of HCB is firstly described because it comprises the fundamental for most remediation technologies. Physiochemical technologies concerned mostly for HCB remediation and disposal, i.e., chemical enhanced washing, electrokinetic remediation, reductive dechlorination and thermal decomposition, are reviewed in terms of fundamentals, state of the art and perspectives. The other physiochemical technologies including chemical oxidation, radiation induced catalytic dechlorination, ultrasonic assisted treatment and mechanochemical dechlorination are also reviewed. The pilot and large scale tests on HCB remediation or disposal are summarized in the end. This review aims to provide useful information to researchers and practitioners regarding HCB remediation and disposal.

  10. Science and Technology Review December 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bearinger, J P

    2009-11-17

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Advanced Materials for Our Past, Present, and Future - Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia; (2) A Defensive 'Coat' for Materials under Attack - Amorphous metal coatings provide the strength and corrosion resistance needed to protect military vessels and spent nuclear fuel containers; (3) Too Close for Comfort - Laboratory scientists are analyzing the feasibility of using nuclear explosives to disrupt or divert asteroids on a collision course with Earth; (4) Hyperion: A Titan of High-Performance Computing Systems - Livermore is collaborating with 10 computing industry leaders to create a test bed for Linux cluster hardware and software technologies; (5) Isolating Pathogens for Speedy Identification - An automated miniature device separates viruses, bacteria, genetic material, and proteins from nasal swabs and blood and urine samples for speedy identification.

  11. Science and Technology Review December 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolic, R J

    2011-11-01

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) High-Performance Computing for Energy Innovation - Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia; (2) Simulating the Next Generation of Energy Technologies - Projects using high-performance computing demonstrate Livermore's computational horsepower and improve the quality of energy solutions and the speed of deployment; (3) ARC Comes into Focus - The Advanced Radiographic Capability, a petawatt-class laser, can penetrate dense objects to reveal material dynamics during National Ignition Facility experiments; (4) A New Method to Track Viral Evolution - A sensitive technique developed at the Laboratory can identify virus mutations that may jump from host to host; and (5) Data for Defense: New Software Finds It Fast - Department of Defense warfighters and planners are using Livermore software systems to extract pertinent information from massive amounts of data.

  12. Energy and technology review, June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, W.A.; Canada, J.; de Vore, L.; Gleason, K.; Kirvel, R.; Kroopnick, H.; McElroy, L.; Sanford, N.M.; Van Dyke, P.T. [eds.

    1993-06-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was established in 1952 to do research on nuclear weapons and magnetic fusion energy. Since then other major programs have been added, including laser fusion and laser isotope separation, biomedical and environmental science, strategic defense, and applied energy technology. These programs require basic research in chemistry, materials science, computer science, engineering and physics. This bulletin is published on a monthly basis to report on unclassified work in all of the programs. There are two articles in this issue. Herbert F. York reminisces about the early days in Livermore, emphasizing the legacy of E.O. Lawrence, and comments on the role of the Laboratory in the future. COG, a new,high-resolution code for modeling radiation transport is described. The code is a new Monte Carlo neutron/photon transport code that solves complex radiation shielding and nuclear criticality problems. It is now available for high-speed desktop workstations as well as mainframes.

  13. Science & Technology Review January/February 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bearinger, J P

    2009-11-30

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Innovative Materials Rise to the Radiation Challenge - Commentary by Bruce Warner; (2) The Hunt for Better Radiation Detection - New materials will help radiation detectors pick up weak signals and accurately identify illicit radioactive sources; (3) Time-Critical Technology Identifies Deadly Bloodborne Pathogens - A portable device can simultaneously distinguish up to five bloodborne pathogens in just minutes; (4) Defending Computer Networks against Attack - A Laboratory effort takes a new approach to detecting increasingly sophisticated cyber attacks; and (5) Imaging Cargo's Inner Secrets - Livermore-University of California collaborators are modeling a new radiographic technique for identifying nuclear materials concealed inside cargo containers.

  14. Science and Technology Review March 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolic, R J

    2012-02-15

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Honoring a Legacy of Service to the Nation - The nation pays tribute to George Miller, who retired in December 2011 as the Laboratory's tenth director; (2) Life-Extension Programs Encompass All Our Expertise - Commentary by Bruce T. Goodwin; (3) Extending the Life of an Aging Weapon - Stockpile stewards have begun work on a multiyear effort to extend the service life of the aging W78 warhead by 30 years; (4) Materials by Design - Material microstructures go three-dimensional with improved additive manufacturing techniques developed at Livermore; (5) Friendly Microbes Power Energy-Producing Devices - Livermore researchers are demonstrating how electrogenic bacteria and microbial fuel cell technologies can produce clean, renewable energy and purify water; and (6) Chemical Sensor Is All Wires, No Batteries - Livermore's 'batteryless' nanowire sensor could benefit applications in diverse fields such as homeland security and medicine.

  15. Technology-Enhanced Peer Review: Benefits and Implications of Providing Multiple Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Lagkas, Thomas D.; Demetriadis, Stavros N.

    2017-01-01

    This study analyses the impact of self and peer feedback in technology-enhanced peer review settings. The impact of receiving peer comments (“receiver” perspective) is compared to that of reaching own insights by reviewing others’ work (“giver” perspective). In this study, 38 sophomore students w...... systems that aim to flexibly support more efficient peer review schemes.......This study analyses the impact of self and peer feedback in technology-enhanced peer review settings. The impact of receiving peer comments (“receiver” perspective) is compared to that of reaching own insights by reviewing others’ work (“giver” perspective). In this study, 38 sophomore students...... were randomly assigned in two conditions and engaged in peer review activity facilitated by a web-based learning environment asking them to provide multiple reviews. In the Peer Reviewed (PR) condition students both reviewed peer work and received peer comments for their own work. By contrast...

  16. A Systematic Literature Review of Technologies for Suicidal Behavior Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Martín, Manuel A; Muñoz-Sánchez, Juan Luis; Sainz-de-Abajo, Beatriz; Castillo-Sánchez, Gema; Hamrioui, Sofiane; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel

    2018-03-05

    Suicide is the second cause of death in young people. The use of technologies as tools facilitates the detection of individuals at risk of suicide thus allowing early intervention and efficacy. Suicide can be prevented in many cases. Technology can help people at risk of suicide and their families. It could prevent situations of risk of suicide with the technological evolution that is increasing. This work is a systematic review of research papers published in the last ten years on technology for suicide prevention. In September 2017, the consultation was carried out in the scientific databases PubMed, ScienceDirect, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library and Google Scholar. A general search was conducted with the terms "prevention" AND "suicide" AND "technology. More specific searches included technologies such as "Web", "mobile", "social networks", and others terms related to technologies. The number of articles found following the methodology proposed was 90, but only 30 are focused on the objective of this work. Most of them were Web technologies (51.61%), mobile solutions (22.58%), social networks (12.90%), machine learning (3.23%) and other technologies (9.68%). According to the results obtained, although there are technological solutions that help the prevention of suicide, much remains to be done in this field. Collaboration among technologists, psychiatrists, patients, and family members is key to advancing the development of new technology-based solutions that can help save lives.

  17. Contactless Patient Monitoring for General Wards: A Systematic Technology Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naziyok, Tolga P; Zeleke, Atinkut A; Röhrig, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Sudden, serious life-threatening situations happen even on general wards. Current technologies are working with sensors which are attached to every patient, which is a source of failures and false alarms. The goal of this review was to assess the state of the art of potential techniques for contactless patient monitoring in general wards. The MEDLINE database was used for literature retrieval. 453 unique references screened, 34 research articles met inclusion criteria. Ballistocardiography, Radar and Thermography technologies are the most widely tested techniques. The Majority of the studies are done in a laboratory setting. No study shows the feasibility of one contactless monitoring technology over the distance required for monitoring rooms. Today no technology is feasible. A combination of technologies may become feasible in 10 or more years, until then we have to think about ethical and privacy issues of these pervasive technologies.

  18. Reviews of accelerator science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Weiren

    2008-01-01

    Particle accelerators are a major invention of the 20th century. In the last eight decades, they have evolved enormously and have fundamentally changed the way we live, think and work. Accelerators are the most powerful microscopes for viewing the tiniest inner structure of cells, genes, molecules, atoms and their constituents such as protons, neutrons, electrons, neutrinos and quarks. This opens up a whole new world for materials science, chemistry and molecular biology.Accelerators with megawatt beam power may ultimately solve a critical problem faced by our society, namely, the treatment of nuclear waste and the supply of an alternative type of energy. There are also tens of thousands of small accelerators all over the world. They are used every day for medical imaging, cancer therapy, radioisotope production, high-density chip-making, mass spectrometry, cargo x-ray/gamma-ray imaging, detection of explosives and illicit drugs, and weapons. This volume provides a comprehensive review of this driving and fas...

  19. Review of lithium-ion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, S.C.; Cieslak, W.R.

    1993-12-31

    The first practical use of graphite intercalation compounds (GIC) as battery anodes was reported in a 1981 patent by Basu in which a molten salt cell was described having a negative electrode that consisted of lithium intercalated in graphite. A second patent by Basu, issued in 1983, described an ambient temperature rechargeable system which also utilized lithium intercalated in graphite as the anode. Work in this area progressed at a low level, however, until interest was sparked in 1990 when Sony Corporation announced a new ``lithium-ion`` rechargeable cell containing a lithium ion intercalating carbon anode. These cells have the advantages of metallic lithium systems; i.e., high energy density, high voltage, and light weight, without the disadvantages of dendrite formation on charge and the safety considerations associated with metallic lithium. Materials other than carbon have been studied as intercalation anodes. Examples are Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, WO{sub 2} and TiS{sub 2}. Although these alternate anode materials are of interest academically and for specialty applications, they do not hold much promise for widespread general use due to their increased weight and lower cell voltage. Studies of cathode materials for lithium-ion systems have centered on the transition metal chalcogenides. A number of these materials are capable of reversibly intercalating lithium ions at a useful potential versus lithium. Both organic liquids and polymers are candidate electrolytes for this technology.

  20. Science & Technology Review April/May 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bearinger, J P

    2009-03-23

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Leveraging the National Ignition Facility to Meet the Climate-Energy Challenge--Commentary by George H. Miller; (2) The Journey into a New Era of Scientific Discoveries--The world's largest laser is dedicated on May 29, 2009; (3) Safe and Sustainable Energy with LIFE--A revolutionary technology to generate electricity, modeled after the National Ignition Facility, could either be a pure fusion energy source or combine the best of fusion and fission energy; (4) A Simulated Rehearsal for Battle--Livermore's Joint Conflict and Tactical Simulation is the most widely used tactical model in the world; (5) Improving Catalysis with a 'Noble' Material--By infusing carbon aerogels with platinum, researchers have produced a more affordable and efficient catalytic material; and (6) A Time Machine for Fast Neutrons--A new, robust time-projection chamber that provides directional detection of fast neutrons could greatly improve search methods for nuclear materials.

  1. Health implications of new-age technologies: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgrami, Zaid; McLAUGHLIN, Laura; Milanaik, Ruth; Adesman, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    New-age technologies are ubiquitous in the lives of adolescents. Recent trends in media use suggest that adolescents are spending more time than ever engaging with technologies, and are able to do so in virtually all settings at any time. Given that new-age technologies are so heavily integrated within the daily life of adolescents, the health risks and benefits they offer must be closely examined. In this systematic review, we present recent literature related to the implications of new-age technologies on adolescent health. A total of 94 articles published since 2006 were collected using PubMed and Google Scholar on the most popular new-age technologies among adolescents: the internet, television, cell phones, and video games. The current body of research highlights several health risks related to these technologies. Nearly all have the potential for addiction, which can result in other symptoms and impair one's daily life. Excessive use can affect several components of health, such as quality of sleep, body composition, and mental well-being, and certain practices (viewing pornography, sexting) can lead to risky sexual behaviors. However, the technologies discussed in the present review also have tremendous potential to promote adolescent health. Pediatricians must educate parents and patients on how to safely use technology to minimize the potentially harmful outcomes.

  2. Emerging desalination technologies for water treatment: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, Arun; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, a review of emerging desalination technologies is presented. Several technologies for desalination of municipal and industrial wastewater have been proposed and evaluated, but only certain technologies have been commercialized or are close to commercialization. This review consists of membrane-based, thermal-based and alternative technologies. Membranes based on incorporation of nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes or graphene-based ones show promise as innovative desalination technologies with superior performance in terms of water permeability and salt rejection. However, only nanocomposite membranes have been commercialized while others are still under fundamental developmental stages. Among the thermal-based technologies, membrane distillation and adsorption desalination show the most promise for enhanced performance with the availability of a waste heat source. Several alternative technologies have also been developed recently; those based on capacitive deionization have shown considerable improvements in their salt removal capacity and feed water recovery. In the same category, microbial desalination cells have been shown to desalinate high salinity water without any external energy source, but to date, scale up of the process has not been methodically evaluated. In this paper, advantages and drawbacks of each technology is discussed along with a comparison of performance, water quality and energy consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Plastic solid waste utilization technologies: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Arun Kumar; Shivashankar, Murugesh; Majumder, Suman

    2017-11-01

    Plastics are used in more number of applications in worldwide and it becomes essential part of our daily life. In Indian cities and villages people use the plastics in buying vegetable as a carry bag, drinking water bottle, use of plastic furniture in home, plastics objects uses in kitchen, plastic drums in packing and storage of the different chemicals for industrial use, use plastic utensils in home and many more uses. After usage of plastics it will become part of waste garbage and create pollution due to presence of toxic chemicals and it will be spread diseases and give birth to uncontrolled issues in social society. In current scenario consumption of plastic waste increasing day by day and it is very difficult to manage the plastic waste. There are limited methodologies available for reutilization of plastic waste again. Such examples are recycling, landfill, incineration, gasification and hydrogenation. In this paper we will review the existing methodologies of utilization of plastic waste in current scenario

  4. Foam-mat drying technology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Z; Jideani, V A

    2017-08-13

    This article reviews various aspects of foam-mat drying such as foam-mat drying processing technique, main additives used for foam-mat drying, foam-mat drying of liquid and solid foods, quality characteristics of foam-mat dried foods, and economic and technical benefits for employing foam-mat drying. Foam-mat drying process is an alternative method that allows the removal of water from liquid materials and pureed materials. In this drying process, a liquid material is converted into foam that is stable by being whipped after adding an edible foaming agent. The stable foam is then spread out in sheet or mat and dried by using hot air (40-90°C) at atmospheric pressure. Methyl cellulose (0.25-2%), egg white (3-20%), maltodextrin (0.5-05%), and gum Arabic (2-9%) are the commonly utilized additives for the foam-mat drying process at the given range, either combined together for their effectiveness or individual effect. The foam-mat drying process is suitable for heat sensitive, viscous, and sticky products that cannot be dried using other forms of drying methods such as spray drying because of the state of product. More interest has developed for foam-mat drying because of the simplicity, cost effectiveness, high speed drying, and improved product quality it provides.

  5. Review of casing while drilling technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavković Bojan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional drilling methods have been plagued with huge operational and financial challenges, such as cost of purchasing, inspecting, handling, transporting the drill equipment and most importantly, tripping in-and-out of the drill string whenever the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA needs a replacement, needs of wiper trip or when total depth is reached. The tripping in-and-out of the drill string not only contributes to Non Productive Time (NPT but also leads to well control difficulties including wellbore instability and lost circulation. All this has led Oil and Gas industry, as well as any other engineering industry, to seek for new ways and methods in order to reduce these problems. Thanks to the advances in technical solutions and constant improvements of conventional drilling methods, a new drilling method - casing while drilling has been developed. Casing Drilling encompasses the process of simultaneously drilling and casing a well, using the active casing and thus optimizes the production. This paper presents a review of casing while drilling method (CwD and its practical usage in drilling wells. The comparison of conventional drilling method and casing while drilling is also presented. The CwD method achieves significantly better results than conventional drilling method.

  6. Biology, Biography, and Technology: Review in Kinship and Genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Frois, Catarina

    2009-01-01

    This review considers four recent works on in vitro fertilization; human egg donation; the relation among family, kinship and nature; genetic databases, and medical research. Assisted reproductive technology has increasingly become a tool for the artificial production of body parts. Anthropology is reformulating kinship and family theories, taking into account their relationship with biology (in the strict sense of body) and technology as primary ‘‘agents’’ of reproductio...

  7. Science and Technology Review October/November 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolic, Rebecca J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-08-25

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we focus on science and technology research to ensure our nation’s security. We also apply that expertise to solve other important national problems in energy, bioscience, and the environment. Science & Technology Review is published eight times a year to communicate, to a broad audience, the Laboratory’s scientific and technological accomplishments in fulfilling its primary missions. The publication’s goal is to help readers understand these accomplishments and appreciate their value to the individual citizen, the nation, and the world. This is the October/November 2011 issue, with the cover story being "Proton Therapy Advances Cancer Treatment."

  8. Mobile technology in health information systems - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X-Y; Zhang, P-Y

    2016-05-01

    Mobile technology is getting involved in every sphere of life including medical health care. There has been an immense upsurge in mobile phone-based health innovations these days. The expansion of mobile phone networks and the proliferation of inexpensive mobile handsets have made the digital information and communication technology capabilities very handy for the people to exploit if for any utility including health care. The mobile phone based innovations are able to transform weak and under performing health information system into more modern and efficient information system. The present review article will enlighten all these aspects of mobile technology in health care.

  9. Assistive technology for communication of older adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrozo Campos Antunes, Thaiany; Souza Bulle de Oliveira, Acary; Hudec, Robert; Brusque Crocetta, Tania; Ferreira de Lima Antão, Jennifer Yohanna; de Almeida Barbosa, Renata Thais; Guarnieri, Regiani; Massetti, Thais; Garner, David M; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos

    2018-02-16

    Describe the use of assistive technology to enhance communication opportunities for older adults. A systematic review was conducted in two databases, PubMed and Web of Science, by using two different searches in each. The search was limited to original articles, in English language, including people aged 60 years and older that used any type of assistive technology for communication. The articles found in the initial search were filtered by title, abstracts and the remaining articles were fully read. Eighteen studies were included in this review after the reading of full-texts. Most of the studies included apparently healthy participants with communication limitations due to aging related changes and the others included people with some pathology that prevent them from normal communication. Four categories of assistive technology were identified: assistive technology for people with speech problems; robot or videoconferencing systems; Information and Communication Technologies and, other types of assistive technology for communication, such as hearing aids and scrapbooks. Assistive technology for communication of older adults is not only used by people with disabilities that prevent them from usual communication. They are mostly for older adults without a pathological communication problem.

  10. Consumer Sleep Technologies: A Review of the Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ping-Ru T; Kientz, Julie A; Choe, Eun Kyoung; Kay, Matthew; Landis, Carol A; Watson, Nathaniel F

    2015-12-15

    To review sleep related consumer technologies, including mobile electronic device "apps," wearable devices, and other technologies. Validation and methodological transparency, the effect on clinical sleep medicine, and various social, legal, and ethical issues are discussed. We reviewed publications from the digital libraries of the Association for Computing Machinery, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and PubMed; publications from consumer technology websites; and mobile device app marketplaces. Search terms included "sleep technology," "sleep app," and "sleep monitoring." Consumer sleep technologies are categorized by delivery platform including mobile device apps (integrated with a mobile operating system and utilizing mobile device functions such as the camera or microphone), wearable devices (on the body or attached to clothing), embedded devices (integrated into furniture or other fixtures in the native sleep environment), accessory appliances, and conventional desktop/website resources. Their primary goals include facilitation of sleep induction or wakening, self-guided sleep assessment, entertainment, social connection, information sharing, and sleep education. Consumer sleep technologies are changing the landscape of sleep health and clinical sleep medicine. These technologies have the potential to both improve and impair collective and individual sleep health depending on method of implementation. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  11. Technology-Enhanced Peer Review: Benefits and Implications of Providing Multiple Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Lagkas, Thomas D.; Demetriadis, Stavros N.

    2017-01-01

    were randomly assigned in two conditions and engaged in peer review activity facilitated by a web-based learning environment asking them to provide multiple reviews. In the Peer Reviewed (PR) condition students both reviewed peer work and received peer comments for their own work. By contrast......, in the Self Reviewed (SR) condition students provided peer reviews, but did not receive any. Instead, they were asked to perform self reviewing, before proceeding to any revisions of their work. Result showed that the two groups were comparable in all aspects, suggesting that the lack of getting peer reviews......This study analyses the impact of self and peer feedback in technology-enhanced peer review settings. The impact of receiving peer comments (“receiver” perspective) is compared to that of reaching own insights by reviewing others’ work (“giver” perspective). In this study, 38 sophomore students...

  12. Building Innovation: Learning with Technologies. Australian Education Review Number 56

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Australian Education Review (AER) 56 explores national and international policy priorities for building students' innovation capabilities through information and communication technologies (ICT) in Australian schools. Section 1 sets out the Australian policy context for digital education and highlights some of the emerging challenges. It provides…

  13. Centers for manufacturing technology: Industrial Advisory Committee Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    An advisory committee, composed of senior managers form industrial- sector companies and major manufacturing trade associations and representatives from appropriate educational institutions, meets semi-annually to review and advise the Oak Ridge Centers for Manufacturing Technology (ORCMT) on its economic security program. Individual papers have been indexed separately for the database.

  14. 78 FR 11902 - Review of Gun Safety Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs [OJP (NIJ) Docket No. 1615] Review of Gun Safety...'s Plan to reduce gun violence released on January 16, 2013, the U.S. Department of Justice, Office... emerging gun safety technologies and plans to issue a report on the availability and use of those...

  15. RESIDENTIAL WOOD COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY REVIEW VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report gives results of a review of the current state-of-the-art of residential wood combustion (RWC). The key environmental parameter of concern was the air emission of particles. The technological status of all major RWC categories -- cordwood stoves, fireplaces, masonry h...

  16. RESIDENTIAL WOOD COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY REVIEW - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a review of the current state-of-the-art of residential wood combustion (RWC). The key environmental parameter of concern was the air emission of particles. The technological status of all major RWC categories--cordwood stoves, fireplaces, masonry heat...

  17. Issues facing the Australian Health Technology Assessment Review of medical technology funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Susanne P

    2010-07-05

    The Australian Health Technology Assessment Review has the potential to have a major effect on the availability of new medical technology and the listing of associated medical procedures on the Medicare Benefits Schedule. Despite this, only about 15% of submissions to the Review came from "medical associations". Pharmaceutical and medical technologies are inherently different, and there are a number of difficulties associated with evaluating medical technology using the same process and evidence levels as those used for pharmaceuticals. The current sequential and lengthy processing of new medical technology and procedures is delaying access to beneficial medical technology and could be substantially reduced. There is currently no effective funding process for medical technology classified as capital equipment or consumables and disposables. This has created a perverse incentive in favour of using funded implantable prostheses based on access to funding rather than superior clinical effectiveness. The existing horizon scanning process could be better used to not only identify all potentially cost-effective new and emerging medical technology and procedures as early as possible, but also to identify gaps in the evidence.

  18. Lab on a chip technologies for algae detection: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Allison; Rohrlack, Thomas; Bellouard, Yves

    2012-08-01

    Over the last few decades, lab on a chip technologies have emerged as powerful tools for high-accuracy diagnosis with minute quantities of liquid and as tools for exploring cell properties in general. In this paper, we present a review of the current status of this technology in the context of algae detection and monitoring. We start with an overview of the detection methods currently used for algae monitoring, followed by a review of lab on a chip devices for algae detection and classification, and then discuss a case study based on our own research activities. We conclude with a discussion on future challenges and motivations for algae-oriented lab on a chip technologies. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Educational Technology: A Review of the Integration, Resources, and Effectiveness of Technology in K-12 Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolph Delgado

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no questioning that the way people live, interact, communicate, and conduct business is undergoing a profound, rapid change. This change is often referred to as the “digital revolution,” which is the advancement of technology from analog, electronic and mechanical tools to the digital tools available today. Moreover, technology has begun to change education, affecting how students acquire the skill sets needed to prepare for college and a career and how educators integrate digital technological instructional strategies to teach. Numerous studies have been published discussing the barriers of integrating technology, the estimated amount of investment that is needed in order to fully support educational technology, and, of course, the effectiveness of technology in the classroom. As such, this article presents a critical review of the transitions that technology integration has made over the years; the amount of resources and funding that has been allocated to immerse school with technology; and the conflicting results presented on effectiveness of using is technology in education. Through synthesis of selected themes, we found a plethora of technological instructional strategies being used to integrate technology into K-12 classrooms. Also, though there have been large investments made to integrate technology into K-12 classrooms to equip students with the skills needed to prepare for college and a career, the practical use of this investment has not been impressive. Lastly, several meta-analyses showed promising results of effectiveness of technology in the classroom. However, several inherent methodological and study design issues dampen the amount of variance that technology accounts for.

  20. Noninvasive imaging technologies for cutaneous wound assessment: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Dereck W; Ghassemi, Pejhman; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C; Prindeze, Nicholas J; Moffatt, Lauren T; Alkhalil, Abdulnaser; Shupp, Jeffrey W

    2015-01-01

    The ability to phenotype wounds for the purposes of assessing severity, healing potential and treatment is an important function of evidence-based medicine. A variety of optical technologies are currently in development for noninvasive wound assessment. To varying extents, these optical technologies have the potential to supplement traditional clinical wound evaluation and research, by providing detailed information regarding skin components imperceptible to visual inspection. These assessments are achieved through quantitative optical analysis of tissue characteristics including blood flow, collagen remodeling, hemoglobin content, inflammation, temperature, vascular structure, and water content. Technologies that have, to this date, been applied to wound assessment include: near infrared imaging, thermal imaging, optical coherence tomography, orthogonal polarization spectral imaging, fluorescence imaging, laser Doppler imaging, microscopy, spatial frequency domain imaging, photoacoustic detection, and spectral/hyperspectral imaging. We present a review of the technologies in use or development for these purposes with three aims: (1) providing basic explanations of imaging technology concepts, (2) reviewing the wound imaging literature, and (3) providing insight into areas for further application and exploration. Noninvasive imaging is a promising advancement in wound assessment and all technologies require further validation. © 2015 by the Wound Healing Society.

  1. Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Dezhen; Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan; He, Pinjing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • MSW pyrolysis reactors, products and environmental impacts are reviewed. • MSW pyrolysis still has to deal with flue gas emissions and products’ contamination. • Definition of standardized products is suggested to formalize MSW pyrolysis technology. • Syngas is recommended to be the target product for single MSW pyrolysis technology. - Abstract: Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO 2 and NH 3 , contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested

  2. Technology, applications and modelling of ohmic heating: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, K Shiby; Pandey, M C; Radhakrishna, K; Bawa, A S

    2014-10-01

    Ohmic heating or Joule heating has immense potential for achieving rapid and uniform heating in foods, providing microbiologically safe and high quality foods. This review discusses the technology behind ohmic heating, the current applications and thermal modeling of the process. The success of ohmic heating depends on the rate of heat generation in the system, the electrical conductivity of the food, electrical field strength, residence time and the method by which the food flows through the system. Ohmic heating is appropriate for processing of particulate and protein rich foods. A vast amount of work is still necessary to understand food properties in order to refine system design and maximize performance of this technology in the field of packaged foods and space food product development. Various economic studies will also play an important role in understanding the overall cost and viability of commercial application of this technology in food processing. Some of the demerits of the technology are also discussed.

  3. A Review of Gamification in Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabawa, H. W.

    2017-02-01

    This paper review 10 papers that relating to gamification adoption in developing technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) framework. Technological developments lately led to the trend of increased use of ICT in the learning process, one of which is gamification. Gamification is the concept of applying game mechanics and game design techniques to engage and motivate people to achieve their goals. Gamification in education as an intersection of learning and fun. The problem is that not all game’s attributes suitable for use in presents a teaching material. TPACK is a framework for the teacher that described a complex interaction among three bodies of knowledge : content, pedagogy and technology. TPACK engagement has an impact on the teacher mastery in dimension of teaching material content, in addition to improve teachers skill in developing technology in classroom learning.

  4. Ultra-low-head hydroelectric technology: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Daqing; Deng, Zhiqun (Daniel)

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, distributed renewable energy-generation technologies, such as wind and solar, have developed rapidly. Nevertheless, the utilization of ultra-low-head (ULH) water energy (i.e., situations where the hydraulic head is less than 3 m or the water flow is more than 0.5 m/s with zero head) has received little attention. We believe that, through technological innovations and cost reductions, ULH hydropower has the potential to become an attractive, renewable, and sustainable resource. This paper investigates potential sites for ULH energy resources, the selection of relevant turbines and generators, simplification of civil works, and project costs. This review introduces the current achievements on ULH hydroelectric technology to stimulate discussions and participation of stakeholders to develop related technologies for further expanding its utilization as an important form of renewable energy.

  5. Recent development of plasma pollution control technology: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Shih Chang

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous pollution control, solid and liquid waste treatments have been commercialized based on incineration, catalysis, adsorption, disposal with landfill, etc. More recently technology based on plasmas has become significant due to the advantages such as lower costs, higher treatment and energy efficiencies, smaller space volume, etc. In order to commercialize this new technology, the treatment rate, energy efficiency of treatment, pressure drop of reactor, reusable by-products production rate, must be improved, based on the identifications of major fundamental mechanism of processes, optimizations of reactor, and power supply for an integrated system. In this work, recent development of plasma pollution control technology was critically reviewed and the principle of processes and reactor technologies were outlined. Special attention will be focused on material processing generated pollutants.

  6. Physiochemical technologies for HCB remediation and disposal: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Man; Yuan, Songhu

    2012-08-30

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is one of the 12 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) listed in "Stockholm Convention". It is hydrophobic, toxic and persistent in the environment. Due to extensive use in the past, HCB contamination is still a serious environmental problem. Strong adsorption on solid particles makes the remediation difficult. This paper presents an overview of the physiochemical technologies for HCB remediation and disposal. The adsorption/desorption behavior of HCB is firstly described because it comprises the fundamental for most remediation technologies. Physiochemical technologies concerned mostly for HCB remediation and disposal, i.e., chemical enhanced washing, electrokinetic remediation, reductive dechlorination and thermal decomposition, are reviewed in terms of fundamentals, state of the art and perspectives. The other physiochemical technologies including chemical oxidation, radiation induced catalytic dechlorination, ultrasonic assisted treatment and mechanochemical dechlorination are also reviewed. The pilot and large scale tests on HCB remediation or disposal are summarized in the end. This review aims to provide useful information to researchers and practitioners regarding HCB remediation and disposal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Change Management in Information Technology - A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadi Hasan Miraz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the state of the art of research in Information Technology (IT in Change Management (CM. Initial studies indicate that investments into CM in IT often do not add the predictable value, neither to the CM division himself nor to the association supported by the CM section. A basis for further study into this complex and inter disciplinary area is therefore needed. This literature review will contribute to this basis. Based on a Systematic Literature Review (SLR method, journal articles, with a focus on CM in IT were found. Relevant articles were organized in categories according to focus on Technology, IT layer, CM process and theory, research method applied and type of findings. Finally research gaps were identified. There seems to be a general belief in technology combinations as a way to speed up the rather slow IT diffusion process in CM. It is documented that current research into CM in IT has an unbalanced focus on few specific technologies, IT layers and CM processes, and that further research should focus more on the IT implementation process and use. Knowledge from application and use could be fed back into (and strengthen conceptualization and progress, thereby adding more value to CM. Only the search engine Scopus is used. This is the first review paper focusing on CM in general in IT, giving an overview of the area and delivering a basis for further research.

  8. Physician communication via Internet-enabled technology: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Neil G; Randall, Glen E; Archer, Norman P; Musson, David M

    2017-10-01

    The use of Internet-enabled technology (information and communication technology such as smartphone applications) may enrich information exchange among providers and, consequently, improve health care delivery. The purpose of this systematic review was to gain a greater understanding of the role that Internet-enabled technology plays in enhancing communication among physicians. Studies were identified through a search in three electronic platforms: the Association for Computing Machinery Digital Library, ProQuest, and Web of Science. The search identified 5140 articles; of these, 21 met all inclusion criteria. In general, physicians were satisfied with Internet-enabled technology, but consensus was lacking regarding whether Internet-enabled technology improved efficiency or made a difference to clinical decision-making. Internet-enabled technology can play an important role in enhancing communication among physicians, but the extent of that benefit is influenced by (1) the impact of Internet-enabled technology on existing work practices, (2) the availability of adequate resources, and (3) the nature of institutional elements, such as privacy legislation.

  9. Technology in precision viticulture: a state of the art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matese A

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Alessandro Matese,1 Salvatore Filippo Di Gennaro1,2 1Institute of Biometeorology, National Research Council (IBIMET-CNR, Florence, Italy; 2Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy Abstract: Precision viticulture aims to maximize the oenological potential of vineyards. This is especially true in regions where the high quality standards of wine production justify the adoption of site-specific management practices to simultaneously increase both quality and yield. The introduction of new technologies for supporting vineyard management allows the efficiency and quality of production to be improved and, at the same time, reduces the environmental impact. The rapid evolution of information communication technologies and geographical science offers enormous potential for the development of optimized solutions for distributed information for precision viticulture. Recent technological developments have allowed useful tools to be elaborated that help in the monitoring and control of many aspects of vine growth. Precision viticulture thus seeks to exploit the widest range of available observations to describe the vineyard spatial variability with high resolution, and provide recommendations to improve management efficiency in terms of quality, production, and sustainability. This review presents a brief outline of state of the art of technologies in precision viticulture. It is divided in two sections, the first focusing on monitoring technologies such as geolocating and remote and proximal sensing; the second focuses on variable-rate technologies and the new agricultural robots. Keywords: remote sensing, proximal sensing, variable-rate technology, robot 

  10. A review of learning rates for electricity supply technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, Edward S.; Azevedo, Inês M.L.; Jaramillo, Paulina; Yeh, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    A variety of mathematical models have been proposed to characterize and quantify the dependency of electricity supply technology costs on various drivers of technological change. The most prevalent model form, called a learning curve, or experience curve, is a log-linear equation relating the unit cost of a technology to its cumulative installed capacity or electricity generated. This one-factor model is also the most common method used to represent endogenous technical change in large-scale energy-economic models that inform energy planning and policy analysis. A characteristic parameter is the “learning rate,” defined as the fractional reduction in cost for each doubling of cumulative production or capacity. In this paper, a literature review of the learning rates reported for 11 power generation technologies employing an array of fossil fuels, nuclear, and renewable energy sources is presented. The review also includes multi-factor models proposed for some energy technologies, especially two-factor models relating cost to cumulative expenditures for research and development (R&D) as well as the cumulative installed capacity or electricity production of a technology. For all technologies studied, we found substantial variability (as much as an order of magnitude) in reported learning rates across different studies. Such variability is not readily explained by systematic differences in the time intervals, geographic regions, choice of independent variable, or other parameters of each study. This uncertainty in learning rates, together with other limitations of current learning curve formulations, suggests the need for much more careful and systematic examination of the influence of how different factors and assumptions affect policy-relevant outcomes related to the future choice and cost of electricity supply and other energy technologies. - Highlights: • We review models explaining the cost of 11 electricity supply technologies. • The most prevalent model

  11. Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dezhen; Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan; He, Pinjing

    2014-12-01

    Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO2 and NH3, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reprint of: Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dezhen; Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan; He, Pinjing

    2015-03-01

    Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO2 and NH3, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Use of Technology in Identifying Hospital Malnutrition: Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trtovac, Dino; Lee, Joon

    2018-01-19

    Malnutrition is a condition most commonly arising from the inadequate consumption of nutrients necessary to maintain physiological health and is associated with the development of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and sarcopenia. Malnutrition occurring in the hospital setting is caused by insufficient monitoring, identification, and assessment efforts. Furthermore, the ability of health care workers to identify and recognize malnourished patients is suboptimal. Therefore, interventions focusing on the identification and treatment of malnutrition are valuable, as they reduce the risks and rates of malnutrition within hospitals. Technology may be a particularly useful ally in identifying malnutrition due to scalability, timeliness, and effectiveness. In an effort to explore the issue, this scoping review synthesized the availability of technological tools to detect and identify hospital malnutrition. Our objective was to conduct a scoping review of the different forms of technology used in addressing malnutrition among adults admitted to hospital to (1) identify the extent of the published literature on this topic, (2) describe key findings, and (3) identify outcomes. We designed and implemented a search strategy in 3 databases (PubMed, Scopus, and CINAHL). We completed a descriptive numerical summary and analyzed study characteristics. One reviewer independently extracted data from the databases. We retrieved and reviewed a total of 21 articles. We categorized articles by the computerized tool or app type: malnutrition assessment (n=15), food intake monitoring (n=5), or both (n=1). Within those categories, we subcategorized the different technologies as either hardware (n=4), software (n=13), or both (n=4). An additional subcategory under software was cloud-based apps (n=1). Malnutrition in the acute hospital setting was largely an unrecognized problem, owing to insufficient monitoring, identification, and initial assessments of identifying both patients who are

  14. The controversy of sports technology: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Bryce

    2015-01-01

    Changes or introductions of technology or equipment can affect how a sport is played or influence its performances. This article conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature to identify any case studies of controversial events surrounding the implementation or use of sports technology. 56 articles were identified that highlighted 31 different case studies found over a three decade time period. Thematic analysis revealed six distinctive themes when reviewing the articles. Whilst the sport of golf had the highest number of case studies, it was found that a significant level of attention had been recorded in the cases of Oscar Pistorius use of prosthetic legs in athletics and the use of full length swimsuits in swimming. The trend surrounding the number of articles was shown to be initially intermittent but saw a peak period from 2008 to 2010. However, the frequency of such articles since this peak has been more consistent. It is proposed that long periods of time without intervention or resolution by a governing body often increases the peer-reviewed attention paid to such cases in examples such as those identified in this systematic review.

  15. Review of design technology of control rod position indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Je Yong; Huh, Hyung; Kim, Ji Ho; Kim, Jong In; Chang, Moon Hee

    1999-10-01

    An integral reactor SMART is under development at KAERI. The design characteristics of SMART are radically different from those employer in currently operating loop type water reactors in Korea. The objective of this report is to review the design technology of position indicator, and to study the various sensors which can be used in rod position indicator. Design criteria that rod position indicator should satisfy are also examined. Following position indicators are reviewed in this report. 1. Digital positioning indicator (DRPI), 2. Reed switch type position indicator (RSPT), 3. Choke sensor type position indicator, 4. Ultrasonic sensor type position indicator, 5. Comparison of each position indicator. (author)

  16. Biofuels Production through Biomass Pyrolysis —A Technological Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaque Ahmed Chowdhury

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available There has been an enormous amount of research in recent years in the area of thermo-chemical conversion of biomass into bio-fuels (bio-oil, bio-char and bio-gas through pyrolysis technology due to its several socio-economic advantages as well as the fact it is an efficient conversion method compared to other thermo-chemical conversion technologies. However, this technology is not yet fully developed with respect to its commercial applications. In this study, more than two hundred publications are reviewed, discussed and summarized, with the emphasis being placed on the current status of pyrolysis technology and its potential for commercial applications for bio-fuel production. Aspects of pyrolysis technology such as pyrolysis principles, biomass sources and characteristics, types of pyrolysis, pyrolysis reactor design, pyrolysis products and their characteristics and economics of bio-fuel production are presented. It is found from this study that conversion of biomass to bio-fuel has to overcome challenges such as understanding the trade-off between the size of the pyrolysis plant and feedstock, improvement of the reliability of pyrolysis reactors and processes to become viable for commercial applications. Further study is required to achieve a better understanding of the economics of biomass pyrolysis for bio-fuel production, as well as resolving issues related to the capabilities of this technology in practical application.

  17. CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory technical review 2003-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This technical review described research activities of the CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory, whose mandate is to develop and deploy technologies that improve aspects of producing and using products derived from minerals and metals. During the reporting period, 126 reports for clients were published and the lab participated in 15 national and international consortia. The Advanced Concrete Technology Program was reviewed. The Advanced Materials Technologies Program was discussed, and recent advances in the hydroforming of tubes and corrosion protection techniques for magnesium used in automobiles were presented. A review of the Sustainable Casting Program was presented. New materials for the mining industry were discussed, as well as issues concerning lost-foam casting. Details of the Efficient Metal Production Program were provided and new galvanized TRIP steel and metal inert gas welding processes were outlined. New additions to the Infrastructure Reliability Program included intelligent systems for pipeline infrastructure reliability; software for corrosion control; and risk management of pipelines. Additions to the Certifying Agency for Non-Destructive Testing included a new certification of X-Ray Fluorescence operators and revisions to the non-destructive testing qualification and certification of personnel. New patents developed by the laboratory included a hydrogen sensor using a solid hydrogen ion conducting electrolyte; reinforcement preform for the production of magnesium composite and other metal matrix composite materials; a rechargeable battery electrode testing device; a sulfide biosensor; and a bio-corrosion probe. During the 2 year review period, staff received 13 national and international awards. An outline of major facilities and equipment was presented, as well as details of new materials for use by the transportation sector. Advances in concrete and other construction materials were outlined, as well as metallurgical process improvements. A

  18. A review of fusion breeder blanket technology, part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.P.; Selander, W.N.; Townes, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study of fusion breeder blanket technology. It reviews the role of the breeder blanket, the current understanding of the scientific and engineering bases of liquid metal and solid breeder blankets and the programs now underway internationally to resolve the uncertainities in current knowledge. In view of existing national expertise and experience, a solid breeder R and D program for Canada is recommended

  19. Review of advanced catheter technologies in radiation oncology brachytherapy procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou J; Zamdborg L; Sebastian E

    2015-01-01

    Jun Zhou,1,2 Leonid Zamdborg,1 Evelyn Sebastian1 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, 2Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, MI, USA Abstract: The development of new catheter and applicator technologies in recent years has significantly improved treatment accuracy, efficiency, and outcomes in brachytherapy. In this paper, we review these advances, focusing on the performance of catheter imaging and reconstruction techniques in brachytherapy ...

  20. Advances in poultry litter disposal technology--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, B P; Leahy, J J; Henihan, A M; O'Dwyer, T F; Sutton, D; Leahy, M J

    2002-05-01

    The land disposal of waste from the poultry industry and subsequent environmental implications has stimulated interest into cleaner and more useful disposal options. The review presented here details advances in the three main alternative disposal routes for poultry litter, specifically in the last decade. Results of experimental investigations into the optimisation of composting, anaerobic digestion and direct combustion are summarised. These technologies open up increased opportunities to market the energy and nutrients in poultry litter to agricultural and non-agricultural uses. Common problems experienced by the current technologies are the existence and fate of nitrogen as ammonia, pH and temperature levels, moisture content and the economics of alternative disposal methods. Further advancement of these technologies is currently receiving increased interest, both academically and commercially. However, significant financial incentives are required to attract the agricultural industry.

  1. 3D Printing technologies for drug delivery: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Leena Kumari; Smyth, Hugh

    2016-01-01

    With the FDA approval of the first 3D printed tablet, Spritam®, there is now precedence set for the utilization of 3D printing for the preparation of drug delivery systems. The capabilities for dispensing low volumes with accuracy, precise spatial control and layer-by-layer assembly allow for the preparation of complex compositions and geometries. The high degree of flexibility and control with 3D printing enables the preparation of dosage forms with multiple active pharmaceutical ingredients with complex and tailored release profiles. A unique opportunity for this technology for the preparation of personalized doses to address individual patient needs. This review will highlight the 3D printing technologies being utilized for the fabrication of drug delivery systems, as well as the formulation and processing parameters for consideration. This article will also summarize the range of dosage forms that have been prepared using these technologies, specifically over the last 10 years.

  2. Science and Technology Review April/May 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolic, R J

    2011-03-03

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the focus is on science and technology research to ensure the nation's security. That expertise is also applied to solve other important national problems in energy, bioscience, and the environment. Science & Technology Review is published eight time a year to communicate, to a broad audience, the Laboratory's scientific and technological accomplishments in fulfilling its primary missions. The publication's goal is to help readers understand these accomplishments and appreciate their value to the individual citizen, the nation, and the world. In this issue for April/May 2011, the features are 'Dealing with the Nonlinear Battlefield' and 'From Video to Knowledge.' Research highlights are 'Kinetic Models Predict Biofuel Efficiency,' Going Deep with MEGa-Rays' and 'Energy on Demand.'

  3. Application of radiation technology to sewage sludge processing: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianlong; Wang Jiazhuo

    2007-01-01

    Sewage sludge is unwanted residual solid wastes generated in wastewater treatment and its management is one of the most critical environmental issues of today. The treatment and disposal of sludge contribute a considerable proportion of the cost for running a wastewater treatment plant. The increasing amount of swage sludge and more and more legislative regulation of its disposal have stimulated the need for developing new technologies to process sewage sludge efficiently and economically. One ideal consideration is to recycle it after proper treatment. Radiation technology is regarded to be a promising alternative for its high efficiency in pathogen inactivation, organic pollutants oxidation, odor nuisance elimination and some other characteristics enhancement, which will facilitate the down-stream process of sludge treatment and disposal. Here we present a brief review of application of radiation technology on sewage sludge processing. Some basic information of two currently available irradiation systems and fundamental radiation chemistry are introduced firstly; then the world-wide application of this promising technology is reviewed; various effects of radiation on sludge is discussed in detail; and some concluding remarks are given and some future directions are also proposed

  4. A systematic review of speech recognition technology in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Maree; Lapkin, Samuel; Long, Vanessa; Sanchez, Paula; Suominen, Hanna; Basilakis, Jim; Dawson, Linda

    2014-10-28

    To undertake a systematic review of existing literature relating to speech recognition technology and its application within health care. A systematic review of existing literature from 2000 was undertaken. Inclusion criteria were: all papers that referred to speech recognition (SR) in health care settings, used by health professionals (allied health, medicine, nursing, technical or support staff), with an evaluation or patient or staff outcomes. Experimental and non-experimental designs were considered. Six databases (Ebscohost including CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE including the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, OVID Technologies, PreMED-LINE, PsycINFO) were searched by a qualified health librarian trained in systematic review searches initially capturing 1,730 references. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were retained. The heterogeneity of the studies made comparative analysis and synthesis of the data challenging resulting in a narrative presentation of the results. SR, although not as accurate as human transcription, does deliver reduced turnaround times for reporting and cost-effective reporting, although equivocal evidence of improved workflow processes. SR systems have substantial benefits and should be considered in light of the cost and selection of the SR system, training requirements, length of the transcription task, potential use of macros and templates, the presence of accented voices or experienced and in-experienced typists, and workflow patterns.

  5. TOPICAL REVIEW: The physics, biophysics and technology of photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Brian C.; Patterson, Michael S.

    2008-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses light-activated drugs to treat diseases ranging from cancer to age-related macular degeneration and antibiotic-resistant infections. This paper reviews the current status of PDT with an emphasis on the contributions of physics, biophysics and technology, and the challenges remaining in the optimization and adoption of this treatment modality. A theme of the review is the complexity of PDT dosimetry due to the dynamic nature of the three essential components—light, photosensitizer and oxygen. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the problem and in developing instruments to measure all three, so that optimization of individual PDT treatments is becoming a feasible target. The final section of the review introduces some new frontiers of research including low dose rate (metronomic) PDT, two-photon PDT, activatable PDT molecular beacons and nanoparticle-based PDT.

  6. Review of advanced catheter technologies in radiation oncology brachytherapy procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jun; Zamdborg, Leonid; Sebastian, Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    The development of new catheter and applicator technologies in recent years has significantly improved treatment accuracy, efficiency, and outcomes in brachytherapy. In this paper, we review these advances, focusing on the performance of catheter imaging and reconstruction techniques in brachytherapy procedures using magnetic resonance images and electromagnetic tracking. The accuracy of catheter reconstruction, imaging artifacts, and other notable properties of plastic and titanium applicators in gynecologic treatments are reviewed. The accuracy, noise performance, and limitations of electromagnetic tracking for catheter reconstruction are discussed. Several newly developed applicators for accelerated partial breast irradiation and gynecologic treatments are also reviewed. New hypofractionated high dose rate treatment schemes in prostate cancer and accelerated partial breast irradiation are presented

  7. Fighting Child Pornography: A Review of Legal and Technological Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Eggestein

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In our digitally connected world, the law is arguably behind the technological developments of the Internet age.  While this causes many issues for law enforcement, it is of particular concern in the area of child pornography in the United States.  With the wide availability of technologies such as digital cameras, peer-to-peer file sharing, strong encryption, Internet anonymizers and cloud computing, the creation and distribution of child pornography has become more widespread. Simultaneously, fighting the growth of this crime has become more difficult.  This paper explores the development of both the legal and technological environments surrounding digital child pornography.  In doing so, we cover the complications that court decisions have given law enforcement who are trying to investigate and prosecute child pornographers.  We then provide a review of the technologies used in this crime and the forensic challenges that cloud computing creates for law enforcement.  We note that both legal and technological developments since the 1990s seem to be working to the advantage of users and sellers of child pornography.  Before concluding, we provide a discussion and offer observations regarding this subject.

  8. Intraoral Scanner Technologies: A Review to Make a Successful Impression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Richert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To overcome difficulties associated with conventional techniques, impressions with IOS (intraoral scanner and CAD/CAM (computer-aided design and manufacturing technologies were developed for dental practice. The last decade has seen an increasing number of optical IOS devices, and these are based on different technologies; the choice of which may impact on clinical use. To allow informed choice before purchasing or renewing an IOS, this article summarizes first the technologies currently used (light projection, distance object determination, and reconstruction. In the second section, the clinical considerations of each strategy such as handling, learning curve, powdering, scanning paths, tracking, and mesh quality are discussed. The last section is dedicated to the accuracy of files and of the intermaxillary relationship registered with IOS as the rendering of files in the graphical user interface is often misleading. This overview leads to the conclusion that the current IOS is adapted for a common practice, although differences exist between the technologies employed. An important aspect highlighted in this review is the reduction in the volume of hardware which has led to an increase in the importance of software-based technologies.

  9. Effect of Hurdle Technology in Food Preservation: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shiv; Shalini, Rachana

    2016-01-01

    Hurdle technology is used in industrialized as well as in developing countries for the gentle but effective preservation of foods. Hurdle technology was developed several years ago as a new concept for the production of safe, stable, nutritious, tasty, and economical foods. Previously hurdle technology, i.e., a combination of preservation methods, was used empirically without much knowledge of the governing principles. The intelligent application of hurdle technology has become more prevalent now, because the principles of major preservative factors for foods (e.g., temperature, pH, aw, Eh, competitive flora), and their interactions, became better known. Recently, the influence of food preservation methods on the physiology and behavior of microorganisms in foods, i.e. their homeostasis, metabolic exhaustion, stress reactions, are taken into account, and the novel concept of multi-target food preservation emerged. The present contribution reviews the concept of the potential hurdles for foods, the hurdle effect, and the hurdle technology for the prospects of the future goal of a multi-target preservation of foods.

  10. A review of emerging technologies for food refrigeration applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassou, S.A.; Lewis, J.S.; Ge, Y.T.; Hadawey, A.; Chaer, I.

    2010-01-01

    Refrigeration has become an essential part of the food chain. It is used in all stages of the chain, from food processing, to distribution, retail and final consumption in the home. The food industry employs both chilling and freezing processes where the food is cooled from ambient to temperatures above 0 deg. C in the former and between -18 deg. C and -35 deg. C in the latter to slow the physical, microbiological and chemical activities that cause deterioration in foods. In these processes mechanical refrigeration technologies are invariably employed that contribute significantly to the environmental impacts of the food sector both through direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions. To reduce these emissions, research and development worldwide is aimed at both improving the performance of conventional systems and the development of new refrigeration technologies of potentially much lower environmental impacts. This paper provides a brief review of both current state of the art technologies and emerging refrigeration technologies that have the potential to reduce the environmental impacts of refrigeration in the food industry. The paper also highlights research and development needs to accelerate the development and adoption of these technologies by the food sector.

  11. The NICE ADHD health technology assessment: A review and critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlander Michael

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health technology assessments (HTAs by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE enjoy high levels of international attention. The present analysis addresses NICE's appraisal of methylphenidate, atomoxetine and dexamphetamine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children and adolescents, published in March 2006. Methods A qualitative study of NICE Technology Appraisal No. 98 was done focusing on the >600-page technology assessment report, which aimed at evaluating ADHD treatment strategies by a clinical effectiveness review and an economic analysis using meta-analytical techniques and a cost-effectiveness model. Results The technology assessment was unable to differentiate between the various drugs in terms of efficacy, and its economic model was ultimately driven by cost differences. While the assessment concluded that the economic model "clearly identified an optimal treatment strategy" with first-line dexamphetamine, the NICE appraisal committee subsequently found it impossible to distinguish between the different strategies on grounds of cost-effectiveness. Analyzing the assessment reveals gaps and inconsistencies concerning data selection (ultimately relying on a small number of short-term studies only, data synthesis (pooling of heterogeneous study designs and clinical endpoints, and economic model structure (identifying double-counting of nonresponders as a likely source of bias, alongside further methodological anomalies. Conclusion Many conclusions of the NICE technology assessment rest on shaky grounds. There remains a need for a new, state-of-the-art systematic review of ADHD treatment strategies including economic evaluation, which ideally should address outcomes beyond children's health-related quality of life, such as long-term sequelae of the disorder and caregiver burden.

  12. A Critical Review on the Concept of Social Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Leibetseder

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—A critical analysis of the term social technology from a social science point of view.Design/Methodology/Approach—Review of the term “social technology” from a social science point of perspective in connection to the study of governmentality and power in a Foucauldian way.Findings—The article covers the perspective that social technology provides social science knowledge for a purpose. Such a notion allows an in depth debate about the meaning of social order in modern societies. Establishing distinctive techniques now forms the basis of the modern state and governance. Social technology forms the basis of governmental decisions; it allows for a use of social theories and methods for a purpose in politics and introduces a specific conception of power between the individual and public powers. Therefore, it alters government in three ways: It provides expert power to define solutions for social problems based on social science knowledge. It transforms government. Social technology exemplifies a support system for an ordered method of the way of government, it allows for the conduct of others and self based on scientific expertise. It can define new areas of problems in need of a change of government.Research limitations/implications—Consequently, social technology requests a critical analysis using a governmental approach. Such an approach focuses on problems on the governed subject and how governing works and why it has evolved in that way towards the subject and what kind of ideas and thinking lies within the discourse.Research type—general review.

  13. Health technology assessment in Canada. A decade in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, D; Topfer, L A

    2000-01-01

    Since 1988, four government-funded health technology assessment (HTA) agencies have been established in Canada. This paper is a descriptive review of reports issued by these organizations during the period from 1988 to 1998. Publications from the national and three provincial HTA agencies in Canada were obtained and reviewed. Only the 117 assessment reports that were reported to have undergone external review were included in this analysis. Each report was classified on a standard abstraction form according to criteria such as technology type(s), assessment focus, whether a specific policy question was clearly stated and relevant decision maker(s) identified, description of search strategy and selection criteria, sources of data and assessment methods used, whether recommendations or conclusions were made, and duplication or overlap of reports. The trends in these qualities over the 10-year period were also examined. Therapeutic technologies have received the most attention from all four agencies, although the focus on devices, drugs, and procedures varied between agencies. The policy question under investigation was clearly identified in 82% of reports, and 71% clearly identified the decision maker toward whom the assessment was targeted. Efficacy or effectiveness was examined in 81% of reports, and costs were assessed in 65% of studies. These were the two most frequently examined aspects. Almost all assessments were descriptive literature reviews; 9% included meta-analyses and 32% had cost analyses or economic evaluations. Forty-four percent of reports had a clear description of the literature search strategy, and selection criteria were clearly specified in 38% of studies, but there was considerable variation among agencies in the level of description of these methods. Conclusions were clearly stated in 83% of the assessments' conclusions, and 13% had recommendations. When analyzed longitudinally, it is apparent that the quality of reports has improved markedly

  14. Humidity Sensors Principle, Mechanism, and Fabrication Technologies: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Hamid; Wagiran, Rahman; Hamidon, Mohd Nizar

    2014-01-01

    Humidity measurement is one of the most significant issues in various areas of applications such as instrumentation, automated systems, agriculture, climatology and GIS. Numerous sorts of humidity sensors fabricated and developed for industrial and laboratory applications are reviewed and presented in this article. The survey frequently concentrates on the RH sensors based upon their organic and inorganic functional materials, e.g., porous ceramics (semiconductors), polymers, ceramic/polymer and electrolytes, as well as conduction mechanism and fabrication technologies. A significant aim of this review is to provide a distinct categorization pursuant to state of the art humidity sensor types, principles of work, sensing substances, transduction mechanisms, and production technologies. Furthermore, performance characteristics of the different humidity sensors such as electrical and statistical data will be detailed and gives an added value to the report. By comparison of overall prospects of the sensors it was revealed that there are still drawbacks as to efficiency of sensing elements and conduction values. The flexibility offered by thick film and thin film processes either in the preparation of materials or in the choice of shape and size of the sensor structure provides advantages over other technologies. These ceramic sensors show faster response than other types. PMID:24784036

  15. Humidity Sensors Principle, Mechanism, and Fabrication Technologies: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Farahani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Humidity measurement is one of the most significant issues in various areas of applications such as instrumentation, automated systems, agriculture, climatology and GIS. Numerous sorts of humidity sensors fabricated and developed for industrial and laboratory applications are reviewed and presented in this article. The survey frequently concentrates on the RH sensors based upon their organic and inorganic functional materials, e.g., porous ceramics (semiconductors, polymers, ceramic/polymer and electrolytes, as well as conduction mechanism and fabrication technologies. A significant aim of this review is to provide a distinct categorization pursuant to state of the art humidity sensor types, principles of work, sensing substances, transduction mechanisms, and production technologies. Furthermore, performance characteristics of the different humidity sensors such as electrical and statistical data will be detailed and gives an added value to the report. By comparison of overall prospects of the sensors it was revealed that there are still drawbacks as to efficiency of sensing elements and conduction values. The flexibility offered by thick film and thin film processes either in the preparation of materials or in the choice of shape and size of the sensor structure provides advantages over other technologies. These ceramic sensors show faster response than other types.

  16. Technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Gardini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BAs are molecules which can be present in foods and, due to their toxicity, can cause adverse effects on the consumers. BAs are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids in food products. The most significant BAs occurring in foods are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine and agmatine. The importance of preventing the excessive accumulation of BAs in food is related to their impact on human health and food quality. Quality criteria in connection with the presence of BAs in food and food products are necessary from a toxicological point of view. This is particularly important in fermented foods in which the massive microbial proliferation required for obtaining specific products is often relater with BA accumulation. In this review, up-to-date information and recent discoveries about technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods are reviewed. Specifically, BA forming-microorganism and decarboxylation activity, genetic and metabolic organization of decarboxylases, risk associated to BAs (histamine, tyramine toxicity and other BAs, environmental factors influencing BA formation (temperature, salt concentration, pH. In addition, the technological factors for controlling BA production (use of starter culture, technological additives, effects of packaging, other non-thermal treatments, metabolising BA by microorganisms, effects of pressure treatments on BA formation and antimicrobial substances are addressed.

  17. Humidity sensors principle, mechanism, and fabrication technologies: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Hamid; Wagiran, Rahman; Hamidon, Mohd Nizar

    2014-04-30

    Humidity measurement is one of the most significant issues in various areas of applications such as instrumentation, automated systems, agriculture, climatology and GIS. Numerous sorts of humidity sensors fabricated and developed for industrial and laboratory applications are reviewed and presented in this article. The survey frequently concentrates on the RH sensors based upon their organic and inorganic functional materials, e.g., porous ceramics (semiconductors), polymers, ceramic/polymer and electrolytes, as well as conduction mechanism and fabrication technologies. A significant aim of this review is to provide a distinct categorization pursuant to state of the art humidity sensor types, principles of work, sensing substances, transduction mechanisms, and production technologies. Furthermore, performance characteristics of the different humidity sensors such as electrical and statistical data will be detailed and gives an added value to the report. By comparison of overall prospects of the sensors it was revealed that there are still drawbacks as to efficiency of sensing elements and conduction values. The flexibility offered by thick film and thin film processes either in the preparation of materials or in the choice of shape and size of the sensor structure provides advantages over other technologies. These ceramic sensors show faster response than other types.

  18. Seizure reporting technologies for epilepsy treatment: A review of clinical information needs and supporting technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, Jonathan; Khuwatsamrit, Thanin; Askew, Brittain; Ehrenberg, Joshua Andrew; Helmers, Sandra

    2015-11-01

    This review surveys current seizure detection and classification technologies as they relate to aiding clinical decision-making during epilepsy treatment. Interviews and data collected from neurologists and a literature review highlighted a strong need for better distinguishing between patients exhibiting generalized and partial seizure types as well as achieving more accurate seizure counts. This information is critical for enabling neurologists to select the correct class of antiepileptic drugs (AED) for their patients and evaluating AED efficiency during long-term treatment. In our questionnaire, 100% of neurologists reported they would like to have video from patients prior to selecting an AED during an initial consultation. Presently, only 30% have access to video. In our technology review we identified that only a subset of available technologies surpassed patient self-reporting performance due to high false positive rates. Inertial seizure detection devices coupled with video capture for recording seizures at night could stand to address collecting seizure counts that are more accurate than current patient self-reporting during day and night time use. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Review of research on sonar imaging technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haitao; Li, Renping; Xu, Feng; Liu, Liyuan

    2013-11-01

    Over the past 20 years, sonar imaging technology particularly for the high-technology sector has been a focus of research, in which many developed countries, especially those with coast lines, have been competing with each other. It has seen a rapid development with increasing widespread applications that has played an important and irreplaceable role in underwater exploration with great prospects for social, economic, scientific, and military benefits. The fundamental techniques underlying sonar imaging, including multi-beamforming, synthetic-aperture and inverse synthetic-aperture sonar, acoustic lensing, and acoustical holography, are described in this paper. This is followed by a comprehensive and systematic review on the advantages and disadvantages of these imaging techniques, applicability conditions, development trends, new ideas, new methods, and improvements in old methods over recent years with an emphasis on the situation in China, along with a bold and constructive prediction to some development characteristics of sonar imaging technology in the near future in China. The perspectives presented in this paper are offered with the idea of providing some degree of guidance and promotion of research on sonar imaging technology.

  20. A Review of Technology-Assisted Interventions for Diabetes Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grock, Shira; Ku, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Julie; Moin, Tannaz

    2017-09-23

    The high prevalence of prediabetes and success of the diabetes prevention program (DPP) has led to increasing efforts to provide readily accessible, cost-effective DPP interventions to the general public. Technology-assisted DPP interventions are of particular interest since they may be easier to widely distribute and sustain as compared to traditional in-person DPP. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of currently available technology-assisted DPP interventions. This review focuses on studies that have examined the use of mobile phone text messaging, smartphone/web-based apps, and telehealth programs to help prevent or delay the onset of incident type 2 diabetes. While there is variability in the results of studies focused on technology-assisted DPP and weight loss interventions, there is evidence to suggest that these programs have been associated with clinically meaningful weight loss and can be cost-effective. Patients who are at risk for diabetes can be offered technology-assisted DPP and weight loss interventions to lower their risk of incident diabetes. Further research should determine what specific combination of intervention features would be most successful.

  1. Functional and technological properties of camel milk proteins: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hailu, Yonas; Hansen, Egon Bech; Seifu, Eyassu

    2016-01-01

    This review summarises current knowledge on camel milk proteins, with focus on significant peculiarities in protein composition and molecular properties. Camel milk is traditionally consumed as a fresh or naturally fermented product. Within the last couple of years, an increasing quantity is being...... in relation to dairy processing. In addition to the technological properties, there are also implications for human nutrition and camel milk proteins are of interest for applications in infant foods, for food preservation and in functional foods. Proposed health benefits include inhibition of the angiotensin...... converting enzyme, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties as well as an antidiabetogenic effect. Detailed investigations on foaming, gelation and solubility as well as technological consequences of processing should be investigated further for the improvement of camel milk utilisation in the near future....

  2. Use of distributed ledger technology by central banks: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César del Río

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews what stage the central banks of the world’s leading economies are at in their study and adoption of distributed ledger technology (DLT to reengineer their various systems and functions. A brief description of DLT will be given, followed by an analysis of central banks’ publications and pronouncements to determine what each central bank is doing on their journey to DLT adoption. It was found that of the central banks for which information was available, all of them have expressed interest in DLT and have evaluated it to some extent. Nevertheless, no central bank has an operational DLT-based system at this point. This is because some issues remain regarding the speed, cost of processing, security, transparency and privacy, legal settlement finality, scalability and network effects of the technology. As DLT matures, the expectation is that these issues will begin to be resolved.

  3. Health information technology in oncology practice: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasola, G; Macerelli, M; Follador, A; Rihawi, K; Aprile, G; Della Mea, V

    2014-01-01

    The adoption and implementation of information technology are dramatically remodeling healthcare services all over the world, resulting in an unstoppable and sometimes overwhelming process. After the introduction of the main elements of electronic health records and a description of what every cancer-care professional should be familiar with, we present a narrative review focusing on the current use of computerized clinical information and decision systems in oncology practice. Following a detailed analysis of the many coveted goals that oncologists have reached while embracing informatics progress, the authors suggest how to overcome the main obstacles for a complete physicians' engagement and for a full information technology adoption, and try to forecast what the future holds.

  4. Review of recent developments in uranium extraction technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfredson, P.G.; Crawford, R.E.; Ring, R.J.

    1978-12-01

    Developments in uranium ore processing technology since the AAEC Symposium on Uranium Processing in July 1972 are reviewed. The main developments include the use of autogenous or semi-autogenous grinding, beneficiation techniques such as radiometric sorting, flotation, magnetic and gravity seperation, strong acid and ferric bacterial leaching processes, solution mining and heap leaching operations, horizontal belt filters for solid-liquid separation, continuous ion exchange processes for use with solutions containing up to 8 wt % solids, hydrogen peroxide and ammonia for the precipitation of uranium to improve product yield and purity, and the recovery of by-product uranium from the manufacture of phosphoric acid and copper processing operations

  5. A Review of Tribomaterial Technology for Space Nuclear Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently proposed a nuclear closed-cycle electric power conversion system for generation of 100-kW of electrical power for space exploration missions. A critical issue is the tribological performance of sliding components within the power conversion unit that will be exposed to neutron radiation. This paper presents a review of the main considerations that have been made in the selection of solid lubricants for similar applications in the past as well as a recommendations for continuing development of the technology.

  6. 1990 DOE/SANDIA crystalline photovoltaic technology project review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruby, D.S. (ed.)

    1990-07-01

    This document serves as the proceedings for the annual project review meeting held by Sandia's Photovoltaic Cell Research Division and Photovoltaic Technology Division. It contains information supplied by each organization making a presentation at the meeting, which was held August 7 through 9, 1990 at the Sheraton Hotel in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Sessions were held to discuss national photovoltaic programs, one-sun crystalline silicon cell research, concentrator silicon cell research, concentrator 3-5 cell research, and concentrating collector development.

  7. Satellite power systems structures: A 1980 technology status review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, H. S.

    1980-07-01

    The classes of major structural components and constructions utilized were considered. A review of the current (SPS) structure technology status was made. The major issues considered pertinent to SPS structures are: Cost effective construction, construction materials, structural design requirements, stress and dimensional integrity of as-built structures, and predictability of strength and dynamic behavior. The feasibility of passive figure control approach to MPTS flatness, of structure stiffness compatible with MPTS pointing, of passive control through damping, and the feasibility of space fabrication of ultra-large reflector surfaces are also considered. Qualification, model verification, inspection are considered of vital concern.

  8. Review of equipment aging theory and technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carfagno, S.P.; Gibson, R.J.

    1980-09-01

    The theory and technology of equipment aging is reviewed, particularly as they relate to the qualification of safety-system equipment for nuclear power generating stations. A fundamental degradation model is developed, and its relation to more restricted models (e.g., Arrhenius and inverse-stress models) is shown. The most common theoretical and empirical models of aging are introduced, and limitations on their practical application are analyzed. Reliability theory and its application to the acceleration of aging are also discussed. A compendium of aging data for materials and components, including degradation mechanisms, failure modes and activation energies, is included.

  9. Reviews on Technology and Standard of Spatial Audio Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhwana Elfitri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Market demands on a more impressive entertainment media have motivated for delivery of three dimensional (3D audio content to home consumers through Ultra High Definition TV (UHDTV, the next generation of TV broadcasting, where spatial audio coding plays fundamental role. This paper reviews fundamental concept on spatial audio coding which includes technology, standard, and application. Basic principle of object-based audio reproduction system will also be elaborated, compared to the traditional channel-based system, to provide good understanding on this popular interactive audio reproduction system which gives end users flexibility to render their own preferred audio composition.

  10. REVIEW OF EXISTING LCA STUDIES ON WASTE WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    importance of the different life cycle stages and the individual impact categories in the total impact from the waste water treatment, and the degree to which micropollutants, pathogens and whole effluent toxicity have been included in earlier studies. The results show that more than 30 different WWTT (and......The EU research project “NEPTUNE” is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and focused on the development of new waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) for municipal waste water. The sustainability of these WWTTs is going to be assessed by the use of life cycle assessment (LCA). New life...... cycle impact assessment methods on pathogens, whole effluent toxicity and micropollutants will be developed within the project. As part of this work a review of more than 20 previous LCA studies on WWTTs has been done and the findings are summarised on this poster. The review is focused on the relative...

  11. Review of Social and Organizational Issues in Health Information Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuziemsky, Craig E

    2015-07-01

    This paper reviews organizational and social issues (OSIs) in health information technology (HIT). A review and synthesis of the literature on OSIs in HIT was conducted. Five overarching themes with respect to OSIs in HIT were identified and discussed: scope and frameworks for defining OSIs in HIT, context matters, process immaturity and complexity, trade-offs will happen and need to be discussed openly, and means of studying OSIs in HIT. There is a wide body of literature that provides insight into OSIs in HIT, even if many of the studies are not explicitly labelled as such. The two biggest research needs are more explicit and theoretical studies of OSI in HITs and more research on integrating micro and macro perspectives of HIT use in organizations.

  12. A Systematic Review of Reviews Evaluating Technology-Enabled Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Deborah A; Gee, Perry M; Fatkin, Kathy J; Peeples, Malinda

    2017-09-01

    Since the introduction of mobile phones, technology has been increasingly used to enable diabetes self-management education and support. This timely systematic review summarizes how currently available technology impacts outcomes for people living with diabetes. A systematic review of high quality review articles and meta analyses focused on utilizing technology in diabetes self-management education and support services was conducted. Articles were included if published between January 2013 and January 2017. Twenty-five studies were included for analysis. The majority evaluated the use of mobile phones and secure messaging. Most studies described healthy eating, being active and metabolic monitoring as the predominant self-care behaviors evaluated. Eighteen of 25 reviews reported significant reduction in A1c as an outcome measure. Four key elements emerged as essential for improved A1c: (1) communication, (2) patient-generated health data, (3) education, and (4) feedback. Technology-enabled diabetes self-management solutions significantly improve A1c. The most effective interventions incorporated all the components of a technology-enabled self-management feedback loop that connected people with diabetes and their health care team using 2-way communication, analyzed patient-generated health data, tailored education, and individualized feedback. The evidence from this systematic review indicates that organizations, policy makers and payers should consider integrating these solutions in the design of diabetes self-management education and support services for population health and value-based care models. With the widespread adoption of mobile phones, digital health solutions that incorporate evidence-based, behaviorally designed interventions can improve the reach and access to diabetes self-management education and ongoing support.

  13. Eye-tracking technology in medical education: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Hajra; Sodergren, Mikael H; Merali, Nabeel; Mylonas, George; Singh, Harsimrat; Darzi, Ara

    2018-01-01

    Eye-tracking technology is an established research tool within allied industries such as advertising, psychology and aerospace. This review aims to consolidate literature describing the evidence for use of eye-tracking as an adjunct to traditional teaching methods in medical education. A systematic literature review was conducted in line with STORIES guidelines. A search of EMBASE, OVID MEDLINE, PsycINFO, TRIP database, and Science Direct was conducted until January 2017. Studies describing the use of eye-tracking in the training, assessment, and feedback of clinicians were included in the review. Thirty-three studies were included in the final qualitative synthesis. Three studies were based on the use of gaze training, three studies on the changes in gaze behavior during the learning curve, 17 studies on clinical assessment and six studies focused on the use of eye-tracking methodology as a feedback tool. The studies demonstrated feasibility and validity in the use of eye-tracking as a training and assessment method. Overall, eye-tracking methodology has contributed significantly to the training, assessment, and feedback practices used in the clinical setting. The technology provides reliable quantitative data, which can be interpreted to give an indication of clinical skill, provide training solutions and aid in feedback and reflection. This review provides a detailed summary of evidence relating to eye-tracking methodology and its uses as a training method, changes in visual gaze behavior during the learning curve, eye-tracking methodology for proficiency assessment and its uses as a feedback tool.

  14. The review of recent carbonate minerals processing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solihin

    2018-02-01

    Carbonate is one of the groups of minerals that can be found in relatively large amount in the earth crust. The common carbonate minerals are calcium carbonate (calcite, aragonite, depending on its crystal structure), magnesium carbonate (magnesite), calcium-magnesium carbonate (dolomite), and barium carbonate (barite). A large amount of calcite can be found in many places in Indonesia such as Padalarang, Sukabumi, and Tasikmalaya (West Java Provence). Dolomite can be found in a large amount in Gresik, Lamongan, and Tuban (East Java Provence). Magnesite is quite rare in Indonesia, and up to the recent years it can only be found in Padamarang Island (South East Sulawesi Provence). The carbonate has been being exploited through open pit mining activity. Traditionally, calcite can be ground to produce material for brick production, be carved to produce craft product, or be roasted to produce lime for many applications such as raw materials for cement, flux for metal smelting, etc. Meanwhile, dolomite has traditionally been used as a raw material to make brick for local buildings and to make fertilizer for coconut oil plant. Carbonate minerals actually consist of important elements needed by modern application. Calcium is one of the elements needed in artificial bone formation, slow release fertilizer synthesis, dielectric material production, etc. Magnesium is an important material in automotive industry to produce the alloy for vehicle main parts. It is also used as alloying element in the production of special steel for special purpose. Magnesium oxide can be used to produce slow release fertilizer, catalyst and any other modern applications. The aim of this review article is to present in brief the recent technology in processing carbonate minerals. This review covers both the technology that has been industrially proven and the technology that is still in research and development stage. One of the industrially proven technologies to process carbonate mineral is

  15. A Review of Multi-Sensory Technologies in a Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Mathematics (STEAM) Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taljaard, Johann

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on multi-sensory technology and, in particular, looks at answering the question: "What multi-sensory technologies are available to use in a science, technology, engineering, arts and mathematics (STEAM) classroom, and do they affect student engagement and learning outcomes?" Here engagement is defined…

  16. Localization of epidural space: A review of available technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsharkawy, Hesham; Sonny, Abraham; Chin, Ki Jinn

    2017-01-01

    Although epidural analgesia is widely used for pain relief, it is associated with a significant failure rate. Loss of resistance technique, tactile feedback from the needle, and surface landmarks are traditionally used to guide the epidural needle tip into the epidural space (EDS). The aim of this narrative review is to critically appraise new and emerging technologies for identification of EDS and their potential role in the future. The PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Studies, and Web of Science databases were searched using predecided search strategies, yielding 1048 results. After careful review of abstracts and full texts, 42 articles were selected to be included. Newer techniques for localization of EDS can be broadly classified into techniques that (1) guide the needle to the EDS, (2) identify needle entry into the EDS, and (3) confirm catheter location in EDS. An ideal method should be easy to learn and perform, easily reproducible with high sensitivity and specificity, identifies inadvertent intrathecal and intravascular catheter placements with ease, feasible in perioperative setting and have a cost-benefit advantage. Though none of them in their current stages of development qualify as an ideal method, many show tremendous potential. Some techniques are useful in patients with difficult spinal anatomy and infants, and thus are complementary to traditional methods. In addition to improving the existing technology, future research should aim at proving the superiority of these techniques over traditional methods, specifically regarding successful EDS localization, better safety profile, and a favorable cost-benefit ratio.

  17. Proceedings of the 1999 Review Conference on Fuel Cell Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None Available

    2000-06-05

    The 1999 Review Conference on Fuel Cell Technology was jointly sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the Gas Research Institute (GRI), and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). It was held August 3 to 5 in Chicago, Illinois. The goal of this conference was to provide a forum for reviewing fuel cell research and development (R&D) programs, assist in strategic R&D planning, promote awareness of sponsor activities, and enhance interactions between manufacturers, researchers, and stakeholders. This conference was attended by over 250 representatives from industry, academia, national laboratories, gas and electric utilities, DOE, and other Government agencies. The conference agenda included a keynote session, five presentation sessions, a poster presentation reception, and three breakout sessions. The presentation session topics were DOD Fuel Cell Applications, Low-Temperature Fuel Cell Manufacturers, Low-Temperature Component Research, High-Temperature Fuel Cell Manufacturers, and High-Temperature Component Research; the breakout session topics were Future R&D Directions for Low-Temperature Fuel Cells, Future R&D Directions for High-Temperature Fuel Cells, and a plenary summary session. All sessions were well attended.

  18. Review of PV Inverter Technology Cost and Performance Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navigant Consulting Inc.

    2006-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has a major responsibility in the implementation of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Program. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has a major role in supporting inverter development, characterization, standards, certifications, and verifications. The Solar Energy Technologies Program recently published a Multiyear Technical Plan, which establishes a goal of reducing the Levelized Energy Cost (LEC) for photovoltaic (PV) systems to $0.06/kWh by 2020. The Multiyear Technical Plan estimates that, in order to meet the PV system goal, PV inverter prices will need to decline to $0.25-0.30 Wp by 2020. DOE determined the need to conduct a rigorous review of the PV Program's technical and economic targets, including the target set for PV inverters. NREL requested that Navigant Consulting Inc.(NCI) conduct a review of historical and projected cost and performance improvements for PV inverters, including identification of critical barriers identified and the approaches government might use to address them.

  19. Functional and technological properties of camel milk proteins: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailu, Yonas; Hansen, Egon Bech; Seifu, Eyassu; Eshetu, Mitiku; Ipsen, Richard; Kappeler, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    This review summarises current knowledge on camel milk proteins, with focus on significant peculiarities in protein composition and molecular properties. Camel milk is traditionally consumed as a fresh or naturally fermented product. Within the last couple of years, an increasing quantity is being processed in dairy plants, and a number of consumer products have been marketed. A better understanding of the technological and functional properties, as required for product improvement, has been gained in the past years. Absence of the whey protein β-LG and a low proportion of к-casein cause differences in relation to dairy processing. In addition to the technological properties, there are also implications for human nutrition and camel milk proteins are of interest for applications in infant foods, for food preservation and in functional foods. Proposed health benefits include inhibition of the angiotensin converting enzyme, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties as well as an antidiabetogenic effect. Detailed investigations on foaming, gelation and solubility as well as technological consequences of processing should be investigated further for the improvement of camel milk utilisation in the near future.

  20. Wearable Food Intake Monitoring Technologies: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Vu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wearable devices monitoring food intake through passive sensing is slowly emerging to complement self-reporting of users’ caloric intake and eating behaviors. Though the ultimate goal for the passive sensing of eating is to become a reliable gold standard in dietary assessment, it is currently showing promise as a means of validating self-report measures. Continuous food-intake monitoring allows for the validation and refusal of users’ reported data in order to obtain more reliable user information, resulting in more effective health intervention services. Recognizing the importance and strength of wearable sensors in food intake monitoring, there has been a variety of approaches proposed and studied in recent years. While existing technologies show promise, many challenges and opportunities discussed in this survey, still remain. This paper presents a meticulous review of the latest sensing platforms and data analytic approaches to solve the challenges of food-intake monitoring, ranging from ear-based chewing and swallowing detection systems that capture eating gestures to wearable cameras that identify food types and caloric content through image processing techniques. This paper focuses on the comparison of different technologies and approaches that relate to user comfort, body location, and applications for medical research. We identify and summarize the forthcoming opportunities and challenges in wearable food intake monitoring technologies.

  1. A review of digital radiography technology for valve inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoev, K.; Guerout, F.M.; Horn, D.

    2008-01-01

    There are thousands of valves in a nuclear power plant (NPP) used for control, safety and checks in various plant systems, so there is a well-identified need for fast and reliable inspection and diagnostics of valves. Digital radiography can provide considerable improvements to the inspection and testing procedures for valves in comparison to classical film radiography. These improvements can lead to significant financial advantages by providing real-time inspection results, significantly reduced inspection and decision-making time, and reduced operational cost. Digital image processing, including digital image enhancement, digital archiving, and digital communication of the images and the results, is also a considerable advantage over classical film radiography technology. Another advantage of digital radiography technology is the improved safety and the reduced environmental impact due to reduced exposure/test times, use of smaller exclusion zones, elimination of chemical processing, and absence of disposable materials. This paper reviews the existing technology and evaluates the potential of digital radiography for inspection and diagnostics of valves. Station needs and requirements are assessed, and the safety, environmental and economical constraints of digital radiography techniques estimated. The advantages and disadvantages of different digital radiography equipment are compared, and their limitations and characteristics studied. (author)

  2. Strategic learning and information and communication technology: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Monerero Font

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available 0 0 1 93 514 USAL 4 1 606 14.0 Normal 0 21 false false false ES JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:ES; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} This article presents an outline of a learning strategy redefinition, based on recent contributions from learning technologies. This new definition addresses the question of how technological affordances of the software, of the technological tools, or an educational environment, allow a learner or a group of learners develop a new ways to perform a strategic learning action. We review how different characteristics of learning strategy definition have been transformed because of introduction of ICT into education. Finally, the article points toward conceptual challenges and future research questions.

  3. A review of the Technologies Enabling Agile Manufacturing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, W.H.; Neal, R.E.; Cobb, C.K.

    1996-10-01

    Addressing a technical plan developed in consideration with major US manufacturers, software and hardware providers, and government representatives, the Technologies Enabling Agile Manufacturing (TEAM) program is leveraging the expertise and resources of industry, universities, and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy leap-ahead manufacturing technologies. One of the TEAM program`s goals is to transition products from design to production faster, more efficiently, and at less cost. TEAM`s technology development strategy also provides all participants with early experience in establishing and working within an electronic enterprise that includes access to high-speed networks and high-performance computing and storage systems. The TEAM program uses the cross-cutting tools it collects, develops, and integrates to demonstrate and deploy agile manufacturing capabilities for three high-priority processes identified by industry: material removal, sheet metal forming, electro-mechanical assembly. This paper reviews the current status of the TEAM program with emphasis upon TEAM`s information infrastructure.

  4. Financial effects of health information technology: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Alexander F H; Phillips, Andrew B; Ancker, Jessica S; Patel, Ashwin R; Kern, Lisa M; Kaushal, Rainu

    2013-11-01

    Health information technology (HIT) is widely viewed as an important lever with which to improve the quality and efficiency of the healthcare system. However, there has long been debate about its financial effects. To characterize the existing data on the financial effects of HIT and to consider the implications for the effect of HIT on healthcare spending. Systematic literature review. We identified articles by (1) searching PubMed using the intersection of terms related to HIT applications and terms related to financial or economic effect; and (2) reviewing the reference lists of the included articles as well as additional policy articles and literature reviews. A total of 57 articles met our inclusion criteria, including 43 articles (75%) reporting financial benefits to a stakeholder associated with HIT. These included 26 articles (46%) reporting cost savings, 6 articles (11%) reporting revenue gains, and 11 articles (19%) reporting a mixture of cost savings and revenue gains. Among articles with experimental study designs, 22 of 34 (65%) reported financial benefits; and among articles explicitly measuring costs and benefits, 19 of 21 (90%) reported financial benefits. The most prevalent mechanisms were savings on administrative goods and/or personnel, savings on pharmaceuticals, and revenue gains through improved billing. Overall there is a dearth of articles on this topic, especially ones with strong study designs and financial analyses. HIT can have financial benefits, but more research is required, especially on HIT's effects under emerging delivery and payment reform efforts.

  5. Virtual and augmented reality technologies in Human Performance: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Brusque Crocetta

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction : Today's society is influenced by Information and Communication Technologies. Toys that were once built by hand have been reinterpreted and have become highly commercialized products. In this context, games using Augmented Reality (AR and Virtual Reality (VR technologies are present in the everyday lives of children, youth and adults. Objective : To investigate how Physical Education professionals in Brazil have been making use of AR and VR games to benefit their work. Materials and methods : We only included studies that addressed exercise or physical activity using AR or VR games. We searched the databases of Virtual Health Library (VHL and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO, using the words augmented reality, virtual reality, exergames, Wii and serious games. Results : Nineteen articles were included in the systematic review. The most frequently used device was the Nintendo(r Wii, with over 25 different kinds of games. With regard to the subjects of the studies, four studies were conducted with healthy individuals (mean = 65.7, three with patients with Parkinson's disease (mean = 18.0, three with elderly women (mean = 7.7 and two with patients with stroke injury (mean = 6.0. Conclusion : Many physical therapists and occupational therapists use serious games with AR or VR technologies as another work tool, especially for rehabilitation practices. The fact that these technologies are also used in Physical Education classes in Brazil indicates that electronic games are available and can be a tool that can contribute to the widespread adoption of exercise as an enjoyable form of recreation.

  6. Residential cogeneration systems: review of the current technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onovwiona, H.I.; Ugursal, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing potential for the use of micro-cogeneration systems in the residential sector because they have the ability to produce both useful thermal energy and electricity from a single source of fuel such as oil or natural gas. In cogeneration systems, the efficiency of energy conversion increases to over 80% as compared to an average of 30-35% for conventional fossil fuel fired electricity generation systems. This increase in energy efficiency can result in lower costs and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions when compared to the conventional methods of generating heat and electricity separately. Cogeneration systems and equipment suitable for residential and small-scale commercial applications like hospitals, hotels or institutional buildings are available, and many new systems are under development. These products are used or aimed for meeting the electrical and thermal demands of a building for space and domestic hot water heating, and potentially, absorption cooling. The aim of this paper is to provide an up-to-date review of the various cogeneration technologies suitable for residential applications. The paper considers the various technologies available and under development for residential, i.e. single-family ( e ) and multi-family (10-30kW t ) applications, with focus on single-family applications. Technologies suitable for residential cogeneration systems include reciprocating internal combustion engine, micro-turbine, fuel cell, and reciprocating external combustion Stirling engine based cogeneration systems. The paper discusses the state of development and the performance, environmental benefits, and costs of these technologies. (author)

  7. Fair Oaks Dairy Farms Cellulosic Ethanol Technology Review Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Wold; Robert Divers

    2011-06-23

    At Fair Oaks Dairy, dried manure solids (''DMS'') are currently used as a low value compost. United Power was engaged to evaluate the feasibility of processing these DMS into ethanol utilizing commercially available cellulosic biofuels conversion platforms. The Fair Oaks Dairy group is transitioning their traditional ''manure to methane'' mesophilic anaerobic digester platform to an integrated bio-refinery centered upon thermophilic digestion. Presently, the Digested Manure Solids (DMS) are used as a low value soil amendment (compost). United Power evaluated the feasibility of processing DMS into higher value ethanol utilizing commercially available cellulosic biofuels conversion platforms. DMS was analyzed and over 100 potential technology providers were reviewed and evaluated. DMS contains enough carbon to be suitable as a biomass feedstock for conversion into ethanol by gasification technology, or as part of a conversion process that would include combined heat and power. In the first process, 100% of the feedstock is converted into ethanol. In the second process, the feedstock is combusted to provide heat to generate electrical power supporting other processes. Of the 100 technology vendors evaluated, a short list of nine technology providers was developed. From this, two vendors were selected as finalists (one was an enzymatic platform and one was a gasification platform). Their selection was based upon the technical feasibility of their systems, engineering expertise, experience in commercial or pilot scale operations, the ability or willingness to integrate the system into the Fair Oaks Biorefinery, the know-how or experience in producing bio-ethanol, and a clear path to commercial development.

  8. Understanding Monitoring Technologies for Adults With Pain: Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Iyubanit; Herskovic, Valeria; Gerea, Carmen; Fuentes, Carolina; Rossel, Pedro O; Marques, Maíra; Campos, Mauricio

    2017-10-27

    Monitoring of patients may decrease treatment costs and improve quality of care. Pain is the most common health problem that people seek help for in hospitals. Therefore, monitoring patients with pain may have significant impact in improving treatment. Several studies have studied factors affecting pain; however, no previous study has reviewed the contextual information that a monitoring system may capture to characterize a patient's situation. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to (1) determine what types of technologies have been used to monitor adults with pain, and (2) construct a model of the context information that may be used to implement apps and devices aimed at monitoring adults with pain. A literature search (2005-2015) was conducted in electronic databases pertaining to medical and computer science literature (PubMed, Science Direct, ACM Digital Library, and IEEE Xplore) using a defined search string. Article selection was done through a process of removing duplicates, analyzing title and abstract, and then reviewing the full text of the article. In the final analysis, 87 articles were included and 53 of them (61%) used technologies to collect contextual information. A total of 49 types of context information were found and a five-dimension (activity, identity, wellness, environment, physiological) model of context information to monitor adults with pain was proposed, expanding on a previous model. Most technological interfaces for pain monitoring were wearable, possibly because they can be used in more realistic contexts. Few studies focused on older adults, creating a relevant avenue of research on how to create devices for users that may have impaired cognitive skills or low digital literacy. The design of monitoring devices and interfaces for adults with pain must deal with the challenge of selecting relevant contextual information to understand the user's situation, and not overburdening or inconveniencing users with

  9. Review of deployment technology for tethered satellite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, B. S.; Wen, H.; Jin, D. P.

    2018-03-01

    Tethered satellite systems (TSSs) have attracted significant attention due to their potential and valuable applications for scientific research. With the development of various launched on-orbit missions, the deployment of tethers is considered a crucial technology for operation of a TSS. Both past orbiting experiments and numerical results have shown that oscillations of the deployed tether due to the Coriolis force and environmental perturbations are inevitable and that the impact between the space tether and end-body at the end of the deployment process leads to complicated nonlinear phenomena. Hence, a set of suitable control methods plays a fundamental role in tether deployment. This review article summarizes previous work on aspects of the dynamics, control, and ground-based experiments of tether deployment. The relevant basic principles, analytical expressions, simulation cases, and experimental results are presented as well.

  10. When Intrusion Detection Meets Blockchain Technology: A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Weizhi; Tischhauser, Elmar Wolfgang; Wang, Qingju

    2018-01-01

    With the purpose of identifying cyber threats and possible incidents, intrusion detection systems (IDSs) are widely deployed in various computer networks. In order to enhance the detection capability of a single IDS, collaborative intrusion detection networks (or collaborative IDSs) have been...... developed, which allow IDS nodes to exchange data with each other. However, data and trust management still remain two challenges for current detection architectures, which may degrade the effectiveness of such detection systems. In recent years, blockchain technology has shown its adaptability in many...... fields such as supply chain management, international payment, interbanking and so on. As blockchain can protect the integrity of data storage and ensure process transparency, it has a potential to be applied to intrusion detection domain. Motivated by this, this work provides a review regarding...

  11. A review of hydrogeology research techniques and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisak, G.E.; Pickens, J.F.

    1985-06-01

    A review of techniques and technology pertaining to the movement of ground water, solutes/radionuclides and heat through porous and fractured media has been conducted. The theory describing each of these processes has been presented in terms of their partial differential equations. The equations serve as the basis for the identification of processes. These parameters have been discussed in detail with regards to their importance in controlling the overall transport processes. A hypothetical research program has been assembled for the purpose of illustrating the hydrogeologic methods and research techniques applicable to site characterization studies. Areas where the current state of the art is lacking have been identified and the necessary research has been recommended. 103 refs

  12. Amino acids production focusing on fermentation technologies – A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Este, Martina; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Angelidaki, Irini

    2018-01-01

    an overview of the processes applied for amino acids production and points out the main advantages and disadvantages of each. Due to the advances made in the genetic engineering techniques, the biotechnological processes, and in particular the fermentation with the aid of strains such as Corynebacterium...... glutamicum or Escherichia coli, play a significant role in the industrial production of amino acids. Despite the numerous advantages of the fermentative amino acids production, the process still needs significant improvements leading to increased productivity and reduction of the production costs. Although...... the production processes of amino acids have been extensively investigated in previous studies, a comprehensive overview of the developments in bioprocess technology has not been reported yet. This review states the importance of the fermentation process for industrial amino acids production, underlining...

  13. CONFERENCE REVIEW:V. International Educational Technology Symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Mubin KIYICI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available 167V. International Educational Technology SymposiumWas held in Sakarya UniversityBetween 21 – 23 September 2005Reviewed by Mubin KIYICISakarya Universitymkiyici@anadolu.edu.trV. International Educational Technology Symposium was held in Sakarya University heldbetween 21 – 23 September 2005 by cooperation with Eastern Mediterranean University,Louisiana State University, Governors State University and Ohio University, and TOJET(The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology journal, at Sakarya UniversityCampus. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Aytekin ISMAN who was conference coordinator and Editor inchief of TOJET spoke at the opening ceremony of symposium. His speech was related todiffusion of distance education and diffusion of usage educational technology. And thenProf. Dr. Mehmet DURMAN who is Rector of Sakarya University, talked about aapplications of Distance Education which is applied by Sakarya University and educationaltechnology applications in Tukey. His Speech is here:168Dear GuestsWelcome to the “5th International Educational Technology ConferenceIETC/EGİTEK 2005. It is an international educational activity for academics,teachers and educators. This conference is now a well known educationaltechnology event and the number of paper submissions and attendeesincrease every year.This year, IETC-2005 received 268 applications. The conference academicadvisory board accepted 209 applications.IETC-2005 promotes the development and dissemination of theoreticalknowledge, conceptual research, and professional knowledge throughconference activities, the conference proceeding book, and the TurkishOnline Journal of Educational Technology (TOJET. Its focus is to create anddisseminate knowledge about the use instructional technology for learningand teaching in education.The main theme of IETC-2005 is distance education. Distance education is adelivery system of teaching and learning, when the teacher and the studentare separated by physical distance

  14. Water Desalination Studies Using Forward Osmosis Technology, A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou El-Nour, F.H.

    2016-01-01

    Fresh water and energy shortage represent a great challenge facing the whole world now. To cover the global water demand, an energy-efficient approach is required to be applied in the suitable technology to achieve the shortage in the fresh water demand. Different techniques are used to solve this problem. A mong the different methods applied to desalinate seawater is the osmosis technologies . Although reversible osmosis (RO) is the most familiar method used for this purpose, forward osmosis (FO) represents a more suitable technique due to several arguments including low energy cost. The present study represents the use of FO technique for water desalination with adsorption regeneration. In this respect, a self-prepared granular active carbon produced from dates is to be used as an adsorbent agent. The physical characteristics of the active carbon are studied such as BET specific surface area, pore size, particle size and the structure using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Different advanced apparatus are used for such measurements. In addition, the adsorption is otherms (Langmuier and Freundlich) are established to explain the adsorption mechanism of the process. Accordingly, the review includes essential information and sufficient backgrounds in the field of desalination using FO or simply direct osmosis, which overcome the different difficulties present in reversible RO

  15. Smartphone-Based Food Diagnostic Technologies: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Rateni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A new generation of mobile sensing approaches offers significant advantages over traditional platforms in terms of test speed, control, low cost, ease-of-operation, and data management, and requires minimal equipment and user involvement. The marriage of novel sensing technologies with cellphones enables the development of powerful lab-on-smartphone platforms for many important applications including medical diagnosis, environmental monitoring, and food safety analysis. This paper reviews the recent advancements and developments in the field of smartphone-based food diagnostic technologies, with an emphasis on custom modules to enhance smartphone sensing capabilities. These devices typically comprise multiple components such as detectors, sample processors, disposable chips, batteries and software, which are integrated with a commercial smartphone. One of the most important aspects of developing these systems is the integration of these components onto a compact and lightweight platform that requires minimal power. To date, researchers have demonstrated several promising approaches employing various sensing techniques and device configurations. We aim to provide a systematic classification according to the detection strategy, providing a critical discussion of strengths and weaknesses. We have also extended the analysis to the food scanning devices that are increasingly populating the Internet of Things (IoT market, demonstrating how this field is indeed promising, as the research outputs are quickly capitalized on new start-up companies.

  16. Smartphone-Based Food Diagnostic Technologies: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rateni, Giovanni; Dario, Paolo; Cavallo, Filippo

    2017-06-20

    A new generation of mobile sensing approaches offers significant advantages over traditional platforms in terms of test speed, control, low cost, ease-of-operation, and data management, and requires minimal equipment and user involvement. The marriage of novel sensing technologies with cellphones enables the development of powerful lab-on-smartphone platforms for many important applications including medical diagnosis, environmental monitoring, and food safety analysis. This paper reviews the recent advancements and developments in the field of smartphone-based food diagnostic technologies, with an emphasis on custom modules to enhance smartphone sensing capabilities. These devices typically comprise multiple components such as detectors, sample processors, disposable chips, batteries and software, which are integrated with a commercial smartphone. One of the most important aspects of developing these systems is the integration of these components onto a compact and lightweight platform that requires minimal power. To date, researchers have demonstrated several promising approaches employing various sensing techniques and device configurations. We aim to provide a systematic classification according to the detection strategy, providing a critical discussion of strengths and weaknesses. We have also extended the analysis to the food scanning devices that are increasingly populating the Internet of Things (IoT) market, demonstrating how this field is indeed promising, as the research outputs are quickly capitalized on new start-up companies.

  17. Optically pumped VECSELs: review of technology and progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guina, M.; Rantamäki, A.; Härkönen, A.

    2017-09-01

    Vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VECSELs) are the most versatile laser sources, combining unique features such as wide spectral coverage, ultrashort pulse operation, low noise properties, high output power, high brightness and compact form-factor. This paper reviews the recent technological developments of VECSELs in connection with the new milestones that continue to pave the way towards their use in numerous applications. Significant attention is devoted to the fabrication of VECSEL gain mirrors in challenging wavelength regions, especially at the yellow and red wavelengths. The reviewed fabrication approaches address wafer-bonded VECSEL structures as well as the use of hybrid mirror structures. Moreover, a comprehensive summary of VECSEL characterization methods is presented; the discussion covers different stages of VECSEL development and different operation regimes, pointing out specific characterization techniques for each of them. Finally, several emerging applications are discussed, with emphasis on the unique application objectives that VECSELs render possible, for example in atom and molecular physics, dermatology and spectroscopy.

  18. What Is Technology Education? A Review of the "Official Curriculum"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan A.; Brown, Joshua W.

    2010-01-01

    Technology education, not to be confused with educational technology, has an "official curriculum." This article explores this "official curriculum" and answers the following questions; what are the goals of technology education, what should technology education look like in classrooms, and why technology education is important. This article…

  19. Reviewing the relations between teachers' knowledge and pupils' attitude in the field of primary technology education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruurd Taconis; dr. Ellen J. J Rohaan; Wim Jochems

    2010-01-01

    This literature review reports on the assumed relations between primary school teachers' knowledge of technology and pupils' attitude towards technology. In order to find relevant aspects of technology-specific teacher knowledge, scientific literature in the field of primary technology education was

  20. New technologies for diabetes: a review of the present and the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramchandani Neesha

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review summarizes the technologies in use and in the pipeline for the management of diabetes. The review focuses on glucose meters, continuous glucose monitoring devices, insulin pumps, and getting clinicians connected to technologies. All information presented can be found in the public domain, and was obtained from journal articles, websites, product review tables in patient publications, and professional conferences. The technology concerns, ongoing development and future trends in this area are also discussed.

  1. New technologies for diabetes: a review of the present and the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchandani, Neesha; Heptulla, Rubina A

    2012-10-26

    : This review summarizes the technologies in use and in the pipeline for the management of diabetes. The review focuses on glucose meters, continuous glucose monitoring devices, insulin pumps, and getting clinicians connected to technologies. All information presented can be found in the public domain, and was obtained from journal articles, websites, product review tables in patient publications, and professional conferences. The technology concerns, ongoing development and future trends in this area are also discussed.

  2. Review of Enabling Technologies to Facilitate Secure Compute Customization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aderholdt, Ferrol [Tennessee Technological University; Caldwell, Blake A [ORNL; Hicks, Susan Elaine [ORNL; Koch, Scott M [ORNL; Naughton, III, Thomas J [ORNL; Pelfrey, Daniel S [ORNL; Pogge, James R [Tennessee Technological University; Scott, Stephen L [Tennessee Technological University; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Sorrillo, Lawrence [ORNL

    2014-12-01

    High performance computing environments are often used for a wide variety of workloads ranging from simulation, data transformation and analysis, and complex workflows to name just a few. These systems may process data for a variety of users, often requiring strong separation between job allocations. There are many challenges to establishing these secure enclaves within the shared infrastructure of high-performance computing (HPC) environments. The isolation mechanisms in the system software are the basic building blocks for enabling secure compute enclaves. There are a variety of approaches and the focus of this report is to review the different virtualization technologies that facilitate the creation of secure compute enclaves. The report reviews current operating system (OS) protection mechanisms and modern virtualization technologies to better understand the performance/isolation properties. We also examine the feasibility of running ``virtualized'' computing resources as non-privileged users, and providing controlled administrative permissions for standard users running within a virtualized context. Our examination includes technologies such as Linux containers (LXC [32], Docker [15]) and full virtualization (KVM [26], Xen [5]). We categorize these different approaches to virtualization into two broad groups: OS-level virtualization and system-level virtualization. The OS-level virtualization uses containers to allow a single OS kernel to be partitioned to create Virtual Environments (VE), e.g., LXC. The resources within the host's kernel are only virtualized in the sense of separate namespaces. In contrast, system-level virtualization uses hypervisors to manage multiple OS kernels and virtualize the physical resources (hardware) to create Virtual Machines (VM), e.g., Xen, KVM. This terminology of VE and VM, detailed in Section 2, is used throughout the report to distinguish between the two different approaches to providing virtualized execution

  3. Technology Assessment Need: Review on Attractiveness and Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salwa Sait, Siti; Merlinda Muharam, Farrah; Chin, Thoo Ai; Sulaiman, Zuraidah

    2017-06-01

    Technology assessment is crucial in managing technology for the purpose of technology exploitation. With business environment continuously changing, firms have to address this issue critically as technology is considered one of the important elements to evaluate performance and gain competitive advantage. Missteps in deciding the best technology to be developed, employed or maintained would cost the firm overall value. To fulfil the need of finding the appropriate scale to assess suitable technology, this paper summarizes that technology assessment (TA) should cover two main aspects, namely technology attractiveness and competitiveness. These components are seen capable to link the scale suggested towards evaluation of financial and non-financial performance towards competitive advantage.

  4. 5th International Conference OTEH 2012 - defense technology (Proceedings review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlado Petar Đurković

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of all papers and events at the Fifth International ScientificConference on Defense Technologies OTEH 2012 held in Belgrade, in the Military Technical Institute (VTI, from 18th to 19th September 2012.The paper review presents the Conference Sections by subjects and guest-lectureres as well as the institutions of all authors who actively participated at the Conference.About the ConferenceThe Fifth International Scientific Conference on Defense Technologies OTEH 2012  was held in Belgrade in the Military Technical Institute in Žarkovo, from 18th to 19thSeptember 2012..The Conference program was organized in two plenary sessions and a working part which took place in four halls.In the plenary session, two key lectures were held by eminent experts from abroad. The first lecture entitled „An adaptive remeshing technique for 3D crack growth simulations”, was given by Dr Vincent Chiaruttini (ONERA Institute, Paris, France. The second one, „New Technologies for Advanced Defence Systems”, was held by Dr Filippo Neri (Virtualabs Company, Rome, Italy.Fifteen sessions were organised at the Conference. The authors presented their works in open discussions answering questions from the audience. The average number of attendees at each session was about 40.The papers were sorted by topic areas:Aerodynamics and flight dynamics: 12 papersAircraft: 23 papersWeapon systems, ammunition, energy materials, combat vehicles: 29 papersIntegrated sensor systems and robotic systems: 16 papersTelecommunication and information systems: 18 papersMaterials and technologies: 34 papersQuality, standardization, metrology, maintenance and exploitation: 11 papersOut of 163 submitted papers for this Conference, 145 papers were accepted and distributed in an electronic form on CDs to the present authors, co-authors, guests and invitees to the Conference. The number of participants with authors and co-authors was impressive - 243. The

  5. A review on endogenous regenerative technology in periodontal regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fa-Ming; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Min; An, Ying; Chen, Fang; Wu, Zhi-Fen

    2010-11-01

    Periodontitis is a globally prevalent inflammatory disease that causes the destruction of the tooth-supporting apparatus and potentially leads to tooth loss. Currently, the methods to reconstitute lost periodontal structures (i.e. alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, and root cementum) have relied on conventional mechanical, anti-infective modalities followed by a range of regenerative procedures such as guided tissue regeneration, the use of bone replacement grafts and exogenous growth factors (GFs), and recently developed tissue engineering technologies. However, all current or emerging paradigms have either been shown to have limited and variable outcomes or have yet to be developed for clinical use. To accelerate clinical translation, there is an ongoing need to develop therapeutics based on endogenous regenerative technology (ERT), which can stimulate latent self-repair mechanisms in patients and harness the host's innate capacity for regeneration. ERT in periodontics applies the patient's own regenerative 'tools', i.e. patient-derived GFs and fibrin scaffolds, sometimes in association with commercialized products (e.g. Emdogain and Bio-Oss), to create a material niche in an injured site where the progenitor/stem cells from neighboring tissues can be recruited for in situ periodontal regeneration. The choice of materials and the design of implantable devices influence therapeutic potential and the number and invasiveness of the associated clinical procedures. The interplay and optimization of each niche component involved in ERT are particularly important to comprehend how to make the desired cell response safe and effective for therapeutics. In this review, the emerging opportunities and challenges of ERT that avoid the ex vivo culture of autologous cells are addressed in the context of new approaches for engineering or regeneration of functional periodontal tissues by exploiting the use of platelet-rich products and its associated formulations as key

  6. Empowerment of Cancer Survivors Through Information Technology: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Wim G; Kuijpers, Wilma; Oldenburg, Hester Sa; Wouters, Michel Wjm; Aaronson, Neil K; van Harten, Wim H

    2015-11-27

    Patient empowerment may be an effective approach to strengthen the role of cancer survivors and to reduce the burden on health care. However, it is not well conceptualized, notably in oncology. Furthermore, it is unclear to what extent information technology (IT) services can contribute to empowerment of cancer survivors. We aim to define the conceptual components of patient empowerment of chronic disease patients, especially cancer survivors, and to explore the contribution of existing and new IT services to promote empowerment. Electronic databases were searched to identify theoretical and empirical articles regarding empowerment. We extracted and synthesized conceptual components of patient empowerment (ie, attributes, antecedents, and consequences) according to the integrated review methodology. We identified recent IT services for cancer survivors by examining systematic reviews and a proposed inventory of new services, and we related their features and effects to the identified components of empowerment. Based on 26 articles, we identified five main attributes of patient empowerment: (1) being autonomous and respected, (2) having knowledge, (3) having psychosocial and behavioral skills, (4) perceiving support from community, family, and friends, and (5) perceiving oneself to be useful. The latter two were specific for the cancer setting. Systematic reviews of IT services and our additional inventory helped us identify five main categories: (1) educational services, including electronic survivorship care plan services, (2) patient-to-patient services, (3) electronic patient-reported outcome (ePRO) services, (4) multicomponent services, and (5) portal services. Potential impact on empowerment included knowledge enhancement and, to a lesser extent, enhancing autonomy and skills. Newly developed services offer promising and exciting opportunities to empower cancer survivors, for instance, by providing tailored advice for supportive or follow-up care based on

  7. Review of modern low emissions combustion technologies for aero gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yize; Sun, Xiaoxiao; Sethi, Vishal; Nalianda, Devaiah; Li, Yi-Guang; Wang, Lu

    2017-10-01

    Pollutant emissions from aircraft in the vicinity of airports and at altitude are of great public concern due to their impact on environment and human health. The legislations aimed at limiting aircraft emissions have become more stringent over the past few decades. This has resulted in an urgent need to develop low emissions combustors in order to meet legislative requirements and reduce the impact of civil aviation on the environment. This article provides a comprehensive review of low emissions combustion technologies for modern aero gas turbines. The review considers current high Technologies Readiness Level (TRL) technologies including Rich-Burn Quick-quench Lean-burn (RQL), Double Annular Combustor (DAC), Twin Annular Premixing Swirler combustors (TAPS), Lean Direct Injection (LDI). It further reviews some of the advanced technologies at lower TRL. These include NASA multi-point LDI, Lean Premixed Prevaporised (LPP), Axially Staged Combustors (ASC) and Variable Geometry Combustors (VGC). The focus of the review is placed on working principles, a review of the key technologies (includes the key technology features, methods of realising the technology, associated technology advantages and design challenges, progress in development), technology application and emissions mitigation potential. The article concludes the technology review by providing a technology evaluation matrix based on a number of combustion performance criteria including altitude relight auto-ignition flashback, combustion stability, combustion efficiency, pressure loss, size and weight, liner life and exit temperature distribution.

  8. Review of the technology for solar gasification of carbonaceous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, M.; Spiewak, I.; Funken, K.H.; Ortner, J.

    1994-01-01

    Research has demonstrated the feasibility of solar assisted gasification of carbonaceous materials to form synthesis gas (syngas). The potential feedstocks range from natural gas, residual oil, biomass, and oil-shale to coal. The expected advantages of such processing are yields of syngas with calorific values above those of the carbonaceous feedstocks, syngas quality suited to production of hydrogen, methanol or bulk Fischer-Tropsch fuels, and the ability to process low-grade and waste materials with essentially no emissions to atmosphere other than small amounts of CO 2 . The review provides some background on solar receiver concepts to reach the high temperatures needed for syngas production, the basic chemistry involved, covers applicable experiments that have been reported with solar inputs and with conventional heating, heat transfer processes, process and energy balances, and cost analysis. Approximately 80 references are cited. The authors present their views on the most promising approaches to solar-assisted gasification, the technology development required, and the ultimate benefits of such development and commercialization

  9. GaN Technology for Power Electronic Applications: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Tyler J.; Pushpakaran, Bejoy N.; Bayne, Stephen B.

    2016-06-01

    Power semiconductor devices based on silicon (Si) are quickly approaching their limits, set by fundamental material properties. In order to address these limitations, new materials for use in devices must be investigated. Wide bandgap materials, such as silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) have suitable properties for power electronic applications; however, fabrication of practical devices from these materials may be challenging. SiC technology has matured to point of commercialized devices, whereas GaN requires further research to realize full material potential. This review covers fundamental material properties of GaN as they relate to Si and SiC. This is followed by a discussion of the contemporary issues involved with bulk GaN substrates and their fabrication and a brief overview of how devices are fabricated, both on native GaN substrate material and non-native substrate material. An overview of current device structures, which are being analyzed for use in power switching applications, is then provided; both vertical and lateral device structures are considered. Finally, a brief discussion of prototypes currently employing GaN devices is given.

  10. Advances in copper laser technology: kinetic enhancement [review article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withford, Michael J.; Brown, Daniel J. W.; Mildren, Richard P.; Carman, Robert J.; Marshall, Graham D.; Piper, James A.

    Since their invention in 1966 copper vapour lasers (CVLs) have developed into a mature technology with applications including high-speed imaging, micro-machining, non-linear frequency conversion to the ultraviolet, and pumping of solid-state laser materials. However, the performance characteristics of conventional CVLs are fundamentally limited by kinetic processes at play within the gain medium and hence, these devices largely failed to keep pace with advances in visible solid state lasers during the late 1980s and early 1990s. In 1996 a new subclass of CVL, termed a kinetically enhanced or KE-CVL, was developed that used a ternary gas mixture (HCl-H 2-Ne) to tailor the kinetic processes that limit laser performance. These devices offer dramatic improvements in power (both average and high beam quality) and repetition rate scalability. Indeed, 100 W of visible, high beam quality power is now readily available from relatively small copper laser systems. In this paper the underlying principles and performance characteristics of KE-CVLs will be reviewed.

  11. ECO-TOURISM SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH PV TECHNOLOGY: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARAVIND C. V

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Through the Economic Transformation program the Malaysian Government aims to consider tourism as one of the major contributors to the country’s economy and as an industry that imbibe on the principles of environmental responsibility and sustainable development. The growing challenges in the prevention of expansion in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture, and over-exploitation of the natural resources, have made ecotourism extremely popular as a solution for developing tourism sites. Ecotourism attracts many people who wish not only to explore natural wonders but also to protect them for future generations. Most of the ecotourism sites are presumably situated far from the conventional energy resources and thus transporting electricity to those areas are discussed as inefficient and unsustainable. However, solar Photo-voltaic (PV system is clean and alternative energy to suffice the energy demands of eco-tourist sites. This paper puts statements of the energy demand in global and its impact on the traditional fossil fuels and proposes PV as an alternative renewable technology pertaining to the eco-tourism application. The paper especially focuses on solar PV systems which not only could supply the energy demand of tourist sites but can also maintain the image of the ecotourism. A case of a model lodge is used for the study, through the energy demand analysis. A comprehensive review on the PV architecture is presented that derive interest in the implementation of such structure for the case presented.

  12. Hemimorphite Ores: A Review of Processing Technologies for Zinc Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ailiang; Li, Mengchun; Qian, Zhen; Ma, Yutian; Che, Jianyong; Ma, Yalin

    2016-10-01

    With the gradual depletion of zinc sulfide ores, exploration of zinc oxide ores is becoming more and more important. Hemimorphite is a major zinc oxide ore, attracting much attention in the field of zinc metallurgy although it is not the major zinc mineral. This paper presents a critical review of the treatment for extraction of zinc with emphasis on flotation, pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods based on the properties of hemimorphite. The three-dimensional framework structure of hemimorphite with complex linkage of its structural units lead to difficult desilicification before extracting zinc in the many metallurgical technologies. It is found that the flotation method is generally effective in enriching zinc minerals from hemimorphite ores into a high-grade concentrate for recovery of zinc. Pure zinc can be produced from hemimorphite or/and willemite with a reducing reagent, like methane or carbon. Leaching reagents, such as acid and alkali, can break the complex structure of hemimorphite to release zinc in the leached solution without generation of silica gel in the hydrometallurgical process. For optimal zinc extraction, combing flotation with pyrometallurgical or hydrometallurgical methods may be required.

  13. Technology review of commercial food service equipment - final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahbar, S.; Krsikapa, S. [Canadian Gas Research Inst., Don Mills, ON (Canada); Fisher, D.; Nickel, J.; Ardley, S.; Zabrowski, D. [Fisher Consultants (Canada); Barker, R.F. [ed.

    1996-05-15

    Market and technical information on gas fired equipment used in the commercial food service sector in Canada and in each province or territory was presented. Results of a market study and technology review were integrated to establish energy consumption and energy saving potential in this sector. Eight categories of commercial cooking appliances were studied. They were: fryers, griddles, broilers, ranges, ovens, tilting skillets, steam kettles and steamers. Focus was on gas fired appliances, although electric appliances were also included. The total energy consumption of the appliances was estimated at 76,140.37 GBtu in 1994. Gas appliances accounted for 63 per cent of the total inventory and consumed 83 per cent of the total energy used. Cooking energy efficiencies for the gas fired commercial cooking equipment ranged from 10 per cent to 60 per cent. The electric appliances had cooking energy efficiencies ranging from 35 per cent to 95 per cent. A list of recommendations were made for the many opportunities to introduce higher efficiency commercial cooking appliances, essential to slow down or to stabilize the energy consumption of cooking appliances over the next decade. 66 refs., 14 tabs., 18 figs.

  14. Technology and peer review: the open and participatory dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedeli Laura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Peer review is a consolidated procedure in the academic context and its process affects various range of research outputs from project funding applications to manuscript publication. Peer review can be developed through modalities that imply a different level of transparency in the relationship between anonymity of the author and the reviewer/s.

  15. Review and evaluation of alternative chemical disposal technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    ... in comparison to the Army's baseline incineration system. The volume's main finding was that no alternative technology was preferable to incineration but that work should continue on the neutralization technologies under Army consideration...

  16. Influence of Health Literacy on Outcomes Using Telehomecare Technology: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emtekaer Haesum, Lisa Korsbakke; Ehlers, Lars; Hejlesen, Ole K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To conduct a systematic review of the literature describing the interaction between the use of telehomecare technology and level of health literacy among chronic patients. The aim of the review was both to explore whether and how level of health literacy affects the ability to use telehomecare technology and, additionally, whether and…

  17. Review of Speech-to-Text Recognition Technology for Enhancing Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadiev, Rustam; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Chen, Nian-Shing; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviewed literature from 1999 to 2014 inclusively on how Speech-to-Text Recognition (STR) technology has been applied to enhance learning. The first aim of this review is to understand how STR technology has been used to support learning over the past fifteen years, and the second is to analyze all research evidence to understand how…

  18. The Use of Technologies for Teaching Dentistry in Brazil: Reflections from an Integrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Henrique Salustiano; Bariani, Rita Catia; Kubo, Hatsuo; Leal, Tais Pereira; Ilinsky, Roberta; Borges, Thalita; Faltin, Kurt, Jr.; Ortolani, Cristina Lucia Feijó

    2017-01-01

    This article is an integrative review regarding the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) for teaching Dentistry. Thus, the article aimed to analyze papers that show the use of these technologies as resources and tools for learning. The stages in the elaboration of this integrative review were: establishing the guiding question…

  19. A Review of Emerging Technologies for the Detection and Diagnosis of Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    i A REVIEW OF EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR DETECTON AND DIAGNOSIS OF DENTAL CARIES by Walter B. Volinski Jr. Lieutenant... CARIES WALTER B. VOLINSKI JR. DDS, COMPREHENSIVE DEPARTMENT, 2016 Thesis directed by: Ling Ye, DDS, PhD LCDR, DC, USN Department of Dental ...diagnosis of dental caries and to compare their efficacy and accuracy to visual, tactile, and radiographic examination. Methods: The technologies reviewed

  20. Why University Lecturers Enhance Their Teaching through the Use of Technology: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to add to current understanding of technology-enhanced teaching through a process of synthesis and analysis of a collection of contemporary case studies set within university contexts. The justification to review case studies comes from Pinch and Bijker's concept of the "social construction of technology"…

  1. A review on technologies for oil shale surface retort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Y.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S.; Yang, S.A.; Ren, N.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, with the shortage of oil resources and the continuous increase in oil prices, oil shale has seized much more attention. Oil shale is a kind of important unconventional oil and gas resources. Oil shale resources are plentiful according to the proven reserves in places. And shale oil is far richer than crude oil in the world. Technology processing can be divided into two categories: surface retorting and in-situ technology. The process and equipment of surface retorting are more mature, and are still up to now, the main way to produce shale oil from oil shale. According to the variations of the particle size, the surface retorting technologies of oil shale can be notified and classified into two categories such as lump shale process and particulate shale process. The lump shale processes introduced in this article include the Fushun retorting technology, the Kiviter technology and the Petrosix technology; the particulate processes include the Gloter technology, the LR technology, the Tosco-II technology, the ATP (Alberta Taciuk Process) technology and the Enefit-280 technology. After the thorough comparison of these technologies, we can notice that, this article aim is to show off that : the particulate process that is environmentally friendly, with its low cost and high economic returns characteristics, will be the major development trend; Combined technologies of surface retorting technology and other oil producing technology should be developed; the comprehensive utilization of oil shale should be considered during the development of surface retorting technology, meanwhile the process should be harmless to the environment. (author)

  2. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge - a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, Joke; Fisser, Petra; Pareja Roblin, N.N.; Tondeur, J.; van Braak, J.

    2013-01-01

    Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) has been introduced as a conceptual framework for the knowledge base teachers need to effectively teach with technology. The framework stems from the notion that technology integration in a specific educational context benefits from a careful

  3. Organizational Culture: Technology Integration. Review of Literature and Data Gathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Selena E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Communities of practice and technology integration within such communities requires much attention in the future of education and developing organizations. Purpose: To examine the effectiveness of technology integration and how communities of practice plays a role in the successful implementation of technology integration for teacher…

  4. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge -- A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voogt, J.; Fisser, P.; Roblin, N. Pareja; Tondeur, J.; van Braak, J.

    2013-01-01

    Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) has been introduced as a conceptual framework for the knowledge base teachers need to effectively teach with technology. The framework stems from the notion that technology integration in a specific educational context benefits from a careful alignment of content, pedagogy and the potential of…

  5. Review on the Theory and Methods of Technology Convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jing

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available [Purpose/significance] Technology convergence is a significant means of technological innovation, plays an important role in economic and social development, and has gradually become an important part of the national science and technology strategy. [Method/process] On the base of the summary of its concept and the clarification of its significance of technology convergence study, the paper pointed out its research stages, and made comparative analysis of the methods in data collection, technosphere identification and convergence analysis. [Result/conclusion] Finally, it concludes the shortages of existing studies and the further research directions, which can deepen the study on technology convergence.

  6. Energy and technology review, May--June 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.C.; de Vore, L.; Gleason, K.; Highstone, H.; Kroopnick, H.; Sanford, N.M.; Spletter, M.

    1991-01-01

    This issue of Energy and Technology Review describes two powerful analytical tools that use ion-beam techniques to make contributions to an astonishing range of fundamental problems. We characterize these techniques -- accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and ion microbeam analysis -- under the common rubric of accelerator microanalysis. Each of these tools is used in disciplines ranging from anthropology to zoology. The rich diversity of applications is reason enough to dedicate an entire issue to these impressive tools. Most of the applications are already under investigation here at LLNL. One section in this issue explains how the high sensitivity of AMS offers the possibility of one day tailoring drugs to the needs of individual patients. Other articles describe the broad potential of AMS in environmental monitoring, so critical to the well-being of the public, and explain how it offers a precise timepiece that can help us understand our prehistoric past and, perhaps, one day help make accurate predictions for future global climate changes. The ion microbeam facility at LLNL may give the United States a competitive edge in advanced production techniques for microdevices. An article on the economic impact of microanalytical tools explains that other industries, too, may benefit during this era when we are facing tough competition from international markets. This is also an article on the history, development, and key advantages of AMS and ion microbeam analysis. Of prime importance for research is that they are nondestructive of many samples, allowing valuable (or irreplaceable) materials to be analyzed. These techniques also make it possible to study unique, small-sample experiments and may allow the first-time imaging of some living materials or functioning systems

  7. Energy and technology review, May--June 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K.C.; de Vore, L.; Gleason, K.; Highstone, H.; Kroopnick, H.; Sanford, N.M.; Spletter, M. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    This issue of Energy and Technology Review describes two powerful analytical tools that use ion-beam techniques to make contributions to an astonishing range of fundamental problems. We characterize these techniques -- accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and ion microbeam analysis -- under the common rubric of accelerator microanalysis. Each of these tools is used in disciplines ranging from anthropology to zoology. The rich diversity of applications is reason enough to dedicate an entire issue to these impressive tools. Most of the applications are already under investigation here at LLNL. One section in this issue explains how the high sensitivity of AMS offers the possibility of one day tailoring drugs to the needs of individual patients. Other articles describe the broad potential of AMS in environmental monitoring, so critical to the well-being of the public, and explain how it offers a precise timepiece that can help us understand our prehistoric past and, perhaps, one day help make accurate predictions for future global climate changes. The ion microbeam facility at LLNL may give the United States a competitive edge in advanced production techniques for microdevices. An article on the economic impact of microanalytical tools explains that other industries, too, may benefit during this era when we are facing tough competition from international markets. This is also an article on the history, development, and key advantages of AMS and ion microbeam analysis. Of prime importance for research is that they are nondestructive of many samples, allowing valuable (or irreplaceable) materials to be analyzed. These techniques also make it possible to study unique, small-sample experiments and may allow the first-time imaging of some living materials or functioning systems.

  8. Review on an Advanced High-Temperature Measurement Technology: The Optical Fiber Thermometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. B. Yu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical fiber thermometry technology for high-temperature measurement is briefly reviewed in this paper. The principles, characteristics, recent progresses and advantages of the technology are described. Examples of using the technology are introduced. Many blackbody, infrared, and fluorescence optical thermometers are developed for practical applications.

  9. 75 FR 16491 - Science and Technology Directorate; Submission for Review; Information Collection Request for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2010-0026] Science and Technology Directorate; Submission for Review; Information Collection Request for the Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate First Responders Community of Practice AGENCY: Science and Technology Directorate, DHS...

  10. Review of ride quality technology needs of industry and user groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckenzie, J. R.; Brumaghim, S. H.

    1975-01-01

    A broad survey of ride quality technology state-of-the-art and a review of user evaluation of this technology were conducted. During the study 17 users of ride quality technology in 10 organizations representing land, marine and air passenger transportation modes were interviewed. Interim results and conclusions of this effort are reported.

  11. Innovations in and by nuclear technology - review and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelt, K.

    1984-01-01

    An innovative technology like nuclear technology does not make progress by itself once it has to prove its profitability. It was a long way from technical to economic perfection which took courageous managemental descisions. Since nuclear fission was discovered, its exploitation as an energy source has been perfected. Now it is not only technically safe, reliable and ecological; it has also proved to be economically efficient as compared with the competing primary energies. As with other great innovations, the innovative force of nuclear technology is characterized by two directions: its assimilating capacity and its expanding capacity. Further issues are the so-called technological spin-off of nuclear technology and the fresh impetus nuclear technology gives to other fields. Another aspect beyond technological spin-off affecting all of our society: It was the first large technology requiring risk analyses to be carried out. Discussion broke out in public on the question: ''How safe is nuclear technology''. To sum up, the basic innovation of nuclear technology is now an important economic factor. It came just in time. It is capable of providing relief to the world's energy problems. It is up to us to use it in an intelligent way in the future despite any short-breathed complaints. (orig./HSCH) [de

  12. Psychological principles of successful aging technologies: A mini-review

    OpenAIRE

    Lindenberger, Ulman; Lövdén, Martin; Schellenbach, Michael; Li, Shu-Chen; Krüger, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Based on resource-oriented conceptions of successful life-span development, we propose three principles for evaluating assistive technology: (a) net resource release; (b) person specificity, and (c) proximal versus distal frames of evaluation. We discuss how these general principles can aid the design and evaluation of assistive technology in adulthood and old age, and propose two technological strategies, one targeting sensorimotor and the other cognitive functioning. The sensorimotor strate...

  13. 2016 National Algal Biofuels Technology Review Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae-based biofuels and bioproducts offer great promise in contributing to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) vision of a thriving and sustainable bioeconomy fueled by innovative technologies. The state of technology for producing algal biofuels continues to mature with ongoing investment by DOE and the private sector, but additional research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) is needed to achieve widespread deployment of affordable, scalable, and sustainable algal biofuels.

  14. A Historical Review of Brayton and Stirling Power Conversion Technologies for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lee S.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic power conversion technologies, such as closed Brayton and free-piston Stirling, offer many advantages for space power applications including high efficiency, long life, and attractive scaling characteristics. This paper presents a historical review of Brayton and Stirling power conversion technology for space and discusses on-going development activities in order to illustrate current technology readiness. The paper also presents a forecast of potential future space uses of these power technologies.

  15. Demonstration projects for diffusion of clean technological innovation: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, B.A.G.

    2014-01-01

    The demonstration project can be an effective organizational form to transform a clean technology prototype - for example, in the field of photovoltaics, carbon capture and storage, or wind power - into a marketable product. A question with regard to the clean technology demonstration project is how

  16. Review on early technology assessments of nanotechnologies in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retèl, Valesca P; Hummel, Marjan J M; van Harten, Wim H

    2009-12-01

    Nanotechnology is expected to play an increasingly important role in the diagnostics, prognostics, and management of targeted cancer treatments. While papers have described promising results for nanotechnology in experimental settings, the translation of fundamental research into clinical applications has yet to be widely adopted. In future, policy makers will need to anticipate new developments for clinical implementation and introduce technology assessments. Here we present an overview of the literature on the technology assessments that have already been undertaken on early stage nanotechnology in cancer care, with particular emphasis placed on clinical efficacy, efficiency, logistics, patient-related features and technology dynamics. Owing to the current stage of development of most nanotechnologies, we found only a limited number of publications describing the application of either Health Technology Assessment (HTA) or Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA). In spite of the promising conclusions of most papers concerning the benefits of clinical implementation, actual clinically relevant applications were rarely encountered, and so far only a few publications report application of systematic forms of technology assessment. Most articles consider aspects of environmental safety, regulation and ethics, often mentioning the need to investigate such issues more thoroughly. Evaluation of financial and organizational aspects is often missing. In order to obtain a realistic perspective on the translation and implementation process there is a need for a broad and systematic evaluation of nanotechnologies at early stages of development. Assessment methods taking technology dynamics into account, such as Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA) should be considered for evaluation purposes.

  17. Science and Technology Policy in Colombia: A Comparative Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correa-Restrepo, Juan Santiago; Tejada-Gomez, Maria Alejandra; Cayon-Fallon, Edgardo; Ordonez Matamoros, Hector Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to assess the current situation of the science and technology system in Colombia from a comparative perspective of quality indicators in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). We analyze the development of the science and technology policy in Colombia form a

  18. Reviews of Geospatial Information Technology and Collaborative Data Delivery for Disaster Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Miyazaki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that geospatial information technology is considered necessary for disaster risk management (DRM, the need for more effective collaborations between providers and end users in data delivery is increasing. This paper reviews the following: (i schemes of disaster risk management and collaborative data operation in DRM; (ii geospatial information technology in terms of applications to the schemes reviewed; and (iii ongoing practices of collaborative data delivery with the schemes reviewed. This paper concludes by discussing the future of collaborative data delivery and the progress of the technologies.

  19. Biofuels Production through Biomass Pyrolysis —A Technological Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ashfaque Ahmed Chowdhury; Nanjappa Ashwath; Mohammad G. Rasul; Mohammad I. Jahirul

    2012-01-01

    There has been an enormous amount of research in recent years in the area of thermo-chemical conversion of biomass into bio-fuels (bio-oil, bio-char and bio-gas) through pyrolysis technology due to its several socio-economic advantages as well as the fact it is an efficient conversion method compared to other thermo-chemical conversion technologies. However, this technology is not yet fully developed with respect to its commercial applications. In this study, more than two hundred publication...

  20. A Numerical and Graphical Review of Energy Storage Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siraj Sabihuddin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available More effective energy production requires a greater penetration of storage technologies. This paper takes a looks at and compares the landscape of energy storage devices. Solutions across four categories of storage, namely: mechanical, chemical, electromagnetic and thermal storage are compared on the basis of energy/power density, specific energy/power, efficiency, lifespan, cycle life, self-discharge rates, capital energy/power costs, scale, application, technical maturity as well as environmental impact. It’s noted that virtually every storage technology is seeing improvements. This paper provides an overview of some of the problems with existing storage systems and identifies some key technologies that hold promise.

  1. Review of methods for forecasting the market penetration of new technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilshannon, S.T.; Brown, D.R.

    1996-12-01

    In 1993 the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) initiated a program called Quality Metrics. Quality Metrics was developed to measure the costs and benefits of technologies being developed by EE R&D programs. The impact of any new technology is directly related to its adoption by the market. The techniques employed to project market adoption are critical to measuring a new technology`s impact. Our purpose was to review current market penetration theories and models and develop a recommended approach for evaluating the market penetration of DOE technologies. The following commonly cited innovation diffusion theories were reviewed to identify analytical approaches relevant to new energy technologies: (1) the normal noncumulative adopter distribution method, (2) the Bass Model, (3) the Mansfield-Blackman Model, (4) the Fisher-Pry Model, (5) a meta-analysis of innovation diffusion studies. Of the theories reviewed, the Bass and Mansfield-Blackman models were found most applicable to forecasting the market penetration of electricity supply technologies. Their algorithms require input estimates which characterize the technology adoption behavior of the electricity supply industry. But, inadequate work has been done to quantify the technology adoption characteristics of this industry. The following energy technology market penetration models were also reviewed: (1) DOE`s Renewable Energy Penetration (REP) Model, (2) DOE`s Electricity Capacity Planning Submodule of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), (3) the Assessment of Energy Technologies (ASSET) model by Regional Economic Research, Inc., (4) the Market TREK model by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The two DOE models were developed for electricity generation technologies whereas the Regional Economic Research and EPRI models were designed for demand- side energy technology markets. Therefore, the review and evaluation focused on the DOE models.

  2. Assistive technologies in reducing caregiver burden among informal caregivers of older adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madara Marasinghe, Keshini

    2016-01-01

    The world population is rapidly ageing. As population age, the incidence of functional limitations increases, demanding higher levels of care from caregivers. Assistive technologies improve individuals' functioning, independence, well-being and quality of life. By increasing independence of older adults, assistive technologies decrease workloads required from informal caregivers. This review investigates, evaluates, and synthesises existing findings to examine whether and how assistive technologies reduce caregiver burden. Databases searched included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, and Cochrane Library. Three groups of keywords were combined: those relating to assistive technology, caregiver burden, and older adults. Two theories emerged from the analysis of study results. Caregivers reported that assistive technologies decrease caregiver burden. However, caregivers had concerns that assistive technologies could add to caregiver burden, highlighting the limitations of assistive technology. As suggested by a majority of the studies in this review, assistive technologies contribute to reducing caregiver burden among caregivers of older adults. Assistive technologies assisted caregivers by reducing time, levels of assistance and energy put towards caregiving, anxiety and fear, task difficulty, safety risk particularly for activities requiring physical assistance and increasing the independence of the users. Further research is required to better understand limitations of assistive technologies. Implications for Rehabilitation Support for informal caregivers of older adults need more attention and recognition. Assistive technologies can reduce caregiver burden among informal caregivers of older adults. Further research is required to better understand the effectiveness of assistive technologies in reducing caregiver burden as well as limitations and barriers associated with using assistive technologies.

  3. Competitive Technologies for National Security: Review and Recommendations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carafano, James J; Gudgel, Andew; Kochems, Alane

    2008-01-01

    .... Innovation will always be a national security wild card. New technologies may unleash or accelerate social and cultural changes that affect how nations protect themselves on battlefields and behind the scenes...

  4. Computer technology applications in surgical implant dentistry: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, R.E.; Schneider, D.; Ganeles, J.; Wismeijer, D.; Zwahlen, M.; Hämmerle, C.H.F.; Tahmaseb, A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the literature on accuracy and clinical performance of computer technology applications in surgical implant dentistry. Materials and Methods: Electronic and manual literature searches were conducted to collect information about (1) the accuracy and (2) clinical performance of

  5. Additive Manufacturing Technology for Biomedical Components: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimi Zaharin, Haizum; Rani, Ahmad Majdi Abdul; Lenggo Ginta, Turnad; Azam, Farooq I.

    2018-03-01

    Over the last decades, additive manufacturing has shown potential application in ranging fields. No longer a prototyping technology, it is now being utilised as a manufacturing technology for giant industries such as the automotive, aircraft and recently in the medical industry. It is a very successful method that provides health-care solution in biomedical sectors by producing patient-specific prosthetics, improve tissues engineering and facilitate pre-operating session. This paper thus presents a brief overview of the most commercially important additive manufacturing technologies, which is currently available for fabricating biomedical components such as Stereolithography (SLA), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), Selective Laser Melting (SLM), Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) and Electron Beam Melting (EBM). It introduces the basic principles of the main process, highlights some of the beneficial applications in medical industry and the current limitation of applied technology.

  6. Information Technology in Facilities Management - A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Poul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose : The aim of this paper is to present the state of the art of research in Information Technology (IT) in Facilities Management (FM). Background : Initial studies indicate that investments into IT in FM often do not add the expected value, neither to the FM department itself nor...... on IT in FM were found. Relevant articles were organized in categories according to focus on 1. technology, 2. IT layer, 3. FM process, 4. theory and research method applied, and 5. type of findings. Finally research gaps were identified. Results and practical implications : There seems to be a general belief...... in technology combinations as a way to speed up the rather slow IT diffusion process in FM. It is documented that current research into IT in FM has an unbalanced focus on few specific technologies, IT layers and FM processes, and that further research should focus more on the IT implementation process and use...

  7. Review and evaluation of alternative chemical disposal technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    .... In light of the fact that alternative technologies have evolved since the 1994 study, this new volume evaluates five Army-chosen alternatives to the baseline incineration system for the disposal...

  8. NASA space station automation: AI-based technology review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M. P.; Park, W.; Neumann, P.; Kautz, W. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Rom, R. J.; Poggio, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Research and Development projects in automation for the Space Station are discussed. Artificial Intelligence (AI) based automation technologies are planned to enhance crew safety through reduced need for EVA, increase crew productivity through the reduction of routine operations, increase space station autonomy, and augment space station capability through the use of teleoperation and robotics. AI technology will also be developed for the servicing of satellites at the Space Station, system monitoring and diagnosis, space manufacturing, and the assembly of large space structures.

  9. Tall Buildings and Elevators: A Review of Recent Technological Advances

    OpenAIRE

    Kheir Al-Kodmany

    2015-01-01

    Efficient vertical mobility is a critical component of tall building development and construction. This paper investigates recent advances in elevator technology and examines their impact on tall building development. It maps out, organizes, and collates complex and scattered information on multiple aspects of elevator design, and presents them in an accessible and non-technical discourse. Importantly, the paper contextualizes recent technological innovations by examining their implementation...

  10. Review of early assessment models of innovative medical technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasterholdt, Iben; Krahn, Murray D; Kidholm, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hospitals increasingly make decisions regarding the early development of and investment in technologies, but a formal evaluation model for assisting hospitals early on in assessing the potential of innovative medical technologies is lacking. This article provides an overview of models...... methods assessing cost-effectiveness are most prevalent in early assessment, but seems ill-suited for early assessment in hospitals. Four models provided some usable elements for the development of a hospital-based model....

  11. Review of Battery Technologies for Military Land Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    issues relevant to their use in military land vehicles. It explains the advantages and disadvantages of specific battery technologies along with...UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Information presented in this report has been sourced through discussions with experts in this field, attendance at relevant...Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation DC Direct Current DoD Depth of Discharge DST Group Defence Science and Technology Group ELF

  12. EHealth Technologies in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Belinda D; Gray, Kathleen; Knowles, Simon R; De Cruz, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Electronic-health technologies (eHealth) such as Web-based interventions, virtual clinics, smart-phone applications, and telemedicine are being used to manage patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We aimed to: (1) Evaluate the impact of eHealth technologies on conventional clinical indices and patient-reported outcome measures (PROs) in IBD; (2) assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and feasibility of using eHealth technologies to facilitate the self-management of individuals with IBD, and; (3) provide recommendations for their design and optimal use for patient care. Relevant publications were identified via a literature search, and 17 publications were selected based on predefined quality parameters. Six randomized controlled trials and nine observational studies utilizing eHealth technologies in IBD were identified. Compared with standard outpatient-led care, eHealth technologies have led to improvements in: Relapse duration [(n = 1) 18 days vs 77 days, p eHealth studies include heterogeneity of outcome measures, lack of clinician/patient input, lack of validation against conventional clinical indices and PROs, and limited cost-benefit analyses. EHealth technologies have the potential for promoting self-management and reducing the impact of the growing burden of IBD on health care resource utilization. A theoretical framework should be applied to the development, implementation, and evaluation of eHealth interventions. Copyright © 2016 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Adoption of e-health technology by physicians: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grood, Chloe; Raissi, Aida; Kwon, Yoojin; Santana, Maria Jose

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this scoping review was to summarize the current literature identifying barriers and opportunities that facilitate adoption of e-health technology by physicians. Scoping review. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases as provided by Ovid were searched from their inception to July 2015. Studies captured by the search strategy were screened by two reviewers and included if the focus was on barriers and facilitators of e-health technology adoption by physicians. Full-text screening yielded 74 studies to be included in the scoping review. Within those studies, eleven themes were identified, including cost and liability issues, unwillingness to use e-health technology, and training and support. Cost and liability issues, unwillingness to use e-health technology, and training and support were the most frequently mentioned barriers and facilitators to the adoption of e-health technology. Government-level payment incentives and privacy laws to protect health information may be the key to overcome cost and liability issues. The adoption of e-health technology may be facilitated by tailoring to the individual physician's knowledge of the e-health technology and the use of follow-up sessions for physicians and on-site experts to support their use of the e-health technology. To ensure the effective uptake of e-health technologies, physician perspectives need to be considered in creating an environment that enables the adoption of e-health strategies.

  14. Review of methods for forecasting the market penetration of new technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilshannon, S.T.; Brown, D.R.

    1996-12-01

    In 1993 the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) initiated a program called Quality Metrics. Quality Metrics was developed to measure the costs and benefits of technologies being developed by EE R ampersand D programs. The impact of any new technology is directly related to its adoption by the market. The techniques employed to project market adoption are critical to measuring a new technology's impact. Our purpose was to review current market penetration theories and models and develop a recommended approach for evaluating the market penetration of DOE technologies. The following commonly cited innovation diffusion theories were reviewed to identify analytical approaches relevant to new energy technologies: (1) the normal noncumulative adopter distribution method, (2) the Bass Model, (3) the Mansfield-Blackman Model, (4) the Fisher-Pry Model, (5) a meta-analysis of innovation diffusion studies. Of the theories reviewed, the Bass and Mansfield-Blackman models were found most applicable to forecasting the market penetration of electricity supply technologies. Their algorithms require input estimates which characterize the technology adoption behavior of the electricity supply industry. But, inadequate work has been done to quantify the technology adoption characteristics of this industry. The following energy technology market penetration models were also reviewed: (1) DOE's Renewable Energy Penetration (REP) Model, (2) DOE's Electricity Capacity Planning Submodule of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), (3) the Assessment of Energy Technologies (ASSET) model by Regional Economic Research, Inc., (4) the Market TREK model by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The two DOE models were developed for electricity generation technologies whereas the Regional Economic Research and EPRI models were designed for demand- side energy technology markets. Therefore, the review and evaluation focused on the DOE models

  15. GPR Technologies and Methodologies in Italy: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Andrea; Frezza, Fabrizio; Manacorda, Guido; Massa, Andrea; Pajewski, Lara

    2014-05-01

    GPR techniques and technologies have been subject of intense research activities at the Italian level in the last 15 years because of their potential applications specifically to civil engineering. More in detail, several innovative approaches and models have been developed to inspect road pavements to measure the thickness of their layers as well as to diagnose or prevent damage. Moreover, new frontiers in bridge inspection as well as in geotechnical applications such as slides and flows have been investigated using GPR. From the methodological viewpoint, innovative techniques have been developed to solve GPR forward-scattering problems, as well to locate and classify subsurface targets in real-time and to retrieve their properties through multi-resolution strategies, and linear and non-linear methodologies. Furthermore, the application of GPR and other non-destructive testing methods in archaeological prospecting, cultural heritage diagnostics, and in the localization and detection of vital signs of trapped people has been widely investigated. More recently, new theoretical and empirical paradigms regarding water moisture evaluation in various porous media and soil characterization have been published as the results of long terms research activities. Pioneer studies are also currently under development with the scope to correlate GPR measurement with mechanical characteristics of bound and unbound construction materials. In such a framework, this abstract will be aimed at reviewing some of the most recent advances of GPR techniques and technologies within the Italian industrial and academic communities [also including their application within international projects such as FP7 ISTIMES (http://www.istimes.eu)], and at envisaging some of the most promising research trends currently under development. Acknowledgment - This work was supported by COST Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar' References [1] M. Balsi, S. Esposito, F

  16. Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW): NESHAP Risk and Technology Review Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    These proposed amendments to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW) result from the results of the residual risk and technology review of that source category.

  17. Low Maintenance Water Treatment for Heating and Cooling Systems: Review of Technologies and Guidelines for Implementation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smothers, Kent W; Drozdz, Susan A; Hock, Vincent F

    2007-01-01

    .... To be "smart buyers" of these products, Army installations require periodic technology reviews to stay informed about advances and new capabilities of water treatment products available in the marketplace...

  18. A comparative review of patient safety initiatives for national health information technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magrabi, Farah; Aarts, Jos; Nøhr, Christian

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To collect and critically review patient safety initiatives for health information technology (HIT). METHOD: Publicly promulgated set of advisories, recommendations, guidelines, or standards potentially addressing safe system design, build, implementation or use were identified by sear...

  19. Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW): NESHAP Risk and Technology Review Final

    Science.gov (United States)

    These proposed amendments to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW) result from the results of the residual risk and technology review of that source category.

  20. Critical Review of Noninvasive Optical Technologies for Wound Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Jayachandran, Maanasa; Rodriguez, Suset; Solis, Elizabeth; Lei, Jiali; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    Significance: Noninvasive imaging approaches can provide greater information about a wound than visual inspection during the wound healing and treatment process. This review article focuses on various optical imaging techniques developed to image different wound types (more specifically ulcers).

  1. Review of thermal energy storage technologies based on PCM application in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per; Zhang, Yinping

    2013-01-01

    Thermal energy storage systems (TES), using phase change material (PCM) in buildings, are widely investigated technologies and a fast developing research area. Therefore, there is a need for regular and consistent reviews of the published studies. This review is focused on PCM technologies...... developed to serve the building industry. Various PCM technologies tailored for building applications are studied with respect to technological potential to improve indoor environment, increase thermal inertia and decrease energy use for building operation. What is more, in this review special attention...... is paid to discussion and identification of proper methods to correctly determine the thermal properties of PCM materials and their composites and as well procedures to determine their energy storage and saving potential. The purpose of the paper is to highlight promising technologies for PCM application...

  2. Novel treatment technologies for PFAS compounds: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharzyk, Katarzyna H; Darlington, Ramona; Benotti, Mark; Deeb, Rula; Hawley, Elisabeth

    2017-12-15

    Perfluorinated compounds such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have recently drawn great attention due to their wide distribution in aquatic environments. The understanding of the physicochemical properties and fate and transport of PFAs in groundwater is still limited. Preliminary studies indicate that these compounds can readily bioaccumulate and pose human and animal health concerns. Due to their physicochemical properties, PFOS and PFOA are water soluble, nonvolatile and persistent in the environment, which is a cause of concern related to their treatment with conventional remediation technologies. Extraction with inefficient carbon adsorption is one of the most common treatment technologies for remediation of PFOS- or PFOA-impacted groundwater. Several other innovative and promising technologies, including sonochemistry, bioremediation and photolysis, have been tested for their effectiveness in removal of perfluorinated compounds. This paper provides a baseline for understanding research needs to better develop treatment technologies for PFOA and PFOS in groundwater. Frontiers for improving the state of practice for PFOA and PFOS treatment include the development of more cost-effective ex situ treatment methods and the development and demonstration of promising in situ treatment technologies at the pilot and full scale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Technology-Enhanced Learning in Developing Nations: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalni Gulati

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Learning ‘using’ technologies has become a global phenomenon. The Internet is often seen as a value-neutral tool that potentially allows individuals to overcome the constraints of traditional elitist spaces and gain unhindered access to learning. It is widely suggested that online technologies can help address issues of educational equity and social exclusion, and open up democratic and accessible educational opportunities. The national governments and non-governmental agencies who fund educational endeavours in developing countries have advocated the use of new technologies to reduce the cost of reaching and educating large numbers of children and adults who are currently missing out on education. This paper presents an overview of the educational developments in open, distance, and technology-facilitated learning that aim to reach the educationally deprived populations of the world. It reveals the challenges encountered by children and adults in developing countries as they attempt to access available educational opportunities. The discussion questions whether, in face of these challenges, developing nations should continue to invest money, time, and effort into e-learning developments. Can technology-enhanced learning help address the poverty, literacy, social, and political problems in developing countries?

  4. The role of nuclear technologies in the diagnosis and control of livestock diseases—a review

    OpenAIRE

    Viljoen, Gerrit J.; Luckins, Antony G.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear and nuclear-related technologies have played an important role in animal health, particularly in relation to disease diagnosis and characterization of pathogenic organisms. This review focuses primarily on how and where nuclear technologies, both non-isotopic and isotopic methods, have made their impact in the past and where it might be expected they could have an impact in the future. The review outlines the extensive use of radiation attenuation in attempts to create vaccines for a ...

  5. Concise Review: Organ Engineering: Design, Technology, and Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Gaurav; Leijten, Jeroen; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Engineering complex tissues and whole organs has the potential to dramatically impact translational medicine in several avenues. Organ engineering is a discipline that integrates biological knowledge of embryological development, anatomy, physiology, and cellular interactions with enabling technologies including biocompatible biomaterials and biofabrication platforms such as three-dimensional bioprinting. When engineering complex tissues and organs, core design principles must be taken into account, such as the structure-function relationship, biochemical signaling, mechanics, gradients, and spatial constraints. Technological advances in biomaterials, biofabrication, and biomedical imaging allow for in vitro control of these factors to recreate in vivo phenomena. Finally, organ engineering emerges as an integration of biological design and technical rigor. An overall workflow for organ engineering and guiding technology to advance biology as well as a perspective on necessary future iterations in the field is discussed. Stem Cells 2017;35:51-60. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  6. Perspective of Membrane Technology in Dairy Industry: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pavan; Sharma, Neelesh; Ranjan, Rajeev; Kumar, Sunil; Bhat, Z. F.; Jeong, Dong Kee

    2013-01-01

    Membrane technology has revolutionized the dairy sector. Different types of membranes are used in the industry for various purposes like extending the shelf life of milk without exposure to heat treatment, standardization of the major components of milk for tailoring new products as well increasing yield and quality of the dairy products, and concentrating, fractionation and purification of milk components especially valuable milk proteins in their natural state. In the cheese industry, membranes increase the yield and quality of cheese and control the whey volume, by concentrating the cheese milk. With the advancement of newer technology in membrane processes, it is possible to recover growth factor from whey. With the introduction of superior quality membranes as well as newer technology, the major limitation of membranes, fouling or blockage has been overcome to a greater extent. PMID:25049918

  7. Review of wide band-gap semiconductors technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Haiwei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon carbide (SiC and gallium nitride (GaN are typical representative of the wide band-gap semiconductor material, which is also known as third-generation semiconductor materials. Compared with the conventional semiconductor silicon (Si or gallium arsenide (GaAs, wide band-gap semiconductor has the wide band gap, high saturated drift velocity, high critical breakdown field and other advantages; it is a highly desirable semiconductor material applied under the case of high-power, high-temperature, high-frequency, anti-radiation environment. These advantages of wide band-gap devices make them a hot spot of semiconductor technology research in various countries. This article describes the research agenda of United States and European in this area, focusing on the recent developments of the wide band-gap technology in the US and Europe, summed up the facing challenge of the wide band-gap technology.

  8. A Review of Technology Education in Ireland; a Changing Technological Environment Promoting Design Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Keelin; Phelan, Pat

    2014-01-01

    In Ireland, Technology Education's structure and organisation across the levels of education is not delivered or governed in a coherent manner. Technology Education in primary level education, for students between 5 and 12 years of age, does not explicitly exist as a separate subject. In primary level education, Social, Environmental and…

  9. Information and Communication Technology for Elderly: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Malla, Riddhi

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development of technology is on the same pace as the growth of elderly in the world. Older people is being considered as a digitally excluded group of the society. The communica-tion technology, computer and Internet are the most demanded part of society to elderly and it is the responsible of society to act for ‘Successful Ageing’ or ‘Active Ageing’, which is key for quality of life of elderly. The aim of the thesis is to determine the attitude of elderly towards information and co...

  10. A review of biomass gasification technologies in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    This report provides an overview of existing technologies and projects in Denmark and Sweden with a focus on the Öresund region. Furthermore it presents the research and development of biomass gasification in the region and these two countries. The list of existing gasification plants from...... laboratory scale projects to big scale plants is given. The report ends with an overview of future gasification projects as well as potential experience exchanges that could occur between the countries. We regard biomass gasification as one of the key technologies in future renewable energy systems....

  11. Hydrogen-oxygen Space Shuttle ACPS thruster technology review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, J. W.; Herr, P. N.

    1972-01-01

    A comprehensive program has provided the technology groundwork for the use of hydrogen-oxygen propellants in the Space Shuttle Attitude Control Propulsion System (ACPS) thrustors. This work has concentrated on generation of technology for injectors, cooled thrust chambers, valves, and ignition systems. The thrustors are designed to meet a unique and stringent set of requirements, including: long life for 100 mission reuses, high performance, light weight, ability to provide long duration firings as well as small impulse bits, ability to operate over wide ranges of propellant inlet conditions and to withstand reentry heating. The program has included evaluation of thrustors designed for ambient temperature and cold gaseous propellants at the vehicle interface.

  12. Students with Special Educational Needs and Assistive Technologies: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Raziye

    2017-01-01

    The term "assistive technologies" refers to the equipment, devices and apparatus, and the services, systems, processes and adaptations made to the environment that support and facilitate their functions, used by persons with special education needs. This study is a literature review of the use of assistive technologies in the education…

  13. Mobile Assisted Language Learning: Review of the Recent Applications of Emerging Mobile Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jaeseok

    2013-01-01

    As mobile computing technologies have been more powerful and inclusive in people's daily life, the issue of mobile assisted language learning (MALL) has also been widely explored in CALL research. Many researches on MALL consider the emerging mobile technologies have considerable potentials for the effective language learning. This review study…

  14. 75 FR 27708 - National Institute of Standards and Technology Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... equitable treatment of these individuals. This notice lists the membership of the NIST PRB and supersedes... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology National Institute of Standards and Technology Performance Review Board Membership The National Institute of Standards and...

  15. 76 FR 55880 - National Institute of Standards and Technology; Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... equitable treatment of these individuals. This notice lists the membership of the NIST PRB and supersedes... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology National Institute of Standards and Technology; Performance Review Board Membership The National Institute of Standards and...

  16. A Review of Research on Technology-Assisted School Science Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Yu; Wu, Hsin-Ka; Lee, Silvia Wen-Yu; Hwang, Fu-Kwun; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Wu, Ying-Tien; Chiou, Guo-Li; Chen, Sufen; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Lin, Jing-Wen; Lo, Hao-Chang; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Studies that incorporate technologies into school science laboratories have proliferated in the recent two decades. A total of 42 studies published from 1990 to 2011 that incorporated technologies to support school science laboratories are reviewed here. Simulations, microcomputer-based laboratories (MBLs), and virtual laboratories are commonly…

  17. Implications of Information Technology for Employment, Skills, and Wages: A Review of Recent Research. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an extensive review of the research literature on the effects of information technology (IT) on employment levels, job skill requirements, and wages. The first sections provide historical background on earlier waves of concern regarding automation, contemporary public opinion regarding new workplace technology, and trends in…

  18. A Review of Heavy-Fueled Rotary Engine Combustion Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Crown Point, IN) (73) is working with the U.S. Army Research Laboratory’s Vehicle Technology Directorate in Cleveland, OH, to develop a pulsed...thermal insulation and wear- resistant materials, such as ceramics (100). Moller (100) used Zirconia as a thermal barrier coating (TBC) and PS-200 as

  19. [Review of the health technology assessment on surgeries in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigori, Tatsuto; Kawakami, Koji; Goto, Rei; Hida, Koya; Sakai, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-01

    Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is the systematic evaluation to measure the value of new health technologies. It improves the quality of choices on hand for cost-effective health technologies that are considered valuable. Japan has built a society of longevity consisted of the institution of the universal health care system, which is financially unsustainable. In Japan, no independent HTA organization has been publicly established but the government is contemplating implementation of such system. To advance the usage of HTA into surgery, we need to establish methods for evaluating new surgical technologies with steep learning curves. The promotion of clinical researches is also essential, especially by taking advantage of observational studies from medical big data such as the Japanese nationwide database which has more than four million surgical cases registered. In addition, we need more clinical information regarding each surgical patient's quality of life and socioeconomic status. The countries already introduced HTA into their health care system have measures to solve the problems that arose and have developed necessary evaluating methods. To introduce and promote HTA in Japan without taking away the benefit of our current healthcare, it is required that surgeons collaborate with other specialists such as methodologists and health economists.

  20. Hypermedia Laboratory, Defense Applied Information Technology Center; Review for 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    technology and the CCL system to produce an Artificial Inteligence driven Hypermedia environment to access heterogenous database systems. The development...8, December 1988 a minicomputer * HYPERTEXT * multiuser dgis artificial inteligence hypermedi Hypermedia for ASCII Hyperext on the VAX is an ASCII...CODES 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Hypermedia, Artificial Intelligence

  1. Tall Buildings and Elevators: A Review of Recent Technological Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheir Al-Kodmany

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Efficient vertical mobility is a critical component of tall building development and construction. This paper investigates recent advances in elevator technology and examines their impact on tall building development. It maps out, organizes, and collates complex and scattered information on multiple aspects of elevator design, and presents them in an accessible and non-technical discourse. Importantly, the paper contextualizes recent technological innovations by examining their implementations in recent major projects including One World Trade Center in New York; Shanghai Tower in Shanghai; Burj Khalifa in Dubai; Kingdom Tower in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; and the green retrofit project of the Empire State Building in New York. Further, the paper discusses future vertical transportation models including a vertical subway concept, a space lift, and electromagnetic levitation technology. As these new technological advancements in elevator design empower architects to create new forms and shapes of large-scale, mixed-use developments, this paper concludes by highlighting the need for interdisciplinary research in incorporating elevators in skyscrapers.

  2. Review Article: Current Knowledge on Microarray Technology - An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The completion of whole genome sequencing projects has led to a rapid increase in the availability of genetic information. In the field of transcriptomics, the emergence of microarray-based technologies and the design of DNA biochips allow high-throughput studies of RNA expression in cell and tissue at a given moment.

  3. Survey and critical review of recent innovative energy conversion technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Patrick G.; Grotz, Toby; Hurtak, James J.

    1998-01-01

    A summary review is presented of the experiments, motors, generators, devices, and demonstrations that have been reported in the past several years to produce near-unity or over-unity operation. The concepts of free-energy, zero-point energy, and over-unity devices are not new, and many examples of such devices have been built within the last 100 years. Several researchers are reviewed and a few are selected for immediate interest and support. Whether new forms of potential energy can be demonstrated and successfully utilized within the near future for the ultimate benefit of the human race remains to be seen.

  4. Pyrolysis and gasification of waste: a worldwide technology and business review. Vol.1: Markets and trends; Vol. 2: Technologies and processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The two volume report, Pyrolysis and Gasification of Waste; a Worldwide Technology and Business Review, covers technology trends and market forces, applications and markets, market profiles by region, decision makers' preferences, and the market forecast for 1999 to 2008 in Volume I. Technologies and processes are addressed in Volume II, with technology concepts, analysis of the processes, a comparative review of selected processes examined. A directory of suppliers, process developers and licenses is provided in the appendices to Volume II. (UK)

  5. What's technology cooking up? A systematic review of the use of technology in adolescent food literacy programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Catherine A; Carbone, Elena T

    2018-06-01

    Over one-third of adolescents are overweight or obese. Food literacy (FL), the ability to plan and manage, select, prepare, and eat healthy foods, is a contemporary concept that provides a mechanism to understand the relationship between food-related knowledge and skills and dietary intake. Innovative interventions which focus on the core concepts of FL and include generationally appropriate technology have the potential to provide positive impact on the dietary habits of adolescents. This systematic review followed PRISMA guidelines and employed the Downs and Black criteria for rating studies. Titles and abstracts of 545 articles were collected and reviewed from 13 electronic databases. Studies were selected if they were peer-reviewed, included adolescents 12-19 years-old, incorporated concepts related to FL, and employed technology as part of the intervention. Eight studies, six randomized controlled trials (RCT) and two interventions without controls were included. Seven of the interventions used Internet or web-based platforms to access program components and all RCTs incorporated game elements. Studies included between two and four constructs of FL. All reported positive changes in food intake with five reporting significant positive pre- and post-intervention changes. Few technology-driven FL-related studies exist within the literature. Although all studies reported improvements in dietary intake, due to variation in program design, delivery, and evaluation it is difficult to tease out the effect of the technology component. Continued research is needed to: 1) determine the degree to which FL should be included in interventions to effect a positive change on dietary intake; 2) develop adolescent-specific FL measures to more appropriately evaluate changes in knowledge, food-related skills, and dietary intake; and 3) design technology-driven interventions so that technology components can be analyzed separately from other program elements. Copyright © 2018

  6. Applying Questioning or Reading Strategy to Review Technology Enhanced Coedited Notes of Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Cheng, Hsiao-Wei; Wu, Chiu-Yi

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined whether applying questioning review better enhances elementary level students' learning from technology-enhanced coediting-based note taking than does traditional reading review. A nonequivalent comparison group quasi-experimental design was implemented and replicated on four independent units. Two sixth grade elementary…

  7. Review of the Human Resources, Finance, and Information Technology Operations of the Seattle Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of the Great City Schools, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In late 2007, the Council of the Great City Schools conducted a high-level management review of the school district's human resources, financial, and technology operations to: (1) Review and evaluate the leadership, management, organization, and operations of the respective departments; and (2) Develop recommendations and proposals that would…

  8. Biomass Program 2007 Program Peer Review - Biodiesel and Other Technologies Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-28

    This document discloses the comments provided by a review panel at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Program Peer Review held on November 15-16, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and the Biodiesel and Other Technologies, held on August 14th and 15th in Golden, Colorado.

  9. Bovine somatotropin: review of an emerging animal technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, D E

    1992-12-01

    One of the first potential biotechnology products for animal production is bST. Research in the technology of bST has involved scientists and support from federal agencies, universities, and private industry. As a consequence of this extensive cooperation, more than 1000 bST studies have been conducted, which involved over 20,000 dairy cows, and results have been confirmed by scientists throughout the world. This quantity of published research is unprecedented for a new technology and greater than most dairy technologies in use. In contrast to steroids, bST is a protein hormone. Milk yield and persistency responses to bST have been observed for all dairy breeds examined. Quality of management is the major factor affecting magnitude of milk response to bST. The mechanism of action of bST involves a series of orchestrated changes in the metabolism of body tissues so that more nutrients can be used for milk synthesis. It is these coordinated changes that allow the animal to achieve an increased milk yield while remaining normal and healthy. Bioenergetic studies demonstrated that bST-supplemented animals are not stressed. Similarly, there are no adverse health effects from bST even under poor management conditions. Composition of milk (fat, protein, lactose, cholesterol, minerals, and vitamins) is not substantially altered when bST is used and does not differ in manufacturing characteristics. Public perception is of paramount importance if bST or any new technology is to be effectively implemented. New technology must be understood and perceived as safe and beneficial both by farmers, who would utilize it, and consumers, who would purchase the dairy products. With bST use, a unit of milk is produced with less feed and protein supplement and with a reduction in animal excreta (manure, urine, and methane). Nationally, the use of bST simply reinforces, but does not fundamentally change, dairy industry trends of increased milk yield per cow, reduced number of cows, and

  10. Social work, technology, and ethical practices: a review and evaluation of the national association of social workers' technology standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Amy

    2014-10-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are becoming essential to social work practice by providing increased treatment possibilities and reducing barriers to service. While recognizing the importance of ICTs in practice, social work practitioners have had concerns about ethical use. In response, NASW compiled the Standards for Technology and Social Work Practice. While the guidelines set the groundwork, they were not embedded in a process that would allow them to adapt to the swift pace of ICT changes. This article reviews the current Standards, evaluates how these have been implemented by practitioners, and offers suggestions for updates.

  11. Online Class Review: Using Streaming-Media Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudon, Marc; Sharp, Mark

    2006-01-01

    We present an automated system that allows students to replay both audio and video from a large nonmajors' organic chemistry class as streaming RealMedia. Once established, this system requires no technical intervention and is virtually transparent to the instructor. This gives students access to online class review at any time. Assessment has…

  12. A Review of Warm Mix Asphalt Technology: Technical, Eco-nomical and Enviromental Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alexander Rondón

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In general terms, warm mix asphalt (WMA technology presents a wide potential for successful use in road works construction projects. However, concerns remain regarding the durability and behavior of WMA mixtures in the long term, which need to be addressed. This review focuses on the technical, economic and environmental advantages and disadvantages. The review concludes that the main advantage, at the moment, of this technology concerns the environment. At the end of this work, the authors include certain recommendations for future works to continue strengthening the development of WMA technology.

  13. Space Technology Mission Directorate Game Changing Development Program FY2015 Annual Program Review: Advanced Manufacturing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, John; Fikes, John

    2015-01-01

    The Advance Manufacturing Technology (AMT) Project supports multiple activities within the Administration's National Manufacturing Initiative. A key component of the Initiative is the Advanced Manufacturing National Program Office (AMNPO), which includes participation from all federal agencies involved in U.S. manufacturing. In support of the AMNPO the AMT Project supports building and Growing the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation through a public-private partnership designed to help the industrial community accelerate manufacturing innovation. Integration with other projects/programs and partnerships: STMD (Space Technology Mission Directorate), HEOMD, other Centers; Industry, Academia; OGA's (e.g., DOD, DOE, DOC, USDA, NASA, NSF); Office of Science and Technology Policy, NIST Advanced Manufacturing Program Office; Generate insight within NASA and cross-agency for technology development priorities and investments. Technology Infusion Plan: PC; Potential customer infusion (TDM, HEOMD, SMD, OGA, Industry); Leverage; Collaborate with other Agencies, Industry and Academia; NASA roadmap. Initiatives include: Advanced Near Net Shape Technology Integrally Stiffened Cylinder Process Development (launch vehicles, sounding rockets); Materials Genome; Low Cost Upper Stage-Class Propulsion; Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME); National Center for Advanced Manufacturing.

  14. Emerging and potential technologies for facilitating shrimp peeling: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Tem Thi; Gringer, Nina; Jessen, Flemming

    2018-01-01

    and discontinuous process due to a long time soaking in maturing tanks. Therefore the need for seeking alternative methods to replace the traditional long maturations has grown, that address the future trends in sustainable processing of ready-to-eat shrimps. Emerging technologies e.g. high pressure, enzyme......Ready-to-eat shrimp processing is challenging due to the complex biological design with the shell tightly connected to the meat. Several techniques have been developed to weaken or loosen this connection, thus facilitating the subsequent peeling. The loosening process is typically undertaken......, ultrasound and microwave can potentially become the alternatives since they have strong peeling effects on lobsters, crabs, bivalve mollusks, eggshells, human skin, fruits and vegetables. Also these technologies offer benefits such as short process time, retained nutritional and sensorial characteristics...

  15. Review of Propulsion Technologies for N+3 Subsonic Vehicle Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcraft, Scott W.; Padron, Andres S.; Pascioni, Kyle A.; Stout, Gary W., Jr.; Huff, Dennis L.

    2011-01-01

    NASA has set aggressive fuel burn, noise, and emission reduction goals for a new generation (N+3) of aircraft targeting concepts that could be viable in the 2035 timeframe. Several N+3 concepts have been formulated, where the term "N+3" indicate aircraft three generations later than current state-of-the-art aircraft, "N". Dramatic improvements need to be made in the airframe, propulsion systems, mission design, and the air transportation system in order to meet these N+3 goals. The propulsion system is a key element to achieving these goals due to its major role with reducing emissions, fuel burn, and noise. This report provides an in-depth description and assessment of propulsion systems and technologies considered in the N+3 subsonic vehicle concepts. Recommendations for technologies that merit further research and development are presented based upon their impact on the N+3 goals and likelihood of being operational by 2035.

  16. Sustainable ground transportation – review of technologies, challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Ramesh K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Currently there are nearly 750 million ground vehicles in service worldwide. They are responsible for 50% of petroleum (oil) consumption and 60% of all greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide. The number of vehicles is forecasted to double by 2050. Therefore the environmental issues such as noise, emissions and fuel burn have become important for energy and environmental sustainability. This paper provides an overview of specific energy and environmental issues related to ground transportation. The technologies related to reduction in energy requirements such as reducing the vehicle mass by using the high strength low weight materials and reducing the viscous drag by active flow control and smoothing the operational profile, and reducing the contact friction by special tire materials are discussed along with the portable energy sources for reducing the GHG emissions such as low carbon fuels (biofuels), Lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and stability, and fuel cells. The technological challenges and opportunities for innovations are discussed.

  17. Technology and its ethics in nursing and caring journals: An integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Eila-Sisko; Nordman, Tina; Eriksson, Katie

    2015-08-01

    Over the past 20 years, the impact of technology has increased significantly in health care. The diversity of technology is growing and its knowledge scattered. The concept of technology is ambiguous in caring and nursing sciences and its ethics remains unidentified. To find evidence on how the concept of technology and its ethics are defined in caring and nursing sciences and practice. The purpose of this study is to describe and summarize the concept of technology and its ethics in the past nursing and caring literature. The integrative literature review of the past nursing and caring literature. The data were collected from caring and nursing journal articles from 2000 to 2013 focusing on technology and its ethics.The results were summarized and themed. Technology as a concept has three implications. First, technology is devices and products, including ICT and advanced, simple and assistive technology. Second, technology refers to a process consisting of methods for helping people. Third, technology as a service indicates the production of care by technology. The ethics of technology has not been established as a guiding principle. Some studies excluded ethical reflection completely. Many studies discussed the ethics of technology as benefits such as improved communication and symptoms management, and the simple use of e-health services whilst others remained critical presenting ethical problems such as unwillingness and the inability to use technology, or conflicts with human aspects or questions of inequality. In conclusion, this study indicates that technology as a concept is described diversely. The relation between technology and ethics is not a truism. Despite some evidence, more is needed to promote ethical care when using technology. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Special Technology Area Review on Mixed-Signal Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    CMOS. Any other solution using a finite resistivity substrate will suffer from lack of isolation between its various circuit functions, specifically...meet these needs, Mr. Corder noted that XFCB (eXtra Fast Complimentary Bipolar) technology provides transistors resistant to total dose and latchup from...MEMS, mixed signal, physical-to-analog converters, and microwave applications. • Process reproducibility/design simplicity. Example: OPAMP 740. • Cost

  19. A review of technology of personal heating garments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Faming; Gao, Chuansi; Kuklane, Kalev; Holmér, Ingvar

    2010-01-01

    Modern technology makes garments smart, which can help a wearer to manage in specific situations by improving the functionality of the garments. The personal heating garment (PHG) widens the operating temperature range of the garment and improves its protection against the cold. This paper describes several kinds of PHGs worldwide; their advantages and disadvantages are also addressed. Some challenges and suggestions are finally addressed with regard to the development of PHGs.

  20. Comparative Evaluation of Display Technologies for Collaborative Design Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    kinesthetic , force, and tactile feedback using a Pinch glove, joystick, or other input devices (e.g., Dede, Salzman, & Loftmn, 1996; Werkhoven & Groen, 1998...display technologies track and update the visual scene based on an observer’s head or eye movements (Kocian & Task, 1995). These features produce a...pushed exclusively via eye movements , while involving minimal cognitive or physical effort. In some systems, a search must be accomplished using a control

  1. Halocarbons as Halon Replacements. Volume 1. Technology Review and Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    NONSOLVENT WASTES. Treatment Alternative Organic Liquids Aqueous Streams Established Technologies Rotary kiln incineration X Fluidized-bed incineration...X Liquid injection incineration X X Lime/ cement kiln coincineration X Carbon adsorption X Biological treatment X Distillation X Solvent extraction X...It is also reported that 255 kilograms of CFC-113 were successfully incinerated in a cement kiln over a 3-hour period at 1050 0 C using a retention

  2. Brief review of cadmium telluride-based photovoltaic technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başol, Bülent M.; McCandless, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is the most commercially successful thin-film photovoltaic technology. Development of CdTe as a solar cell material dates back to the early 1980s when ˜10% efficient devices were demonstrated. Implementation of better quality glass, more transparent conductive oxides, introduction of a high-resistivity transparent film under the CdS junction-partner, higher deposition temperatures, and improved Cl-treatment, doping, and contacting approaches yielded >16% efficient cells in the early 2000s. Around the same time period, use of a photoresist plug monolithic integration process facilitated the demonstration of the first 11% efficient module. The most dramatic advancements in CdTe device efficiencies were made during the 2013 to 2014 time frame when small-area cell conversion efficiency was raised to 20% range and a champion module efficiency of 17% was reported. CdTe technology is attractive in terms of its limited life-cycle greenhouse gas and heavy metal emissions, small carbon footprint, and short energy payback times. Limited Te availability is a challenge for the growth of this technology unless Te utilization rates are greatly enhanced along with device efficiencies.

  3. Review of potential subsurface permeable barrier emplacement and monitoring technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riggsbee, W.H.; Treat, R.L.; Stansfield, H.J.; Schwarz, R.M. [Ebasco Environmental, Richland, WA (United States); Cantrell, K.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Phillips, S.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-02-01

    This report focuses on subsurface permeable barrier technologies potentially applicable to existing waste disposal sites. This report describes candidate subsurface permeable barriers, methods for emplacing these barriers, and methods used to monitor the barrier performance. Two types of subsurface barrier systems are described: those that apply to contamination.in the unsaturated zone, and those that apply to groundwater and to mobile contamination near the groundwater table. These barriers may be emplaced either horizontally or vertically depending on waste and site characteristics. Materials for creating permeable subsurface barriers are emplaced using one of three basic methods: injection, in situ mechanical mixing, or excavation-insertion. Injection is the emplacement of dissolved reagents or colloidal suspensions into the soil at elevated pressures. In situ mechanical mixing is the physical blending of the soil and the barrier material underground. Excavation-insertion is the removal of a soil volume and adding barrier materials to the space created. Major vertical barrier emplacement technologies include trenching-backfilling; slurry trenching; and vertical drilling and injection, including boring (earth augering), cable tool drilling, rotary drilling, sonic drilling, jetting methods, injection-mixing in drilled holes, and deep soil mixing. Major horizontal barrier emplacement technologies include horizontal drilling, microtunneling, compaction boring, horizontal emplacement, longwall mining, hydraulic fracturing, and jetting methods.

  4. Review of potential subsurface permeable barrier emplacement and monitoring technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riggsbee, W.H.; Treat, R.L.; Stansfield, H.J.; Schwarz, R.M.; Cantrell, K.J.; Phillips, S.J.

    1994-02-01

    This report focuses on subsurface permeable barrier technologies potentially applicable to existing waste disposal sites. This report describes candidate subsurface permeable barriers, methods for emplacing these barriers, and methods used to monitor the barrier performance. Two types of subsurface barrier systems are described: those that apply to contamination.in the unsaturated zone, and those that apply to groundwater and to mobile contamination near the groundwater table. These barriers may be emplaced either horizontally or vertically depending on waste and site characteristics. Materials for creating permeable subsurface barriers are emplaced using one of three basic methods: injection, in situ mechanical mixing, or excavation-insertion. Injection is the emplacement of dissolved reagents or colloidal suspensions into the soil at elevated pressures. In situ mechanical mixing is the physical blending of the soil and the barrier material underground. Excavation-insertion is the removal of a soil volume and adding barrier materials to the space created. Major vertical barrier emplacement technologies include trenching-backfilling; slurry trenching; and vertical drilling and injection, including boring (earth augering), cable tool drilling, rotary drilling, sonic drilling, jetting methods, injection-mixing in drilled holes, and deep soil mixing. Major horizontal barrier emplacement technologies include horizontal drilling, microtunneling, compaction boring, horizontal emplacement, longwall mining, hydraulic fracturing, and jetting methods

  5. Using technology to deliver mental health services to children and youth: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, Katherine M; Hodgins, Michael; Pignatiello, Antonio; Teshima, John; Edwards, Helen; Willis, David

    2014-05-01

    To conduct a scoping review on the use of technology to deliver mental health services to children and youth in order to identify the breadth of peer-reviewed literature, summarize findings and identify gaps. A literature database search identified 126 original studies meeting criteria for review. Descriptive numerical summary and thematic analyses were conducted. Two reviewers independently extracted data. Studies were characterized by diverse technologies including videoconferencing, telephone and mobile phone applications and Internet-based applications such as email, web sites and CD-ROMs. The use of technologies plays a major role in the delivery of mental health services and supports to children and youth in providing prevention, assessment, diagnosis, counseling and treatment programs. Strategies are growing exponentially on a global basis, thus it is critical to study the impact of these technologies on child and youth mental health service delivery. An in-depth review and synthesis of the quality of findings of studies on effectiveness of the use of technologies in service delivery are also warranted. A full systematic review would provide that opportunity.

  6. Novel technologies for reverse osmosis concentrate treatment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Sung Hee; Tansel, Berrin

    2015-03-01

    Global water shortages due to droughts and population growth have created increasing interest in water reuse and recycling and, concomitantly, development of effective water treatment processes. Pressured membrane processes, in particular reverse osmosis, have been adopted in water treatment industries and utilities despite the relatively high operational cost and energy consumption. However, emerging contaminants are present in reverse osmosis concentrate in higher concentrations than in the feed water, and have created challenges for treatment of the concentrate. Further, standards and guidelines for assessment and treatment of newly identified contaminants are currently lacking. Research is needed regarding the treatment and disposal of emerging contaminants of concern in reverse osmosis concentrate, in order to develop cost-effective methods for minimizing potential impacts on public health and the environment. This paper reviews treatment options for concentrate from membrane processes. Barriers to emerging treatment options are discussed and novel treatment processes are evaluated based on a literature review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Non-invasive imaging of microcirculation: a technology review

    OpenAIRE

    Sturesson, Christian; Nilsson,Jan; Eriksson,Sam

    2014-01-01

    Sam Eriksson,1,2 Jan Nilsson,1,2 Christian Sturesson1,2 1Department of Surgery, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, 2Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden Abstract: Microcirculation plays a crucial role in physiological processes of tissue oxygenation and nutritional exchange. Measurement of microcirculation can be applied on many organs in various pathologies. In this paper we aim to review the technique of non-invasive methods for imaging of the microcirculation. Methods c...

  8. A systematic review examining the effectiveness of blending technology with team-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    River, Jo; Currie, Jane; Crawford, Tonia; Betihavas, Vasiliki; Randall, Sue

    2016-10-01

    Technological advancements are rapidly changing nursing education in higher education settings. Nursing academics are enthusiastically blending technology with active learning approaches such as Team Based Learning (TBL). While the educational outcomes of TBL are well documented, the value of blending technology with TBL (blended-TBL) remains unclear. This paper presents a systematic review examining the effectiveness of blended-TBL in higher education health disciplines. This paper aimed to identify how technology has been incorporated into TBL in higher education health disciplines. It also sought to evaluate the educational outcomes of blended-TBL in terms of student learning and preference. A review of TBL research in Medline, CINAHL, ERIC and Embase databases was undertaken including the search terms, team based learning, nursing, health science, medical, pharmaceutical, allied health education and allied health education. Papers were appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP). The final review included 9 papers involving 2094 student participants. A variety of technologies were blended with TBL including interactive eLearning and social media. There is limited evidence that blended-TBL improved student learning outcomes or student preference. Enthusiasm to blend technology with TBL may not be as well founded as initially thought. However, few studies explicitly examined the value of incorporating technology into TBL. There is a clear need for research that can discern the impact of technology into TBL on student preference and learning outcomes, with a particular focus on barriers to student participation with online learning components. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Integration of Mobile Health Technology in the Treatment of Chronic Pain: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararaman, Lalitha V; Edwards, Robert R; Ross, Edgar L; Jamison, Robert N

    This article provides a critical overview and best-evidence synthesis of the use of mobile health (mHealth) technology among persons with chronic pain and their health care providers and examines the future benefits and barriers of implementing mHealth technology in clinical care. We critically review articles about electronic pain diaries, pain assessment programs, text messaging, and smartphone pain apps for management of persons with pain. Also presented are findings on the utility of activity trackers and use of telehealth to deliver cognitive behavioral therapy. Finally, barriers, study gaps, and future challenges of incorporating mobile technology for chronic pain are discussed. Although the future of mHealth technology and telemedicine in clinical practice is promising, this critical review highlights the need for rigorous studies to establish an association of the use of mHealth technology with improved quality of life, functional autonomy, and decreased hospital use.

  10. A Review of Research Methods in Children's Technology Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janne Jul; Skov, Mikael B.

    2005-01-01

    -ences on the discipline. Inspired by previous studies from other disciplines, we conduct a survey of research methods in paper publications. 105 papers on children's technology design are classified on a two-dimensional matrix on research method and pur-pose. Our results show a strong focus on engineering of products......Research methods have been objects of discussions for dec-ades and defining research methods is still a quite substan-tial challenge. However, it is important to understand how research methods have been adapted in different disciplines as it potentially informs us on future directions and influ...

  11. Distributed Energy Resources Interconnection Systems: Technology Review and Research Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, N. R.

    2002-09-01

    Interconnecting distributed energy resources (DER) to the electric utility grid (or Area Electric Power System, Area EPS) involves system engineering, safety, and reliability considerations. This report documents US DOE Distribution and Interconnection R&D (formerly Distributed Power Program) activities, furthering the development and safe and reliable integration of DER interconnected with our nation's electric power systems. The key to that is system integration and technology development of the interconnection devices that perform the functions necessary to maintain the safety, power quality, and reliability of the EPS when DER are connected to it.

  12. Technology-based interventions in social work practice: a systematic review of mental health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Alex T; Montgomery, Katherine

    2014-10-01

    Despite concerns around the use of technology-based interventions, they are increasingly being employed by social workers as a direct practice methodology to address the mental health needs of vulnerable clients. Researchers have highlighted the importance of using innovative technologies within social work practice, yet little has been done to summarize the evidence and collectively assess findings. In this systematic review, we describe accounts of technology-based mental health interventions delivered by social workers over the past 10 years. Results highlight the impacts of these tools and summarize advantages and disadvantages to utilizing technologies as a method for delivering or facilitating interventions.

  13. Modern air protection technologies at thermal power plants (review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyakov, P. V.

    2016-07-01

    Realization of the ecologically safe technologies for fuel combustion in the steam boiler furnaces and the effective ways for treatment of flue gases at modern thermal power plants have been analyzed. The administrative and legal measures to stimulate introduction of the technologies for air protection at TPPs have been considered. It has been shown that both the primary intrafurnace measures for nitrogen oxide suppression and the secondary flue gas treatment methods are needed to meet the modern ecological standards. Examples of the environmentally safe methods for flame combustion of gas-oil and solid fuels in the boiler furnaces have been provided. The effective methods and units to treat flue gases from nitrogen and sulfur oxides and flue ash have been considered. It has been demonstrated that realization of the measures for air protection should be accompanied by introduction of the systems for continuous instrumentation control of the composition of combustion products in the gas path of boiler units and for monitoring of atmospheric emissions.

  14. A review of technology and trends in document delivery services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourne, C.P.

    1990-05-01

    This paper reviews the major lines of technical development being pursued to extend or replace traditional inter-library loan and photocopy service and to facilitate the delivery of source documents to individual end users. Examples of technical approaches discussed are: 1) the inclusion of full text and image data in central online systems; 2) image workstations such as the ADONIS and UMI systems; and 3) the use of electronic networks for document ordering and delivery. Some consideration is given to the policy implications for libraries and information systems. (author). 11 tabs

  15. Educational Technology: A Review of the Integration, Resources, and Effectiveness of Technology in K-12 Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Adolph J.; Wardlow, Liane; McKnight, Katherine; O'Malley, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    There is no questioning that the way people live, interact, communicate, and conduct business is undergoing a profound, rapid change. This change is often referred to as the "digital revolution," which is the advancement of technology from analog, electronic and mechanical tools to the digital tools available today. Moreover, technology…

  16. The Technology Review 10: Emerging Technologies that Will Change the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Review, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Identifies 10 emerging areas of technology that will soon have a profound impact on the economy and on how people live and work: brain-machine interfaces; flexible transistors; data mining; digital rights management; biometrics; natural language processing; microphotonics; untangling code; robot design; and microfluidics. In each area, one…

  17. Health Technology Trust: Undeserved or Justified? A review of technological risks in eHealth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossebaard, Hans Cornelis; Geertsma, R.E.; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; van Gemert-Pijnen, L.; Ossebaard, HC; Smedberg, A; Wynchank, S.; Giacomelli, P.

    2012-01-01

    Challenges for global health care are considerable. Increasing healthcare expenditures, ageing, the rise of chronic diseases and the public health threat of infectious diseases give reason to worldwide concern. Many believe eHealth technologies to contribute to the solution of these issues and to

  18. Factors influencing the adoption of health information technologies: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavand, Ali; Mohseni, Mohammah; Asadi, Heshmatollah; Etemadi, Manal; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad; Moosavi, Ahmad

    2016-08-01

    The successful implementation of health information technologies requires investigating the factors affecting the acceptance and use of them. The aim of this study was to determine the most important factors affecting the adoption of health information technologies by doing a systematic review on the factors affecting the acceptance of health information technology. This systematic review was conducted by searching the major databases, such as Google Scholar, Emerald, Science Direct, Web of Science, Pubmed, and Scopus. We used various keywords, such as adoption, use, acceptance of IT in medicine, hospitals, and IT theories in health services, and we also searched on the basis of several important technologies, such as Electronic Health Records (HER), Electronic Patient Records (EPR), Electronic Medical Records (EMR), Computerized Physician Order Entry (CPOE), Hospital Information System (HIS), Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), and others in the 2004-2014 period. The technology acceptance model (TAM) is the most important model used to identify the factors influencing the adoption of information technologies in the health system; also, the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model has had a lot of applications in recent years in the health system. Ease of use, usefulness, social impact, facilitating conditions, attitudes and behavior of users are effective in the adoption of health information technologies. By considering various factors, including ease of use, usefulness, and social impact, the rate of the adoption of health information technology can be increased.

  19. Review of Artificial Abrasion Test Methods for PV Module Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muller, Matt T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simpson, Lin J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This review is intended to identify the method or methods--and the basic details of those methods--that might be used to develop an artificial abrasion test. Methods used in the PV literature were compared with their closest implementation in existing standards. Also, meetings of the International PV Quality Assurance Task Force Task Group 12-3 (TG12-3, which is concerned with coated glass) were used to identify established test methods. Feedback from the group, which included many of the authors from the PV literature, included insights not explored within the literature itself. The combined experience and examples from the literature are intended to provide an assessment of the present industry practices and an informed path forward. Recommendations toward artificial abrasion test methods are then identified based on the experiences in the literature and feedback from the PV community. The review here is strictly focused on abrasion. Assessment methods, including optical performance (e.g., transmittance or reflectance), surface energy, and verification of chemical composition were not examined. Methods of artificially soiling PV modules or other specimens were not examined. The weathering of artificial or naturally soiled specimens (which may ultimately include combined temperature and humidity, thermal cycling and ultraviolet light) were also not examined. A sense of the purpose or application of an abrasion test method within the PV industry should, however, be evident from the literature.

  20. Review of the current status of CRT technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Hua-Sou; Hu, Chun-Min

    1995-09-01

    Color cathode ray tubes (CRT) have been dominating the display market for more than forty years. The unique advantages, such as high brightness, very wide viewing angle, and excellent color purity, makes all other display devices very difficult to compete with. Meanwhile, to improve the performance of CRTs and to meet the challenge of large size CRTs, modifications have been made on all components including shadow mask, bulb design, electron gun design, and yoke design. Basically, the technology improvements can be categorized into two areas: structure and ergonomics. Structurally, efforts have been concentrating towards a flatter faceplate and a finer pitch. These improvements lead to the extensive uses of low thermal expansion shadow mask and higher resolution gun design. An alternative improvement is the introduction of tensioned mask CRTs. In the area of ergonomics, efforts are focusing on the improvements of contrast and resolutions such as the introduction of antireflective and antistatic function on the faceplate. Details will be presented in this ppaer.

  1. Carotenoids Functionality, Sources, and Processing by Supercritical Technology: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Mezzomo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoid is a group of pigments naturally present in vegetal raw materials that have biological properties. These pigments have been used mainly in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Currently, the industrial production is executed through chemical synthesis, but natural alternatives of carotenoid production/attainment are in development. The carotenoid extraction occurs generally with vegetal oil and organic solvents, but supercritical technology is an alternative technique to the recovery of these compounds, presenting many advantages when compared to conventional process. Brazil has an ample diversity of vegetal sources inadequately investigated and, then, a major development of optimization and validation of carotenoid production/attainment methods is necessary, so that the benefits of these pigments can be delivered to the consumer.

  2. A Review of Research Methods in Children's Technology Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janne Jul; Skov, Mikael B.

    2005-01-01

    Research methods have been objects of discussions for dec-ades and defining research methods is still a quite substan-tial challenge. However, it is important to understand how research methods have been adapted in different disciplines as it potentially informs us on future directions and influ......-ences on the discipline. Inspired by previous studies from other disciplines, we conduct a survey of research methods in paper publications. 105 papers on children's technology design are classified on a two-dimensional matrix on research method and pur-pose. Our results show a strong focus on engineering of products...... as applied research and on evaluation of devel-oped products in the field or in the lab. Also, we find that much research is conducted in natural setting environments with strong focus on field studies....

  3. Reviewing the impact of advanced control room technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmsen, C.A.; Gertman, D.I.; Ostrom, L.T.; Nelson, W.R.; Galyean, W.J.; Byers, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    Progress to date on assessing the nature of the expected changes in human performance and risk associated with the introduction of digital control, instrumentation, and display systems is presented. Expected changes include the shift toward more supervisory tasks, development of intervention strategies, and reallocation of function between human and machine. Results are reported in terms of the scope of new technology, human performance issues, and crews experience with digital control systems in a variety of industries petrochemical and aerospace. Plans to conduct a limited Probabilistic Risk Assessment/Human Reliability Assessment (PRA/HRA) comparison between a conventional NUREG-1150 series plant and that same plant retrofit with distributed control and advanced instrumentation and display are also presented. Changes needed to supplement existing HRA modeling methods and quantification techniques are discussed

  4. Wave energy resource assessment and review of the technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Nik, W.B.: Sulaiman, O.O. [Maritime Technology Department, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030, Kuala Terengganu (Malaysia); Rosliza, R. [TATI University College, Teluk Kalong, 24000 Kemaman, Terengganu, (Malaysia); Prawoto, Y. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM, Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Muzathik, A.M. [Institute of Technology, University of Moratuwa (Sri Lanka)

    2011-07-01

    Increase in human population has increased the demand for more energy. Technical improvement in transport and electrical appliances gives a lot of facilities to our life nowadays. Still we need to generate or convert this energy. Energy generation based on conventional technologies is always accompanied by environmental pollution. It gives overheating and greenhouse effects that later result in biosphere degradation. Nowadays sea wave energy is being increasingly regarded in many countries as a major and promising resource. It is renewable and environmentally friendly. In this paper wave parameters related to wave energy is analyzed. Then the paper describes the development of many different types of wave-energy converters. Several topics are addressed; the characterization of the wave energy resource, range of devices and how such devices can be organized into classes.

  5. Science and Technology Review July/August 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bearinger, J P

    2009-06-29

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Game-Changing Science in the National Interest - Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia; (2) Preventing Close Encounters of the Orbiting Kind - The Testbed Environment for Space Situational Awareness is improving capabilities for monitoring and detecting threats to space operations; (3) A CAT Scanner for Nuclear Weapon Components - A new x-ray system images nuclear weapon components in three dimensions, promising unprecedented resolution and clarity; (4) Mass-Producing Positrons - Scientists reveal a new method for yielding a greater density of positrons at a much faster rate inside a laboratory setting; and (5) The Next Generation of Medical Diagnostic Devices - Portable medical diagnostic devices using ultrawideband technology help first responders evaluate injuries in emergency situations and could improve overall health care.

  6. A practical review of energy saving technology for ageing populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Guy; Taylor, Andrea; Whittet, Craig; Lynn, Craig; Docherty, Catherine; Stephen, Bruce; Owens, Edward; Galloway, Stuart

    2017-07-01

    Fuel poverty is a critical issue for a globally ageing population. Longer heating/cooling requirements combine with declining incomes to create a problem in need of urgent attention. One solution is to deploy technology to help elderly users feel informed about their energy use, and empowered to take steps to make it more cost effective and efficient. This study subjects a broad cross section of energy monitoring and home automation products to a formal ergonomic analysis. A high level task analysis was used to guide a product walk through, and a toolkit approach was used thereafter to drive out further insights. The findings reveal a number of serious usability issues which prevent these products from successfully accessing an important target demographic and associated energy saving and fuel poverty outcomes. Design principles and examples are distilled from the research to enable practitioners to translate the underlying research into high quality design-engineering solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Meeting review: 2002 O'Reilly Bioinformatics Technology Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counsell, Damian

    2002-01-01

    At the end of January I travelled to the States to speak at and attend the first O'Reilly Bioinformatics Technology Conference. It was a large, well-organized and diverse meeting with an interesting history. Although the meeting was not a typical academic conference, its style will, I am sure, become more typical of meetings in both biological and computational sciences.Speakers at the event included prominent bioinformatics researchers such as Ewan Birney, Terry Gaasterland and Lincoln Stein; authors and leaders in the open source programming community like Damian Conway and Nat Torkington; and representatives from several publishing companies including the Nature Publishing Group, Current Science Group and the President of O'Reilly himself, Tim O'Reilly. There were presentations, tutorials, debates, quizzes and even a 'jam session' for musical bioinformaticists.

  8. A 100-Year Review: Reproductive technologies in dairy science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S G; Hasler, J F

    2017-12-01

    Reproductive technology revolutionized dairy production during the past century. Artificial insemination was first successfully applied to cattle in the early 1900s. The next major developments involved semen extenders, invention of the electroejaculator, progeny testing, addition of antibiotics to semen during the 1930s and 1940s, and the major discovery of sperm cryopreservation with glycerol in 1949. The 1950s and 1960s were particularly productive with the development of protocols for the superovulation of cattle with both pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin/equine chorionic gonadotrophin and FSH, the first successful bovine embryo transfer, the discovery of sperm capacitation, the birth of rabbits after in vitro fertilization, and the development of insulated liquid nitrogen tanks. Improved semen extenders and the replacement of glass ampules with plastic semen straws followed. Some of the most noteworthy developments in the 1970s included the initial successes with in vitro culture of embryos, calves born after chromosomal sexing as embryos, embryo splitting resulting in the birth of twins, and development of computer-assisted semen analysis. The 1980s brought flow cytometric separation of X- and Y-bearing sperm, in vitro fertilization leading to the birth of live calves, clones produced by nuclear transfer from embryonic cells, and ovum pick-up via ultrasound-guided follicular aspiration. The 20th century ended with the birth of calves produced from AI with sexed semen, sheep and cattle clones produced by nuclear transfer from adult somatic cell nuclei, and the birth of transgenic cloned calves. The 21st century has seen the introduction of perhaps the most powerful biotechnology since the development of artificial insemination and cryopreservation. Quick, inexpensive genomic analysis via the use of single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping chips is revolutionizing the cattle breeding industry. Now, with the introduction of genome editing technology, the

  9. Systematic review: investigating the effectiveness of assistive technology to enable internet access for individuals with deafblindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfect, Erin; Jaiswal, Atul; Davies, Theresa Claire

    2018-02-26

    The purpose of this study is to systematically review published evidence regarding the development, use and effectiveness of assistive devices and technologies that enable internet access for individuals who are deafblind. Eight electronic research databases (CINAHL, Embase, Engineering Village MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science) and three clinical trials registries (ISRCTN Registry, WHO ICTRP, and ClinicalTrials,gov) were searched. Seven articles met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. The assistive technologies described were in the preliminary stages of development, with only three of the technologies having undergone any testing. The effectiveness of all seven assistive technologies was quantified in this review based on the proposed impacts of internet access on the domains of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework. Internet access technologies for individuals with deafblindness are in the early stages of development and are targeted towards specific functions of the internet. It is imperative that future device development and evaluation seek input from persons who are deafblind. There is also a need to address the gap between academic research which seeks to develop assistive technology to access the internet and the translation into real world use of this technology.

  10. Adoption of e-health technology by physicians: a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Grood C

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Chloe de Grood,1 Aida Raissi,2 Yoojin Kwon,3 Maria Jose Santana1 1Department of Community Health Sciences, W21C Research and Innovation Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, 2University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, 3Toronto Public Library, Toronto, ON, Canada Objective: The goal of this scoping review was to summarize the current literature identifying barriers and opportunities that facilitate adoption of e-health technology by physicians.Design: Scoping review.Setting: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases as provided by Ovid were searched from their inception to July 2015. Studies captured by the search strategy were screened by two reviewers and included if the focus was on barriers and facilitators of e-health technology adoption by physicians.Results: Full-text screening yielded 74 studies to be included in the scoping review. Within those studies, eleven themes were identified, including cost and liability issues, unwillingness to use e-health technology, and training and support.Conclusion: Cost and liability issues, unwillingness to use e-health technology, and training and support were the most frequently mentioned barriers and facilitators to the adoption of e-health technology. Government-level payment incentives and privacy laws to protect health information may be the key to overcome cost and liability issues. The adoption of e-health technology may be facilitated by tailoring to the individual physician’s knowledge of the e-health technology and the use of follow-up sessions for physicians and on-site experts to support their use of the e-health technology. To ensure the effective uptake of e-health technologies, physician perspectives need to be considered in creating an environment that enables the adoption of e-health strategies. Keywords: medical informatics, electronic medical records, diffusion of innovation, attitude of health personnel, information seeking behavior

  11. Mobile technology in nursing education: where do we go from here? A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Janet

    2015-05-01

    The International Council of Nurses (ICN), Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing (STTI), and many National Nurses Associations (NNAs), have called for the integration of information technology into nursing curriculums to prepare nursing students for the current practice environment which requires access to large amounts of information to provide evidence-based patient care. Nurse educators have begun to address the integration of technology in nursing curriculum, but are the available tools, in particular, mobile devices loaded with informational applications, being maximized? Literature Review Aims The aims of this literature review are to 1) explore the literature written on the use of mobile technology in nursing education; 2) methodically discuss the benefits and concerns involved in using mobile technology in nursing education; and 3) consider strategies for enhancing the use of mobile technology in nursing education. Review Methods A search was conducted on the use of mobile technology in nursing programs in Academic Search Complete, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Medline with Full Text, and Medline Journals. Seventeen studies, published within the last five years in peer-reviewed journals regarding the mobile technology in nursing programs were identified. Findings Although many nursing programs have implemented the use of mobile technology in the clinical, classroom, and laboratory settings, more work needs to be done to overcome the concerns related to: cost, lack of IT support, lack of faculty acceptance and role-modeling, lack of structured assignments and/or activities designed to encourage the implementation of mobile devices; and constraints on their use in clinical settings. While much has been done to incorporate the use of mobile technology in nursing curriculum, nurse educators are encouraged to develop strategies to overcome the concerns noted. Possible strategies to overcome the concerns are

  12. Innovations in Environmental Monitoring Using Mobile Phone Technology – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Aitkenhead

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of mobile phones and tablets for personal communication has increased dramatically, with over 1 billion smartphones out of a total of 5 billion mobile phones worldwide. The infrastructure and technology underlying these devices has improved to a level where it is now possible to integrate sensor technology directly and use them to acquire new data. Given the available resources and the number of technical challenges that have already been overcome, it would seem a natural progression to use mobile communication technology for field-based environmental monitoring. In this work, we review existing technology for acquiring, processing and reporting on environmental data in the field. The objective is to demonstrate whether or not it is possible to use off-the-shelf technology for environmental monitoring. We show several levels at which this challenge is being approached, and discuss examples of technology that have been produced.

  13. Invited review: Reproductive and genomic technologies to optimize breeding strategies for genetic progress in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fleming

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cattle breeders have exploited technological advances that have emerged in the past in regards to reproduction and genomics. The implementation of such technologies in routine breeding programs has permitted genetic gains in traditional milk production traits as well as, more recently, in low-heritability traits like health and fertility. As demand for dairy products increases, it is important for dairy breeders to optimize the use of available technologies and to consider the many emerging technologies that are currently being investigated in various fields. Here we review a number of technologies that have helped shape dairy breeding programs in the past and present, along with those potentially forthcoming. These tools have materialized in the areas of reproduction, genotyping and sequencing, genetic modification, and epigenetics. Although many of these technologies bring encouraging opportunities for genetic improvement of dairy cattle populations, their applications and benefits need to be weighed with their impacts on economics, genetic diversity, and society.

  14. Non-invasive imaging of microcirculation: a technology review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Sam; Nilsson, Jan; Sturesson, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Microcirculation plays a crucial role in physiological processes of tissue oxygenation and nutritional exchange. Measurement of microcirculation can be applied on many organs in various pathologies. In this paper we aim to review the technique of non-invasive methods for imaging of the microcirculation. Methods covered are: videomicroscopy techniques, laser Doppler perfusion imaging, and laser speckle contrast imaging. Videomicroscopy techniques, such as orthogonal polarization spectral imaging and sidestream dark-field imaging, provide a plentitude of information and offer direct visualization of the microcirculation but have the major drawback that they may give pressure artifacts. Both laser Doppler perfusion imaging and laser speckle contrast imaging allow non-contact measurements but have the disadvantage of their sensitivity to motion artifacts and that they are confined to relative measurement comparisons. Ideal would be a non-contact videomicroscopy method with fully automatic analysis software.

  15. A Brief Review of Current Lithium Ion Battery Technology and Potential Solid State Battery Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Ulvestad, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Solid state battery technology has recently garnered considerable interest from companies including Toyota, BMW, Dyson, and others. The primary driver behind the commercialization of solid state batteries (SSBs) is to enable the use of lithium metal as the anode, as opposed to the currently used carbon anode, which would result in ~20% energy density improvement. However, no reported solid state battery to date meets all of the performance metrics of state of the art liquid electrolyte lithiu...

  16. Membrane technology for treating of waste nanofluids coolant: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohruni, Amrifan Saladin; Yuliwati, Erna; Sharif, Safian; Ismail, Ahmad Fauzi

    2017-09-01

    The treatment of cutting fluids wastes concerns a big number of industries, especially from the machining operations to foster environmental sustainability. Discharging cutting fluids, waste through separation technique could protect the environment and also human health in general. Several methods for the separation emulsified oils or oily wastewater have been proposed as three common methods, namely chemical, physicochemical and mechanical and membrane technology application. Membranes are used into separate and concentrate the pollutants in oily wastewater through its perm-selectivity. Meanwhile, the desire to compensate for the shortcomings of the cutting fluid media in a metal cutting operation led to introduce the using of nanofluids (NFs) in the minimum quantity lubricant (MQL) technique. NFs are prepared based on nanofluids technology by dispersing nanoparticles (NPs) in liquids. These fluids have potentially played to enhance the performance of traditional heat transfer fluids. Few researchers have studied investigation of the physical-chemical, thermo-physical and heat transfer characteristics of NFs for heat transfer applications. The use of minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) technique by NFs application is developed in many metal cutting operations. MQL did not only serve as a better alternative to flood cooling during machining operation and also increases better-finished surface, reduces impact loads on the environment and fosters environmental sustainability. Waste coolant filtration from cutting tools using membrane was treated by the pretreated process, coagulation technique and membrane filtration. Nanomaterials are also applied to modify the membrane structure and morphology. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is the better choice in coolant wastewater treatment due to its hydrophobicity. Using of polyamide nanofiltration membranes BM-20D and UF-PS-100-100, 000, it resulted in the increase of permeability of waste coolant filtration. Titanium dioxide

  17. Innovative technologies and social inequalities in health: A scoping review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Daniel; Rydland, Håvard T; Øversveen, Emil; Jensen, Magnus Rom; Solhaug, Solvor; Krokstad, Steinar

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the range, nature, and extent of current research activity exploring the influence of innovative health-related technologies on social inequalities in health, with specific focus on a deeper understanding of the variables used to measure this connection and the pathways leading to the (re)production of inequalities. A review process was conducted, based on scoping review techniques, searching literature published from January 1, 1996 to November 25, 2016 using MEDLINE, Scopus, and ISI web of science. Search, sorting, and data extraction processes were conducted by a team of researchers and experts using a dynamic, reflexive examination process. Of 4139 studies collected from the search process, a total of 33 were included in the final analysis. Results of this study include the classification of technologies based on how these technologies are accessed and used by end users. In addition to the factors and mechanisms that influence unequal access to technologies, the results of this study highlight the importance of variations in use that importantly shape social inequalities in health. Additionally, focus on health care services technologies must be accompanied by investigating emerging technologies influencing healthy lifestyle, genomics, and personalized devices in health. Findings also suggest that choosing one measure of social position over another has important implications for the interpretation of research results. Furthermore, understanding the pathways through which various innovative health technologies reduce or (re)produce social inequalities in health is context dependent. In order to better understand social inequalities in health, these contextual variations draw attention to the need for critical distinctions between technologies based on how these various technologies are accessed and used. The results of this study provide a comprehensive starting point for future research to further investigate

  18. Dose management in radiology. Review of the technological status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verius, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Euratom directive 2013/59 (''EU directive for radiation protection'') has to be implemented into national law by spring 2018 and requires a complete recording of patient dosages and relevant parameters. Additionally, a medical physics expert has to be consulted for each radiological examination above a defined threshold. A complete recording of the dosage administered from all modalities and optimization of the radiological procedures should result in a reduction of the total dosage. This can be achieved by automated systems that incorporate not only the detection of the dose parameters but also the evaluation and analysis of these data. When provided with warning levels such a system should be able to inform or warn the operator when dose thresholds have been exceeded or even better inform the operator about possible excess dosages before an examination. Depending on the information provided by the modality, dose management systems can operate at different levels in the picture archiving and communication system (PACS), radiological and hospital information systems (RIS/HIS) or with the header information of a digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) image and evaluate and analyze this data. A practicable use of such systems is only possible by close cooperation of medical personnel, medical physicists and information technology (IT) administrators. Various systems are available commercially or free but an individual adaptation of these systems is useful and necessary, depending on the requirements of the radiology practice or hospital. (orig.) [de

  19. Technical Reviews on Pattern Recognition in Process Analytical Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Yun; Choi, Yong Suk; Ji, Sun Kyung; Park, Yong Joon; Song, Kyu Seok; Jung, Sung Hee

    2008-12-01

    Pattern recognition is one of the first and the most widely adopted chemometric tools among many active research area in chemometrics such as design of experiment(DoE), pattern recognition, multivariate calibration, signal processing. Pattern recognition has been used to identify the origin of a wine and the time of year that the vine was grown by using chromatography, cause of fire by using GC/MS chromatography, detection of explosives and land mines, cargo and luggage inspection in seaports and airports by using a prompt gamma-ray activation analysis, and source apportionment of environmental pollutant by using a stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Recently, pattern recognition has been taken into account as a major chemometric tool in the so-called 'process analytical technology (PAT)', which is a newly-developed concept in the area of process analytics proposed by US Food and Drug Administration (US FDA). For instance, identification of raw material by using a pattern recognition analysis plays an important role for the effective quality control of the production process. Recently, pattern recognition technique has been used to identify the spatial distribution and uniformity of the active ingredients present in the product such as tablet by transforming the chemical data into the visual information

  20. Science and Technology Review January/February 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Pruneda, J.H.

    2001-01-01

    This issue pays tribute to Roger Batzel, the Laboratory's sixth and longest-tenured direct (1971-1988). The articles in this issue are: (1) ''Roger Batzel--A Leader and a Gentleman''. (2) ''A Career of Distinguished Achievement'' A superb manager with a quiet and self-effacing demeanor. Roger Batzel presided over a period of unprecedented growth and technical diversification at Lawrence Livermore. (3) ''From Dosimetry to Genomics'' Roger Batzel's support of Livermore's relatively new biomedical research program led to its growth into a major contributor to the worldwide Human Genome Project. (4) ''Swords into Plowshares and Beyond'' Under Roger Batzel's leadership, the Laboratory championed numerous long-term, innovative alternative energy technologies to help address challenges not unlike those we are facing today. (5) ''Adapting to a Changing Weapons Program'' Roger Batzel's knowledge of the US weapons program and his much-trusted professional judgment served the Laboratory and the nation well as arms control and deterrence emerged as national priorities.

  1. Report on the first Quadrennial Technology Review (QTR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-09-30

    Access to clean, affordable, secure, and reliable energy has been a cornerstone of America’s economic growth. The Nation’s systems that produce, store, transmit, and use energy are falling short of U.S. needs. Maintaining energy security, bolstering U.S. competitiveness, and mitigating the environmental impacts of energy are long-­standing challenges. Governments, consumers, and the private sector have worked for decades to address these challenges, yet they remain among the Nation’s most pressing issues. President Obama has articulated broad national energy goals for reducing U.S. dependence on oil, reducing pollution, and investing in research and development (R&D) for clean-­energy technologies in the United States to create jobs. These include: Reducing oil imports by one-third by 2025; Supporting the deployment of 1 million electric vehicles on the road by 2015; Making non-residential buildings 20% more energy efficient by 2020; Deriving 80% of America's electricity from clean-energy sources by 2035; and Reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 175 by 2020 and 83% of 2050, from a 2005 baseline.

  2. Science and Technology Review October/November 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bearinger, J P

    2009-08-21

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Award-Winning Collaborations Provide Solutions--Commentary by Steven D. Liedle; (2) Light-Speed Spectral Analysis of a Laser Pulse--An optical device inspects and stops potentially damaging laser pulses; (3) Capturing Waveforms in a Quadrillionth of a Second--The femtoscope, a time microscope, improves the temporal resolution and dynamic range of conventional recording instruments; (4) Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy in the Palm of Your Hand--A miniature gamma-ray spectrometer provides increased resolution at a reduced cost; (5) Building Fusion Targets with Precision Robotics--A robotic system assembles tiny fusion targets with nanometer precision; (6) ROSE: Making Compiler Technology More Accessible--An open-source software infrastructure makes powerful compiler techniques available to all programmers; (7) Restoring Sight to the Blind with an Artificial Retina--A retinal prosthesis could restore vision to people suffering from eye diseases; (8) Eradicating the Aftermath of War--A remotely operated system precisely locates buried land mines; (9) Compact Alignment for Diagnostic Laser Beams--A smaller, less expensive device aligns diagnostic laser beams onto targets; and (10) Securing Radiological Sources in Africa--Livermore and other national laboratories are helping African countries secure their nuclear materials.

  3. A Review of Factors Influencing the Cost Development of Electricity Generation Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Samadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the literature on the past cost dynamics of various renewable, fossil fuel and nuclear electricity generation technologies. It identifies 10 different factors which have played key roles in influencing past cost developments according to the literature. These 10 factors are: deployment-induced learning, research, development and demonstration (RD&D-induced learning, knowledge spillovers from other technologies, upsizing, economies of manufacturing scale, economies of project scale, changes in material and labour costs, changes in fuel costs, regulatory changes, and limits to the availability of suitable sites. The article summarises the relevant literature findings for each of these 10 factors and provides an overview indicating which factors have impacted on which generation technologies. The article also discusses the insights gained from the review for a better understanding of possible future cost developments of electricity generation technologies. Finally, future research needs, which may support a better understanding of past and future cost developments, are identified.

  4. Beryllium processing technology review for applications in plasma-facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, R.G.; Jacobson, L.A.; Stanek, P.W.

    1993-07-01

    Materials research and development activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), i.e., the next generation fusion reactor, are investigating beryllium as the first-wall containment material for the reactor. Important in the selection of beryllium is the ability to process, fabricate and repair beryllium first-wall components using existing technologies. Two issues that will need to be addressed during the engineering design activity will be the bonding of beryllium tiles in high-heat-flux areas of the reactor, and the in situ repair of damaged beryllium tiles. The following review summarizes the current technology associated with welding and joining of beryllium to itself and other materials, and the state-of-the-art in plasma-spray technology as an in situ repair technique for damaged beryllium tiles. In addition, a review of the current status of beryllium technology in the former Soviet Union is also included.

  5. A review of sensing technologies for small and large-scale touch panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Humza; Kemao, Qian; Kakarala, Ramakrishna

    2017-06-01

    A touch panel is an input device for human computer interaction. It consists of a network of sensors, a sampling circuit and a micro controller for detecting and locating a touch input. Touch input can come from either finger or stylus depending upon the type of touch technology. These touch panels provide an intuitive and collaborative workspace so that people can perform various tasks with the use of their fingers instead of traditional input devices like keyboard and mouse. Touch sensing technology is not new. At the time of this writing, various technologies are available in the market and this paper reviews the most common ones. We review traditional designs and sensing algorithms for touch technology. We also observe that due to its various strengths, capacitive touch will dominate the large-scale touch panel industry in years to come. In the end, we discuss the motivation for doing academic research on large-scale panels.

  6. The emergent role of digital technologies in the Circular Economy: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagoropoulos, Aris; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.

    2017-01-01

    literature, is the concept of Circular Economy. Circular Economy is characterized as an economy that is restorative and regenerative by design and is attracting significant attention from researchers and policy makers alike. In light of the recent proliferation of digital technologies such as Big Data...... and the Internet of Things, this article attempts to identify how can digital technologies support the transition to Circular Economy. This article conducted a systematic review of the literature based on a review protocol, in an effort to evaluate the application of key digital technologies in Circular Economy....... The study concludes by identifying research gaps, reflecting on the application of digital technologies in the field of PSS and proposing suggestions for future research....

  7. Beryllium processing technology review for applications in plasma-facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Jacobson, L.A.; Stanek, P.W.

    1993-07-01

    Materials research and development activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), i.e., the next generation fusion reactor, are investigating beryllium as the first-wall containment material for the reactor. Important in the selection of beryllium is the ability to process, fabricate and repair beryllium first-wall components using existing technologies. Two issues that will need to be addressed during the engineering design activity will be the bonding of beryllium tiles in high-heat-flux areas of the reactor, and the in situ repair of damaged beryllium tiles. The following review summarizes the current technology associated with welding and joining of beryllium to itself and other materials, and the state-of-the-art in plasma-spray technology as an in situ repair technique for damaged beryllium tiles. In addition, a review of the current status of beryllium technology in the former Soviet Union is also included

  8. Does assistive technology contribute to social inclusion for people with intellectual disability? A systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owuor, John; Larkan, Fiona; Kayabu, Bonnix; Fitzgerald, Geraldine; Sheaf, Greg; Dinsmore, John; McConkey, Roy; Clarke, Mike; MacLachlan, Malcolm

    2018-02-10

    The aim of this review is to answer the following question: Does assistive technology contribute to social inclusion for people with intellectual disability? Previous research on assistive technology has focused on socioeconomic impacts such as education, employment and access to healthcare by people with intellectual disability. There is a need to consolidate evidence on the interaction between intellectual disability, assistive technology, community living and social inclusion. The review will consider studies from all settings: geographical, socioeconomic and care (institutional and community care), published in English. Studies reported in other languages with abstracts in English will be included if they can be translated using Google Translate, otherwise such studies will be included in the appendix. The review will include both qualitative and quantitative studies. The intervention in this review refers to the use of assistive technology to promote community participation or interpersonal relationships (social inclusion) for people with intellectual disability. The outcomes will be behavioural and social benefits of using assistive technology by people with intellectual disability. Enhanced interpersonal relationships and community participation by people with intellectual disability. Data analysis will be in two phases. The first phase will involve analysis of individual study designs separately. The second phase will be narrative/thematic synthesis of all study groups. The review will not create any ethical or safety concerns. At least one peer-reviewed article in a leading journal such as the BMJ is planned. The findings will also be disseminated through a seminar session involving internal audience at Trinity College Dublin and within the Assistive Technologies for people with Intellectual Disability and Autism research programme. CRD42017065447; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article

  9. Fruit Quality Evaluation Using Spectroscopy Technology: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailong Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An overview is presented with regard to applications of visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR spectroscopy, multispectral imaging and hyperspectral imaging techniques for quality attributes measurement and variety discrimination of various fruit species, i.e., apple, orange, kiwifruit, peach, grape, strawberry, grape, jujube, banana, mango and others. Some commonly utilized chemometrics including pretreatment methods, variable selection methods, discriminant methods and calibration methods are briefly introduced. The comprehensive review of applications, which concentrates primarily on Vis/NIR spectroscopy, are arranged according to fruit species. Most of the applications are focused on variety discrimination or the measurement of soluble solids content (SSC, acidity and firmness, but also some measurements involving dry matter, vitamin C, polyphenols and pigments have been reported. The feasibility of different spectral modes, i.e., reflectance, interactance and transmittance, are discussed. Optimal variable selection methods and calibration methods for measuring different attributes of different fruit species are addressed. Special attention is paid to sample preparation and the influence of the environment. Areas where further investigation is needed and problems concerning model robustness and model transfer are identified.

  10. Review of recent literature on microneedle vaccine delivery technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrdoljak A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Anto Vrdoljak Development Laboratory, Genera, Rakov Potok, Croatia Abstract: Microneedles (MNs have been developed as medical devices for enhanced and painless transdermal drug and vaccine delivery. MN-based vaccine application, unlike conventional intramuscular or subcutaneous application using hypodermic needles, delivers vaccine directly into skin, which is known to be an immunologically much more relevant vaccination site than underlying tissue. Vaccination using MN devices targets the skin's rich immune system, leading to better utilization of the antigen and resulting in superior immune response, often achieved using a lower vaccine dose than required by conventional delivery routes. However, despite the number of advantages and nearly four decades of research, the number of licensed MN-based vaccines remains limited to date. Nevertheless, it is to be expected that on the back of a number of recently developed scalable and robust MN-fabrication methods, more intensive translation into clinical practice will follow. Here, we review the current status and trends in research of MN-related vaccine delivery platforms, focusing on the most promising approaches and clinically relevant applications. Keywords: microneedles, vaccine delivery, skin vaccination

  11. A Review of Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) Detector Technologies and Commercial-Off-The-Shelf Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Detection and Screening of Chemicals Related to the Chemical Weapons Convention. In Encyclopaedia of Analytical Chemistry, Meyers, R. A., Ed. John...Division Defence Science and Technology Organisation DSTO-GD-0570 ABSTRACT This report provides a review of the open-source literature (unclassified...Published by Human Protection and Performance Division DSTO Defence Science and Technology Organisation 506 Lorimer St Fishermans Bend, Victoria 3207

  12. Energy and technology review, January--February 1995. State of the laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bookless, W.A.; Stull, S.; Cassady, C.; Kaiper, G.; Ledbetter, G.; McElroy, L.; Parker, A. [eds.

    1995-02-01

    This issue of Energy and Technology Review highlights the Laboratory`s 1994 accomplishments in their mission areas and core programs--economic competitiveness, national security, lasers, energy, the environment, biology and biotechnology, engineering, physics and space science, chemistry and materials science, computations, and science and math education. LLNL is a major national resource of science and technology expertise, and they are committed to applying this expertise to meet vital national needs.

  13. A review on technology maturity of small scale energy storage technologies★

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thu-Trang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current status of energy storage technologies which have the higher potential to be applied in small scale energy systems. Small scale energy systems can be categorized as ones that are able to supply energy in various forms for a building, or a small area, or a limited community, or an enterprise; typically, they are end-user systems. Energy storage technologies are classified based on their form of energy stored. A two-step evaluation is proposed for selecting suitable storage technologies for small scale energy systems, including identifying possible technical options, and addressing techno-economic aspects. Firstly, a review on energy storage technologies at small scale level is carried out. Secondly, an assessment of technology readiness level (TRL is conducted. The TRLs are ranked according to information gathered from literature review. Levels of market maturity of the technologies are addressed by taking into account their market development stages through reviewing published materials. The TRLs and the levels of market maturity are then combined into a technology maturity curve. Additionally, market driving factors are identified by using different stages in product life cycle. The results indicate that lead-acid, micro pumped hydro storage, NaS battery, NiCd battery, flywheel, NaNiCl battery, Li-ion battery, and sensible thermal storage are the most mature technologies for small scale energy systems. In the near future, hydrogen fuel cells, thermal storages using phase change materials and thermochemical materials are expected to become more popular in the energy storage market.

  14. Information Technology Applications in Hospitality and Tourism: A Review of Publications from 2005 to 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Law, Rob; Leung, R.; Buhalis, Dimitrios

    2009-01-01

    The tourism and hospitality industries have widely adopted information\\ud technology (IT) to reduce costs, enhance operational efficiency, and most importantly to\\ud improve service quality and customer experience. This article offers a comprehensive review of\\ud articles that were published in 57 tourism and hospitality research journals from 2005 to 2007.\\ud Grouping the findings into the categories of consumers, technologies, and suppliers, the article\\ud sheds light on the evolution of IT...

  15. Novel sensing technology in fall risk assessment in older adults: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Ruopeng; Sosnoff, Jacob J.

    2018-01-01

    Background Falls are a major health problem for older adults with significant physical and psychological consequences. A first step of successful fall prevention is to identify those at risk of falling. Recent advancement in sensing technology offers the possibility of objective, low-cost and easy-to-implement fall risk assessment. The objective of this systematic review is to assess the current state of sensing technology on providing objective fall risk assessment in older adults. Methods A...

  16. Psychotherapeutic Applications of Mobile Phone-based Technologies: A Systematic Review of Current Research and Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Menon, Vikas; Rajan, Tess Maria; Sarkar, Siddharth

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing interest in using mobile phone technology to offer real-time psychological interventions and support. However, questions remain on the clinical effectiveness and feasibility of such approaches in psychiatric populations. Our aim was to systematically review the published literature on mobile phone apps and other mobile phone-based technology for psychotherapy in mental health disorders. To achieve this, electronic searches of PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar were c...

  17. A REVIEW ON FEASIBILITY OF MAGNETIC WATER TECHNOLOGY IN WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Yadollahpour1, Samaneh Rashidi

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objective: Magnetic or magnetized water technology (MWT) has been recently introduced as promising approach for water resources management in agricultural, environmental, and industrial processes. Despite controversial findings of the recent studies, MWT seems one of the future technologies for efficient water management. This study aims to review the feasibility and perspectives of MWT in water resources management. Method: The databases of Web of Sciences (1980–2016), EMBASE ...

  18. The state of the art of wind energy conversion systems and technologies: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Ming; Zhu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper reviews the state of the art of wind energy conversion systems. • Different types of common wind energy conversion systems are classified and compared. • The four most popular MPPT control methods are reviewed and compared. • The latest development of wind energy conversion technologies is introduced. • Future trends of the wind energy conversion technologies are discussed. - Abstract: This paper gives a comprehensive review of the state of the art of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) and technologies, with an emphasis on wind power generator and control. First, different types of common WECSs are classified according to their features and drive train types. The WECSs are compared on the basis of the volume, weight, cost, efficiency, system reliability and fault ride through capability. The maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control, which aims to make the generator speed meet an optimum value to ensure the maximum energy yield, plays a key role in the variable speed WECSs. A comprehensive review and comparison of the four most popular MPPT control methods are carried out and improvements for each method are presented. Furthermore, the latest development of wind energy conversion technologies is introduced, such as the brushless doubly fed induction generator (BDFIG), the stator permanent magnet synchronous generators, the magnetic-geared generators, dual power flow WECS with the electrical variable transmission (EVT) machine, and direct grid-connected WECS. Finally, the future trends of the technologies are discussed

  19. Review and assessments of potential environmental, health and safety impacts of MHD technology. Final draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to develop an environmental, health and safety (EH and S) assessment and begin a site - specific assessment of these and socio - economic impacts for the magnetohydrodynamics program of the United States Department of Energy. This assessment includes detailed scientific and technical information on the specific EH and S issues mentioned in the MHD Environmental Development Plan. A review of current literature on impact-related subjects is also included. This document addresses the coal-fired, open-cycle MHD technology and reviews and assesses potential EH and S impacts resulting from operation of commercially-installed technology.

  20. A review of non-contact micro- and nano-printing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ru, Changhai; Sun, Yu; Luo, Jun; Xie, Shaorong

    2014-01-01

    Printing technologies have undergone signficant development because they are an enabler in science and engineering research; they also have significant practical applications in manufacturing. Micro- and nano-printing techniques have found a number of applications in electronics, biotechnology, and material synthesis/patterning. In this review, we look at the important printing methods, including high precision traditional printing methods as well as recently emerging techniques. We also discuss the materials that are printable by these technologies, the challenges for future development, and the applications of micro- and nano-printing. (topical review)

  1. Technological aspects of vegetable oils epoxidation in the presence of ion exchange resins: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milchert Eugeniusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A review paper of the technology basics of vegetable oils epoxidation by means of peracetic or performic acid in the presence of acidic ion exchange resins has been presented. The influence of the following parameters: temperature, molar ratio of acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide to ethylenic unsaturation, catalyst loading, stirring intensity and the reaction time on a conversion of ethylenic unsaturation, the relative percentage conversion to oxirane and the iodine number was discussed. Optimal technological parameters, mechanism of epoxidation by carboxylic peracids and the possibilities of catalyst recycling have been also discussed. This review paper shows the application of epoxidized oils.

  2. Review on Cold Spray Process and Technology: Part I—Intellectual Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irissou, Eric; Legoux, Jean-Gabriel; Ryabinin, Anatoly N.; Jodoin, Bertrand; Moreau, Christian

    2008-12-01

    The number of research papers as well as of patents and patent applications on cold spray and cold spray related technologies has grown exponentially in the current decade. This rapid growth of activity brought a tremendous amount of information on this technology in a short period of time. The main motivation for this review is to summarize the rapidly expanding common knowledge on cold spray to help researchers and engineers already or soon to be involved for their future endeavors with this new technology. Cold spray is one of the various names for describing an all-solid-state coating process that uses a high-speed gas jet to accelerate powder particles toward a substrate where they plastically deform and consolidate upon impact. Cold gas dynamic spray, cold spray, kinetic spray, supersonic particle deposition, dynamic metallization or kinetic metallization are all terminologies found in the literature that designate the above-defined coating process. This review on cold spray technology is divided into two parts. In this article, Part I, patents and patent applications related to this process are reviewed, starting from the first few mentions of the idea at the beginning of the 20th century to its practical discovery in Russia in the 1980s and its subsequent occidental development and commercialization. The patent review encompasses Russian and USA patents and patent applications. Part II will review the scientific literature giving a general perspective of the current understanding and capability of this process.

  3. [Ecological restoration technologies for mined lands: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hanping; Cai, Xi'an

    2002-11-01

    Mining activities usually cause catastrophic and extensive environmental changes, and eventually cause major damages to the whole ecosystem. The natural restoration for mine lands and tailings is a very slow process, and even can hardly reach their original states. Therefore, how to develop rapid and efficient approaches to accelerate restoration of mined lands has been highlighted by restorationists and environmental engineers during the past two decades. Almost all studies in this field indicate that the major problems come from soils: such as high metal concentrations, extremely strong acidity resulting from oxidation of pyrite, and poor fertility. Replacement of topsoil is therefore regarded as the most efficient method to alleviate adverse conditions of substrates; if this method is not available, other alternatives with lime, fertilizers, organic manures, garbage, mining wastes, and others will be applicable. In the aspect of using plants, species with strong resistance and rapid growth, like grasses and herbaceous legume, are always the first choice. If utilizing plants for the purpose of phytoremediation, species that are capable of accumulating exceptionally high concentrations of phytotoxic metals and of course, have a huge biomass, are preferably considered. No matter what type of ecosystem a mined land is restored or reclaimed to, an evaluation on whether it is a successful restoration or reclamation should be given. However, more practical, simple, and universal evaluation methods as well as more cost-effective, and operation-easy restoration techniques are still waiting to be developed. A set of artificial restoration methods that can be widely applied was summarized, and a discussion on the advantage and disadvantage of several evaluation systems was conducted in this review.

  4. Computer technology applications in surgical implant dentistry: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmaseb, Ali; Wismeijer, Daniel; Coucke, Wim; Derksen, Wiebe

    2014-01-01

    To assess the literature on the accuracy and clinical performance of static computer-assisted implant surgery in implant dentistry. Electronic and manual literature searches were applied to collect information about (1) the accuracy and (2) clinical performance of static computer-assisted implant systems. Meta-regression analysis was performed to summarize the accuracy studies. Failure/complication rates were investigated using a generalized linear mixed model for binary outcomes and a logit link to model implant failure rate. From 2,359 articles, 14 survival and 24 accuracy studies were included in this systematic review. Nine different static image guidance systems were involved. The meta-analysis of the accuracy (24 clinical and preclinical studies) revealed a total mean error of 1.12 mm (maximum of 4.5 mm) at the entry point measured in 1,530 implants and 1.39 mm at the apex (maximum of 7.1 mm) measured in 1,465 implants. For the 14 included survival studies (total of 1,941 implants) using static computer-assisted implant dentistry, the mean failure rate was 2.7% (0% to 10%) after an observation period of at least 12 months. In 36.4% of the treated cases, intraoperative or prosthetic complications were reported, which included: template fractures during the surgery, change of plan because of factors such as limited primary implant stability, need for additional grafting procedures, prosthetic screw loosening, prosthetic misfit, and prosthesis fracture. Different levels of quantity and quality of evidence were available for static computer-assisted implant placement, with tight-fitting high implant survival rates after only 12 months of observation in different indications achieving a variable level of accuracy. Future long-term clinical data are necessary to identify clinical indications; detect accuracy; assess risk; and justify additional radiation doses, effort, and costs associated with computer-assisted implant surgery.

  5. Review of technology for Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackinger, W. M.

    1980-08-01

    The technical background briefing report is the first step in the preparation of a plan for engineering research oriented toward Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery. A five-year leasing schedule for the ice-prone waters of the Arctic offshore is presented, which also shows the projected dates of the lease sale for each area. The estimated peak production rates for these areas are given. There is considerable uncertainty for all these production estimates, since no exploratory drilling has yet taken place. A flow chart is presented which relates the special Arctic factors, such as ice and permafrost, to the normal petroleum production sequence. Some highlights from the chart and from the technical review are: (1) in many Arctic offshore locations the movement of sea ice causes major lateral forces on offshore structures, which are much greater than wave forces; (2) spray ice buildup on structures, ships and aircraft will be considerable, and must be prevented or accommodated with special designs; (3) the time available for summer exploratory drilling, and for deployment of permanent production structures, is limited by the return of the pack ice. This time may be extended by ice-breaking vessels in some cases; (4) during production, icebreaking workboats will service the offshore platforms in most areas throughout the year; (5) transportation of petroleum by icebreaking tankers from offshore tanker loading points is a highly probable situation, except in the Alaskan Beaufort; and (6) Arctic pipelines must contend with permafrost, making instrumentation necessary to detect subtle changes of the pipe before rupture occurs.

  6. Impact of information and communication technology on interprofessional collaboration for chronic disease management: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Neil; Vania, Diana; Randall, Glen; Mulvale, Gillian

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Information and communication technology is often lauded as the key to enhancing communication among health care providers. However, its impact on interprofessional collaboration is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which it improves communication and, subsequently, enhances interprofessional collaboration in chronic disease management. Methods A systematic review of academic literature using two electronic platforms: HealthSTAR and Web of Science (core collection and MEDLINE). To be eligible for inclusion in the review, articles needed to be peer-reviewed; accessible in English and focused on how technology supports, or might support, collaboration (through enhanced communication) in chronic disease management. Studies were assessed for quality and a narrative synthesis conducted. Results The searches identified 289 articles of which six were included in the final analysis (three used qualitative methods, two were descriptive and one used mixed methods). Various forms of information and communication technology were described including electronic health records, online communities/learning resources and telehealth/telecare. Three themes emerged from the studies that may provide insights into how communication that facilitates collaboration in chronic disease management might be enhanced: professional conflict, collective engagement and continuous learning. Conclusions The success of technology in enhancing collaboration for chronic disease management depends upon supporting the social relationships and organization in which the technology will be placed. Decision-makers should take into account and work toward balancing the impact of technology together with the professional and cultural characteristics of health care teams.

  7. Mobile technology-based interventions for adult users of alcohol: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Lauren A; Holt, Sidney L; Joshi, Deepti

    2016-11-01

    Worldwide, 16% of people aged 15 and older engage in harmful use of alcohol. Harmful alcohol use leads to a host of preventable negative social and health consequences. Mobile technology-based interventions provide a particularly promising avenue for the widespread and cost-effective delivery of treatment that is accessible, affordable, individualized, and destigmatized to both alcohol-dependent and nondependent individuals. The present review sought to summarize the current literature on mobile technology-based interventions among adult users of alcohol and determine the efficacy of such interventions. Five databases were searched in December 2015 (Jan. 2004-Dec. 2015). Inclusion criteria were: participants aged 18 or older, interventions delivered through mobile-technology, and outcome measurement of alcohol reduction/cessation. Eight studies met inclusion criteria. The majority of the studies reviewed found positive effects of the intervention, even though the interventions themselves varied in design, length, dosage, and target population, and were pilot or preliminary in nature. Findings from this review highlight the promising, yet preliminary state of research in this area. Studies with adequate power and valid design are necessary to evaluate the potential of mobile technology-based interventions on long-term alcohol behavior outcomes. Furthermore, future research should elucidate what the most effective length of time is for a mobile technology-based intervention, how often individuals should receive messages for maximum benefit, and determine the comparative effectiveness of mobile technology interventions with other efficacious interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. User acceptance factors of hospital information systems and related technologies: Systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, Putu Wuri; Hidayanto, Achmad Nizar; Budi, Indra

    2017-08-22

    This study reviews the literature on the most important acceptance factors associated with Hospital Information Systems (HIS) and related technologies based on user groups' perspectives (medical staff, hospital management, administrative personnel, patient, medical student, and IT staff), which can assist researchers and hospital management to develop suitable acceptance models to improve the quality of HIS. We conducted searches in online databases with large repositories of academic studies, written in English and fully accessible by the authors. The articles being reviewed are related to health information technology (HIT), clinical information systems (CIS), HIS, electronic medical records (EMR), telemedicine or telehealth, picture archiving and communication systems (PACS), radio frequency identification (RFID), and computerized physician order entry (CPOE), where the use of most of those applications and technologies is highly integrated. A predefined string was used to extract 1,005 articles, and the results were reviewed and checked. The results of this study found 15 user acceptance factors related to HIS and related technologies that were frequently identified by a minimum of five previous studies. These factors were related to individual, technological, and organizational factors. In addition, HIS and related technologies' user acceptance factors in each user group describe different results.

  9. Technology-assisted education in graduate medical education: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jwayyed, Sharhabeel; Stiffler, Kirk A; Wilber, Scott T; Southern, Alison; Weigand, John; Bare, Rudd; Gerson, Lowell W

    2011-08-08

    Studies on computer-aided instruction and web-based learning have left many questions unanswered about the most effective use of technology-assisted education in graduate medical education. We conducted a review of the current medical literature to report the techniques, methods, frequency and effectiveness of technology-assisted education in graduate medical education. A structured review of MEDLINE articles dealing with "Computer-Assisted Instruction," "Internet or World Wide Web," "Education" and "Medical" limited to articles published between 2002-2007 in the English language was performed. The two literature searches returned 679 articles; 184 met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. In 87 articles, effectiveness was measured primarily using self-reported results from a survey of subjects. Technology-assisted education was superior to traditional methods in 42 of the 64 direct comparison articles (66%, 95% CI 53-77%). Traditional teaching methods were superior to technology-assisted education in only 3/64 (5%, 95% CI 1-13%). The remaining 19 direct comparison articles showed no difference. A detailed review of the 64 comparative studies (technology-assisted education versus traditional teaching methods) also failed to identify a best method or best uses for technology-assisted education. Technology-assisted education is used in graduate medical education across a variety of content areas and participant types. Knowledge gain was the predominant outcome measured. The majority of studies that directly compared knowledge gains in technology-assisted education to traditional teaching methods found technology-assisted education equal or superior to traditional teaching methods, though no "best methods" or "best use" was found within those studies. Only three articles were specific to Emergency Medicine, suggesting further research in our specialty is warranted.

  10. The use of advanced medical technologies at home: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Haken, Ingrid; Ben Allouch, Somaya; van Harten, Wim H

    2018-02-26

    The number of medical technologies used in home settings has increased substantially over the last 10-15 years. In order to manage their use and to guarantee quality and safety, data on usage trends and practical experiences are important. This paper presents a literature review on types, trends and experiences with the use of advanced medical technologies at home. The study focused on advanced medical technologies that are part of the technical nursing process and 'hands on' processes by nurses, excluding information technology such as domotica. The systematic review of literature was performed by searching the databases MEDLINE, Scopus and Cinahl. We included papers from 2000 to 2015 and selected articles containing empirical material. The review identified 87 relevant articles, 62% was published in the period 2011-2015. Of the included studies, 45% considered devices for respiratory support, 39% devices for dialysis and 29% devices for oxygen therapy. Most research has been conducted on the topic 'user experiences' (36%), mainly regarding patients or informal caregivers. Results show that nurses have a key role in supporting patients and family caregivers in the process of homecare with advanced medical technologies and in providing information for, and as a member of multi-disciplinary teams. However, relatively low numbers of articles were found studying nurses perspective. Research on medical technologies used at home has increased considerably until 2015. Much is already known on topics, such as user experiences; safety, risks, incidents and complications; and design and technological development. We also identified a lack of research exploring the views of nurses with regard to medical technologies for homecare, such as user experiences of nurses with different technologies, training, instruction and education of nurses and human factors by nurses in risk management and patient safety.

  11. A systematic review of portable electronic technology for health education in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Megan S; Fischer, Lydia J; Chun, Yeona; Vreeman, Rachel C

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature of how portable electronic technologies with offline functionality are perceived and used to provide health education in resource-limited settings. Three reviewers evaluated articles and performed a bibliography search to identify studies describing health education delivered by portable electronic device with offline functionality in low- or middle-income countries. Data extracted included: study population; study design and type of analysis; type of technology used; method of use; setting of technology use; impact on caregivers, patients, or overall health outcomes; and reported limitations. Searches yielded 5514 unique titles. Out of 75 critically reviewed full-text articles, 10 met inclusion criteria. Study locations included Botswana, Peru, Kenya, Thailand, Nigeria, India, Ghana, and Tanzania. Topics addressed included: development of healthcare worker training modules, clinical decision support tools, patient education tools, perceptions and usability of portable electronic technology, and comparisons of technologies and/or mobile applications. Studies primarily looked at the assessment of developed educational modules on trainee health knowledge, perceptions and usability of technology, and comparisons of technologies. Overall, studies reported positive results for portable electronic device-based health education, frequently reporting increased provider/patient knowledge, improved patient outcomes in both quality of care and management, increased provider comfort level with technology, and an environment characterized by increased levels of technology-based, informal learning situations. Negative assessments included high investment costs, lack of technical support, and fear of device theft. While the research is limited, portable electronic educational resources present promising avenues to increase access to effective health education in resource-limited settings, contingent

  12. Quadrennial Technology Review 2015: Technology Assessments--Marine and Hydrokinetic Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sam Baldwin, Gilbert Bindewald, Austin Brown, Charles Chen, Kerry Cheung, Corrie Clark, Joe Cresko,

    2015-10-07

    Marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) technologies convert the energy of waves, tides, and river and ocean currents into electricity. With more than 50% of the U.S. population living within 50 miles of the nation’s coasts, MHK technologies hold significant potential to supply renewable electricity to consumers in coastal load centers, particularly in the near term in areas with high costs of electricity and longer term in high resource areas in close proximity to major coastal load centers. MHK resource assessments identify a total U.S. technical resource potential of approximately 1250–1850 terawatt-hours (TWh) of generation per year from ocean wave, ocean current, ocean tidal, and river current energy. Of this, the U.S. continental technical resource potential is approximately 500–750 TWh/year. For context, roughly 90,000 homes can be powered by 1 TWh of electricity generation each year. A cost-effective MHK industry could provide a substantial amount of electricity for the nation owing in large part to its unique advantages as a source of energy, including its vast resource potential, its close proximity to major coastal load centers, and its long-term predictability and near-term forecastability.

  13. Smooth Surfaces: A review of current and planned smooth surface technologies for fouling resistance in boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corkery, Robert; Baefver, Linda; Davidsson, Kent; Feiler, Adam

    2012-02-15

    Here we have described the basics of boilers, fuels, combustion, flue gas composition and mechanisms of deposition. We have reviewed coating technologies for boiler tubes, including their materials compositions, nano structures and performances. The surface forces in boilers, in particular those relevant to formation of unwanted deposits in boilers have also been reviewed, and some comparative calculations have been included to indicate the procedures needed for further study. Finally practical recommendations on the important considerations in minimizing deposition on boiler surfaces are made

  14. A critical review on the applications of artificial neural networks in winemaking technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldes, O A; Mejuto, J C; Rial-Otero, R; Simal-Gandara, J

    2017-09-02

    Since their development in 1943, artificial neural networks were extended into applications in many fields. Last twenty years have brought their introduction into winery, where they were applied following four basic purposes: authenticity assurance systems, electronic sensory devices, production optimization methods, and artificial vision in image treatment tools, with successful and promising results. This work reviews the most significant approaches for neural networks in winemaking technologies with the aim of producing a clear and useful review document.

  15. Reviews on Fuel Cell Technology for Valuable Chemicals and Energy Co-Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Wisitsree Wiyaratn

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a review of co-generation process in fuel cell type reactor to produce valuable chemical compounds along with electricity. The chemicals and energy co-generation processes have been shown to be a promising alternative to conventional reactors and conventional fuel cells with pure water as a byproduct. This paper reviews researches on chemicals and energy co-generation technologies of three types of promising fuel cell i.e. solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), alkaline fuel cell (...

  16. Human factors design review guidelines for advanced nuclear control room technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.; Brown, W.; Granda, T.; Baker, C.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACRs) for future nuclear power plants are being designed utilizing computer-based technologies. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission reviews the human engineering aspects of such control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported in order to protect public health and safety. This paper describes the rationale, general approach, and initial development of an NRC Advanced Control Room Design Review Guideline. 20 refs., 1 fig

  17. Technology Applied to ELT: Reviewing Practical Uses to Enhance English Teaching Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Rojas Serrano

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author reports on some of the areas of technology currently used in the teaching and learning of languages, and reviews some of the uses of technological tools that are present in the English Adult Program and activities carried out at The Centro Colombo Americano (CCA in Bogota, Colombia. After briefly describing what is being applied worldwide in terms of what is being done at the CCA, some suggestions are offered in order to enhance the English teaching and learning processes through the use of new technologies.

  18. A Review of Systems and Technologies for Smart Homes and Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Lobaccaro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the actual era of smart homes and smart grids, advanced technological systems that allow the automation of domestic tasks are developing rapidly. There are numerous technologies and applications that can be installed in smart homes today. They enable communication between home appliances and users, and enhance home appliances’ automation, monitoring and remote control capabilities. This review article, by introducing the concept of the smart home and the advent of the smart grid, investigates technologies for smart homes. The technical descriptions of the systems are presented and point out advantages and disadvantages of each technology and product today available on the market. Barriers, challenges, benefits and future trends regarding the technologies and the role of users have also been discussed.

  19. Use of plasma arc technology for treatment of solid radioactive waste and review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, E.; Bataklieva, T.

    2011-01-01

    The thermal treatment of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes by arc technology is an advanced and promising process. Therefore, this technology is becoming an important part of the waste management systems of new and existing nuclear power plants. However, due to the small number of existing facilities worldwide, limited operating experience and the ongoing need for research and development activities in this area, the reliability of the technology and the economical benefits are not well understood. Therefore, the goal of this report is to provide a basic understanding of the arc discharge technology for low and intermediate level radioactive waste destruction and to review the end product characteristics and the advancements in their improvement. In addition the information in this paper can be used as base for developing of technical, operational and economical criteria for technology selection methodology. (authors)

  20. Educational technologies designed to promote cardiovascular health in adults: integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Célia Caetano de Souza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective Investigating the educational technologies developed for promoting cardiovascular health in adults. Method Integrative review carried out in the databases of PubMed, SciELO and LILACS, with 15 articles selected. Results Over half (60% of the studies were randomized clinical trials. The developed educational technologies were programs involving three strategies, with duration of one year, use of playful technologies with storytelling, computer programs or software for smartphones, and electronic brochure. These technologies resulted in reduction of blood pressure, weight, waist circumference, decreased hospitalizations and increased years of life. Conclusion The studies with better impact on the cardiovascular health of adults were those who brought the technology in the form of program and duration of one year.

  1. A Review of Technology-Based Youth and Family-Focused Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonell, Kathleen Watson; Prinz, Ronald J

    2017-06-01

    In the past 10 years, mental and behavioral health has seen a proliferation of technology-based interventions in the form of online and other computer-delivered programs. This paper focuses on technology-based treatment and preventive interventions aimed at benefitting children and adolescents via either involving the parents and families, or only the youth. The review considered only technology-based interventions that had at least one published study with a randomized controlled trial design. Questions being addressed included: (1) What are the technology-based interventions in the mental/behavioral health area that have been systematically evaluated in published studies? (2) What are the common and unique characteristics of these interventions and their application with respect to sample characteristics, target problems, and technology characteristics (platforms, structures, elements, and communication formats)? and (3) Which intervention approaches and strategies have accrued the greatest evidence? The review identified 30 technology-based psychosocial interventions for children and families, 19 of which were parent or family-focused (32 studies) and 11 of which were youth-focused (in 13 studies). For the parent/family-focused interventions, greatest promise was found in those that addressed either youth behavioral problems or depressive/anxious symptoms, as well as more general bolstering of parenting efficacy. The youth-focused interventions showed some promise in reducing depressive/anxious symptoms. Advantages and disadvantages of the technology-based approaches were considered, and areas for future research and development were discussed.

  2. Microwave as an emerging technology for the treatment of biohazardous waste: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Klaus

    2017-05-01

    Microwave is an emerging technology to treat biohazardous waste, including material from healthcare facilities. A screen of the peer-reviewed literature shows that only limited information may be found in this area of work and, furthermore, analysis of the references reveals that sometimes not all necessary aspects for the appropriate use of the technology are considered. Very often conventional microwave technology is applied for the inactivation of pathogens, which might make sense for certain applications but, on the other hand, may lead to the misbelief that microwave systems cannot be used for the inactivation of a solid "dry" waste. However, conventional microwave units have no means to control the inactivation process, and especially moisture content. But there are a few sophisticated microwave technologies with appropriate measurements allowing a validated inactivation of biohazardous materials. These technologies are an effective tool for inactivation and some of them are commercially available. It must also be considered that the waste should be preferably inactivated either directly at the place where it is generated or biohazardous waste should be transported only in closed systems. Moreover, microwave technology presents a possibility to save energy costs in comparison to the more widely used autoclaves. This mini-review will discuss important aspects for the use of microwave technology for the treatment of biohazardous waste.

  3. Ethical Considerations Regarding the Use of Smart Home Technologies for Older Adults: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jane; Demiris, George; Thompson, Hilaire J

    2016-01-01

    With the wide adoption and use of smart home applications, there is a need for examining ethical issues regarding smart home use at the intersection of aging, technology, and home environment. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of ethical considerations and the evidence on these ethical issues based on an integrative literature review with regard to the utilization of smart home technologies by older adults and their family members. REVIEW DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted an integrative literature review of the scientific literature from indexed databases (e. g., MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO). The framework guiding this review is derived from previous work on ethical considerations related to telehealth use for older adults and smart homes for palliative care. Key ethical issues of the framework include privacy, informed consent, autonomy, obtrusiveness, equal access, reduction in human touch, and usability. Six hundred and thirty-five candidate articles were identified between the years 1990 and 2014. Sixteen articles were included in the review. Privacy and obtrusiveness issues appear to be the most important factors that can affect smart home technology adoption. In addition, this article recommends that stigmatization and reliability and maintenance of the system are additional factors to consider. When smart home technology is used appropriately, it has the potential to improve quality of life and maintain safety among older adults, ultimately supporting the desire of older adults for aging in place. The ability to respond to potential ethical concerns will be critical to the future development and application of smart home technologies that aim to enhance safety and independence.

  4. DOE FreedomCAR and vehicle technologies program advanced power electronic and electrical machines annual review report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, Mitch [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2006-10-11

    This report is a summary of the Review Panel at the FY06 DOE FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) Annual Review of Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machine (APEEM) research activities held on August 15-17, 2006.

  5. Hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated using atmospheric pressure cold plasma technology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakellis, Panagiotis; Gogolides, Evangelos

    2018-03-29

    Hydrophobic surfaces are often used to reduce wetting of surfaces by water. In particular, superhydrophobic surfaces are highly desired for several applications due to their exceptional properties such as self-cleaning, anti-icing, anti-friction and others. Such surfaces can be prepared via numerous methods including plasma technology, a dry technique with low environmental impact. Atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) has recently attracted significant attention as lower-cost alternative to low-pressure plasmas, and as a candidate for continuous rather than batch processing. Although there are many reviews on water-repellent surfaces, and a few reviews on APP technology, there are hardly any review works on APP processing for hydrophobic and superhydrohobic surface fabrication, a topic of high importance in nanotechnology and interface science. Herein, we critically review the advances on hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surface fabrication using APP technology, trying also to give some perspectives in the field. After a short introduction to superhydrophobicity of nanostructured surfaces and to APPs we focus this review on three different aspects: (1) The atmospheric plasma reactor technology used for fabrication of (super)hydrophobic surfaces. (2) The APP process for hydrophobic surface preparation. The hydrophobic surface preparation processes are categorized methodologically as: a) activation, b) grafting, c) polymerization, d) roughening and hydrophobization. Each category includes subcategories related to different precursors used. (3) One of the most important sections of this review concerns superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated using APP. These are methodologically characterized as follows: a) single step processes where micro-nano textured topography and low surface energy coating are created at the same time, or b) multiple step processes, where these steps occur sequentially in or out of the plasma. We end the review with some perspectives in the field. We

  6. Promoting Science and Technology in Primary Education: A Review of Integrated Curricula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drs Rens Gresnigt; Koeno Gravemeijer; Hanno Keulen, van; Liesbeth Baartman; Ruurd Taconis

    2014-01-01

    Integrated curricula seem promising for the increase of attention on science and technology in primary education. A clear picture of the advantages and disadvantages of integration efforts could help curriculum innovation. This review has focussed on integrated curricula in primary education from

  7. Literature Review of Faculty-Perceived Usefulness of Instructional Technology in Classroom Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a literature review of the research concerning the role of faculty perspectives about instructional technology. Learning management systems, massive open online courses (MOOCs), cloud-based multimedia applications, and mobile apps represent the tools and the language of academia in the 21st century. Research examined…

  8. A Literature Review: The Effect of Implementing Technology in a High School Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This study is a literature review to investigate the effects of implementing technology into a high school mathematics classroom. Mathematics has a hierarchical structure in learning and it is essential that students get a firm understanding of mathematics early in education. Some students that miss beginning concepts may continue to struggle with…

  9. Review of the Technology-Utilization Level of String Instrument Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döger, Didem; Kiliç, Ilgim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the technology-utilization level of Fine Arts High School string instrument teachers. A pattern based on descriptive method has been used to conduct the researchers. Research data has been collected via literature review and questionnaire developed and prepared by the researcher. SPSS program has been…

  10. Condition Assessment of Ferrous Water Transmission and Distribution Systems State of Technology Review Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This White Paper was developed to serve as the basis for discussion at a Technology Forum on Condition Assessment of Water Transmission and Distribution Systems that was held on September 9 and 10, 2008, at Edison, NJ. It was distributed to the Forum participants for review in a...

  11. Employment factors for wind and solar energy technologies: A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cameron, L.; van der Zwaan, B.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an up-to-date literature review on employment opportunities associated with the deployment of renewable energy technology. We identified approximately 70 studies and data sources published over the past decade that report analysed or observed employment impacts of renewable

  12. A Review of Information and Communication Technology Enhanced Social Work Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chitat; Holosko, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Information and communications technology (ICT) has impacted almost all human service disciplines and currently is evolving in social work. This study provides a systematic review of ICT-enhanced social work interventions, with particular reference to their intervention fidelity (IF), validity, and the role of ICT in the helping…

  13. A review on technological options of waste to energy for effective management of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Atul; Samadder, S R

    2017-11-01

    Approximately one-fourth population across the world rely on traditional fuels (kerosene, natural gas, biomass residue, firewood, coal, animal dung, etc.) for domestic use despite significant socioeconomic and technological development. Fossil fuel reserves are being exploited at a very fast rate to meet the increasing energy demands, so there is a need to find alternative sources of energy before all the fossil fuel reserves are depleted. Waste to energy (WTE) can be considered as a potential alternative source of energy, which is economically viable and environmentally sustainable. The present study reviewed the current global scenario of WTE technological options (incineration, pyrolysis, gasification, anaerobic digestion, and landfilling with gas recovery) for effective energy recovery and the challenges faced by developed and developing countries. This review will provide a framework for evaluating WTE technological options based on case studies of developed and developing countries. Unsanitary landfilling is the most commonly practiced waste disposal option in the developing countries. However, developed countries have realised the potential of WTE technologies for effective municipal solid waste management (MSWM). This review will help the policy makers and the implementing authorities involved in MSWM to understand the current status, challenges and barriers for effective management of municipal solid waste. This review concluded WTE as a potential renewable source of energy, which will partly meet the energy demand and ensure effective MSWM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Teaching in Middle School Technology Education: A Review of Recent Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Thomas M.; Sanders, Mark; Kwon, Hyuksoo

    2010-01-01

    We review articles published between 1995 and 2008 in four journals that are the primary scholarly resources for Technology Education middle school teaching. This descriptive study identified four main issues that scholars addressed: what should be taught in middle school, the structure and content of curriculum transformation, integrating…

  15. Life cycle assessment of thermal waste-to-energy technologies: review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard; Tonini, Davide; Turconi, Roberto; Boldrin, Alessio

    2015-03-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used extensively within the recent decade to evaluate the environmental performance of thermal Waste-to-Energy (WtE) technologies: incineration, co-combustion, pyrolysis and gasification. A critical review was carried out involving 250 individual case-studies published in 136 peer-reviewed journal articles within 1995 and 2013. The studies were evaluated with respect to critical aspects such as: (i) goal and scope definitions (e.g. functional units, system boundaries, temporal and geographic scopes), (ii) detailed technology parameters (e.g. related to waste composition, technology, gas cleaning, energy recovery, residue management, and inventory data), and (iii) modeling principles (e.g. energy/mass calculation principles, energy substitution, inclusion of capital goods and uncertainty evaluation). Very few of the published studies provided full and transparent descriptions of all these aspects, in many cases preventing an evaluation of the validity of results, and limiting applicability of data and results in other contexts. The review clearly suggests that the quality of LCA studies of WtE technologies and systems including energy recovery can be significantly improved. Based on the review, a detailed overview of assumptions and modeling choices in existing literature is provided in conjunction with practical recommendations for state-of-the-art LCA of Waste-to-Energy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Is the Mobile Phone a Disruptive Technology? A Partial Review of Evidence from Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Columbus, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The authors of this chapter provide an inter-disciplinary review of studies on economic impacts of mobile telephony in developing countries, giving particular attention to the disruptive potential of the technology and its associated social practices. Four major areas of impact are identified: the

  17. The Developing Field of Technology Education: A Review to Look Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alister; Buntting, Cathy; de Vries, Marc J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to review the development of technology education over the last 20-25 years. The purpose is to reflect on how far the field has come and where it might go to, including what questions need to be considered in its ongoing development. The data for this paper draw on our work in developing "The International Handbook of Research…

  18. Review of Electret ion chamber technology for measuring technologically enhanced natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotrappa, P.

    2002-01-01

    Electret ion chamber (EIC) is a passive integrating ionization chamber used extensively for measuring technologically enhanced radioactivity. Commercially available electret ion chambers called 1E-PERM (Electret-Passive Environmental Radiation Monitors) electret ion chambers are relatively new and are in use only from the past 10 years. The EIC consists of a stable electret (electrically charged Teflon disc) mounted inside an electrically conducting chamber. The electret serves both as a source of the electric field and as a sensor. The ions produced inside the chamber are collected by the electret. The reduction in charge of the electret is related to total ionization during the period of exposure. This charge reduction is measured using a battery operated electret reader. Using appropriate calibration factors and the exposure time, the desired parameters such as radon concentration in air is calculated. These low cost monitors require neither power nor battery and several hundreds of these can be used simultaneously and serviced by one reader. These monitors do not provide on line readings, but provide an average value over a period of time. The EICs have been used for measuring: (a) indoor and outdoor radon, (b) thoron, (c) dissolved radon and radium in water, (d) environmental gamma, (e) radon emanating radon concentration in soil samples and in pipes, (f) radon flux from surfaces and building materials. The purpose of this paper is to describe these methods and give selected reference to the related publications for more detailed reading. (author)

  19. Early economic evaluation of emerging health technologies: protocol of a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The concept of early health technology assessment, discussed well over a decade, has now been collaboratively implemented by industry, government, and academia to select and expedite the development of emerging technologies that may address the needs of patients and health systems. Early economic evaluation is essential to assess the value of emerging technologies, but empirical data to inform the current practice of early evaluation is limited. We propose a systematic review of early economic evaluation studies in order to better understand the current practice. Methods/design This protocol describes a systematic review of economic evaluation studies of regulated health technologies in which the evaluation is conducted prior to regulatory approval and when the technology effectiveness is not well established. Included studies must report an economic evaluation, defined as the comparative analysis of alternatives with respect to their associated costs and health consequences, and must evaluate some regulated health technology such as pharmaceuticals, biologics, high-risk medical devices, or biomarkers. We will conduct the literature search on multiple databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination Databases, and EconLit. Additional citations will be identified via scanning reference lists and author searching. We suspect that many early economic evaluation studies are unpublished, especially those conducted for internal use only. Additionally, we use a chain-referral sampling approach to identify authors of unpublished studies who work in technology discovery and development, starting out with our contact lists and authors who published relevant studies. Citation screening and full-text review will be conducted by pairs of reviewers. Abstracted data will include those related to the decision context and decision problem of the early evaluation, evaluation methods (e.g., data sources, methods, and assumptions used to

  20. Educational technologies in problem-based learning in health sciences education: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun; Bridges, Susan M

    2014-12-10

    As a modern pedagogical philosophy, problem-based learning (PBL) is increasingly being recognized as a major research area in student learning and pedagogical innovation in health sciences education. A new area of research interest has been the role of emerging educational technologies in PBL. Although this field is growing, no systematic reviews of studies of the usage and effects of educational technologies in PBL in health sciences education have been conducted to date. The aim of this paper is to review new and emerging educational technologies in problem-based curricula, with a specific focus on 3 cognate clinical disciplines: medicine, dentistry, and speech and hearing sciences. Analysis of the studies reviewed focused on the effects of educational technologies in PBL contexts while addressing the particular issue of scaffolding of student learning. A comprehensive computerized database search of full-text articles published in English from 1996 to 2014 was carried out using 3 databases: ProQuest, Scopus, and EBSCOhost. Eligibility criteria for selection of studies for review were also determined in light of the population, intervention, comparison, and outcomes (PICO) guidelines. The population was limited to postsecondary education, specifically in dentistry, medicine, and speech and hearing sciences, in which PBL was the key educational pedagogy and curriculum design. Three types of educational technologies were identified as interventions used to support student inquiry: learning software and digital learning objects; interactive whiteboards (IWBs) and plasma screens; and learning management systems (LMSs). Of 470 studies, 28 were selected for analysis. Most studies examined the effects of learning software and digital learning objects (n=20) with integration of IWB (n=5) and LMS (n=3) for PBL receiving relatively less attention. The educational technologies examined in these studies were seen as potentially fit for problem-based health sciences education