WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology respiratory cluster

  1. Technology in respiratory medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Repro

    Respiratory medicine is the subspecialty in medicine which ... The very nature of respiratory physiology ... of this essential step with resultant loss of accuracy in .... intensity of treatment, or for medicolegal .... likened to trying to manage dia-.

  2. Respiratory Therapy Technology Program Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the respiratory therapy technology program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories: Foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation; Admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning);…

  3. Respiratory Therapy Technology Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This guide presents the standard curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum addresses the minimum competencies for a respiratory therapy technology program. The guide contains four sections. The General Information section contains an introduction giving an overview and defining the purpose and objectives, a program…

  4. Building a Successful Technology Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silicon Valley is the iconic cluster—a dense regional network of companies, universities, research institutions, and other stakeholders involved in a single industry. Many regions have sought to replicate the success of Silicon Valley, which has produced technological innov...

  5. Technological advances in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehder, Kyle J; Turner, David A; Bonadonna, Desiree; Walczak, Richard J; Rudder, Robert J; Cheifetz, Ira M

    2012-08-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for neonatal and pediatric cardiac and/or respiratory failure is well established, and its use for adult respiratory failure is rapidly increasing. Management strategies developed over the past 30 years coupled with significant recent technological advances have led to improved ECMO survival. These new technologies are expanding the potential applications for ECMO in exciting ways, including new patient populations and the ability to make ECMO mobile for both intra- and inter-hospital transport. In this article, we highlight some of the recent technological advances and their impact on the utilization of ECMO in increasingly diverse patient populations.

  6. Clustering of acute respiratory infection hospitalizations in childcare facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Benn, Christine Stabell; Simonsen, Jacob;

    2010-01-01

    To estimate how risk of acute respiratory infection (ARI) hospitalization in children attending childcare facilities with a recently (within 1 month) hospitalized child is affected by gender, age and other characteristics.......To estimate how risk of acute respiratory infection (ARI) hospitalization in children attending childcare facilities with a recently (within 1 month) hospitalized child is affected by gender, age and other characteristics....

  7. Hospital discharge of respiratory-technology-dependent children: role of a dedicated respiratory care discharge coordinator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tearl, Donna K; Cox, Timothy J; Hertzog, James H

    2006-07-01

    Preparation of respiratory-technology-dependent children for hospital discharge presents many challenges. Adequate training and education of parental caregivers, discharge planning, and coordination with the durable-medical-equipment and home-nursing companies must be completed. A process using multiple respiratory therapists (RTs) to achieve this may not be efficient. We evaluated our model, in which a dedicated RT discharge coordinator provides education and coordinates discharge planning of respiratory-technology-dependent pediatric patients. This system provides a single contact for caregivers and outside agencies, a single respiratory-care educator for the caregivers, and a clinical pathway that involves the entire multidisciplinary team. Patient length of stay and customer satisfaction were evaluated before and after implementation of the discharge-coordinator program. Our dedicated-RT-discharge-coordinator model was associated with rapid initiation of frequent family-training sessions. Durable-medical-equipment-company personnel reported that they had increased satisfaction with the quality of training of the family caregivers. The members of the hospital multidisciplinary team had increased satisfaction with the discharge process. Patient length of stay nonsignificantly decreased after the implementation of the discharge-coordinator program. There are several advantages to using a dedicated RT-discharge-coordinator system for home-discharge preparation of respiratory-technology-dependent children.

  8. Competency Index. [Business/Computer Technologies Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This index allows the user to scan the competencies under each title for the 28 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Titles of the 28 units are as follows: employability skills; professionalism; teamwork; professional and ethical standards; economic and business…

  9. Respiratory-cancer clustering associated with localised industrial air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, O L

    1978-02-11

    Between 1968 and 1974 there was a significantly large number of deaths from respiratory cancer among members of a Scottish community living near and downwind from a steel foundry. The air in that area was polluted by metallic particles from the foundry.

  10. A Study of Mathematics Needed for Dental Laboratory Technology, Medical Laboratory Technology, and Respiratory Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Keith J.

    A study was conducted to determine what mathematics skills were needed for Dental Laboratory Technology, Medical Laboratory Technology, and Respiratory Therapy. Data obtained from studies, course outlines, textbooks, and reports were used to construct a 79-item mathematics skill questionnaire. This questionnaire was administered to employers,…

  11. Cold oxygen plasma technology efficiency against different airborne respiratory viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, O; Essere, B; Yver, M; Barthélémy, M; Bouscambert-Duchamp, M; Kurtz, P; VanMechelen, D; Morfin, F; Billaud, G; Ferraris, O; Lina, B; Rosa-Calatrava, M; Moules, V

    2009-06-01

    Respiratory infections caused by viruses are major causes of upper and lower respiratory tract infections. They account for an important mortality and morbidity worldwide. Amongst these viruses, influenza viruses and paramyxoviruses are major pathogens. Their transmission is mainly airborne, by direct transmission through droplets from infected cases. In the context of an influenza pandemic, as well as for the reduction of nosocomial infections, systems that can reduce or control virus transmission will reduce the burden of this disease. It may also be part of the strategy for pandemic mitigation. A new system based on physical decontamination of surface and air has been developed. This process generates cold oxygen plasma (COP) by subjecting air to high-energy deep-UV light. To test its efficiency, we have developed an experimental device to assess for the decontamination of nebulized respiratory viruses. High titer suspensions of influenza virus type A, human parainfluenza virus type 3 and RSV have been tested. Different experimental conditions have been evaluated against these viruses. The use of COP with an internal device allowed the best results against all viruses tested. We recorded a reduction of 6.5, 3.8 and 4 log(10) TCID50/mL of the titre of the hPIV-3, RSV and influenza virus A (H5N2) suspensions. The COP technology is an efficient and innovative strategy to control airborne virus dissemination. It could successfully control nosocomial diffusion of respiratory viruses in hospital setting, and could be useful for the reduction of influenza transmission in the various consultation settings implemented for the management of cases during a pandemic.

  12. Engineering, Trade, and Technical Cluster. Task Analyses. Drafting and Design Technology, Precision Machining Technology, Electronics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum and Resource Center.

    Developed in Virginia, this publication contains task analysis guides to support selected tech prep programs that prepare students for careers in the engineering, trade, and technical cluster. Three occupations are profiled: drafting and design technology, precision machining technology, and electronics technology. Each guide contains the…

  13. Integrating Parallelizing Compilation Technologies for SMP Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Bing Feng; Li Chen; Yi-Ran Wang; Xiao-Mi An; Lin Ma; Chun-Lei Sang; Zhao-Qing Zhang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a source to source parallelizing complier system, AutoPar, is presentd. The system transforms FORTRAN programs to multi-level hybrid MPI/OpenMP parallel programs. Integrated parallel optimizing technologies are utilized extensively to derive an effective program decomposition in the whole program scope. Other features such as synchronization optimization and communication optimization improve the performance scalability of the generated parallel programs, from both intra-node and inter-node. The system makes great effort to boost automation of parallelization.Profiling feedback is used in performance estimation which is the basis of automatic program decomposition. Performance results for eight benchmarks in NPB1.0 from NAS on an SMP cluster are given, and the speedup is desirable. It is noticeable that in the experiment, at most one data distribution directive and a reduction directive are inserted by the user in BT/SP/LU. The compiler is based on ORC, Open Research Compiler. ORC is a powerful compiler infrastructure, with such features as robustness, flexibility and efficiency. Strong analysis capability and well-defined infrastructure of ORC make the system implementation quite fast.

  14. The multitude of iron-sulfur clusters in respiratory complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnandt, Emmanuel; Dörner, Katerina; Strampraad, Marc F J; de Vries, Simon; Friedrich, Thorsten

    2016-08-01

    Respiratory complex I couples the electron transfer from NADH to ubiquinone with the translocation of protons across the membrane. Complex I contains one non-covalently bound flavin mononucleotide and, depending on the species, up to ten iron-sulfur (Fe/S) clusters as cofactors. The reason for the presence of the multitude of Fe/S clusters in complex I remained enigmatic for a long time. The question was partly answered by investigations on the evolution of the complex revealing the stepwise construction of the electron transfer domain from several modules. Extension of the ancestral to the modern electron input domain was associated with the acquisition of several Fe/S-proteins. The X-ray structure of the complex showed that the NADH oxidation-site is connected with the quinone-reduction site by a chain of seven Fe/S-clusters. Fast enzyme kinetics revealed that this chain of Fe/S-clusters is used to regulate electron-tunneling rates within the complex. A possible function of the off-pathway cluster N1a is discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi.

  15. Using Cluster Analysis for Data Mining in Educational Technology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonenko, Pavlo D.; Toy, Serkan; Niederhauser, Dale S.

    2012-01-01

    Cluster analysis is a group of statistical methods that has great potential for analyzing the vast amounts of web server-log data to understand student learning from hyperlinked information resources. In this methodological paper we provide an introduction to cluster analysis for educational technology researchers and illustrate its use through…

  16. FORMATION OF BRANCH TECHNOLOGY CLUSTERS IN INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei S. Kabanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A problem of cluster analysis as a universal method of interpreting the empirical research is considered in the article. Basic results of analysis of technological development of Russian industry are represented. Quantitative study of the existence of industrial clusters and practical recommendations to improve its internal economic characteristics are given.

  17. Using Cluster Analysis for Data Mining in Educational Technology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonenko, Pavlo D.; Toy, Serkan; Niederhauser, Dale S.

    2012-01-01

    Cluster analysis is a group of statistical methods that has great potential for analyzing the vast amounts of web server-log data to understand student learning from hyperlinked information resources. In this methodological paper we provide an introduction to cluster analysis for educational technology researchers and illustrate its use through…

  18. Technology Clusters Exploration for Patent Portfolio through Patent Abstract Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabjo Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores technology clusters through patent analysis. The aim of exploring technology clusters is to grasp competitors’ levels of sustainable research and development (R&D and establish a sustainable strategy for entering an industry. To achieve this, we first grouped the patent documents with similar technologies by applying affinity propagation (AP clustering, which is effective while grouping large amounts of data. Next, in order to define the technology clusters, we adopted the term frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF weight, which lists the terms in order of importance. We collected the patent data of Korean electric car companies from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO to verify our proposed methodology. As a result, our proposed methodology presents more detailed information on the Korean electric car industry than previous studies.

  19. Oriented cluster perforating technology and its application in horizontal wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huabin Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An oriented cluster perforating technology, which integrates both advantages of cluster and oriented perforating, will help solve a series of technical complexities in horizontal well drilling. For realizing its better application in oil and gas development, a series of technologies were developed including perforator self-weight eccentricity, matching of the electronic selective module codes with the surface program control, axial centralized contact signal transmission, and post-perforation intercluster sealing insulation. In this way, the following functions could be realized, such as cable-transmission horizontal well perforator self-weight orientation, dynamic signal transmission, reliable addressing & selective perforation and post-perforation intercluster sealing. The combined perforation and bridge plug or the multi-cluster perforation can be fulfilled in one trip of perforation string. As a result, the horizontal-well oriented cluster perforating technology based on cable conveying was developed. This technology was successfully applied in unconventional gas reservoir exploitation, such as shale gas and coalbed methane, with accurate orientation, reliable selective perforation and satisfactory inter-cluster sealing. The horizontal-well oriented cluster perforating technology benefits the orientation of horizontal well drilling with a definite target and direction, which provides a powerful support for the subsequent reservoir stimulation. It also promotes the fracturing fluid to sweep the principal pay zones to the maximum extent. Moreover, it is conductive to the formation of complex fracture networks in the reservoirs, making quality and efficient development of unconventional gas reservoirs possible.

  20. Educational technology integration and distance learning in respiratory care: practices and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Keith B; Johns, Carol L

    2007-11-01

    Educational technologies have had an important role in respiratory care. Distance learning via postal correspondence has been used extensively in respiratory care, and Internet-based distance learning is now used in the training of respiratory therapists (RTs), clinical continuing education, and in baccalaureate degree and higher programs for RTs and educators. To describe the current scope of respiratory care educational technology integration, including distance learning. To investigate online research potential in respiratory care. A probabilistic online survey of United States respiratory care program directors was conducted on educational technology practices and attitudes, including distance learning. A parallel exploratory study of United States respiratory care managers was conducted. One-hundred seventy-seven (53%) program directors participated. One-hundred twenty-eight respiratory care managers participated. For instructional purposes, the respiratory care programs heavily use office-productivity software, the Internet, e-mail, and commercial respiratory care content-based computer-based instruction. The programs use, or would use, online resources provided by text publishers, but there is a paucity. Many program directors reported that their faculty use personal digital assistants (PDAs), often in instructional roles. 74.6% of the programs offer no fully online courses, but 61.0% reported at least one course delivered partially online. The managers considered continuing education via online technologies appropriate, but one third reported that they have not/will not hire RTs trained via distance learning. Neither group considered fully online courses a good match for RT training, nor did they consider training via distance learning of comparable quality to on-campus programs. Both groups rated baccalaureate and higher degrees via distance learning higher if the program included face-to-face instruction. Online distance-learning participatory experience

  1. The Hyperion Project: Partnership for an Advaned Technology Cluster Testbed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seager, M; Leininger, M

    2008-04-28

    The Hyperion project offers a unique opportunity to participate in a community-driven testing and development resource at a scale beyond what can be accomplished by one entity alone. Hyperion is a new strategic technology partnership intended to support the member-driven development and testing at scale. This partnership will allow commodity clusters to scale up to meet the growing demands of customers multi-core petascale simulation environments. Hyperion will tightly couple together the outstanding research and development capabilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory with leading technology companies, including Cisco, Data Direct Networks, Dell, Intel, LSI, Mellanox, Qlogic, RedHat, SuperMicro and Sun. The end goal of this project is to revolutionize cluster computing in fundamental ways by providing the critical software and hardware components for a highly scalable simulation environment. This environment will include support for high performance networking, parallel file systems, operating system, and cluster management. This goal will be achieved by building a scalable technology cluster testbed that will be fully dedicated to the partners and provide: (1) A scalable development testing and benchmarking environment for critical enabling Linux cluster technologies; (2) An evaluation testbed for new hardware and software technologies; and (3) A vehicle for forming long term collaborations.

  2. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in a paediatric cluster in Singapore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsou, Ian Y.; Kaw, Gregory J.; Chee, Thomas S. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 11 Jalan Tan Tock Seng, 308433, Singapore (Singapore); Loh, Lik Eng; Chan, Irene [Department of Paediatric Medicine, KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, 100 Bukit Timah Road, 229899, Singapore (Singapore)

    2004-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a major infectious disease pandemic that occurred in early 2003, and one of the diagnostic criteria is the presence of chest radiographic findings. To describe the radiographic features of SARS in a cluster of affected children. The chest radiographs of four related children ranging in age from 18 months to 9 years diagnosed as having SARS were reviewed for the presence of air-space shadowing, air bronchograms, peribronchial thickening, interstitial disease, pleural effusion, pneumothorax, hilar lymphadenopathy and mediastinal widening. Ill-defined air-space shadowing was the common finding in all the children. The distribution was unifocal or multifocal. No other findings were seen on the radiographs. None of the children developed radiographic findings consistent with acute respiratory distress syndrome. All four children showed significant resolution of the radiographic findings 4-6 days after the initial radiograph. Early recognition of these features is important in implementing isolation and containment measures to prevent the spread of infection. SARS in children appears to manifest as a milder form of the disease as compared to adults. (orig.)

  3. Research on mechanism of technological diffusion in industry cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Qin; Cheng Yong

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of the paper is to explain the reason and mechanism of technological diffusion in industry cluster. Following the idea showed in Zhou Qin's model, we further develop the theoretical analysis that how the technological gap between strong enterprises and weak enterprises determines the level and speed of technological diffusion. The bigger the technological disparity between strong enterprise and weak enterprise is, the quicker technology spreads and knowledge overflows; on the contrary, the smaller the technological disparity between strong enterprise and weak enterprise is, the slower technology spread and knowledge overflows. Therefore, this kind of mechanism is helpful for enterprises in an industry cluster to learn from each other and to enable each enterprise close to the "the average level" of technology or knowledge. As a result, we think that, there exists a close relation between technological gap and technological diffusion. The paper puts forward the way of knowledge overflows of the strong enterprises: imitation-demonstration effect, the longitudinal connection in the industrial chain, the labor force flow and transfer, informal exchange.

  4. 2009 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Respiratory Care Technology. (Program CIP: 51.0908 - Respiratory Care Practitioner)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lori; Brooks, Anthony; Miller, Shirley; Newell, Jim; Prince, Beverly; Smith, Jacqueline; Smith, Lynn; Ware, Chris

    2009-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  5. Linux Clustering Technology%LINUX集群技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应吉康; 赵书钦

    2001-01-01

    本文介绍了LINUX集群系统的主要特性及其相关的技术 。特别以BEOWULF,LVS和FOS系统为例,介绍了在构造高可用,高流量服务器系统,和高速 计算系统方面的技术。%This paper introduces the main performances of Linux Cluster S ystem and its related technologies. Particularly, it illustrates technologies of build ing high availability servers and high speed computer systems by examples of Beowulf System, Linux Virtual Server and Fail Over System.

  6. GOLD CLUSTER LABELS AND RELATED TECHNOLOGIES IN MOLECULAR MORPHOLOGY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAINFELD,J.F.; POWELL,R.D.

    2004-02-04

    stabilization, and the total size of the label is therefore significantly smaller. Since the clusters considered in this chapter are generally less than 3 nm in diameter, this allows the preparation of probes that are much smaller than conventional immunocolloids, and cluster labeling can take advantage of the higher resolution and penetration available with smaller conjugates. Most importantly, while colloidal gold is adsorbed to its conjugate probe, clusters are conjugated by chemically specific covalent cross-linking. Therefore, the range of possible conjugate targeting agents includes any probe containing an appropriate reactive group. Clusters conjugates have been prepared with a wide variety of molecules that do not form colloidal gold conjugates, including lipids, oligonucleotides, peptides, and other small molecules. In addition to the development of gold cluster labeling technology, this chapter will also review new developments in the related metallographic, or metal deposition, methods. This includes gold enhancement, in which gold rather than silver is selectively deposited onto gold particles. We will also describe some results obtained using another novel metallographic procedure, enzyme metallography, in which metal is directly deposited from solution by an enzymatic reaction. Because the original, and most widespread, use of metal cluster labels is in electron microscopy, many of the light microscopy methods described were developed as extensions of, or complements to electron microscopy methods, and demonstrate their greatest advantages when used with electron microscopy; therefore reference will also be made to the electron microscope methods used in the same studies, and the unique information that may be obtained from the correlation of both methods.

  7. CELL FORMATION IN GROUP TECHNOLOGY: A SIMILARITY ORDER CLUSTERING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey C. Onwubolu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Grouping parts into families which can be produced by a cluster of machine cells is the cornerstone of cellular manufacturing, which in turn is the building block for flexible manufacturing systems. Cellular manufacturing is a group technology (GT concept that has recently attracted the attention of manufacturing firms operating under jobshop environment to consider redesigning their manufacturing systems so as to take advantage of increased throughput, reduction in work-in-progress, set-up time, and lead times; leading to product quality and customer satisfaction. The paper presents a generalised approach for machine cell formation from a jobshop using similarity order clustering technique for preliminary cell grouping and considering machine utilisation for the design of nonintergrouping material handling using the single-pass heuristic. The work addresses the shortcomings of cellular manufacturing systems design and implementations which ignore machine utilisations, group sizes and intergroup moves.

  8. Technology Provisioning in the Mobile Industry: a Strategic Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ghezzi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article develops a strategic clustering for Mobile Middleware Technology Providers (MMTPs, shedding light on the business models and the strategic positioning currently adopted by this actor typology. The paper combines a literature review and a multiple case study approach – 24 in‐depth cases based on 72 semi‐ structured interviews were performed – to deal with a significant and relatively new issue, i.e., the role of technology providers in the mobile value network. Through the creation of a system of strategic clustering matrices, four key business models currently adopted by MMTPs – “Pure Play”, “Full Asset”, “Third Parties Relationship‐focused” and “Platform and Content Management” – are identified, and insightful conclusions on the impact of this actor’s newly emerging influence on the market’s competitive dynamics are drawn. The framework created supports a wide set of mobile communications stakeholders – both incumbent and new entrants – in their decision making and strategy analysis process.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSPORT SUBSYSTEM STREAMING DATA REPLICATION CLUSTER IN CORBA-SYSTEM WITH ZEROMQ TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Kozlov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the peculiarities of distributed cluster system creation with streaming data replication. Ways of replication cluster implementation in CORBA-systems with ZeroMq technology are presented. Major advantages of ZeroMQ technology over similar technologies are considered in this type distributed systems creation.

  10. Innovation performance and clusters : a dynamic capability perspective on regional technology clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röttmer, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    This research provides a novel, empirically tested, actionable theory of cluster innovativeness. Cluster innovativeness has for long been subject of research and resulting policy efforts. The cluster's endowment with assets, such as specialized labor, firms, research institutes, existing regional

  11. Innovation performance and clusters : a dynamic capability perspective on regional technology clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röttmer, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    This research provides a novel, empirically tested, actionable theory of cluster innovativeness. Cluster innovativeness has for long been subject of research and resulting policy efforts. The cluster's endowment with assets, such as specialized labor, firms, research institutes, existing regional ne

  12. Sources of inter-firm heterogeneity in accessing knowledge-creation benefits within technology clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arikan, A.; Knoben, J.

    2014-01-01

    We build on recent literature to highlight the distinction between knowledge-diffusion and knowledge-creation benefits of technology clustering and argue that firms located in technology clusters will have differential access to the latter. To explain the antecedents of such differential access, we

  13. NASA Wearable Technology CLUSTER 2013-2014 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Cory; Dunne, Lucy; Zeagler, Clint; Martin, Tom; Pailes-Friedman, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Wearable technology has the potential to revolutionize the way humans interact with one another, with information, and with the electronic systems that surround them. This change can already be seen in the dramatic increase in the availability and use of wearable health and activity monitors. These devices continuously monitor the wearer using on-­-body sensors and wireless communication. They provide feedback that can be used to improve physical health and performance. Smart watches and head mounted displays are also receiving a great deal of commercial attention, providing immediate access to information via graphical displays, as well as additional sensing features. For the purposes of the Wearable Technology CLUSTER, wearable technology is broadly defined as any electronic sensing, human interfaces, computing, or communication that is mounted on the body. Current commercially available wearable devices primarily house electronics in rigid packaging to provide protection from flexing, moisture, and other contaminants. NASA mentors are interested in this approach, but are also interested in direct integration of electronics into clothing to enable more comfortable systems. For human spaceflight, wearable technology holds a great deal of promise for significantly improving safety, efficiency, autonomy, and research capacity for the crew in space and support personnel on the ground. Specific capabilities of interest include: Continuous biomedical monitoring for research and detection of health problems. Environmental monitoring for individual exposure assessments and alarms. Activity monitoring for responsive robotics and environments. Multi-modal caution and warning using tactile, auditory, and visual alarms. Wireless, hands-free, on-demand voice communication. Mobile, on-demand access to space vehicle and robotic displays and controls. Many technical challenges must be overcome to realize these wearable technology applications. For example, to make a wearable

  14. Validation of Software Gating: A Practical Technology for Respiratory Motion Correction in PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesner, Adam Leon; Chung, Jonathan Hero; Lind, Kimberly Erin; Kwak, Jennifer Jihyang; Lynch, David; Burckhardt, Darrell; Koo, Phillip Jahhyung

    2016-10-01

    Purpose To assess the performance of hardware- and software-gating technologies in terms of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of respiratory motion in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Materials and Methods Between 2010 and 2013, 219 fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET examinations were performed in 116 patients for assessment of pulmonary nodules. All patients provided informed consent in this institutional review board-approved study. Acquisitions were reconstructed as respiratory-gated images by using hardware-derived respiratory triggers and software-derived signal (via an automated postprocessing method). Asymmetry was evaluated in the joint distribution of reader preference, and linear mixed models were used to evaluate differences in outcomes according to gating type. Results In blind reviews of reconstructed gated images, software was selected as superior 16.9% of the time (111 of 657 image sets; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 14.0%, 19.8%), and hardware was selected as superior 6.2% of the time (41 of 657 image sets; 95% CI: 4.4%, 8.1%). Of the image sets, 76.9% (505 of 657; 95% CI: 73.6%, 80.1%) were judged as having indistinguishable motion quality. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that the two gating strategies exhibited similar performance, and the performance of both was significantly different from that of nongated images. The mean increase ± standard deviation in lesion maximum standardized uptake value was 42.2% ± 38.9 between nongated and software-gated images, and lesion full width at half maximum values decreased by 9.9% ± 9.6. Conclusion Compared with vendor-supplied respiratory-gating hardware methods, software gating performed favorably, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Fully automated gating is a feasible approach to motion correction of PET images. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  15. The Respiratory Arsenite Oxidase: Structure and the Role of Residues Surrounding the Rieske Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warelow, Thomas P.; Oke, Muse; Schoepp-Cothenet, Barbara; Dahl, Jan U.; Bruselat, Nicole; Sivalingam, Ganesh N.; Leimkühler, Silke; Thalassinos, Konstantinos; Kappler, Ulrike; Naismith, James H.; Santini, Joanne M.

    2013-01-01

    The arsenite oxidase (Aio) from the facultative autotrophic Alphaproteobacterium Rhizobium sp. NT-26 is a bioenergetic enzyme involved in the oxidation of arsenite to arsenate. The enzyme from the distantly related heterotroph, Alcaligenes faecalis, which is thought to oxidise arsenite for detoxification, consists of a large α subunit (AioA) with bis-molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide at its active site and a 3Fe-4S cluster, and a small β subunit (AioB) which contains a Rieske 2Fe-2S cluster. The successful heterologous expression of the NT-26 Aio in Escherichia coli has resulted in the solution of its crystal structure. The NT-26 Aio, a heterotetramer, shares high overall similarity to the heterodimeric arsenite oxidase from A. faecalis but there are striking differences in the structure surrounding the Rieske 2Fe-2S cluster which we demonstrate explains the difference in the observed redox potentials (+225 mV vs. +130/160 mV, respectively). A combination of site-directed mutagenesis and electron paramagnetic resonance was used to explore the differences observed in the structure and redox properties of the Rieske cluster. In the NT-26 AioB the substitution of a serine (S126 in NT-26) for a threonine as in the A. faecalis AioB explains a −20 mV decrease in redox potential. The disulphide bridge in the A. faecalis AioB which is conserved in other betaproteobacterial AioB subunits and the Rieske subunit of the cytochrome bc1 complex is absent in the NT-26 AioB subunit. The introduction of a disulphide bridge had no effect on Aio activity or protein stability but resulted in a decrease in the redox potential of the cluster. These results are in conflict with previous data on the betaproteobacterial AioB subunit and the Rieske of the bc1 complex where removal of the disulphide bridge had no effect on the redox potential of the former but a decrease in cluster stability was observed in the latter. PMID:24023621

  16. The respiratory arsenite oxidase: structure and the role of residues surrounding the rieske cluster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P Warelow

    Full Text Available The arsenite oxidase (Aio from the facultative autotrophic Alphaproteobacterium Rhizobium sp. NT-26 is a bioenergetic enzyme involved in the oxidation of arsenite to arsenate. The enzyme from the distantly related heterotroph, Alcaligenes faecalis, which is thought to oxidise arsenite for detoxification, consists of a large α subunit (AioA with bis-molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide at its active site and a 3Fe-4S cluster, and a small β subunit (AioB which contains a Rieske 2Fe-2S cluster. The successful heterologous expression of the NT-26 Aio in Escherichia coli has resulted in the solution of its crystal structure. The NT-26 Aio, a heterotetramer, shares high overall similarity to the heterodimeric arsenite oxidase from A. faecalis but there are striking differences in the structure surrounding the Rieske 2Fe-2S cluster which we demonstrate explains the difference in the observed redox potentials (+225 mV vs. +130/160 mV, respectively. A combination of site-directed mutagenesis and electron paramagnetic resonance was used to explore the differences observed in the structure and redox properties of the Rieske cluster. In the NT-26 AioB the substitution of a serine (S126 in NT-26 for a threonine as in the A. faecalis AioB explains a -20 mV decrease in redox potential. The disulphide bridge in the A. faecalis AioB which is conserved in other betaproteobacterial AioB subunits and the Rieske subunit of the cytochrome bc 1 complex is absent in the NT-26 AioB subunit. The introduction of a disulphide bridge had no effect on Aio activity or protein stability but resulted in a decrease in the redox potential of the cluster. These results are in conflict with previous data on the betaproteobacterial AioB subunit and the Rieske of the bc 1 complex where removal of the disulphide bridge had no effect on the redox potential of the former but a decrease in cluster stability was observed in the latter.

  17. The Respiratory Protection Effectiveness Clinical Trial (ResPECT): a cluster-randomized comparison of respirator and medical mask effectiveness against respiratory infections in healthcare personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Radonovich, Jr, Lewis J; Bessesen, Mary T; Cummings, Derek A; Eagan, Aaron; Gaydos, Charlotte; Gibert, Cynthia; Gorse, Geoffrey J; Nyquist, Ann-Christine; Reich, Nicholas G; Rodrigues-Barradas, Maria; Savor-Price, Connie; Shaffer, Ronald E; Simberkoff, Michael S; Perl, Trish M

    2016-01-01

    Although N95 filtering facepiece respirators and medical masks are commonly used for protection against respiratory infections in healthcare settings, more clinical evidence is needed to understand...

  18. EDITORIAL: Special cluster on Dielectrics for Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, R.; Youngs, I.; Stevens, G.

    2004-02-01

    applications). The paper by Flores-Rodriguez and Markz presents a study on one aspect of this discipline. Presentations on meta- and structured materials at the conference are represented here in two papers: those of Shamonina and Solymar and of Zhou, Chan and Sheng, while a study in the closely allied area of band-gap materials is presented in the paper by Schuster and Klein. The final paper from the conference in this special cluster is concerned with an end-use application: the use of tuneable dielectric resonators in base-stations for future mobile telecoms networks. The paper by Krupka et al describes a magnetic approach to such tuning. In the longer term we sincerely hope that both the conference and these papers will prove to have made a significant contribution to the development and uses of dielectrics, and their metamaterial derivatives, in advanced technological applications. It is noteworthy that as a result of the success of this conference, the 2004 annual conference will be on the subject of `Dielectrics at Meso- and Nano-Scales'. We would like to take this opportunity to express our sincere thanks to all who participated in the conference for their contributions and we would like to express our particular thanks to the authors of the papers in this special cluster of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics.

  19. On purposefulness of application of physical culture-health related technology for prophylaxis of students’ respiratory system disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondakov V.L.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To give scientific foundation and experimental proof of physical culture-health related technology for prophylaxis of respiratory system disorders. Material: in the research students: girls (n= 43 and boys (n=40 participated. In process of academic physical culture classes students practices: dozed health walks as warming up, respiratory exercises by methodic of A.N. Strelnikova and G. Childers (which were used as main corrective mean of respiratory system’s functional state, health swimming (for motor functioning intensification outdoor games (as mean of active leisure. Results: The conducted research witness about general positive influence of the worked out technology of disorders’ prophylaxis on students’ somatic health. The technology was constructed on the base of synthesis of the most effective means of health related physical culture. In its basis we put generalized data about their impact. Main characteristic of this technology is its orientation on definite health improvement tasks in compliance with peculiarities of trainees’ contingent. The technology permits to present its content and orientation as integral mean of strengthening of organism’s functional potentials as well as ensuring of high effectiveness of students’ educational process. It permits to significantly reduce impacts of respiratory system’s disorders. Conclusions: The worked out technology permits to present its content and orientation as integral mean of strengthening of organism’s functional potentials.

  20. Next Generation Respiratory Viral Vaccine System: Advanced and Emerging Bioengineered Human Lung Epithelia Model (HLEM) Organoid Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.; Schneider, Sandra L.; MacIntosh, Victor; Gibbons, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections, including pneumonia and influenza, are the S t" leading cause of United States and worldwide deaths. Newly emerging pathogens signaled the need for an advanced generation of vaccine technology.. Human bronchial-tracheal epithelial tissue was bioengineered to detect, identify, host and study the pathogenesis of acute respiratory viral disease. The 3-dimensional (3D) human lung epithelio-mesechymal tissue-like assemblies (HLEM TLAs) share characteristics with human respiratory epithelium: tight junctions, desmosomes, microvilli, functional markers villin, keratins and production of tissue mucin. Respiratory Syntial Virus (RSV) studies demonstrate viral growth kinetics and membrane bound glycoproteins up to day 20 post infection in the human lung-orgainoid infected cell system. Peak replication of RSV occurred on day 10 at 7 log10 particles forming units per ml/day. HLEM is an advanced virus vaccine model and biosentinel system for emergent viral infectious diseases to support DoD global surveillance and military readiness.

  1. THE TRANSFER OF KNOWLEDGE IN TECHNOLOGICAL CROSS‐BORDER INDUSTRY CLUSTER – CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna KUROWSKA‐PYSZ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the problem of creation and development of business, technology clusters, aimed at developing knowledge base for cross‐border environment. The discussed example concerns Polish‐Slovak cluster, focused on research of innovative methods for monitoring the safety of structure using fiber Bragg grating sensors.

  2. State-of-the-Art Sensor Technology in Spain: Invasive and Non-Invasive Techniques for Monitoring Respiratory Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Domingo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The interest in measuring physiological parameters (especially arterial blood gases has grown progressively in parallel to the development of new technologies. Physiological parameters were first measured invasively and at discrete time points; however, it was clearly desirable to measure them continuously and non-invasively. The development of intensive care units promoted the use of ventilators via oral intubation ventilators via oral intubation and mechanical respiratory variables were progressively studied. Later, the knowledge gained in the hospital was applied to out-of-hospital management. In the present paper we review the invasive and non-invasive techniques for monitoring respiratory variables.

  3. Familial Clustering of Unexplained Transient Respiratory Distress in 12 Newborns from Three Unrelated Families Suggests an Autosomal-Recessive Inheritance

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    We report on 12 near-term babies from three families in which an unexplained transient respiratory distress was observed. No known risk factor was present in any family and no sequelae were recorded at follow-up. The most common causes of respiratory distress at birth are Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome (NRD) and Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn (TTN), and their cumulative incidence is estimated to be about 2%. Genetic factors have been identified in NRD (surfactant genes) or suggest...

  4. Familial clustering of unexplained transient respiratory distress in 12 newborns from three unrelated families suggests an autosomal-recessive inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guala, Andrea; Carrera, Paola; Pastore, Guido; Somaschini, Marco; Ancora, Gina; Faldella, Giacomo; De Filippi, Paolo; Ferrero, Federica; Guarino, Roberta; Danesino, Cesare

    2007-09-28

    We report on 12 near-term babies from three families in which an unexplained transient respiratory distress was observed. No known risk factor was present in any family and no sequelae were recorded at follow-up. The most common causes of respiratory distress at birth are Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome (NRD) and Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn (TTN), and their cumulative incidence is estimated to be about 2%. Genetic factors have been identified in NRD (surfactant genes) or suggested for TTN (genes affecting lung liquid clearance). Survivors from NRD may develop clinically relevant sequelae, while TTN does not cause any problem later in life. Our cases do not immediately fit NRD or TTN, while familial recurrence suggests the existence of a previously unreported subgroup on patients with respiratory distress for which autosomal-recessive inheritance is likely.

  5. Familial Clustering of Unexplained Transient Respiratory Distress in 12 Newborns from Three Unrelated Families Suggests an Autosomal-Recessive Inheritance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Guala

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on 12 near-term babies from three families in which an unexplained transient respiratory distress was observed. No known risk factor was present in any family and no sequelae were recorded at follow-up. The most common causes of respiratory distress at birth are Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome (NRD and Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn (TTN, and their cumulative incidence is estimated to be about 2%. Genetic factors have been identified in NRD (surfactant genes or suggested for TTN (genes affecting lung liquid clearance. Survivors from NRD may develop clinically relevant sequelae, while TTN does not cause any problem later in life. Our cases do not immediately fit NRD or TTN, while familial recurrence suggests the existence of a previously unreported subgroup on patients with respiratory distress for which autosomal-recessive inheritance is likely.

  6. A study on the clustering technology of underwater isomorphic sensor networks based on energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Wang, Liming; Han, Yan; Liu, Bin; Wang, Jian; Su, Xinyan

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, there is a greater need for energy efficient and stable underwater sensor networks (UWSNs). Underwater sensors usually do not have enough power, so the goal of underwater sensor networks is to make the network have a long lifetime. An underwater heterogeneous sensor network (UWHSN) is one way to cluster the sensors, and the application of UWHSNs is simple and fast, but robots, lifetime and energy-partition are all drawbacks of UWHSNs. In this paper we propose the underwater isomorphic sensor network (UWISN) clustering technology. By analyzing the characteristics of UWISNs, we determine that an UWISN has strong expansibility, mobility, energy-efficiency and long lifetime. An UWISN adopts normal sensor nodes to be cluster heads, and these cluster heads communicate with each other. This paper seeks the optimal number of clusters and uses FCM to elect cluster heads and establish the network. In addition, an idea of real cluster heads and the method to elect them have been proposed. Finally, the simulation results show that the solution is effective and UWISNs can improve the energy consumption of an UWSN.

  7. The effect of using an interactive booklet on childhood respiratory tract infections in consultations: Study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuttall Jacqueline

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory tract infections in children result in more primary care consultations than any other acute condition, and are the most common reason for prescribing antibiotics (which are largely unnecessary. About a fifth of children consult again for the same illness episode. Providing parents with written information on respiratory tract infections may result in a reduction in re-consultation rates and antibiotic prescribing for these illnesses. Asking clinicians to provide and discuss the information during the consultation may enhance effectiveness. This paper outlines the protocol for a study designed to evaluate the use of a booklet on respiratory tract infections in children within primary care consultations. Methods/Design This will be a cluster randomised controlled trial. General practices will be randomised to provide parents consulting because their child has an acute respiratory tract infection with either an interactive booklet, or usual care. The booklet provides information on the expected duration of their child's illness, the likely benefits of various treatment options, signs and symptoms that should prompt re-consultation, and symptomatic treatment advice. It has been designed for use within the consultation and aims to enhance communication through the use of specific prompts. Clinicians randomised to using the interactive booklet will receive online training in its use. Outcomes will be assessed via a telephone interview with the parent two weeks after first consulting. The primary outcome will be the proportion of children who re-consult for the same illness episode. Secondary outcomes include: antibiotic use, parental satisfaction and enablement, and illness costs. Consultation rates for respiratory tract infections for the subsequent year will be assessed by a review of practice notes. Discussion Previous studies in adults and children have shown that educational interventions can result in reductions

  8. Microfluidic cell isolation technology for drug testing of single tumor cells and their clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bithi, Swastika S.; Vanapalli, Siva A.

    2017-01-01

    Drug assays with patient-derived cells such as circulating tumor cells requires manipulating small sample volumes without loss of rare disease-causing cells. Here, we report an effective technology for isolating and analyzing individual tumor cells and their clusters from minute sample volumes using an optimized microfluidic device integrated with pipettes. The method involves using hand pipetting to create an array of cell-laden nanoliter-sized droplets immobilized in a microfluidic device without loss of tumor cells during the pipetting process. Using this technology, we demonstrate single-cell analysis of tumor cell response to the chemotherapy drug doxorubicin. We find that even though individual tumor cells display diverse uptake profiles of the drug, the onset of apoptosis is determined by accumulation of a critical intracellular concentration of doxorubicin. Experiments with clusters of tumor cells compartmentalized in microfluidic drops reveal that cells within a cluster have higher viability than their single-cell counterparts when exposed to doxorubicin. This result suggests that circulating tumor cell clusters might be able to better survive chemotherapy drug treatment. Our technology is a promising tool for understanding tumor cell-drug interactions in patient-derived samples including rare cells. PMID:28150812

  9. Sleep technologists educational needs assessment: a survey of polysomnography, electroneurodiagnostic technology, and respiratory therapy education program directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Mary Ellen; Vaughn, Bradley V

    2013-10-15

    In this study, we assessed the community and educational needs for sleep technologists by surveying program directors of nationally accredited polysomnography, electroneurodiagnostic technology, and respiratory care educational programs. Currently, little is known about our educational capacity and the need for advanced degrees for sleep medicine technical support. A questionnaire was developed about current and future community and educational needs for sleep technologists. The questionnaire was sent to directors of CAAHEP-accredited polysomnography and electroneurodiagnostic technology programs (associate degree and certificate programs), and directors of CoARC-accredited respiratory therapy associate degree and bachelor degree programs (n = 358). Qualitative and quantitative data were collected via an internet survey tool. Data analysis was conducted with the IBM SPSS statistical package and included calculating means and standard deviations of the frequency of responses. Qualitative data was analyzed and classified based on emerging themes. One hundred seven of 408 program directors completed the survey. Seventy-four percent agreed that demand for qualified sleep technologists will increase, yet 50% of those surveyed believe there are not enough educational programs to meet the demand. Seventy-eight percent of those surveyed agreed that the educational requirements for sleep technologists will soon increase; 79% of those surveyed believe sleep centers have a need for technologists with advanced training or specialization. Our study shows educators of associate and certificate degree programs believe there is a need for a bachelor's degree in sleep science and technology.

  10. Evaluation in Component Technology Small Scale Food Industry Cluster in West Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunarif Taib

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of small-scale food industry cluster is influenced by the technology component. Because it required accurate information about the importance of existing technology components. This study aims to evaluate the technology components that are known several important factors that need to be improved so that clusters of small-scale food industries can thrive. This research using the program Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP to determine the level of importance of each variable based on its value. The survey results revealed that each technology component has a value as follows: technoware component of the operation of the order is a factor (0.2889, quality of raw materials (0.2770, improvement of production efficiency (0.1894, the fulfillment of production capacity (0.1717, technology adoption (0.0489 and resource technologies (0.0242. Components of the order value is organoware environmental management factor (0.6267, marketing management (0.2797 and production management (0.0936. Components infoware order value is a factor of production records (0.6267, the promotion of products (0.2797 and documentation effort (0.0936. Humanware component order is the motivation factor (0.5022, the trust fellow members (0.1883, knowledge manager (0.1854, the management skills (0.0817 and innovation (0, 0425.

  11. Malfunctioning of the Iron–Sulfur Cluster Assembly Machinery in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Produces Oxidative Stress via an Iron-Dependent Mechanism, Causing Dysfunction in Respiratory Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Mauricio; Pérez-Gallardo, Rocío V.; Sánchez, Luis A.; Díaz-Pérez, Alma L.; Cortés-Rojo, Christian; Meza Carmen, Victor; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Lara-Romero, Javier; Jiménez-Sandoval, Sergio; Rodríguez, Francisco; Rodríguez-Zavala, José S.; Campos-García, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Biogenesis and recycling of iron–sulfur (Fe–S) clusters play important roles in the iron homeostasis mechanisms involved in mitochondrial function. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Fe–S clusters are assembled into apoproteins by the iron–sulfur cluster machinery (ISC). The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of ISC gene deletion and consequent iron release under oxidative stress conditions on mitochondrial functionality in S. cerevisiae. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, caused by H2O2, menadione, or ethanol, was associated with a loss of iron homeostasis and exacerbated by ISC system dysfunction. ISC mutants showed increased free Fe2+ content, exacerbated by ROS-inducers, causing an increase in ROS, which was decreased by the addition of an iron chelator. Our study suggests that the increment in free Fe2+ associated with ROS generation may have originated from mitochondria, probably Fe–S cluster proteins, under both normal and oxidative stress conditions, suggesting that Fe–S cluster anabolism is affected. Raman spectroscopy analysis and immunoblotting indicated that in mitochondria from SSQ1 and ISA1 mutants, the content of [Fe–S] centers was decreased, as was formation of Rieske protein-dependent supercomplex III2IV2, but this was not observed in the iron-deficient ATX1 and MRS4 mutants. In addition, the activity of complexes II and IV from the electron transport chain (ETC) was impaired or totally abolished in SSQ1 and ISA1 mutants. These results confirm that the ISC system plays important roles in iron homeostasis, ROS stress, and in assembly of supercomplexes III2IV2 and III2IV1, thus affecting the functionality of the respiratory chain. PMID:25356756

  12. Stepwise threshold clustering: a new method for genotyping MHC loci using next-generation sequencing technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E Stutz

    Full Text Available Genes of the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex (MHC are of great interest to biologists because of their important role in immunity and disease, and their extremely high levels of genetic diversity. Next generation sequencing (NGS technologies are quickly becoming the method of choice for high-throughput genotyping of multi-locus templates like MHC in non-model organisms. Previous approaches to genotyping MHC genes using NGS technologies suffer from two problems:1 a "gray zone" where low frequency alleles and high frequency artifacts can be difficult to disentangle and 2 a similar sequence problem, where very similar alleles can be difficult to distinguish as two distinct alleles. Here were present a new method for genotyping MHC loci--Stepwise Threshold Clustering (STC--that addresses these problems by taking full advantage of the increase in sequence data provided by NGS technologies. Unlike previous approaches for genotyping MHC with NGS data that attempt to classify individual sequences as alleles or artifacts, STC uses a quasi-Dirichlet clustering algorithm to cluster similar sequences at increasing levels of sequence similarity. By applying frequency and similarity based criteria to clusters rather than individual sequences, STC is able to successfully identify clusters of sequences that correspond to individual or similar alleles present in the genomes of individual samples. Furthermore, STC does not require duplicate runs of all samples, increasing the number of samples that can be genotyped in a given project. We show how the STC method works using a single sample library. We then apply STC to 295 threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus samples from four populations and show that neighboring populations differ significantly in MHC allele pools. We show that STC is a reliable, accurate, efficient, and flexible method for genotyping MHC that will be of use to biologists interested in a variety of downstream applications.

  13. Evaluation of the application of BIM technology based on PCA - Q Clustering Algorithm and Choquet Integral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xiaozhao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available For the development of the construction industry, the construction of data era is approaching, BIM (building information model with the actual needs of the construction industry has been widely used as a building information clan system software, different software for the practical application of different maturity, through the expert scoring method for the application of BIM technology maturity index mark, establish the evaluation index system, using PCA - Q clustering algorithm for the evaluation index system of classification, comprehensive evaluation in combination with the Choquet integral on the classification of evaluation index system, to achieve a reasonable assessment of the application of BIM technology maturity index. To lay a foundation for the future development of BIM Technology in various fields of construction, at the same time provides direction for the comprehensive application of BIM technology.

  14. Waste disposal technology transfer matching requirement clusters for waste disposal facilities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Thomas; Nelles, Michael; Flamme, Sabine; Jinming, Cai

    2012-11-01

    Even though technology transfer has been part of development aid programmes for many decades, it has more often than not failed to come to fruition. One reason is the absence of simple guidelines or decision making tools that help operators or plant owners to decide on the most suitable technology to adopt. Practical suggestions for choosing the most suitable technology to combat a specific problem are hard to get and technology drawbacks are not sufficiently highlighted. Western counterparts in technology transfer or development projects often underestimate or don't sufficiently account for the high investment costs for the imported incineration plant; the differing nature of Chinese MSW; the need for trained manpower; and the need to treat flue gas, bunker leakage water, and ash, all of which contain highly toxic elements. This article sets out requirements for municipal solid waste disposal plant owner/operators in China as well as giving an attribute assessment for the prevalent waste disposal plant types in order to assist individual decision makers in their evaluation process for what plant type might be most suitable in a given situation. There is no 'best' plant for all needs and purposes, and requirement constellations rely on generalisations meaning they cannot be blindly applied, but an alignment of a type of plant to a type of owner or operator can realistically be achieved. To this end, a four-step approach is suggested and a technology matrix is set out to ease the choice of technology to transfer and avoid past errors. The four steps are (1) Identification of plant owner/operator requirement clusters; (2) Determination of different municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment plant attributes; (3) Development of a matrix matching requirement clusters to plant attributes; (4) Application of Quality Function Deployment Method to aid in technology localisation. The technology transfer matrices thus derived show significant performance differences between the

  15. Innovative regions and industrial clusters in hydrogen and fuel cell technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anne Nygaard; Andersen, Per Dannemand

    2010-01-01

    Regional governments in Europe seem to be playing an increasing role in hydrogen and fuel cell (H2FC) development. A number of regions are supporting demonstration projects and building networks among regional stakeholders to strengthen their engagement in H2FC technology. In this article, we...... will analyse regions that are highly engaged in H2FC activity, based on three indicators: existing hydrogen infrastructure and production sites, general innovativeness and the presence of industrial clusters with relevance for H2FC. Our finding is that regions with high activity in H2FC development are also...... innovative regions in general. Moreover, the article highlights some industrial clusters that create favourable conditions for regions to take part in H2FC development. Existing hydrogen infrastructure, however, seems to play only a minor role in a region’s engagement. The article concludes that, while...

  16. Teaching Gene Technology in an Outreach Lab: Students' Assigned Cognitive Load Clusters and the Clusters' Relationships to Learner Characteristics, Laboratory Variables, and Cognitive Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfenberg, Franz-Josef; Bogner, Franz X.

    2013-02-01

    This study classified students into different cognitive load (CL) groups by means of cluster analysis based on their experienced CL in a gene technology outreach lab which has instructionally been designed with regard to CL theory. The relationships of the identified student CL clusters to learner characteristics, laboratory variables, and cognitive achievement were examined using a pre-post-follow-up design. Participants of our day-long module Genetic Fingerprinting were 409 twelfth-graders. During the module instructional phases (pre-lab, theoretical, experimental, and interpretation phases), we measured the students' mental effort (ME) as an index of CL. By clustering the students' module-phase-specific ME pattern, we found three student CL clusters which were independent of the module instructional phases, labeled as low-level, average-level, and high-level loaded clusters. Additionally, we found two student CL clusters that were each particular to a specific module phase. Their members reported especially high ME invested in one phase each: within the pre-lab phase and within the interpretation phase. Differentiating the clusters, we identified uncertainty tolerance, prior experience in experimentation, epistemic interest, and prior knowledge as relevant learner characteristics. We found relationships to cognitive achievement, but no relationships to the examined laboratory variables. Our results underscore the importance of pre-lab and interpretation phases in hands-on teaching in science education and the need for teachers to pay attention to these phases, both inside and outside of outreach laboratory learning settings.

  17. Home discharge of technology-dependent children: evaluation of a respiratory-therapist driven family education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tearl, Donna K; Hertzog, James H

    2007-02-01

    Initial hospital discharge to home of technology-dependent children requires extensive training and education of the family caregivers. Education of adult family members should promote positive interactions in a nonthreatening manner while facilitating the development of the knowledge and skills to competently and independently provide all aspects of the medical care. We utilize a training program for adult family members of children who have undergone tracheostomy to facilitate long-term mechanical ventilatory support and who are being prepared for their initial discharge from the hospital to home. A dedicated respiratory therapist family educator directs this program. Multiple teaching tools, activities, and training sessions, based on adult learning theory, are utilized to develop appropriate clinical skills to manage children with tracheostomies and the associated technological supports. We evaluated the effectiveness of our program by administering a written test to caregivers, at the start and the conclusion of their training. We also surveyed the caregivers about their satisfaction with the educational program and the respiratory therapist family educator's performance. We also surveyed employees of the durable medical equipment companies used by the families, regarding the caregivers' knowledge and competency in the home one month following discharge. Our program was associated with a statistically significant improvement in caregiver test performance, and the caregivers expressed a high degree of satisfaction with the program. The employees of the durable medical equipment companies perceived a high degree of knowledge and competence on the part of the home caregivers. Our training program appears to have a positive impact on the educational preparation of caregivers.

  18. Windows 2000 Cluster Technology Guide%Windows 2000集群技术应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚彤; 陈星

    2001-01-01

    介绍了Windows 2000集群技术的基本概念、工作原理和具体的实施方案,以及在 具体实施中应该注意的一些问题。%On the basis of introduction of the conception, ele ments and implement scenario of Windows 2000 cluster technol ogy, some factors which should be taken into consideration when implement duster technology are addressed in this paper.

  19. U.S. EPA Water Technology Innovation Cluster Leaders Meeting - "Successfully Supporting Early-Stage Companies: The Role of Technology Testing" Meeting Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goals of this workshop were to: (1) increase the cluster leaders’ level of knowledge regarding past and current water technology testing programs, facilities and requirements; (2) learn from the experiences of technology vendors in getting innovative, commercial-ready product...

  20. Principles of formation of mobile dwelling of cluster type with application of additive technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panfilov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most acute problems of modern society are issues related to the globalization of mankind caused by the next small scientific and technological revolution that is taking place and the emerging transition to a post-industrial society. Some of their characteristic features of this society are: deterritoriality, weakening of functional-spatial ties between places of residence, the application of labor and recreation rights. The peculiarity of the emerging new architecture with the arrival of the postindustrial information society is becoming completely new approaches to the formation of cities and the human dwelling itself. The article deals with the application of additive technologies in the production of mobile residential objects of high factory readiness. The article describes the concept of the formation of a mobile dwelling cluster type based on the principles of the organization of intelligent self-adapting systems (Smart Development, gives examples of author’s developments in the field of cluster housing, with a description of the fundamental principles necessary for the possibility of further development and technical implementation.

  1. Regional Innovation Clusters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — The Regional Innovation Clusters serve a diverse group of sectors and geographies. Three of the initial pilot clusters, termed Advanced Defense Technology clusters,...

  2. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Business and Office and Related Technology Cluster. Office Systems Technology (CIP: 52.0401--Administrative Assistant/Secretarial). Accounting Technology (CIP: 52.0302). Medical Office Technology (CIP: 52.0404--Medical Admin. Asst./Secretarial). Microcomputer Technology (CIP: 52.0490). Court Reporting Technology (CIP: 52.0405). Paralegal Technology (CIP: Paralegal/Legal Assistant).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for four programs in the postsecondary-level business and office cluster (office systems, accounting, medical office, and microcomputer technologies) and two programs in the legal cluster (court reporting and paralegal…

  3. THE CLUSTER APPROACH TO INNOVATION AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIA AND UKRAINE: methodological and organizational issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Komkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodical and organizational problems of the cluster approach to economic development. Notes a number of important conditions and signs of cluster formation: innovation, competitiveness, voluntary, mutually beneficial participation in the cluster. The problems of the formation of clusters inRussiaandUkraine. The problems of the formation and management of shared clusterRussiaandUkraine

  4. Emergy-based comparative analysis on industrial clusters: economic and technological development zone of Shenyang area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhe; Geng, Yong; Zhang, Pan; Dong, Huijuan; Liu, Zuoxi

    2014-09-01

    In China, local governments of many areas prefer to give priority to the development of heavy industrial clusters in pursuit of high value of gross domestic production (GDP) growth to get political achievements, which usually results in higher costs from ecological degradation and environmental pollution. Therefore, effective methods and reasonable evaluation system are urgently needed to evaluate the overall efficiency of industrial clusters. Emergy methods links economic and ecological systems together, which can evaluate the contribution of ecological products and services as well as the load placed on environmental systems. This method has been successfully applied in many case studies of ecosystem but seldom in industrial clusters. This study applied the methodology of emergy analysis to perform the efficiency of industrial clusters through a series of emergy-based indices as well as the proposed indicators. A case study of Shenyang Economic Technological Development Area (SETDA) was investigated to show the emergy method's practical potential to evaluate industrial clusters to inform environmental policy making. The results of our study showed that the industrial cluster of electric equipment and electronic manufacturing produced the most economic value and had the highest efficiency of energy utilization among the four industrial clusters. However, the sustainability index of the industrial cluster of food and beverage processing was better than the other industrial clusters.

  5. TECHNOLOGICAL CLUSTERING IN SÃO JOSE DOS CAMPOS: TRAJECTORIES AND IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina dos Santos

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the relationship among entrepreneurship, innovation and growth path regarding the technological cluster in São Jose dos Campos, state of São Paulo. This is an exploratory and descriptive study, supported by documental research and questionnaires applied in a non-probabilistic sample. The results show a relevant social reorganization since CTA/ITA were implemented, in the early Fifties’, which coincides with the arrival of international companies, attracted by the Geographic aspects, high qualified manpower availability and tax benefits. Since then, the municipality has experienced an intense migratory flow of professionals, professors, civil and military students. CTA and ITA generate a considerable level of technological knowledge spillover. Due to it, a number of new companies have started-up operations locally in fields such as Aeronautics, Airspace, Automobile and Petrochemical, which promoted a remarkable social and economic development. Nevertheless, the small and medium technology-based enterprises seem to show high dependence of the core companies in the region that leads to initial stages of internationalization.

  6. Innovative regions and industrial clusters in hydrogen and fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, Anne Nygaard; Andersen, Per Dannemand [Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Produktionstorvet, Building 426, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2010-10-15

    Regional governments in Europe seem to be playing an increasing role in hydrogen and fuel cell (H2FC) development. A number of regions are supporting demonstration projects and building networks among regional stakeholders to strengthen their engagement in H2FC technology. In this article, we will analyse regions that are highly engaged in H2FC activity, based on three indicators: existing hydrogen infrastructure and production sites, general innovativeness and the presence of industrial clusters with relevance for H2FC. Our finding is that regions with high activity in H2FC development are also innovative regions in general. Moreover, the article highlights some industrial clusters that create favourable conditions for regions to take part in H2FC development. Existing hydrogen infrastructure, however, seems to play only a minor role in a region's engagement. The article concludes that, while further research is needed before qualified policy implications can be drawn, an overall well-functioning regional innovation system is important in the formative phase of an H2FC innovation system. (author)

  7. OFSETH: optical technologies embedded in smart medical textile for continuous monitoring of respiratory motions under magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narbonneau, F.; De Jonckheere, J.; Jeanne, M.; Kinet, D.; Witt, J.; Krebber, K.; Paquet, B.; Depré, A.; D'Angelo, L. T.; Thiel, T.; Logier, R.

    2010-04-01

    The potential impact of optical fiber sensors embedded into medical textiles for the continuous monitoring of the patient during Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is now proved. We report how two pure optical technologies can successfully sense textile elongation between, 0% and 3%, while maintaining the stretching properties of the textile substrates for a good comfort of the patient. Investigating influence of different patients' morphology as well as textile integration issues to let free all vitals organs for medical staff actions, the OFSETH harness allows a continuous measurement of respiration movements. For example, anaesthesia for MRI examination uses the same drugs as for any surgical procedure. Even if spontaneous respiration can be preserved most of the time, spontaneous respiration is constantly at risk of being impaired by anaesthetic drugs or by upper airway obstruction. Monitoring of the breathing activity is needed to assess adequate ventilation or to detect specific obstruction patterns. Moreover artefacts due to physiological motions induce a blooming effect on the MRI result. The use of synchronisation devices allows reducing these effects. Positioned at certain strategic places according to the investigated organ, the presented sensors could constitute an efficient and adapted solution for respiratory synchronisation of the MRI acquisition.

  8. Respiratory acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventilatory failure; Respiratory failure; Acidosis - respiratory ... Causes of respiratory acidosis include: Diseases of the airways (such as asthma and COPD ) Diseases of the lung tissue (such as pulmonary fibrosis , ...

  9. Assessing the impact of technology of the physical rehabilitation on functionality of the respiratory system of the children with functional single ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Vitomskiy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to evaluate the effectiveness of technology in physical rehabilitation of children with functional single ventricle after hemodynamic correction. Material and Methods: 35 patients were examined, aimed at conducting hemodynamic correction including 23 boys and 12 girls aged from 6 to 14 years. A study was conducted using spirography at various stages of physical rehabilitation. The data were processed by adequate methods of mathematical statistics. Results: found reduced function of the respiratory system prior to the surgery. Operation led to a deterioration of most indicators of external respiration. After the rehabilitation course marked by recovery and improvement condition of the respiratory system. Conclusions: the applied technology of physical rehabilitation was effective

  10. Towards semantically sensitive text clustering: a feature space modeling technology based on dimension extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanchao; Liu, Ming; Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of text clustering is to divide document collections into clusters based on the similarity between documents. In this paper, an extension-based feature modeling approach towards semantically sensitive text clustering is proposed along with the corresponding feature space construction and similarity computation method. By combining the similarity in traditional feature space and that in extension space, the adverse effects of the complexity and diversity of natural language can be addressed and clustering semantic sensitivity can be improved correspondingly. The generated clusters can be organized using different granularities. The experimental evaluations on well-known clustering algorithms and datasets have verified the effectiveness of our approach.

  11. Probing the spatial cluster of Meriones unguiculatus using the nest flea index based on GIS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Dafang; Du, Haiwen; Wang, Yong; Jiang, Xiaosan; Shi, Xianming; Yan, Dong

    2016-11-01

    The nest flea index of Meriones unguiculatus is a critical indicator for the prevention and control of plague, which can be used not only to detect the spatial and temporal distributions of Meriones unguiculatus, but also to reveal its cluster rule. This study used global spatial autocorrelation and spatial hot spot detection methods to describe the relationship between different years and the autocorrelation coefficient of nest flea indexes; it also used a spatial detection method and GIS technology to detect the spatial gathered hot spot of Meriones unguiculatus in the epidemic areas. The results of this study showed that (1) there were statistically significant spatial autocorrelations in the nest flea indexes in 2006, 2012, 2013 and 2014. (2) Most of the distribution patterns of Meriones unguiculatus were statistically significant clusters of high values. (3) There were some typical hot spot regions of plague distributed along the Inner Mongolia plateau, north of China. (4) The hot spot regions of plague were gradually stabilized after increasing and decreasing repeatedly. Generally speaking, the number of hot spot regions showed an accelerated increase from 2005 to 2007, decreased slowly from 2007 to 2008, rapidly increased again after decreasing slowly from 2008 to 2010, showed an accelerated decrease from 2010 to 2011, and ultimately were stabilized after rapidly increasing again from 2011 to 2014. (5) The migration period of the hot spot regions was 2-3 years. The epidemic area of plague moved from southwest to east during 2005, 2007, 2008 and 2010, from east to southwest during 2007 and 2008, from east to west during 2010 and 2011, and from Midwest to east during 2011 and 2014. (6) Effective factors, such as temperature, rainfall, DEM, host density, and NDVI, can affect the spatial cluster of Meriones unguiculatus. The results of this study have important implications for exploring the temporal and spatial distribution law and distribution of the hot spot

  12. The research progress in respiratory virus laboratory testing technology%呼吸道病毒实验室检测技术的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶星晨(综述); 杨海鸥; 王静(审校)

    2015-01-01

    呼吸道病毒是威胁人类健康的主要因素之一,因此快速准确地鉴别病原微生物具有重要的临床意义。文章介绍了目前应用于呼吸道病毒检测的一些经典或新兴实验室技术,包括病毒分离培养技术、免疫学技术、核酸扩增技术、芯片技术、下一代测序技术、质谱( MS)技术等。这些技术以其各自的特点应用于呼吸道病毒的临床诊断、疗效观察以及科学研究与探索。%Respiratory virus is one of main factors that threatens human health, so it is significant to identify pathogenic microorganisms accurately and rapidly.This article introduces some traditional or new laboratory testing technologies that have been applied to respiratory virus determination nowdays, including virus isolation culture technique, immunological technique, nucleic acid sequence amplification technique, chip technology, next generation sequencing technique, mass spectrometry ( MS ) technique and so on.These technologies are applied into clinical diagnosis, curative effect observation, scientific research and investigation of respiratory virus by their characteristics.

  13. The Ligurian Cluster for Marine Technologies (DLTM): matching local research and industrial needs on oceanographic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroobant, M.; Locritani, M.; Marini, D.; Sabbadini, L.; Carmisciano, C.; Manzella, G.; Magaldi, M.; Aliani, S.

    2012-04-01

    DLTM is the Ligurian Region (north Italy) cluster of Centre of Excellence (CoE) in waterborne technologies, that involves about 120 enterprises - of which, more than 100 SMEs -, the University of Genoa, all the main National Research Centres dealing with maritime and marine technologies established in Liguria (CNR, INGV, ENEA-UTMAR), the NATO Undersea Research Centre (NURC) and the Experimental Centre of the Italian Navy (CSSN), the Bank, the Port Authority and the Chamber of Commerce of the city of La Spezia. Following its mission, DLTM has recently established three Collaborative Research Laboratories focused on: 1. Computational Fluid dynamics (CFD_Lab) 2. High Performance Computing (HPC_Lab) 3. Monitoring and Analysis of Marine Ecosystems (MARE_Lab). The main role of them is to improve the relationships among the research centres and the enterprises, encouraging a systematic networking approach and sharing of knowledge, data, services, tools and human resources. Two of the key objectives of Lab_MARE are the establishment of: - an integrated system of observation and sea forecasting; - a Regional Marine Instrument Centre (RMIC) for oceanographic and metereological instruments (assembled using 'shared' tools and facilities). Besides, an important and innovative research project has been recently submitted to the Italian Ministry for Education, University and Research (MIUR). This project, in agreement with the European Directives (COM2009 (544)), is aimed to develop a Management Information System (MIS) for oceanographic and meteorological data in the Mediterranean Sea. The availability of adequate HPC inside DLTM is, of course, an important asset for achieving useful results; for example, the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) model is currently running on a high-resolution mesh on the cluster to simulate and reproduce the circulation within the Ligurian Sea. ROMS outputs will have broad and multidisciplinary impacts because ocean circulation affects the

  14. Exploring the CERES Data by Using Web-2.0 and Cluster Computing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C.; Mitrescu, C.; Doelling, D.; Kizer, E.; Heckert, E.; Loeb, N. G.

    2011-12-01

    The CERES project provides the community climate quality observed TOA fluxes, consistent cloud properties, and computed profile/surface fluxes. The CERES products were distributed in very large multi-parameters HDF files, which limited its use to users with an in depth knowledge of CERES and programming experience. In order to reach a broader audience, especially the climate modeling community the CERES team recently updated their web and product ordering pages, designed to quickly guide the user to the best product and parameters for their application. In order to facilitate a fast, efficient, user-friendly access for this unique data set to a large variety of scientists through out the world, a new computer architecture was used. The new Ordering Tool enables users to browse hundreds of images instantly and/or order subsetted data tailored to their specific needs. This poster presents the strategy adopted to (1) efficiently make use of web 2.0 technologies such as JavaScript and AJAX that provide a more interactive interface to users, and (2) use a cluster of web servers to process multiple images and users' requests in parallel for a faster access to data. The CERES ordering tool can be accessed at http://ceres.larc.nasa.gov/.

  15. MOBILE 5G TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION INVESTMENT TIMING DECISION MAKERS CLUSTERING AND WILLINGNESS TO INVEST UNDER VOLATILE DEMAND CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulius Adamauskas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises need to identify the optimal timing for technological change in order to increase competitiveness and increase the value of the company in an uncertain demanding environment. Investment decisions for adopting new technologies are costly and sometimes risky because technological investments are irreversible. To simulate the process, comprehensive technological adoption regarding investment timing was used in a management decision support model. The constructed model is structured as follows: 1 historical demand paths analysis; 2 application of statistical data validity tests; 3 the forecast of market parameters regarding data arrays using the geometric Brownian motion method, based on Monte Carlo simulation; 4 determination of technological life cycle using a Hodrick–Prescott filter; 5 technological adoption time-window determination; and 6 calculation of company net present values (NPV based on change in free cash-flow. The model for mature 5G mobile markets, created and empirical tested, was performed in relation to 18 largest Europe mobile service providers, as potential decision makers operating across 33 countries. Results confirmed that selection of the technological investment time depends on companies’ strategic financial decisions and financial state. The performed simulations revealed the consequence of 5G technology investment for investor roles, clustered according to financial data within a 5-year period (2010–2014. The analyzed companies were assigned to roles of pioneers-innovators, pragmatics, followers, or laggards. Finally, it is assumed and argued that financial parameters indicate the willingness to adopt new technologies in a global technologically changing environment.

  16. Evolution of the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome on the Basis of Up-to-Date Medical Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Marchenkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper generalizes the 15 years’ experience of the V. A. Negovsky Research Institute of General Reanimatology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, in conducting fundamental studies of the morphological, functional, and clinical patterns of the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, by using up-to-date medical technologies. The developed and clinically introduced new scientifically grounded methods for the prevention, diagnosis, and combination, differentiated treatment of ARDS could reduce the number of complications, the duration of mechanical ventilation, the length of stay in the intensive care unit, and mortality rates. Key words: acute respiratory distress syndrome, V. A. Negovsky Research Institute of General Reanimatology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences.

  17. Longitudinal Study of Career Cluster Persistence from 8th Grade to 12th Grade with a Focus on the Science, Technology, Engineering, & Math Career Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Judson

    Today's technology driven global economy has put pressure on the American education system to produce more students who are prepared for careers in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM). Adding to this pressure is the demand for a more diverse workforce that can stimulate the development of new ideas and innovation. This in turn requires more female and under represented minority groups to pursue future careers in STEM. Though STEM careers include many of the highest paid professionals, school systems are dealing with exceptionally high numbers of students, especially female and under represented minorities, who begin but do not persist to STEM degree completion. Using the Expectancy-Value Theory (EVT) framework that attributes student motivation to a combination of intrinsic, utility, and attainment values, this study analyzed readily available survey data to gauge students' career related values. These values were indirectly investigated through a longitudinal approach, spanning five years, on the predictive nature of 8 th grade survey-derived recommendations for students to pursue a future in a particular career cluster. Using logistic regression analysis, it was determined that this 8 th grade data, particularly in STEM, provides significantly high probabilities of a 12th grader's average grade, SAT-Math score, the math and science elective courses they take, and most importantly, interest in the same career cluster.

  18. Overcoming organizational, cultural and technological barriers in a cluster of European Research Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmi, Ari; Brus, Magdalena; Laj, Paolo; Kutsch, Werner

    2017-04-01

    European Research Infrastructures (RIs) in the ESFRI roadmap are major international organizations, with established user bases and highly developed products. However, particularly in the environmental sciences, there are many global challenges which individual disciplinary RIs are not suited to answer by themselves. This need of interoperability, together with the requirements for e.g. better cost efficiency, better data management and societal impact, have created a need for common cluster projects to help the RIs develop together. This paper is based on experiences from working in the FP7 ENVRI cluster project and on managing the ongoing H2020 ENVRIplus (www.envriplus.eu) project. The cluster project, even seen as useful for many aspects by the RIs, is still challenging to manage. Many cultural, organizational and technological challenges persist and need to be addressed. In the ENVRI community, there are more than 20 RIs, representing wide variety of geosciences, from solid earth and deep sea observatories to high atmosphere radars. This variety in the disciplines covered is also represented in the different scientific practices and cultures in the Consortium. Even more challenging is the difference in working culture between the Technical expert work packages (often mainly driven by IT specialists) and the RI operatives with science background. The ENVRI and ENVRIplus projects have brought many experiences worth sharing to the project management community, particularly in very heterogeneous and multidisciplinary communities. Some of the key lessons learned can be summarized: 1) Engagement from the beginning is crucial, taking the user communities (in this case, the RIs inside the Consortium) into the planning process and all the way to the product updates reduces the risk of misfit products and failure in implementation, however, there must be... 2) ... follow through in engagement, building agile teams if needed. Even if the RIs (clients) are a part of the

  19. Cluster-cluster clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J.; Dekel, A.; Efstathiou, G.; Frenk, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    The cluster correlation function xi sub c(r) is compared with the particle correlation function, xi(r) in cosmological N-body simulations with a wide range of initial conditions. The experiments include scale-free initial conditions, pancake models with a coherence length in the initial density field, and hybrid models. Three N-body techniques and two cluster-finding algorithms are used. In scale-free models with white noise initial conditions, xi sub c and xi are essentially identical. In scale-free models with more power on large scales, it is found that the amplitude of xi sub c increases with cluster richness; in this case the clusters give a biased estimate of the particle correlations. In the pancake and hybrid models (with n = 0 or 1), xi sub c is steeper than xi, but the cluster correlation length exceeds that of the points by less than a factor of 2, independent of cluster richness. Thus the high amplitude of xi sub c found in studies of rich clusters of galaxies is inconsistent with white noise and pancake models and may indicate a primordial fluctuation spectrum with substantial power on large scales.

  20. Cluster-cluster clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, J.; Dekel, A.; Efstathiou, G.; Frenk, C.S.

    1985-08-01

    The cluster correlation function xi sub c(r) is compared with the particle correlation function, xi(r) in cosmological N-body simulations with a wide range of initial conditions. The experiments include scale-free initial conditions, pancake models with a coherence length in the initial density field, and hybrid models. Three N-body techniques and two cluster-finding algorithms are used. In scale-free models with white noise initial conditions, xi sub c and xi are essentially identical. In scale-free models with more power on large scales, it is found that the amplitude of xi sub c increases with cluster richness; in this case the clusters give a biased estimate of the particle correlations. In the pancake and hybrid models (with n = 0 or 1), xi sub c is steeper than xi, but the cluster correlation length exceeds that of the points by less than a factor of 2, independent of cluster richness. Thus the high amplitude of xi sub c found in studies of rich clusters of galaxies is inconsistent with white noise and pancake models and may indicate a primordial fluctuation spectrum with substantial power on large scales. 30 references.

  1. The mechanics of bacterial cluster formation on plant leaf surfaces as revealed by bioreporter technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tecon, R.; Leveau, J.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria that colonize the leaves of terrestrial plants often occur in clusters whose size varies from a few to thousands of cells. For the formation of such bacterial clusters, two non-mutually exclusive but very different mechanisms may be proposed: aggregation of multiple cells or clonal

  2. Low-energy RI beam technology and nuclear clusters in the explosive pp-chain breakout process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubono, S. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou 73000 (China); RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0 (Japan); Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D. M.; Ohshiro, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Yamazaki, N. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Teranishi, T. [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Fukuoka 812-858 (Japan); Yanagisawa, Y.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Kase, M. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Hayakawa, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Kwon, Y. K. [Institute for Basic Science, 70, Yuseong-daero 1689-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-81 (Korea, Republic of); Hashimoto, T.; Fukuda, Y. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); He, J. J. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou 73000 (China); Goto, A. [Faculty of Medcine, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-2331 (Japan); Muto, H. [Center of General Education, Tokyo University of Science at Suwa, Chino, Nagano 391-0292 (Japan)

    2014-05-09

    The lecture includes two parts: One is a discussion on the technology for developing RIB beam facility based on the in-flight method and relevant experimental technology. The second part is a discussion on experimental efforts for studying the breakout process from the pp-chain region based on recent works with low energy RI beams. The discussion of the second part specifically covers the problem of the vp-process in type II supernovae in terms of alpha cluster nature for the reactions.

  3. High Incidence of Respiratory Involvement in a Cluster of Brucella suis-Infected Workers from a Pork Processing Plant in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, J C; García, J L; Cardinali, P S; Seijo, A P; Benchetrit, A G; Echazarreta, S E; Garro, S L; Deodato, B; Baldi, P C

    2016-12-29

    Epidemiological and clinical aspects of Brucella suis infection in 17 workers from a pork processing plant in Argentina occurring between January 2014 and July 2015 are presented. All patients reported working 9 h daily without adequate personal protection garment. Blood cultures were positive for Brucella spp. in 14 of the 17 patients (82.3%). All isolates were identified as B. suis biovar 1. Although fever, sweats, asthenia, myalgia and hepatic involvement were the most frequent clinical manifestations, an unusually high incidence of respiratory involvement was found. From 13 patients in which chest radiography was performed, four (30%) had radiological abnormalities, including lobar pneumonia in two cases (one with pleural effusion) and interstitial involvement in other two. The high frequency of respiratory involvement in our series makes necessary to consider brucellosis in the differential diagnosis of respiratory diseases in pork processing plant employees.

  4. Intelligent Control of the Complex Technology Process Based on Adaptive Pattern Clustering and Feature Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wushan Cheng

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A kind of fuzzy neural networks (FNNs based on adaptive pattern clustering and feature map (APCFM is proposed to improve the property of the large delay and time varying of the sintering process. By using the density clustering and learning vector quantization (LVQ, the sintering process is divided automatically into subclasses which have similar clustering center and labeled fitting number. Then these labeled subclass samples are taken into fuzzy neural network (FNN to be trained; this network is used to solve the prediction problem of the burning through point (BTP. Using the 707 groups of actual training process data and the FNN to train APCFM algorithm, experiments prove that the system has stronger robustness and wide generality in clustering analysis and feature extraction.

  5. Epitope mapping porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by phage display: the nsp2 fragment of the replicase polyprotein contains a cluster of B-cell epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Bøtner, Anette; Toft, P.;

    2001-01-01

    We screened phage display libraries of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) protein fragments with sera from experimentally infected pigs to identify linear B-cell epitopes that are commonly recognized during infection in vivo. We identified 10 linear epitope sites (ES) 11...

  6. The mechanics of bacterial cluster formation on plant leaf surfaces as revealed by bioreporter technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecon, Robin; Leveau, Johan H J

    2012-05-01

    Bacteria that colonize the leaves of terrestrial plants often occur in clusters whose size varies from a few to thousands of cells. For the formation of such bacterial clusters, two non-mutually exclusive but very different mechanisms may be proposed: aggregation of multiple cells or clonal reproduction of a single cell. Here we assessed the contribution of both mechanisms on the leaves of bean plants that were colonized by the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans. In one approach, we used a mixture of green and red fluorescent P. agglomerans cells to populate bean leaves. We observed that this resulted in clusters made up of only one colour as well as two-colour clusters, thus providing evidence for both mechanisms. Another P. agglomerans bioreporter, designed to quantify the reproductive success of bacterial colonizers by proxy to the rate at which green fluorescent protein is diluted from dividing cells, revealed that during the first hours on the leaf surface, many bacteria were dividing, but not staying together and forming clusters, which is suggestive of bacterial relocation. Together, these findings support a dynamic model of leaf surface colonization, where both aggregative and reproductive mechanisms take place. The bioreporter-based approach we employed here should be broadly applicable towards a more quantitative and mechanistic understanding of bacterial colonization of surfaces in general. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Immunosorbent assay using gold colloid cluster technology for determination of IgEs in patients’ sera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifa Al-Dubai

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Haifa Al-Dubai1, Irene Lichtscheidl2, Martina Strobl1, Gisela Pittner1, Fritz Pittner11Department of Biochemistry, Max F Perutz Laboratories, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; 2Institute of Cell Imaging and Ultrastructure Research, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: This study focuses on the development of a sensitive and simple cluster-linked immunosorbent assay (CLISA using gold colloidal cluster labeling for determination of proteins such as antigens (Ags or antibodies (Abs. Abs for detection can be labeled with gold colloid clusters (GCCs. The Fc domain of the Abs binds to the clusters, and the Fab domain to the Ag on a nitrocellulose membrane or a microtiter plate as a support for dot-blotting. The signal of positive interaction between GCC-labeled Abs and its dotted Ag is detectable by the naked eye and can be quantified by comparison to a color scale prepared from a dilution series of known sample concentrations. The colored reaction product is stable for prolonged periods and does not fade, making this method a simple, fast, and convenient means for detection of Ag or Ab biorecognitions and an alternative to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Several interactions between different Ags or Abs (eg, ß-lactoglobulin and solutions avoiding gold colloidal cluster flocculation (eg, using protein G were studied. CLISA was tested for other analytical purposes such as detection of IgEs in patients’ sera.Keywords: ELISA, allergen, patient sera, CLISA, immunoassay, ß-lactoglobulin

  8. CLUSTER TECHNOLOGIES AS TOOLS FOR THE INCREASING OF INNOVATIVE ACTIVITY OF THE TERRITORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Станислав Викторович Кощеев

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities of innovation cluster’s formation in Krasnodar region as one of the prospective directions of development of the regional economy on the basis of application of modern cluster theory are discussed in the article.The perspective of formation of innovation cluster in Krasnodar region, based on the analysis of innovative activity of territorial formations was highlighted.The basis of applied methods is dialectic approach to study the formation and development’s peculiarities of clusters.Research results have both theoretical and practical value and could be utilized in further studies of theoretical and practical problems of innovation clusters’ development as tools for the improvement of efficiency of the territories’ economy.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-6-51

  9. Respiratory alkalosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, G T; Vaziri, N D; Sassoon, C S

    2001-04-01

    Respiratory alkalosis is an extremely common and complicated problem affecting virtually every organ system in the body. This article reviews the various facets of this interesting problem. Respiratory alkalosis produces multiple metabolic abnormalities, from changes in potassium, phosphate, and calcium, to the development of a mild lactic acidosis. Renal handling of the above ions is also affected. The etiologies may be related to pulmonary or extrapulmonary disorders. Hyperventilation syndrome is a common etiology of respiratory alkalosis in the emergency department setting and is a diagnosis by exclusion. There are many cardiac effects of respiratory alkalosis, such as tachycardia, ventricular and atrial arrhythmias, and ischemic and nonischemic chest pain. In the lungs, vasodilation occurs, and in the gastrointestinal system there are changes in perfusion, motility, and electrolyte handling. Therapeutically, respiratory alkalosis is used for treatment of elevated intracranial pressure. Correction of a respiratory alkalosis is best performed by correcting the underlying etiology.

  10. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    10.1 Respiratory failure2003068 Evaluation of non-invasive ventilation in a-cute respiratory failure with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. GU Jianyong(顾俭勇), et al. Dept E-mergen, Zhongshan Hosp, Fudan Univ, Shanghai 200032. Shanghai J Med 2002; 25 (12): 741 - 743.Objective:To observe the effect of non-invasive venti-lation(NIV) in acute respiratory failure with chronic

  11. Environmental technology strongholds. A business analysis of cluster creation; Miljoeteknologiske styrkepositioner. En erhvervsanalyse af klyngedannelse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosted, J.; Andersen, Torsten; Degn Bertelsen, M. [FORA (Denmark)

    2006-08-31

    Global focus on environmental responsibility has increased interest in new environmental technology solutions, and environmental technologies will see impressive global growth rates in the coming decades. Environmental technologies make important contributions to solving global environmental challenges. But they are only part of the solution. The development of ground-braking environmental technology solutions should go hand in hand with political decisions on binding environmental goals, public environmental regulation and economic incentives that promote an appropriate behaviour among companies and consumers. The environmental technology market is a highly competitive market that focuses on utilising new and emerging technologies. A large number of Danish companies are active participants in the global competition. There are several examples of government institutions taking an active part in the competition. More and more, new environmental technologies are developed in a binding and strategic collaboration involving companies, universities, research laboratories and government authorities. The level of Danish government authority participation is a critical element. However, this is not the focus of this analysis. The purpose of the analysis is to identify environmental technology areas where Denmark potentially could create new strongholds, if strategic and binding collaboration involving companies, knowledge institutions and government authorities is carried out. The actual level of co-operation should be decided among the relevant stake holders. (au)

  12. The Impact of Technology-based Clusters on Regional Development: The Case of the Grand Poitiers Futuroscope Technopole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Scheel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Several well-recognized cities in the world have leaped to outstanding levels of economicand social development leveraged by specific breakthrough drivers. For the region ofPoitou-Charentes in France, the presence of the Futuroscope Amusement Park in the cityof Poitiers has become a significant tourist attraction that now produces a dilemma. Is thisinfrastructure sufficient for assembling the “Grand Poitiers Technopole” as a successfulhigh-technology cluster? To reach the conditions to assemble this high-tech cluster, theregion must have the potential to articulate, manage and govern aggressive innovationstrategies. Following the results of a study of several innovative cities around the globe, basic enablingmechanisms were found that have broken with the conventional growth paradigms withatypical breakthrough innovations, and have now achieved world-class disrupting performances,a global branding and status as successful poles of technological innovation. Theresults obtained show the features of the existing technopole as the ones to enhance inorder to have a world-class positioning for the region.

  13. Respiratory mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Theodore A

    2016-01-01

    This book thoroughly covers each subfield of respiratory mechanics: pulmonary mechanics, the respiratory pump, and flow. It presents the current understanding of the field and serves as a guide to the scientific literature from the golden age of respiratory mechanics, 1960 - 2010. Specific topics covered include the contributions of surface tension and tissue forces to lung recoil, the gravitational deformation of the lung, and the interdependence forces that act on pulmonary airways and blood vessels. The geometry and kinematics of the ribs is also covered in detail, as well as the respiratory action of the external and internal intercostal muscles, the mechanics of the diaphragm, and the quantitative compartmental models of the chest wall is also described. Additionally, flow in the airways is covered thoroughly, including the wave-speed and viscous expiratory flow-limiting mechanisms; convection, diffusion and the stationary front; and the distribution of ventilation. This is an ideal book for respiratory ...

  14. How regional museums form a museum cluster and forge its identity: Take7 Shanghai Science & Technology Museum as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    At present, there are many cases of museum clusters around the world, such as Smithsonian Insti- tution, the Guggenheim Museums and Foundation, Science Museums Group, National Museum Liverpool and so on. Through the analysis, we found that they form clusters in different ways, but they are for the same pur- pose, which is to provide multiple services for the public from the different cultural environment, and to strengthen the local cultural expression and transmission. Shanghai Science & Technology Museum is a large-scale comprehensive museum which contains three venues: a science and technology museum, a natu- ral history museum and a planetarium. Through learns the experience of the international cases for museum clusters, also explore itself museum cluster road to meet the local cultural environment.

  15. Mining of Web Server Logs in a Distributed Cluster Using Big Data Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitha K

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Big Data is an emerging growing dataset beyond the ability of a traditional database tool. Hadoop rides the big data where the massive quantity of information is processed using cluster of commodity hardware. Web server logs are semi-structured files generated by the computer in large volume usually of flat text files. It is utilized efficiently by Mapreduce as it process one line at a time. This paper performs the session identification in log files using Hadoop in a distributed cluster. Apache Hadoop Mapreduce a data processing platform is used in pseudo distributed mode and in fully distributed mode. The framework effectively identifies the session utilized by the web surfer to recognize the unique users and pages accessed by the users. The identified session is analyzed in R to produce a statistical report based on total count of visit per day. The results are compared with non-hadoop approach a java environment, and it results in a better time efficiency, storage and processing speed of the proposed work.

  16. CLUSTER OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT IN THE SOUTHWEST OF PARANÁ: PARADIGMATIC CHANGES OF INNOVATION TO THE SOCIAL DIMENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Henrique Mainardes Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes the analysis of the concepts of innovation and design of the social aspect in the construction of possible models of social perception, contributing to the building of technological knowledge and changes to environmental rationality.. You can see the construction of new ideas and knowledge from the social dimension strongly associated with innovative processes, fostering the development with the construction of a democratic and participatory environmental dynamics. From this analysis, allows itself to be a case study of the Cluster of Information Technology (IT in the southwestern region of Paraná, checking the main axes of social dimension can contribute to regional development. It is realized that contextualization innovation unfolds gradually, providing opportunities new approaches and directions of the central objectives, assuming roles in the development of sustainable processes and environmental constitution, turning the rationality of processes interconnected networks of information technology in a wide scope of complexity allowing evaluation of the main changes in the social and human capital.

  17. Comparison of Regional Innovation System of High and New Technology Enterprise Cluster Between Beijing and Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ingo Liefner

    2007-01-01

    <正>China’s economy has achieved remarkable progress since its reform and opening-up to the outside world in the 1980s. The in-vestment in technology in areas along the eastern coast has increased greatly. It has noticeably enlarged the gap between the eastern coastal area and the western in-

  18. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    2004494 Respiratory control in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome. WANG Wei (王玮), et al. Instit Respir Dis, 1st Affili Hosp, China Med Limy, Shenyang 110001. Chin J Intern Med 2004; 43 (9): 647-650.

  19. Positioning nuclear spins in interacting clusters for quantum technologies and bioimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Yu; Haase, Jan F.; Casanova, Jorge; Plenio, Martin B.

    2016-05-01

    We propose a method to measure the hyperfine vectors between a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center and an environment of interacting nuclear spins. Our protocol enables the generation of tunable electron-nuclear coupling Hamiltonians while suppressing unwanted internuclear interactions. In this manner, each nucleus can be addressed and controlled individually, thereby permitting the reconstruction of the individual hyperfine vectors. With this ability the three-dimensional (3D) structure of spin ensembles and spins in biomolecules can be identified without the necessity of varying the direction of applied magnetic fields. We demonstrate examples including the complete reconstruction of an interacting spin cluster in diamond and 3D imaging of all the nuclear spins in a biomolecule.

  20. [Progress of genome engineering technology via clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Qiu, Shaofu; Song, Hongbin

    2013-10-04

    In survival competition with phage, bacteria and archaea gradually evolved the acquired immune system--Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), presenting the trait of transcribing the crRNA and the CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) to silence or cleaving the foreign double-stranded DNA specifically. In recent years, strong interest arises in prokaryotes primitive immune system and many in-depth researches are going on. Recently, researchers successfully repurposed CRISPR as an RNA-guided platform for sequence-specific gene expression, which provides a simple approach for selectively perturbing gene expression on a genome-wide scale. It will undoubtedly bring genome engineering into a more convenient and accurate new era.

  1. [Respiratory distress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galili, D; Garfunkel, A; Elad, S; Zusman, S P; Malamed, S F; Findler, M; Kaufman, E

    2002-01-01

    Dental treatment is usually conducted in the oral cavity and in very close proximity to the upper respiratory airway. The possibility of unintentionally compromising this airway is high in the dental environment. The accumulation of fluid (water or blood) near to the upper respiratory airway or the loosening of teeth fragmentations and fallen dental instruments can occur. Also, some of the drugs prescribed in the dental practice are central nervous system depressants and some are direct respiratory drive depressors. For this reason, awareness of the respiratory status of the dental patient is of paramount importance. This article focuses on several of the more common causes of respiratory distress, including airway obstruction, hyperventilation, asthma, bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism and cardiac insufficiency. The common denominator to all these conditions described here is that in most instances the patient is conscious. Therefore, on the one hand, valuable information can be retrieved from the patient making diagnosis easier than when the patient is unconscious. On the other hand, the conscious patient is under extreme apprehension and stress under such situations. Respiratory depression which occurs during conscious sedation or following narcotic analgesic medication will not be dealt with in this article. Advanced pain and anxiety control techniques such as conscious sedation and general anesthesia should be confined only to operators who undergo special extended training.

  2. Perspective of mathematical modeling and research of targeted formation of disperse phase clusters in working media for the next-generation power engineering technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simos, Theodore E.; Kovalnogov, Vladislav N.; Shevchuk, Igor V.

    2017-07-01

    The perspective of mathematical modeling and research of formation of disperse phase clusters of working media for next-generation technologies of production and transformation of energy on organic and synthetic hydrocarbon fuel is presented. Approach to creation of a problem-oriented complex of the theory, the models, knowledge bases as well as software-and-informational tools providing in total an opportunity for high-precision simulation, working off and prototyping in a computing experiment of the perspective technologies based on optimization and targeted formation of disperse phase clusters of a working media is considered.

  3. Concise and broadly applicable method for determining the genomic sequences of North-American-type porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses in various clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozumi, Takeya; Iseki, Hiroshi; Toki, Daisuke; Takagi, Michihiro; Tsunemitsu, Hiroshi; Uenishi, Hirohide

    2014-09-01

    We developed a concise and broadly applicable method for accurate genomic sequencing of North American genotype (NA-type) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSVs) that overcomes high genetic variability of the viruses. The method, designated "combination of consensus oligonucleotide reverse transcription and multiple displacement amplification" (CORT-MDA), involves reverse-transcription of viral RNA followed by shotgun sequencing after amplification using only 11 degenerate oligonucleotide primers; these primers were designed against consensus regions within the open reading frames of the 124 NA-type PRRSV strains with reported full-length genomic sequences. Sequencing of the 192 shotgun clones generated per virus showed 80% to 94% coverage on the reported PRRSV genomic sequence, such that only 2 or 3 unread regions had to be resequenced after PCR amplification using custom primers. Direct sequencing of RT-PCR products confirmed absolute consistency between sequences determined by the CORT-MDA method and those from RT-PCR. These results suggest that our method is applicable to diverse NA-type viruses.

  4. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Horticulture Technology Cluster (Program CIP: 01.0601--Horticulture Serv. Op. & Mgmt., Gen.) (Program CIP: 01.0605--Landscaping Op. & Mgmt.). Postsecondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for the course sequences in the horticulture technology programs cluster. Presented in the introductory section are a framework of programs and courses, description of the programs, and suggested course sequences for…

  5. Prediction and classification of respiratory motion

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Suk Jin

    2014-01-01

    This book describes recent radiotherapy technologies including tools for measuring target position during radiotherapy and tracking-based delivery systems. This book presents a customized prediction of respiratory motion with clustering from multiple patient interactions. The proposed method contributes to the improvement of patient treatments by considering breathing pattern for the accurate dose calculation in radiotherapy systems. Real-time tumor-tracking, where the prediction of irregularities becomes relevant, has yet to be clinically established. The statistical quantitative modeling for irregular breathing classification, in which commercial respiration traces are retrospectively categorized into several classes based on breathing pattern are discussed as well. The proposed statistical classification may provide clinical advantages to adjust the dose rate before and during the external beam radiotherapy for minimizing the safety margin. In the first chapter following the Introduction  to this book, we...

  6. Respiratory failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    970318 A study on evoked potentials in cor pul-monale patients with chronic respiratory failure.QIAO Hui(乔慧), et al. Beijing Neurosurg Instit,Beijing, 100050. Chin J Geriatr 1997; 16(1): 43-45. Objective: Evoked protential was used to detect thechange of brain function in cor pulmonale patients with

  7. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    6.1 Upper respiratory tract disease and bronchial asthma2004073 A study on the heterogenous apoptosis of lymphocytes, eosinophils, and neutrophils from peripheral blood of asthmatic patients. LIU Chuntao (刘春涛), et al. West China Hosp, Sichuan Univ, Chengdu 610041. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2003; 26(10):610 - 614.

  8. What Makes Clusters Decline?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Park, Eun Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Most studies on regional clusters focus on identifying factors and processes that make clusters grow. However, sometimes technologies and market conditions suddenly shift, and clusters decline. This paper analyses the process of decline of the wireless communication cluster in Denmark....... The longitudinal study on the high-tech cluster reveals that technological lock-in and exit of key firms have contributed to decline. Entrepreneurship has a positive effect on the cluster’s adaptive capabilities, while multinational companies have contradicting effects by bringing in new resources to the cluster...

  9. Probability and interference based social network clustering technology%基于概率与推断的社交网络聚类技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋传超; 王庚

    2013-01-01

    本文将位置敏感哈希算法(LSH)应用于图聚类,提出了概率化的图聚类法(PGC).利用LSH技术比较图中各结点邻居集的相似度,并结合贝叶斯统计推断进行验证,在线性时间内找到图中最紧密的、非精确聚类.测试结果表明,随着图尺寸的增大PGC扩展性更强,在现实世界数据集上PGC比PageRank Cluster聚类速度快约1倍,是一种有效的解决方案.%We apply Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH) to graph clustering, and then present a new clustering technology, Probabilistic Graph Cluster (PGC). We also compare the similarity of the neighbor set of every node in a graph, and verify it with Bayesian statistic inference to find the most compact and inexact clustering in linear time. Experimental results show that PGC is more scalable with the enlargement of a graph and that the clustering speed of PGC is twice faster than that of PageRank Cluster in real data sets, PGC is therefore an effective and alternative solution.

  10. Respiratory Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The University of Miami School of Medicine asked the Research Triangle Institute for assistance in improvising the negative pressure technique to relieve respiratory distress in infants. Marshall Space Flight Center and Johnson Space Center engineers adapted this idea to the lower-body negative-pressure system seals used during the Skylab missions. Some 20,000 babies succumb to respiratory distress in the U.S. each year, a condition in which lungs progressively lose their ability to oxygenate blood. Both positive and negative pressure techniques have been used - the first to force air into lungs, the second to keep infant's lungs expanded. Negative pressure around chest helps the baby expand his lungs and maintain proper volume of air. If doctors can keep the infant alive for four days, the missing substance in the lungs will usually form in sufficient quantity to permit normal breathing. The Skylab chamber and its leakproof seals were adapted for medical use.

  11. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    7.1 Upper respiratory tract disease and bronchial asthma2003306 Effects of vaccae on airway contraction and inflammation in asthmatic guinea pigs. ZHAO Xiao(赵晓燕), et al. Zhejiang Respir Drug Res Lab Med Sch, Zhejiang Univ, Hangzhou 310031. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2003;26(4):218-222.Objective: To study the effects of Mycobacterium vaccae(M. vaccae)on the lung function, airway hyper-

  12. Use of behavioral economics and social psychology to improve treatment of acute respiratory infections (BEARI): rationale and design of a cluster randomized controlled trial [1RC4AG039115-01] - study protocol and baseline practice and provider characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for nonbacterial infections leads to increases in the costs of care, antibiotic resistance among bacteria, and adverse drug events. Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are the most common reason for inappropriate antibiotic use. Most prior efforts to decrease inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for ARIs (e.g., educational or informational interventions) have relied on the implicit assumption that clinicians inappropriately prescribe antibiotics because they are unaware of guideline recommendations for ARIs. If lack of guideline awareness is not the reason for inappropriate prescribing, educational interventions may have limited impact on prescribing rates. Instead, interventions that apply social psychological and behavioral economic principles may be more effective in deterring inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for ARIs by well-informed clinicians. Methods/design The Application of Behavioral Economics to Improve the Treatment of Acute Respiratory Infections (BEARI) Trial is a multisite, cluster-randomized controlled trial with practice as the unit of randomization. The primary aim is to test the ability of three interventions based on behavioral economic principles to reduce the rate of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for ARIs. We randomized practices in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design to receive up to three interventions for non-antibiotic-appropriate diagnoses: 1) Accountable Justifications: When prescribing an antibiotic for an ARI, clinicians are prompted to record an explicit justification that appears in the patient electronic health record; 2) Suggested Alternatives: Through computerized clinical decision support, clinicians prescribing an antibiotic for an ARI receive a list of non-antibiotic treatment choices (including prescription options) prior to completing the antibiotic prescription; and 3) Peer Comparison: Each provider’s rate of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing relative to top

  13. Comparison of the Luminex xTAG RVP Fast assay and the Idaho Technology FilmArray RP assay for detection of respiratory viruses in pediatric patients at a cancer hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babady, N Esther; Mead, Peter; Stiles, Jeffrey; Brennan, Carrie; Li, Haijing; Shuptar, Susan; Stratton, Charles W; Tang, Yi-Wei; Kamboj, Mini

    2012-07-01

    Respiratory viruses are increasingly recognized as serious causes of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. The rapid and sensitive detection of respiratory viruses is essential for the early diagnosis and administration of appropriate antiviral therapy, as well as for the effective implementation of infection control measures. We compared the performance of two commercial assays, xTAG RVP Fast (Luminex Diagnostics, Toronto, Canada) and FilmArray RVP (FA RVP; Idaho Technology, Salt Lake City, UT), in pediatric patients at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. These assays detect the following viruses: respiratory syncytial virus; influenza A and B viruses; parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, 3, and 4; human metapneumovirus; adenovirus; enterovirus-rhinovirus; coronaviruses NL63, HKU1, 229E, and OC43; and bocavirus. We tested a total of 358 respiratory specimens from 173 pediatric patients previously tested by direct fluorescence assay (DFA) and viral culture. The overall detection rate (number of positive specimens/total specimens) for viruses tested by all methods was 24% for DFA/culture, 45% for xTAG RVP Fast, and 51% for FA RVP. The agreement between the two multiplex assays was 84.5%, and the difference in detection rate was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Overall, the FA RVP assay was more sensitive than the xTAG RVP Fast assay and had a turnaround time of approximately 1 h. The sensitivity, simplicity, and random-access platform make FA RVP an excellent choice for laboratory on-demand service with low to medium volume.

  14. Can antibiotic prescriptions in respiratory tract infections be improved? A cluster-randomized educational intervention in general practice – The Prescription Peer Academic Detailing (Rx-PAD Study [NCT00272155

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rognstad Sture

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than half of all antibiotic prescriptions in general practice are issued for respiratory tract infections (RTIs, despite convincing evidence that many of these infections are caused by viruses. Frequent misuse of antimicrobial agents is of great global health concern, as we face an emerging worldwide threat of bacterial antibiotic resistance. There is an increasing need to identify determinants and patterns of antibiotic prescribing, in order to identify where clinical practice can be improved. Methods/Design Approximately 80 peer continuing medical education (CME groups in southern Norway will be recruited to a cluster randomized trial. Participating groups will be randomized either to an intervention- or a control group. A multifaceted intervention has been tailored, where key components are educational outreach visits to the CME-groups, work-shops, audit and feedback. Prescription Peer Academic Detailers (Rx-PADs, who are trained GPs, will conduct the educational outreach visits. During these visits, evidence-based recommendations of antibiotic prescriptions for RTIs will be presented and software will be handed out for installation in participants PCs, enabling collection of prescription data. These data will subsequently be linked to corresponding data from the Norwegian Prescription Database (NorPD. Individual feedback reports will be sent all participating GPs during and one year after the intervention. Main outcomes are baseline proportion of inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions for RTIs and change in prescription patterns compared to baseline one year after the initiation of the tailored pedagogic intervention. Discussion Improvement of prescription patterns in medical practice is a challenging task. A thorough evaluation of guidelines for antibiotic treatment in RTIs may impose important benefits, whereas inappropriate prescribing entails substantial costs, as well as undesirable consequences like development

  15. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    7.1 Upper Respiratory Tract Diesase And Bronchial Asthma 2007072 Dysfunction of releasing adrenaline in asthmatic adrenaline medullary chromaffin cells due to functional redundancy primed by nerve growth factor. WANG Jun(汪俊), et al. Dept Resp Dis Xiangya Hosp Central South Univ, Changsha 410008. Chin J Tuberc Dis 2006;29(12):812-815. Objective To investigate the possible causes of the dysfunction of adrenaline release in asthma rats and to identify the role of nerve growth factor(NGF) in this process.

  16. Respiratory System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    8.1 Respiratory failure2007204 Comparison of the effects of BiPAP ventilation combined with lung recruitment maneuvers and low tidal volume A/C ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. WANG Xiaozhi(王晓芝),et al. Dept Respir & Intensive Care Unit, Binzhou Med Coll, Binzhou 256603. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2007;30(1):44-47. Objective To compare the effects of BiPAP ventilation combined with lung recruitment maneuvers(LRM) with low tidal volume A/C ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Methods A prospective, randomized comparison of BiPAP mechanical ventilation combined with lung recruitment maneuvers(test group) with low tidal volume A/C ventilation (control group) was conducted in 28 patients with ARDS. FiO2/PaO2 ratio, respiratory system compliance(Cs), central venous pressure (CVP), duration of ventilation support were recorded at 0 h, 48 h and 72 h separately. The ventilation associated lung injury and mortality at 28 d were also recorded. Results The FiO2/PaO2 ratio were (298±16) and (309±16) cm H2O, Cs were (38.4±2.2) and (42.0±1.3) ml/cm H2O, CVP were (13.8±0.8) and (11.6±0.7) cm H2O in the test group at 48 h and 72 h separately. In the control group, FiO2/PaO2 ratio were (212±12) and (246±17) cm H2O, Cs were (29.5±1.3) and (29.0±1.0) ml/cm H2O, CVP were 18.6±1.1 and (16.8±1.0) cm H2O. The results were better in the test group as compared with the control group (t=10.03-29. 68, all P<0.01). The duration of ventilation support in the test group was shorter than the control group [(14±3) d vs (19±3)d, t=4.80, P<0.01]. The mortality in 28 d and ventilation associated lung injury were similar in the two groups. Conclusion The results show that combination of LRM with BiPAP mode ventilation, as compared with the control group, contributes to the improved FiO2/PaO2 ratio, pulmonary compliance, stable homodynamic and shorter duration of ventilation support in patients with ARDs.

  17. How Clusters Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology innovation clusters are geographic concentrations of interconnected companies, universities, and other organizations with a focus on environmental technology. They play a key role in addressing the nation’s pressing environmental problems.

  18. Respiratory failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930118 Facial or nasal mask pressure supportventilation in managing acute exacerbation ofchronic respiratory failure in COPD patients.CHEN Rongchang(陈荣昌),et al.GuangzhouInstit Respir Dis,Guangzhou 510120.Chin Tu-berc & Respir Dis 1992;15(5)285-287.Eleven COPD patients(age:65±9 yrs)withacute exacerbation of chronic respiratory failure(PaCO2 11.3±1.1kPa)were treated with maskpressure support ventilation,another 10 similarpatients(age:68±12yrs)served as controls.Bi-PAP ventilator was used with the followingmodifications:(1)Non-rehreathing valve set-in proximal to mask;(2)5 LPM oxygen flow de-livered into mask to reduce the dead space ef-fect.Mask ventilation was given 2-3 hours ev-ery time and 1-2 times daily for 7 days.Syn-

  19. Cluster Decline and Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Park, Eun Kyung

    -2011. Our longitudinal study reveals that technological lock-in and exit of key firms have contributed to impairment of the cluster’s resilience in adapting to disruptions. Entrepreneurship has a positive effect on cluster resilience, while multinational companies have contradicting effects by bringing......Most studies on regional clusters focus on identifying factors and processes that make clusters grow. However, sometimes technologies and market conditions suddenly shift, and clusters decline. This paper analyses the process of decline of the wireless communication cluster in Denmark, 1963...

  20. Chronic Condition Clusters and Polypharmacy among Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami Vyas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The primary objective of the study was to estimate the rates of polypharmacy among individuals with multimorbidity defined as chronic condition clusters and examine their associations with polypharmacy. Methods. Cross-sectional analysis of 10,528 individuals of age above 21, with at least one physical condition in cardiometabolic (diabetes or heart disease or hypertension, musculoskeletal (arthritis or osteoporosis, and respiratory (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD or asthma clusters from the 2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Chi-square tests and logistic regressions were performed to analyze the association between polypharmacy and multimorbidity. Results. Polypharmacy rates varied from a low of 7.2% among those with respiratory cluster to a high of 64.1% among those with all three disease clusters. Among those with two or more disease clusters, the rates varied from 28.3% for musculoskeletal and respiratory clusters to 41.8% for those with cardiometabolic and respiratory clusters. Individual with cardiometabolic conditions alone or in combination with other disease clusters were more likely to have polypharmacy. Compared to those with musculoskeletal and respiratory conditions, those with cardiometabolic and respiratory conditions had 1.68 times higher likelihood of polypharmacy. Conclusions. Rates of polypharmacy differed by specific disease clusters. Individuals with cardiometabolic condition were particularly at high risk of polypharmacy, suggesting greater surveillance for adverse drug interaction in this group.

  1. Respiration correction by clustering in ultrasound images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kaizhi; Chen, Xi; Ding, Mingyue; Sang, Nong

    2016-03-01

    Respiratory motion is a challenging factor for image acquisition, image-guided procedures and perfusion quantification using contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the abdominal and thoracic region. In order to reduce the influence of respiratory motion, respiratory correction methods were investigated. In this paper we propose a novel, cluster-based respiratory correction method. In the proposed method, we assign the image frames of the corresponding respiratory phase using spectral clustering firstly. And then, we achieve the images correction automatically by finding a cluster in which points are close to each other. Unlike the traditional gating method, we don't need to estimate the breathing cycle accurate. It is because images are similar at the corresponding respiratory phase, and they are close in high-dimensional space. The proposed method is tested on simulation image sequence and real ultrasound image sequence. The experimental results show the effectiveness of our proposed method in quantitative and qualitative.

  2. Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... share with twitter share with linkedin Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Respiratory syncytial virus, or RSV, is a ... States. Why Is the Study of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) a Priority for NIAID? In the United ...

  3. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyaline membrane disease (HMD); Infant respiratory distress syndrome; Respiratory distress syndrome in infants; RDS - infants ... improves slowly after that. Some infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome will die. This most often occurs between days ...

  4. 模拟KVM技术在计算机集群管理中的应用%Application of Analog KVM Technology in Management of Computer Cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿士华; 吴之光; 梁记斌

    2014-01-01

    KVM is an abbreviation of the keyboard, video and mouse. The key idea of KVM technology is that by more efficient management of computer cluster with less keyboard, monitor and mouse, the efficiency of worker improves and the cost of management reduces. The research of the paper is discussed from the superiority of analog KVM technology, the key technology and its application in the computer cluster management.%KVM是键盘(Keyboard)、视频(Video)和鼠标(Mouse)的缩写,KVM技术核心思想是通过少量的键盘、鼠标和显示器配置,实现多主机计算集群系统的高可管理性,提高管理人员工作效率,降低管理成本。本文主要从模拟KVM技术的优越性、关键技术、在计算机集群管理中的应用等方面进行论述。

  5. Protocol for a cluster randomised stepped wedge trial assessing the impact of a community-level hygiene intervention and a water intervention using riverbank filtration technology on diarrhoeal prevalence in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Sarah L; O'Toole, Joanne E; Boving, Thomas B; Forbes, Andrew B; Sinclair, Martha; Gautam, Sumit K; Leder, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Diarrhoea is a leading cause of death globally, mostly occurring as a result of insufficient or unsafe water supplies, inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene. Our study aims to investigate the impact of a community-level hygiene education program and a water quality intervention using riverbank filtration (RBF) technology on diarrhoeal prevalence. Methods and analysis We have designed a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial to estimate the health impacts of our intervention in 4 rural villages in Karnataka, India. At baseline, surveys will be conducted in all villages, and householders will receive hygiene education. New pipelines, water storage tanks and taps will then be installed at accessible locations in each village and untreated piped river water will be supplied. A subsequent survey will evaluate the impact of hygiene education combined with improved access to greater water volumes for hygiene and drinking purposes (improved water quantity). Villages will then be randomly ordered and RBF-treated water (improved water quality) will be sequentially introduced into the 4 villages in a stepwise manner, with administration of surveys at each time point. The primary outcome is a 7-day period prevalence of self-reported diarrhoea. Secondary outcomes include self-reported respiratory and skin infections, and reported changes in hygiene practices, household water usage and water supply preference. River, tank and tap water from each village, and stored water from a subset of households, will be sampled to assess microbial and chemical quality. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was obtained from the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee in Australia and The Energy and Resources Institute Institutional Ethics Committee in India. The results of the trial will be presented at conferences, published in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated to relevant stakeholders. This study is funded by an Australian National Health and Medical

  6. Gene targeting technologies in rats: zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashimo, Tomoji

    2014-01-01

    The laboratory rat has been widely used as an animal model in biomedical science for more than 150 years. Applying zinc-finger nucleases or transcription activator-like effector nucleases to rat embryos via microinjection is an efficient genome editing tool for generating targeted knockout rats. Recently, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated endonucleases have been used as an effective tool for precise and multiplex genome editing in mice and rats. In this review, the advantages and disadvantages of these site-specific nuclease technologies for genetic analysis and manipulation in rats are discussed.

  7. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-07

    This podcast discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory illness caused by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus—MERS-CoV.  Created: 7/7/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  8. INSURE技术治疗新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征的临床研究%Clinical Research of INSURE Technology in the Treatment of Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小利

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨应用INSURE技术治疗新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征(NRDS)的疗效。方法对39例确诊为NRDS的患儿早期给予INSURE技术治疗,观察治疗前后患儿临床症状、动脉血氧分压、动脉血二氧化碳分压、吸氧浓度的变化及转归的情况。结果37例患儿经INSURE技术治疗后临床症状明显改善,吸入氧浓度(FiO2)可快速下降,氧分压(PO2)、二氧化碳分压(PCO2)均较前明显改善,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论 INSURE技术能减轻NRDS临床症状,改善血氧饱和度,减少有创机械通气的应用。%Objective To evaluate the efficacy of INSURE technology in the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome(NRDS).Methods 39 newborn infants with a conifrmed diagnosis of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome were treated with INSURE technology, the clinical syndrome and PaO2, PaCO2, FiO2 as well as the prognosis were studied.Results The clinical syndrome of 37 newborn infants were improved evidently , and FiO2, PO2, PCO2 were improved signiifcantly(P<0.05).Conclusions INSURE could signiifcantly improve clinical syndrome of the neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, improve oxygen saturation, reduce invasive mechanical ventilation applications.

  9. Regional Technology Assets and Opportunities: The Geographic Clustering of High-Tech Industry, Science and Innovation in Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feser, Edward; Goldstein, Harvey; Renski, Henry; Renault, Catherine

    A study identified 100 sub-regional concentrations of technology-related employment, research and development, and applied innovation within and immediately adjacent to the 406-county service area of the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC). Among the findings are that Appalachia's technology sector is comparatively small but expanding, with most…

  10. Research on PDF Parsing and Parallel Display Technology on Cluster%PDF集群并行解析显示技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗明宇; 付燕平; 刘其军; 归强

    2014-01-01

    A PDF parsing and parallel display technology on cluster is presented to solve high resolution display problem. The importance of the PDF rendering in the tile high resolution system and the PDF format and hierarchical relationship are analyzed. The advantages and disadvantages of both poppler and mupdf library are studied to parse PDF information on cluster and parallel display on the tiled high res-olution system. And use these two libraries to achieve the PDF file parsing and cluster parallel display on the tiled high resolution system. The comparison tests show that the display results are clearer and more efficient for PDF parsing with mupdf library in the cluster parallel tiled high resolution display system. Also,the display resolution of PDF information is greatly increased by the PDF parsing and parallel display technology.%针对大型拼接显示系统对PDF文件高分辨显示的需求,文中研究了集群并行高分辨信息显示平台的显示技术,分析了PDF在大屏显示系统中的重要性以及PDF文件格式和层次关系,研究并探讨了poppler库和mupdf库的优缺点,以及对PDF文件格式的解析与显示技术,并基于poppler库和mupdf库分别实现了PDF文件的解析和集群并行显示。通过对比实验,采用mupdf库能够更清晰、高效地实现PDF集群并行显示,验证了文中提出的PDF集群并行解析显示技术可极大地提高大型拼接显示系统对PDF文件的高分辨显示处理能力。

  11. Use of behavioral economics and social psychology to improve treatment of acute respiratory infections (BEARI): rationale and design of a cluster randomized controlled trial [1RC4AG039115-01] - study protocol and baseline practice and provider characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Persell, Stephen D.; Friedberg, Mark W.; Meeker, Daniella; Linder, Jeffrey A; Craig R. Fox; Goldstein, Noah J.; Shah, Parth D; Knight, Tara K; Doctor, Jason N

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for nonbacterial infections leads to increases in the costs of care, antibiotic resistance among bacteria, and adverse drug events. Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are the most common reason for inappropriate antibiotic use. Most prior efforts to decrease inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for ARIs (e.g., educational or informational interventions) have relied on the implicit assumption th...

  12. Respiratory Development and Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubarth, Lori Baas; Quinn, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory development is crucial for all newborn infants. Premature infants may be born at an early stage of development and lack sufficient surfactant production. This results in respiratory distress syndrome. This article reviews the normal fetal development of the lung as well as the disorder that develops because of an early birth.

  13. 中药有效成分族群辨识研究概况%Review on Identification Technology of Active Clusters in Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕玲; 王耘; 乔延江

    2012-01-01

    中药有效成分族群辨识研究是在中医理论指导下,以临床疗效为指引,在充分整合中医药学、生物学、化学和信息学等多学科的理论方法、技术和研究成果的基础上,高效、快速地发现活性较强的单一有效成分,揭示中药多组分及多靶点的作用机理和整体疗效.现阶段的中药有效成分族群辨识技术主要包括了亲和色谱层析技术、生物芯片技术和信息技术等.本文对该技术的研究背景和常用技术进行了综述,并展望了下一步的研究方向.%This study was aimed to reveal the multi-component and multi-target mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The Identification Technology of Active Clusters of TCM (ITAC-TCM) was proposed with the integration of theory, technology and result of biology, chemistry, informatics and other modern science. Under the guidance of the TCM theory and clinical effect, ITAC-TCM can efficiently and quickly identify active compounds that can act on the same targets. This paper reviewed the study background and common technologies which include affinity chromatography, biochip technology and informatics. The succeeding research is also prospected.

  14. Cluster headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Histamine headache; Headache - histamine; Migrainous neuralgia; Headache - cluster; Horton's headache; Vascular headache - cluster ... A cluster headache begins as a severe, sudden headache. The headache commonly strikes 2 to 3 hours after you fall ...

  15. Cluster Forests

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Donghui; Jordan, Michael I

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by Random Forests (RF) in the context of classification, we propose a new clustering ensemble method---Cluster Forests (CF). Geometrically, CF randomly probes a high-dimensional data cloud to obtain "good local clusterings" and then aggregates via spectral clustering to obtain cluster assignments for the whole dataset. The search for good local clusterings is guided by a cluster quality measure $\\kappa$. CF progressively improves each local clustering in a fashion that resembles the tree growth in RF. Empirical studies on several real-world datasets under two different performance metrics show that CF compares favorably to its competitors. Theoretical analysis shows that the $\\kappa$ criterion is shown to grow each local clustering in a desirable way---it is "noise-resistant." A closed-form expression is obtained for the mis-clustering rate of spectral clustering under a perturbation model, which yields new insights into some aspects of spectral clustering.

  16. Star Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Gieles, M.

    1993-01-01

    Star clusters are observed in almost every galaxy. In this thesis we address several fundamental problems concerning the formation, evolution and disruption of star clusters. From observations of (young) star clusters in the interacting galaxy M51, we found that clusters are formed in complexes of stars and star clusters. These complexes share similar properties with giant molecular clouds, from which they are formed. Many (70%) of the young clusters will not survive the fist 10 Myr, due to t...

  17. Evaluation of a technology-enhanced integrated care model for frail older persons: protocol of the SPEC study, a stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongsoo; Park, Yeon-Hwan; Jung, Young-Il; Choi, Hyoungshim; Lee, Seyune; Kim, Gi-Soo; Yang, Dong-Wook; Paik, Myunghee Cho; Lee, Tae-Jin

    2017-04-18

    Limited evidence exists on the effectiveness of the chronic care model for people with multimorbidity. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of an information and communication technology- (ICT-)enhanced integrated care model, called Systems for Person-centered Elder Care (SPEC), for frail older adults at nursing homes. SPEC is a prospective stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial conducted at 10 nursing homes in South Korea. Residents aged 65 or older meeting the inclusion/exclusion criteria in all the homes are eligible to participate. The multifaceted SPEC intervention, a geriatric care model guided by the chronic care model, consists of five components: comprehensive geriatric assessment for need/risk profiling, individual need-based care planning, interdisciplinary case conferences, person-centered care coordination, and a cloud-based information and communications technology (ICT) tool supporting the intervention process. The primary outcome is quality of care for older residents using a composite measure of quality indicators from the interRAI LTCF assessment system. Outcome assessors and data analysts will be blinded to group assignment. Secondary outcomes include quality of life, healthcare utilization, and cost. Process evaluation will be also conducted. This study is expected to provide important new evidence on the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and implementation process of an ICT-supported chronic care model for older persons with multiple chronic illnesses. The SPEC intervention is also unique as the first registered trial implementing an integrated care model using technology to promote person-centered care for frail older nursing home residents in South Korea, where formal LTC was recently introduced. ISRCTN11972147.

  18. Neonatal and pediatric respiratory care: what does the future hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBlasi, Robert M; Cheifetz, Ira M

    2011-09-01

    Neonatal and pediatric respiratory care continues to move forward at a truly impressive pace. Recent technologic advances and an increasing number of randomized clinical trials are leading to improved outcomes for neonates, infants, children, and adolescents with respiratory illness. The goals of this 47th Respiratory Care Journal Conference were to review pertinent recent advances in neonatal and pediatric respiratory care and, more importantly, to offer thoughts and perspectives for the future of our field. It is important to note that of the prior 46 Journal Conferences, only 2 have been dedicated to neonatal and/or pediatric respiratory care topics. It is our hope that the publication of these proceedings will provide respiratory therapists, physicians, and other members of the clinical care team a foundation on which to ponder the future of neonatal and pediatric respiratory care.

  19. Recent advances in theoretical models of respiratory mechanics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Huo; Rui-Rong Fu

    2012-01-01

    As an important branch of biomedical engineering,respiratory mechanics helps to understand the physiology of the respiratory system and provides fundamental data for developing such clinical technologies as ventilators.To solve different clinical problems,researchers have developed numerous models at various scales that describe biological and mechanical properties of the respiratory system.During the past decade,benefiting from the continuous accumulation of clinical data and the dramatic progress of biomedical technologies (e.g.biomedical imaging),the theoretical modeling of respiratory mechanics has made remarkable progress regarding the macroscopic properties of the respiratory process,complexities of the respiratory system,gas exchange within the lungs,and the coupling interaction between lung and heart.The present paper reviews the advances in the above fields and proposes potential future projects.

  20. Water Innovation and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water technologies are a specific sector that EPA works to address through the water technology cluster, aging infrastructure research, green infrastructure, and major industry meetings such as WEFTEC.

  1. Respiratory Protection against Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt, Burak; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2015-01-01

    Although the respiratory (breathing) system tolerates exposure to a limited degree, some chemicals can impair or destroy portions of it. For many pesticides, the respiratory system is the quickest and most direct route into the circulatory system, allowing rapid transport throughout the body. Thus, it is important to follow the pesticide label and follow directions for control of exposure, especially when respiratory protection is specified. A respirator is a safety device covering at least t...

  2. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a natural generalization of the classical clustering problem, considering clustering tasks in which different instances may have different weights.We conduct the first extensive theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in both...... the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  3. Evolution of clustered storage

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Van de Vyvre, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The session actually featured two presentations: * Evolution of clustered storage by Lance Hukill, Quantum Corporation * ALICE DAQ - Usage of a Cluster-File System: Quantum StorNext by Pierre Vande Vyvre, CERN-PH the second one prepared at short notice by Pierre (thanks!) to present how the Quantum technologies are being used in the ALICE experiment. The abstract to Mr Hukill's follows. Clustered Storage is a technology that is driven by business and mission applications. The evolution of Clustered Storage solutions starts first at the alignment between End-users needs and Industry trends: * Push-and-Pull between managing for today versus planning for tomorrow * Breaking down the real business problems to the core applications * Commoditization of clients, servers, and target devices * Interchangeability, Interoperability, Remote Access, Centralized control * Oh, and yes, there is a budget and the "real world" to deal with This presentation will talk through these needs and trends, and then ask the question, ...

  4. [RDBH-method and big DyeTM terminator technology in accurate diagnosis of β-thalassemia and the allelic polymorphism of β-globin cluster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akperova, G A

    2014-11-01

    IThe purpose of this study was to evaluate of the efficiency of RDBH-method and Big DyeTM Terminator technology in an accurate diagnosis of β-thalassemia and the allelic polymorphism of β-globin cluster. It was done a complete hematology analysis (HB, MCH, MCV, MCHC, RBC, Hct, HbA2, HbF, Serum iron, Serum ferritin at four children (males, 6-10 years old) and their parents. Molecular analysis included Reverse Dot-Blot Hybridization StripAssay (RDBH) and DNA sequencing on ABI PRISM Big DyeTM Terminator. Hematologic and molecular parameters were contradictory. The homozygosity for β0-thalassemia (β0IVS2.1[G>A] and β0codon 8[-AA]) at three boys with the mild clinical manifestation and heterozygosity of their parents for mutations, and the absence of β-globin mutations at parents and a boy who holds monthly transfusion was established by RDBH-analysis. DNA sequencing by technology Big DyeTM Terminator showed polymorphism at positions -551 and -521 of Cap5'-region (-650-250) - (AT)7(T)7 and (AT)8(T)5. Application of the integrated clinical-molecular approach is an ideal method for an accurate diagnosis, identification of asymptomatic carriers and a reduce of the risk of complications from β-thalassemia, moreover screening of γG-gene and the level of fetal hemoglobin in early childhood will help manage of β-thalassemia clinic and prevent heavy consequences of the disease.

  5. Introduction to cluster dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhard, Paul-Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Clusters as mesoscopic particles represent an intermediate state of matter between single atoms and solid material. The tendency to miniaturise technical objects requires knowledge about systems which contain a ""small"" number of atoms or molecules only. This is all the more true for dynamical aspects, particularly in relation to the qick development of laser technology and femtosecond spectroscopy. Here, for the first time is a highly qualitative introduction to cluster physics. With its emphasis on cluster dynamics, this will be vital to everyone involved in this interdisciplinary subje

  6. 1999年度沪深两市中期上市高科技 公司股票聚类分析%The Clustering Analysis of Stock Indexes of High Technology Companies in Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩江舟; 葛世伦; 盛永祥

    2001-01-01

    Analyses the stock indexes of 20 high technology companies with the clustering statistics analysis methods, and classifies these companies according to the clustering results, which helps us understand the earning-profit capability and solvency of debts in different company groups.%用聚类统计分析方法分析了沪深两地二十家上市高科技公司中期报告的主要指标,用一定的依据将它们分类,显示了这些上市公司在赢利、偿债等方面的特征。

  7. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... share with twitter share with linkedin Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Treatment Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Respiratory Syncytial ... Specific Aims Outline Your Experiments Know Your Audience Write Your Research Plan Plan Your Budget & Personnel Salary ...

  8. On clusters and clustering from atoms to fractals

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, PJ

    1993-01-01

    This book attempts to answer why there is so much interest in clusters. Clusters occur on all length scales, and as a result occur in a variety of fields. Clusters are interesting scientifically, but they also have important consequences technologically. The division of the book into three parts roughly separates the field into small, intermediate, and large-scale clusters. Small clusters are the regime of atomic and molecular physics and chemistry. The intermediate regime is the transitional regime, with its characteristics including the onset of bulk-like behavior, growth and aggregation, a

  9. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  10. A 60 GOPS/W, -1.8V to 0.9V body bias ULP cluster in 28nm UTBB FD-SOI technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Davide; Pullini, Antonio; Loi, Igor; Gautschi, Michael; Gürkaynak, Frank K.; Bartolini, Andrea; Flatresse, Philippe; Benini, Luca

    2016-03-01

    Ultra-low power operation and extreme energy efficiency are strong requirements for a number of high-growth application areas, such as E-health, Internet of Things, and wearable Human-Computer Interfaces. A promising approach to achieve up to one order of magnitude of improvement in energy efficiency over current generation of integrated circuits is near-threshold computing. However, frequency degradation due to aggressive voltage scaling may not be acceptable across all performance-constrained applications. Thread-level parallelism over multiple cores can be used to overcome the performance degradation at low voltage. Moreover, enabling the processors to operate on-demand and over a wide supply voltage and body bias ranges allows to achieve the best possible energy efficiency while satisfying a large spectrum of computational demands. In this work we present the first ever implementation of a 4-core cluster fabricated using conventional-well 28 nm UTBB FD-SOI technology. The multi-core architecture we present in this work is able to operate on a wide range of supply voltages starting from 0.44 V to 1.2 V. In addition, the architecture allows a wide range of body bias to be applied from -1.8 V to 0.9 V. The peak energy efficiency 60 GOPS/W is achieved at 0.5 V supply voltage and 0.5 V forward body bias. Thanks to the extended body bias range of conventional-well FD-SOI technology, high energy efficiency can be guaranteed for a wide range of process and environmental conditions. We demonstrate the ability to compensate for up to 99.7% of chips for process variation with only ±0.2 V of body biasing, and compensate temperature variation in the range -40 °C to 120 °C exploiting -1.1 V to 0.8 V body biasing. When compared to leading-edge near-threshold RISC processors optimized for extremely low power applications, the multi-core architecture we propose has 144× more performance at comparable energy efficiency levels. Even when compared to other low-power processors

  11. 辽宁省水情数据库中集群技术的探讨与应用%Discussion and Application of Cluster Technology of Hydrologic Information Database in Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁冰; 梁卓然

    2015-01-01

    Clustering technology is a hot spot of the study on database field. This paper discusses the theory and application of cluster technology systematically, with the hydrologic information database of Liaoning Province as an example. It introduces the schemas of Share-Disk and Share-Nothing, and discusses the application of clustering technology in SOL-Server of Liaoning Province hydrologic information database as a key issue. Results shows that:the technology could ensure the high availability, data security, expansion and load balancing of hydrologic information database in Liaoning Province%集群技术是当今数据库领域的研究热点之一.以辽宁省水情数据库为例,深入讨论集群技术的理论与应用,详细介绍Share-Disk与Share-Nothing 2种集群构架,并在此基础上着重探讨Moebius技术在辽宁省水情数据库SOL Server中的应用.应用结果表明:集群技术可保证辽宁省水情数据库的高可用、数据安全、扩展性及负载均衡.

  12. Meaningful Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Calapristi, Augustin J.; Crow, Vernon L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2004-05-26

    We present an approach to the disambiguation of cluster labels that capitalizes on the notion of semantic similarity to assign WordNet senses to cluster labels. The approach provides interesting insights on how document clustering can provide the basis for developing a novel approach to word sense disambiguation.

  13. Respiratory medicine of reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Juergen

    2011-05-01

    Noninfectious and infectious causes have been implicated in the development of respiratory tract disease in reptiles. Treatment modalities in reptiles have to account for species differences in response to therapeutic agents as well as interpretation of diagnostic findings. Data on effective drugs and dosages for the treatment of respiratory diseases are often lacking in reptiles. Recently, advances have been made on the application of advanced imaging modalities, especially computed tomography for the diagnosis and treatment monitoring of reptiles. This article describes common infectious and noninfectious causes of respiratory disease in reptiles, including diagnostic and therapeutic regimen.

  14. Cluster Lenses

    CERN Document Server

    Kneib, Jean-Paul; 10.1007/s00159-011-0047-3

    2012-01-01

    Clusters of galaxies are the most recently assembled, massive, bound structures in the Universe. As predicted by General Relativity, given their masses, clusters strongly deform space-time in their vicinity. Clusters act as some of the most powerful gravitational lenses in the Universe. Light rays traversing through clusters from distant sources are hence deflected, and the resulting images of these distant objects therefore appear distorted and magnified. Lensing by clusters occurs in two regimes, each with unique observational signatures. The strong lensing regime is characterized by effects readily seen by eye, namely, the production of giant arcs, multiple-images, and arclets. The weak lensing regime is characterized by small deformations in the shapes of background galaxies only detectable statistically. Cluster lenses have been exploited successfully to address several important current questions in cosmology: (i) the study of the lens(es) - understanding cluster mass distributions and issues pertaining...

  15. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  16. A pharmacist-led information technology intervention for medication errors (PINCER): a multicentre, cluster randomised, controlled trial and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Anthony J; Rodgers, Sarah; Cantrill, Judith A; Armstrong, Sarah; Cresswell, Kathrin; Eden, Martin; Elliott, Rachel A; Howard, Rachel; Kendrick, Denise; Morris, Caroline J; Prescott, Robin J; Swanwick, Glen; Franklin, Matthew; Putman, Koen; Boyd, Matthew; Sheikh, Aziz

    2012-04-07

    Medication errors are common in primary care and are associated with considerable risk of patient harm. We tested whether a pharmacist-led, information technology-based intervention was more effective than simple feedback in reducing the number of patients at risk of measures related to hazardous prescribing and inadequate blood-test monitoring of medicines 6 months after the intervention. In this pragmatic, cluster randomised trial general practices in the UK were stratified by research site and list size, and randomly assigned by a web-based randomisation service in block sizes of two or four to one of two groups. The practices were allocated to either computer-generated simple feedback for at-risk patients (control) or a pharmacist-led information technology intervention (PINCER), composed of feedback, educational outreach, and dedicated support. The allocation was masked to researchers and statisticians involved in processing and analysing the data. The allocation was not masked to general practices, pharmacists, patients, or researchers who visited practices to extract data. [corrected]. Primary outcomes were the proportions of patients at 6 months after the intervention who had had any of three clinically important errors: non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) prescribed to those with a history of peptic ulcer without co-prescription of a proton-pump inhibitor; β blockers prescribed to those with a history of asthma; long-term prescription of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or loop diuretics to those 75 years or older without assessment of urea and electrolytes in the preceding 15 months. The cost per error avoided was estimated by incremental cost-effectiveness analysis. This study is registered with Controlled-Trials.com, number ISRCTN21785299. 72 general practices with a combined list size of 480,942 patients were randomised. At 6 months' follow-up, patients in the PINCER group were significantly less likely to have

  17. The microbiota of the respiratory tract: gatekeeper to respiratory health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Wing Ho; de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A A; Bogaert, Debby

    2017-05-01

    The respiratory tract is a complex organ system that is responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The human respiratory tract spans from the nostrils to the lung alveoli and is inhabited by niche-specific communities of bacteria. The microbiota of the respiratory tract probably acts as a gatekeeper that provides resistance to colonization by respiratory pathogens. The respiratory microbiota might also be involved in the maturation and maintenance of homeostasis of respiratory physiology and immunity. The ecological and environmental factors that direct the development of microbial communities in the respiratory tract and how these communities affect respiratory health are the focus of current research. Concurrently, the functions of the microbiome of the upper and lower respiratory tract in the physiology of the human host are being studied in detail. In this Review, we will discuss the epidemiological, biological and functional evidence that support the physiological role of the respiratory microbiota in the maintenance of human health.

  18. Technology Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA produces innovative technologies and facilitates their creation in line with the Agency mission to create products such as the stormwater calculator, remote sensing, innovation clusters, and low-cost air sensors.

  19. Advances in respiratory therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Bach, Jonathan F; Shaw, Scott P

    2007-09-01

    Effective respiratory therapy depends on obtaining a definitive diagnosis and following established recommendations for treatment. Unfortunately, many respiratory conditions are idiopathic in origin or are attributable to nonspecific inflammation. In some situations, disorders are controlled rather than cured. Recent advances in pulmonary therapeutics include the use of new agents to treat common diseases and application of local delivery of drugs to enhance drug effect and minimize side effects.

  20. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-04

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.  Created: 2/4/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Viral Diseases (DVD).   Date Released: 2/13/2013.

  1. Respiratory gating in cardiac PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Martin Lyngby; Rasmussen, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory motion due to breathing during cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) results in spatial blurring and erroneous tracer quantification. Respiratory gating might represent a solution by dividing the PET coincidence dataset into smaller respiratory phase subsets. The aim...... stress (82)RB-PET. Respiratory rates and depths were measured by a respiratory gating system in addition to registering actual respiratory rates. Patients undergoing adenosine stress showed a decrease in measured respiratory rate from initial to later scan phase measurements [12.4 (±5.7) vs 5.6 (±4.......7) min(-1), P PET...

  2. Informal ties in industrial cluster and its impact on technological innovation:A case study of household appliance cluster in Shunde%产业集群的非正式联系及其对技术创新的影响——以顺德家电产业集群为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘炜; 李郇; 欧俏珊

    2013-01-01

    产业集群企业之间建立在各种正式与非正式联系上的技术交流与合作是集群企业技术创新的重要基础.然而,长久以来产业集群的非正式联系在西方主流的技术创新的研究文献中一直被忽视.本文通过对顺德家电产业集群30家企业的问卷调查和深度访谈,总结了产业集群的非正式联系的三种类型,即企业衍生形成的非正式联系、人才流动形成的非正式联系、长期合作建立在信任基础上的非正式联系.通过进一步研究发现,不同类型的非正式联系对于集群企业技术创新有着不同的影响.前两者对技术创新的影响主要体现在技术信息与知识的传递,而后者主要体现在使企业之间产生了一种技术上的共同理解和认识,能够提高企业之间技术合作的成功率.%Many case studies of industrial clusters indicate that the technological exchange and cooperation among the firms based on all kinds of formal and informal ties constitute the basis of technological innovation of firms in the industrial cluster. Most of the studies from economics, management and organization sociology mainly focus on formal ties of innovation such as research consortia, strategic alliances, technology license. However, research on informal ties of innovation like spin-offs and talent mobility has been neglected for a long time. Based on literature review of studies on informal ties in economic geography, this paper proposes an analytical framework of industrial cluster, informal ties and technological innovation. On the ground of questionnaire survey and in-depth interview with 30 firms of household appliance cluster of Shunde, this paper summarizes three types of informal ties in industrial cluster: informal ties based on spin-offs, informal ties based on talent mobility, informal ties based on trust by long-time cooperation. Furthermore, we find that the informal ties are actually a kind of social networks based on

  3. Data Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2012-03-01

    On obtaining a new data set, the researcher is immediately faced with the challenge of obtaining a high-level understanding from the observations. What does a typical item look like? What are the dominant trends? How many distinct groups are included in the data set, and how is each one characterized? Which observable values are common, and which rarely occur? Which items stand out as anomalies or outliers from the rest of the data? This challenge is exacerbated by the steady growth in data set size [11] as new instruments push into new frontiers of parameter space, via improvements in temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution, or by the desire to "fuse" observations from different modalities and instruments into a larger-picture understanding of the same underlying phenomenon. Data clustering algorithms provide a variety of solutions for this task. They can generate summaries, locate outliers, compress data, identify dense or sparse regions of feature space, and build data models. It is useful to note up front that "clusters" in this context refer to groups of items within some descriptive feature space, not (necessarily) to "galaxy clusters" which are dense regions in physical space. The goal of this chapter is to survey a variety of data clustering methods, with an eye toward their applicability to astronomical data analysis. In addition to improving the individual researcher’s understanding of a given data set, clustering has led directly to scientific advances, such as the discovery of new subclasses of stars [14] and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) [38]. All clustering algorithms seek to identify groups within a data set that reflect some observed, quantifiable structure. Clustering is traditionally an unsupervised approach to data analysis, in the sense that it operates without any direct guidance about which items should be assigned to which clusters. There has been a recent trend in the clustering literature toward supporting semisupervised or constrained

  4. 产业集群中企业技术创新战略选择的演化博弈分析%Evolutionary Game Analysis on Technological Innovation Strategy Choices of Enterprises in Industrial Cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    计国君; 王佳

    2011-01-01

    Depending on the current states of China that local industrial clusters generally at the low level in the global hierarchy system,due to lack of the source of independent technology innovation. The paper studies from the microscopic perspective, consider the two types of enterprises in industrial clusters selected from strategies of independent technology innovation and imitation respectively, establishes evolutionary game simulation model of the choices for technology innovation strategies, and finds out the evolutionarily stable strategy. Finally, through the analysis on the results of these stable strategies, the paper finds out how the three factors which include the cost of independent technological innovation, revenue sharing rates of imitators gained from innovators, the transformation of independent technological, impact technological innovation stable strategy of enterprises in industry cluster. On these basis, the paper gives some suggestion which can make stable strategy promoting the technological innovation of industry cluster.%针对我国产业集群普遍缺乏自主技术创新源、大多处于集群全球等级体系低端的现状,从产业集群中的企业这一微观视角进行研究,考虑产业集群中两类企业分别在自主技术创新和模仿创新两种战略中进行选择,建立了技术创新战略选择的复制者动态模型,寻找其演化稳定策略.最后通过对演化博弈稳定策略的结果分析,得出3种因素:企业自主技术创新成本、模仿者对于创新者创造的新增收益的分享率、企业自主技术创新的转化因子,是如何影响产业集群中企业技术创新战略演化稳定点的.在此基础上,提出了利用演化稳定点促进产业集群技术创新的建议.

  5. Respiratory failure in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevransky, Jonathan E; Haponik, Edward F

    2003-02-01

    the physician focuses management on physiologic measurements, mechanical ventilator settings, and other technologic nuances of care [40]. Review of the literature suggests that the development of respiratory failure in patients with certain disease processes such as COPD, IPF, and ARDS in elderly patients may lead to worsened outcome but it appears that the disease process itself, rather than the age of the patient, is the major determinant of outcome. Additional studies suggest that other comorbid factors may be more important than age. Only when comorbid processes are taken into account should decisions be made about the efficacy of instituting mechanical ventilation. In addition, because outcome prediction appears to be more accurate for groups of patients rather than for individual patients a well-structured therapeutic trial of instituting mechanical ventilation, even if comorbidities are present, may be indicated in certain patients if appropriately informed patients wish to pursue this course. This approach requires careful and realistic definition of potential outcomes, focus on optimizing treatment of the reversible components of the illness, and continuous communication with the patient and family. Although many clinicians share a nihilistic view regarding the potential usefulness of mechanical ventilation in elderly patients few data warrant this negative prognostication and more outcome studies are needed to delineate the optimum application of this element of supportive care. As with other interventions individualization of the decision must take into account the patient's premorbid status, concomitant conditions, the nature of the precipitating illness and its prospects for improvement, and most important, patient preferences. In this determination pursuing the course most consistent with the patient's wishes is essential and it must be appreciated that caregivers' impressions regarding the vigor of support desired by the patient are often erroneous. The

  6. Cluster Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Cansisting of eight scientists from the State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Xiamen University, this creative research group is devoted to the research of cluster chemistry and creation of nanomaterials.After three-year hard work, the group scored a series of encouraging progresses in synthesis of clusters with special structures, including novel fullerenes, fullerene-like metal cluster compounds as well as other related nanomaterials, and their properties study.

  7. Research of Web Documents Clustering Based on Dynamic Concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yun-hua; CHEN Shi-hong

    2004-01-01

    Conceptual clustering is mainly used for solving the deficiency and incompleteness of domain knowledge.Based on conceptual clustering technology and aiming at the institutional framework and characteristic of Web theme information, this paper proposes and implements dynamic conceptual clustering algorithm and merging algorithm for Web documents, and also analyses the super performance of the clustering algorithm in efficiency and clustering accuracy.

  8. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine

    This PhD thesis presents the diversity of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome viruses (PRRSV) circulating in the Danish pig population. PRRS is a disease in pigs caused by the PRRS virus resulting in reproductive failures in sows and gilts and respiratory diseases in pigs . Due to genetic...... heterogeneity, PRRSV is divided into two genotypes, Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 PRRS viruses are further divided into at least 3 subtypes. The virus evolves rapidly and reports of high pathogenic variants of both Type 1 and Type 2 appearing in Europe, North America, and Asia have been reported within recent years...... confirmed that only Type 1 subtype 1 PRRSV is circulating in the Danish pig population. The examination of the Danish PRRS field viruses confirmed that there is a high overall diversity among Type 1 viruses in Europe. The phylogenetic study also indicated the presence of two Danish virus clusters, one...

  9. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Zammit

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ producing systemic inflammation and effecting central respiratory control. Obesity plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Asthma is more common and often harder to treat in the obese population, and in this study, we review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation and respiratory mechanics. We also discuss the compounding effects of obesity on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and the paradoxical interaction of body mass index and COPD severity. Many practical challenges exist in caring for obese patients, and we highlight the complications faced by patients undergoing surgical procedures, especially given the increased use of bariatric surgery. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the effects of obesity on the respiratory disease and the provision of adequate health care resources is vital in order to care for this increasingly important patient population.Keywords: obesity, lung function, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, anesthesia

  10. Clustered regression with unknown clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Barman, Kishor

    2011-01-01

    We consider a collection of prediction experiments, which are clustered in the sense that groups of experiments ex- hibit similar relationship between the predictor and response variables. The experiment clusters as well as the regres- sion relationships are unknown. The regression relation- ships define the experiment clusters, and in general, the predictor and response variables may not exhibit any clus- tering. We call this prediction problem clustered regres- sion with unknown clusters (CRUC) and in this paper we focus on linear regression. We study and compare several methods for CRUC, demonstrate their applicability to the Yahoo Learning-to-rank Challenge (YLRC) dataset, and in- vestigate an associated mathematical model. CRUC is at the crossroads of many prior works and we study several prediction algorithms with diverse origins: an adaptation of the expectation-maximization algorithm, an approach in- spired by K-means clustering, the singular value threshold- ing approach to matrix rank minimization u...

  11. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for adult respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, David A; Cheifetz, Ira M

    2013-06-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a form of cardiopulmonary bypass that is a mainstay of therapy in neonatal and pediatric patients with life threatening respiratory and/or cardiac failure. Historically, the use of ECMO in adults has been limited, but recent reports and technological advances have increased utilization and interest in this technology in adult patients with severe respiratory failure. As ECMO is considered in this critically ill population, patient selection, indications, contraindications, comorbidities, and pre-ECMO support are all important considerations. Once the decision is made to cannulate a patient for ECMO, meticulous multi-organ-system management is required, with a priority being placed on lung rest and minimization of ventilator-induced lung injury. Close monitoring is also necessary for complications, some of which are related to ECMO and others secondary to the patient's underlying degree of illness. Despite the risks, reports demonstrate survival > 70% in some circumstances for patients requiring ECMO for refractory respiratory failure. As the utilization of ECMO in adult patients with respiratory failure continues to expand, ongoing discussion and investigation are needed to determine whether ECMO should remain a "rescue" therapy or if earlier ECMO may be beneficial as a lung-protective strategy.

  12. Subspace clustering through attribute clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun NIU; Shubo ZHANG; Junliang CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Many recently proposed subspace clustering methods suffer from two severe problems. First, the algorithms typically scale exponentially with the data dimensionality or the subspace dimensionality of clusters. Second, the clustering results are often sensitive to input parameters. In this paper, a fast algorithm of subspace clustering using attribute clustering is proposed to over-come these limitations. This algorithm first filters out redundant attributes by computing the Gini coefficient. To evaluate the correlation of every two non-redundant attributes, the relation matrix of non-redundant attributes is constructed based on the relation function of two dimensional united Gini coefficients. After applying an overlapping clustering algorithm on the relation matrix, the candidate of all interesting subspaces is achieved. Finally, all subspace clusters can be derived by clustering on interesting subspaces. Experiments on both synthesis and real datasets show that the new algorithm not only achieves a significant gain of runtime and quality to find subspace clusters, but also is insensitive to input parameters.

  13. Respiratory muscle training increases respiratory muscle strength and reduces respiratory complications after stroke: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia KP Menezes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Question: After stroke, does respiratory muscle training increase respiratory muscle strength and/or endurance? Are any benefits carried over to activity and/or participation? Does it reduce respiratory complications? Design: Systematic review of randomised or quasi-randomised trials. Participants: Adults with respiratory muscle weakness following stroke. Intervention: Respiratory muscle training aimed at increasing inspiratory and/or expiratory muscle strength. Outcome measures: Five outcomes were of interest: respiratory muscle strength, respiratory muscle endurance, activity, participation and respiratory complications. Results: Five trials involving 263 participants were included. The mean PEDro score was 6.4 (range 3 to 8, showing moderate methodological quality. Random-effects meta-analyses showed that respiratory muscle training increased maximal inspiratory pressure by 7 cmH2O (95% CI 1 to 14 and maximal expiratory pressure by 13 cmH2O (95% CI 1 to 25; it also decreased the risk of respiratory complications (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.96 compared with no/sham respiratory intervention. Whether these effects carry over to activity and participation remains uncertain. Conclusion: This systematic review provided evidence that respiratory muscle training is effective after stroke. Meta-analyses based on five trials indicated that 30 minutes of respiratory muscle training, five times per week, for 5 weeks can be expected to increase respiratory muscle strength in very weak individuals after stroke. In addition, respiratory muscle training is expected to reduce the risk of respiratory complications after stroke. Further studies are warranted to investigate whether the benefits are carried over to activity and participation. Registration: PROSPERO (CRD42015020683. [Menezes KKP, Nascimento LR, Ada L, Polese JC, Avelino PR, Teixeira-Salmela LF (2016 Respiratory muscle training increases respiratory muscle strength and reduces respiratory

  14. Respiratory problems in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrant, N J; Gatland, D J

    1990-01-01

    Death from respiratory causes in acromegaly is three times more common than in the general population and is most often the result of upper airways obstruction, although less commonly pulmonary dysfunction and disturbance of the central nervous system may occur. These factors may be found alone or in combination. Despite several reports of laryngeal involvement, upper airway obstruction in acromegaly is usually regarded as being due to macroglossia and pharyngeal soft tissue hypertrophy. We present four cases of acromegaly in which tracheostomy was required for laryngeal obstruction, with a review of the literature concerning the nature of respiratory problems in acromegaly.

  15. Progress on application of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation technology in nursing care of severe respiratory failure patients%体外膜肺氧合技术在重症呼吸衰竭病人护理中的应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓红; 朱振男

    2012-01-01

    It reviewed the applied progress of extracorporeal membrane ox-ygenation in nursing care of severe respiratory failure patients from the aspects of basic principle and development of the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation(ECMO) treatment, adaptation levy of ECMO technology applied in severe respiratory failure patients,nursing care of ECMO technology applied in severe respiratory failure patients including circular and vital sign monitoring, airway and ventilator management, prevention of infection, and oxygenator care.%从体外膜肺氧合(ECMO)治疗的基本原理及其发展、ECMO技术应用于重症呼吸衰竭的适应证、ECMO技术应用于重症呼吸衰竭病人的护理(包括循环和生命体征的监测、气道及呼吸机管理、预防感染、氧合器护理等)方面综述了体外膜肺氧合技术在重症呼吸衰竭病人护理中的应用进展.

  16. Recognition and management of respiratory dysfunction in children with tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porth, Susan C

    2004-01-01

    Children less than 15 years of age comprise approximately 3% to 5% of all new spinal injuries each year. Approximately one third of these children sustain injuries to the cervical spine. Respiratory complications of spinal cord injuries at the level of C5 and above may include diaphragm dysfunction, retained airway secretions, recurrent aspiration, nocturnal hypoventilation, and respiratory failure. Although most newly injured children with cervical injuries above the level of C5 will require mechanical ventilation acutely, many eventually will be able to be weaned from technology. Despite their ability to breathe without mechanical support, these children often develop ongoing issues associated with respiratory compromise, which interfere with daily activities and can negatively affect quality of life. Poor endurance, failure to thrive, recurrent pneumonia, and sleep-disordered breathing all may be indications of significant respiratory dysfunction. This article describes assessment tools and management strategies aimed at supporting optimal health and preventing recurrent complications associated with unrecognized or untreated respiratory dysfunction.

  17. Obesity and respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammit, Christopher; Liddicoat, Helen; Moonsie, Ian; Makker, Himender

    2010-10-20

    The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ producing systemic inflammation and effecting central respiratory control. Obesity plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Asthma is more common and often harder to treat in the obese population, and in this study, we review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation and respiratory mechanics. We also discuss the compounding effects of obesity on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the paradoxical interaction of body mass index and COPD severity. Many practical challenges exist in caring for obese patients, and we highlight the complications faced by patients undergoing surgical procedures, especially given the increased use of bariatric surgery. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the effects of obesity on the respiratory disease and the provision of adequate health care resources is vital in order to care for this increasingly important patient population.

  18. Respiratory Issues in OI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... capacity. Other problems include ineffective cough, poor secretion clearance, airway diseases such as asthma, sleep apnea, and low oxygen. These problems affect people of all ages and all types of OI. Respiratory infection, poor ... good secretion clearance by staying well hydrated and speaking to your ...

  19. Respiratory Diseases of Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new Respiratory Diseases of Poultry CRIS will be established effective October 1, 2006. Initially, the disease agents to be studied will include Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Bordetella avium (BART) and Pasteurella multocida. The research will focus on development of more effective vacc...

  20. [Respiratory complications after transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasinski, M; Mertes, P-M; Carlier, M; Dupont, H; Girard, M; Gette, S; Just, B; Malinovsky, J-M

    2014-05-01

    Respiratory complications of blood transfusion have several possible causes. Transfusion-Associated Circulatory Overload (TACO) is often the first mentioned. Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI), better defined since the consensus conference of Toronto in 2004, is rarely mentioned. French incidence is low. Non-hemolytic febrile reactions, allergies, infections and pulmonary embolism are also reported. The objective of this work was to determine the statistical importance of the different respiratory complications of blood transfusion. This work was conducted retrospectively on transfusion accidents in six health centers in Champagne-Ardenne, reported to Hemovigilance between 2000 and 2009 and having respiratory symptoms. The analysis of data was conducted by an expert committee. Eighty-three cases of respiratory complications are found (316,864 blood products). We have counted 26 TACO, 12 TRALI (only 6 cases were identified in the original investigation of Hemovigilance), 18 non-hemolytic febrile reactions, 16 cases of allergies, 5 transfusions transmitted bacterial infections and 2 pulmonary embolisms. Six new TRALI were diagnosed previously labeled TACO for 2 of them, allergy and infection in 2 other cases and diagnosis considered unknown for the last 2. Our study found an incidence of TRALI 2 times higher than that reported previously. Interpretation of the data by a multidisciplinary committee amended 20% of diagnoses. This study shows the imperfections of our system for reporting accidents of blood transfusion when a single observer analyses the medical records.

  1. Design and construction of latest generation cluster wells for heavy oil, using cutting edge technology and best practices in project implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, A.; Brunings, C.; Contreras, G. [PDVSA (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    Venezuela has the largest hydrocarbon accumulation in the world in its eastern part - the Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco. PDVSA is exploiting these reserves and given the need to optimize performance, they decided to implement a project named, {sup L}atest Generation Cluster{sup .} This project will aim at standardizing engineering criteria with a view to employing the best known methods available on the market. A multidisciplinary team will then be formed to ensure that all organizations involved are working together, including risk management, and a representative of each organization will report to the Project manager. The implementation of this model cluster is designed to ensure the project's success and bring flexibility to the project so it can adapt to different areas of the oil field. The project presented herein is based on a model cluster designed to ensure optimal project performance through everyone's participation.

  2. Cluster synchronization in oscillatory networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belykh, Vladimir N.; Osipov, Grigory V.; Petrov, Valentin S.; Suykens, Johan A. K.; Vandewalle, Joos

    2008-09-01

    Synchronous behavior in networks of coupled oscillators is a commonly observed phenomenon attracting a growing interest in physics, biology, communication, and other fields of science and technology. Besides global synchronization, one can also observe splitting of the full network into several clusters of mutually synchronized oscillators. In this paper, we study the conditions for such cluster partitioning into ensembles for the case of identical chaotic systems. We focus mainly on the existence and the stability of unique unconditional clusters whose rise does not depend on the origin of the other clusters. Also, conditional clusters in arrays of globally nonsymmetrically coupled identical chaotic oscillators are investigated. The design problem of organizing clusters into a given configuration is discussed.

  3. 基于集群技术的作业管理系统%On Overcoming Shortcomings in Job-Center Manager System Using Cluster Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤小春; 胡正国; 卢维扬

    2001-01-01

    Two shortcomings, low availability and low scalability, are very widespread in existing high-performance computing.   We propose hardware model in Fig.1 and software model in Fig.2 to overcome the a bove-mentioned shortcomings. Fig.1 shows four items: (1) cluster manager, (2) network user terminals, (3) cluster servers and (4) SCSI share disk. Fig.2 shows various relationships among five modules: (1) cluster manager monitor, (2) cluster manager agent, (3) cluster manager client service, (4) cluster manager client, and (5) aware application interface.   A job-center manager system has been built and successfully put into use. In its implementation, a very important feature is its migration function shown in Fig .3, which overcomes the two shortcomings as follows:   (1) When failure occurs somewhere, it automatically shifts the jobs somewhere else until recovery is completed either automatically or manually. Thus availability is assured.   (2) When performance suffers from overload, it shifts a suitable amount of load to other workstations or PCs. Thus scalability is assured.%可升级性与可用性是当前软件开发的一个目标,集群技术就是为了实现这一目标而提出的。 基 于集群技术,建立了新的作业管理系统的硬、软件运行环境。在集群服务器运行环境的基础 上,提出了作业迁移的模型以及集群节点的恢复算法,该系统已经在一个大型作业管理系统 中得到具体实现。

  4. Cluster editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böcker, S.; Baumbach, Jan

    2013-01-01

    . The problem has been the inspiration for numerous algorithms in bioinformatics, aiming at clustering entities such as genes, proteins, phenotypes, or patients. In this paper, we review exact and heuristic methods that have been proposed for the Cluster Editing problem, and also applications......The Cluster Editing problem asks to transform a graph into a disjoint union of cliques using a minimum number of edge modifications. Although the problem has been proven NP-complete several times, it has nevertheless attracted much research both from the theoretical and the applied side...

  5. Weighted Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerman, Margareta; Branzei, Simina; Loker, David

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate clustering in the weighted setting, in which every data point is assigned a real valued weight. We conduct a theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in each of the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterising the precise conditions under which such algorithms react to weights, and classifying clustering methods into three broad categories: weight-responsive, weight-considering, and weight-robust. Our analysis raises several interesting questions and can be directly mapped to the classical unweighted setting.

  6. Cluster analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Everitt, Brian S; Leese, Morven; Stahl, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Cluster analysis comprises a range of methods for classifying multivariate data into subgroups. By organizing multivariate data into such subgroups, clustering can help reveal the characteristics of any structure or patterns present. These techniques have proven useful in a wide range of areas such as medicine, psychology, market research and bioinformatics.This fifth edition of the highly successful Cluster Analysis includes coverage of the latest developments in the field and a new chapter dealing with finite mixture models for structured data.Real life examples are used throughout to demons

  7. American Association for Respiratory Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NBRC Credentials Congress News & Highlights Clinician Training on Tobacco Dependence for Respiratory Therapists Increase your skill with ... 12 Dad’s Struggle with ALS Inspires Respiratory Therapy Student Read More Oct 12 RSV Experience Leads Member ...

  8. Respiratory Resistance In Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Michael J.

    1975-01-01

    Patients' respiratory problems may interfere with their talking in therapy sessions. Interventions by the therapist must be based on an understanding of the underlying dynamics which produced the respiratory problem. (Author)

  9. Respiratory manifestations in amyloidosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ling; CAI Bai-qiang; ZHONG Xu; ZHU Yuan-jue

    2005-01-01

    Background Amyloidosis is a collection of diseases in which different proteins are deposited. Amyloid deposits occur in systemic and organ-limited forms. In both systemic and localized forms of the disease, lung can be involved. The aim of this study was to explore the different respiratory manifestations of amyloidosis. Methods Chest radiology, clinical presentations, bronchoscopic/laryngoscopic findings and lung function data of 59 patients with amyloidosis involving respiratory tract collected during January 1986 to March 2005, were analysed.Results Of the 16 cases with localized respiratory tract amyloidosis, 8 had the lesions in the trachea and the bronchi, 2 in the larynx and the trachea, 5 in the larynx and/or the pharynx, and 1 in the lung parenchyma. Of 43 systemic amyloidosis with respiratory tract involvement, 3 had the lesions in bronchi, 13 in lung parenchyma, 33 in pleura, 8 in mediastina, 1 in nose and 1 in pharynx. Chest X-rays were normal in most cases of tracheobronchial amyloidosis. CT, unlike chest X-rays, showed irregular luminal narrowing, airway wall thickening with calcifications and soft tissue shadows in airway lumen. Localized lung parenchymal amyloidosis presented as multiple nodules. Multiple nodular opacities, patch shadows and reticular opacities were the main radiological findings in systemic amyloidosis with lung parenchymal involvement. In pleural amyloidosis, pleural effusions and pleural thickening were detected. Mediastinal and/or hilar adenopathy were also a form of lung involvement in systemic amyloidosis. The major bronchoscopic findings of tracheobronchial amyloidosis were narrowing of airway lumen, while nodular, 'tumour like' or 'bubble like' masses, with missing or vague cartilaginous rings, were detected in about half of the patients.Conclusions Localized respiratory tract amyloidosis mostly affects the trachea and the bronchi. Chest X-rays are not sensitive to detect these lesions. Systemic amyloidosis often involves

  10. Project Seacleaner: from cooperation among ISMAR-CNR researchers, high school students and the Ligurian Cluster for Marine Technologies to an application for environmental monitoring and scientific research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlino, Silvia; Marini, Claudio; Tosi, Daniela; Caselli, Lorena; Marini, Davide; Lucchinelli, Paolo; Vatteroni, Davide; Lunardelli, Francesco; Agrusa, Astrid; Lombardi, Davide; Stroobant, Mascha

    2014-05-01

    Recently, the Institute for Marine Science of the Italian Research Council ISMAR-CNR has undertaken a series of actions to incorporate oceanography in education: among these, the project "SeaCleaner" that has been developed together with a local Secondary School (Istituto di Istruzione Superiore Capellini-Sauro) and the Ligurian Cluster for Marine Technologies (DLTM) [1]. Seven students, engaged within the national Programme "work-related learning"[2], have worked side-by-side with ISMAR-CNR researchers, investigating on the problem of debris accumulation on beaches, and understanding the damage that this issue causes to marine environments and ecosystems. This problem has recently become a challenging research subject for an increasing number of oceanographers and, in general, for environmental researchers coming from the Mediterranean areas [3, 4, 5], other European Seas [6] and Oceans [7, 8]. Data collected during repeated surveys (seasonally) in the same beach stretch, over several years, allow calculating debris accumulation rates and flow intensities. Application of current models gives additional information on debris dispersal and origin, but we shouldn't forget that, generally, relevance of acquired data is determined by the accuracy and standardization of the procedure. In this context, students have previously searched for literature sources and summarized the most important issues, among these: few data that are often collected during small ranges of time and usually a low number of available researchers for carrying out such a time-consuming survey in the field. In a initial part of the project, several trial surveys have been performed on different beaches in La Spezia province, in order to understand how to elaborate possible strategies to speed up and standardize the procedure. Developing an application for Android system (downloadable on any compatible mobile device such as smartphones, tablets, etc.) has been considered as a good solution since it

  11. Geomatics Approach for Assessment of respiratory disease Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, M.; Singh, V.; Vaishya, R. C.

    2014-11-01

    Air quality is an important subject of relevance in the context of present times because air is the prime resource for sustenance of life especially human health position. Then with the aid of vast sums of data about ambient air quality is generated to know the character of air environment by utilizing technological advancements to know how well or bad the air is. This report supplies a reliable method in assessing the Air Quality Index (AQI) by using fuzzy logic. The fuzzy logic model is designed to predict Air Quality Index (AQI) that report monthly air qualities. With the aid of air quality index we can evaluate the condition of the environment of that area suitability regarding human health position. For appraisal of human health status in industrial area, utilizing information from health survey questionnaire for obtaining a respiratory risk map by applying IDW and Gettis Statistical Techniques. Gettis Statistical Techniques identifies different spatial clustering patterns like hot spots, high risk and cold spots over the entire work area with statistical significance.

  12. Fuzzy Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berks, G.; Keyserlingk, Diedrich Graf von; Jantzen, Jan

    2000-01-01

    A symptom is a condition indicating the presence of a disease, especially, when regarded as an aid in diagnosis.Symptoms are the smallest units indicating the existence of a disease. A syndrome on the other hand is an aggregate, set or cluster of concurrent symptoms which together indicate...... and clustering are the basic concerns in medicine. Classification depends on definitions of the classes and their required degree of participant of the elements in the cases' symptoms. In medicine imprecise conditions are the rule and therefore fuzzy methods are much more suitable than crisp ones. Fuzzy c......-mean clustering is an easy and well improved tool, which has been applied in many medical fields. We used c-mean fuzzy clustering after feature extraction from an aphasia database. Factor analysis was applied on a correlation matrix of 26 symptoms of language disorders and led to five factors. The factors...

  13. Structure of bacterial respiratory complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrisford, John M; Baradaran, Rozbeh; Sazanov, Leonid A

    2016-07-01

    Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) plays a central role in cellular energy production, coupling electron transfer between NADH and quinone to proton translocation. It is the largest protein assembly of respiratory chains and one of the most elaborate redox membrane proteins known. Bacterial enzyme is about half the size of mitochondrial and thus provides its important "minimal" model. Dysfunction of mitochondrial complex I is implicated in many human neurodegenerative diseases. The L-shaped complex consists of a hydrophilic arm, where electron transfer occurs, and a membrane arm, where proton translocation takes place. We have solved the crystal structures of the hydrophilic domain of complex I from Thermus thermophilus, the membrane domain from Escherichia coli and recently of the intact, entire complex I from T. thermophilus (536 kDa, 16 subunits, 9 iron-sulphur clusters, 64 transmembrane helices). The 95Å long electron transfer pathway through the enzyme proceeds from the primary electron acceptor flavin mononucleotide through seven conserved Fe-S clusters to the unusual elongated quinone-binding site at the interface with the membrane domain. Four putative proton translocation channels are found in the membrane domain, all linked by the central flexible axis containing charged residues. The redox energy of electron transfer is coupled to proton translocation by the as yet undefined mechanism proposed to involve long-range conformational changes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  14. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneyber, Martin C. J.; van Heerde, Marc; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Plotz, Frans B.; Markhors, Dick G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of

  15. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneyber, Martin C. J.; van Heerde, Marc; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Plotz, Frans B.; Markhors, Dick G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of mechan

  16. Respiratory manifestations of hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Jesper Roed; Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism has been associated with increased pulmonary morbidity and overall mortality. We conducted a systematic review to identify the prevalence and underlying mechanisms of respiratory problems among patients with thyroid insufficiency. METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE databases were...... searched for relevant literature from January 1950 through January 2015 with study eligibility criteria: English-language publications; Adult subclinical or overt hypothyroid patients; Intervention, observational or retrospective studies; and respiratory manifestations. We followed the PRISMA statement......% of newly diagnosed patients with overt hypothyroidism, and demonstrated reversibility following treatment. The evidence for or against a direct effect on pulmonary function was ambiguous. However, each of the above mentioned areas were only dealt with in a limited number of studies. Therefore, we refrain...

  17. Respiratory active mitochondrial supercomplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acín-Pérez, Rebeca; Fernández-Silva, Patricio; Peleato, Maria Luisa; Pérez-Martos, Acisclo; Enriquez, Jose Antonio

    2008-11-21

    The structural organization of the mitochondrial respiratory complexes as four big independently moving entities connected by the mobile carriers CoQ and cytochrome c has been challenged recently. Blue native gel electrophoresis reveals the presence of high-molecular-weight bands containing several respiratory complexes and suggesting an in vivo assembly status of these structures (respirasomes). However, no functional evidence of the activity of supercomplexes as true respirasomes has been provided yet. We have observed that (1) supercomplexes are not formed when one of their component complexes is absent; (2) there is a temporal gap between the formation of the individual complexes and that of the supercomplexes; (3) some putative respirasomes contain CoQ and cytochrome c; (4) isolated respirasomes can transfer electrons from NADH to O(2), that is, they respire. Therefore, we have demonstrated the existence of a functional respirasome and propose a structural organization model that accommodates these findings.

  18. [Asbestos and respiratory diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherpereel, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Previous occupational asbestos exposure (more rarely environmental or domestic exposure) may induce various pleural and/or pulmonary, benign or malignant diseases, sometimes with a very long latency for malignant mesothelioma (MM). Asbestos has been widely extracted and used in Western countries and in emerging or developing countries, resulting in a peak of MM incidence in France around 2020 and likely in a world pandemic of asbestos-induced diseases. These patients have mostly benign respiratory diseases (pleural plugs) but may also be diagnosed with lung cancer or malignant pleural mesothelioma, and have a global poor outcome. New therapeutic tools (targeted therapies, immunotherapy…) with first promising results are developed. However, it is crucial to obtain a full ban of asbestos use worldwide, and to do a regular follow-up of asbestos-exposed subjects, mostly if they are already diagnosed with benign respiratory diseases. Finally, new cancers (larynx and ovary) were recently added to the list of asbestos-induced tumors.

  19. Respiratory fluid mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotberg, James B

    2011-02-01

    This article covers several aspects of respiratory fluid mechanics that have been actively investigated by our group over the years. For the most part, the topics involve two-phase flows in the respiratory system with applications to normal and diseased lungs, as well as therapeutic interventions. Specifically, the topics include liquid plug flow in airways and at airway bifurcations as it relates to surfactant, drug, gene, or stem cell delivery into the lung; liquid plug rupture and its damaging effects on underlying airway epithelial cells as well as a source of crackling sounds in the lung; airway closure from "capillary-elastic instabilities," as well as nonlinear stabilization from oscillatory core flow which we call the "oscillating butter knife;" liquid film, and surfactant dynamics in an oscillating alveolus and the steady streaming, and surfactant spreading on thin viscous films including our discovery of the Grotberg-Borgas-Gaver shock.

  20. Respiratory diseases in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary diseases are one of the major indirect causes of maternal deaths. Pregnancy is a unique physiological state during which changes occur in all systems of the body to meet metabolic needs of both the mother and growing foetus. Enlarging uterus and increasing hormonal levels cause changes in volumes and mechanics of lungs. Understanding the basic physiology of the cardiovascular and respiratory changes during pregnancy along with the pathology of disease processes are vital in makin...

  1. Research on Generic Technology Innovation of Industrial ClusterBased on Self organization Theory%基于自组织理论的产业集群共性技术创新研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑小碧

    2012-01-01

    产业集群共性技术创新是一个由共性技术的识别、研发与商业化扩散构成的集体学习过程,对产业集群竞争力的提升与可持续发展意义重大.从经济系统自组织理论的视角对此进行了探索.理论模型及案例研究表明:产业集群共性技术创新是一个由创新行为主体子系统、创新服务主体子系统和创新环境子系统耦合而成的自组织系统.与此同时,子系统或要素间合作随机概率、自组织特征、自组织机制以及创新外部性的阶段性演变,共同推动了产业集群共性技术创新自组织系统从自创生、自生长向自维持阶段演进和跃迁,并由此决定了产业集群共性技术创新管理体制和组织模式的阶段性与多样性.%Generic technology innovation of industrial cluster is a learning process, which consists identifying,R&D and diffusion of Generic technology. So it is very important for industrial cluster, competitiveness and sustainable development. Theoretical model and the case study show that generic technology innovation of industrial is a self-organization system, which is constituted of innovation behavior subsystem,service subsystem and innovation environment subsystems. Meanwhile, subsystem cooperation random probability,self-organization feature,self-organization mechanism and externality of industrial cluster jointly promote the evolution of generic technology innovation. In this process,self-organization system has three stages,self-creation,self-growth,self-sustain, which determines the management and organization model of generic technology innovation.

  2. Nanotechnology in respiratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omlor, Albert Joachim; Nguyen, Juliane; Bals, Robert; Dinh, Quoc Thai

    2015-05-29

    Like two sides of the same coin, nanotechnology can be both boon and bane for respiratory medicine. Nanomaterials open new ways in diagnostics and treatment of lung diseases. Nanoparticle based drug delivery systems can help against diseases such as lung cancer, tuberculosis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Moreover, nanoparticles can be loaded with DNA and act as vectors for gene therapy in diseases like cystic fibrosis. Even lung diagnostics with computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) profits from new nanoparticle based contrast agents. However, the risks of nanotechnology also have to be taken into consideration as engineered nanomaterials resemble natural fine dusts and fibers, which are known to be harmful for the respiratory system in many cases. Recent studies have shown that nanoparticles in the respiratory tract can influence the immune system, can create oxidative stress and even cause genotoxicity. Another important aspect to assess the safety of nanotechnology based products is the absorption of nanoparticles. It was demonstrated that the amount of pulmonary nanoparticle uptake not only depends on physical and chemical nanoparticle characteristics but also on the health status of the organism. The huge diversity in nanotechnology could revolutionize medicine but makes safety assessment a challenging task.

  3. Gene targeting technologies in rats: zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats.

    OpenAIRE

    Mashimo, Tomoji

    2013-01-01

    The laboratory rat has been widely used as an animal model in biomedical science for more than 150 years. Applying zinc-finger nucleases or transcription activator-like effector nucleases to rat embryos via microinjection is an efficient genome editing tool for generating targeted knockout rats. Recently, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated endonucleases have been used as an effective tool for precise and multiplex genome editing in mice and ra...

  4. Cluster forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    .g. sustainability or quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to explore how and to what extent public sector interventions that aim at forcing cluster development in industries can support sustainable development as defined in the Brundtland tradition and more recently elaborated in such concepts as eco......, Portugal and New Zealand have adopted the concept. Public sector interventions that aim to support cluster development in industries most often focus upon economic policy goals such as enhanced employment and improved productivity, but rarely emphasise broader societal policy goals relating to e...... to the automotive sector in Wales. Specifically, the paper evaluates the "Accelerates" programme initiated by the Welsh Development Agency and elaborates on how and to what extent the Accelerate programme supports the development of a sustainable automotive industry cluster. The Accelerate programme was set up...

  5. Synchronization in complex clustered networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Liang; LAI Ying-Cheng; Kwangho PARK; WANG Xingang; LAI Choy Heng; Robert A. GATENBY

    2007-01-01

    Synchronization in complex networks has been an active area of research in recent years. While much effort has been devoted to networks with the small-world and scale-free topology, structurally they are often assumed to have a single, densely connected component. Recently it has also become apparent that many networks in social, biological, and tech-nological systems are clustered, as characterized by a number (or a hierarchy) of sparsely linked clusters, each with dense and complex internal connections. Synchronization is funda-mental to the dynamics and functions of complex clustered networks, but this problem has just begun to be addressed. This paper reviews some progress in this direction by focus-ing on the interplay between the clustered topology and net-work synchronizability. In particular, there are two parame-ters characterizing a clustered network: the intra-cluster and the inter-cluster link density. Our goal is to clarify the roles of these parameters in shaping network synchronizability. By using theoretical analysis and direct numerical simulations of oscillator networks, it is demonstrated that clustered net-works with random inter-cluster links are more synchroniz-able, and synchronization can be optimized when inter-cluster and intra-cluster links match. The latter result has one coun-terintuitive implication: more links, if placed improperly, can actually lead to destruction of synchronization, even though such links tend to decrease the average network distance. It is hoped that this review will help attract attention to the fun-damental problem of clustered structures/synchronization in network science.

  6. New Territory SZ Cluster Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Bartlett, J G; Barbosa, D

    1998-01-01

    The potential of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect for cluster studies has long been appreciated, although not yet fully exploited. Recent technological advances and improvements in observing strategies have changed this, to the point where it is now possible to speak of this subject at a meeting devoted to may be called {\\em pointed surveys}, dedicated to pre-selected clusters, from the former type already have significant numbers of clusters with very good signal-to-noise images; surveys of the second type are currently possible, but as yet not undertaken. The discussion will focus on the kind of science that can be done in this ``new territory''.

  7. Cluster forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    The cluster theory attributed to Michael Porter has significantly influenced industrial policies in countries across Europe and North America since the beginning of the 1990s. Institutions such as the EU, OECD and the World Bank and governments in countries such as the UK, France, The Netherlands...

  8. Respiratory neuron characterization reveals intrinsic bursting properties in isolated adult turtle brainstems (Trachemys scripta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stephen M.; Hedrick, Michael S.; Krause, Bryan M.; Nilles, Jacob P.; Chapman, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    It is not known whether respiratory neurons with intrinsic bursting properties exist within ectothermic vertebrate respiratory control systems. Thus, isolated adult turtle brainstems spontaneously producing respiratory motor output were used to identify and classify respiratory neurons based on their firing pattern relative to hypoglossal (XII) nerve activity. Most respiratory neurons (183/212) had peak activity during the expiratory phase, while inspiratory, post-inspiratory, and novel pre-expiratory neurons were less common. During synaptic blockade conditions, ~10% of respiratory neurons fired bursts of action potentials, with post-inspiratory cells (6/9) having the highest percentage of intrinsic burst properties. Most intrinsically bursting respiratory neurons were clustered at the level of the vagus (X) nerve root. Synaptic inhibition blockade caused seizure-like activity throughout the turtle brainstem, which shows that the turtle respiratory control system is not transformed into a network driven by intrinsically bursting respiratory neurons. We hypothesize that intrinsically bursting respiratory neurons are evolutionarily conserved and represent a potential rhythmogenic mechanism contributing to respiration in adult turtles. PMID:25462012

  9. Adult respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, S; Talboys, R; Paspula, C; Prempeh, E M; Fanous, R; Ail, D

    2017-01-01

    Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has now been described as a sequela to such diverse conditions as burns, amniotic fluid embolism, acute pancreatitis, trauma, sepsis and damage as a result of elective surgery in general. Patients with ARDS require immediate intubation, with the average patient now being ventilated for between 8 and 11 days. While the acute management of ARDS is conducted by the critical care team, almost any surgical patient can be affected by the condition and we believe that it is important that a broader spectrum of hospital doctors gain an understanding of the nature of the pathology and its current treatment.

  10. Respiratory failure in diabetic ketoacidosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory failure complicating the course of diabeticketoacidosis (DKA) is a source of increased morbidityand mortality. Detection of respiratory failure in DKA requiresfocused clinical monitoring, careful interpretationof arterial blood gases, and investigation for conditionsthat can affect adversely the respiration. Conditions thatcompromise respiratory function caused by DKA can bedetected at presentation but are usually more prevalentduring treatment. These conditions include deficits ofpotassium, magnesium and phosphate and hydrostatic ornon-hydrostatic pulmonary edema. Conditions not causedby DKA that can worsen respiratory function under theadded stress of DKA include infections of the respiratorysystem, pre-existing respiratory or neuromuscular diseaseand miscellaneous other conditions. Prompt recognitionand management of the conditions that can lead torespiratory failure in DKA may prevent respiratory failureand improve mortality from DKA.

  11. Quotients of cluster categories

    OpenAIRE

    Jorgensen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Higher cluster categories were recently introduced as a generalization of cluster categories. This paper shows that in Dynkin types A and D, half of all higher cluster categories are actually just quotients of cluster categories. The other half can be obtained as quotients of 2-cluster categories, the "lowest" type of higher cluster categories. Hence, in Dynkin types A and D, all higher cluster phenomena are implicit in cluster categories and 2-cluster categories. In contrast, the same is not...

  12. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sílvia Valente Barbas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper, based on relevant literature articles and the authors' clinical experience, presents a goal-oriented respiratory management for critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS that can help improve clinicians' ability to care for these patients. Early recognition of ARDS modified risk factors and avoidance of aggravating factors during hospital stay such as nonprotective mechanical ventilation, multiple blood products transfusions, positive fluid balance, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and gastric aspiration can help decrease its incidence. An early extensive clinical, laboratory, and imaging evaluation of “at risk patients” allows a correct diagnosis of ARDS, assessment of comorbidities, and calculation of prognostic indices, so that a careful treatment can be planned. Rapid administration of antibiotics and resuscitative measures in case of sepsis and septic shock associated with protective ventilatory strategies and early short-term paralysis associated with differential ventilatory techniques (recruitment maneuvers with adequate positive end-expiratory pressure titration, prone position, and new extracorporeal membrane oxygenation techniques in severe ARDS can help improve its prognosis. Revaluation of ARDS patients on the third day of evolution (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA, biomarkers and response to infection therapy allows changes in the initial treatment plans and can help decrease ARDS mortality.

  13. Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of U.S. DOE Vehicle Combustion Engine R&D Investments: Impacts of a Cluster of Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, Albert N. [Univ. of North Carolina, Greensboro, NC (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Advanced Combustion Engine R&D (ACE R&D) is one of the subprograms within DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office. The ACE subprogram's R&D is conducted in cooperation with the DOE Combustion Research Facility (CRF). This report summarizes the findings from a retrospective study of the net benefits to society from investments by DOE (both EERE and cooperative CRF efforts) in laser diagnostic and optical engine technologies and combustion modeling for heavy-duty diesel engines.

  14. Mudança tecnológica e estratificação competitiva em um arranjo produtivo do setor ceramista Technological change and competitive stratification in a red ceramic local cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Décio Coimbra de Souza

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A dinâmica competitiva em arranjos produtivos locais é influenciada, com maior ou menor freqüência, pelo impacto de novas tecnologias que alteram as características específicas do mercado, pressionando as empresas a uma constante reavaliação de suas estratégias, métodos e rotinas organizacionais. No nível microdinâmico, tal dinâmica pode ser captada e verificada através da correlação entre a dotação de recursos e índices de desempenho de cada unidade de uma amostra estratificada do arranjo. Essa abordagem, desenvolvida a partir de conceitos da teoria evolucionária de mudança técnica, foi empregada em um estudo exploratório no Pólo de Cerâmica Vermelha do Norte Fluminense (RJ. Inicialmente foi desenvolvida uma metodologia para se captar a diversidade tecnológica existente entre as empresas do arranjo. A partir de uma amostra representativa dessa diversidade, elaborou-se uma tipologia para identificação e caracterização das unidades em grupos estratificados. Como resultado, apresentam-se, a estratificação competitiva para o arranjo, as principais conclusões da pesquisa de campo e algumas considerações sobre a relevância da abordagem proposta.The competitive dynamics in local clusters is influenced for the frequency and impact of new technologies and for the specific characteristics of the market. Such factors press the companies to constant reevaluation of their strategies, methods and organizational routines, leading to a technological stratification process in the local cluster. In the micro-dynamic level, that stratification can be verified through resources endowment and performance indexes of the firms. That approach is based on the evolutionary theory of technical change, which has been adopted in a exploratory research accomplished the North Fluminense red ceramic cluster (North of Rio de Janeiro State to analyze the impact provoked by the process of technological change in the competitive dynamics of

  15. Respiratory Therapy and Respiratory Therapy Technician. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Instructional Development and Services.

    This program guide identifies primary considerations in the organization, operation, and evaluation of respiratory therapy and respiratory therapy technician programs. An occupational description and program content are presented. The curriculum framework specifies the exact course title, course number, levels of instruction, major course content,…

  16. Cluster Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poenaru, Dorin N.; Greiner, Walter

    One of the rare examples of phenomena predicted before experimental discovery, offers the opportunity to introduce fission theory based on the asymmetric two center shell model. The valleys within the potential energy surfaces are due to the shell effects and are clearly showing why cluster radioactivity was mostly detected in parent nuclei leading to a doubly magic lead daughter. Saddle point shapes can be determined by solving an integro-differential equation. Nuclear dynamics allows us to calculate the half-lives. The following cluster decay modes (or heavy particle radioactivities) have been experimentally confirmed: 14C, 20O, 23F, 22,24-26Ne, 28,30Mg, 32,34Si with half-lives in good agreement with predicted values within our analytical superasymmetric fission model. The preformation probability is calculated as the internal barrier penetrability. An universal curve is described and used as an alternative for the estimation of the half-lives. The macroscopic-microscopic method was extended to investigate two-alpha accompanied fission and true ternary fission. The methods developed in nuclear physics are also adapted to study the stability of deposited atomic clusters on the planar surfaces.

  17. Implementing change in respiratory care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, James K

    2010-06-01

    Though people are generally averse to change, change and innovation are critically important in respiratory care to maintain scientific and clinical progress. This paper reviews the issue of change in respiratory care. I summarize several available models of organizational and personal change (ie, those of Kotter and of Silversin and Kornacki, and the Intentional Change Theory of Boyatzis), review the characteristics of change-avid respiratory therapy departments, offer an example of a change effort in respiratory care (implementation of respiratory care protocols) and then analyze this change effort as it took place at one institution, the Cleveland Clinic, using these models. Finally, I present the results of an analysis of change-avid respiratory therapy departments and offer some suggestions regarding change management for the profession and for individual respiratory care clinicians. Common features of theories of organizational change include developing a sense of urgency, overcoming resistance, developing a guiding coalition, and involving key stakeholders early. With the understanding that change efforts may seem unduly "clean" and orderly in retrospect, the models help explain the sustainable success of efforts to implement the Respiratory Therapy Consult Service at the Cleveland Clinic. By implication, these models offer value in planning change efforts prospectively. Further analysis of features of change-avid respiratory therapy departments indicates 11 highly desired features, of which four that especially characterize change-avid departments include: having an up-to-date leadership team; employee involvement in change; celebrating wins; and an overall sense of progressiveness in the department. This analysis suggests that understanding and embracing change is important. To anchor change in our profession, greater attention should be given to developing a pipeline of respiratory care clinicians who, by virtue of their advanced training, have the skills

  18. Information networks that generate economic value: A study on clusters of adopters of new or improved technologies and practices among oil palm growers in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar-Gallegos, N.; Muñoz-Rodríguez, M.; Santoyo-Cortés, H.; Aguilar-Ávila, J.; Klerkx, L.W.A.

    2015-01-01

    The area under cultivation of oil palm has undergone considerable growth in Mexico, but yields are far below their potential. This is related to the low rate of adoption of new or improved technologies and practices in areas such as plantation management and farm administration. This study determine

  19. Gene editing as applied to prevention of reproductive porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, Kristin M; Prather, Randall S

    2017-04-08

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) causes severe reproductive failure in sows, as well as transplacental transfer of PRRS virus (PRRSV) to late-gestation fetuses, resulting in abortions, early farrowing, increased number of stillborn piglets, and weak neonatal piglets. PRRSV-infected boars present with anorexia and lethargy, and have decreased sperm quality. The gene for the cellular receptor that the PRRSV uses, Cluster of differentiation 163 (CD163), was edited using Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 gene-editing technology to create biallelic DNA edits to the CD163 gene in 100% of the offspring. CD163-null pigs challenged with virus were completely resistant to both Type 1 and Type 2 PRRSV isolates, as measured by clinical signs, viremia, antibody response, and lung histopathology. In vitro studies showed that CD163-null alveolar macrophages were also not permissive to infection by a panel of six Type 1 and nine Type 2 viral isolates. Thus, DNA editing of the CD163 gene prevented PRRSV infection and reproductive losses associated with infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-invasive assessment of phonatory and respiratory dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBlance, G R; Steckol, K F; Cooper, M H

    1991-10-01

    Evaluation of vocal pathology and the accompanying dysphonia should include an assessment of laryngeal structure and mobility as well as respiratory dynamics. Laryngeal structure is best observed through laryngoscopy which provides an accurate assessment of the tissues and their mobility. Respiratory measures of lung volume, air-flow and pressure, and breathing dynamics are typically determined via spirometry and pneumotachography. While the above are traditional invasive procedures which interfere with normal speech production, recent advances in electronic technology have resulted in the development of non-invasive procedures to assess phonatory and respiratory dynamics. These procedures, when used as an adjunct to laryngoscopy, can provide information that is useful in the diagnosis and management of vocal tract dysfunction. The Laryngograph and Computer-Aided Fluency Establishment Trainer, described here, are examples of this new technology.

  1. Carbon dioxide-induced emotion and respiratory symptoms in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colasanti, Alessandro; Salamon, Ewa; Schruers, Koen; van Diest, Rob; van Duinen, Marlies; Griez, Eric J

    2008-12-01

    A number of evidences have established that panic and respiration are closely related. Clinical studies indicated that respiratory sensations constitute a discrete cluster of panic symptoms and play a major role in the pathophysiology of panic. The aim of the present study was to explore the phenomenology of an experimental model of panic in healthy volunteers based on the hypothesis that: (1) we can isolate discrete clusters of panic symptoms, (2) respiratory symptoms represent a distinct cluster of panic symptoms, and (3) respiratory symptoms are the best predictor of the subjective feeling of panic, as defined in the DSM IV criteria.Sixty-four healthy volunteers received a double inhalation of four mixtures containing 0, 9, 17.5 and 35% CO(2,) respectively, in a double-blind, cross-over, random design. An electronic visual analog scale and the Panic Symptom List (PSL) were used to assess subjective 'fear/discomfort' and panic symptoms, respectively. Statistical analyses consisted of Spearman's correlations, a principal component factor analysis of the 13 PSL symptoms, and linear regressions analyses.The factor analysis extracted three clusters of panic symptoms: respiratory, cognitive, and neurovegetative (r(2)=0.65). Respiratory symptoms were highly related to subjective feeling of fear/discomfort specifically in the CO(2)-enriched condition. Moreover, the respiratory component was the most important predictor of the subjective feeling of 'fear/discomfort' (beta=0.54).The discrete clusters of symptoms observed in this study were similar to those elicited in panic attacks naturally occurring in patients affected by panic disorder. Consistent with the idea that respiration plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of panic, we found that respiratory symptoms were the best predictors the subjective state defined in the DSM IV criteria for panic.

  2. Nanocarriers as pulmonary drug delivery systems to treat and to diagnose respiratory and non respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Smola

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Malgorzata Smola1,2, Thierry Vandamme1, Adam Sokolowski21Université Louis Pasteur, Faculté de Pharmacie, Département de Chimie Bioorganique, Illkirch Graffenstaden, France; 2Wroclaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Wroclaw, PolandAbstract: The purpose of this review is to discuss the impact of nanocarriers administered by pulmonary route to treat and to diagnose respiratory and non respiratory diseases. Indeed, during the past 10 years, the removal of chlorofluorocarbon propellants from industrial and household products intended for the pulmonary route has lead to the developments of new alternative products. Amongst these ones, on one hand, a lot of attention has been focused to improve the bioavailability of marketed drugs intended for respiratory diseases and to develop new concepts for pulmonary administration of drugs and, on the other hand, to use the pulmonary route to administer drugs for systemic diseases. This has led to some marketed products through the last decade. Although the introduction of nanotechnology permitted to step over numerous problems and to improve the bioavailability of drugs, there are, however, unresolved delivery problems to be still addressed. These scientific and industrial innovations and challenges are discussed along this review together with an analysis of the current situation concerning the industrial developments.Keywords: nanotechnology, nanocarriers, nanoparticle, liposome, lung, pulmonary drug delivery, drug targeting, respiratory disease, microemulsion, bioavailability, micelle

  3. Exploring the potential of next-generation sequencing in detection of respiratory Viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Prachayangprecha (Slinporn); C.M.E. Schapendonk (Claudia); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A. Schürch (Anita); S.D. Pas (Suzan); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); Y. Poovorawan (Yong); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); S.L. Smits (Saskia)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractEfficient detection of human respiratory viral pathogens is crucial in the management of patients with acute respiratory tract infection. Sequence-independent amplification of nucleic acids combined with next-generation sequencing technology and bioinformatics analyses is a promising str

  4. Respiratory diseases of global consequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory diseases are one of the two major categories of poultry diseases that cause the most severe economic losses globally (the other being enteric disease). The economic impact of respiratory disease is both direct, from the production losses caused by primary disease and indirect from preve...

  5. Ventilation and respiratory mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheel, Andrew William; Romer, Lee M

    2012-04-01

    During dynamic exercise, the healthy pulmonary system faces several major challenges, including decreases in mixed venous oxygen content and increases in mixed venous carbon dioxide. As such, the ventilatory demand is increased, while the rising cardiac output means that blood will have considerably less time in the pulmonary capillaries to accomplish gas exchange. Blood gas homeostasis must be accomplished by precise regulation of alveolar ventilation via medullary neural networks and sensory reflex mechanisms. It is equally important that cardiovascular and pulmonary system responses to exercise be precisely matched to the increase in metabolic requirements, and that the substantial gas transport needs of both respiratory and locomotor muscles be considered. Our article addresses each of these topics with emphasis on the healthy, young adult exercising in normoxia. We review recent evidence concerning how exercise hyperpnea influences sympathetic vasoconstrictor outflow and the effect this might have on the ability to perform muscular work. We also review sex-based differences in lung mechanics.

  6. Respiratory arsenate reductase as a bidirectional enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, C.; Chovanec, P.; Hoeft, S.E.; Oremland, R.S.; Basu, P.; Stolz, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    The haloalkaliphilic bacterium Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii is capable of anaerobic chemolithoautotrophic growth by coupling the oxidation of arsenite (As(III)) to the reduction of nitrate and carbon dioxide. Analysis of its complete genome indicates that it lacks a conventional arsenite oxidase (Aox), but instead possesses two operons that each encode a putative respiratory arsenate reductase (Arr). Here we show that one homolog is expressed under chemolithoautotrophic conditions and exhibits both arsenite oxidase and arsenate reductase activity. We also demonstrate that Arr from two arsenate respiring bacteria, Alkaliphilus oremlandii and Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3, is also biochemically reversible. Thus Arr can function as a reductase or oxidase. Its physiological role in a specific organism, however, may depend on the electron potentials of the molybdenum center and [Fe–S] clusters, additional subunits, or constitution of the electron transfer chain. This versatility further underscores the ubiquity and antiquity of microbial arsenic metabolism.

  7. Respiratory Therapy for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Cardiosurgical Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Zagorodnyaya

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present investigation was to improve the outcomes of intensive care in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome after cardiac surgery under extracorporeal circulation.Materials and methods. Respiratory therapy was analyzed in 43 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome after surgery under extracorporeal circulation. According to the procedure of artificial ventilation (AV, the patients were divided into 2 groups: 1 those who had undergone routine tracheal intubation (n=23 AND 2 THOSE who had received noninvasive intubation through a nasal mask (n=20. The respiratory parameters, blood gas composition, central hemodynamic parameters, respiratory support time, and the pattern of complications were analyzed.Results. Noninvasive artificial ventilation permits one to make the patients active in earlier periods and take a spontaneous breath, recovers the respiratory index earlier, reduces the level of positive end-expiratory pressure, the frequency of infectious complications of the tracheobronchial tree, and length of stay in an intensive care unit as compared with endotracheal AV.Conclusion. The findings suggest that noninvasive AV is highly effective and yields better results of treatment in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  8. Noninvasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mas A

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Arantxa Mas, Josep MasipCritical Care Department, Consorci Sanitari Integral (CSI, Hospital Sant Joan Despí Moisès Broggi and Hospital General de l’Hospitalet, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: After the institution of positive-pressure ventilation, the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV through an interface substantially increased. The first technique was continuous positive airway pressure; but, after the introduction of pressure support ventilation at the end of the 20th century, this became the main modality. Both techniques, and some others that have been recently introduced and which integrate some technological innovations, have extensively demonstrated a faster improvement of acute respiratory failure in different patient populations, avoiding endotracheal intubation and facilitating the release of conventional invasive mechanical ventilation. In acute settings, NIV is currently the first-line treatment for moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation as well as for acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema and should be considered in immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory insufficiency, in difficult weaning, and in the prevention of postextubation failure. Alternatively, it can also be used in the postoperative period and in cases of pneumonia and asthma or as a palliative treatment. NIV is currently used in a wide range of acute settings, such as critical care and emergency departments, hospital wards, palliative or pediatric units, and in pre-hospital care. It is also used as a home care therapy in patients with chronic pulmonary or sleep disorders. The appropriate selection of patients and the adaptation to the technique are the keys to success. This review essentially analyzes the evidence of benefits of NIV in different populations with acute respiratory failure and describes the main modalities, new devices, and some practical aspects of the use of this technique. Keywords

  9. Diagnostic spirometry in primary care: Proposed standards for general practice compliant with American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society recommendations: a General Practice Airways Group (GPIAG)1 document, in association with the Association for Respiratory Technology & Physiology (ARTP)2 and Education for Health3 1 www.gpiag.org 2 www.artp.org 3 www.educationforhealth.org.uk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Mark L; Quanjer, Philip H; Booker, Rachel; Cooper, Brendan G; Holmes, Steve; Small, Iain

    2009-09-01

    Primary care spirometry services can be provided by trained primary care staff, peripatetic specialist services, or through referral to hospital-based or laboratory spirometry. The first of these options is the focus of this Standards Document. It aims to provide detailed information for clinicians, managers and healthcare commissioners on the key areas of quality required for diagnostic spirometry in primary care--including training requirements and quality assurance. These proposals and recommendations are designed to raise the standard of spirometry and respiratory diagnosis in primary care and to provide the impetus for debate, improvement and maintenance of quality for diagnostic (rather than screening) spirometry performed in primary care. This document should therefore challenge current performance and should constitute an aspirational guide for delivery of this service.

  10. Study on hyperspectral image technology based on manifold fuzzy clustering for pork quality classification%基于流形模糊聚类算法的高光谱图像猪肉品质分类研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾山; 王海滨; 张凤兵; 白俊

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Objective The classification of fresh chilled meat, frozen-thawed meat and spoiled meat based on the hyperspectral image technology as research object, and aiming at the problem of high feature dimension, a classification model based on manifold fuzzy clustering algorithm was established.Methods The 2D Gabor wavelet transform was used to extract the 8 texture features of image respectively under 14 characteristic wavelengths reflecting 3 kinds of quality index: drip loss, pH and color and thus forms a 112-dimensional feature variables as the feature of pork quality. Then the pork quality classification model was established through the fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm (FCM) based on Isometric Mapping (ISOMAP) dimensional reduction.ResultsThe experiment of pork quality classification showed that 2D Gabor wavelet transform could effectively extract texture feature of pork. Compared with the traditional FCM clustering algorithm, FCM clustering algorithm based on ISOMAP dimensional reduction could better resolve the clustering problem of high dimensional samples and accurately distinguish the fresh chilled meat, frozen-thawed meat and spoiled meat.ConclusionThe hyperspectral image technology could be used for pork quality classification.%目的:以基于高光谱图像技术的冷鲜肉、解冻肉和变质肉的分类为研究对象,针对特征维数过高的问题,构建了一种基于流形模糊聚类算法的分类模型。方法首先采用二维Gabor小波变换分别提取反应猪肉滴水损失、pH、颜色三种品质指标的14个特征波长下图像的8个纹理特征,组成一个112维的特征变量作为猪肉品质的特征;然后采用基于等距映射降维的模糊 C 均值聚类算法来构建猪肉品质分类模型。结果通过猪肉品质分类实验得出,二维 Gabor 小波变换能较好地提取猪肉的纹理特征;与传统模糊 C 均值聚类算法相比,基于等距映射降维的模糊C均值聚类算

  11. Dysrhythmias of the respiratory oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paydarfar, David; Buerkel, Daniel M.

    1995-03-01

    Breathing is regulated by a central neural oscillator that produces rhythmic output to the respiratory muscles. Pathological disturbances in rhythm (dysrhythmias) are observed in the breathing pattern of children and adults with neurological and cardiopulmonary diseases. The mechanisms responsible for genesis of respiratory dysrhythmias are poorly understood. The present studies take a novel approach to this problem. The basic postulate is that the rhythm of the respiratory oscillator can be altered by a variety of stimuli. When the oscillator recovers its rhythm after such perturbations, its phase may be reset relative to the original rhythm. The amount of phase resetting is dependent upon stimulus parameters and the level of respiratory drive. The long-range hypothesis is that respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli that impinge upon or arise within the respiratory oscillator with certain combinations of strength and timing relative to the respiratory cycle. Animal studies were performed in anesthetized or decerebrate preparations. Neural respiratory rhythmicity is represented by phrenic nerve activity, allowing use of open-loop experimental conditions which avoid negative chemical feedback associated with changes in ventilation. In animal experiments, respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli having specific combinations of strength and timing. Newborn animals readily exhibit spontaneous dysrhythmias which become more prominent at lower respiratory drives. In human subjects, swallowing was studied as a physiological perturbation of respiratory rhythm, causing a pattern of phase resetting that is characterized topologically as type 0. Computational studies of the Bonhoeffer-van der Pol (BvP) equations, whose qualitative behavior is representative of many excitable systems, supports a unified interpretation of these experimental findings. Rhythmicity is observed when the BvP model exhibits recurrent periods of excitation alternating with

  12. 集群技术在医院信息系统集成中的应用%Application of Cluster Technology to the Hospital lnformationization System Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段国云

    2012-01-01

    Data security and informationization reliability systems are the primary problems in the construction of hospital informationization. The article analyzes three cluster technical principles of Windows operating system in details. Combined with the status and needs of Center Hospital's informationization in Yongzhou city, it proposes a program suitable for informationization in medium and large hospitals. Through simulation experiments and actual use testification in Central Hospital, this program can be a good solution to solve data security andapplication reliability, with promotion prospects.%数据的安全性和信息系统的可靠性是医院信息化建设中需要解决的首要问题.详细分析了Windows操作系统中三种集群技术的原理,结合我市中心医院信息化现状及需求,提出了一种适合大中型医院信息化建设需求的方案.通过模拟实验及永州市中心医院实际使用证明:此方案能很好的解决数据的安全性及应用系统的可靠性问题,具有推广应用前景.

  13. An Automatic Clustering Technique for Optimal Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Pavan, K Karteeka; Rao, A V Dattatreya; 10.5121/ijcsea.2011.1412

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a simple, automatic and efficient clustering algorithm, namely, Automatic Merging for Optimal Clusters (AMOC) which aims to generate nearly optimal clusters for the given datasets automatically. The AMOC is an extension to standard k-means with a two phase iterative procedure combining certain validation techniques in order to find optimal clusters with automation of merging of clusters. Experiments on both synthetic and real data have proved that the proposed algorithm finds nearly optimal clustering structures in terms of number of clusters, compactness and separation.

  14. Respiratory function in handicapped children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, C; Fujita, M; Umemoto, H; Taneda, M; Sanae, N; Tazaki, T

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate respiratory function of severely handicapped children. Tidal volumes and respiratory rates were determined in a total of 130 children with different clinical motor abilities. Tidal volume of non-sitters (n = 39) was significantly lower than ambulators (n = 49) or sitters (n = 42) (p less than 0.01). There was no difference in respiratory rate among the three groups. Among 45 children whose vital capacity could be determined, the tidal volumes showed a significant correlation with vital capacity (r = 0.56, p less than 0.001). Among four children whose tidal volume was less than 200 ml and respiratory rate was more than 30 cpm, blood gas analysis revealed hypoxia in three of them. The tidal volumes, therefore, would be a useful guide to estimate respiratory functions. It was concluded that the respiratory function in a non-sitter with reduced tidal volume is impaired, and that preventive measures must be taken against respiratory infection.

  15. [Occupational respiratory tract allergies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebohle, E; Wallenstein, G

    1979-04-01

    Professionally conditioned allergoses of the respiratory tract (BK 41) can occur in all industrial regions. The allergoses conditioned by organic dusts of vegetable or animal origin (regions food production, plant production and animal keeping) predominate. Since 1976 the BK 41 has been on the 10th rank of alases, 1977), above all conditioned by an improved establishment. Among the diagnoses bronchial asthma is in the first place. The high proportion of allergoses by cereal constituents is to be led back to the, as a rule, unproblematic allergologic clarification diagnostics. One may conclude that difficulties of the recognition in other allergens condition a considerable dark number, particularly in chemical working materials. The allergoses by cereal constituents are followed by the constituents of the animal epidermis (above all hair of laboratory animals). The remainder -- without any importance of the succession -- belongs to moulds, mites, plant pollen, parasubstituted aromates, chrome and rare allergens. Apart from the slight number of alveolitis diseases the allergoses conditioned by organic dusts belong to the type of early reaction (characteristic representatives: baker's asthma). Problematical are the allergoses of the type of the late reaction. Chemical substances of the hapten type are above all in question (characteristic representative: chrome asthma). Here is most cases expressed irritation effects are present so that this pathogenetic factor is frequently determining without proving any immune-specific effects. The report is based on forgiven criteria of decision.

  16. The Cluster Web System of Health and Medical Community Based on Hot Standby Technology%基于双机热备技术的医疗卫生集群网站部署

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万世盛; 张建军; 刘燃荣; 任佳

    2011-01-01

    随着企事业单位对计算机系统依赖程度的日益增加,系统的可靠性和安全性也变得越来越重要.针对这个问题,结合医疗卫生集群门户网站系统,介绍了基于高可用双机热备的工作原理、技术特点及部署方案.实践证明,采用这种技术可有效实现数据的安全存储,提高系统可靠性,同时也能最大程度减少服务器中断时间,保证系统对外提供安全可靠的服务.%As a lot of enterprises and entities are getting more and more reliant on computer systems for their daily operation, the reliability and security of computer systems have become increasingly important for them. Based on the studying of health and medical cluster website systems,this essay focuses on the hot standby technology,as well as its technological characteristics and implementation process. It is proved that the application of this technology can effectively improve the reliability of the systems,make sure that data are securely saved,improve the load balancing capability of servers,and in the meantime it will reduce the risk of interrupting the servers, these will in return ensure the duly operation of computer systems and provide more reliant and secure service to clients.

  17. The Cluster Web System of Health and Medical Community Based on Hot Standby Technology%基于双机热备技术的医疗卫生集群网站部署

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万世盛; 张建军; 刘燃荣; 任佳

    2011-01-01

    随着企事业单位对计算机系统依赖程度的日益增加,系统的可靠性和安全性也变得越来越重要.针对这个问题,结合医疗卫生集群门户网站系统,介绍了基于高可用双机热备的工作原理、技术特点及部署方案.实践证明,采用这种技术可以有效的实现数据的安全存储,提高系统的可靠性,同时也能最大程度的减少服务器的中断时间,从而保证系统对外提供更加安全可靠的服务.%As a lot of enterprises and entities are getting more and more reliant on computer systems for their daily operation, the reliability and security of computer systems have become increasingly important for them Based on the studying of health and medical cluster website systems,this essay focuses on the hot standby technology,as well as its technological characteristics and implementation process It is proved that the application of this technology can effectively improve the reliability of the systems,make sure that data are securely saved,improve the load balancing capability of servers,and in the meantime it will reduce the risk of interrupting the servers, these will in return ensure the duly operation of computer systems and provide more reliant and secure service to clients.

  18. Personalized Medicine in Respiratory Disease: Role of Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadharshini, V S; Teran, Luis M

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory diseases affect humanity globally, with chronic lung diseases (e.g., asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, among others) and lung cancer causing extensive morbidity and mortality. These conditions are highly heterogeneous and require an early diagnosis. However, initial symptoms are nonspecific, and the clinical diagnosis is made late frequently. Over the last few years, personalized medicine has emerged as a medical care approach that uses novel technology aiming to personalize treatments according to the particular patient's medical needs. This review highlights the contributions of proteomics toward the understanding of personalized medicine in respiratory disease and its potential applications in the clinic.

  19. with respiratory symptoms in Lilongwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Audit of outpatient department management of patients with respiratory symptoms ... verbal reports of main symptoms did not match with those recorded on OPD notes. .... palpitations, rheumatism, tonsillitis, general body pains, COAD, difficulty ...

  20. Heavy hitters via cluster-preserving clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green; Nelson, Jelani; Nguyen, Huy L.

    2016-01-01

    , providing correctness whp. In fact, a simpler version of our algorithm for p = 1 in the strict turnstile model answers queries even faster than the "dyadic trick" by roughly a log n factor, dominating it in all regards. Our main innovation is an efficient reduction from the heavy hitters to a clustering...... problem in which each heavy hitter is encoded as some form of noisy spectral cluster in a much bigger graph, and the goal is to identify every cluster. Since every heavy hitter must be found, correctness requires that every cluster be found. We thus need a "cluster-preserving clustering" algorithm......, that partitions the graph into clusters with the promise of not destroying any original cluster. To do this we first apply standard spectral graph partitioning, and then we use some novel combinatorial techniques to modify the cuts obtained so as to make sure that the original clusters are sufficiently preserved...

  1. 服务器集群网络攻击中非确定攻击检测技术研究%Research on Nondeterministic Attack Detection Technology Under Server Cluster Network Attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋华

    2015-01-01

    Traditional data stream clustering algorithm based network attack detection technology adaptability is not strong, excessively high reliance on problem clustering quality is not ideal, low efficiency of defect, put forward a data stream clus⁃tering algorithm based on the expected rate of clone. Introduction of attenuation function and moment weights to reflect the past data and the current flow of network data, in the position in the entire server cluster network data flow through calculat⁃ing antibodies expectation clone rate to limit the number of clones and keep the diversity of antibodies, to take out of server cluster network strategy to make the final network structure conforms to the intrinsic characteristics of the original data flow and generate network data statistics, and then use the most can reflect the current network behavior of statistical informa⁃tion to detect attacks. Simulation results show that the method can make up for the traditional server cluster network non-deterministic attack detection system defects, improve the network attack detection rate, reduce the rate of false positives.%传统的基于数据流聚类算法的网络攻击检测技术自适应性不强、对问题的依赖性过高造成聚类质量不够理想、聚类效率低等缺陷,提出一种基于期望克隆率的数据流聚类算法。引入衰减函数和时刻权重来反映过去的数据与当前流入的网络数据在整个服务器集群网络数据流中的地位,通过计算抗体期望克隆率来限制抗体克隆的数目以及保持抗体的多样性,采取服务器集群网络中的淘汰策略使最终的网络结构更符合原始数据流的内在特性并生成网络数据的统计信息,然后利用最能反映当前网络行为的统计信息来检测攻击行为。仿真结果表明,该方法能够弥补传统服务器集群网络非确定攻击检测系统的缺陷,提高了网络攻击的检测率,降低了误报率。

  2. System Architecture and Key Technology of Space Information Network Based on Distributed Satellite Clusters%基于分布式星群的空间信息网络体系架构与关键技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敬超; 于全

    2016-01-01

    提出分布式星群网络的概念,即利用共轨控制、组网协同技术,整合空间邻近且独立分布的卫星资源,在同步轨道上将多颗小卫星整合等效为一颗大卫星,实现服务能力的增强。并提出基于分布式星群的空间信息网络体系架构,通过多星共轨、星间高速互联、分布式自主协同、资源虚拟化等关键技术,可以实现空间系统服务能力增强,多星合成覆盖,在轨智能自愈,为构建未来稳定可靠的空间信息网络提供借鉴。%In this paper, the concept of distributed satel ite cluster is proposed, which combines the“smal”geostationary orbit (GEO) satel ites into a“big”satel ite to enhance the capability of service by utilizing in-orbit control and networking cooperation. And the system architecture of space information network based on distributed satel ite clusters is proposed. Through the technologies of putting multiple satel ites at the same orbit, high speed interconnect between satel ites, distributed independent coordination and resource virtualization, the capacity of space system services is also enhanced, combined service through multi-satel ites, on-orbit intel igent self-restoring can be achieved. An option of building a reliable space information network in the future is provided.

  3. Urgencias respiratorias Respiratory emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Martínez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Las urgencias respiratorias en un paciente con cáncer pueden tener su origen en patologías de la vía aérea, del parénquima pulmonar o de los grandes vasos. La causa puede ser el propio tumor o complicaciones concomitantes. La obstrucción de la vía aérea debería ser inicialmente evaluada con procedimientos endoscópicos. En situaciones severas, la cirugía raramente es posible. El emplazamiento endobronquial de stents e isótopos radiactivos (braquiterapia, la ablación tumoral por láser o la terapia fotodinámica, pueden aliviar de forma rápida los síntomas y reestablecer el flujo aéreo. El manejo de la hemoptisis depende de la causa que la provoque y de la cuantía de la misma. La broncoscopia sigue siendo el procedimiento de primera línea en la mayor parte de los casos; aporta información diagnóstica y puede interrumpir el sangrado mediante lavados con suero helado, taponamiento endobronquial o inyecciones tópicas de adrenalina o trombina. La radioterapia externa sigue siendo un procedimiento extraordinariamente útil para tratar la hemoptisis de causa tumoral y en situaciones bien seleccionadas la terapia endobronquial con láser o braquiterapia y la embolización arterial bronquial pueden proporcionar un gran rendimiento paliativo. Las urgencias respiratorias por enfermedad del parénquima pulmonar en un paciente oncológico, pueden tener causa tumoral, iatrogénica o infecciosa. El reconocimiento precoz de cada una de ellas determina la administración del tratamiento específico y las posibilidades de éxito.Respiratory emergencies in a patient with cancer can have their origin in pathologies of the airway, of the pulmonary parenchyma or the large vessels. The cause can be the tumour itself or concomitant complications. Obstruction of the airway should be initially evaluated with endoscopic procedures. Surgery is rarely possible in serious situations. The endobronchial placement of stents or radioactive isotopes

  4. Respiratory manifestations in endocrine diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencu, Codruţa; Alexescu, Teodora; Petrulea, Mirela; Lencu, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The control mechanisms of respiration as a vital function are complex: voluntary - cortical, and involuntary - metabolic, neural, emotional and endocrine. Hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides (that act as neurotrasmitters and neuromodulators in the central nervous system) play a role in the regulation of respiration and in bronchopulmonary morphology. This article presents respiratory manifestations in adult endocrine diseases that evolve with hormone deficit or hypersecretion. In hyperthyroidism, patients develop ventilation disorders, obstructive and central sleep apnea, and pleural collection. The respiratory abnormalities in hyperthyroidism as a result of the hypermetabolic action of thyroid hormones are hyperventilation, myopathy and cardiovascular involvement; recent studies have reported pulmonary arterial hypertension in Graves' disease, as a result of the association of several mechanisms. Thyroid hypertrophy can induce through compression of the upper airways dyspnea, stridor, wheezing and cough. The respiratory disorders in acromegaly are ventilatory dysfunction and sleep apnea, which contribute to an unfavorable evolution of the disease. Respiratory changes in parathyroid, adrenal and reproductive system diseases have been described. Respiratory disorders should be recognized, investigated and monitored by medical practitioners of various specialties (family physicians, internists, endocrinologists, pneumologists, cardiologists). They are frequently severe, causing an unfavorable evolution of the associated endocrine and respiratory disease.

  5. 4D MR imaging using robust internal respiratory signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, CheukKai; Wen, Zhifei; Stemkens, Bjorn; Tijssen, R. H. N.; van den Berg, C. A. T.; Hwang, Ken-Pin; Beddar, Sam

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using internal respiratory (IR) surrogates to sort four-dimensional (4D) magnetic resonance (MR) images. The 4D MR images were constructed by acquiring fast 2D cine MR images sequentially, with each slice scanned for more than one breathing cycle. The 4D volume was then sorted retrospectively using the IR signal. In this study, we propose to use multiple low-frequency components in the Fourier space as well as the anterior body boundary as potential IR surrogates. From these potential IR surrogates, we used a clustering algorithm to identify those that best represented the respiratory pattern to derive the IR signal. A study with healthy volunteers was performed to assess the feasibility of the proposed IR signal. We compared this proposed IR signal with the respiratory signal obtained using respiratory bellows. Overall, 99% of the IR signals matched the bellows signals. The average difference between the end inspiration times in the IR signal and bellows signal was 0.18 s in this cohort of matching signals. For the acquired images corresponding to the other 1% of non-matching signal pairs, the respiratory motion shown in the images was coherent with the respiratory phases determined by the IR signal, but not the bellows signal. This suggested that the IR signal determined by the proposed method could potentially correct the faulty bellows signal. The sorted 4D images showed minimal mismatched artefacts and potential clinical applicability. The proposed IR signal therefore provides a feasible alternative to effectively sort MR images in 4D.

  6. Cluster headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducros Anne

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cluster headache (CH is a primary headache disease characterized by recurrent short-lasting attacks (15 to 180 minutes of excruciating unilateral periorbital pain accompanied by ipsilateral autonomic signs (lacrimation, nasal congestion, ptosis, miosis, lid edema, redness of the eye. It affects young adults, predominantly males. Prevalence is estimated at 0.5–1.0/1,000. CH has a circannual and circadian periodicity, attacks being clustered (hence the name in bouts that can occur during specific months of the year. Alcohol is the only dietary trigger of CH, strong odors (mainly solvents and cigarette smoke and napping may also trigger CH attacks. During bouts, attacks may happen at precise hours, especially during the night. During the attacks, patients tend to be restless. CH may be episodic or chronic, depending on the presence of remission periods. CH is associated with trigeminovascular activation and neuroendocrine and vegetative disturbances, however, the precise cautive mechanisms remain unknown. Involvement of the hypothalamus (a structure regulating endocrine function and sleep-wake rhythms has been confirmed, explaining, at least in part, the cyclic aspects of CH. The disease is familial in about 10% of cases. Genetic factors play a role in CH susceptibility, and a causative role has been suggested for the hypocretin receptor gene. Diagnosis is clinical. Differential diagnoses include other primary headache diseases such as migraine, paroxysmal hemicrania and SUNCT syndrome. At present, there is no curative treatment. There are efficient treatments to shorten the painful attacks (acute treatments and to reduce the number of daily attacks (prophylactic treatments. Acute treatment is based on subcutaneous administration of sumatriptan and high-flow oxygen. Verapamil, lithium, methysergide, prednisone, greater occipital nerve blocks and topiramate may be used for prophylaxis. In refractory cases, deep-brain stimulation of the

  7. Chapter 4 Electron transfer in respiratory complexes resolved by an ultra-fast freeze-quench approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belevich, Nikolai P; Verkhovskaya, Marina L; Verkhovsky, Michael I

    2009-01-01

    The investigation of the molecular mechanism of the respiratory chain complexes requires determination of the time-dependent evolution of the catalytic cycle intermediates. The ultra-fast freeze-quench approach makes possible trapping such intermediates with consequent analysis of their chemical structure by means of different physical spectroscopic methods (e.g., EPR, optic, and Mössbauer spectroscopies). This chapter presents the description of a setup that allows stopping the enzymatic reaction in the time range from 100 microsec to tens of msec. The construction and production technology of the mixer head, ultra-fast freezing device, and accessories required for collecting a sample are described. Ways of solving a number of problems emerging on freezing of the reaction mixture and preparing the samples for EPR spectroscopy are proposed. The kinetics of electron transfer reaction in the first enzyme of the respiratory chain, Complex I (NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase), is presented as an illustration of the freeze-quench approach. Time-resolved EPR spectra indicating the redox state of FeS clusters of the wild-type and mutant (R274A in subunit NuoCD) Complex I from Escherichia coli are shown.

  8. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneyber, Martin C J; van Heerde, Marc; Twisk, Jos W R; Plötz, Frans B; Markhors, Dick G

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of mechanical ventilation with heliox in these patients is unclear. The objective of this prospective cross-over study was to determine the effects of mechanical ventilation with heliox 60/40 versus conventional gas on respiratory system resistance, air-trapping and CO2 removal. Mechanically ventilated, sedated and paralyzed infants with proven RSV were enrolled within 24 hours after paediatric intensive care unit (PICU)admission. At T = 0, respiratory system mechanics including respiratory system compliance and resistance, and peak expiratory flow rate were measured with the AVEA ventilator. The measurements were repeated at each interval (after 30 minutes of ventilation with heliox, after 30 minutes of ventilation with nitrox and again after 30 minutes of ventilation with heliox). Indices of gas exchange (ventilation and oxygenation index) were calculated at each interval. Air-trapping (defined by relative change in end-expiratory lung volume) was determined by electrical impedance tomography (EIT) at each interval. Thirteen infants were enrolled. In nine, EIT measurements were performed. Mechanical ventilation with heliox significantly decreased respiratory system resistance. This was not accompanied by an improved CO2 elimination, decreased peak expiratory flow rate or decreased end-expiratory lung volume. Importantly, oxygenation remained unaltered throughout the experimental protocol. Respiratory system resistance is significantly decreased by mechanical ventilation with heliox (ISCRTN98152468).

  9. Coordinating Clusters: A Cross Sectoral Study of Cluster Organization Functions in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp J.P. Garbade

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at answering the question how cluster organization functions are implemented in a high‐tech, a medium to high‐tech and a low to medium‐tech cluster. Data were collected by semi‐structured interviews from three clusters in the Netherlands, an agri‐food cluster (as an example of a low to medium‐tech cluster, a green biotech cluster (medium to high‐tech and a high‐tech cluster. Concerning the cluster organization functions a number of similarities were found. For all three clusters it can be concluded that the network support function is considered to be very important. Sector independence can further be found concerning the innovation process support function, specifically regarding the promotion of the region as an attractive living and working area for highly qualified employees. The results also show anumber of clear differences among the investigated clusters. Only in the low‐to‐medium tech agri‐food cluster there was a clear need for internationalization support for SMEs to reach foreign markets. Only in the green biotech cluster the demand articulation was focused on the region where the cluster is based, which stands in contrast to the highly international orientation of the member companies. Only in the high‐tech innovation cluster technology road mapping was extensively used. This powerful tool, developed to align the innovation process at the company and sector level, impacted further on the execution of the demand articulation/ network formation support functions, and could also be helpful for the green biotech and the agri‐food clusters. Throughout the paper different cluster categorization schemes are besides the tech level are applied and give insights on their limitations and how to possibly deal with them in inter sectorial cluster comparison research.

  10. Acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Pamela A; Seahorn, Thomas

    2004-04-01

    all species that we work with? What do we define as acute onset? Most human ARDS cases occur while patients are in hospital being treated for other problems, whereas many of our patients present already in respiratory distress. If we are unable to ventilate patients for economic or practical reasons, what do we use as the equivalent of the Pao2/Flo, ratio'? Reliance on the pathologist is not reasonable, because many disease processes can look similar to ARDS under the microscope. If anything, ALI and ARDS are clinical diagnoses. It is time for veterinarians to reach a consensus on the definition for ALI and ARDS in our patients. Only when we have a consensus of definition can rational prospective clinical trials of therapies be designed.

  11. Partitional clustering algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book summarizes the state-of-the-art in partitional clustering. Clustering, the unsupervised classification of patterns into groups, is one of the most important tasks in exploratory data analysis. Primary goals of clustering include gaining insight into, classifying, and compressing data. Clustering has a long and rich history that spans a variety of scientific disciplines including anthropology, biology, medicine, psychology, statistics, mathematics, engineering, and computer science. As a result, numerous clustering algorithms have been proposed since the early 1950s. Among these algorithms, partitional (nonhierarchical) ones have found many applications, especially in engineering and computer science. This book provides coverage of consensus clustering, constrained clustering, large scale and/or high dimensional clustering, cluster validity, cluster visualization, and applications of clustering. Examines clustering as it applies to large and/or high-dimensional data sets commonly encountered in reali...

  12. Probiotics in respiratory virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtoranta, L; Pitkäranta, A; Korpela, R

    2014-08-01

    Viral respiratory infections are the most common diseases in humans. A large range of etiologic agents challenge the development of efficient therapies. Research suggests that probiotics are able to decrease the risk or duration of respiratory infection symptoms. However, the antiviral mechanisms of probiotics are unclear. The purpose of this paper is to review the current knowledge on the effects of probiotics on respiratory virus infections and to provide insights on the possible antiviral mechanisms of probiotics. A PubMed and Scopus database search was performed up to January 2014 using appropriate search terms on probiotic and respiratory virus infections in cell models, in animal models, and in humans, and reviewed for their relevance. Altogether, thirty-three clinical trials were reviewed. The studies varied highly in study design, outcome measures, probiotics, dose, and matrices used. Twenty-eight trials reported that probiotics had beneficial effects in the outcome of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and five showed no clear benefit. Only eight studies reported investigating viral etiology from the respiratory tract, and one of these reported a significant decrease in viral load. Based on experimental studies, probiotics may exert antiviral effects directly in probiotic-virus interaction or via stimulation of the immune system. Although probiotics seem to be beneficial in respiratory illnesses, the role of probiotics on specific viruses has not been investigated sufficiently. Due to the lack of confirmatory studies and varied data available, more randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trials in different age populations investigating probiotic dose response, comparing probiotic strains/genera, and elucidating the antiviral effect mechanisms are necessary.

  13. Assessment of respiratory output in mechanically ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghi, Franco

    2005-06-01

    Mechanically ventilated patients are subject to few pathophysiologic disturbances that have such intuitive importance as abnormal function of the respiratory output. Abnormal function of the respiratory output plays a fundamental role in all aspects of mechanical ventilation: in determining which patients require mechanical ventilation, in determining the interaction between a patient and the ventilator, and in determining when a patient can tolerate discontinuation of mechanical ventilation. Monitoring indexes such as the rate of rise in electrical activity of the diaphragm, Po.1, (dP/dt)max, and Pmus, has provided insight into the performance of the respiratory centers in critically ill patients, but these methods require considerable refinement. A large body of research on measurements of energy expenditure of the respiratory muscles, such as pressure-time product, and measurements of inspiratory effort, such as the tension-time index, is currently accumulating. Several challenges, however, lay ahead regarding these indices. First, there is the need to identify the correct level of pressure generation and respiratory muscle effort that should be attained in the day-to-day management of mechanically ventilated patients. The correct titration of ventilator setting should not cause iatrogenic muscle damage because the support is excessive or insufficient. One of the challenges in reaching this goal is that for the same patient, different underlying pathologic conditions (eg, sepsis or ventilator-associated muscle injury) may require different levels of support. Second, many of the measurements of pressure generation and effort have been confined to the research laboratory. Modifications of the technology to achieve accurate measurements in the intensive care unit-outside of the research laboratory--are needed. To facilitate individual titration of ventilator settings, the new technologies must provide easier access to quantification of drive, pressure output, and

  14. Clustering and Community Detection with Imbalanced Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Aksoylar, Cem; Qian, Jing; Saligrama, Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    Spectral clustering methods which are frequently used in clustering and community detection applications are sensitive to the specific graph constructions particularly when imbalanced clusters are present. We show that ratio cut (RCut) or normalized cut (NCut) objectives are not tailored to imbalanced cluster sizes since they tend to emphasize cut sizes over cut values. We propose a graph partitioning problem that seeks minimum cut partitions under minimum size constraints on partitions to de...

  15. Data clustering theory, algorithms, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gan, Guojun; Wu, Jianhong

    2007-01-01

    Cluster analysis is an unsupervised process that divides a set of objects into homogeneous groups. This book starts with basic information on cluster analysis, including the classification of data and the corresponding similarity measures, followed by the presentation of over 50 clustering algorithms in groups according to some specific baseline methodologies such as hierarchical, center-based, and search-based methods. As a result, readers and users can easily identify an appropriate algorithm for their applications and compare novel ideas with existing results. The book also provides examples of clustering applications to illustrate the advantages and shortcomings of different clustering architectures and algorithms. Application areas include pattern recognition, artificial intelligence, information technology, image processing, biology, psychology, and marketing. Readers also learn how to perform cluster analysis with the C/C++ and MATLAB® programming languages.

  16. A test of syndromic surveillance using a severe acute respiratory syndrome model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, David J; Arquilla, Bonnie; Heffernan, Richard; Kramer, Martin; Anderson, Todd; Bernstein, David; Augenbraun, Michael

    2009-05-01

    We describe a field simulation that was conducted using volunteers to assess the ability of 3 hospitals in a network to manage a large influx of patients with a potentially communicable disease. This drill provided the opportunity to evaluate the ability of the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene's (NYC-DOHMH) emergency department chief complaint syndromic surveillance system to detect a cluster of patients with febrile respiratory illness. The evaluation was a prospective simulation. The clinical picture was modeled on severe acute respiratory syndrome symptoms. Forty-four volunteers participated in the drill as mock patients. Records from 42 patients (95%) were successfully transmitted to the NYC-DOHMH. The electronic chief complaint for 24 (57%) of these patients indicated febrile or respiratory illness. The drill did not generate a statistical signal in the NYC-DOHMH SaTScan analysis. The 42 drill patients were classified in 8 hierarchical categories based on chief complaints: sepsis (2), cold (3), diarrhea (2), respiratory (20), fever/flu (4), vomit (3), and other (8). The number of respiratory visits, while elevated on the day of the drill, did not appear particularly unusual when compared with the 14-day baseline period used for spatial analyses. This drill with a cluster of patients with febrile respiratory illness failed to trigger a signal from the NYC-DOHMH emergency department chief complaint syndromic surveillance system. This highlighted several limitations and challenges to syndromic surveillance monitoring.

  17. Malaria clusters among illegal Chinese immigrants to Europe through Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisoffi, Zeno; Matteelli, Alberto; Aquilini, Donatella; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Magnani, Giacomo; Orlando, Giovanna; Gaiera, Giovanni; Jelinek, Tomas; Behrens, Ron H

    2003-09-01

    Between November 2002 and March 2003, 17 cases of malaria (1 fatal) were observed in illegal Chinese immigrants who traveled to Italy through Africa. A further cluster of 12 was reported in August, 2002. Several immigrants traveled by air, making the risk of introducing sudden acute respiratory syndrome a possibility should such illegal immigrations continue.

  18. Cluster headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, R E; Ryan, R E

    1989-12-01

    The patient with cluster headaches will be afflicted with the most severe type of pain that one will encounter. If the physician can do something to help this patient either by symptomatic or, more importantly, prophylactic treatment, he or she will have a most thankful patient. This type of headache is seen most frequently in men, and occurs in a cyclic manner. During an acute cycle, the patient will experience a daily type of pain that may occur many times per day. The pain is usually unilateral and may be accompanied by unilateral lacrimation, conjunctivitis, and clear rhinorrhea. Prednisone is the first treatment we employ. Patients are seen for follow-up approximately twice a week, and their medication is lowered in an appropriate manner, depending on their response to the treatment. Regulation of dosage has to be individualized, and when one reaches the lower dose such as 5 to 10 mg per day, the drug may have to be tapered more slowly, or even maintained at that level for a period of time to prevent further recurrence of symptoms. We frequently will use an intravenous histamine desensitization technique to prevent further attacks. We will give the patient an ergotamine preparation to use for symptomatic relief. As these patients often have headaches during the middle of the night, we will place the patient on a 2-mg ergotamine preparation to take prior to going to bed in the evening. This often works in a prophylactic nature, and prevents the nighttime occurrence of a headache. We believe that following these principles to make the accurate diagnosis and institute the proper therapy will help the practicing otolaryngologist recognize and treat patients suffering from this severe pain.

  19. Gene therapy and respiratory neuroplasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantilla, Carlos B

    2017-01-01

    Breathing is a life-sustaining behavior that in mammals is accomplished by activation of dedicated muscles responsible for inspiratory and expiratory forces acting on the lung and chest wall. Motor control is exerted by specialized pools of motoneurons in the medulla and spinal cord innervated by projections from multiple centers primarily in the brainstem that act in concert to generate both the rhythm and pattern of ventilation. Perturbations that prevent the accomplishment of the full range of motor behaviors by respiratory muscles commonly result in significant morbidity and increased mortality. Recent developments in gene therapy and novel targeting strategies have contributed to deeper understanding of the organization of respiratory motor systems. Gene therapy has received widespread attention and substantial progress has been made in recent years with the advent of improved tools for vector design. Genes can be delivered via a variety of plasmids, synthetic or viral vectors and cell therapies. In recent years, adeno-associated viruses (AAV) have become one of the most commonly used vector systems, primarily because of the extensive characterization conducted to date and the versatility in targeting strategies. Recent studies highlight the power of using AAV to selectively and effectively transduce respiratory motoneurons and muscle fibers with promising therapeutic effects. This brief review summarizes current evidence for the use of gene therapy in respiratory disorders with a primary focus on interventions that address motor control and neuroplasticity, including regeneration, in the respiratory system.

  20. Altered Respiratory Physiology in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Parameswaran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The major respiratory complications of obesity include a heightened demand for ventilation, elevated work of breathing, respiratory muscle inefficiency and diminished respiratory compliance. The decreased functional residual capacity and expiratory reserve volume, with a high closing volume to functional residual capacity ratio of obesity, are associated with the closure of peripheral lung units, ventilation to perfusion ratio abnormalities and hypoxemia, especially in the supine position. Conventional respiratory function tests are only mildly affected by obesity except in extreme cases. The major circulatory complications are increased total and pulmonary blood volume, high cardiac output and elevated left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. Patients with obesity commonly develop hypoventilation and sleep apnea syndromes with attenuated hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responsiveness. The final result is hypoxemia, pulmonary hypertension and progressively worsening disability. Obese patients have increased dyspnea and decreased exercise capacity, which are vital to quality of life. Decreased muscle, increased joint pain and skin friction are important determinants of decreased exercise capacity, in addition to the cardiopulmonary effects of obesity. The effects of obesity on mortality in heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have not been definitively resolved. Whether obesity contributes to asthma and airway hyper-responsiveness is uncertain. Weight reduction and physical activity are effective means of reversing the respiratory complications of obesity.

  1. Temporary Clusters and Knowledge Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maskell, Peter; Bathelt, Harald; Malmberg, Anders

    2004-01-01

    to distant markets and technologies. Third, it compares such temporaryclusters with permanent territorial hubs within their respective sector or industry. If regularparticipation in temporary clusters could satisfy a firm's need to learn through interactionwith suppliers, customers, peers and rivals, why...... or participating in such events are means toidentify the current market frontier, take stock of relative competitive positions and formfuture plans. These events exhibit many of the characteristics ascribed to permanentclusters, albeit in a temporary, periodic and intensified form. The temporary clusters...... is the phenomenon of permanent clusteringso pervasive?The answer, it is claimed, lies in the restrictions imposed on economic activity whenknowledge and ideas are transformed into valuable products and services. The paper shedsnew light on how interaction among firms in current clusters coincides...

  2. 基于虚拟化技术的网络集群系统数据安全解决方案%The Data Security Solution of Network Cluster System based on Virtualization Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周南弢; 吴波

    2013-01-01

    Kunming Municipal People's Procuratorate uses VMware virtualization technology to build personal desktop systems, while integrating all the city's website resources to build the cluster system and a unified cloud desktop and cloud storage applications system. The dispersed content in network and information system will be centralized in the cloud, by using the handware system such as the center shielded computer room,encryption machine, ifrewall and intrusion detection system to ensure the personal and system’s data security .%昆明市人民检察院采用VMware技术搭建个人虚拟化桌面系统,同时整合全市各县(市)区网站资源打造昆明检察集群系统,并建立统一的云桌面及云存储应用系统,将网络与信息系统中分散的内容统一集中存放于云端,通过计算中心屏蔽机房及加密机、防火墙、入侵检测等硬件系统及网络管理平台软件系统确保个人及系统数据安全。

  3. Early respiratory microbiota composition determines bacterial succession patterns and respiratory health in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesbroek, G.; Tsivtsivadze, E.; Sanders, E.A.M.; Montijn, R.; Veenhoven, R.H.; Keijser, B.J.F.; Bogaert, D.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Many bacterial pathogens causing respiratory infections in children are common residents of the respiratory tract. Insight into bacterial colonization patterns and microbiota stability at a young age might elucidate healthy or susceptible conditions for development of respiratory disease.

  4. Early respiratory microbiota composition determines bacterial succession patterns and respiratory health in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesbroek, G.; Tsivtsivadze, E.; Sanders, E.A.M.; Montijn, R.; Veenhoven, R.H.; Keijser, B.J.F.; Bogaert, D.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Many bacterial pathogens causing respiratory infections in children are common residents of the respiratory tract. Insight into bacterial colonization patterns and microbiota stability at a young age might elucidate healthy or susceptible conditions for development of respiratory disease.

  5. 呼吸道炎症无创检测技术在儿童支气管哮喘应用的研究进展%Research progress in clinical application of noninvasive detection technology to respiratory inflammatory of bronchial asthma in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏万敏(综述); 刘瀚旻(审校)

    2016-01-01

    It is essential to assess and monitor respiratory tract inflammation in asthmatic children patients for evaluating severity of bronchial asthma ,treatment response and predicting acute exacerbation and outcome .Invasive and noninvasive techniques could be used in monitoring respiratory tract inflammation in asthmatic children patients .Noninvasive techniques have become one of the most important means for the management of asthma ,including airway responsiveness detection ,level of fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide ( FeNO ) detection , induced sputum detection , concentration of leukotrienes (LT) in blood and urine ,and experiment for analysis of ingredients for exhaled breath condensate (EBC ) . The decision criteria standardization of noninvasive detection technology to respiratory inflammatory of bronchial asthma in children will be the first step ,and it is also the main problem that affects the clinical application of these techniques in children with asthma .%儿童呼吸道炎症评估和监测,对于支气管哮喘的病情评价,治疗反应效果、预测急性发作和预后检测均具有重要意义。目前,对于呼吸道炎症检测相关技术,包括无创和有创二类。其中,呼吸道炎症无创检测技术,已成为哮喘管理的重要手段之一,主要包括呼吸道反应性测定、呼出气一氧化氮(FeNO )水平检测、诱导痰技术、血液与尿液白三烯(L T )水平检测,以及呼出气冷凝物(EBC )成分试验等。对呼吸道炎症无创检测技术和判定指标的标准化,是目前影响这些技术在儿童支气管哮喘临床应用的主要问题。

  6. Factorial PD-Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Tortora, Cristina; Summa, Mireille Gettler

    2011-01-01

    Factorial clustering methods have been developed in recent years thanks to the improving of computational power. These methods perform a linear transformation of data and a clustering on transformed data optimizing a common criterion. Factorial PD-clustering is based on Probabilistic Distance clustering (PD-clustering). PD-clustering is an iterative, distribution free, probabilistic, clustering method. Factorial PD-clustering make a linear transformation of original variables into a reduced number of orthogonal ones using a common criterion with PD-Clustering. It is demonstrated that Tucker 3 decomposition allows to obtain this transformation. Factorial PD-clustering makes alternatively a Tucker 3 decomposition and a PD-clustering on transformed data until convergence. This method could significantly improve the algorithm performance and allows to work with large dataset, to improve the stability and the robustness of the method.

  7. Respiratory psychophysiology and behavior modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, R

    2001-09-01

    This article was written as an introduction to a special issue of Behavior Modification dedicated to studies in the field of respiratory psychophysiology. Although the invited articles that constitute this special issue cover a fairly broad range of topics, priority was given to articles that focus on the role of respiration in panic disorder. Attention is directed to the fundamental role of breathing in applied psychophysiology and to the encouragement of research in the modification of breathing behavior. The connection between respiratory psychophysiology and behavior modification is explained by reference to (a) a recent article on Pavlovian and operant control of breathing behavior and (b) four published volumes of selected articles dedicated exclusively to the field of respiratory psychophysiology. The present special issue of Behavior Modification marks the fifth volume.

  8. Neck pain causes respiratory dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapreli, Eleni; Vourazanis, Evangelos; Strimpakos, Nikolaos

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a presumptive mechanism for the development of changes in respiratory function due to chronic neck pain. The patient with neck pain presents a number of factors that could constitute a predisposition of leading to a respiratory dysfunction: (a) the decreased strength of deep neck flexors and extensors, (b) the hyperactivity and increased fatigability of superficial neck flexors, (c) the limitation of range of motion, (d) the decrease in proprioception and disturbances in neuromuscular control, (e) the existence of pain and (f) the psychosocial influence of dysfunction. The possible connection of neck pain and respiratory function could have a great impact on various clinical aspects notably patient assessment, rehabilitation and pharmacological prescription.

  9. Respiratory problems in advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, Carla; Fusco, Flavio

    2002-04-01

    Respiratory problems are an important issue in the palliative care setting, not only from a diagnostic and therapeutic point of view but also from emotion-related aspects involving both the patients and their families and also caregivers. In this paper we consider some of the most common respiratory problems, such as dyspnea, infections, hemoptysis, hiccup. A review of the literature was performed with reference to the frequency, diagnosis and management of the above respiratory problems in patients in advanced and terminal stages of the disease. Particular emphasis was given to the importance of communication with the patients and their families, which is considered a crucial point in the care and the cure of such patients.

  10. [Respiratory treatments in neuromuscular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Carrasco, C; Cols Roig, M; Salcedo Posadas, A; Sardon Prado, O; Asensio de la Cruz, O; Torrent Vernetta, A

    2014-10-01

    In a previous article, a review was presented of the respiratory pathophysiology of the patient with neuromuscular disease, as well as their clinical evaluation and the major complications causing pulmonary deterioration. This article presents the respiratory treatments required to preserve lung function in neuromuscular disease as long as possible, as well as in special situations (respiratory infections, spinal curvature surgery, etc.). Special emphasis is made on the use of non-invasive ventilation, which is changing the natural history of many of these diseases. The increase in survival and life expectancy of these children means that they can continue their clinical care in adult units. The transition from pediatric care must be an active, timely and progressive process. It may be slightly stressful for the patient before the adaptation to this new environment, with multidisciplinary care always being maintained. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Possibilistic Exponential Fuzzy Clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kiatichai Treerattanapitak; Chuleerat Jaruskulchai

    2013-01-01

    Generally,abnormal points (noise and outliers) cause cluster analysis to produce low accuracy especially in fuzzy clustering.These data not only stay in clusters but also deviate the centroids from their true positions.Traditional fuzzy clustering like Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) always assigns data to all clusters which is not reasonable in some circumstances.By reformulating objective function in exponential equation,the algorithm aggressively selects data into the clusters.However noisy data and outliers cannot be properly handled by clustering process therefore they are forced to be included in a cluster because of a general probabilistic constraint that the sum of the membership degrees across all clusters is one.In order to improve this weakness,possibilistic approach relaxes this condition to improve membership assignment.Nevertheless,possibilistic clustering algorithms generally suffer from coincident clusters because their membership equations ignore the distance to other clusters.Although there are some possibilistic clustering approaches that do not generate coincident clusters,most of them require the right combination of multiple parameters for the algorithms to work.In this paper,we theoretically study Possibilistic Exponential Fuzzy Clustering (PXFCM) that integrates possibilistic approach with exponential fuzzy clustering.PXFCM has only one parameter and not only partitions the data but also filters noisy data or detects them as outliers.The comprehensive experiments show that PXFCM produces high accuracy in both clustering results and outlier detection without generating coincident problems.

  12. Respiratory distress in the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Suzanne; Moser, Chuanpit; Baack, Michelle

    2014-10-01

    Respiratory distress presents as tachypnea, nasal flaring, retractions, and grunting and may progress to respiratory failure if not readily recognized and managed. Causes of respiratory distress vary and may not lie within the lung. A thorough history, physical examination, and radiographic and laboratory findings will aid in the differential diagnosis. Common causes include transient tachypnea of the newborn, neonatal pneumonia, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), and meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). Strong evidence reveals an inverse relationship between gestational age and respiratory morbidity. (1)(2)(9)(25)(26) Expert opinion recommends careful consideration about elective delivery without labor at less than 39 weeks’ gestation. Extensive evidence, including randomized control trials, cohort studies, and expert opinion, supports maternal group B streptococcus screening, intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, and appropriate followup of high-risk newborns according to guidelines established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (4)(29)(31)(32)(34) Following these best-practice strategies is effective in preventing neonatal pneumonia and its complications. (31)(32)(34). On the basis of strong evidence, including randomized control trials and Cochrane Reviews, administration of antenatal corticosteroids (5) and postnatal surfactant (6) decrease respiratory morbidity associated with RDS. Trends in perinatal management strategies to prevent MAS have changed. There is strong evidence that amnioinfusion, (49) oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal suctioning at the perineum, (45) or intubation and endotracheal suctioning of vigorous infants (46)(47) do not decrease MAS or its complications. Some research and expert opinion supports endotracheal suctioning of nonvigorous meconium-stained infants (8) and induction of labor at 41 weeks’ gestation (7) to prevent MAS.

  13. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Soraia Carvalho; Maron-Gutierrez, Tatiana; Garcia, Cristiane Sousa Nascimento Baez; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Lab. de Investigacao]. E-mail: prmrocco@biof.ufrj.br

    2008-12-15

    Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases. (author)

  14. Synthetic cannabis and respiratory depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinwala, Felecia N; Gupta, Mayank

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, synthetic cannabis use has been increasing in appeal among adolescents, and its use is now at a 30 year peak among high school seniors. The constituents of synthetic cannabis are difficult to monitor, given the drug's easy accessibility. Currently, 40 U.S. states have banned the distribution and use of some known synthetic cannabinoids, and have included these drugs in the Schedule I category. The depressive respiratory effect in humans caused by synthetic cannabis inhalation has not been thoroughly investigated in the medical literature. We are the first to report, to our knowledge, two cases of self-reported synthetic cannabis use leading to respiratory depression and necessary intubation.

  15. Large scale cluster computing workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dane Skow; Alan Silverman

    2002-12-23

    Recent revolutions in computer hardware and software technologies have paved the way for the large-scale deployment of clusters of commodity computers to address problems heretofore the domain of tightly coupled SMP processors. Near term projects within High Energy Physics and other computing communities will deploy clusters of scale 1000s of processors and be used by 100s to 1000s of independent users. This will expand the reach in both dimensions by an order of magnitude from the current successful production facilities. The goals of this workshop were: (1) to determine what tools exist which can scale up to the cluster sizes foreseen for the next generation of HENP experiments (several thousand nodes) and by implication to identify areas where some investment of money or effort is likely to be needed. (2) To compare and record experimences gained with such tools. (3) To produce a practical guide to all stages of planning, installing, building and operating a large computing cluster in HENP. (4) To identify and connect groups with similar interest within HENP and the larger clustering community.

  16. Cluster World

    OpenAIRE

    Delong, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Ve své práci se zabývám především všudypřítomností internetu a informačních technologií, zhroucením fyzického prostoru v síťové kultuře a nekonečnou reprodukovatelností a proměnlivostí digitálních materiálů, nicméně i jejich zpětným aplikováním do výstavního prostoru. Věnuji se rovněž změně podstaty autorství, tedy situací, kdy se poté, co se umění zaznamená a vystaví na internetu, stává „materiálem v oběhu“. Autorství díla je takřka nedohledatelné, stejně jako jeho původní kontext. Umělecký ...

  17. Cluster World

    OpenAIRE

    Delong, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Ve své práci se zabývám především všudypřítomností internetu a informačních technologií, zhroucením fyzického prostoru v síťové kultuře a nekonečnou reprodukovatelností a proměnlivostí digitálních materiálů, nicméně i jejich zpětným aplikováním do výstavního prostoru. Věnuji se rovněž změně podstaty autorství, tedy situací, kdy se poté, co se umění zaznamená a vystaví na internetu, stává „materiálem v oběhu“. Autorství díla je takřka nedohledatelné, stejně jako jeho původní kontext. Umělecký ...

  18. Structures of Mn clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tina M Briere; Marcel H F Sluiter; Vijay Kumar; Yoshiyuki Kawazoe

    2003-01-01

    The geometries of several Mn clusters in the size range Mn13–Mn23 are studied via the generalized gradient approximation to density functional theory. For the 13- and 19-atom clusters, the icosahedral structures are found to be most stable, while for the 15-atom cluster, the bcc structure is more favoured. The clusters show ferrimagnetic spin configurations.

  19. Dissolution of Globular Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgardt, Holger

    2006-01-01

    Globular clusters are among the oldest objects in galaxies, and understanding the details of their formation and evolution can bring valuable insight into the early history of galaxies. This review summarises the current knowledge about the dissolution of star clusters and discusses the implications of star cluster dissolution for the evolution of the mass function of star cluster systems in galaxies.

  20. Clustering of correlated networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dorogovtsev, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    We obtain the clustering coefficient, the degree-dependent local clustering, and the mean clustering of networks with arbitrary correlations between the degrees of the nearest-neighbor vertices. The resulting formulas allow one to determine the nature of the clustering of a network.

  1. Phenotype profiling of single gene deletion mutants of E. coli using Biolog technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohsato, Yukako; Mori, Hirotada

    2008-01-01

    Phenotype MicroArray (PM) technology is high-throughput phenotyping system and is directly applicable to assay the effects of genetic changes in cells. In this study, we performed comprehensive PM analysis using single gene deletion mutants of central metabolic pathway and related genes. To elucidate the structure of central metabolic networks in Escherichia coli K-12, we focused 288 different PM conditions of carbon and nitrogen sources and performed bioinformatic analysis. For data processing, we employed noise reduction procedures. The distance between each of the mutants was defined by Manhattan distance and agglomerative Ward's hierarchical method was applied for clustering analysis. As a result, five clusters were revealed which represented to activate or repress cellular respiratory activities. Furthermore, the results might suggest that Glyceraldehyde-3P plays a key role as a molecular switch of central metabolic network.

  2. Contextualizing the Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacomin, Valeria

    This dissertation examines the case of the palm oil cluster in Malaysia and Indonesia, today one of the largest agricultural clusters in the world. My analysis focuses on the evolution of the cluster from the 1880s to the 1970s in order to understand how it helped these two countries to integrate......-researched topic in the cluster literature – the emergence of clusters, their governance and institutional change, and competition between rival cluster locations – through the case of the Southeast Asian palm oil cluster....

  3. Contextualizing the Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacomin, Valeria

    This dissertation examines the case of the palm oil cluster in Malaysia and Indonesia, today one of the largest agricultural clusters in the world. My analysis focuses on the evolution of the cluster from the 1880s to the 1970s in order to understand how it helped these two countries to integrate......-researched topic in the cluster literature – the emergence of clusters, their governance and institutional change, and competition between rival cluster locations – through the case of the Southeast Asian palm oil cluster....

  4. Clustering in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drab, Klaudia; Daszykowski, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Data clustering plays an important role in the exploratory analysis of analytical data, and the use of clustering methods has been acknowledged in different fields of science. In this paper, principles of data clustering are presented with a direct focus on clustering of analytical data. The role of the clustering process in the analytical workflow is underlined, and its potential impact on the analytical workflow is emphasized.

  5. Your Lungs and Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathing? If you guessed your lungs, you're right! Your lungs make up one of the largest organs in your body, and they work with your respiratory system to allow you to take in fresh air, get rid of stale air, and even talk. ...

  6. Nasopharyngeal colonization with respiratory pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory (otitis media, pneumonia) and invasive (sepsis, meningitis) infections cause substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. The World Health Organization estimates that every year one million children under the age of five die of pneumonia, mainly in developing countries. Elderly are ano

  7. House Dust Mite Respiratory Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, Moisés A; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Linneberg, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence on the e...

  8. Health Instruction Packages: Respiratory Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavich, Margot; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these four learning modules to teach respiratory therapy students a variety of job-related skills. The first module, "Anatomy and Physiology of the Central Controls of Respiration" by Margot Lavich, describes the functions of the five centers of the brain that control respiration and…

  9. Respiratory Therapy Assistant. Student's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Judy A.

    This manual is one in a new series of self-contained materials for students enrolled in training with the allied health field. It includes competencies that are associated with the performance of skills by students beginning the study of respiratory therapy assistance. Intended to be used for individualized instruction under the supervision of an…

  10. [Respiratory function in glass blowers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuskin, E; Butković, D; Mustajbegović, J

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic and acute respiratory symptoms and diseases and changes in lung function in a group of 80 glass blowers have been investigated. In addition a group of 80 not exposed workers was used as a control group for respiratory symptoms and diseases. In glass blowers, there was significant increase in prevalence of chronic bronchitis, nasal catarrh, and sinusitis than in the controls. Glass blowers exposed for more and less than 10 years had similar prevalences of respiratory symptoms. A large number of glass blowers complained of acute across-shift symptoms. Significant increase in FVC, FEF50 and FEF25 was documented at the end of the work shift. Comparison with predicted normal values showed that glass blowers had FVC and FEF25 significantly lower than predicted. RV and RV/TLC were significantly increased compared with the predicted normal values. DLCO was within the normal values in most glass blowers. It is concluded that work in the glass blower industry is likely to lead the development of chronic respiratory disorders.

  11. Optimal Energy Aware Clustering in Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Sarrafzadeh

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Sensor networks is among the fastest growing technologies that have the potential of changing our lives drastically. These collaborative, dynamic and distributed computing and communicating systems will be self organizing. They will have capabilities of distributing a task among themselves for efficient computation. There are many challenges in implementation of such systems: energy dissipation and clustering being one of them. In order to maintain a certain degree of service quality and a reasonable system lifetime, energy needs to be optimized at every stage of system operation. Sensor node clustering is another very important optimization problem. Nodes that are clustered together will easily be able to communicate with each other. Considering energy as an optimization parameter while clustering is imperative. In this paper we study the theoretical aspects of the clustering problem in sensor networks with application to energy optimization. We illustrate an optimal algorithm for clustering the sensor nodes such that each cluster (which has a master is balanced and the total distance between sensor nodes and master nodes is minimized. Balancing the clusters is needed for evenly distributing the load on all master nodes. Minimizing the total distance helps in reducing the communication overhead and hence the energy dissipation. This problem (which we call balanced k-clustering is modeled as a mincost flow problem which can be solved optimally using existing techniques.

  12. Molecular detection of respiratory viruses: clinical impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Viral respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) cause major morbidity in infants and children. Traditionally, respiratory viruses are detected with conventional tests (viral culture and direct immunofluorescence (DIF)), however nowadays viral diagnostics are being revolutionized by the increased implemen

  13. [Respiratory diseases in metallurgy production workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shliapnikov, D M; Vlasova, E M; Ponomareva, T A

    2012-01-01

    The authors identified features of respiratory diseases in workers of various metallurgy workshops. Cause-effect relationships are defined between occupational risk factors and respiratory diseases, with determining the affection level.

  14. Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COAL WORKERS' HEALTH SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases Coal mining-related respiratory ...

  15. Clusters, Connectivity and Catch-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mark; Mudambi, Ram

    2013-01-01

    by decentralized pipelines have potential for in-depth catch-up, focused in industry and technology scope. In contrast, clusters linked through decentralized personal relationships have potential for in-breadth catch-up over a range of related industries and technologies. We illustrate our theoretical propositions......In this article, we make two important contributions to the literature on clusters. First, we provide a broader theory of cluster connectivity that has hitherto focused on organization-based pipelines and MNE subsidiaries, by including linkages in the form of personal relationships. Second, we use...... the lens of social network theory to derive a number of testable propositions. We propose that global linkages with decentralized network structures have the highest potential for local spillovers. In the emerging economy context, our theory implies that clusters linked to the global economy...

  16. Managing common neonatal respiratory conditions during transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Kristi L; Jamie, Scott F; Baskerville, Rosland M

    2014-10-01

    As neonatal care in the tertiary setting advances, neonatal transport teams are challenged with incorporating these innovations into their work environment. One of the largest areas of advancement over the last decade involves respiratory support and management. Many major respiratory treatments and the equipment required have been adapted for transport, whereas others are not yet feasible. This article reviews the history of respiratory management during neonatal transport and discusses current methodologies and innovations in transport respiratory management.

  17. Comparison between TRCReady MTB and MTB ELITe MGB kit for the direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in respiratory and non-respiratory samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Gatti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: A recent World Health Organization survey estimated about 10.4 million new tuberculosis (TB cases per year with a high mortality rate. A rapid and accurate diagnosis of TB is very important for the optimal treatment and the prevention of spread. In the last few years rapid nucleic acid amplification tests for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB were developed. Materials and methods: In this study we have compared TRCReady MTB, based on the Transcription Reverse Transcription Concerted Reaction technology (TRC and MTB ELITe MGB Kit, a qualitative nucleic acid amplification assay, for the direct detection of MTB in 56 respiratory and 24 non-respiratory specimens, collected from September to November 2015. Results: Both methods did not detect any MTB in 45 respiratory samples and in 22 non-respiratory specimens with negative cultures. MTB ELITe MGB Kit identified MTB in 8 respiratory samples with MTB positive cultures, 7 of which were detected by TRCReady MTB as well. Two non-respiratory MTB positive cultures were correctly identified by both methods. In two respiratory samples with Mycobacterium Other Than Tuberculosis positive cultures both methods provided negative results. Conclusions: In conclusion, TRCReady MTB performance proved comparable to that of MTB ELITe MGB Kit in the diagnosis of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB, with a shorter analytical time (50 vs 110 min.

  18. ROUGH SET BASED CLUSTERING OF GENE EXPRESSION DATA: A SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.JEBA EMILYN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Microarray technology has now made it possible to simultaneously monitor the expression levels of thousands of genes during important biological processes and across collections of related samples. But the high dimensionality property of gene expression data makes it difficult to be analyzed. Lot of clustering algorithms are available for clustering. In this paper we first briefly introduce the concepts of microarray technology and discuss the basic elements of clustering on gene expression data. Then we introduce rough clustering and itsadvantage over strict and fuzzy clustering is explored. We also explain why rough clustering is preferred over other conventional methods by presenting a survey on few clustering algorithms based on rough set theory for gene expression data. We conclude by stating that this area proves to be potential research field for the researchcommunity.

  19. Atypical respiratory complications of dengue fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naveen Kumar; AK Gadpayle; Deepshikha Trisal

    2013-01-01

    In last decade, dengue has emerged as one of the most important vector born disease.With increasing cases, uncommon presentations and complications are now commonly recognized. Here, we report two cases of rare pattern of respiratory involvement in dengue: acute respiratory distress syndrome and bronchiolitis with respiratory failure.

  20. Effects of Aging on the Respiratory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitzky, Michael G.

    1984-01-01

    Relates alterations in respiratory system functions occurring with aging to changes in respiratory system structure during the course of life. Main alterations noted include loss of alveolar elastic recoil, alteration in chest wall structure and decreased respiratory muscle strength, and loss of surface area and changes in pulmonary circulation.…

  1. [Chronic respiratory insufficiency and the elderly patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobarzan, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Chronic respiratory failure is a complex entity of varied etiology and physio-pathological mechanisms. It is mainly characterised by the respiratory system's difficulty in ensuring correct aeration at rest, resulting initially in insufficient oxygenation of arterial blood. Treatment is adapted to each etiology and aims to compensate for respiratory failure and to ensure the oxygenation of the organism.

  2. SU-E-J-48: Development of An Abdominal Compression Device for Respiratory Correlated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T; Kang, S; Kim, D; Suh, T [Catholic University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    therapy and respiratory training system will be investigated. This work was supported by Radiation Technology R and D program (No. 2013M2A2A7043498)and Basic Atomic Energy Research Institute (BAERI)(No. NRF-2009-0078390) through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning.

  3. Electrical Neuromodulation of the Respiratory System After Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachmann, Jan T; Grahn, Peter J; Calvert, Jonathan S; Drubach, Dina I; Lee, Kendall H; Lavrov, Igor A

    2017-09-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a complex and devastating condition characterized by disruption of descending, ascending, and intrinsic spinal circuitry resulting in chronic neurologic deficits. In addition to limb and trunk sensorimotor deficits, SCI can impair autonomic neurocircuitry such as the motor networks that support respiration and cough. High cervical SCI can cause complete respiratory paralysis, and even lower cervical or thoracic lesions commonly result in partial respiratory impairment. Although electrophrenic respiration can restore ventilator-independent breathing in select candidates, only a small subset of affected individuals can benefit from this technology at this moment. Over the past decades, spinal cord stimulation has shown promise for augmentation and recovery of neurologic function including motor control, cough, and breathing. The present review discusses the challenges and potentials of spinal cord stimulation for restoring respiratory function by overcoming some of the limitations of conventional respiratory functional electrical stimulation systems. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Defining inhibitory neurone function in respiratory circuits: opportunities with optogenetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdala, Ana Paula; Paton, Julian F R; Smith, Jeffrey C

    2015-07-15

    Pharmacological and mathematical modelling studies support the view that synaptic inhibition in mammalian brainstem respiratory circuits is essential for generating normal and stable breathing movements. GABAergic and glycinergic neurones are known components of these circuits but their precise functional roles have not been established, especially within key microcircuits of the respiratory pre-Bötzinger (pre-BötC) and Bötzinger (BötC) complexes involved in phasic control of respiratory pump and airway muscles. Here, we review briefly current concepts of relevant complexities of inhibitory synapses and the importance of synaptic inhibition in the operation of these microcircuits. We highlight results and limitations of classical pharmacological studies that have suggested critical functions of synaptic inhibition. We then explore the potential opportunities for optogenetic strategies that represent a promising new approach for interrogating function of inhibitory circuits, including a hypothetical wish list for optogenetic approaches to allow expedient application of this technology. We conclude that recent technical advances in optogenetics should provide a means to understand the role of functionally select and regionally confined subsets of inhibitory neurones in key respiratory circuits such as those in the pre-BötC and BötC.

  5. Comprehensive cluster analysis with Transitivity Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittkop, Tobias; Emig, Dorothea; Truss, Anke; Albrecht, Mario; Böcker, Sebastian; Baumbach, Jan

    2011-03-01

    Transitivity Clustering is a method for the partitioning of biological data into groups of similar objects, such as genes, for instance. It provides integrated access to various functions addressing each step of a typical cluster analysis. To facilitate this, Transitivity Clustering is accessible online and offers three user-friendly interfaces: a powerful stand-alone version, a web interface, and a collection of Cytoscape plug-ins. In this paper, we describe three major workflows: (i) protein (super)family detection with Cytoscape, (ii) protein homology detection with incomplete gold standards and (iii) clustering of gene expression data. This protocol guides the user through the most important features of Transitivity Clustering and takes ∼1 h to complete.

  6. Hypnosis in paediatric respiratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Joshua J; Vlieger, Arine M; Anbar, Ran D

    2014-03-01

    Hypnotherapy is an often misunderstood yet effective therapy. It has been reported to be useful within the field of paediatric respiratory medicine as both a primary and an adjunctive therapy. This article gives a brief overview of how hypnotherapy is performed followed by a review of its applications in paediatric patients with asthma, cystic fibrosis, dyspnea, habit cough, vocal cord dysfunction, and those requiring non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. As the available literature is comprised mostly of case series, retrospective studies, and only a single small randomized study, the field would be strengthened by additional randomized, controlled trials in order to better establish the effectiveness of hypnosis as a treatment, and to identify the processes leading to hypnosis-induced physiologic changes. As examples of the utility of hypnosis and how it can be taught to children with respiratory disease, the article includes videos that demonstrate its use for patients with cystic fibrosis.

  7. Respiratory syncytial virus vaccine development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Julia L

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract viral disease in infants and young children. Presently, there are no explicit recommendations for RSV treatment apart from supportive care. The virus is therefore responsible for an estimated 160,000 deaths per year worldwide. Despite half a century of dedicated research, there remains no licensed vaccine product. Herein are described past and current efforts to harness innate and adaptive immune potentials to combat RSV. A plethora of candidate vaccine products and strategies are reviewed. The development of a successful RSV vaccine may ultimately stem from attention to historical lessons, in concert with an integral partnering of immunology and virology research fields. PMID:21988307

  8. Immunoprophylaxis of bovine respiratory syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogan Dragan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Respiratory Syndrome (BRS is a multifactorial disease caused by the interaction of infective agents, the environment and the individual immunological response of animals in the herd. Despite five decades of research on BRS, no clear understanding of how environmental factors influence pathogenic outcomes of the disease has been defined. As such, the development of immunoprophylaxis and vaccine programmes to prevent outbreaks of BRS in cattle has not been successful. The current paper discusses vaccination programmes for all categories of cattle and presents a review of existing vaccines being used for immunoprophylaxis of respiratory syndrome in cattle and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the currently used vaccines and vaccination programmes. Lastly, a discussion detailing the design of future perfect vaccines is presented.

  9. Respiratory manifestations in endocrine diseases

    OpenAIRE

    LENCU, CODRU?A; ALEXESCU, TEODORA; PETRULEA, MIRELA; LENCU, MONICA

    2016-01-01

    The control mechanisms of respiration as a vital function are complex: voluntary ? cortical, and involuntary ? metabolic, neural, emotional and endocrine. Hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides (that act as neurotrasmitters and neuromodulators in the central nervous system) play a role in the regulation of respiration and in bronchopulmonary morphology. This article presents respiratory manifestations in adult endocrine diseases that evolve with hormone deficit or hypersecretion. In hyperthy...

  10. Extensive upper respiratory tract sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Mafalda Trindade; Sousa, Carolina; Garanito, Luísa; Freire, Filipe

    2016-04-18

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology. It can affect any part of the organism, although the lung is the most frequently affected organ. Upper airway involvement is rare, particularly if isolated. Sarcoidosis is a diagnosis of exclusion, established by histological evidence of non-caseating granulomas and the absence of other granulomatous diseases. The authors report a case of a man with sarcoidosis manifesting as a chronic inflammatory stenotic condition of the upper respiratory tract and trachea.

  11. The Cluster Substructure - Alignment Connection

    OpenAIRE

    Plionis, Manolis

    2001-01-01

    Using the APM cluster data we investigate whether the dynamical status of clusters is related to the large-scale structure of the Universe. We find that cluster substructure is strongly correlated with the tendency of clusters to be aligned with their nearest neighbour and in general with the nearby clusters that belong to the same supercluster. Furthermore, dynamically young clusters are more clustered than the overall cluster population. These are strong indications that cluster develop in ...

  12. [Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and respiratory insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siirala, Waltteri; Korpela, Jaana; Vuori, Arno; Saaresranta, Tarja; Olkkola, Klaus T; Aantaa, Riku

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disease causing degeneration of motor neurons, without any curative treatment. The most common cause of death is respiratory arrest due to atrophy of the respiratory musculature. ALS-associated respiratory insufficiency differs in mechanism from the more common causes of dyspnea, such as diseases of pulmonary or cardiac origin. Recognizing the respiratory insufficiency can be challenging for a clinician. It should be possible to predict the development of respiratory insufficiency in order to avoid leaving the treatment decisions concerning respiratory insufficiency to emergency services. Noninvasive ventilatory support can be used to alleviate the patient's dyspnea. It is actually recommended as the first-line treatment of ALS-associated respiratory insufficiency.

  13. Deployment-related Respiratory Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael J; Rawlins, Frederic A; Forbes, Damon A; Skabelund, Andrew J; Lucero, Pedro F

    2016-01-01

    Military deployment to Southwest Asia since 2003 in support of Operations Enduring Freedom/Iraqi Freedom/New Dawn has presented unique challenges from a pulmonary perspective. Various airborne hazards in the deployed environment include suspended geologic dusts, burn pit smoke, vehicle exhaust emissions, industrial air pollution, and isolated exposure incidents. These exposures may give rise to both acute respiratory symptoms and in some instances development of chronic lung disease. While increased respiratory symptoms during deployment are well documented, there is limited data on whether inhalation of airborne particulate matter is causally related to an increase in either common or unique pulmonary diseases. While disease processes such as acute eosinophilic pneumonia and exacerbation of preexisting asthma have been adequately documented, there is significant controversy surrounding the potential effects of deployment exposures and development of rare pulmonary disorders such as constrictive bronchiolitis. The role of smoking and related disorders has yet to be defined. This article presents the current evidence for deployment-related respiratory symptoms and ongoing Department of Defense studies. Further, it also provides general recommendations for evaluating pulmonary health in the deployed military population.

  14. Adenosine improves cardiomyocyte respiratory efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babsky, A M; Doliba, M M; Doliba, N M; Osbakken, M D

    1998-01-01

    The role of adenosine on the regulation of mitochondrial function has been studied. In order to evaluate this the following experiments were done in isolated rat cardiomyocites and mitochondria using polarographic techniques. Cardiomyocyte oxygen consumption (MVO2) and mitochondrial respiratory function (State 3 and State 4, respiratory control index, and ADP/O ratio) were evaluated after exposure to adenosine. Cardiomyocyte MVO2 was significantly lower in cells previously exposed to adenosine (10 microM, 15 min or 30 min cell incubation) than in cells not exposed to adenosine (control). Addition of dipyridamole (10 microM) or 8-(p-Sulfophenyl) theophylline (50 microM) to cardiomyocytes before adenosine incubation prevented the adenosine-induced changes in MVO2. Mitochondria obtained from isolated perfused beating heart previously perfused with adenosine (10 microM, 30 min heart perfusion) also resulted in significant increases in ADP/O and respiratory control index compared to matching control. Mitochondria isolated from cardiomyocytes previously exposed to adenosine (10 microM, 15 min or 30 min cell incubation) resulted in a significant increase in mitochondrial ADP/O ratio compared to control. Adenosine-induced decrease in cardiomyocyte MVO2 may be related to an increase in efficiency of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and more economical use of oxygen, which is necessary for survival under ischemic stress.

  15. [Chronic respiratory insufficiency in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chailleux, E; Boffa, C

    2001-05-31

    The data concerning the prevalence of chronic respiratory insufficiency (CRI) in France are scarce: in 1994 official numbers were 14,000 deaths due to chronic bronchitis, 2,000 due to asthma for a total number of 40,000 deaths with respiratory cause; the same year 27,000 new patients were compensated for chronic respiratory insufficiency by social security services. On January 1st 2000 the non-profit organizations was in charge of 21,500 patients with long term oxygen therapy and 10,500 with home ventilation, and the commercial companies respectively 30,000 and 6,000. Accordingly the total of patients treated at home for CRI is about 68,000. The repartition by cause of CRI, the characteristics of patients and the prognosis can be evaluated thanks to the ANTADIR observatory which collects medical data since 1981. Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, bronchiectasis) count for more than half of the total of cases. Other causes comprise pleuro-parietal diseases (tuberculosis sequelae, kyphoscoliosis), neuro-muscular diseases and interstitial lung diseases. CRI is a severe disease with a survival median of three years for chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and a prognosis slightly better for kyphoscoliosis and neuro-muscular diseases, and worse for pulmonary fibrosis.

  16. Nuclear Clusters in Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubono, S.; Binh, Dam N.; Hayakawa, S.; Hashimoto, H.; Kahl, D.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H. [Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), University of Tokyo, Wako Branch at RIKEN 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Teranishi, T. [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 812-8581 (Japan); Iwasa, N. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8578 (Japan); Komatsubara, T. [Department of Physics, Tsukuba University, Ibaraki, 305-8571 (Japan); Kato, S. [Department of Physics, Yamagata University, Yamagata, 990-8560 (Japan); Khiem, Le H. [Institute of Physics, Vietnam Academy for Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2010-03-01

    The role of nuclear clustering is discussed for nucleosynthesis in stellar evolution with Cluster Nucleosynthesis Diagram (CND) proposed before. Special emphasis is placed on alpha-induced stellar reactions together with molecular states for O and C burning.

  17. Palladium clusters deposited on the heterogeneous substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Liu, Juanfang; Chen, Qinghua

    2016-07-01

    To improve the performance of the Pd composite membrane prepared by the cold spraying technology, it is extremely essential to give insights into the deposition process of the cluster and the heterogeneous deposition of the big Pd cluster at the different incident velocities on the atomic level. The deposition behavior, morphologies, energetic and interfacial configuration were examined by the molecular dynamic simulation and characterized by the cluster flattening ratio, the substrate maximum local temperature, the atom-embedded layer number and the surface-alloy formation. According to the morphology evolution, three deposition stages and the corresponding structural and energy evolution were clearly identified. The cluster deformation and penetrating depth increased with the enhancement of the incident velocity, but the increase degree also depended on the substrate hardness. The interfacial interaction between the cluster and the substrate can be improved by the higher substrate local temperature. Furthermore, it is found that the surface alloys were formed by exchanging sites between the cluster and substrate atoms, and the cluster atoms rearranged following as the substrate lattice arrangement from bottom to up in the deposition course. The ability and scope of the structural reconstruction are largely determined by both the size and incident energy of the impacted cluster.

  18. 集群与联盟、网络与竞合:国家级扬州经济技术开发区产业创新升级研究%Cluster and Alliance, Network and Co-competition: Study on Industrial Innovation and Upgrading in National Yangzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连远强

    2013-01-01

    集群与联盟耦合而成的相互依存的网络与竞合统一体,可促进产业集群价值链整体的增值与转型升级.在集群与联盟、网络与竞合视角下,就扬州经济技术开发区进行相应的案例分析,重点分析了扬州经济技术开发区如何通过集群与联盟的耦合推动产业创新升级、提升区域产业经济的核心竞争力.研究认为,集群与联盟的耦合发展是推动区域产业创新体系建设和区域经济发展的有效载体.%On the basis of discussing the coupling mechanism between industrial cluster and strategic alliance, this paper thoroughly discussed the coupling effects of strategic objectives integration and convergent, market collaborative competing, economies of scale, scope and speed, knowledge integration and innovation and so on. Yangzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone is a typical successful industrial innovation and upgrading cases through coupling between cluster and alliance. Taking cluster and alliance, network and co-competing as a perspective, this paper focused on case analysis of how to promote industrial innovation and upgrading throng coupling development between cluster and alliance, and how to enhance core competitiveness of regional industrial economic in Yangzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone. Finally, it was proposed that the coupling development of cluster and alliance is an effective carrier to promote regional industrial innovation system construction and regional economic development.

  19. [Pathophysiology of cluster headache].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnet, Anne

    2015-11-01

    The aetiology of cluster headache is partially unknown. Three areas are involved in the pathogenesis of cluster headache: the trigeminal nociceptive pathways, the autonomic system and the hypothalamus. The cluster headache attack involves activation of the trigeminal autonomic reflex. A dysfunction located in posterior hypothalamic gray matter is probably pivotal in the process. There is a probable association between smoke exposure, a possible genetic predisposition and the development of cluster headache.

  20. Cluster Physics with Merging Galaxy Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandor M. Molnar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Collisions between galaxy clusters provide a unique opportunity to study matter in a parameter space which cannot be explored in our laboratories on Earth. In the standard LCDM model, where the total density is dominated by the cosmological constant ($Lambda$ and the matter density by cold dark matter (CDM, structure formation is hierarchical, and clusters grow mostly by merging.Mergers of two massive clusters are the most energetic events in the universe after the Big Bang,hence they provide a unique laboratory to study cluster physics.The two main mass components in clusters behave differently during collisions:the dark matter is nearly collisionless, responding only to gravity, while the gas is subject to pressure forces and dissipation, and shocks and turbulenceare developed during collisions. In the present contribution we review the different methods used to derive the physical properties of merging clusters. Different physical processes leave their signatures on different wavelengths, thusour review is based on a multifrequency analysis. In principle, the best way to analyze multifrequency observations of merging clustersis to model them using N-body/HYDRO numerical simulations. We discuss the results of such detailed analyses.New high spatial and spectral resolution ground and space based telescopeswill come online in the near future. Motivated by these new opportunities,we briefly discuss methods which will be feasible in the near future in studying merging clusters.

  1. The Durban Auto Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jochen; Robbins, Glen; Barnes, Justin

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the formation of the Durban Auto Cluster in the context of trade liberalization. It argues that the improvement of operational competitiveness of firms in the cluster is prominently due to joint action. It tests this proposition by comparing the gains from cluster activities i...

  2. The Durban Auto Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jochen; Robbins, Glen; Barnes, Justin

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the formation of the Durban Auto Cluster in the context of trade liberalization. It argues that the improvement of operational competitiveness of firms in the cluster is prominently due to joint action. It tests this proposition by comparing the gains from cluster activities i...

  3. Marketing research cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Nebojša

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available One area of applications of cluster analysis in marketing is identification of groups of cities and towns with similar demographic profiles. This paper considers main aspects of cluster analysis by an example of clustering 12 cities with the use of Minitab software.

  4. Cluster Correspondence Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van de Velden (Michel); A. Iodice D' Enza; F. Palumbo

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ A new method is proposed that combines dimension reduction and cluster analysis for categorical data. A least-squares objective function is formulated that approximates the cluster by variables cross-tabulation. Individual observations are assigned to clusters

  5. Multiplex micro-respiratory measurements of Arabidopsis tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sew, Yun Shin; Ströher, Elke; Holzmann, Cristián; Huang, Shaobai; Taylor, Nicolas L; Jordana, Xavier; Millar, A Harvey

    2013-11-01

    Researchers often want to study the respiratory properties of individual parts of plants in response to a range of treatments. Arabidopsis is an obvious model for this work; however, because of its size, it represents a challenge for gas exchange measurements of respiration. The combination of micro-respiratory technologies with multiplex assays has the potential to bridge this gap, and make measurements possible in this model plant species. We show the adaptation of the commercial technology used for mammalian cell respiration analysis to study three critical tissues of interest: leaf sections, root tips and seeds. The measurement of respiration in single leaf discs has allowed the age dependence of the respiration rate in Arabidopsis leaves across the rosette to be observed. The oxygen consumption of single root tips from plate-grown seedlings shows the enhanced respiration of root tips and their time-dependent susceptibility to salinity. The monitoring of single Arabidopsis seeds shows the kinetics of respiration over 48 h post-imbibition, and the effect of the phytohormones gibberellic acid (GA3 ) and abscisic acid (ABA) on respiration during seed germination. These studies highlight the potential for multiplexed micro-respiratory assays to study oxygen consumption in Arabidopsis tissues, and open up new possibilities to screen and study mutants and to identify differences in ecotypes or populations of different plant species.

  6. The impact of training non-physician clinicians in Malawi on maternal and perinatal mortality: a cluster randomised controlled evaluation of the enhancing training and appropriate technologies for mothers and babies in Africa (ETATMBA project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellard David

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality in much of sub-Saharan Africa is very high whereas there has been a steady decline in over the past 60 years in Europe. Perinatal mortality is 12 times higher than maternal mortality accounting for about 7 million neonatal deaths; many of these in sub-Saharan countries. Many of these deaths are preventable. Countries, like Malawi, do not have the resources nor highly trained medical specialists using complex technologies within their healthcare system. Much of the burden falls on healthcare staff other than doctors including non-physician clinicians (NPCs such as clinical officers, midwives and community health-workers. The aim of this trial is to evaluate a project which is training NPCs as advanced leaders by providing them with skills and knowledge in advanced neonatal and obstetric care. Training that will hopefully be cascaded to their colleagues (other NPCs, midwives, nurses. Methods/design This is a cluster randomised controlled trial with the unit of randomisation being the 14 districts of central and northern Malawi (one large district was divided into two giving an overall total of 15. Eight districts will be randomly allocated the intervention. Within these eight districts 50 NPCs will be selected and will be enrolled on the training programme (the intervention. Primary outcome will be maternal and perinatal (defined as until discharge from health facility mortality. Data will be harvested from all facilities in both intervention and control districts for the lifetime of the project (3–4 years and comparisons made. In addition a process evaluation using both quantitative and qualitative (e.g. interviews will be undertaken to evaluate the intervention implementation. Discussion Education and training of NPCs is a key to improving healthcare for mothers and babies in countries like Malawi. Some of the challenges faced are discussed as are the potential limitations. It is hoped that the findings

  7. 基于图聚集算法的寄存器传输级ALU工艺映射算法%Graph Clustering Algorithm for RT Level ALU Technology Mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海峰; 林争辉; 曹炜

    2002-01-01

    Register-transfer level mapping (RTLM) algorithm for technology mapping at RT level is presented,which supports current design methodologies using high-level design and design reuse.The mapping rules implement a source ALU using target ALU.The source ALUs and the target ALUs are all represented by the general ALUs and the mapping rules are applied in the algorithm.The mapping rules are described in a table fashion.The graph-clustering algorithm is a branch and bound algorithm based on the graph formulation of the mapping algorithm.The mapping algorithm suits well mapping of regularly structured data-path.Comparisons are made between the experimental results generated by 1-greedy algorithm and graphclustering algorithm,showing the feasibility of presented algorithm.%给出了寄存器传输级工艺映射(RTLM)算法,该方法支持使用高层次综合和设计再利用的现代VLSI设计方法学,允许复杂的RT级组件,尤其是算术逻辑单元(ALU)在设计中重用.首先提出了ALU的工艺映射问题,给出了源组件和目标组件以及标准组件的定义,在此基础上通过表格的方式给出映射规则的描述.映射算法套用一定的映射规则用目标ALU组件来实现源ALU组件.采用一种基于分支估界法的图聚集算法,用该算法不仅可以产生面积最优的,而且还可以产生延时最优的设计.针对不同库的实验结果证明该算法对于规则结构的数据通路特别有效.

  8. RNA interference strategies as therapy for respiratory viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVincenzo, John P

    2008-10-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a recently discovered, naturally occurring intracellular process that regulates gene expression through the silencing of specific mRNAs. Methods of harnessing this natural pathway are being developed that allow the catalytic degradation of targeted mRNAs using specifically designed complementary small-interfering RNAs (siRNA). siRNAs are being chemically modified to acquire drug-like properties. Numerous recent high profile publications have provided proofs of concept that RNAi may be of therapeutic use. Much of the design of these siRNAs can be accomplished bioinformatically, thus potentially expediting drug discovery and opening new avenues of therapy for many uncommon, orphan, or emerging diseases. Although endogenous human disease targets can theoretically be affected by RNAi therapeutics, nonendogenous targets (eg, viral targets) are attractive and RNAi therapeutics have been shown to act as antivirals in vivo and in vitro. Respiratory viral infections are particularly attractive targets for RNAi therapeutics because the infected cells exist at the air-lung interface, thereby positioning these cells to be accessible to topical administration of siRNA, for example by aerosol. RNAi therapeutics have been shown to be active against respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza and influenza in vitro and in vivo resulting in profound antiviral effects. The first RNAi therapeutic to be designed as an anti-infective medication has now entered proof of concept clinical trials in man. A discussion of the science behind RNAi is followed by a presentation of the potential practical issues in applying this technology to respiratory viral diseases. RNAi may offer new strategies for the treatment of respiratory syncytial virus and other respiratory viruses.

  9. Air pollution and multiple acute respiratory outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustini, Annunziata; Stafoggia, Massimo; Colais, Paola; Berti, Giovanna; Bisanti, Luigi; Cadum, Ennio; Cernigliaro, Achille; Mallone, Sandra; Scarnato, Corrado; Forastiere, Francesco

    2013-08-01

    Short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory mortality and morbidity have been consistently reported but usually studied separately. To more completely assess air pollution effects, we studied hospitalisations for respiratory diseases together with out-of-hospital respiratory deaths. A time-stratified case-crossover study was carried out in six Italian cities from 2001 to 2005. Daily particulate matter (particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm (PM10)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) associations with hospitalisations for respiratory diseases (n = 100 690), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 38 577), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) among COPD patients (n = 9886) and out-of-hospital respiratory deaths (n = 5490) were estimated for residents aged ≥35 years. For an increase of 10 μg·m(-3) in PM10, we found an immediate 0.59% (lag 0-1 days) increase in hospitalisations for respiratory diseases and a 0.67% increase for COPD; the 1.91% increase in LRTI hospitalisations lasted longer (lag 0-3 days) and the 3.95% increase in respiratory mortality lasted 6 days. Effects of NO2 were stronger and lasted longer (lag 0-5 days). Age, sex and previous ischaemic heart disease acted as effect modifiers for different outcomes. Analysing multiple rather than single respiratory events shows stronger air pollution effects. The temporal relationship between the pollutant increases and hospitalisations or mortality for respiratory diseases differs.

  10. Cluster analysis for applications

    CERN Document Server

    Anderberg, Michael R

    1973-01-01

    Cluster Analysis for Applications deals with methods and various applications of cluster analysis. Topics covered range from variables and scales to measures of association among variables and among data units. Conceptual problems in cluster analysis are discussed, along with hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering methods. The necessary elements of data analysis, statistics, cluster analysis, and computer implementation are integrated vertically to cover the complete path from raw data to a finished analysis.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to the subject o

  11. Range-Clustering Queries

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsen, Mikkel; de Berg, Mark; Buchin, Kevin; Mehr, Mehran; Mehrabi, Ali D.

    2017-01-01

    In a geometric $k$-clustering problem the goal is to partition a set of points in $\\mathbb{R}^d$ into $k$ subsets such that a certain cost function of the clustering is minimized. We present data structures for orthogonal range-clustering queries on a point set $S$: given a query box $Q$ and an integer $k>2$, compute an optimal $k$-clustering for $S\\setminus Q$. We obtain the following results. We present a general method to compute a $(1+\\epsilon)$-approximation to a range-clustering query, ...

  12. Management of cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer C; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2012-01-01

    and agitation. Patients may have up to eight attacks per day. Episodic cluster headache (ECH) occurs in clusters of weeks to months duration, whereas chronic cluster headache (CCH) attacks occur for more than 1 year without remissions. Management of cluster headache is divided into acute attack treatment....... In drug-resistant CCH, neuromodulation with either occipital nerve stimulation or deep brain stimulation of the hypothalamus is an alternative treatment strategy. For most cluster headache patients there are fairly good treatment options both for acute attacks and for prophylaxis. The big problem...

  13. Inhaled formulations and pulmonary drug delivery systems for respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi Tony; Leung, Sharon Shui Yee; Tang, Patricia; Parumasivam, Thaigarajan; Loh, Zhi Hui; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2015-05-01

    Respiratory infections represent a major global health problem. They are often treated by parenteral administrations of antimicrobials. Unfortunately, systemic therapies of high-dose antimicrobials can lead to severe adverse effects and this calls for a need to develop inhaled formulations that enable targeted drug delivery to the airways with minimal systemic drug exposure. Recent technological advances facilitate the development of inhaled anti-microbial therapies. The newer mesh nebulisers have achieved minimal drug residue, higher aerosolisation efficiencies and rapid administration compared to traditional jet nebulisers. Novel particle engineering and intelligent device design also make dry powder inhalers appealing for the delivery of high-dose antibiotics. In view of the fact that no new antibiotic entities against multi-drug resistant bacteria have come close to commercialisation, advanced formulation strategies are in high demand for combating respiratory 'super bugs'.

  14. Clusters in nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Following the pioneering discovery of alpha clustering and of molecular resonances, the field of nuclear clustering is today one of those domains of heavy-ion nuclear physics that faces the greatest challenges, yet also contains the greatest opportunities. After many summer schools and workshops, in particular over the last decade, the community of nuclear molecular physicists has decided to collaborate in producing a comprehensive collection of lectures and tutorial reviews covering the field. This third volume follows the successful Lect. Notes Phys. 818 (Vol. 1) and 848 (Vol. 2), and comprises six extensive lectures covering the following topics:  - Gamma Rays and Molecular Structure - Faddeev Equation Approach for Three Cluster Nuclear Reactions - Tomography of the Cluster Structure of Light Nuclei Via Relativistic Dissociation - Clustering Effects Within the Dinuclear Model : From Light to Hyper-heavy Molecules in Dynamical Mean-field Approach - Clusterization in Ternary Fission - Clusters in Light N...

  15. Spatial cluster modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Lawson, Andrew B

    2002-01-01

    Research has generated a number of advances in methods for spatial cluster modelling in recent years, particularly in the area of Bayesian cluster modelling. Along with these advances has come an explosion of interest in the potential applications of this work, especially in epidemiology and genome research. In one integrated volume, this book reviews the state-of-the-art in spatial clustering and spatial cluster modelling, bringing together research and applications previously scattered throughout the literature. It begins with an overview of the field, then presents a series of chapters that illuminate the nature and purpose of cluster modelling within different application areas, including astrophysics, epidemiology, ecology, and imaging. The focus then shifts to methods, with discussions on point and object process modelling, perfect sampling of cluster processes, partitioning in space and space-time, spatial and spatio-temporal process modelling, nonparametric methods for clustering, and spatio-temporal ...

  16. Unconventional methods for clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotyrba, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Cluster analysis or clustering is a task of grouping a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group (called a cluster) are more similar (in some sense or another) to each other than to those in other groups (clusters). It is the main task of exploratory data mining and a common technique for statistical data analysis used in many fields, including machine learning, pattern recognition, image analysis, information retrieval, and bioinformatics. The topic of this paper is one of the modern methods of clustering namely SOM (Self Organising Map). The paper describes the theory needed to understand the principle of clustering and descriptions of algorithm used with clustering in our experiments.

  17. Message Passing Framework for Globally Interconnected Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, M.; Asghar, S.; Malik, U. A.; Rehman, A.; Riaz, N.

    2011-12-01

    In prevailing technology trends it is apparent that the network requirements and technologies will advance in future. Therefore the need of High Performance Computing (HPC) based implementation for interconnecting clusters is comprehensible for scalability of clusters. Grid computing provides global infrastructure of interconnecting clusters consisting of dispersed computing resources over Internet. On the other hand the leading model for HPC programming is Message Passing Interface (MPI). As compared to Grid computing, MPI is better suited for solving most of the complex computational problems. MPI itself is restricted to a single cluster. It does not support message passing over the internet to use the computing resources of different clusters in an optimal way. We propose a model that provides message passing capabilities between parallel applications over the internet. The proposed model is based on Architecture for Java Universal Message Passing (A-JUMP) framework and Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) named as High Performance Computing Bus. The HPC Bus is built using ActiveMQ. HPC Bus is responsible for communication and message passing in an asynchronous manner. Asynchronous mode of communication offers an assurance for message delivery as well as a fault tolerance mechanism for message passing. The idea presented in this paper effectively utilizes wide-area intercluster networks. It also provides scheduling, dynamic resource discovery and allocation, and sub-clustering of resources for different jobs. Performance analysis and comparison study of the proposed framework with P2P-MPI are also presented in this paper.

  18. CLEAN: CLustering Enrichment ANalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medvedovic Mario

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integration of biological knowledge encoded in various lists of functionally related genes has become one of the most important aspects of analyzing genome-wide functional genomics data. In the context of cluster analysis, functional coherence of clusters established through such analyses have been used to identify biologically meaningful clusters, compare clustering algorithms and identify biological pathways associated with the biological process under investigation. Results We developed a computational framework for analytically and visually integrating knowledge-based functional categories with the cluster analysis of genomics data. The framework is based on the simple, conceptually appealing, and biologically interpretable gene-specific functional coherence score (CLEAN score. The score is derived by correlating the clustering structure as a whole with functional categories of interest. We directly demonstrate that integrating biological knowledge in this way improves the reproducibility of conclusions derived from cluster analysis. The CLEAN score differentiates between the levels of functional coherence for genes within the same cluster based on their membership in enriched functional categories. We show that this aspect results in higher reproducibility across independent datasets and produces more informative genes for distinguishing different sample types than the scores based on the traditional cluster-wide analysis. We also demonstrate the utility of the CLEAN framework in comparing clusterings produced by different algorithms. CLEAN was implemented as an add-on R package and can be downloaded at http://Clusteranalysis.org. The package integrates routines for calculating gene specific functional coherence scores and the open source interactive Java-based viewer Functional TreeView (FTreeView. Conclusion Our results indicate that using the gene-specific functional coherence score improves the reproducibility of the

  19. Clinical Pearls in Venovenous Extracorporeal Life Support for Adult Respiratory Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Chee Kiang; Sung, Kiick; Cho, Yang Hyun

    2017-09-06

    Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) has been widely utilized to treat neonatal respiratory failure for two decades. However, its uptake in the case of adult respiratory failure has been slow because of a paucity of quality evidence and a sluggish tempo of ECLS-related technological advances. In recent years, interest in ECLS has been piqued after encouraging results were reported from its use during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. In a world constantly under threat from another influenza epidemic or deadly novel respiratory infection, e.g., the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus, the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), the role of venovenous (VV) ECLS as a treatment modality for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) cannot be overemphasized. In hopes of standardizing practice, the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) has published books and guidelines on ECLS. However, high-level evidence to guide clinical decisions is still expediently needed in this field. Relying on the available literature and our experience in the recent South Korean MERS-CoV outbreak, we hope to highlight key physiologic and clinical points in VV ECLS for adult respiratory failure in this review.

  20. Survey on Text Document Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    M.Thangamani; Dr.P.Thangaraj

    2010-01-01

    Document clustering is also referred as text clustering, and its concept is merely equal to data clustering. It is hardly difficult to find the selective information from an ‘N’number of series information, so that document clustering came into picture. Basically cluster means a group of similar data, document clustering means segregating the data into different groups of similar data. Clustering can be of mathematical, statistical or numerical domain. Clustering is a fundamental data analysi...

  1. Airway Management of Respiratory Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeck, Michael C

    2016-02-01

    Patients in respiratory distress often require airway management, including endotracheal intubation. It takes a methodical approach to transition from an unstable patient in distress with an unsecured airway, to a stable, sedated patient with a definitive airway. Through a deliberate course of advanced preparation, the emergency physician can tailor the approach to the individual clinical situation and optimize the chance of first-pass success. Sedation of the intubated patient confers physiologic benefits and should be included in the plan for airway control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Improvement in the accuracy of respiratory-gated radiation therapy using a respiratory guiding system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seong-Hee; Kim, Dong-Su; Kim, Tae-Ho; Suh, Tae-Suk; Yoon, Jai-Woong

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of respiratory-gated radiation therapy (RGRT) depends on the respiratory regularity because external respiratory signals are used for gating the radiation beam at particular phases. Many studies have applied a respiratory guiding system to improve the respiratory regularity. This study aims to evaluate the effect of an in-house-developed respiratory guiding system to improve the respiratory regularity for RGRT. To verify the effectiveness of this system, we acquired respiratory signals from five volunteers. The improvement in respiratory regularity was analyzed by comparing the standard deviations of the amplitudes and the periods between free and guided breathing. The reduction in residual motion at each phase was analyzed by comparing the standard deviations of sorted data within each corresponding phase bin as obtained from free and guided breathing. The results indicate that the respiratory guiding system improves the respiratory regularity, and that most of the volunteers showed significantly less average residual motion at each phase. The average residual motion measured at phases of 40, 50, and 60%, which showed lower variation than other phases, were, respectively, reduced by 41, 45, and 44% during guided breathing. The results show that the accuracy of RGRT can be improved by using the in-house-developed respiratory guiding system. Furthermore, this system should reduce artifacts caused by respiratory motion in 4D CT imaging.

  3. Respiratory Distress Syndrome and its Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Kale Cekinmez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory distress syndrome in premature babies is one of the most common and most important health problems in newborns. Respiratory distress syndrome of newborn is a syndrome in premature infants caused by developmental insufficiency of surfactant production and structural immaturity in the lungs. Respiratory distress syndrome begins shortly after birth and is manifest by tachypnea, tachycardia, chest wall retractions, expiratory grunting, nasal flaring and cyanosis during breathing efforts. Respiratory distress syndrome or complications caused by respiratory distress syndrome are the most important causes of mortality and morbidity in premature infants. This article briefly reviews respiratory distress syndrome and its complications. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(4.000: 615-630

  4. Respiratory distress of the term newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Martin O; Kotecha, Sarah J; Kotecha, Sailesh

    2013-03-01

    Respiratory distress is recognised as any signs of breathing difficulties in neonates. In the early neonatal period respiratory distress is common, occurring in up to 7% of newborn infants, resulting in significant numbers of term-born infants being admitted to neonatal units. Many risk factors are involved; the increasing number of term infants delivered by elective caesarean section has also increased the incidence. Additionally the risk decreases with each advancing week of gestation. At 37 weeks, the chances are three times greater than at 39-40 weeks gestation. Multiple conditions can present with features of respiratory distress. Common causes in term newborn infants include transient tachypnoea of the newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia, meconium aspiration syndrome, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate and pneumothorax. Early recognition of respiratory distress and initiation of appropriate treatment is important to ensure optimal outcomes. This review will discuss these common causes of respiratory distress in term-born infants.

  5. Respiratory muscle weakness in peripheral neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burakgazi, Ahmet Z; Höke, Ahmet

    2010-12-01

    Common peripheral neuropathies do not usually cause diaphragmatic weakness and subsequent respiratory compromise. However, respiratory involvement is relatively common in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Experience in GBS has led to a standardized approach to manage respiratory problems in peripheral neuropathies. Diaphragmatic weakness is not common in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and extremely rare in multifocal motor neuropathy. The linkage has been described between certain subtypes of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease such as CMT2C and CMT4B1 and diaphragmatic weakness. A correlation usually has not been found between electrophysiologic findings and clinical respiratory signs or spirometric abnormalities in peripheral neuropathies except in amplitudes of evoked phrenic nerve responses. Careful and frequent assessment of respiratory function by a qualified team of healthcare professionals and physicians is essential. Criteria established for mechanical ventilation in GBS cases may be applied to other peripheral neuropathies with respiratory compromise as necessary.

  6. Visual aided pacing in respiratory maneuvers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambaudi, L R [Laboratorio de Biofisica y Fisiologia ' Antonio Sadi Frumento' (Argentina); Rossi, E [Catedra de Bioingenieria II (Argentina); Mantaras, M C [Catedra de Bioingenieria II (Argentina); Perrone, M S [Laboratorio de Biofisica y Fisiologia ' Antonio Sadi Frumento' (Argentina); Siri, L Nicola [Catedra de Bioingenieria II (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    A visual aid to pace self-controlled respiratory cycles in humans is presented. Respiratory manoeuvres need to be accomplished in several clinic and research procedures, among others, the studies on Heart Rate Variability. Free running respiration turns to be difficult to correlate with other physiologic variables. Because of this fact, voluntary self-control is asked from the individuals under study. Currently, an acoustic metronome is used to pace respiratory frequency, its main limitation being the impossibility to induce predetermined timing in the stages within the respiratory cycle. In the present work, visual driven self-control was provided, with separate timing for the four stages of a normal respiratory cycle. This visual metronome (ViMet) was based on a microcontroller which power-ON and -OFF an eight-LED bar, in a four-stage respiratory cycle time series handset by the operator. The precise timing is also exhibited on an alphanumeric display.

  7. Agricultural Clusters in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, M.A.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Michael Porter was the first to use the term cluster in an economic context. He introduced the term in The Competitive Advantage of Nations (1990). The term cluster is also known as business cluster, industry cluster, competitive cluster or Porterian cluster. This article aims at determining and

  8. Agricultural Clusters in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, M.A.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Michael Porter was the first to use the term cluster in an economic context. He introduced the term in The Competitive Advantage of Nations (1990). The term cluster is also known as business cluster, industry cluster, competitive cluster or Porterian cluster. This article aims at determining and mea

  9. Agricultural Clusters in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, M.A.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Michael Porter was the first to use the term cluster in an economic context. He introduced the term in The Competitive Advantage of Nations (1990). The term cluster is also known as business cluster, industry cluster, competitive cluster or Porterian cluster. This article aims at determining and mea

  10. Parallel algorithms and cluster computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Karl Heinz

    2007-01-01

    This book presents major advances in high performance computing as well as major advances due to high performance computing. It contains a collection of papers in which results achieved in the collaboration of scientists from computer science, mathematics, physics, and mechanical engineering are presented. From the science problems to the mathematical algorithms and on to the effective implementation of these algorithms on massively parallel and cluster computers we present state-of-the-art methods and technology as well as exemplary results in these fields. This book shows that problems which seem superficially distinct become intimately connected on a computational level.

  11. Classification via Clustering for Anonymization Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Mandapati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the exponential growth of hardware technology particularly in the field of electronic data storage media and processing such data, has raised serious issues related in order to protect the individual privacy like ethical, philosophical and legal. Data mining techniques are employed to ensure the privacy. Privacy Preserving Data Mining (PPDM techniques aim at protecting the sensitive data and mining results. In this study, the different Clustering techniques via classification with and without anonymization data using mining tool WEKA is presented. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of different clustering methods for the diabetic data set and to compare the efficiency of privacy preserving mining. The accuracy of classification via clustering is evaluated using K-means, Expectation-Maximization (EM and Density based clustering methods.

  12. How Clustering Affects Epidemics in Random Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Coupechoux, Emilie

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the analysis of social networks, we study a model of random networks that has both a given degree distribution and a tunable clustering coefficient. We consider two types of growth processes on these graphs: diffusion and symmetric threshold model. The diffusion process is inspired from epidemic models. It is characterized by an infection probability, each neighbor transmitting the epidemic independently. In the symmetric threshold process, the interactions are still local but the propagation rule is governed by a threshold (that might vary among the different nodes). An interesting example of symmetric threshold process is the contagion process, which is inspired by a simple coordination game played on the network. Both types of processes have been used to model spread of new ideas, technologies, viruses or worms and results have been obtained for random graphs with no clustering. In this paper, we are able to analyze the impact of clustering on the growth processes. While clustering inhibits th...

  13. Respiratory Distress Syndrome and its Complications

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory distress syndrome in premature babies is one of the most common and most important health problems in newborns. Respiratory distress syndrome of newborn is a syndrome in premature infants caused by developmental insufficiency of surfactant production and structural immaturity in the lungs. Respiratory distress syndrome begins shortly after birth and is manifest by tachypnea, tachycardia, chest wall retractions, expiratory grunting, nasal flaring and cyanosis during breathing effor...

  14. Dental considerations in patients with respiratory problems.

    OpenAIRE

    Claramunt Lozano, Ariadna; Sarrión Pérez, María Gracia; Gavaldá Esteve, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Many respiratory disorders can compromise routine dental care and require special treatment for the affected patients. Patients often visit the dental clinic with respiratory problems already diagnosed by other specialists. The dental professional therefore must provide correct dental care in the context of such a diagnosis. The present study offers a literature review of those respiratory disorders which can have implications for dental care. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (CO...

  15. Respiratory Disease: Diagnostic Approaches in the Horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Joanne; Arroyo, Luis G

    2015-08-01

    Evaluation of the upper and lower respiratory tract of horses requires strategic selection of possible diagnostic tests based on location of suspected pathologic lesions and purpose of testing and must also include consideration of patient status. This article discusses the various diagnostic modalities that may be applied to the respiratory system of horses under field conditions, indications for use, and aspects of sample collection, handling, and laboratory processing that can impact test results and ultimately a successful diagnosis in cases of respiratory disease.

  16. Neuroendocrine diffuse system of the respiratory tract of Rana temporaria: an immunocytochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodegas, M E; Montuenga, L M; Sesma, P

    1995-11-01

    The neuroendocrine cell population of the respiratory system of Rana temporaria has been studied by means of immunocytochemical methods at the light-microscopic level. Isolated or clustered endocrine cells have been found in the epithelium of the buccal cavity, glottis, larynx, and lung. Nine different types of endocrine isolated cell types can be distinguished according to their immunoreactivity to several regulatory peptides [calcitonin, substance P, bombesin, peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI), cholecystokinin (CCK), and endothelin 1] and neuroendocrine markers (7B2, chromogranin, and serotonin). Neuroepithelial bodies are innervated clusters of cells simultaneously immunoreactive for serotonin and 7B2. Nerves and/or neurons have been detected in different regions of the respiratory system using antibodies against protein gene product 9.5, serotonin, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P, PHI, helodermin, and CCK.

  17. Identifying Peer Institutions Using Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronico, Jess; Choksi, Shail S.

    2012-01-01

    The New York Institute of Technology's (NYIT) School of Management (SOM) wishes to develop a list of peer institutions for the purpose of benchmarking and monitoring/improving performance against other business schools. The procedure utilizes relevant criteria for the purpose of establishing this peer group by way of a cluster analysis. The…

  18. Emergency thyroidectomy: Due to acute respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfu Bayhan

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Respiratory failure due to giant nodular goiter is a life-threatening situation and should be treated immediately by performing awake endotracheal intubation following emergency total thyroidectomy.

  19. Respiratory monitoring with an acceleration sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Tomohiro; Takegawa, Hideki; Ageishi, Tatsuya; Takashina, Masaaki; Numasaki, Hodaka; Matsumoto, Masao; Teshima, Teruki, E-mail: teshima@sahs.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Yamadaoka 1-7, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2011-10-07

    Respiratory gating radiotherapy is used to irradiate a local area and to reduce normal tissue toxicity. There are certain methods for the detection of tumor motions, for example, using internal markers or an external respiration signal. However, because some of these respiratory monitoring systems require special or expensive equipment, respiratory monitoring can usually be performed only in limited facilities. In this study, the feasibility of using an acceleration sensor for respiratory monitoring was evaluated. The respiratory motion was represented by means of a platform and measured five times with the iPod touch (registered) at 3, 4 and 5 s periods of five breathing cycles. For these three periods of the reference waveform, the absolute means {+-} standard deviation (SD) of displacement were 0.45 {+-} 0.34 mm, 0.33 {+-} 0.24 mm and 0.31 {+-} 0.23 mm, respectively. On the other hand, the corresponding absolute means {+-} SD for the periods were 0.04 {+-} 0.09 s, 0.04 {+-} 0.02 s and 0.06 {+-} 0.04 s. The accuracy of respiratory monitoring using the acceleration sensor was satisfactory in terms of the absolute means {+-} SD. Using the iPod touch (registered) for respiratory monitoring does not need special equipment and makes respiratory monitoring easier. For these reasons, this system is a viable alternative to other respiratory monitoring systems.

  20. Respiratory Microbiome of New-born Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David John Gallacher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The respiratory tract, once believed to be sterile, harbours diverse bacterial communities. The role of microorganisms within health and disease is slowly being unravelled. Evidence points to the neonatal period as a critical time for establishing stable bacterial communities and influencing immune responses important for long term respiratory health. This review summarises the evidence of early airway and lung bacterial colonisation and the role the microbiome has on respiratory health in the short and long term. The challenges of neonatal respiratory microbiome studies and future research directions are also discussed.

  1. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV): A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik

    2000-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection is the major cause of respiratory disease in calves during the first year of life. The study of the virus has been difficult because of its lability and very poor growth in cell culture. However, during the last decade, the introduction of new...... complex and unpredictable which makes the diagnosis and subsequent therapy very difficult. BRSV is closely related to human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) which is an important cause of respiratory disease in young children. In contrast to BRSV, the recent knowledge of HRSV is regularly extensively...

  2. Preoperative respiratory physiotherapy for a patient with severe respiratory dysfunction and annuloaortic ectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogawa, Masakazu; Ohzeki, Hajime; Namura, Osamu; Hayashi, Jun-ichi

    2003-08-01

    A 23-year-old man with Marfan syndrome, who had undergone surgery for pectus excavatum and scoliosis and who had severe respiratory dysfunction, was referred for surgical repair of annuloaortic ectasia. The preoperative pulmonary function test revealed severe obstructive and restrictive respiratory dysfunction, with forced expiratory volume in one second of 650 ml and vital capacity of 1,220 ml. These parameters improved after 4 months respiratory physiotherapy. A modified Bentall's procedure was performed after respiratory physiotherapy. A tracheostomy made on the 7th postoperative day (POD) appeared to improve respiratory condition and he was weaned off mechanical ventilation on the 14th POD. The lower limits of pulmonary function for open heart surgery have not been established clearly; however, our case will help elucidate these limits of respiratory function for open heart surgery. Preoperative respiratory physiotherapy improved parameters of pulmonary function test and may decrease the morbidity of postoperative pulmonary complications in a patient with severe respiratory dysfunction.

  3. Emergent and multiplicative effect in a cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Linev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept “Cluster” of domestic and foreign literature traditionally is considered as administrative and organizational education. At the same time he represents the social and economic object created for life support of the person. The cluster is considered as system object. The main signs are defined and his life cycle is considered. Cluster self-organization takes place stages: growth of organizational weight and effects, market threats and restrictions interfering growth of organizational weight. Development of clusters requires the state support in various forms which is offered to be carried out at various stages depending on his type. The cluster is considered as the economic system possessing an emergent which dynamic aspect is the synergy, the receiving multiplicative effect causing an opportunity. The quantitative assessment of size of the listed effects represents rather complex challenge, at the same time there is a number of the factors which are with her in directly proportional dependence. The synergy which is present at a cluster allows to gain social and economic effect of his functioning by means of integration of effects of all structural elements bigger, than their simple sum. The emergent in a cluster causes increase of productivity at the expense of innovations in technological and organizational spheres and stimulations of the birth of new businesses. The multiplicative effect arising in a cluster provides incremental nature of economic results. It is possible to refer the following to the main economic results received from creation and development of clusters: decrease in transactional and transformational expenses and costs of formation and further use of infrastructure, economy of costs of introduction and development of the high and innovative technologies, optimization of logistic and information expenses, increase of business reputation and investment appeal.

  4. Dermoid cyst with respiratory manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calle-Cabanillas MI, Ibañez-Muñoz C, Pérez-Sáez J, Navazo-Eguía AI, Clemente-García A, Sánchez-Hernández JM.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dermoid cysts are congenital tumors caused by entrapment of ectoderm during embryogenesis. The most common localization are the gonads and less than 10% are in the head and neck. They are slow growing and generally observed between the second and third decades of life, being unusual in chilhood. Description: We report a case of a 5 year old male with recurrent respiratory infections, mouth breathing and snoring with apneas and daytime sleepiness. On physical examination tonsillar hypertrophy and a 4 cm sublingual tumor are detected. As complementary tests are performed overnight polysomnography with AHI of 18.3 / h and ultrasonography, reported as cystic mass with multiple rounded echogenic structures inside. Results: The patient was diagnosed with severe OSA and tonsillectomy and intraorally enucleation of tumor (as diagnosis and treatment were performed; with histopathological diagnosis of dermoid cyst. In the postoperative control we check the resolution of respiratory events and snoring. Discussion: Dermoid cysts of the oral cavity (where sublingual localization is the most common represent only 0,01% of all cysts and 1,6% of all dermoid cysts. Usually present as slow-growing asymptomatic mass, even if they reach large size can compromise swallowing, speech or breathing and eventually cause, as in our case, a severe OSA. The surgical treatment allows to confirm the diagnosis an avoid the risk of infectious complications and eventual malignant transformation.

  5. The respiratory proteins of insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmester, Thorsten; Hankeln, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    For a long time, respiratory proteins have been considered unnecessary in most insects because the tracheal system was thought to be sufficient for oxygen supply. Only a few species that survive under hypoxic conditions were known exceptions. However, recently it has become evident that (1) intracellular hemoglobins belong to the standard repertoire of insects and (2) that hemocyanin is present in many "lower" insects. Intracellular hemoglobins have been identified in Drosophila, Anopheles, Apis and many other insects. In all investigated species, hemoglobin is mainly expressed in the fat body and the tracheal system. The major Drosophila hemoglobin binds oxygen with high affinity. This hemoglobin type possibly functions as a buffer system for oxygen supply at low partial pressures and/or for the protection from an excess of oxygen. Similar hemoglobins, present in much higher concentrations, store oxygen in specialized tracheal organs of the botfly and some backswimmers. The extracellular hemoglobins in the hemolymph of chironomid midges are evolutionary derivatives of the intracellular insect hemoglobins, which emerged in response to the hypoxic environment of the larvae. In addition, several hemoglobin variants of unknown functions have been discovered in insect genomes. Hemocyanins transport oxygen in the hemolymph of stoneflies, but also in the Entognatha and most hemimetabolan taxa. Apparently, hemocyanin has been lost in Holometabola. At present, no physiological or morphological character is known that could explain the presence or loss of hemocyanins in distinct taxa. Nevertheless, the occurrence of respiratory proteins in insects adds further complexity to our view on insect respiration.

  6. Globalization and ICT clusters in Bangalore (India) and Nanjing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn this chapter the effects of globalization on two information and communication technology (ICT) clusters, one in China and the other in India, will be discussed and an effort will be made to analyse how these clusters changed these cities. Globalization had different effects in China

  7. Globalization and ICT clusters in Bangalore (India) and Nanjing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn this chapter the effects of globalization on two information and communication technology (ICT) clusters, one in China and the other in India, will be discussed and an effort will be made to analyse how these clusters changed these cities. Globalization had different effects in China

  8. Situation Assessment Technology Based on Target Clustering and Fuzzy Matching%基于目标分群与模糊匹配的态势评估技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀文

    2012-01-01

    The situation assessment system is implemented using target clustering and fuzzy matching techniques. First, the development of data fusion and fusion models are introduced. Based on the JDL revised process model,the general technical framework, function modules and key techniques of the system are proposed. Then the process of target clustering is introduced, which includes target clustering, cluster splitting and merging, and the target clustering algorithm and fuzzy matching algorithm are presented. Besides, the methods for military organizational structure reasoning based on fuzzy matching technique are reviewed. In the end, the calculation result is given to prove the effectiveness of the target clustering algorithm.%采用目标分群和部队编制模糊匹配技术实现了态势评估系统。介绍了数据融合发展概况与融合模型,在数据融合修正模型的基础上,提出了态势评估总体技术框架、功能模块和关键技术。介绍了目标分群处理流程,包括目标分群、群的分裂与合并,并进一步阐述了目标分群算法与模糊匹配算法。介绍了基于模糊匹配技术实现军事体系单元假设推理的方法,给出目标分群计算结果,说明了算法的有效性。

  9. A Flexible Fault Management Architecture for Cluster Flight Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Emergent Space Technologies proposes to develop a flexible, service-oriented Fault Management (FM) architecture for cluster fight missions. This FM architecture will...

  10. A Collaboration Service Model for a Global Port Cluster

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toh, Keith K.T; Welsh, Karyn; Hassall, Kim

    2010-01-01

    ... between business entities within the cluster. The maturity of technologies providing portals, web and middleware services provides an opportunity to push the boundaries of contemporary service reference models and service catalogues to what...

  11. CSR in Industrial Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Pillay, Renginee G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The paper seeks to review the literature on CSR in industrial clusters in developing countries, identifying the main strengths, weaknesses, and gaps in this literature, pointing to future research directions and policy implications in the area of CSR and industrial cluster development...... in this field and their comments incorporated in the final version submitted to Corporate Governance. Findings – The article traces the origins of the debate on industrial clusters and CSR in developing countries back to the early 1990s when clusters began to be seen as an important vehicle for local economic...... development in the South. At the turn of the millennium the industrial cluster debate expanded as clusters were perceived as a potential source of poverty reduction, while their role in promoting CSR among small and medium-sized enterprises began to take shape from 2006 onwards. At present, there is still...

  12. Cosmology with cluster surveys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subhabrata Majumdar

    2004-10-01

    Surveys of clusters of galaxies provide us with a powerful probe of the density and nature of the dark energy. The red-shift distribution of detected clusters is highly sensitive to the dark energy equation of state parameter . Upcoming Sunyaev–Zel'dovich (SZ) surveys would provide us large yields of clusters to very high red-shifts. Self-calibration of cluster scaling relations, possible for such a huge sample, would be able to constrain systematic biases on mass estimators. Combining cluster red-shift abundance with limited mass follow-up and cluster mass power spectrum can then give constraints on , as well as on 8 and to a few per cents.

  13. Disentangling Porterian Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagtfelt, Tue

    This dissertation investigates the contemporary phenomenon of industrial clusters based on the work of Michael E. Porter, the central progenitor and promoter of the cluster notion. The dissertation pursues two central questions: 1) What is a cluster? and 2) How could Porter’s seemingly fuzzy......, contested theory become so widely disseminated and applied as a normative and prescriptive strategy for economic development? The dissertation traces the introduction of the cluster notion into the EU’s Lisbon Strategy and demonstrates how its inclusion originates from Porter’s colleagues: Professor Örjan...... Sölvell, Dr. Christian Ketels and Dr. Göran Lindqvist. Taking departure in Porter’s works and the cluster literature, the dissertations shows a considerable paradigmatic shift has occurred from the first edition of Nations to the present state of cluster cooperation. To elaborate on this change...

  14. Melting of sodium clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Reyes-Nava, J A; Beltran, M R; Michaelian, K

    2002-01-01

    Thermal stability properties and the melting-like transition of Na_n, n=13-147, clusters are studied through microcanonical molecular dynamics simulations. The metallic bonding in the sodium clusters is mimicked by a many-body Gupta potential based on the second moment approximation of a tight-binding Hamiltonian. The characteristics of the solid-to-liquid transition in the sodium clusters are analyzed by calculating physical quantities like caloric curves, heat capacities, and root-mean-square bond length fluctuations using simulation times of several nanoseconds. Distinct melting mechanisms are obtained for the sodium clusters in the size range investigated. The calculated melting temperatures show an irregular variation with the cluster size, in qualitative agreement with recent experimental results. However, the calculated melting point for the Na_55 cluster is about 40 % lower than the experimental value.

  15. Online Correlation Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieu, Claire; Schudy, Warren

    2010-01-01

    We study the online clustering problem where data items arrive in an online fashion. The algorithm maintains a clustering of data items into similarity classes. Upon arrival of v, the relation between v and previously arrived items is revealed, so that for each u we are told whether v is similar to u. The algorithm can create a new cluster for v and merge existing clusters. When the objective is to minimize disagreements between the clustering and the input, we prove that a natural greedy algorithm is O(n)-competitive, and this is optimal. When the objective is to maximize agreements between the clustering and the input, we prove that the greedy algorithm is .5-competitive; that no online algorithm can be better than .834-competitive; we prove that it is possible to get better than 1/2, by exhibiting a randomized algorithm with competitive ratio .5+c for a small positive fixed constant c.

  16. Cluster Management Institutionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Normann, Leo; Agger Nielsen, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    This article explores a new management form – cluster management – in Danish public sector day care. Although cluster management has been widely adopted in Danish day care at the municipality level, it has attracted only sparse research attention. We use theoretical insights from Scandinavian...... institutionalism together with a longitudinal case-based inquiry into how cluster management has entered and penetrated the management practices of day care in Denmark. We demonstrate how cluster management became widely adopted in the day care field not only because of its intrinsic properties but also because...... of how it was legitimized as a “ready-to-use” management model. Further, our account reveals how cluster management translated into considerably different local variants as it travelled into specific organizations. However, these processes have not occurred sequentially with cluster management first...

  17. Cluster Correspondence Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Velden, M; D'Enza, A Iodice; Palumbo, F

    2017-03-01

    A method is proposed that combines dimension reduction and cluster analysis for categorical data by simultaneously assigning individuals to clusters and optimal scaling values to categories in such a way that a single between variance maximization objective is achieved. In a unified framework, a brief review of alternative methods is provided and we show that the proposed method is equivalent to GROUPALS applied to categorical data. Performance of the methods is appraised by means of a simulation study. The results of the joint dimension reduction and clustering methods are compared with the so-called tandem approach, a sequential analysis of dimension reduction followed by cluster analysis. The tandem approach is conjectured to perform worse when variables are added that are unrelated to the cluster structure. Our simulation study confirms this conjecture. Moreover, the results of the simulation study indicate that the proposed method also consistently outperforms alternative joint dimension reduction and clustering methods.

  18. Cluster Management Institutionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Normann, Leo; Agger Nielsen, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    of how it was legitimized as a “ready-to-use” management model. Further, our account reveals how cluster management translated into considerably different local variants as it travelled into specific organizations. However, these processes have not occurred sequentially with cluster management first......This article explores a new management form – cluster management – in Danish public sector day care. Although cluster management has been widely adopted in Danish day care at the municipality level, it has attracted only sparse research attention. We use theoretical insights from Scandinavian...... institutionalism together with a longitudinal case-based inquiry into how cluster management has entered and penetrated the management practices of day care in Denmark. We demonstrate how cluster management became widely adopted in the day care field not only because of its intrinsic properties but also because...

  19. Clustering Categorical Data:A Cluster Ensemble Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Zengyou(何增友); Xu Xiaofei; Deng Shengchun

    2003-01-01

    Clustering categorical data, an integral part of data mining,has attracted much attention recently. In this paper, the authors formally define the categorical data clustering problem as an optimization problem from the viewpoint of cluster ensemble, and apply cluster ensemble approach for clustering categorical data. Experimental results on real datasets show that better clustering accuracy can be obtained by comparing with existing categorical data clustering algorithms.

  20. Spatial Scan Statistic: Selecting clusters and generating elliptic clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Andersen, Jens Strodl

    2004-01-01

    The spatial scan statistic is widely used to search for clusters. This paper shows that the usually applied elimination of overlapping clusters to find secondary clusters is sensitive to smooth changes in the shape of the clusters. We present an algorithm for generation of set of confocal elliptic...... clusters. In addition, we propose a new way to present the information in a given set of clusters based on the significance of the clusters....

  1. Postperfusion lung syndrome: Respiratory mechanics, respiratory indices and biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Postperfusion lung syndrome is rare but lethal. Secondary inflammatory response was the popularly accepted theory for the underlying etiology. Respiratory index (RI and arterial oxygen tension/fractional inspired oxygen can be reliable indices for the diagnosis of this syndrome as X-ray appearance is always insignificant at the early stage of the onset. Evaluations of extravascular lung water content and pulmonary compliance are also helpful in the definite diagnosis. Multiorgan failure and triple acid-base disturbances that might develop secondary to postperfusion lung syndrome are responsible for the poor prognosis and increased mortality rather than postperfusion lung syndrome itself. Mechanical ventilation with low tidal volume (TV and proper positive end-expiratory pressure can be an effective treatment strategy. Use of ulinastatin and propofol may benefit the patients through different mechanisms.

  2. Respiratory care year in review 2013: neonatal respiratory care, pulmonary function testing, and pulmonary rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Craig D; Haynes, Jeffrey M; Carlin, Brian W; Hess, Dean R

    2014-05-01

    Respiratory care practice includes neonatal respiratory care, pulmonary function testing, and pulmonary rehabilitation. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent literature related to these topics in a manner that is most likely to have interest to the readers of Respiratory Care.

  3. Equal virulence of rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in infants hospitalized for lower respiratory tract infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van J.C.; Goossens, L.K.; Hendrix, R.; Palen, van der J.A.M.; Lusthusz, A.; Thio, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus (RV) are predominant viruses associated with lower respiratory tract infection in infants. We compared the symptoms of lower respiratory tract infection caused by RSV and RV in hospitalized infants. RV showed the same symptoms as RSV, so on clinical g

  4. Human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized danish children with acute respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Henrik Larsen, Hans; Koch, Anders;

    2004-01-01

    The newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been shown to be associated with respiratory illness. We determined the frequencies and clinical features of hMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in 374 Danish children with 383 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection...

  5. Mitochondrial Cristae Shape Determines Respiratory Chain Supercomplexes Assembly and Respiratory Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Cogliati, Sara; Frezza, Christian; Soriano, Maria Eugenia; Varanita, Tatiana; Quintana-Cabrera, Ruben; Corrado, Mauro; Cipolat, Sara; Costa, Veronica; Casarin, Alberto; Gomes, Ligia C.; Perales-Clemente, Ester; Salviati, Leonardo; Fernandez-Silva, Patricio; Enriquez, Jose A.; Scorrano, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Summary Respiratory chain complexes assemble into functional quaternary structures called supercomplexes (RCS) within the folds of the inner mitochondrial membrane, or cristae. Here, we investigate the relationship between respiratory function and mitochondrial ultrastructure and provide evidence that cristae shape determines the assembly and stability of RCS and hence mitochondrial respiratory efficiency. Genetic and apoptotic manipulations of cristae structure affect assembly and activity o...

  6. Clustering of Absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Cristiani, S; D'Odorico, V; Fontana, A; Giallongo, E; Moscardini, L; Savaglio, S

    1997-01-01

    The observed clustering of Lyman-$\\alpha$ lines is reviewed and compared with the clustering of CIV systems. We argue that a continuity of properties exists between Lyman-$\\alpha$ and metal systems and show that the small-scale clustering of the absorbers is consistent with a scenario of gravitationally induced correlations. At large scales statistically significant over and under-densities (including voids) are found on scales of tens of Mpc.

  7. Clustering Techniques in Bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Masood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with data means to group information into a set of categories either in order to learn new artifacts or understand new domains. For this purpose researchers have always looked for the hidden patterns in data that can be defined and compared with other known notions based on the similarity or dissimilarity of their attributes according to well-defined rules. Data mining, having the tools of data classification and data clustering, is one of the most powerful techniques to deal with data in such a manner that it can help researchers identify the required information. As a step forward to address this challenge, experts have utilized clustering techniques as a mean of exploring hidden structure and patterns in underlying data. Improved stability, robustness and accuracy of unsupervised data classification in many fields including pattern recognition, machine learning, information retrieval, image analysis and bioinformatics, clustering has proven itself as a reliable tool. To identify the clusters in datasets algorithm are utilized to partition data set into several groups based on the similarity within a group. There is no specific clustering algorithm, but various algorithms are utilized based on domain of data that constitutes a cluster and the level of efficiency required. Clustering techniques are categorized based upon different approaches. This paper is a survey of few clustering techniques out of many in data mining. For the purpose five of the most common clustering techniques out of many have been discussed. The clustering techniques which have been surveyed are: K-medoids, K-means, Fuzzy C-means, Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN and Self-Organizing Map (SOM clustering.

  8. Structures in Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Escalera, E; Girardi, M; Giuricin, G; Mardirossian, F; Mazure, A; Mezzetti, M

    1993-01-01

    The analysis of the presence of substructures in 16 well-sampled clusters of galaxies suggests a stimulating hypothesis: Clusters could be classified as unimodal or bimodal, on the basis of to the sub-clump distribution in the {\\em 3-D} space of positions and velocities. The dynamic study of these clusters shows that their fundamental characteristics, in particular the virial masses, are not severely biased by the presence of subclustering if the system considered is bound.

  9. The Youngest Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Sara

    2014-01-01

    It is likely that all stars are born in clusters, but most clusters are not bound and disperse. None of the many protoclusters in our Galaxy are likely to develop into long-lived bound clusters. The Super Star Clusters (SSCs) seen in starburst galaxies are more massive and compact and have better chances of survival. The birth and early development of SSCs takes place deep in molecular clouds, and during this crucial stage the embedded clusters are invisible to optical or UV observations but are studied via the radio-infared supernebulae (RISN) they excite. We review observations of embedded clusters and identify RISN within 10 Mpc whose exciting clusters have a million solar masses or more in volumes of a few cubic parsecs and which are likely to not only survive as bound clusters, but to evolve into objects as massive and compact as Galactic globulars. These clusters are distinguished by very high star formation efficiency eta, at least a factor of 10 higher than the few percent seen in the Galaxy, probably...

  10. Star Clusters within FIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Adrianna; Moreno, Jorge; Naiman, Jill; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Hopkins, Philip F.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we analyze the environments surrounding star clusters of simulated merging galaxies. Our framework employs Feedback In Realistic Environments (FIRE) model (Hopkins et al., 2014). The FIRE project is a high resolution cosmological simulation that resolves star forming regions and incorporates stellar feedback in a physically realistic way. The project focuses on analyzing the properties of the star clusters formed in merging galaxies. The locations of these star clusters are identified with astrodendro.py, a publicly available dendrogram algorithm. Once star cluster properties are extracted, they will be used to create a sub-grid (smaller than the resolution scale of FIRE) of gas confinement in these clusters. Then, we can examine how the star clusters interact with these available gas reservoirs (either by accreting this mass or blowing it out via feedback), which will determine many properties of the cluster (star formation history, compact object accretion, etc). These simulations will further our understanding of star formation within stellar clusters during galaxy evolution. In the future, we aim to enhance sub-grid prescriptions for feedback specific to processes within star clusters; such as, interaction with stellar winds and gas accretion onto black holes and neutron stars.

  11. Galaxy Clusters with Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Forman, W; Markevitch, M L; Vikhlinin, A A; Churazov, E

    2002-01-01

    We discuss Chandra results related to 1) cluster mergers and cold fronts and 2) interactions between relativistic plasma and hot cluster atmospheres. We describe the properties of cold fronts using NGC1404 in the Fornax cluster and A3667 as examples. We discuss multiple surface brightness discontinuities in the cooling flow cluster ZW3146. We review the supersonic merger underway in CL0657. Finally, we summarize the interaction between plasma bubbles produced by AGN and hot gas using M87 and NGC507 as examples.

  12. 15th Cluster workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Laakso, Harri; Escoubet, C. Philippe; The Cluster Active Archive : Studying the Earth’s Space Plasma Environment

    2010-01-01

    Since the year 2000 the ESA Cluster mission has been investigating the small-scale structures and processes of the Earth's plasma environment, such as those involved in the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetospheric plasma, in global magnetotail dynamics, in cross-tail currents, and in the formation and dynamics of the neutral line and of plasmoids. This book contains presentations made at the 15th Cluster workshop held in March 2008. It also presents several articles about the Cluster Active Archive and its datasets, a few overview papers on the Cluster mission, and articles reporting on scientific findings on the solar wind, the magnetosheath, the magnetopause and the magnetotail.

  13. Technology Map-based Study on Key Industrial Cluster Prediction:Case Study of Fujian Software Industry%基于技术地图的产业重点集群预测研究*--以福建省软件产业为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹德林; 张文德

    2015-01-01

    The paper collects software industry patent information in 2001-2013, constructs cluster prediction model, analyzes the relationship between technology and market in industry cluster by using linear regression, factor analysis and PCA, and forms a tech-nology map. The result shows that various techniques in Fujian software industry cluster impact each other, eventually forms the indus-try development trend which is given priority to digital communications, and visual communications, telephone communications as the auxiliary in technology, pays equal attention to information processing and information transmission in product function.%收集了2001-2013年福建省软件产业的专利信息,构建集群预测模型。运用线性回归、因子分析、主成分分析的方法分析了产业集群中技术与市场之间的关系,并根据分析结果形成技术地图。结果表明:福建省软件产业集群中各项技术之间相互影响,最终在技术上形成以数字通信为主,视像通信、电话通信为辅,产品功能上信息内容处理与信息传输处理并重的产业发展趋势。

  14. The clinical analysis of the factors influencing the therapeutic effect of INSURE technology in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome%影响INSURE技术治疗早产儿呼吸窘迫综合征疗效因素的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦蕊; 王铭杰; 余小河; 曹传顶; 霍惠仪; 廖正嫦; 岳少杰

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨影响以INSURE技术治疗早产儿呼吸窘迫综合征(NRDS)效果的相关因素。方法回顾性分析2009年1月至2012年12月新生儿重症监护病房中309例以INSURE技术治疗的NRDS患儿的临床资料。结果309例NRDS患儿中治愈出院302例,总治愈率97.7%;21例(6.8%)在72 h内需要再次气管插管予机械通气;不同出生胎龄患儿的再插管通气率差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),其中≤28周患儿的再插管率较高。根据是否需要再插管通气分为成功组和失败组,与成功组比较,失败组胎龄≤28周、出生体质量<1000 g、病情严重患儿较多,应用肺表面活性物质(PS)剂量和PS重复使用率较高,需要氧气支持比例高,病死率高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论 INSURE技术可有效用于临床治疗NRDS患儿,胎龄小、出生体质量低、病情严重是导致INSURE技术失败的重要原因。%ObjectiveTo assess the factors inlfuencing the therapeutic effects of INSURE technology in premature in-fants with respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS).MethodsThe clinical data from 309 infants with NRDS treated by INSURE technology were retrospectively analyzed from Jan. 2000 to Dec. 2012.ResultsIn 309 infants with NRDS, 302 infants were cured and the cure rate was 97.7%. Twenty-one infants (6.8%) needed the reintubation for mechanical ventilation within 72 h. The difference in reintubation rate was statistically signiifcant among infants with different gestational age (P<0.01). The infants with the gestation age≤28 weeks had a signiifcantly higher reintubation rate. According to whether the reintubation was performed, the infants were divided into success group and failure group. Compared to the success group, there were higher percentage of infants who had gestation age≤28 weeks, birth weight <1000 g and severe NRDS, needed high dose and repeated use of pulmo-nary surfactant and oxygen therapy, and had higher mortality in the

  15. Statistical properties of convex clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Kean Ming; Witten, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, we study the statistical properties of convex clustering. We establish that convex clustering is closely related to single linkage hierarchical clustering and $k$-means clustering. In addition, we derive the range of the tuning parameter for convex clustering that yields a non-trivial solution. We also provide an unbiased estimator of the degrees of freedom, and provide a finite sample bound for the prediction error for convex clustering. We compare convex clustering to so...

  16. Document Clustering Based on Semi-Supervised Term Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mahmoodi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study is conducted to propose a multi-step feature (term selection process and in semi-supervised fashion, provide initial centers for term clusters. Then utilize the fuzzy c-means (FCM clustering algorithm for clustering terms. Finally assign each of documents to closest associated term clusters. While most text clustering algorithms directly use documents for clustering, we propose to first group the terms using FCM algorithm and then cluster documents based on terms clusters. We evaluate effectiveness of our technique on several standard text collections and compare our results with the some classical text clustering algorithms.

  17. Medical simulation in respiratory and critical care medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Godfrey; Ayas, Najib T; Griesdale, Donald E; Peets, Adam D

    2010-12-01

    Simulation-based medical education has gained tremendous popularity over the past two decades. Driven by the patient safety movement, changes in the educational opportunities available to trainees and the rapidly evolving capabilities of computer technology, simulation-based medical education is now being used across the continuum of medical education. This review provides the reader with a perspective on simulation specific to respiratory and critical care medicine, including an overview of historical and modern simulation modalities and the current evidence supporting their use.

  18. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV): A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik

    2000-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection is the major cause of respiratory disease in calves during the first year of life. The study of the virus has been difficult because of its lability and very poor growth in cell culture. However, during the last decade, the introduction of new i...

  19. Respiratory difficulties and breathing disorders in achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsharpaiman, S; Saburi, A; Waters, Karen A

    2013-12-01

    Respiratory difficulties and breathing disorders in achondroplasia are thought to underlie the increased risk for sudden infant death and neuropsychological deficits seen in this condition. This review evaluates literature regarding respiratory dysfunctions and their sequelae in patients with achondroplasia. The limited number of prospective studies of respiratory disease in achondroplasia means that observational studies and case series provide a large proportion of the data regarding the spectrum of respiratory diseases in achondroplasia and their treatments. Amongst clinical respiratory problems described, snoring is the commonest observed abnormality, but the reported incidence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) shows wide variance (10% to 75%). Reported treatments of OSA include adenotonsillectomy, the use of CPAP, and surgical improvement of the airway, including mid-face advancement. Otolaryngologic manifestations are also common. Respiratory failure due to small thoracic volumes is reported, but uncommon. Mortality rate at all ages was 2.27 (CI: 1.7-3.0) with age-specific mortality increased at all ages. Sudden death was most common in infants and children. Cardiovascular events are the main cause of mortality in adults. Despite earlier recognition and treatment of respiratory complications of achondroplasia, increased mortality rates and other complications remain high. Future and ongoing evaluation of the prevalence and impact of respiratory disorders, particularly OSA, in achondroplasia is recommended. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Respiratory health effects in pig farmers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preller, L.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes a cross-sectional study of risk factors of chronic respiratory health effects in pig farmers working in the South of the Netherlands. The study population comprised 100 pig farmers with and 100 pig farmers without chronic respiratory symptoms. Base-line lung function, non-speci

  1. A Guide for Respiratory Therapy Curriculum Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association for Respiratory Therapy, Dallas, TX.

    The document presents educational criterion upon which curriculum builders can create a competency-based program of respiratory therapy education. The 11 modules presented supplement and compliment the document Delineation of Roles and Functions of Respiratory Therapy Personnel (CE 005 945) which is listed as appendix D but not included as such.…

  2. Expanding the Respiratory Therapy Curriculum. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Mary; Allenbaugh, Patricia

    This project was conducted to upgrade Seattle Central Community College's four-quarter respiratory care program to a two-year associate degree program in respiratory therapy. The program needed to include a developmental pathway for entry of nontraditional students and also a college-level prerequisite entry pathway for traditional students. In…

  3. Maximal respiratory pressure in healthy Japanese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami, Miki; Okuno, Yukako; Matsuda, Tadamitsu; Kawamura, Kenta; Shoji, Ryosuke; Tomita, Kazuhide

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] Normal values for respiratory muscle pressures during development in Japanese children have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate respiratory muscle pressures in Japanese children aged 3–12 years. [Subjects and Methods] We measured respiratory muscle pressure values using a manovacuometer without a nose clip, with subjects in a sitting position. Data were collected for ages 3–6 (Group I: 68 subjects), 7–9 (Group II: 86 subjects), and 10–12 (Group III: 64 subjects) years. [Results] The values for respiratory muscle pressures in children were significantly higher with age in both sexes, and were higher in boys than in girls. Correlation coefficients were significant at values of 0.279 to 0.471 for each gender relationship between maximal respiratory pressure and age, height, and weight, respectively. [Conclusion] In this study, we showed pediatric respiratory muscle pressure reference value for each age. In the present study, values for respiratory muscle pressures were lower than Brazilian studies. This suggests that differences in respiratory muscle pressures vary with ethnicity. PMID:28356644

  4. [Respiratory distress in three newborns after mask disinfection with Endosporine. Probable role of glutaraldehyde].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testud, F; Bubnic, A; Valancogne, A; Assaf, G; Vray, C; Cottin, X; Bourgeois, J; Descotes, J

    2000-05-01

    Disinfectants for medical devices are uncommonly a cause of iatrogenic adverse effects. Nevertheless, when misused, they can induce severe complications. Three cases of acute respiratory distress in newborns probably induced by glutaraldehyde are reported. Three children born by Caesarean section between 8 and 19 May 1999 in the same hospital presented acute respiratory distress requiring hospitalization in the neonatal intensive care unit; one child was premature. The clinical appearance, which was initially normal, deteriorated with a respiratory distress in 30 to 60 minutes. Recovery was uneventful in all cases. The diagnosis considered was a hyaline membrane disease. The enquiry conducted after this cluster onset identified, as a main contributing factor, the disinfection procedure recently introduced in the surgical theater. Review of toxicologic data on glutaraldehyde shows this is a highly irritating chemical for the respiratory tract, even at low concentrations. Clinical and radiologic features in these three neonates are compatible with a pulmonary sub-edema on an immature alveolar setting. The hypothesis proposed is that glutaraldehyde, the active ingredient of the biocidal formula used to disinfect the respiratory masks, was massively desorbed from the rubber and foam of which masks are made.

  5. [Hot topics in respiratory infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza-Galvao, M Luiza; García-Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Sanz, Francisco; Blanquer, José

    2011-01-01

    We review the most interesting articles on respiratory infections published in the last trimester of 2009 and in 2010. Notable publications in bronchiectasis were the Guidelines of the British Thoracic Society, as well as several articles on the natural course of the process, the impact of exacerbations on the course of the disease, and treatment with inhaled antibiotics. Other notable publications were the SEPAR-SEIMC consensus document for the management of tuberculosis and articles on the use of interferon-gamma in the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection. The new recommendations of the Spanish Society of Pneumology and Thoracic Surgery on community-acquired pneumonia have recently been published. Equally important are studies on the viral etiology of community-acquired pneumonia, the impact of corticosteroid treatment in pneumonia, the duration of antibiotic therapy and preventive measures in both community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia.

  6. The respiratory system in equations

    CERN Document Server

    Maury, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    The book proposes an introduction to the mathematical modeling of the respiratory system. A detailed introduction on the physiological aspects makes it accessible to a large audience without any prior knowledge on the lung. Different levels of description are proposed, from the lumped models with a small number of parameters (Ordinary Differential Equations), up to infinite dimensional models based on Partial Differential Equations. Besides these two types of differential equations, two chapters are dedicated to resistive networks, and to the way they can be used to investigate the dependence of the resistance of the lung upon geometrical characteristics. The theoretical analysis of the various models is provided, together with state-of-the-art techniques to compute approximate solutions, allowing comparisons with experimental measurements. The book contains several exercises, most of which are accessible to advanced undergraduate students.

  7. Perioperative modifications of respiratory function.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duggan, Michelle

    2012-01-31

    Postoperative pulmonary complications contribute considerably to morbidity and mortality, especially after major thoracic or abdominal surgery. Clinically relevant pulmonary complications include the exacerbation of underlying chronic lung disease, bronchospasm, atelectasis, pneumonia and respiratory failure with prolonged mechanical ventilation. Risk factors for postoperative pulmonary complications include patient-related risk factors (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tobacco smoking and increasing age) as well as procedure-related risk factors (e.g., site of surgery, duration of surgery and general vs. regional anaesthesia). Careful history taking and a thorough physical examination may be the most sensitive ways to identify at-risk patients. Pulmonary function tests are not suitable as a general screen to assess risk of postoperative pulmonary complications. Strategies to reduce the risk of postoperative pulmonary complications include smoking cessation, inspiratory muscle training, optimising nutritional status and intra-operative strategies. Postoperative care should include lung expansion manoeuvres and adequate pain control.

  8. Linking microbiota and respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Matthias; Schaible, Ulrich E

    2016-11-01

    An increasing body of evidence indicates the relevance of microbiota for pulmonary health and disease. Independent investigations recently demonstrated that the lung harbors a resident microbiota. Therefore, it is intriguing that a lung microbiota can shape pulmonary immunity and epithelial barrier functions. Here, we discuss the ways how the composition of the microbial community in the lung may influence pulmonary health and vice versa, factors that determine community composition. Prominent microbiota at other body sites such as the intestinal one may also contribute to pulmonary health and disease. However, it is difficult to discriminate between influences of lung vs. gut microbiota due to systemic mutuality between both communities. With focuses on asthma and respiratory infections, we discuss how microbiota of lung and gut can determine pulmonary immunity and barrier functions. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  9. Derivation of the respiratory rate from directly and indirectly measured respiratory signals using autocorrelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrumpf Fabian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of respiratory rates from contineous respiratory signals is commonly done using either fourier transformation or the zero-crossing method. This paper introduces another method which is based on the autocorrelation function of the respiratory signal. The respiratory signals can be measured either directly using a flow sensor or chest strap or indirectly on the basis of the electrocardiogram (ECG. We compare our method against other established methods on the basis of real-world ECG signals and use a respiration-based breathing frequency as a reference. Our method achieved the best agreement between respiration rates derived from directly and indirectly measured respiratory signals.

  10. Wind farms model aggregation using probabilistic clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Paula Odete; Ferreira, Ángela Paula

    2013-10-01

    The main objective of this research is the identification of homogeneous groups within wind farms of a major operator playing in the energy sector in Portugal, based on two multivariate analyses: Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and Discriminant Analysis, by using two independent variables: annual liquid hours and net production. From the produced outputs there were identified three homogenous groups of wind farms: (1) medium Installed Capacity and Induction Generator based Technology, (2) high Installed Capacity and Synchronous Generator based Technology and (3) medium Installed Capacity and Synchronous Generator based Technology, which includes the wind farms with the higher annual liquid hours. It has been found that the results obtained by cluster analysis are well classified, with a total percentage of correct classification of 97,1%, which can be considered excellent.

  11. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Carvalho Abreu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases.As células-tronco têm uma infinidade de implicações clínicas no pulmão. Este artigo é uma revisão crítica que inclui estudos clínicos e experimentais advindos do banco de dados do MEDLINE e SciElo nos últimos 10 anos, onde foram destacados os efeitos da terapia celular na síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo ou doenças mais crônicas, como fibrose pulmonar e enfisema. Apesar de muitos estudos demonstrarem os efeitos benéficos das células-tronco no desenvolvimento, reparo e remodelamento pulmonar; algumas questões ainda precisam ser respondidas para um melhor entendimento dos mecanismos que controlam a divisão celular e diferenciação, permitindo o uso da terapia celular nas doenças respiratórias.

  12. Pulmonary agenesis and respiratory failure in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinamarco, Paula Vanessa Valverde; Ponce, Cesar Cilento

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary agenesis (PA) is a rare congenital anomaly, which may be unilateral or bilateral. Unilateral PA may be associated with nonspecific respiratory symptoms. We report the case of 5-month-old infant who presented a normal development until the age of 4 months when a respiratory infection caused an acute respiratory distress syndrome with a fatal outcome. The autopsy findings depicted the right lung agenesis without any other concomitant malformation. Although respiratory symptoms represent frequent complaints in pediatrics, the aim of this study is not only to draw attention to the unilateral pulmonary agenesis as a possible underlying malformation in children who present recurrent and severe respiratory symptoms, but also to report a case diagnosed at autopsy.

  13. Pulmonary agenesis and respiratory failure in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Vanessa Valverde Dinamarco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary agenesis (PA is a rare congenital anomaly, which may be unilateral or bilateral. Unilateral PA may be associated with nonspecific respiratory symptoms. We report the case of 5-month-old infant who presented a normal development until the age of 4 months when a respiratory infection caused an acute respiratory distress syndrome with a fatal outcome. The autopsy findings depicted the right lung agenesis without any other concomitant malformation. Although respiratory symptoms represent frequent complaints in pediatrics, the aim of this study is not only to draw attention to the unilateral pulmonary agenesis as a possible underlying malformation in children who present recurrent and severe respiratory symptoms, but also to report a case diagnosed at autopsy.

  14. Respiratory neuroplasticity - Overview, significance and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, David D; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2017-01-01

    Neuroplasticity is an important property of the neural system controlling breathing. However, our appreciation for its importance is still relatively new, and we have much to learn concerning different forms of plasticity, their underlying mechanisms, and their biological and clinical significance. In this brief review, we discuss several well-studied models of respiratory plasticity, including plasticity initiated by inactivity in the respiratory system, intermittent and sustained hypoxia, and traumatic injury to the spinal cord. Other aspects of respiratory plasticity are considered in other contributions to this special edition of Experimental Neurology on respiratory plasticity. Finally, we conclude with discussions concerning the biological and clinical significance of respiratory motor plasticity, and areas in need of future research effort.

  15. Exploring the ubiquinone binding cavity of respiratory complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocilescu, Maja A; Fendel, Uta; Zwicker, Klaus; Kerscher, Stefan; Brandt, Ulrich

    2007-10-05

    Proton pumping respiratory complex I is a major player in mitochondrial energy conversion. Yet little is known about the molecular mechanism of this large membrane protein complex. Understanding the details of ubiquinone reduction will be prerequisite for elucidating this mechanism. Based on a recently published partial structure of the bacterial enzyme, we scanned the proposed ubiquinone binding cavity of complex I by site-directed mutagenesis in the strictly aerobic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. The observed changes in catalytic activity and inhibitor sensitivity followed a consistent pattern and allowed us to define three functionally important regions near the ubiquinone-reducing iron-sulfur cluster N2. We identified a likely entry path for the substrate ubiquinone and defined a region involved in inhibitor binding within the cavity. Finally, we were able to highlight a functionally critical structural motif in the active site that consisted of Tyr-144 in the 49-kDa subunit, surrounded by three conserved hydrophobic residues.

  16. A Clustering Graph Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winlaw, Manda [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); De Sterck, Hans [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sanders, Geoffrey [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-26

    In very simple terms a network can be de ned as a collection of points joined together by lines. Thus, networks can be used to represent connections between entities in a wide variety of elds including engi- neering, science, medicine, and sociology. Many large real-world networks share a surprising number of properties, leading to a strong interest in model development research and techniques for building synthetic networks have been developed, that capture these similarities and replicate real-world graphs. Modeling these real-world networks serves two purposes. First, building models that mimic the patterns and prop- erties of real networks helps to understand the implications of these patterns and helps determine which patterns are important. If we develop a generative process to synthesize real networks we can also examine which growth processes are plausible and which are not. Secondly, high-quality, large-scale network data is often not available, because of economic, legal, technological, or other obstacles [7]. Thus, there are many instances where the systems of interest cannot be represented by a single exemplar network. As one example, consider the eld of cybersecurity, where systems require testing across diverse threat scenarios and validation across diverse network structures. In these cases, where there is no single exemplar network, the systems must instead be modeled as a collection of networks in which the variation among them may be just as important as their common features. By developing processes to build synthetic models, so-called graph generators, we can build synthetic networks that capture both the essential features of a system and realistic variability. Then we can use such synthetic graphs to perform tasks such as simulations, analysis, and decision making. We can also use synthetic graphs to performance test graph analysis algorithms, including clustering algorithms and anomaly detection algorithms.

  17. Cost-Effective Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Gottlieb, S

    2001-01-01

    Small Beowulf clusters can effectively serve as personal or group supercomputers. In such an environment, a cluster can be optimally designed for a specific problem (or a small set of codes). We discuss how theoretical analysis of the code and benchmarking on similar hardware lead to optimal systems.

  18. [Cluster headache differential diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guégan-Massardier, Evelyne; Laubier, Cécile

    2015-11-01

    Cluster headache is characterized by disabling stereotyped headache. Early diagnosis allows appropriate treatment, unfortunately diagnostic errors are frequent. The main differential diagnoses are other primary or essential headaches. Migraine, more frequent and whose diagnosis is carried by excess, trigeminal neuralgia or other trigemino-autonomic cephalgia. Vascular or tumoral underlying condition can mimic cluster headache, neck and brain imaging is recommended, ideally MRI.

  19. Coma cluster of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Atlas Image mosaic, covering 34' x 34' on the sky, of the Coma cluster, aka Abell 1656. This is a particularly rich cluster of individual galaxies (over 1000 members), most prominently the two giant ellipticals, NGC 4874 (right) and NGC 4889 (left). The remaining members are mostly smaller ellipticals, but spiral galaxies are also evident in the 2MASS image. The cluster is seen toward the constellation Coma Berenices, but is actually at a distance of about 100 Mpc (330 million light years, or a redshift of 0.023) from us. At this distance, the cluster is in what is known as the 'Hubble flow,' or the overall expansion of the Universe. As such, astronomers can measure the Hubble Constant, or the universal expansion rate, based on the distance to this cluster. Large, rich clusters, such as Coma, allow astronomers to measure the 'missing mass,' i.e., the matter in the cluster that we cannot see, since it gravitationally influences the motions of the member galaxies within the cluster. The near-infrared maps the overall luminous mass content of the member galaxies, since the light at these wavelengths is dominated by the more numerous older stellar populations. Galaxies, as seen by 2MASS, look fairly smooth and homogeneous, as can be seen from the Hubble 'tuning fork' diagram of near-infrared galaxy morphology. Image mosaic by S. Van Dyk (IPAC).

  20. Mixed-Initiative Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yifen

    2010-01-01

    Mixed-initiative clustering is a task where a user and a machine work collaboratively to analyze a large set of documents. We hypothesize that a user and a machine can both learn better clustering models through enriched communication and interactive learning from each other. The first contribution or this thesis is providing a framework of…

  1. Cluster Synchronization Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, Weiguo; Cao, Ming

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents two approaches to achieving cluster synchronization in dynamical multi-agent systems. In contrast to the widely studied synchronization behavior, where all the coupled agents converge to the same value asymptotically, in the cluster synchronization problem studied in this paper,

  2. Neurostimulation in cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jeppe L; Barloese, Mads; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurostimulation has emerged as a viable treatment for intractable chronic cluster headache. Several therapeutic strategies are being investigated including stimulation of the hypothalamus, occipital nerves and sphenopalatine ganglion. The aim of this review is to provide...... effective strategy must be preferred as first-line therapy for intractable chronic cluster headache....

  3. Securing personal network clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jehangir, Assed; Heemstra de Groot, Sonia M.

    2007-01-01

    A Personal Network is a self-organizing, secure and private network of a user’s devices notwithstanding their geographic location. It aims to utilize pervasive computing to provide users with new and improved services. In this paper we propose a model for securing Personal Network clusters. Clusters

  4. Clustering Text Data Streams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Bao Liu; Jia-Rong Cai; Jian Yin; Ada Wai-Chee Fu

    2008-01-01

    Clustering text data streams is an important issue in data mining community and has a number of applications such as news group filtering, text crawling, document organization and topic detection and tracing etc. However, most methods are similarity-based approaches and only use the TF*IDF scheme to represent the semantics of text data and often lead to poor clustering quality. Recently, researchers argue that semantic smoothing model is more efficient than the existing TF.IDF scheme for improving text clustering quality. However, the existing semantic smoothing model is not suitable for dynamic text data context. In this paper, we extend the semantic smoothing model into text data streams context firstly. Based on the extended model, we then present two online clustering algorithms OCTS and OCTSM for the clustering of massive text data streams. In both algorithms, we also present a new cluster statistics structure named cluster profile which can capture the semantics of text data streams dynamically and at the same time speed up the clustering process. Some efficient implementations for our algorithms are also given. Finally, we present a series of experimental results illustrating the effectiveness of our technique.

  5. Relevant Subspace Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Günnemann, Stephan;

    2009-01-01

    Subspace clustering aims at detecting clusters in any subspace projection of a high dimensional space. As the number of possible subspace projections is exponential in the number of dimensions, the result is often tremendously large. Recent approaches fail to reduce results to relevant subspace c...

  6. Structural transitions in clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, A.; Lévy, J.-C. S.

    1997-02-01

    Monatomic clusters are studied by Monte Carlo relaxation using generalized Lennard-Jones potentials. A transition from an icosahedral symmetry to a crystalline symmetry with stacking faults is always observed. Bcc-based soft atom clusters are found to have a lower energy than the corresponding hcp and fcc ones below the melting point.

  7. Bronchoscopic findings in Down syndrome children with respiratory problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pravit, Jetanachai

    2014-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) can affect the upper and lower respiratory tract in a number of ways and disorders of other systems can impact upon respiratory function, giving rise to a wide variety of respiratory manifestations...

  8. Mathematical classification and clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Mirkin, Boris

    1996-01-01

    I am very happy to have this opportunity to present the work of Boris Mirkin, a distinguished Russian scholar in the areas of data analysis and decision making methodologies. The monograph is devoted entirely to clustering, a discipline dispersed through many theoretical and application areas, from mathematical statistics and combina­ torial optimization to biology, sociology and organizational structures. It compiles an immense amount of research done to date, including many original Russian de­ velopments never presented to the international community before (for instance, cluster-by-cluster versions of the K-Means method in Chapter 4 or uniform par­ titioning in Chapter 5). The author's approach, approximation clustering, allows him both to systematize a great part of the discipline and to develop many in­ novative methods in the framework of optimization problems. The optimization methods considered are proved to be meaningful in the contexts of data analysis and clustering. The material presented in ...

  9. Neutrosophic Hierarchical Clustering Algoritms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rıdvan Şahin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Interval neutrosophic set (INS is a generalization of interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy set (IVIFS, whose the membership and non-membership values of elements consist of fuzzy range, while single valued neutrosophic set (SVNS is regarded as extension of intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS. In this paper, we extend the hierarchical clustering techniques proposed for IFSs and IVIFSs to SVNSs and INSs respectively. Based on the traditional hierarchical clustering procedure, the single valued neutrosophic aggregation operator, and the basic distance measures between SVNSs, we define a single valued neutrosophic hierarchical clustering algorithm for clustering SVNSs. Then we extend the algorithm to classify an interval neutrosophic data. Finally, we present some numerical examples in order to show the effectiveness and availability of the developed clustering algorithms.

  10. Cool Cluster Correctly Correlated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varganov, Sergey Aleksandrovich [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Atomic clusters are unique objects, which occupy an intermediate position between atoms and condensed matter systems. For a long time it was thought that physical and chemical properties of atomic dusters monotonically change with increasing size of the cluster from a single atom to a condensed matter system. However, recently it has become clear that many properties of atomic clusters can change drastically with the size of the clusters. Because physical and chemical properties of clusters can be adjusted simply by changing the cluster's size, different applications of atomic clusters were proposed. One example is the catalytic activity of clusters of specific sizes in different chemical reactions. Another example is a potential application of atomic clusters in microelectronics, where their band gaps can be adjusted by simply changing cluster sizes. In recent years significant advances in experimental techniques allow one to synthesize and study atomic clusters of specified sizes. However, the interpretation of the results is often difficult. The theoretical methods are frequently used to help in interpretation of complex experimental data. Most of the theoretical approaches have been based on empirical or semiempirical methods. These methods allow one to study large and small dusters using the same approximations. However, since empirical and semiempirical methods rely on simple models with many parameters, it is often difficult to estimate the quantitative and even qualitative accuracy of the results. On the other hand, because of significant advances in quantum chemical methods and computer capabilities, it is now possible to do high quality ab-initio calculations not only on systems of few atoms but on clusters of practical interest as well. In addition to accurate results for specific clusters, such methods can be used for benchmarking of different empirical and semiempirical approaches. The atomic clusters studied in this work contain from a few atoms

  11. Job Oriented Monitoring Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalaxmi Cigala,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been a lot of development in the field of clusters and grids. Recently, the use of clusters has been on rise in every possible field. This paper proposes a system that monitors jobs onlarge computational clusters. Monitoring jobs is essential to understand how jobs are being executed. This helps us in understanding the complete life cycle of the jobs being executed on large clusters. Also, this paper describes how the information obtained by monitoring the jobs would help in increasing the overall throughput of clusters. Heuristics help in efficient job distribution among the computational nodes, thereby accomplishing fair job distribution policy. The proposed system would be capable of loadbalancing among the computational nodes, detecting failures, taking corrective actions after failure detection, job monitoring, system resource monitoring, etc.

  12. On TPC cluster reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Dydak, F; Nefedov, Y; Wotschack, J; Zhemchugov, A

    2004-01-01

    For a bias-free momentum measurement of TPC tracks, the correct determination of cluster positions is mandatory. We argue in particular that (i) the reconstruction of the entire longitudinal signal shape in view of longitudinal diffusion, electronic pulse shaping, and track inclination is important both for the polar angle reconstruction and for optimum r phi resolution; and that (ii) self-crosstalk of pad signals calls for special measures for the reconstruction of the z coordinate. The problem of 'shadow clusters' is resolved. Algorithms are presented for accepting clusters as 'good' clusters, and for the reconstruction of the r phi and z cluster coordinates, including provisions for 'bad' pads and pads next to sector boundaries, respectively.

  13. A Commodity Computing Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuben, P. J.; Wolfire, M. G.; Pound, M. W.; Mundy, L. G.

    We have assembled a cluster of Intel-Pentium based PCs running Linux to compute a large set of Photodissociation Region (PDR) and Dust Continuum models. For various reasons the cluster is heterogeneous, currently ranging from a single Pentium-II 333 MHz to dual Pentium-III 450 MHz CPU machines. Although this will be sufficient for our ``embarrassingly parallelizable problem'' it may present some challenges for as yet unplanned future use. In addition the cluster was used to construct a MIRIAD benchmark, and compared to equivalent Ultra-Sparc based workstations. Currently the cluster consists of 8 machines, 14 CPUs, 50GB of disk-space, and a total peak speed of 5.83 GHz, or about 1.5 Gflops. The total cost of this cluster has been about $12,000, including all cabling, networking equipment, rack, and a CD-R backup system. The URL for this project is http://dustem.astro.umd.edu.

  14. Advances in production technology

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This edited volume contains the selected papers presented at the scientific board meeting of the German Cluster of Excellence on “Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries”,  held in November 2014. The topical structure of the book is clustered in six sessions: Integrative Production Technology, Individualised Production, Virtual Production Systems, Integrated Technologies, Self-Optimising Production Systems and Human Factors in Production Technology. The Aachen perspective on a holistic theory of production is complemented by conference papers from external leading researchers in the fields of production, materials science and bordering disciplines. The target audience primarily comprises research experts and practitioners in the field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  15. Multi-Channel Optical Sensor-Array for Measuring Ballistocardiograms and Respiratory Activity in Bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brueser, C.; Winter, S.; Leonhardt, S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research on ballistocardiography (BCG) or seismocardiography(SCG) has focused on two major application areas for these technologies: non-invasive diagnostics of hemodynamic parameters and unobtrusive, long-term monitoring of cardiac (and respiratory) rhythms. Forthe former application, an ele

  16. Detection of respiratory viruses and the associated chemokine responses in serious acute respiratory illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumino, Kaharu C.; Walter, Michael J.; Mikols, Cassandra L.; Thompson, Samantha A.; Gaudreault-Keener, Monique; Arens, Max. Q.; Agapov, Eugene; Hormozdi, David; Gaynor, Anne M.; Holtzman, Michael J.; Storch, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    Background A specific diagnosis of a lower respiratory viral infection is often difficult despite frequent clinical suspicion. This low diagnostic yield may be improved by use of sensitive detection methods and biomarkers. Methods We investigated the prevalence, clinical predictors and inflammatory mediator profile of respiratory viral infection in serious acute respiratory illness. Sequential bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids from all patients hospitalized with acute respiratory illness over 12 months (n=283) were tested for the presence of 17 respiratory viruses by multiplex PCR assay and for newly-discovered respiratory viruses (bocavirus, WU and KI polyomaviruses) by single-target PCR. BAL samples also underwent conventional testing (direct immunoflorescence and viral culture) for respiratory virus at the clinician’s discretion. 27 inflammatory mediators were measured in subset of the patients (n=64) using a multiplex immunoassay. Results We detected 39 respiratory viruses in 37 (13.1% of total) patients by molecular testing, including rhinovirus (n=13), influenza virus (n=8), respiratory syncytial virus (n=6), human metapneumovirus (n=3), coronavirus NL63 (n=2), parainfluenza virus (n=2), adenovirus (n=1), and newly-discovered viruses (n=4). Molecular methods were 3.8-fold more sensitive than conventional methods. Clinical characteristics alone were insufficient to separate patients with and without respiratory virus. The presence of respiratory virus was associated with increased levels of interferon-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP -10)(p<0.001) and eotaxin-1 (p=0.017) in BAL. Conclusions Respiratory viruses can be found in patients with serious acute respiratory illness by use of PCR assays more frequently than previously appreciated. IP-10 may be a useful biomarker for respiratory viral infection. PMID:20627924

  17. Fundamental science of nanometer-size clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcoxon, J.P.; Newcomer, P.P.; Samara, G.A.; Venturini, E.L.; Williamson, R.L.

    1995-10-01

    This research has produced a variety of monodisperse, nanometer-size clusters (nanoclusters for short), characterized their size and crystal structure and developed a scientific understanding of the size dependence of their physical properties. Of specific interest were the influence of quantum electronic confinement on the optical properties, magnetic properties, and dielectric properties. These properties were chosen both for their potential practical impact on various applications identified in the National Critical Technologies list (e.g., catalysis, information storage, sensors, environmental remediation, ...) as well as for their importance to the fundamental science of clusters. An Executive Summary provides a description of the major highlights.

  18. The role of infections and coinfections with newly identified and emerging respiratory viruses in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debiaggi Maurizia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute respiratory infections are a major cause of morbidity in children both in developed and developing countries. A wide range of respiratory viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, influenza A and B viruses, parainfluenza viruses (PIVs, adenovirus, rhinovirus (HRV, have repeatedly been detected in acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI in children in the past decades. However, in the last ten years thanks to progress in molecular technologies, newly discovered viruses have been identified including human Metapneumovirus (hMPV, coronaviruses NL63 (HcoV-NL63 and HKU1 (HcoV-HKU1, human Bocavirus (HBoV, new enterovirus (HEV, parechovirus (HpeV and rhinovirus (HRV strains, polyomaviruses WU (WUPyV and KI (KIPyV and the pandemic H1N1v influenza A virus. These discoveries have heavily modified previous knowledge on respiratory infections mainly highlighting that pediatric population is exposed to a variety of viruses with similar seasonal patterns. In this context establishing a causal link between a newly identified virus and the disease as well as an association between mixed infections and an increase in disease severity can be challenging. This review will present an overview of newly recognized as well as the main emerging respiratory viruses and seek to focus on the their contribution to infection and co-infection in LRTIs in childhood.

  19. Study on Mechanism of Action of Migration Flows of Human Capital Pushing Forward the Enterprise Technology Innovation---By Using Innovation System Theory of Industrial Clusters%人力资本流动、知识外溢与技术创新研究--基于产业集群创新系统的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾婷婷

    2016-01-01

    This paper build a new innovation system of industrial clusters by adding a knowledge subsystem, and then the paper study on the mechanism of action of migration flows of human capital, it believes that the flow of human capital in industrial cluster will lead to knowledge spillover, while knowledge spillover will affect the cluster enterprise's technology innovation, therefore, the human capital flow is important for the enterprise technology innovation. Subsequently, the paper verifies this mechanism of action through empirical study by using the survey data of Chinese manufacturing industry in 2012 by the World Bank, and also finds that although the human capital flow has a significant positive impact on enterprise innovation within industrial clusters, the strength of this impact in our country is weak, indicating the human capital flow in our country has not been playing an important role in technology innovation. Finally, the paper puts forward corresponding countermeasures against the above analysis results.%文章首先通过增加知识子系统来构建新的产业集群创新系统,在此基础上研究人力资本迁移流动对产业集群创新系统内企业技术创新的作用机制,认为人力资本迁移流动通过知识溢出效应改变产业集群创新系统及其内部企业的整体知识水平,进而影响技术创新效率;然后通过对世界银行2012年中国制造业调查数据的实证分析,验证了人力资本迁移流动是影响产业集群内部企业技术创新的重要因素,但是由于我国产业集群以劳动密集型产业为主,人力资本的流动以普通劳动者为主,导致人力资本迁移流动对技术创新的影响作用不强;文章最后针对分析结果提出对策建议。

  20. Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio [Richland, WA; Calapristi, Augustin J [West Richland, WA; Crow, Vernon L [Richland, WA; Hetzler, Elizabeth G [Kennewick, WA; Turner, Alan E [Kennewick, WA

    2009-12-22

    Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described. In one aspect, a document clustering method includes providing a document set comprising a plurality of documents, providing a cluster comprising a subset of the documents of the document set, using a plurality of terms of the documents, providing a cluster label indicative of subject matter content of the documents of the cluster, wherein the cluster label comprises a plurality of word senses, and selecting one of the word senses of the cluster label.

  1. Acute otitis media and respiratory virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruuskanen, O; Arola, M; Putto-Laurila, A; Mertsola, J; Meurman, O; Viljanen, M K; Halonen, P

    1989-02-01

    We studied the association of acute otitis media with different respiratory virus infections in a pediatric department on the basis of epidemics between 1980 and 1985. Altogether 4524 cases of acute otitis media were diagnosed. The diagnosis was confirmed by tympanocentesis in 3332 ears. Respiratory virus infection was diagnosed during the same period in 989 patients by detecting viral antigen in nasopharyngeal mucus. There was a significant correlation between acute otitis media and respiratory virus epidemics, especially respiratory syncytial virus epidemics. There was no significant correlation between outbreaks of other respiratory viruses and acute otitis media. Acute otitis media was diagnosed in 57% of respiratory syncytial virus, 35% of influenza A virus, 33% of parainfluenza type 3 virus, 30% of adenovirus, 28% of parainfluenza type 1 virus, 18% of influenza B virus and 10% of parainfluenza type 2 virus infections. These observations show a clear association of respiratory virus infections with acute otitis media. In this study on hospitalized children Haemophilus influenzae strains were the most common bacteriologic pathogens in middle ear fluid, occurring in 19% of cases. Streptococcus pneumoniae was present in 16% and Branhamella catarrhalis in 7% of cases. There was no association between specific viruses and bacteria observed in this study.

  2. SMART phones and the acute respiratory patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, L; Alam, J; Lane, S

    2012-05-01

    Definition of Respiratory Failure using PaO2 alone is confounded when patients are commenced on oxygen therapy prior to arterial blood gas (ABG) measurement. Furthermore, classification of Respiratory Failure as Type 1 or Type 2 using PaCO2 alone can give an inaccurate account of events as both types can co-exist. 100 consecutive presentations of acute respiratory distress were assessed initially using PaO2, and subsequently PaO2/FiO2 ratio, to diagnose Respiratory Failure. Respiratory Failure cases were classified as Type 1 or Type 2 initially using PaCO2, and subsequently alveolar-arterial (A-a) gradient. Any resultant change in management was documented. Of 100 presentations, an additional 16 cases were diagnosed as Respiratory Failure using PaO2/FiO2 ratio in place of PaO2 alone (p = 0.0338). Of 57 cases of Respiratory Failure, 22 cases classified as Type 2 using PaCO2 alone were reclassified as Type 1 using A-a gradient (p < 0.001). Of these 22 cases, management changed in 18.

  3. SMART phones and the acute respiratory patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gleeson, L

    2012-05-01

    Definition of Respiratory Failure using PaO2 alone is confounded when patients are commenced on oxygen therapy prior to arterial blood gas (ABG) measurement. Furthermore, classification of Respiratory Failure as Type 1 or Type 2 using PaCO2 alone can give an inaccurate account of events as both types can co-exist. 100 consecutive presentations of acute respiratory distress were assessed initially using PaO2, and subsequently PaO2\\/FiO2 ratio, to diagnose Respiratory Failure. Respiratory Failure cases were classified as Type 1 or Type 2 initially using PaCO2, and subsequently alveolar-arterial (A-a) gradient. Any resultant change in management was documented. Of 100 presentations, an additional 16 cases were diagnosed as Respiratory Failure using PaO2\\/FiO2 ratio in place of PaO2 alone (p = 0.0338). Of 57 cases of Respiratory Failure, 22 cases classified as Type 2 using PaCO2 alone were reclassified as Type 1 using A-a gradient (p < 0.001). Of these 22 cases, management changed in 18.

  4. Management of respiratory symptoms in ALS.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hardiman, Orla

    2012-02-01

    Respiratory insufficiency is a frequent feature of ALS and is present in almost all cases at some stage of the illness. It is the commonest cause of death in ALS. FVC is used as important endpoint in many clinical trials, and in decision-making events for patients with ALS, although there are limitations to its predictive utility. There are multiple causes of respiratory muscle failure, all of which act to produce a progressive decline in pulmonary function. Diaphragmatic fatigue and weakness, coupled with respiratory muscle weakness, lead to reduced lung compliance and atelectasis. Increased secretions increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia, which further compromises respiratory function. Bulbar dysfunction can lead to nutritional deficiency, which in turn increases the fatigue of respiratory muscles. Early recognition of respiratory decline and symptomatic intervention, including non-invasive ventilation can significantly enhance both quality of life and life expectancy in ALS. Patients with respiratory failure should be advised to consider an advance directive to avoid emergency mechanical ventilation.

  5. Management of respiratory symptoms in ALS.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hardiman, Orla

    2011-03-01

    Respiratory insufficiency is a frequent feature of ALS and is present in almost all cases at some stage of the illness. It is the commonest cause of death in ALS. FVC is used as important endpoint in many clinical trials, and in decision-making events for patients with ALS, although there are limitations to its predictive utility. There are multiple causes of respiratory muscle failure, all of which act to produce a progressive decline in pulmonary function. Diaphragmatic fatigue and weakness, coupled with respiratory muscle weakness, lead to reduced lung compliance and atelectasis. Increased secretions increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia, which further compromises respiratory function. Bulbar dysfunction can lead to nutritional deficiency, which in turn increases the fatigue of respiratory muscles. Early recognition of respiratory decline and symptomatic intervention, including non-invasive ventilation can significantly enhance both quality of life and life expectancy in ALS. Patients with respiratory failure should be advised to consider an advance directive to avoid emergency mechanical ventilation.

  6. Cluster optical coding: from biochips to counterfeit security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglmueller, Jakob; Alguel, Yilmaz; Mayer, Christian; Matyushin, Viacheslav; Bauer, Georg; Pittner, Fritz; Leitner, Alfred; Aussenegg, Franz R.; Schalkhammer, Thomas G.

    2004-07-01

    Spatially tuned resonant nano-clusters allow high local field enhancement when exited by electromagnetic radiation. A number of phenomena had been described and subsequently applied to novel nano- and bionano-devices. Decisive for these types of devices and sensors is the precise nanometric assembly, coupling the local field surrounding a cluster to allow resonance with other elements interacting with this field. In particular, the distance cluster-mirror or cluster-fluorophore gives rise to a variety of enhancement phenomena. High throughput transducers using metal cluster resonance technology are based on surface-enhancement of metal cluster light absorption (SEA). The optical property for the analytical application of metal cluster films is the so-called anomalous absorption. At a well defined nanometric distance of a cluster to a mirror the reflected electromagnetic field has the same phase at the position of the absorbing cluster as the incident fields. This feedback mechanism strongly enhances the effective cluster absorption coefficient. The system is characterised by a narrow reflection minimum. Based on this SEA-phenomenon (licensed to and further developed and optimized by NovemberAG, Germany Erlangen) a number of commercial products have been constructed. Brandsealing(R) uses the patented SEA cluster technology to produce optical codings. Cluster SEA thin film systems show a characteristic color-flip effect and are extremely mechanically and thermally robust. This is the basis for its application as an unique security feature. The specific spectroscopic properties as e.g. narrow band multi-resonance of the cluster layers allow the authentication of the optical code which can be easily achieved with a mobile hand-held reader developed by november AG and Siemens AG. Thus, these features are machine-readable which makes them superior to comparable technologies. Cluster labels are available in two formats: as a label for tamper-proof product packaging, and

  7. Software-Defined Cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂华; 杨晓君; 刘淘英

    2015-01-01

    The cluster architecture has played an important role in high-end computing for the past 20 years. With the advent of Internet services, big data, and cloud computing, traditional clusters face three challenges: 1) providing flexible system balance among computing, memory, and I/O capabilities;2) reducing resource pooling overheads;and 3) addressing low performance-power efficiency. This position paper proposes a software-defined cluster (SDC) architecture to deal with these challenges. The SDC architecture inherits two features of traditional cluster: its architecture is multicomputer and it has loosely-coupled interconnect. SDC provides two new mechanisms: global I/O space (GIO) and hardware-supported native access (HNA) to remote devices. Application software can define a virtual cluster best suited to its needs from resources pools provided by a physical cluster, and traditional cluster ecosystems need no modification. We also discuss a prototype design and implementation of a 32-processor cloud server utilizing the SDC architecture.

  8. Cluster knockout reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arun K Jain; B N Joshi

    2014-04-01

    Cluster knockout reactions are expected to reveal the amount of clustering (such as that of , d and even of heavier clusters such as 12C, 16O etc.) in the target nucleus. In simple terms, incident medium high-energy nuclear projectile interacts strongly with the cluster (present in the target nucleus) as if it were existing as a free entity. Theoretically, the relatively softer interactions of the two outgoing particles with the residual nucleus lead to optical distortions and are treated in terms of distorted wave (DW) formalism. The long-range projectile–cluster interaction is accounted for, in terms of the finite range (FR) direct reaction formalism, as against the more commonly adopted zero-range (ZR) distorted wave impulse approximation (DWIA) formalism. Comparison of the DWIA calculations with the observed data provide information about the momentum distribution and the clustering spectroscopic factor of the target nucleus. Interesting results and some recent advancements in the area of (, 2) reactions and heavy cluster knockout reactions are discussed. Importance of the finite-range vertex and the final-state interactions are brought out.

  9. Recent NASA aerospace medicine technology developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    Areas of life science are being studied to obtain baseline data, strategies, and technology to permit life research in the space environment. The reactions of the cardiovascular system to prolonged weightlessness are also being investigated. Particle deposition in the human lung, independent respiratory support system, food technology, and remotely controlled manipulators are mentioned briefly.

  10. Textile Industrial Clusters in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    "National Textile Industry Cluster Development Seminar" convened, held by China National Textile and Apparel Council, 23 cities and towns were awarded as China’s Textile Industry Cluster Pilot District. By far, China’s textile industrial clusters have grown

  11. Spanning Tree Based Attribute Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Jorge, Cordero Hernandez

    2009-01-01

    inconsistent edges from a maximum spanning tree by starting appropriate initial modes, therefore generating stable clusters. It discovers sound clusters through simple graph operations and achieves significant computational savings. We compare the Star Discovery algorithm against earlier attribute clustering...

  12. Pesticides and respiratory symptoms among farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faria Neice Müller Xavier

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Despite the intensive use of pesticides in agriculture there are few studies assessing the risk of respiratory conditions from this exposure. The study aimed at quantifying the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among farmers and evaluating its relationship with occupational use of pesticides and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,379 farmers from two municipalities of Southern Brazil in 1996. Frequency and type of chemical exposure and pesticide poisoning were recorded for both sexes. All subjects aged 15 years or older with at least 15 weekly hours of agricultural activity were interviewed. An adapted questionnaire developed by the American Thoracic Society was used for the assessment of respiratory symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out. RESULTS: More than half (55% of interviewees were male. The prevalence of asthma symptoms was 12% and chronic respiratory disease symptoms was 22%. Higher odds ratios for both asthma (OR=1.51; 95% CI: 1.07-2.14 and chronic respiratory disease (OR=1.34; 95% CI 1.00-1.81 symptoms were found in women. Logistic regression analysis identified associations between many forms of exposure to pesticides and increased respiratory symptoms. Occurrence of pesticide poisoning was associated with higher prevalence of asthma symptoms (OR=1.54; 95% CI: 1.04-2.58 and chronic respiratory disease symptoms (OR=1.57; 95% CI: 1.08-2.28. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of causality limitations, the study results provide evidence that farming exposure to pesticides is associated with higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, especially when the exposure is above two days per month.

  13. Measurement of ventilatory threshold by respiratory frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabetani, Teru; Ueda, Takeshi; Teramoto, Keisuke

    2002-06-01

    This study was conducted to assess whether respiratory frequency can be used as a valid parameter for estimating ventilatory threshold and for examining differences in exercise modes such as a cycle ergometer and a treadmill. 24 men and 12 women performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer and on a treadmill. Oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide output, pulmonary ventilation, ventilatory frequency, and heart rate were measured continuously every 30 sec. during the test. Three different and independent reviewers detected the ventilatory threshold point and break point of respiratory rate, which were then compared. Analysis indicated that (1) ventilatory threshold was well correlated with break point of respiratory rate for both cycle (r=.88, pcycle) or 88% (treadmill) of break point of respiratory rate. (2) The regression equation for treadmill exercise was more accurate than that for cycling, but the detected data samples were smaller. The break point of respiratory rate was more easily detected for the cycle ergometer test 33 of 36 subjects) than for the treadmill test (only 15 of 36). The cycle ergometer test identified the break point of respiratory rate more easily than did the treadmill test. (3) There was an association between physical fitness and whether the break point of respiratory rate was detectable, and the more fit the subject (above average), the more likely the break point was to be undetected. Our study demonstrates that the break point of respiratory rate is closely associated with ventilatory threshold and that the cycle ergometer test is more conducive than the treadmill test to the detectability of break point of respiratory rate.

  14. Allodynia in Cluster Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbrink, Leopoldine A; Louter, Mark A; Teernstra, Onno Pm; van Zwet, Erik W; Huygen, Frank Jpm; Haan, Joost; Ferrari, Michel D; Terwindt, Gisela M

    2017-03-04

    Cutaneous allodynia is an established marker for central sensitization in migraine. There is debate whether cutaneous allodynia may also occur in cluster headache, another episodic headache disorder. Here we examined the presence and severity of allodynia in a large well-defined nation-wide population of people with cluster headache.Using validated questionnaires we assessed, cross-sectionally, ictal allodynia and comorbid depression and migraine in the nation-wide "Leiden University Cluster headache neuro-Analysis" (LUCA) study. Participants with cluster headache were diagnosed according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria. Multivariate regression models were used, with correction for demographic factors and cluster headache subtype (chronic vs. episodic; recent attacks cluster headache responded of whom 218/606 (36%) had allodynia during attacks. Female gender (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.28-3.29), low age at onset (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96- 0.99), lifetime depression (OR 1.63; 95% CI 1.06-2.50), comorbid migraine (OR 1.96; 95% CI 1.02-3.79), and having recent attacks (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.13-2.86), but not duration of attacks and chronic cluster headache, were independent risk factors for allodynia.The high prevalence of cutaneous allodynia with similar risk factors for allodynia as found for migraine suggests that central sensitization, like in migraine, also occurs in cluster headache. In clinical practice, awareness that people with cluster headache may suffer from allodynia can in the future be an important feature in treatment options.

  15. Cardiac and Respiratory Disease in Aged Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Celia M

    2016-08-01

    Respiratory and cardiac diseases are common in older horses. Advancing age is a specific risk factor for cardiac murmurs and these are more likely in males and small horses. Airway inflammation is the most common respiratory diagnosis. Recurrent airway obstruction can lead to irreversible structural change and bronchiectasis; with chronic hypoxia, right heart dysfunction and failure can develop. Valvular heart disease most often affects the aortic and/or the mitral valve. Management of comorbidity is an essential element of the therapeutic approach to cardiac and respiratory disease in older equids.

  16. Use of respiratory and facial protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coia, John E; Ritchie, Lisa; Fry, Carole

    Infectious microorganisms can be transmitted by various routes. Respiratory and facial protection is needed to prevent infection with organisms that are usually transmitted through the droplet/airborne route, or when airborne particles have been artificially created, for example during aerosol-generating procedures. Recent experiences with severe acute respiratory syndrome and pandemic (H1N1) influenza in 2009 highlighted that health professionals may have difficulty in choosing the correct facial and respiratory protection. The Scientific Development Committee of the Healthcare Infection HealtSociety established a working group to develop guidance addressing this issue.

  17. Respiratory Magnetogram Detected with a MEMS Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez-Nicolas, Saul M.; Juarez-Aguirre, Raul; Herrera-May, Agustin L.; Garcia-Ramirez, Pedro; Figueras, Eduard; Gutierrez-D., Edmundo A.; Tapia, Jesus A.; Trejo, Argelia; Manjarrez, Elias

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic fields generated by the brain or the heart are very useful in clinical diagnostics. Therefore, magnetic signals produced by other organs are also of considerable interest. Here we show first evidence that thoracic muscles can produce a strong magnetic flux density during respiratory activity, that we name respiratory magnetogram. We used a small magnetometer based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), which was positioned inside the open thoracic cage of anaesthetized and ventilated rats. With this new MEMS sensor of about 20 nT resolution, we recorded a strong and rhythmic respiratory magnetogram of about 600 nT. PMID:24046516

  18. Respiratory Depression Caused by Heroin Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Hakan Cansiz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary Heroin is a semisynthetic narcotic analgesic and heroin abuse is common due to its pleasure-inducing effect. For the last 30 years heroin abuse has become an important worldwide public health problem. Heroin can be administered in many different ways as preferred. Heroin affects many systems including respiratory system, cardiovascular system and particulary the central nervous system. Overdose use of heroin intravenously can be fatal due to respiratory depression. In this letter, we wanted to engage attention to respiratory depression caused by heroin abuse and potential benefits of using naloxone. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 248-250

  19. Raspberry Pi super cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, Andrew K

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a step-by-step, tutorial-based approach which will teach you how to develop your own super cluster using Raspberry Pi computers quickly and efficiently.Raspberry Pi Super Cluster is an introductory guide for those interested in experimenting with parallel computing at home. Aimed at Raspberry Pi enthusiasts, this book is a primer for getting your first cluster up and running.Basic knowledge of C or Java would be helpful but no prior knowledge of parallel computing is necessary.

  20. Cluster modular autocontenido

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Desde hace años es común en organizaciones educativas y de investigación el desarrollo de actividades que requieren grandes capacidades de cálculo. La solución más común a estas necesidades es la compra o construcción de un cluster HPC (High Performance Computing), pero construir un cluster acarrea problemas y costos inesperados problemas al momento de utilizarlo y mantenerlo en operaciones. Nuestro proyecto busca desarrollar y documentar técnicas para construir un cluster HPC que sea fácilme...

  1. Extending Beowulf Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinwand, Daniel R.; Maddox, Brian; Beckmann, Tim; Hamer, George

    2003-01-01

    Beowulf clusters can provide a cost-effective way to compute numerical models and process large amounts of remote sensing image data. Usually a Beowulf cluster is designed to accomplish a specific set of processing goals, and processing is very efficient when the problem remains inside the constraints of the original design. There are cases, however, when one might wish to compute a problem that is beyond the capacity of the local Beowulf system. In these cases, spreading the problem to multiple clusters or to other machines on the network may provide a cost-effective solution.

  2. ClusterAlive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, G.; Arezzini, S.; Ciampa, A.; Formuso, A.; Mazzoni, E.

    2015-12-01

    INFN-Pisa Scientific Computing Center is working from many years both in GRID and HPC computing. The monitoring and managing tools have been key components of the center's successful operation. The lessons learned from the use of standard tools, such as Ganglia, have been starting points for the development of new tools specific for our infrastructure. In this note we will illustrate the integration of many different monitoring tools in one single platform called ClusterAlive. Aim of ClusterAlive is to increase the HPC cluster performance and simplify maintenance operations, possibly in a proactive approach.

  3. From collisions to clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loukonen, Ville; Bork, Nicolai; Vehkamaki, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    -principles molecular dynamics collision simulations of (sulphuric acid)1(water)0, 1 + (dimethylamine) → (sulphuric acid)1(dimethylamine)1(water)0, 1 cluster formation processes. The simulations indicate that the sticking factor in the collisions is unity: the interaction between the molecules is strong enough...... to overcome the possible initial non-optimal collision orientations. No post-collisional cluster break up is observed. The reasons for the efficient clustering are (i) the proton transfer reaction which takes place in each of the collision simulations and (ii) the subsequent competition over the proton...

  4. Negotiating Cluster Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacomin, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    Palm oil was introduced to Malay(si)a as an alternative to natural rubber, inheriting its cluster organizational structure. In the late 1960s, Malaysia became the world’s largest palm oil exporter. Based on archival material from British colonial institutions and agency houses, this paper focuses...... on the governance dynamics that drove institutional change within this cluster during decolonization. The analysis presents three main findings: (i) cluster boundaries are defined by continuous tug-of-war style negotiations between public and private actors; (ii) this interaction produces institutional change...

  5. [Study of the clinical phenotype of symptomatic chronic airways disease by hierarchical cluster analysis and two-step cluster analyses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, P; Guo, Y F; Sun, T Y; Zhang, H S; Chai, D; Li, X M

    2016-09-01

    To study the distinct clinical phenotype of chronic airway diseases by hierarchical cluster analysis and two-step cluster analysis. A population sample of adult patients in Donghuamen community, Dongcheng district and Qinghe community, Haidian district, Beijing from April 2012 to January 2015, who had wheeze within the last 12 months, underwent detailed investigation, including a clinical questionnaire, pulmonary function tests, total serum IgE levels, blood eosinophil level and a peak flow diary. Nine variables were chosen as evaluating parameters, including pre-salbutamol forced expired volume in one second(FEV1)/forced vital capacity(FVC) ratio, pre-salbutamol FEV1, percentage of post-salbutamol change in FEV1, residual capacity, diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide/alveolar volume adjusted for haemoglobin level, peak expiratory flow(PEF) variability, serum IgE level, cumulative tobacco cigarette consumption (pack-years) and respiratory symptoms (cough and expectoration). Subjects' different clinical phenotype by hierarchical cluster analysis and two-step cluster analysis was identified. (1) Four clusters were identified by hierarchical cluster analysis. Cluster 1 was chronic bronchitis in smokers with normal pulmonary function. Cluster 2 was chronic bronchitis or mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with mild airflow limitation. Cluster 3 included COPD patients with heavy smoking, poor quality of life and severe airflow limitation. Cluster 4 recognized atopic patients with mild airflow limitation, elevated serum IgE and clinical features of asthma. Significant differences were revealed regarding pre-salbutamol FEV1/FVC%, pre-salbutamol FEV1% pred, post-salbutamol change in FEV1%, maximal mid-expiratory flow curve(MMEF)% pred, carbon monoxide diffusing capacity per liter of alveolar(DLCO)/(VA)% pred, residual volume(RV)% pred, total serum IgE level, smoking history (pack-years), St.George's respiratory questionnaire

  6. Energy Innovation Clusters and their Influence on Manufacturing: A Case Study Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel-Cox, Jill [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-12

    Innovation clusters have been important for recent development of clean energy technologies and their emergence as mature, globally competitive industries. However, the factors that influence the co-location of manufacturing activities with innovation clusters are less clear. A central question for government agencies seeking to grow manufacturing as part of economic development in their location is how innovation clusters influence manufacturing. Thus, this paper examines case studies of innovation clusters for three different clean energy technologies that have developed in at least two locations: solar PV clusters in California and the province of Jiangsu in China, wind turbine clusters in Germany and the U.S. Great Lakes region, and ethanol clusters in the U.S. Midwest and the state of Sao Paulo in Brazil. These case studies provide initial insight into factors and conditions that contribute to technology manufacturing facility location decisions.

  7. Combining cluster number counts and galaxy clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasa, Fabien; Rosenfeld, Rogerio

    2016-08-01

    The abundance of clusters and the clustering of galaxies are two of the important cosmological probes for current and future large scale surveys of galaxies, such as the Dark Energy Survey. In order to combine them one has to account for the fact that they are not independent quantities, since they probe the same density field. It is important to develop a good understanding of their correlation in order to extract parameter constraints. We present a detailed modelling of the joint covariance matrix between cluster number counts and the galaxy angular power spectrum. We employ the framework of the halo model complemented by a Halo Occupation Distribution model (HOD). We demonstrate the importance of accounting for non-Gaussianity to produce accurate covariance predictions. Indeed, we show that the non-Gaussian covariance becomes dominant at small scales, low redshifts or high cluster masses. We discuss in particular the case of the super-sample covariance (SSC), including the effects of galaxy shot-noise, halo second order bias and non-local bias. We demonstrate that the SSC obeys mathematical inequalities and positivity. Using the joint covariance matrix and a Fisher matrix methodology, we examine the prospects of combining these two probes to constrain cosmological and HOD parameters. We find that the combination indeed results in noticeably better constraints, with improvements of order 20% on cosmological parameters compared to the best single probe, and even greater improvement on HOD parameters, with reduction of error bars by a factor 1.4-4.8. This happens in particular because the cross-covariance introduces a synergy between the probes on small scales. We conclude that accounting for non-Gaussian effects is required for the joint analysis of these observables in galaxy surveys.

  8. Metformin-associated respiratory alkalosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Sean M; Cumpston, Kirk; Lipsky, Martin S; Patel, Nirali; Leikin, Jerrold B

    2004-01-01

    We present an 84-year-old man with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, glaucoma, and bladder cancer who presented to the emergency department after the police found him disoriented and confused. Metformin therapy began 3 days before, and he denied any overdose or suicidal ideation. Other daily medications included glipizide, fluticasone, prednisone, aspirin, furosemide, insulin, and potassium supplements. In the emergency department, his vital signs were significant for hypertension (168/90), tachycardia (120 bpm), and Kussmaul respirations at 24 breaths per minute. Oxygen saturation was 99% on room air, and a fingerstick glucose was 307 mg/dL. He was disoriented to time and answered questions slowly. Metformin was discontinued, and by day 3, the patient's vital signs and laboratory test results normalized. He has been asymptomatic at subsequent follow-up visits. Metformin-associated lactic acidosis is a well-known phenomenon. Respiratory alkalosis may be an early adverse event induced by metformin prior to the development of lactic acidosis.

  9. Respiratory signal analysis of liver cancer patients with respiratory-gated radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dong Im; Jung, Sang Hoon; Kim, Chul Jong; Park, Hee Chul; Choi, Byung Ki [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    External markers respiratory movement measuring device (RPM; Real-time Position Management, Varian Medical System, USA) Liver Cancer Radiation Therapy Respiratory gated with respiratory signal with irradiation time and the actual research by analyzing the respiratory phase with the breathing motion measurement device respiratory tuning evaluate the accuracy of radiation therapy May-September 2014 Novalis Tx. (Varian Medical System, USA) and liver cancer radiotherapy using respiratory gated RPM (Duty Cycle 20%, Gating window 40%-60%) of 16 patients who underwent total when recording the analyzed respiratory movement. After the breathing motion of the external markers recorded on the RPM was reconstructed by breathing through the acts phase analysis, for Beam-on Time and Duty Cycle recorded by using the reconstructed phase breathing breathing with RPM gated the prediction accuracy of the radiation treatment analysis and analyzed the correlation between prediction accuracy and Duty Cycle in accordance with the reproducibility of the respiratory movement. Treatment of 16 patients with respiratory cycle during the actual treatment plan was analyzed with an average difference -0.03 seconds (range -0.50 seconds to 0.09 seconds) could not be confirmed statistically significant difference between the two breathing (p = 0.472). The average respiratory period when treatment is 4.02 sec (0.71 sec), the average value of the respiratory cycle of the treatment was characterized by a standard deviation 7.43% (range 2.57 to 19.20%). Duty Cycle is that the actual average 16.05% (range 13.78 to 17.41%), average 56.05 got through the acts of the show and then analyzed% (range 39.23 to 75.10%) is planned in respiratory research phase (40% to 60%) in was confirmed. The investigation on the correlation between the ratio Duty Cycle and planned respiratory phase and the standard deviation of the respiratory cycle was analyzed in each -0.156 (p = 0.282) and -0.385 (p = 0.070). This study is

  10. Improved graph clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    on Facebook , one would like to detect tightly connected communities, which is useful for subsequent tasks like customized recommendation and... advertisement . Graphs in modern applications have several characteristics that complicate graph clustering: • Small density gap: the edge density across

  11. Clustering of Emerging Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzmaikin, A.

    1997-01-01

    Observations show that newly emerging flux tends to appear on the Solar surface at sites where there is flux already. This results in clustering of solar activity. Standard dynamo theories do not predict this effect.

  12. Clustering in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Systems (GIS) that can process the data may not be available and accessible where ... Methods: An example of space-time clustering of malaria cases around a dam in Ethiopia (106 .... was prepared for publication using mapping.

  13. APROACHES TOWARDS CLUSTER ANALYSIS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manuela Tvaronaviciene; Kristina Razminiene; Leonardo Piccinetti

    2015-01-01

    .... The findings indicate that case study is used in many articles refering to cluster research. Other methods, such as analysis, interview, survey, research, equation and others are used to support case study...

  14. Parallel Wolff Cluster Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, S.; Ko, S. H.; Coddington, P. D.

    The Wolff single-cluster algorithm is the most efficient method known for Monte Carlo simulation of many spin models. Due to the irregular size, shape and position of the Wolff clusters, this method does not easily lend itself to efficient parallel implementation, so that simulations using this method have thus far been confined to workstations and vector machines. Here we present two parallel implementations of this algorithm, and show that one gives fairly good performance on a MIMD parallel computer.

  15. Magnetic cluster excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furrer, Albert; Waldmann, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic clusters, i.e., assemblies of a finite number (between two or three and several hundred) of interacting spin centers which are magnetically decoupled from their environment, can be found in many materials ranging from inorganic compounds and magnetic molecules to artificial metal structures formed on surfaces and metalloproteins. Their magnetic excitation spectra are determined by the nature of the spin centers and of the magnetic interactions, and the particular arrangement of the mutual interaction paths between the spin centers. Small clusters of up to four magnetic ions are ideal model systems in which to examine the fundamental magnetic interactions, which are usually dominated by Heisenberg exchange, but often complemented by anisotropic and/or higher-order interactions. In large magnetic clusters, which may potentially deal with a dozen or more spin centers, there is the possibility of novel many-body quantum states and quantum phenomena. In this review the necessary theoretical concepts and experimental techniques to study the magnetic cluster excitations and the resulting characteristic magnetic properties are introduced, followed by examples of small clusters, demonstrating the enormous amount of detailed physical information that can be retrieved. The current understanding of the excitations and their physical interpretation in the molecular nanomagnets which represent large magnetic clusters is then presented, with a section devoted to the subclass of single-molecule magnets, distinguished by displaying quantum tunneling of the magnetization. Finally, there is a summary of some quantum many-body states which evolve in magnetic insulators characterized by built-in or field-induced magnetic clusters. The review concludes by addressing future perspectives in the field of magnetic cluster excitations.

  16. Cauchy cluster process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghorbani, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we introduce an instance of the well-know Neyman–Scott cluster process model with clusters having a long tail behaviour. In our model the offspring points are distributed around the parent points according to a circular Cauchy distribution. Using a modified Cramér-von Misses test st...... statistic and the simulated pointwise envelopes it is shown that this model fits better than the Thomas process to the frequently analyzed long-leaf pine data-set....

  17. Globular clusters with Gaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancino, E.; Bellazzini, M.; Giuffrida, G.; Marinoni, S.

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of crowded fields in Gaia data will only be a reality in a few years from now. In particular, for globular clusters, only the end-of-mission data (public in 2022-2023) will have the necessary full crowding treatment and will reach sufficient quality for the faintest stars. As a consequence, the work on the deblending and decontamination pipelines is still ongoing. We describe the present status of the pipelines for different Gaia instruments, and we model the end-of-mission crowding errors on the basis of available information. We then apply the nominal post-launch Gaia performances, appropriately worsened by the estimated crowding errors, to a set of 18 simulated globular clusters with different concentration, distance, and field contamination. We conclude that there will be 103-104 stars with astrometric performances virtually untouched by crowding (contaminated by <1 mmag) in the majoritiy of clusters. The most limiting factor will be field crowding, not cluster crowding: the most contaminated clusters will only contain 10-100 clean stars. We also conclude that: (i) the systemic proper motions and parallaxes will be determined to 1% or better up to ≃15 kpc, and the nearby clusters will have radial velocities to a few km s-1 ; (ii) internal kinematics will be of unprecendented quality, cluster masses will be determined to ≃10% up to 15 kpc and beyond, and it will be possible to identify differences of a few km s-1 or less in the kinematics (if any) of cluster sub-populations up to 10 kpc and beyond; (iii) the brightest stars (V≃17 mag) will have space-quality, wide-field photometry (mmag errors), and all Gaia photometry will have 1-3% errors on the absolute photometric calibration.

  18. Acute Respiratory Disease Associated with Mannheimia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute Respiratory Disease Associated with Mannheimia Haemolytica ... to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH), University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Mannheimia spp was isolated from the nasal swab and lymph node and lung ...

  19. Effects of air pollution on respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Bayram

    2015-01-01

    In conclusion, air pollutants can induce respiratory mortality and morbidity by leading to airway and lung inflammation and impairing the airway defence system against noxious agents and microorganisms such as mycobacteria TB.

  20. Respiratory bacterial infections in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana; Hansen, Christine R; Høiby, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial respiratory infections are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains the main pathogen in adults, but other Gram-negative bacteria such as Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia as well...

  1. Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report concludes that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), commonly known as secondhand smoke, is responsible for approximately 3,000 lung cancer deaths each year in nonsmoking adults and impairs respiratory health.

  2. Epidemiology of Respiratory Disease in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    article is to review what is known about infectious and non-infectious ... lung disease, probably of infective origin, known as lymphocytic ... Respiratory tract infections and fever have been described .... is high but the causes are unknown. 4.

  3. National prevalence of respiratory allergic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahl, R; Andersen, PS; Chivato, T; Valovirta, E; De Monchy, J

    2004-01-01

    Background: Many epidemiological studies have assessed the prevalence of respiratory allergic disorders in confined geographical locations. However, no study has yet established nationally prevalence data in a uniform manner representing whole countries and, thus, enabling cross-national comparisons

  4. Respiratory epithelial cysts of the orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Rachel L Z; Hardy, Thomas G; Williams, Richard A; McNab, Alan A

    2016-10-01

    To describe post-traumatic and congenital respiratory epithelial cysts in the orbit, which are rare lesions with only 5 and 13 published cases, respectively. We reviewed all cases of respiratory epithelial cysts diagnosed at three institutions (two tertiary referral hospitals, one private clinic) between 1995 and 2015. We describe 10 cases of post-traumatic respiratory epithelial cyst (age range 23 - 82), presenting a mean of 17.4 years after their original trauma; and 3 congenital cases (age range 17-34). All but one case underwent surgical excision of the cyst and its lining, along with any surgical implant within the cyst. Two were recurrent after incomplete excision. Three presented with acute infection within the cyst. Respiratory epithelial orbital cysts are probably commoner than the paucity of published reports would suggest. Post-traumatic cysts often present many years after trauma, and may become secondarily infected. Complete surgical removal is recommended to prevent future recurrence.

  5. Saline Nasal Irrigation for Upper Respiratory Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Acute and chronic upper respiratory conditions are common and expensive disorders with enormous impact on patient quality of life and society at large. Saline nasal irrigation (SNI), a therapy with roots in Ayurvedic medicine that bathes the nasal mucosa with in spray or liquid saline, has been used as adjunctive care for upper respiratory conditions. In liquid form, SNI has been found to be effective adjunctive care by the Cochrane Collaboration for symptoms associated with chronic rhinosinusitis. Less conclusive clinical trial evidence supports its use in spray and liquid forms as adjunctive treatment for mild-to-moderate allergic rhinitis and acute upper respiratory infections. Consensus or expert opinion recommendations exist for SNI as a treatment for a variety of other conditions including rhinitis of pregnancy. SNI appears safe; side effects are minimal and transient. It can be recommended by clinicians to interested patients with a range of upper respiratory conditions in the context of patient education and printed instructional handouts. PMID:19904896

  6. Increased fatigue resistance of respiratory muscles during exercise after respiratory muscle endurance training

    OpenAIRE

    Verges, S; Lenherr, O; Haner, A C; Schulz, C.; Spengler, C M

    2007-01-01

    Respiratory muscle fatigue develops during exhaustive exercise and can limit exercise performance. Respiratory muscle training, in turn, can increase exercise performance. We investigated whether respiratory muscle endurance training (RMT) reduces exercise-induced inspiratory and expiratory muscle fatigue. Twenty-one healthy, male volunteers performed twenty 30-min sessions of either normocapnic hyperpnoea (n = 13) or sham training (CON, n = 8) over 4-5 wk. Before and after training, subjects...

  7. Bubble CPAP - a primary respiratory support for respiratory distress syndrome in newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs, Prashanth S; Khan, Firdose; Maiya, P P

    2009-05-01

    In preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), the application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is associated with benefits in terms of reduced respiratory failure and reduced mortality. We conducted this prospective study to evaluate the effectiveness of bubble-CPAP as primary mode of respiratory support. Bubble CPAP was found to be safe and effective means of treating mild and moderate grade RDS, it was also observed to be more successful in babies born to mothers who had received antenatal steroids.

  8. Non lineal respiratory systems mechanics simulation of acute respiratory distress syndrome during mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madorno, Matias; Rodriguez, Pablo O

    2010-01-01

    Model and simulation of biological systems help to better understand these systems. In ICUs patients often reach a complex situation where supportive maneuvers require special expertise. Among them, mechanical ventilation in patients suffering from acuter respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is specially challenging. This work presents a model which can be simulated and use to help in training of physicians and respiratory therapists to analyze the respiratory mechanics in this kind of patients. We validated the model in 2 ARDS patients.

  9. Cosmography with Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Soares-Santos, M; La Barbera, F; Lopes, P A A; Annis, J

    2008-01-01

    In the present work we focus on future experiments using cluster abundance observations to constraint the Dark Energy equation of state parameter, w. To obtain tight constraints from this kind of experiment, a reliable sample of galaxy clusters must be obtained from deep and wide-field images. We therefore present the computational environment (2DPHOT) that allow us to build the galaxy catalog from the images and the Voronoi Tessellation cluster finding algorithm that we use to identify the galaxy clusters on those catalogs. To test our pipeline with data similar in quality to what will be gathered by future wide field surveys, we process images from the Deep fields obtained as part of the LEGACY Survey (four fields of one square degree each, in five bands, with depth up to r'=25). We test our cluster finder by determining the completeness and purity of the finder when applied to mock galaxy catalogs made for the Dark Energy Survey cluster finder comparison project by Risa Wechsler and Michael Busha. This pro...

  10. Galaxy cluster's rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Manolopoulou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We study the possible rotation of cluster galaxies, developing, testing and applying a novel algorithm which identifies rotation, if such does exits, as well as its rotational centre, its axis orientation, rotational velocity amplitude and, finally, the clockwise or counterclockwise direction of rotation on the plane of the sky. To validate our algorithms we construct realistic Monte-Carlo mock rotating clusters and confirm that our method provides robust indications of rotation. We then apply our methodology on a sample of Abell clusters with z<~0.1 with member galaxies selected from the SDSS DR10 spectroscopic database. We find that ~35% of our clusters are rotating when using a set of strict criteria, while loosening the criteria we find this fraction increasing to ~48%. We correlate our rotation indicators with the cluster dynamical state, provided either by their Bautz-Morgan type or by their X-ray isophotal shape and find for those clusters showing rotation that the significance and strength of their...

  11. Cluster functional renormalization group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuther, Johannes; Thomale, Ronny

    2014-01-01

    Functional renormalization group (FRG) has become a diverse and powerful tool to derive effective low-energy scattering vertices of interacting many-body systems. Starting from a free expansion point of the action, the flow of the RG parameter Λ allows us to trace the evolution of the effective one- and two-particle vertices towards low energies by taking into account the vertex corrections between all parquet channels in an unbiased fashion. In this work, we generalize the expansion point at which the diagrammatic resummation procedure is initiated from a free UV limit to a cluster product state. We formulate a cluster FRG scheme where the noninteracting building blocks (i.e., decoupled spin clusters) are treated exactly, and the intercluster couplings are addressed via RG. As a benchmark study, we apply our cluster FRG scheme to the spin-1/2 bilayer Heisenberg model (BHM) on a square lattice where the neighboring sites in the two layers form the individual two-site clusters. Comparing with existing numerical evidence for the BHM, we obtain reasonable findings for the spin susceptibility, the spin-triplet excitation energy, and quasiparticle weight even in coupling regimes close to antiferromagnetic order. The concept of cluster FRG promises applications to a large class of interacting electron systems.

  12. Cluster bomb ocular injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M Mansour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present the visual outcomes and ocular sequelae of victims of cluster bombs. Materials and Methods: This retrospective, multicenter case series of ocular injury due to cluster bombs was conducted for 3 years after the war in South Lebanon (July 2006. Data were gathered from the reports to the Information Management System for Mine Action. Results: There were 308 victims of clusters bombs; 36 individuals were killed, of which 2 received ocular lacerations and; 272 individuals were injured with 18 receiving ocular injury. These 18 surviving individuals were assessed by the authors. Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% (20/308 of cluster bomb victims. Trauma to multiple organs occurred in 12 of 18 cases (67% with ocular injury. Ocular findings included corneal or scleral lacerations (16 eyes, corneal foreign bodies (9 eyes, corneal decompensation (2 eyes, ruptured cataract (6 eyes, and intravitreal foreign bodies (10 eyes. The corneas of one patient had extreme attenuation of the endothelium. Conclusions: Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% of cluster bomb victims and 67% of the patients with ocular injury sustained trauma to multiple organs. Visual morbidity in civilians is an additional reason for a global ban on the use of cluster bombs.

  13. REPEATED ABDOMINAL EXERCISE INDUCES RESPIRATORY MUSCLE FATIGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Richard Coast

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged bouts of hyperpnea or resisted breathing are known to result in respiratory muscle fatigue, as are primarily non respiratory exercises such as maximal running and cycling. These exercises have a large ventilatory component, though, and can still be argued to be respiratory activities. Sit-up training has been used to increase respiratory muscle strength, but no studies have been done to determine whether this type of non-respiratory activity can lead to respiratory fatigue. The purpose of the study was to test the effect of sit-ups on various respiratory muscle strength and endurance parameters. Eight subjects performed pulmonary function, maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP and maximum expiratory pressure (MEP measurements, and an incremental breathing test before and after completing a one-time fatiguing exercise bout of sit-ups. Each subject acted as their own control performing the same measurements 3-5 days following the exercise bout, substituting rest for exercise. Following sit-up induced fatigue, significant decreases were measured in MIP [121.6 ± 26 to 113.8 ± 23 cmH2O (P <0.025], and incremental breathing test duration [9.6 ± 1.5 to 8.5 ± 0.7 minutes (P <0.05]. No significant decreases were observed from control pre-test to control post-test measurements. We conclude that after a one-time fatiguing sit-up exercise bout there is a reduction in respiratory muscle strength (MIP, MEP and endurance (incremental breathing test duration but not spirometric pulmonary function

  14. Treatment of respiratory failure in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Budweiser

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Stephan Budweiser1, Rudolf A Jörres2, Michael Pfeifer1,31Center for Pneumology, Hospital Donaustauf, Donaustauf, Germany; 2Institute and Outpatient Clinic for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany; 3Department of Internal Medicine II, Division of Respirology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, GermanyAbstract: Patients with advanced COPD and acute or chronic respiratory failure are at high risk for death. Beyond pharmacological treatment, supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilation are major treatment options. This review describes the physiological concepts underlying respiratory failure and its therapy, as well as important treatment outcomes. The rationale for the controlled supply of oxygen in acute hypoxic respiratory failure is undisputed. There is also a clear survival benefit from long-term oxygen therapy in patients with chronic hypoxia, while in mild, nocturnal, or exercise-induced hypoxemia such long-term benefits appear questionable. Furthermore, much evidence supports the use of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. It application reduces intubation and mortality rates, and the duration of intensive care unit or hospital stays, particularly in the presence of mild to moderate respiratory acidosis. COPD with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure became a major indication for domiciliary mechanical ventilation, based on pathophysiological reasoning and on data regarding symptoms and quality of life. Still, however, its relevance for long-term survival has to be substantiated in prospective controlled studies. Such studies might preferentially recruit patients with repeated hypercapnic decompensation or a high risk for death, while ensuring effective ventilation and the patients’ adherence to therapy.Keywords: respiratory failure, COPD, mechanical ventilation, non-invasive ventilation long-term oxygen therapy, chronic

  15. Determination of atomic cluster structure with cluster fusion algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obolensky, Oleg I.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2005-01-01

    We report an efficient scheme of global optimization, called cluster fusion algorithm, which has proved its reliability and high efficiency in determination of the structure of various atomic clusters.......We report an efficient scheme of global optimization, called cluster fusion algorithm, which has proved its reliability and high efficiency in determination of the structure of various atomic clusters....

  16. Star Cluster Buzzing With Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    University of British Columbia in Vancouver. The processor, named, appropriately, the Pulsar Spigot, was built in a collaboration between the NRAO and the California Institute of Technology. The processor, which generates almost 100 GigaBytes of data per hour, allowed the astronomers to gather and analyze radio waves over a wide range of frequencies (1650-2250 MegaHertz), adding to the sensitivity of their system. Eight more observations between July and November of 2004 discovered seven additional pulsars in Terzan 5. In addition, the astronomers' data show evidence for several more pulsars that still need to be confirmed. Future studies of the pulsars in Terzan 5 will help scientists understand the nature of the cluster and the complex interactions of the stars at its dense core. Also, several of the pulsars offer a rich yield of new scientific information. The scientists suspect that one pulsar, which shows strange eclipses of its radio emission, has recently traded its original binary companion for another, and two others have white-dwarf companions that they believe may have been produced by the collision of a neutron star and a red-giant star. Subtle effects seen in these two systems can be explained by Einstein's general relativistic theory of gravity, and indicate that the neutron stars are more massive than some theories allow. The material in a neutron star is as dense as that in an atomic nucleus, so that fact has implications for nuclear physics as well as astrophysics. "Finding all these pulsars has been extremely exciting, but the excitement really has just begun," Ransom said. "Now we can start to use them as a rich and valuable cosmic laboratory," he added. In addition to Ransom, Hessels and Stairs, the research team included Paulo Freire of Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico, Fernando Camilo of Columbia University, Victoria Kaspi of McGill University, and David Kaplan of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a

  17. Human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized danish children with acute respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Larsen, Hans Henrik; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper;

    2004-01-01

    The newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been shown to be associated with respiratory illness. We determined the frequencies and clinical features of hMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in 374 Danish children with 383 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection...... children 1-6 months of age. Asthmatic bronchitis was diagnosed in 66.7% of hMPV and 10.6% of RSV-infected children (p respiratory support. hMPV is present in young...

  18. Current perspectives for management of acute respiratory insufficiency in premature infants with acute respiratory syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Zhang, Ying; Li, Long-Yun

    2014-09-01

    Current perspectives for management of acute respiratory insufficiency in premature infants with acute respiratory syndrome and the pathology of acute respiratory insufficiency in the preterm infant, including the current therapy modalities on disposition are presented. Since the therapeutical challenge and primary clinical goal are to normalize ventilation ratio and lung perfusion, when respiratory insufficiency occurs, it is very important to introduce the respiratory support as soon possible, in order to reduce development of pulmonary cyanosis and edema, and intrapulmonary or intracardial shunts. A characteristic respiratory instability that reflects through fluctuations in gas exchange and ventilation is often present in premature infants. Adapting the respiratory support on a continuous basis to the infant's needs is challenging and not always effective. Although a large number of ventilation strategies for the neonate are available, there is a need for additional consensus on management of acute respiratory distress syndrome in pediatric population lately redefined by Berlin definition criteria, in order to efficiently apply various modes of respiratory support in daily pediatrician clinical use.

  19. Structural organization of the mitochondrial respiratory chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Maria Luisa; Bianchi, Cristina; Lenaz, Giorgio

    2003-03-01

    Two models exist of the mitochondrial respiratory chain: the model of a random organization of the individual respiratory enzyme complexes and that of a super-complex assembly formed by stable association between the individual complexes. Recently Schägger, using digitonin solubilization and Blue Native PAGE produced new evidence of preferential associations, in particular a Complex I monomer with a Complex III dimer, and suggested a model of the respiratory chain (the respirasome) based on direct electron channelling between complexes. Discrimination between the two models is amenable to kinetic testing using flux control analysis. Experimental evidence obtained in beef heart SMP, according to the extension of the Metabolic Control Theory for pathways with metabolic channelling, showed that enzyme associations involving Complex I and Complex III take place in the respiratory chain while Complex IV seems to be randomly distributed, with cytochrome c behaving as a mobile component. Flux control analysis at anyone of the respiratory complexes involved in aerobic succinate oxidation indicated that Complex II and III are not functionally associated in a stable supercomplex. A critical appraisal of the solid-state model of the mitochondrial respiratory chain requires its reconciliation with previous biophysical and kinetic evidence that CoQ behaves as a homogeneous diffusible pool between all reducing enzyme and all oxidizing enzymes: the hypothesis can be advanced that both models (CoQ pool and supercomplexes) are true, by postulating that supercomplexes physiologically exist in equilibrium with isolated complexes depending on metabolic conditions of the cell.

  20. Acute respiratory failure in scrub typhus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Narayan Sahoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory failure is a serious complication of scrub typhus. In this prospective study, all patients with a diagnosis of scrub typhus were included from a single center Intensive Care Unit (ICU. Demographic, clinical characteristics, laboratory, and imaging parameters of these patients at the time of ICU admission were compared. Of the 55 scrub typhus patients, 27 (49% had an acute respiratory failure. Seventeen patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome, and ten had cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Respiratory supported patients were older had significant chronic lungs disease and high severity illness scores (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score. At ICU admission, these patients presented with more deranged laboratory markers, including high bilirubin, high creatine kinase, high lactate, metabolic acidosis, low serum albumin, and presence of ascites. The average ICU and hospital stay were 4.27 ± 2.74 and 6.53 ± 3.52 days, respectively, in the respiratory supported group. Three patients died in respiratory failure group, while only one patient died in nonrespiratory failure group.