WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology requires direct

  1. Direct conversion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massier, P.F.; Back, L.H.; Ryan, M.A.; Fabris, G.

    1992-01-07

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991. Research on AMTEC and on LMMHD was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions (Refs. 1--5) contain descriptive and performance discussions of the following direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (Nitionol heat engine); and also, more complete descriptive discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.

  2. Directed-energy process technology efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, P.

    1985-06-01

    A summary of directed-energy process technology for solar cells was presented. This technology is defined as directing energy or mass to specific areas on solar cells to produce a desired effect in contrast to exposing a cell to a thermal or mass flow environment. Some of these second generation processing techniques are: ion implantation; microwave-enhanced chemical vapor deposition; rapid thermal processing; and the use of lasers for cutting, assisting in metallization, assisting in deposition, and drive-in of liquid dopants. Advantages of directed energy techniques are: surface heating resulting in the bulk of the cell material being cooler and unchanged; better process control yields; better junction profiles, junction depths, and metal sintering; lower energy consumption during processing and smaller factory space requirements. These advantages should result in higher-efficiency cells at lower costs. The results of the numerous contracted efforts were presented as well as the application potentials of these new technologies.

  3. Technological requirements of profile machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PARK Sangchul; CHUNG Yunchan

    2006-01-01

    The term ‘profile machining’is used to refer to the milling of vertical surfaces described by profile curves. Profile machining requires higher precision (1/1000 mm) than regular 3D machining (1/100 mm) with the erosion of sharp vertices should being especially avoided. Although, profile machining is very essential for making trimming and flangedies, it seldom brought into focus. This paper addresses the technological requirements of profile machining including machining width and depth control,minimizing toolware, and protecting sharp vertices. Issues of controller alarms are also addressed.

  4. New directions for veterinary technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadderdon, Linda M; Lloyd, James W; Pazak, Helene E

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary technology has generally established itself well in companion-animal and mixed-animal veterinary medical practice, but the career's growth trajectory is uncertain. Michigan State University (MSU) convened a national conference, "Creating the Future of Veterinary Technology-A National Dialogue," in November 2011 to explore ways to elevate the veterinary technician/technologist's role in the veterinary medical profession and to identify new directions in which the career could expand. Veterinary technicians/technologists might advance their place in private practice by not only improving their clinical skills, but by also focusing on areas such as practice management, leadership training, business training, conflict resolution, information technology, and marketing/communications. Some new employment settings for veterinary technicians/technologists include more participation within laboratory animal medicine and research, the rural farm industry, regulatory medicine, and shelter medicine. Achieving these ends would call for new training options beyond the current 2-year and 4-year degree programs. Participants suggested specialty training programs, hybrid programs of various types, online programs, veterinary technician residency programs of 12-18 months, and more integration of veterinary technician/technology students and veterinary medicine students at colleges of veterinary medicine.

  5. Readout technologies for directional WIMP Dark Matter detection

    CERN Document Server

    Battat, J B R; Aleksandrov, A; Guler, M Ali; Asada, T; Baracchini, E; Billard, J; Bosson, G; Bourrion, O; Bouvier, J; Buonaura, A; Burdge, K; Cebrian, S; Colas, P; Consiglio, L; Dafni, T; D'Ambrosio, N; Deaconu, C; De Lellis, G; Descombes, T; Di Crescenzo, A; Di Marco, N; Druitt, G; Eggleston, R; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Fusayasu, T; Galan, J; Galati, G; Garcia, J A; Garza, J G; Gentile, V; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Giomataris, Y; Guerrero, N; Guillaudin, O; Harton, J; Hashimoto, T; Hedges, M T; Iguaz, F; Ikeda, T; Jaegle, I; Kadyk, J A; Katsuragawa, T; Komura, S; Kubo, H; Kuge, K; Lamblin, J; Lauria, A; Lee, E R; Lewis, P; Leyton, M; Loomba, D; Lopez, J P; Luzon, G; Mayet, F; Mirallas, H; Miuchi, K; Mizumoto, T; Mizumura, Y; Monacelli, P; Monroe, J; Montesi, M C; Naka, T; Nakamura, K; Nishimura, H; Ochi, A; Papevangelou, T; Parker, J D; Phan, N S; Pupilli, F; Richer, J P; Riffard, Q; Rosa, G; Santos, D; Sawano, T; Sekiya, H; Seong, I S; Snowden-Ifft, D P; Spooner, N J C; Sugiyama, A; Taishaku, R; Takada, A; Takeda, A; Tanaka, M; Tanimori, T; Thorpe, T N; Tioukov, V; Tomita, H; Umemoto, A; Vahsen, S E; Yamaguchi, Y; Yoshimoto, M; Zayas, E

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of the direction of WIMP-induced nuclear recoils is a compelling but technologically challenging strategy to provide an unambiguous signature of the detection of Galactic dark matter. Most directional detectors aim to reconstruct the dark-matter-induced nuclear recoil tracks, either in gas or solid targets. The main challenge with directional detection is the need for high spatial resolution over large volumes, which puts strong requirements on the readout technologies. In this paper we review the various detector readout technologies used by directional detectors. In particular, we summarize the challenges, advantages and drawbacks of each approach, and discuss future prospects for these technologies.

  6. Readout technologies for directional WIMP Dark Matter detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battat, J. B. R.; Irastorza, I. G.; Aleksandrov, A.; Asada, T.; Baracchini, E.; Billard, J.; Bosson, G.; Bourrion, O.; Bouvier, J.; Buonaura, A.; Burdge, K.; Cebrián, S.; Colas, P.; Consiglio, L.; Dafni, T.; D'Ambrosio, N.; Deaconu, C.; De Lellis, G.; Descombes, T.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Marco, N.; Druitt, G.; Eggleston, R.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Fusayasu, T.; Galán, J.; Galati, G.; García, J. A.; Garza, J. G.; Gentile, V.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Giomataris, Y.; Guerrero, N.; Guillaudin, O.; Guler, A. M.; Harton, J.; Hashimoto, T.; Hedges, M. T.; Iguaz, F. J.; Ikeda, T.; Jaegle, I.; Kadyk, J. A.; Katsuragawa, T.; Komura, S.; Kubo, H.; Kuge, K.; Lamblin, J.; Lauria, A.; Lee, E. R.; Lewis, P.; Leyton, M.; Loomba, D.; Lopez, J. P.; Luzón, G.; Mayet, F.; Mirallas, H.; Miuchi, K.; Mizumoto, T.; Mizumura, Y.; Monacelli, P.; Monroe, J.; Montesi, M. C.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, K.; Nishimura, H.; Ochi, A.; Papevangelou, T.; Parker, J. D.; Phan, N. S.; Pupilli, F.; Richer, J. P.; Riffard, Q.; Rosa, G.; Santos, D.; Sawano, T.; Sekiya, H.; Seong, I. S.; Snowden-Ifft, D. P.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Sugiyama, A.; Taishaku, R.; Takada, A.; Takeda, A.; Tanaka, M.; Tanimori, T.; Thorpe, T. N.; Tioukov, V.; Tomita, H.; Umemoto, A.; Vahsen, S. E.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yoshimoto, M.; Zayas, E.

    2016-11-01

    The measurement of the direction of WIMP-induced nuclear recoils is a compelling but technologically challenging strategy to provide an unambiguous signature of the detection of Galactic dark matter. Most directional detectors aim to reconstruct the dark-matter-induced nuclear recoil tracks, either in gas or solid targets. The main challenge with directional detection is the need for high spatial resolution over large volumes, which puts strong requirements on the readout technologies. In this paper we review the various detector readout technologies used by directional detectors. In particular, we summarize the challenges, advantages and drawbacks of each approach, and discuss future prospects for these technologies.

  7. Space power development impact on technology requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, J. F.; Fitzgerald, T. J.; Gilje, R. I.; Gordon, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the selection of a specific spacecraft power technology and the identification of technology development to meet system requirements. Requirements which influence the selection of a given technology include the power level required, whether the load is constant or transient in nature, and in the case of transient loads, the time required to recover the power, and overall system safety. Various power technologies, such as solar voltaic power, solar dynamic power, nuclear power systems, and electrochemical energy storage, are briefly described.

  8. Science, Technology and Requirements - Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    military applications; the glass technology can be used to develop retroreflectors for improved marking in highways, textiles , and signs. UV...equipment, or vehicles that can be tracked from long distances. Results Laminated 12”x12” windows were tested for ballistic resistance per ASTM...glass ribbon composites (OTRC) as components of laminated armor windows • Metrics and Deliverables: 12”x12”x2.5” laminated armor window that

  9. Tritium extraction technologies and DEMO requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demange, D., E-mail: david.demange@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Antunes, R.; Borisevich, O.; Frances, L. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Rapisarda, D. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, EURATOM-CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Santucci, A. [ENEA for EUROfusion, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Utili, M. [ENEA CR Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano, BO (Italy)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We detail the R&D plan for tritium technology of the European DEMO breeding blanket. • We study advanced and efficient extraction techniques to improve tritium management. • We consider inorganic membranes and catalytic membrane reactor for solid blankets. • We consider permeator against vacuum and vacuum sieve tray for liquid blankets. - Abstract: The conceptual design of the tritium extraction system (TES) for the European DEMO reactor is worked out in parallel for four different breeding blankets (BB) retained by EUROfusion. The TES design has to be tackled in an integrated manner optimizing the synergy with the directly interfacing inner fuel cycle, while minimizing the tritium permeation into the coolant. Considering DEMO requirements, it is most likely that only advanced technologies will be suitable for the tritium extraction systems of the BB. This paper overviews the European work programme for R&D on tritium technology for the DEMO BB, summaries the general first outcomes, and details the specific and comprehensive R&D program to study experimentally immature but promising technologies such as vacuum sieve tray or permeator against vacuum for tritium extraction from PbLi, and advanced inorganic membranes and catalytic membrane reactor for tritium extraction from He. These techniques are simple, fully continuous, likely compact with contained energy consumption. Several European Laboratories are joining their efforts to deploy several new experimental setups to accommodate the tests campaigns that will cover small scale experiments with tritium and inactive medium scale tests so as to improve the technology readiness level of these advanced processes.

  10. Future directions in VLBI technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, A. R.

    Three technology areas are examined to measure their impact on VLBI and the capa bilities that may be offered to VLBI practioners in the near future: VLBI Standard Interface: An international committee has recently agr eed on a standard interface definition for all future VLBI data systems. This s hould, at long last, allow interoperability between various VLBI data systems. New Recording Technologies: Courtesy of large investments by the co mputer industry, moderately priced high-data rate digital recorders that may be suitable for VLBI are on the near horizon. Small arrays of these machines, appr opriately interfaced, promise to support 1-8 Gbps recording over the next few ye ars at an attractive price. e-VLBI: With the advent of optical fiber being laid at a prodigious rate, real-time (or near-real time) VLBI on an international scale is close to b eing a technical possibility. However, questions remain about costs to lease th e necessary bandwidth and to lay the 'last mile' of fiber to remote antennas.

  11. Smart gun technology requirements preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, D.R.; Brandt, D.J.; Tweet, K.D.

    1995-05-01

    Goal of the Smart Gun Technology project is to eliminate the capability of an unauthorized user from firing a law enforcement officer`s firearm by implementing user-recognizing-and-authorizing surety technologies. This project is funded by the National Institute of Justice. This document reports the projects first objective: to find and document the requirements for a user-recognizing-and-authorizing firearm technology that law enforcement officers will value. This report details the problem of firearm takeaways in law enforcement, the methodology used to develop the law enforcement officers` requirements, and the requirements themselves.

  12. Evaluation and directions of the photovoltaic technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmerski, L.L.; Emery, K.A.; DeBlasio, R. (National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States))

    1994-08-01

    The status of, directions and expectations for photovoltaic technologies are discussed and updated, with emphasis on the performances of cells and modules used in various research and commercial solar cell approaches. Current and projected research and development directions are indicated. Special aspects of the current evolution of photovoltaics from the research laboratory to the commercial arena are discussed, including new programs directed to make this energy resource a viable electricity choice for users worldwide. (Author)

  13. Five disruptive technology directions for 5G

    OpenAIRE

    Boccardi, Federico; W. Heath Jr., Robert; Lozano, Angel; L. Marzetta, Thomas; POPOVSKI, Petar

    2014-01-01

    New research directions will lead to fundamental changes in the design of future fifth generation (5G) cellular networks. This article describes five technologies that could lead to both architectural and component disruptive design changes: device-centric architectures, millimeter wave, massive MIMO, smarter devices, and native support for machine-to-machine communications. The key ideas for each technology are described, along with their potential impact on 5G and the research challenges th...

  14. Five disruptive technology directions for 5G

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boccardi, Federico; W. Heath Jr., Robert; Lozano, Angel

    2014-01-01

    New research directions will lead to fundamental changes in the design of future fifth generation (5G) cellular networks. This article describes five technologies that could lead to both architectural and component disruptive design changes: device-centric architectures, millimeter wave, massive...... MIMO, smarter devices, and native support for machine-to-machine communications. The key ideas for each technology are described, along with their potential impact on 5G and the research challenges that remain....

  15. Nanoscale Science, Engineering and Technology Research Directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowndes, D. H.; Alivisatos, A. P.; Alper, M.; Averback, R. S.; Jacob Barhen, J.; Eastman, J. A.; Imre, D.; Lowndes, D. H.; McNulty, I.; Michalske, T. A.; Ho, K-M; Nozik, A. J.; Russell, T. P.; Valentin, R. A.; Welch, D. O.; Barhen, J.; Agnew, S. R.; Bellon, P.; Blair, J.; Boatner, L. A.; Braiman, Y.; Budai, J. D.; Crabtree, G. W.; Feldman, L. C.; Flynn, C. P.; Geohegan, D. B.; George, E. P.; Greenbaum, E.; Grigoropoulos, C.; Haynes, T. E.; Heberlein, J.; Hichman, J.; Holland, O. W.; Honda, S.; Horton, J. A.; Hu, M. Z.-C.; Jesson, D. E.; Joy, D. C.; Krauss, A.; Kwok, W.-K.; Larson, B. C.; Larson, D. J.; Likharev, K.; Liu, C. T.; Majumdar, A.; Maziasz, P. J.; Meldrum, A.; Miller, J. C.; Modine, F. A.; Pennycook, S. J.; Pharr, G. M.; Phillpot, S.; Price, D. L.; Protopopescu, V.; Poker, D. B.; Pui, D.; Ramsey, J. M.; Rao, N.; Reichl, L.; Roberto, J.; Saboungi, M-L; Simpson, M.; Strieffer, S.; Thundat, T.; Wambsganss, M.; Wendleken, J.; White, C. W.; Wilemski, G.; Withrow, S. P.; Wolf, D.; Zhu, J. H.; Zuhr, R. A.; Zunger, A.; Lowe, S.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes important future research directions in nanoscale science, engineering and technology. It was prepared in connection with an anticipated national research initiative on nanotechnology for the twenty-first century. The research directions described are not expected to be inclusive but illustrate the wide range of research opportunities and challenges that could be undertaken through the national laboratories and their major national scientific user facilities with the support of universities and industry.

  16. 47 CFR 74.536 - Directional antenna required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Directional antenna required. 74.536 Section 74... Auxiliary Stations § 74.536 Directional antenna required. (a) Aural broadcast STL and ICR stations are required to use a directional antenna with the minimum beamwidth necessary, consistent with...

  17. Fuels from microalgae: Technology status, potential, and research requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neenan, B.; Feinberg, D.; Hill, A.; McIntosh, R.; Terry, K.

    1986-08-01

    Although numerous options for the production of fuels from microalgae have been proposed, our analysis indicates that only two qualify for extensive development - gasoline and ester fuel. In developing the comparisons that support this conclusion, we have identified the major areas of microalgae production and processing that require extensive development. Technology success requires developing and testing processes that fully utilize the polar and nonpolar lipids produced by microalgae. Process designs used in these analyses were derived from fragmented, preliminary laboratory data. These results must be substantiated and integrated processes proposed, tested, and refined to be able to evaluate the commercial feasibility from microalgae. The production of algal feedstocks for processing to gasoline or ester fuel requires algae of high productivity and high lipid content that efficiently utilize saline waters. Species screening and development suggest that algae can achieve required standards taken individually, but algae that can meet the integrated requirements still elude researchers. Effective development of fuels from microalgae technology requires that R and D be directed toward meeting the integrated standards set out in the analysis. As technology analysts, it is inappropriate for us to dictate how the R and D effort should proceed to meet these standards. We end our role by noting that alternative approaches to meeting the feasibility targets have been identified, and it is now the task of program managers and scientists to choose the appropriate approach to assure the greatest likelihood of realizing a commercially viable technology. 70 refs., 39 figs., 35 tabs.

  18. TECHNOLOGY REQUIREMENTS FOR IN SITU DECOMMISSIONING WORKSHOP REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, T.; Lee, P.; Gladden, J.; Langton, C.; Serrato, M.; Urland, C.; Reynolds, E.

    2009-06-30

    In recognition of the increasing attention being focused on In Situ Decommissioning (ISD or entombment) as an acceptable and beneficial decommissioning end state, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) is developing guidance for the implementation of ISD of excess facilities within the DOE complex. Consistent with the overarching DOE goals for increased personnel and environmental safety, reduced technical uncertainties and risks, and overall gains in efficiencies and effectiveness, EM's Office of Deactivation and Decommissioning and Facility Engineering (EM-23) initiated efforts to identify the technical barriers and technology development needs for the optimal implementation of ISD. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), as the EM Corporate Laboratory, conducted an ISD Technology Needs Workshop to identify the technology needs at DOE sites. The overall goal of the workshop was to gain a full understanding of the specific ISD technical challenges, the technologies available, and those needing development. The ISD Workshop was held December 9-10, 2008 in Aiken, SC. Experienced decommissioning operations personnel from Richland Operations Office (RL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and Savannah River Site (SRS) along with scientists and engineers specific expertise were assembled to identify incremental and 'game changing' solutions to ISD technology challenges. The workshop and follow-up activities yielded 14 technology needs statements and the recommendation that EM-23 prioritize and pursue the following specific technology development and deployment actions. For each action, the recommended technology acquisition mechanisms (competitive solicitation (CS) or direct funding (TCR)) are provided. Activities that are time critical for ISD projects, or require unique capabilities that reside in the DOE Laboratory system will be funded directly to those institutions. Activities that have longer lead times and

  19. 47 CFR 80.289 - Requirements for radio direction finder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for radio direction finder. 80.289... Requirements for radio direction finder. (a) The radio direction finding apparatus must: (1) Be capable of...) Possess a sensitivity, sufficient to permit the taking of bearings on a signal having a field strength...

  20. Profiles and technological requirements of urogenital probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader-Macías, María Elena Fátima; Juárez Tomás, María Silvina

    2015-09-15

    Probiotics, defined as live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host, are considered a valid and novel alternative for the prevention and treatment of female urogenital tract infections. Lactobacilli, the predominant microorganisms of the healthy human vaginal microbiome, can be included as active pharmaceutical ingredients in probiotics products. Several requirements must be considered or criteria fulfilled during the development of a probiotic product or formula for the female urogenital tract. This review deals with the main selection criteria for urogenital probiotic microorganisms: host specificity, potential beneficial properties, functional specifications, technological characteristics and clinical trials used to test their effect on certain physiological and pathological conditions. Further studies are required to complement the current knowledge and support the clinical applications of probiotics in the urogenital tract. This therapy will allow the restoration of the ecological equilibrium of the urogenital tract microbiome as well as the recovery of the sexual and reproductive health of women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 29 CFR 1615.135 - Electronic and information technology requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electronic and information technology requirements. 1615... INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY § 1615.135 Electronic and information technology requirements. (a) Development, procurement, maintenance, or use of electronic and information technology.—When developing,...

  2. Technology and International Development: New Directions Needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Robert P.

    1977-01-01

    Examines many aspects of the United States' policies toward supplying technology to underdeveloped nations. Advances arguments which the author believes should be considered in future policy formation. (CP)

  3. Direct metal laser sintering: a digitised metal casting technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, K Vijay; Nandini, V Vidyashree

    2013-12-01

    Dental technology is undergoing advancements at a fast pace and technology is being imported from various other fields. One such imported technology is direct metal laser sintering technology for casting metal crowns. This article will discuss the process of laser sintering for making metal crowns and fixed partial dentures with a understanding of their pros and cons.

  4. Direct Metal Laser Sintering: A Digitised Metal Casting Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesh, K. Vijay; Nandini, V Vidyashree

    2013-01-01

    Dental technology is undergoing advancements at a fast pace and technology is being imported from various other fields. One such imported technology is direct metal laser sintering technology for casting metal crowns. This article will discuss the process of laser sintering for making metal crowns and fixed partial dentures with a understanding of their pros and cons.

  5. Direct Metal Laser Sintering: A Digitised Metal Casting Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesh, K. Vijay; Nandini, V Vidyashree

    2013-01-01

    Dental technology is undergoing advancements at a fast pace and technology is being imported from various other fields. One such imported technology is direct metal laser sintering technology for casting metal crowns. This article will discuss the process of laser sintering for making metal crowns and fixed partial dentures with a understanding of their pros and cons.

  6. Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) Technology and Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. G. Cai; X. N. Wang

    2004-01-01

    @@ 1 What is Horizontal Directional Drilling? Horizontal Directional Drilling, accurately steered drilling, has become state -of- the -art drilling technique in the world. Specially- designed directionsteerable corebarrel and accurate direction measurement tool are available for the use together with wire line core drilling machine. That makes it feasible to extract cores and to measure the drill travel line &length while drilling in a curve.

  7. Caution required for handling genome editing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Motoko; Nojima, Kumie; Ishii, Tetsuya

    2014-05-01

    Genome-editing technology, although a robust tool for genetic engineering, is creating indistinct regulatory boundaries between naturally occurring and modified organisms. However, researchers must act with caution in research and development to avoid misleading society. Furthermore, appropriate regulations should be proactively discussed and established for handling genome-editing technology.

  8. Trade, Foreign Direct Investment, and International Technology Transfer: A Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kamal Saggi

    2002-01-01

    ...? Using these questions as motivation, this article surveys the recent trade literature on international technology transfer, paying particular attention to the role of foreign direct investment...

  9. Trust: A Requirement for Cloud Technology Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinwale O. Akinwunmi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a recent model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources such as networks, servers, storage, applications, and services; that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. Studies have shown that cloud computing has the potential to benefit establishments, industries, national and international economies. Despite the enormous benefits cloud computing technology has the potentials of offering, several issues are making intended users to pause in adopting the usage of the technology. Users need to be assured of the safety and reliability of the technology while using it. This is needed to build confidence around the technology and reduce the level of anxiety. This research attempts to investigate the effect of trust in the adoption of the technology by formulating a trust model based on Expectancy Disconfirmation Theory model and Bayesian network. A simulation experiment was carried out to determine the significance of trust in the adoption of cloud technology.

  10. WMD first response: requirements, emerging technologies, and policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vergino, E S; Hoehn, W E

    2000-06-19

    some 50 representatives of the emergency response, technology development, and policy communities. Participating in this workshop were first responders (representing law enforcement, public health, and emergency response personnel from Los Angeles County, Salt Lake City, Atlanta, and London, England), technology developers from US government laboratories and universities, and policymakers from both the executive and legislative branches of the federal government. The workshop had several objectives. First, we wanted the emergency responders to define the utility of various technologies and tools currently available for first response to a WMD event. Second, we expected the workshop to provide input to the technologists directly from the field users, regarding their special requirements for, and constraints on the use of, new emergency response technologies. Third, we planned to expose the first responders to the types of new technologies under development and allow them the opportunity to ask questions and voice their needs. Finally, we planned to provide recommendations to policymakers for new directions for development and investment of technology.

  11. Pupil responses to task requirement in goal-directed movements

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Xianta

    2014-01-01

    Objectively measuring the operators’ task workload in goal-directed motor tasks such as surgical operations, is important for performance and safety. This thesis presents an approach for objectively measuring task workload in goal-directed movements using an important eye response: the pupil diameter. We demonstrate how to capture movement-related pupil size changes during motor tasks, investigate how the pupil responds to task requirement, and show that the pupil diameter can be employed a...

  12. 48 CFR 311.7000 - Defining electronic information technology requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defining electronic information technology requirements. 311.7000 Section 311.7000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH... Accessibility Standards 311.7000 Defining electronic information technology requirements. HHS staff that...

  13. Digital video technologies and their network requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Tsang; H. Y. Chen; J. M. Brandt; J. A. Hutchins

    1999-11-01

    Coded digital video signals are considered to be one of the most difficult data types to transport due to their real-time requirements and high bit rate variability. In this study, the authors discuss the coding mechanisms incorporated by the major compression standards bodies, i.e., JPEG and MPEG, as well as more advanced coding mechanisms such as wavelet and fractal techniques. The relationship between the applications which use these coding schemes and their network requirements are the major focus of this study. Specifically, the authors relate network latency, channel transmission reliability, random access speed, buffering and network bandwidth with the various coding techniques as a function of the applications which use them. Such applications include High-Definition Television, Video Conferencing, Computer-Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW), and Medical Imaging.

  14. Detectors and cooling technology for direct spectroscopic biosignature characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Rauscher, Bernard J; Moseley, S H; Sadleir, John E; Stevenson, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Direct spectroscopic biosignature characterization (hereafter "biosignature characterization") will be a major focus for future space observatories equipped with coronagraphs or starshades. Our aim in this article is to provide an introduction to potential detector and cooling technologies for biosignature characterization. We begin by reviewing the needs. These include nearly noiseless photon detection at flux levels as low as $<0.001~\\textrm{photons}~s^{-1}~\\textrm{pixel}^{-1}$ in the visible and near-IR. We then discuss potential areas for further testing and/or development to meet these needs using non-cryogenic detectors (EMCCD, HgCdTe array, HgCdTe APD array), and cryogenic single photon detectors (MKID arrays and TES microcalorimeter arrays). Non-cryogenic detectors are compatible with the passive cooling that is strongly preferred by coronagraphic missions, but would add non-negligible noise. Cryogenic detectors would require active cooling, but in return deliver nearly quantum limited performance....

  15. Direct reduced iron. Technology and economics of production and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinman, J.; MacRae, D.R. (eds.) [J. Feinman and Associates Inc., Boynton Beach, FL (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Chapters in this revised book on direct reduced iron (DRI) covers direct reduction's place in the world steel industry, history of direct reduction, thermodynamics, kinetics and mechanisms in direct reduced iron, iron-bearing raw materials for direct reduction, fuels and reductants, direct reduction processes, handling and shipping of DRI/HBI, use of DRI in steel making, ironmaking and foundries, reduction smelting processes - technology and economics, computer modelling and analysis of processes for the production and use of DRI, economics of production and use of DRI, and direct reduction and reduction smelting terminology.

  16. FY04 Engineering Technology Reports Laboratory Directed Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, R M

    2005-01-27

    This report summarizes the science and technology research and development efforts in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Engineering Directorate for FY2004, and exemplifies Engineering's more than 50-year history of developing the technologies needed to support the Laboratory's missions. Engineering has been a partner in every major program and project at the Laboratory throughout its existence and has prepared for this role with a skilled workforce and the technical resources developed through venues like the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (LDRD). This accomplishment is well summarized by Engineering's mission: ''Enable program success today and ensure the Laboratory's vitality tomorrow''. Engineering's investment in technologies is carried out through two programs, the ''Tech Base'' program and the LDRD program. LDRD is the vehicle for creating those technologies and competencies that are cutting edge. These require a significant level of research or contain some unknown that needs to be fully understood. Tech Base is used to apply technologies to a Laboratory need. The term commonly used for Tech Base projects is ''reduction to practice''. Therefore, the LDRD report covered here has a strong research emphasis. Areas that are presented all fall into those needed to accomplish our mission. For FY2004, Engineering's LDRD projects were focused on mesoscale target fabrication and characterization, development of engineering computational capability, material studies and modeling, remote sensing and communications, and microtechnology and nanotechnology for national security applications. Engineering's five Centers, in partnership with the Division Leaders and Department Heads, are responsible for guiding the long-term science and technology investments for the Directorate. The Centers represent technologies that have been identified as

  17. FY03 Engineering Technology Reports Laboratory Directed Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minichino, C

    2004-03-05

    This report summarizes the science and technology research and development efforts in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Engineering Directorate for FY2003, and exemplifies Engineering's 50-year history of researching and developing the engineering technologies needed to support the Laboratory's missions. Engineering has been a partner in every major program and project at the Laboratory throughout its existence, and has prepared for this role with a skilled workforce and the technical resources developed through venues like the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (LDRD). This accomplishment is well summarized by Engineering's mission: ''Enable program success today and ensure the Laboratory's vitality tomorrow.'' Engineering's investment in technologies is carried out through two programs, the LDRD program and the ''Tech Base'' program. LDRD is the vehicle for creating those technologies and competencies that are cutting edge, or that require a significant level of research, or contain some unknown that needs to be fully understood. Tech Base is used to apply those technologies, or adapt them to a Laboratory need. The term commonly used for Tech Base projects is ''reduction to practice.'' Therefore, the LDRD report covered here has a strong research emphasis. Areas that are presented all fall into those needed to accomplish our mission. For FY2003, Engineering's LDRD projects were focused on mesoscale target fabrication and characterization, development of engineering computational capability, material studies and modeling, remote sensing and communications, and microtechnology and nanotechnology for national security applications. Engineering's five Centers, in partnership with the Division Leaders and Department Heads, are responsible for guiding the science and technology investments for the Directorate. The Centers represent technology

  18. Smart grid standards specifications, requirements, and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Takuro; Duan, Bin; Macuha, Martin; Zhou, Zhenyu; Wu, Jun; Tariq, Muhammad; Asfaw, Solomon A

    2015-01-01

    With numerous existing Smart Grid standards, it is clear that governments and industrial organizations world-wide have understood and acknowledged the critical role they play. This timely book is a useful guide for Smart Grid professionals in easily classifying fundamental Smart Grid standards, and to quickly find the building blocks they need to analyse and implement a Smart Grid system. The standards are organized in a systematic manner that aids identification, according to grid requirements. It also covers broader Smart Grid areas including, but not limited to, the following: A fully c

  19. Technology-based suicide prevention: current applications and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxton, David D; June, Jennifer D; Kinn, Julie T

    2011-01-01

    This review reports on current and emerging technologies for suicide prevention. Technology-based programs discussed include interactive educational and social networking Web sites, e-mail outreach, and programs that use mobile devices and texting. We describe innovative applications such as virtual worlds, gaming, and text analysis that are currently being developed and applied to suicide prevention and outreach programs. We also discuss the benefits and limitations of technology-based applications and discuss future directions for their use.

  20. The Strategic Direction for Army Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The Strategic Direction for Army Science and Technology: Final Report 83 MCWL USMC Warfighting Laboratory MEDEVAC Medical Evacuation MEP Mobile ...Environment Findings: The technology playing field is changing, important t echnology breakthroughs are principa lly driven by commercial and...control charge localization and mobility in the film; initial results have demonstrated substantial improvements in dielectric performance. The

  1. 1997 Annual report. Technological Research Direction; Informe Anual 1997. Direccion de Investigacion Tecnologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This document describes the results for one year of work. Here is presented the goals of the Technological Research Direction of the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico, which is promoting and developing the production of high technologies in the nuclear sciences and related disciplines as well as to generate the technologies, products, quality insume for academic organizations, health, industrial and commercial that are required. (Author)

  2. Manufacturing technologies for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluesen, Andreas; Mueller, Martin; Kimiaie, Nicola; Konradi, Irene; Mergel, Juergen; Stolten, Detlef [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. of Energy Research - IEF-3: Fuel Cells

    2010-07-01

    Fuel cell research is focussing on increasing power density and lifetime and reducing costs of the whole fuel cell system. In order to reach these aims, it is necessary to develop appropriately designed components outgoing from high quality materials, a suitable manufacturing process and a well balanced system. To make use of the advantages that can be obtained by developing production technology, we are mainly improving the coating and assembling techniques for polymer electrolyte fuel cells, especially Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs). Coating is used for making fuel cell electrodes as well as highly conductive contacts. Assembling is used to join larger components like membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) and bipolar units consisting of flow fields and the separator plate, as well as entire stacks. On the one hand a reproducible manufacturing process is required to study fine differences in fuel cell performance affected by new materials or new designs. On the other hand a change in each parameter of the manufacturing process itself can change product properties and therefore affect fuel cell performance. As a result, gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) are now produced automatically in square-meter batches, the hot-pressing of MEAs is a fully automated process and by pre-assembling the number of parts that have to be assembled in a stack was reduced by a factor of 10. These achievements make DMFC manufacturing more reproducible and less error-prone. All these and further developments of manufacturing technology are necessary to make DMFCs ready for the market. (orig.)

  3. Bridging the Gap: Self-Directed Staff Technology Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla L. Quinney

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Undergraduates, as members of the Millennial Generation, are proficient in Web 2.0 technology and expect to apply these technologies to their coursework—including scholarly research. To remain relevant, academic libraries need to provide the technology that student patrons expect, and academic librarians need to learn and use these technologies themselves. Because leaders at the Harold B. Lee Library of Brigham Young University (HBLL perceived a gap in technology use between students and their staff and faculty, they developed and implemented the Technology Challenge, a self-directed technology training program that rewarded employees for exploring technology daily. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Technology Challenge through an analysis of results of surveys given to participants before and after the Technology Challenge was implemented. The program will also be evaluated in terms of the adult learning theories of andragogy and selfdirected learning. HBLL found that a self-directed approach fosters technology skills that librarians need to best serve students. In addition, it promotes lifelong learning habits to keep abreast of emerging technologies. This paper offers some insights and methods that could be applied in other libraries, the most valuable of which is the use of self-directed and andragogical training methods to help academic libraries better integrate modern technologies.

  4. Current state of OLED technology relative to military avionics requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchon, Joseph L.; Barnidge, Tracy J.; Hufnagel, Bruce D.; Bahadur, Birendra

    2014-06-01

    The paper will review optical and environmental performance thresholds required for OLED technology to be used on various military platforms. Life study results will be summarized to highlight trends while identifying remaining performance gaps to make this technology viable for future military avionics platforms.

  5. Industry-Oriented Competency Requirements for Mechatronics Technology in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyr, Wen-Jye

    2012-01-01

    This study employed a three-phase empirical method to identify competency indicators for mechatronics technology according to industry-oriented criteria. In Phase I, a list of required competencies was compiled using Behavioral Event Interviews (BEI) with three engineers specializing in the field of mechatronics technology. In Phase II, the Delphi…

  6. The Development Direction of Research on Chinese Technological Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hanxi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical study of Chinese technological innovation assumes the perspective of prototype structure of scientific being, and consists of four directions of investigations: ontological study of innovation cognition, behavior study of innovation cognition, subjects of innovation cognition, and subjective material foundation of innovation cognition. The study aims to obtain technological innovation capacity through construction of an external technological innovation system. However, an external system would necessarily result in redundancy of systems and decreased operability. For the purpose of environmental friendliness and resource conservation, it is vital for our technological innovation to ignite the intrinsic innovation vitality of the system. Therefore the endogenous mechanism of innovation is the scientific direction to take for the theoretical study of technological innovation.

  7. Quality of pathology services: new strategic directions required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isouard, Godfrey

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the challenges faced in Australia to maintain and sustain quality in pathology services, and present new strategic directions to address such challenges. The paper is a review of the literature on pathology services and its quality of delivery and emerging issues. Major issues are emerging in pathology services which threaten to impact on the quality of future service delivery. These issues include workforce shortages, growth in inappropriate testing, advancing technology, rural and remote region servicing, and a negative image of the sector. New strategic directions are shown to be necessary in terms of workforce planning and addressing the escalation of new technology and innovation. In order to sustain quality of services, a significant change from current practice is recommended, with strong leadership as the change driver. This paper highlights the potential impact of emerging issues on future pathology-service quality. Significant implications for service delivery and patient care quality are reviewed. This paper provides valuable information on current strategic and planning issues impacting on pathology services. It provides new solutions from the perspective of leadership of health and health services.

  8. The development of direct write technology in BAE Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, J.; McDonald, J.; Morgan, S.; Wescott, Andrew; O'Driscoll, E. J.

    2006-12-01

    Direct Write (DW) is an emerging group of technologies that allow printing of electronic and other functional components out of vacuum, directly onto structural parts and assemblies. With its ability to deposit a wide range of dissimilar materials, and transfer details directly from CAD/CAM, the process is very flexible, enabling rapid progress from design to fabrication. This paper provides an introduction to direct write, and describes the BAE Systems activities in this field. The paper also describes the use of lasers in direct write, and some provisional results on laser curing are presented.

  9. Some aspects of technology transfer and direct foreign investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, R.

    1978-05-01

    A model showing technology transfer to developing countries links questions of appropriations with the socio-economic reasons for technological change. The rate at which foreign capital is used is found to be directly related to after-tax profits. If the developing country raises taxes on foreign capital, the effect is to increase the proportion of domestic capital needed and to widen the technological gap between the two countries. The analysis also shows a higher gain from new techniques with increased demand volume and suggests large developing countries with similar capital to invest are more likely to generate intermediate technologies. 8 references.

  10. Technology and Research Requirements for Combating Human Trafficking: Enhancing Communication, Analysis, Reporting, and Information Sharing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreyling, Sean J.; West, Curtis L.; Olson, Jarrod

    2011-03-17

    DHS’ Science & Technology Directorate directed PNNL to conduct an exploratory study on the domain of human trafficking in the Pacific Northwest in order to examine and identify technology and research requirements for enhancing communication, analysis, reporting, and information sharing – activities that directly support efforts to track, identify, deter, and prosecute human trafficking – including identification of potential national threats from smuggling and trafficking networks. This effort was conducted under the Knowledge Management Technologies Portfolio as part of the Integrated Federal, State, and Local/Regional Information Sharing (RISC) and Collaboration Program.

  11. Wireless Technology Use Case Requirement Analysis for Future Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Ali; Wilkerson, DeLisa

    2016-01-01

    This report presents various use case scenarios for wireless technology -including radio frequency (RF), optical, and acoustic- and studies requirements and boundary conditions in each scenario. The results of this study can be used to prioritize technology evaluation and development and in the long run help in development of a roadmap for future use of wireless technology. The presented scenarios cover the following application areas: (i) Space Vehicles (manned/unmanned), (ii) Satellites and Payloads, (iii) Surface Explorations, (iv) Ground Systems, and (v) Habitats. The requirement analysis covers two parallel set of conditions. The first set includes the environmental conditions such as temperature, radiation, noise/interference, wireless channel characteristics and accessibility. The second set of requirements are dictated by the application and may include parameters such as latency, throughput (effective data rate), error tolerance, and reliability. This report provides a comprehensive overview of all requirements from both perspectives and details their effects on wireless system reliability and network design. Application area examples are based on 2015 NASA Technology roadmap with specific focus on technology areas: TA 2.4, 3.3, 5.2, 5.5, 6.4, 7.4, and 10.4 sections that might benefit from wireless technology.

  12. PRODUCTION OF PROTOTYPE PARTS USING DIRECT METAL LASER SINTERING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Sedlak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Unconventional methods of modern materials preparation include additive technologies which involve the sintering of powders of different chemical composition, granularity, physical, chemical and other utility properties. The technology called Rapid Prototyping, which uses different technological principles of producing components, belongs to this type of material preparation. The Rapid Prototyping technology facilities use photopolymers, thermoplastics, specially treated paper or metal powders. The advantage is the direct production of metal parts from input data and the fact that there is no need for the production of special tools (moulds, press tools, etc.. Unused powder from sintering technologies is re-used for production 98% of the time, which means that the process is economical, as well as ecological.The present paper discusses the technology of Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS, which falls into the group of additive technologies of Rapid Prototyping (RP. The major objective is a detailed description of DMLS, pointing out the benefits it offers and its application in practice. The practical part describes the production and provides an economic comparison of several prototype parts that were designed for testing in the automotive industry.

  13. Long-Term Stewardship Program Science and Technology Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan McDonald

    2002-09-01

    Many of the United States’ hazardous and radioactively contaminated waste sites will not be sufficiently remediated to allow unrestricted land use because funding and technology limitations preclude cleanup to pristine conditions. This means that after cleanup is completed, the Department of Energy will have long-term stewardship responsibilities to monitor and safeguard more than 100 sites that still contain residual contamination. Long-term stewardship encompasses all physical and institutional controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms required to protect human health and the environment from the hazards remaining. The Department of Energy Long-Term Stewardship National Program is in the early stages of development, so considerable planning is still required to identify all the specific roles and responsibilities, policies, and activities needed over the next few years to support the program’s mission. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was tasked with leading the development of Science and Technology within the Long-Term Stewardship National Program. As part of that role, a task was undertaken to identify the existing science and technology related requirements, identify gaps and conflicts that exist, and make recommendations to the Department of Energy for future requirements related to science and technology requirements for long-term stewardship. This work is summarized in this document.

  14. The impact of technology on fighter aircraft requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollyhigh, S. M.; Foss, W. E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Technology integration studies were made to examine the impact of emerging technologies on fighter aircraft. The technologies examined included advances in aerodynamics, controls, structures, propulsion, and systems and were those which appeared capable of being ready for application by the turn of the century. A primary impetus behind large increases in figher capability will be the rapid increase in fighter engine thrust-to-weight ratio. High thrust-weight engines, integrated with other advanced and emerging technologies, can result in small extremely maneuverable fighter aircraft that have thrust-weight ratios of 1.4+ and weight one-half as much as today's fighters. Future fighter aircraft requirements are likely to include a turn capability in excess of 7g's throughout much of the maneuver envelope, post-stall maneuverability, STOVL or VTOL, and a single engine for low cost.

  15. Direct Digital Manufacturing of Integrated Naval Systems Using Ultrasonic Consolidation, Support Material Deposition and Direct Write Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    using fused deposition modeling technology • VTT Technical Research Center, Finland o focusing on direct write technologies and applications of...South Korea: focusing on multiple material process planning, and metal processing using fused deposition modeling technology • VTT Technical

  16. Microwave Remote Sensing: Needs and Requirements Concerning Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    2003-01-01

    Spaceborne microwave remote sensing instruments, like the imaging radiometer and the synthetic aperture radar, are over timed faced with two partly conflicting requirements: performance expectations (resolutions, sensitivity, coverage) steadily increase with resource allocations (weight, power, b......, bulk, cost) decrease. This results in needs and requirements to the development of advanced technology thus enabling the future advanced systems to be viable and realistic.......Spaceborne microwave remote sensing instruments, like the imaging radiometer and the synthetic aperture radar, are over timed faced with two partly conflicting requirements: performance expectations (resolutions, sensitivity, coverage) steadily increase with resource allocations (weight, power...

  17. Preliminary results of direct cell-matrix assembly technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Haixia; YAN Yongnian; XIONG Zhuo; CHENG Jie; WANG Xiaohong; LIN Feng; WANG Changyong

    2005-01-01

    @@ Tissue loss and end-stage organ failure has been an emergent problem for humanity[1]. Solving this problem at the most basic level is currently an area of great interest to many researchers. At the end of the 20th century, tissue engineering technology began using formed scaffolds to indirectly control the assembly of cells. This technology has resulted in a new way to artificially fabricate tissues. But the method has been limited to simple tissue types, such as bone, skin, muscle and tendon[2―5]. The fabrication of complex organs by this technology is still not possible. A possible alternative is assembling cells directly into a viable and predefined structure[6―9].

  18. Engineering Runtime Requirements-Monitoring Systems Using MDA Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skene, James; Emmerich, Wolfgang

    The Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) technology toolset includes a language for describing the structure of meta-data, the MOF, and a language for describing consistency properties that data must exhibit, the OCL. Off-the-shelf tools can generate meta-data repositories and perform consistency checking over the data they contain. In this paper we describe how these tools can be used to implement runtime requirements monitoring of systems by modelling the required behaviour of the system, implementing a meta-data repository to collect system data, and consistency checking the repository to discover violations. We evaluate the approach by implementing a contract checker for the SLAng service-level agreement language, a language defined using a MOF meta-model, and integrating the checker into an Enterprise JavaBeans application. We discuss scalability issues resulting from immaturities in the applied technologies, leading to recommendations for their future development.

  19. Technology Directions for the 21st Century, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimi, Giles F.; Verheggen, Henry; McIntosh, William; Botta, Robert

    1996-01-01

    For several decades, semiconductor device density and performance have been doubling about every 18 months (Moore's Law). With present photolithography techniques, this rate can continue for only about another 10 years. Continued improvement will need to rely on newer technologies. Transition from the current micron range for transistor size to the nanometer range will permit Moore's Law to operate well beyond 10 years. The technologies that will enable this extension include: single-electron transistors; quantum well devices; spin transistors; and nanotechnology and molecular engineering. Continuation of Moore's Law will rely on huge capital investments for manufacture as well as on new technologies. Much will depend on the fortunes of Intel, the premier chip manufacturer, which, in turn, depend on the development of mass-market applications and volume sales for chips of higher and higher density. The technology drivers are seen by different forecasters to include video/multimedia applications, digital signal processing, and business automation. Moore's Law will affect NASA in the areas of communications and space technology by reducing size and power requirements for data processing and data fusion functions to be performed onboard spacecraft. In addition, NASA will have the opportunity to be a pioneering contributor to nanotechnology research without incurring huge expenses.

  20. Direct conversion technology: Annual summary report CY 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massier, P.F.; Bankston, C.P.; Fabris, G.; Kirol, L.D.

    1988-12-01

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1988 through December 1988. Research on these concepts was initiated during October 1987. In addition, status reviews and assessments are presented for thermomagnetic converter concepts and for thermoelastic converters (Nitinol heat engines). Reports prepared on previous occasions contain discussions on the following other direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic thermophotovoltaic and thermoacoustic; and also, more complete discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems. A tabulated summary of the various systems which have been reviewed thus far has been prepared. Some of the important technical research needs are listed and a schematic of each system is shown. These tabulations are included herein as figures. 43 refs., 26 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Designs and Technology Requirements for Civil Heavy Lift Rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wayne; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Watts, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation examined in depth several rotorcraft configurations for large civil transport, designed to meet the technology goals of the NASA Vehicle Systems Program. The investigation identified the Large Civil Tiltrotor as the configuration with the best potential to meet the technology goals. The design presented was economically competitive, with the potential for substantial impact on the air transportation system. The keys to achieving a competitive aircraft were low drag airframe and low disk loading rotors; structural weight reduction, for both airframe and rotors; drive system weight reduction; improved engine efficiency; low maintenance design; and manufacturing cost comparable to fixed-wing aircraft. Risk reduction plans were developed to provide the strategic direction to support a heavy-lift rotorcraft development. The following high risk areas were identified for heavy lift rotorcraft: high torque, light weight drive system; high performance, structurally efficient rotor/wing system; low noise aircraft; and super-integrated vehicle management system.

  2. COMPETENCE BUILDING FRAMEWORK REQUIREMENTS FOR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FOR EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Mohan Bhatt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive efforts have been evolving continuously for the betterment of the services of the Information Technology for Educational Management(ITEM. These services require data intensive and communication intensive applications. Due to the massive growth of information, situation becomes difficult to manage these services. Here the role of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT infrastructure particularly data centre with communication components becomes important to facilitate these services. The present paper discusses the related issues such as competent staff, appropriate ICT infrastructure, ICT acceptance level etc. required for ITEM competence building framework considering the earlier approach for core competences for ITEM. It this connection, it is also necessary to consider the procurement of standard and appropriate ICT facilities. This will help in the integration of these facilities for the future expansion. This will also enable to create and foresee the impact of the pairing the management with information, technology, and education components individually and combined. These efforts will establish a strong coupling between the ITEM activities and resource management for effective implementation of the framework.

  3. Technological advances in site-directed spin labeling of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, Wayne L; López, Carlos J; Altenbach, Christian; Yang, Zhongyu

    2013-10-01

    Molecular flexibility over a wide time range is of central importance to the function of many proteins, both soluble and membrane. Revealing the modes of flexibility, their amplitudes, and time scales under physiological conditions is the challenge for spectroscopic methods, one of which is site-directed spin labeling EPR (SDSL-EPR). Here we provide an overview of some recent technological advances in SDSL-EPR related to investigation of structure, structural heterogeneity, and dynamics of proteins. These include new classes of spin labels, advances in measurement of long range distances and distance distributions, methods for identifying backbone and conformational fluctuations, and new strategies for determining the kinetics of protein motion.

  4. Promotional Strategies Direct Marketing and Technological Innovations in Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Arina BALACEANU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern advertising strategies involve the use of a bank's media and consumer incentives, so that banking institution, and thus offer products/services to cause favorable changes in mentality and their consumption habits, also important is the establishment an effective communication with employees, shareholders, competitors. Promotion strategies are essential to business success. Success is guaranteedif the message is sent to the right people at the right time. Promotion has a special place in the marketing mix because it is created by, developed and made known image of the institution, services and products. Technological innovations, but fierce competition and changing purchasing behavior of the beneficiaries of banking services and products banks have challenged management, directing their work towards introduction of modern technologies to promote banking products and services.Adapting to new technologies and innovations in the field needs is strategic for any financial institution aimed at both retail and corporate activity which leads to improved operative staff, by targeting the growing activities of guidance, coordination and advice to clients.

  5. Cost-effective technology advancement directions for electric propulsion transportation systems in earth-orbital missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regetz, J. D., Jr.; Terwilliger, C. H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study to determine the directions that electric propulsion technology should take to meet the primary propulsion requirements for earth-orbital missions of the next three decades in the most cost-effective manner. Discussed are the mission set requirements, state-of-the-art electric propulsion technology and the baseline system characterized by it, adequacy of the baseline system to meet the mission set requirements, cost-optimum electric propulsion system characteristics for the mission set, and sensitivities of mission costs and design points to system-level electric propulsion parameters. It is found that the efficiency-specific impulse characteristic generally has a more significant impact on overall costs than specific masses or costs of propulsion and power systems.

  6. On Technology Convergence and Platforms: Requirements Challenges from New Technologies and System Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarke, Matthias

    In this chapter, we investigate some opportunities and challenges for requirements engineering resulting from major changes in the technical context in which ICT systems operate, in particular from the continuous trend towards information and communication technology convergence. We illustrate these challenges with two major examples, one concerning requirements monitoring as a self-governance mechanism in Internet-based social networks, the other concerning the role of requirements modeling as a mediator between different cultures in embedded systems engineering for the automotive industry. Starting from a brief re-iteration of Thomas Friedman’s argument on standards evolution, we finally discuss platform strategies as an important emerging challenge for organizational RE.

  7. Rangers and the Strategic Requirements for Direct Action Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    surface-to-air missile SAR search and rescue Vll SEAD suppression of enemy air defenses SEAL Sea-Air-Land SOCEX special operations capability exercise...raids" (in other words, direct action): 1. Terminal guidance operations 2. Pre-strike suppression of enemy air defenses (SEAD) 3. Recovery 4...that are part of the day-to-day operation of that installation. This, too, serves as a distractor for the troops of the 82nd and prevents the narrow

  8. Advances and Research Directions in Data-Warehousing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Mohania

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Information is one of the most valuable assets of an organisation and when used properly can assist in intelligent decision making that can significantly improve the functioning of an organisation. Data Warehousing is a recent technology that allows information to be easily and efficiently accessed for decision-making activities by collecting data from many operational, legacy and possibly heterogeneous data sources. On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP tools are well-suited for complex data analysis, such as multi-dimensional data analysis, and to assist in decision support activities while data mining tools take the process one step further and actively search the data for patterns and hidden knowledge in the data held in the warehouse. Many organisations are building, or are planning to develop, a data warehouse for their operational and decision support needs. In this paper, we present an overview of data warehousing, multi-dimensional databases, OLAP and data mining technology and discuss the directions of current research in the area. We also discuss recent developments in data warehouse modelling, view selection and maintenance, indexing schemes, parallel query processing and data mining issues. A number of technical issues for exploratory research are presented and possible solutions are also discussed.

  9. Technology Directions for the 21st Century. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimi, Giles F.; Botta, Robert; Ditanna, Thomas; Verheggen, Henry; Stancati, Michael; Feingold, Harvey; Jacobs, Mark

    1996-01-01

    New technologies will unleash the huge capacity of fiber-optic cable to meet growing demands for bandwidth. Companies will continue to replace private networks with public network bandwidth-on-demand. Although asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is the transmission technology favored by many, its penetration will be slower than anticipated. Hybrid networks - e.g., a mix of ATM, frame relay, and fast Ethernet - may predominate, both as interim and long-term solutions, based on factors such as availability, interoperability, and cost. Telecommunications equipment and services prices will decrease further due to increased supply and more competition. Explosive Internet growth will continue, requiring additional backbone transmission capacity and enhanced protocols, but it is not clear who will fund the upgrade. Within ten years, space-based constellations of satellites in Low Earth orbit (LEO) will serve mobile users employing small, low-power terminals. 'Little LEO's' will provide packet transmission services and geo-position determination. 'Big LEO's' will function as global cellular telephone networks, with some planning to offer video and interactive multimedia services. Geosynchronous satellites also are proposed for mobile voice grade links and high-bandwidth services. NASA may benefit from resulting cost reductions in components, space hardware, launch services, and telecommunications services.

  10. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamilia Loukil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A large number of countries have enacted laws aimed at making it easier for firms to invest in their country, while many countries offer various monetary incentives and tax incentives to encourage inward Foreign Direct Investment (FDI. The desire to attract FDI is due not only to the fact that FDI brings in new investment boosting national income and employment, but also due to the expectation that inward FDI would also provide additional spillover benefits to the local economy that can result in higher productivity growth and increased export growth. This study aims to examine the impact of foreign direct investment on innovation in developing countries. The estimation of a panel threshold model on a sample of 54 developing countries for the 1980-2009 period shows the presence of non linear effects in the relationship between FDI and innovation. We find a threshold value of technological development below which FDI has a negative impact on innovation and above which FDI has a significant positive impact on innovation. We conclude that it is not enough for economic policy to attract foreign investments, it is still necessary to support domestic firms to build an absorptive capacity allowing them to enjoy the benefits of multinational firms.

  11. Program in geothermal well technology directed toward achieving DOE/DGE power-on-line goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polito, J.; Varnado, S.G.

    1978-10-01

    This document presents the material used in an oral presentation to the DOE/Division of Geothermal Energy, which was designed to illustrate the importance of well technology development in reducing geothermal well costs, and to achieve geothermal power-on-line goals. Examination of recent studies of the economics of geothermal energy leads to the conclusion that the overall sensitivity of geothermal power-on-line to well cost is in the range of one to two. Current data suggest that a vigorous R and D program in rotary drilling technology can reduce geothermal drilling costs by about 20%, but a reduction of 40 to 50% is needed to achieve DOE/DGE goals. Research in advanced drilling systems is needed to satisfy this more stringent requirement. Some critical technological deficiencies that occur when current rotary drilling techniques are used for geothermal drilling are discussed. A broadly based development program directed at correcting these deficiencies is defined.

  12. Exploration Requirements Development Utilizing the Strategy-to-Task-to-Technology Development Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Bret G.; Josten, B. Kent; Monell, Donald W.

    2004-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration provides direction for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to embark on a robust space exploration program that will advance the Nation s scientific, security, and economic interests. This plan calls for a progressive expansion of human capabilities beyond low earth orbit seeking to answer profound scientific and philosophical questions while responding to discoveries along the way. In addition, the Vision articulates the strategy for developing the revolutionary new technologies and capabilities required for the future exploration of the solar system. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration faces new challenges in successfully implementing the Vision. In order to implement a sustained and affordable exploration endeavor it is vital for NASA to do business differently. This paper provides an overview of the strategy-to-task-to-technology process being used by NASA s Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop the requirements and system acquisition details necessary for implementing a sustainable exploration vision.

  13. Present Challenges, Critical Needs, and Future Technological Directions for NASA's GN and C Engineering Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently undergoing a substantial redirection. Notable among the changes occurring within NASA is the stated emphasis on technology development, integration, and demonstration. These new changes within the Agency should have a positive impact on the GN&C discipline given the potential for sizeable investments for technology development and in-space demonstrations of both Autonomous Rendezvous & Docking (AR&D) systems and Autonomous Precision Landing (APL) systems. In this paper the NASA Technical Fellow for Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) provides a summary of the present technical challenges, critical needs, and future technological directions for NASA s GN&C engineering discipline. A brief overview of the changes occurring within NASA that are driving a renewed emphasis on technology development will be presented as background. The potential benefits of the planned GN&C technology developments will be highlighted. This paper will provide a GN&C State-of-the-Discipline assessment. The discipline s readiness to support the goals & objectives of each of the four NASA Mission Directorates is evaluated and the technical challenges and barriers currently faced by the discipline are summarized. This paper will also discuss the need for sustained investments to sufficiently mature the several classes of GN&C technologies required to implement NASA crewed exploration and robotic science missions.

  14. 75 FR 80066 - Quality Control Requirements for Direct Endorsement Lenders; Notice of Proposed Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Quality Control Requirements for Direct Endorsement Lenders; Notice of Proposed.... This Notice also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Quality Control Requirements for... lenders, since these institutions must also conduct quality control on all loans they originate...

  15. FSA future directions: FSA technology activities in FY86

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipold, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    The silicon material, advanced silicon sheet, device research, and process research activities are explained. There will be no new initiatives. Many activities are targeted for completion and the emphasis will then be on technology transfer. Industrial development of the fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) deposition technology is proceeding. Technology transfer and industry funding of sheet development are continuing.

  16. Directions of changes of hard coal output technologies in Poland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Turek Marian

    2011-01-01

    The author presents the results being the effect of the analysis of innovative rate of individual technologies applied in opening up, development and extraction works which was carried out within the project: "scenarios of technological development of hard coal extractive industry". After presentation of opening up, development and extraction technologies that are applied in Polish hard coal industry and their classification with regard to innovation degree the author describes those technologies in a detailed manner. He brings attention to the most effective systems for hard coal deposits' opening up, development and their extraction, including the extraction of the residual coal. The attention is also paid to the safety level of the applied technologies.

  17. Technologies Required to Image Earth 2.0 with a Space Coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Exoplanet Exploration Program (ExEP) guides the development of technology that enables the direct imaging and characterization of exo-Earths in the habitable zone of their stars for future space observatories. Here we present the coronagraph portion of the 2017 ExEP Technology Gap List, an annual update to ExEP's list of of technologies, to be advanced in the next 1-5 years. A coronagraph is an internal occulter that allows a space telescope to achieve exo-Earth imaging contrast requirements (more than 10 billion) by blocking on-axis starlight while allowing the reflected light of off-axis exoplanets be detected. Building and operating a space coronagraph capable of imaging an exo-Earth will require new technologies beyond those of WFIRST, the first high-contrast conronagraph in space. We review the current state-of-the-art performance of space coronagraphs and the performance level that must be achieved for a coronagraph..

  18. Youth, Technology, and HIV: Recent Advances and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Muessig, Kathryn E; Bauermeister, Jose; Zhang, Chen; LeGrand, Sara

    2015-12-01

    Technology, including mobile technologies and social media, offers powerful tools to reach, engage, and retain youth and young adults in HIV prevention and care interventions both in the USA and globally. In this report, we focus on HIV, technology, and youth, presenting a synthesis of recently published (Jan 2014-May 2015) observational and experimental studies relevant for understanding and intervening on HIV risk, prevention, and care. We present findings from a selection of the 66 relevant citations identified, highlighting studies that demonstrate a novel approach to technology interventions among youth in regard to content, delivery, target population, or public health impact. We discuss current trends globally and in the USA in how youth are using technology, as well as emergent research issues in this field-including the need for new theories for developing technology-based HIV interventions and new metrics of engagement, exposure, and evaluation.

  19. New calorimeters for space experiments: physics requirements and technological challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrocchesi, Pier Simone

    2015-07-01

    Direct measurements of charged cosmic radiation with instruments in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), or flying on balloons above the atmosphere, require the identification of the incident particle, the measurement of its energy and possibly the determination of its sign-of-charge. The latter information can be provided by a magnetic spectrometer together with a measurement of momentum. However, magnetic deflection in space experiments is at present limited to values of the Maximum Detectable Rigidity (MDR) hardly exceeding a few TV. Advanced calorimetric techniques are, at present, the only way to measure charged and neutral radiation at higher energies in the multi-TeV range. Despite their mass limitation, calorimeters may achieve a large geometric factor and provide an adequate proton background rejection factor, taking advantage of a fine granularity and imaging capabilities. In this lecture, after a brief introduction on electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry, an innovative approach to the design of a space-borne, large acceptance, homogeneous calorimeter for the detection of high energy cosmic rays will be described.

  20. ERCB directive 071 : emergency preparedness and response requirements for the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-04-15

    In order to protect the public and environment from harm through responsible petroleum operations, the Energy Resources Conservation Board (ERCB) has a strict regulatory framework whose principles are embodied in ERCB directives. This report consisted of a directive that provides the planning requirements for emergency response plan (ERP) development that licensees are required to meet in order to gain ERCB approval for the ERP. The requirements for a corporate level ERP were also provided. In addition, the report provided the requirements that licensees are required to meet in order to effectively implement their plans and respond to an emergency including things such as public and local authority involvement in emergency preparedness and response; common requirements for site-specific ERPs; sour well site-specific drilling and/or completion ERPs; and, spill cooperative response plans. The report provided an introduction to the directive and its requirements, including licensee responsibility; requirements, enforcement, and expectations; purpose of emergency preparedness and response; what's new in directive 071; directive 071 requirements; and ERP application process for ERCB approval. Several appendices were also provided for non-compliance events; definitions for the purposes of directive 071; ERP approval application; evacuation requirements; assessment and ignition criteria flowchart; and first call communication forms. 10 tabs., 4 figs., 10 appendices.

  1. Vulnerability in Technological Culture: New directions in research and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommels, A.M.; Mesman, J.; Bijker, W.E.

    2014-01-01

    Novel technologies and scientific advancements offer not only opportunities but risks. Technological systems are vulnerable to human error and technical malfunctioning that have far-reaching consequences: one flipped switch can cause a cascading power failure across a networked electric grid. Yet, o

  2. 77 FR 34206 - Airworthiness Directives; Hartzell Engine Technologies Turbochargers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Information We reviewed Hartzell Engine Technologies Alert Service Bulletin (ASB) No. 047, dated May 8, 2012... effect on the States, on the relationship between the national government and the States, or on the... Technologies Turbochargers AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; request...

  3. 14 CFR 1274.937 - Security requirements for unclassified information technology resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... information technology resources. 1274.937 Section 1274.937 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND... Conditions § 1274.937 Security requirements for unclassified information technology resources. Security Requirements for Unclassified Information Technology Resources July 2002 (a) The Recipient shall be...

  4. 40 CFR 51.912 - What requirements apply for reasonably available control technology (RACT) and reasonably...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... available control technology (RACT) and reasonably available control measures (RACM) under the 8-hour NAAQS... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for... reasonably available control technology (RACT) and reasonably available control measures (RACM) under the...

  5. 48 CFR 1804.470 - Security requirements for unclassified information technology (IT) resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... unclassified information technology (IT) resources. 1804.470 Section 1804.470 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Classified Information Within Industry 1804.470 Security requirements for unclassified information technology (IT) resources....

  6. 75 FR 62515 - Notice of Availability of Report on the Communications Requirements of Smart Grid Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... of Availability of Report on the Communications Requirements of Smart Grid Technologies AGENCY..., ``Communications Requirements of Smart Grid Technologies.'' In this report, DOE sets forth recommendations and observations on current and potential communications requirements of the Smart Grid, as well as the types of...

  7. Development of requirements tracking and verification technology for the NPP software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chul Hwan; Kim, Jang Yeol; Lee, Jang Soo; Song, Soon Ja; Lee, Dong Young; Kwon, Kee Choon

    1998-12-30

    Searched and analyzed the technology of requirements engineering in the areas of aerospace and defense industry, medical industry and nuclear industry. Summarized the status of tools for the software design and requirements management. Analyzed the software design methodology for the safety software of NPP. Development of the design requirements for the requirements tracking and verification system. Development of the background technology to design the prototype tool for the requirements tracking and verification.

  8. Achieving CDU requirement for 90-nm technology node and beyond with advanced mask making process technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzu, San-De; Chang, Chung-Hsing; Chen, Wen-Chi; Kliem, Karl-Heinz; Hudek, Peter; Beyer, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    For 90nm node and beyond technology generations, one of the most critical challenges is how to meet the local CD uniformity (proximity) and global CD uniformity (GCDU) requirements within the exposure field. Both of them must be well controlled in the mask making process: (1) proximity effect and, (2) exposure pattern loading effect, or the so-called e-beam "fogging effect". In this paper, we report a method to improve our global CDU by means of a long range fogging compensation together with the Leica SB350 MW. This exposure tool is operated at 50keV and 1nm design grid. The proximity correction is done by the software - package "PROXECCO" from PDF Solutions. We have developed a unique correction method to reduce the fogging effect in dependency of the pattern density of the mask. This allows us to meet our customers" CDU specifications for the 90nm node and beyond.

  9. Thermoelectric Energy Conversion: Future Directions and Technology Development Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurial, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the process of thermoelectric energy conversion along with key technology needs and challenges. The topics include: 1) The Case for Thermoelectrics; 2) Advances in Thermoelectrics: Investment Needed; 3) Current U.S. Investment (FY07); 4) Increasing Thermoelectric Materials Conversion Efficiency Key Science Needs and Challenges; 5) Developing Advanced TE Components & Systems Key Technology Needs and Challenges; 6) Thermoelectrics; 7) 200W Class Lightweight Portable Thermoelectric Generator; 8) Hybrid Absorption Cooling/TE Power Cogeneration System; 9) Major Opportunities in Energy Industry; 10) Automobile Waste Heat Recovery; 11) Thermoelectrics at JPL; 12) Recent Advances at JPL in Thermoelectric Converter Component Technologies; 13) Thermoelectrics Background on Power Generation and Cooling Operational Modes; 14) Thermoelectric Power Generation; and 15) Thermoelectric Cooling.

  10. Saenger: The reference concept and its technological requirements - aerothermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschel, E. H.

    1991-08-01

    The objectives of the technology program 'aerothermodynamics and propulsion integration' are defined. An overview of the special aerothermodynamic phenomena which must be regarded in the design of the Saenger lower stage which presently stands in the center of the technology program is given. The design tools, which must be provided; the components like the inlet, the afterbody, etc., which must be designed and tested; and the special problems like forebody optimization, heat load determination, upper stage integration, etc., which must be treated, are discussed. The general work plan is presented, showing the major activities up to start of the development of the Saenger space transportation system. It includes the development and manufacturing of the experimental vehicle (HYTEXT) as a means for the validation of the design tools and methods which are achieved in the technology program, and for the creation of a freeflight data base.

  11. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MECHANISM AND TECHNOLOGY OF DIRECTED CRACK BLASTING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永琦; 高全臣; 于慕松; 张奇; 单仁亮; 杨仁树; 贾云峰

    1995-01-01

    The dynamic stress-fields and their distribution characteristics around boreholes in the directed crack blasting were measured with the dynamic photo-elastic laser holography apparatus and the uitradymamic measurement system. The directed crack mechanism and its mechanical model have been analysed and expounded. Through the 43 production experiments using slotted cartridges and the double triangle center cut-holes for directed crack blasting in underground rock drift, the resuits of which the rates of half-hole marks and efficiency of borehole,and the nonsmooth grades of the cut contours are 96%, 98% and 10cm respectively have been achieved.

  12. Advanced control technology and airworthiness flying qualities requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, C. T.

    1976-01-01

    Flying quality requirements are specified in terms of the complete pilot-airframe-systems loop, the task, and the environment. Results from a study of flying qualities are reported. A review of the treatment of failure cases in various flying quality requirements is presented along with a description of the methods used and relevant lessons learned from recent Autoland certification programs.

  13. Understanding Technology Adoption: Theory and Future Directions for Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Evan T.

    2009-01-01

    How and why individuals adopt innovations has motivated a great deal of research. This article examines individuals' computing adoption processes through the lenses of three adoption theories: Rogers's innovation diffusion theory, the Concerns-Based Adoption Model, the Technology Acceptance Model, and the United Theory of Acceptance and Use of…

  14. CRISPR technologies for bacterial systems: Current achievements and future directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Kyeong Rok; Lee, Sang Yup

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the decades of its history, the advances in bacteria-based bio-industries have coincided with great leaps in strain engineering technologies. Recently unveiled clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) systems are now revolution......Throughout the decades of its history, the advances in bacteria-based bio-industries have coincided with great leaps in strain engineering technologies. Recently unveiled clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) systems are now...... revolutionizing biotechnology as well as biology. Diverse technologies have been derived from CRISPR/Cas systems in bacteria, yet the applications unfortunately have not been actively employed in bacteria as extensively as in eukaryotic organisms. A recent trend of engineering less explored strains in industrial...... microbiology-metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, and other related disciplines-is demanding facile yet robust tools, and various CRISPR technologies have potential to cater to the demands. Here, we briefly review the science in CRISPR/Cas systems and the milestone inventions that enabled numerous CRISPR...

  15. Future Directions for Building Services Technologies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob

    2008-01-01

      The hypothesis of this paper is that industrial transformation in the Danish construction sector needs in the future to focus on integrating building services technologies into the buildings. This can be illustrated by analysing historical developments in building services usage, exploring desi...

  16. Climate Change and Requirement of Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of international environmental debates. This thesis addresses, firstly, the possible methods of technology transfer and secondly, how current international environmental laws play its role to facilitate the transfer. Accordingly, I have focused on the concerned provisions of Kyoto Protocol and its subsequent...

  17. 47 CFR 25.215 - Technical requirements for space stations in the Direct Broadcast Satellite Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the Direct Broadcast Satellite Service. 25.215 Section 25.215 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.215 Technical requirements for space stations in the Direct Broadcast Satellite Service. In addition to §...

  18. 49 CFR 192.925 - What are the requirements for using External Corrosion Direct Assessment (ECDA)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... External Corrosion Direct Assessment (ECDA)? (a) Definition. ECDA is a four-step process that combines preassessment, indirect inspection, direct examination, and post assessment to evaluate the threat of external... to assess the threat of external corrosion must follow the requirements in this section, in...

  19. Directional resolution of head-related transfer functions required in binaural synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minnaar, Pauli; Plogsties, Jan; Christensen, Flemming

    2005-01-01

    In binaural synthesis a virtual sound source is implemented by convolving an anechoic signal with a pair of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs). In order to represent all possible directions of the sound source with respect to the listener a discrete number of HRTFs are measured...... and moving sound sources. A criterion was found that predicts the experimental results. This criterion was used to estimate the directional resolution required in binaural synthesis for all directions on the sphere around the head....

  20. Science, Measurement, and Technology Requirements for Infrared Climate Benchmark Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David G.; Mlynczak, Martin G.

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying climate change in the presence of natural variability requires highly accurate global measurements covering more than a decade. Instrument design considerations for trending terrestrial emitted radiance are described.

  1. THE NEW EU ACCOUNTING DIRECTIVE – A COMPARATION OF REPORTING REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS DEAC

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of Directive 2013/34/EU constitutes the materialization of a modernization process of the Directive 78/660/EEC and Directive 83/349/EEC that has started in 2009. The new accounting directive replaces the two accounting directives and sets the requirements for both individual and consolidated financial statements. It also introduces a new category of entities “micro-undertakings” in order to implement the requirements of Directive 2012/6/EU. The paper tries to summarize and compare the typologies of enterprises and groups defined in the old and new accounting directives as well as in the Romanian accounting system (RAS. It also compares the requirements of both the new and the old accounting directives as well as RAS regarding the structure and presentation of the annual financial statements. European Union (EU wide, about 99% of the enterprises fall into micro and small categories and might benefit from the simplifications of preparation and publication requirements of the annual financial statements. They will also be exempted from the requirements of auditing their financial statements. Only 1.21% of the enterprises in Europe will be classified as medium and large and will be required to prepare and publish a full set of annual financial statements and to audit their financial statements. If Romania will opt for reducing the administrative burdens for micro entities and implement simplifications for micro-entities as they were defined in the EU directive 2013/34/EU, the thresholds would have to be dramatically increased and many more enterprises will be reclassified as micro instead of small or medium enterprises.

  2. Energy/environment/technology two visions, two directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox-Penner, P.

    1995-12-31

    This paper compares the energy policies proposed by the U.S. Congress and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Connections between energy, economy, environment, and technology are discussed in some detail. The National Energy Policy Plan of the DOE is summarized, and the impact of budget cuts proposed by Congress are projected. Aspects of the DOE plan which are emphasized include research and development, minimization of regulation, and eliminating redundant government and private industry efforts. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. DIRECTION OF DEVELOPMENT FOR NATION'S PETROCHEMICAL PRODUCTS AND TECHNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Baohai

    2001-01-01

    @@ As a result of remarkable advance over the past several dozen years with continuous development of technology, rapid increase of new products, and steady expansion in production scope, China's petrochemical industry has grown into a well-established industrial system composed of more than 20 trades,providing over 40,000 kinds of product which are complete in range and generally serialized in variety.

  4. The direct and indirect energy requirement of households in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Vringer, K.; Blok, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this article we evaluate the average energy requirement of households in 11 EU member states. By investigating both the direct (electricity, natural gas, gasoline, etc.) and the indirect energy requirement, i.e. the energy embodied in consumer goods and services, we add to research done on only t

  5. Direct Instruction Revisited: A Key Model for Instructional Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliaro, Susan G.; Lockee, Barbara B.; Burton, John K.

    2005-01-01

    Rooted in behavioral theory, particularly the radical or selectivist behaviorism of B.F. Skinner (1953, 1954, 1966, 1968, 1974), the direct instruction (DI) approach to teaching is now well into its third decade of influencing curriculum, instruction, and research. It is also in its third decade of controversy. Our purpose is to present the DI…

  6. The Synergism of User Needs, System Requirements, and Technological Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Gwen R.

    User perception of data importance and the economic feasibility of hardware and storage devices will determine the future direction of online systems. A retrieval system's functions are ultimately dictated by database design. Early online sytems were designed for bibliographic information limited to citations only using sequential files. When…

  7. Information technology - Security techniques - Information security management systems - Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    ISO/IEC 27001:2005 covers all types of organizations (e.g. commercial enterprises, government agencies, not-for profit organizations). ISO/IEC 27001:2005 specifies the requirements for establishing, implementing, operating, monitoring, reviewing, maintaining and improving a documented Information Security Management System within the context of the organization's overall business risks. It specifies requirements for the implementation of security controls customized to the needs of individual organizations or parts thereof. ISO/IEC 27001:2005 is designed to ensure the selection of adequate and proportionate security controls that protect information assets and give confidence to interested parties. ISO/IEC 27001:2005 is intended to be suitable for several different types of use, including the following: use within organizations to formulate security requirements and objectives; use within organizations as a way to ensure that security risks are cost effectively managed; use within organizations to ensure comp...

  8. 34 CFR 400.9 - What additional requirements govern the Vocational and Applied Technology Education Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Applied Technology Education Programs? 400.9 Section 400.9 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAMS-GENERAL PROVISIONS § 400.9 What additional requirements govern the Vocational and Applied Technology Education Programs? In addition to the Act,...

  9. 48 CFR 652.239-71 - Security Requirements for Unclassified Information Technology Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Unclassified Information Technology Resources. 652.239-71 Section 652.239-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Provisions and Clauses 652.239-71 Security Requirements for Unclassified Information Technology Resources. As... Technology Resources (SEP 2007) (a) General. The Contractor shall be responsible for information...

  10. 48 CFR 1252.239-70 - Security requirements for unclassified information technology resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... unclassified information technology resources. 1252.239-70 Section 1252.239-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations... of Provisions and Clauses 1252.239-70 Security requirements for unclassified information technology... Unclassified Information Technology Resources (APR 2005) (a) The Contractor shall be responsible...

  11. 23 CFR 950.5 - Requirement to use electronic toll collection technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirement to use electronic toll collection technology... agency using electronic toll collection technology must develop and implement reasonable methods to... electronic toll collection technology must develop, implement, and make publicly available privacy...

  12. Food waste-to-energy conversion technologies: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thi Phuong Thuy; Kaushik, Rajni; Parshetti, Ganesh K; Mahmood, Russell; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2015-04-01

    Food waste represents a significantly fraction of municipal solid waste. Proper management and recycling of huge volumes of food waste are required to reduce its environmental burdens and to minimize risks to human health. Food waste is indeed an untapped resource with great potential for energy production. Utilization of food waste for energy conversion currently represents a challenge due to various reasons. These include its inherent heterogeneously variable compositions, high moisture contents and low calorific value, which constitute an impediment for the development of robust, large scale, and efficient industrial processes. Although a considerable amount of research has been carried out on the conversion of food waste to renewable energy, there is a lack of comprehensive and systematic reviews of the published literature. The present review synthesizes the current knowledge available in the use of technologies for food-waste-to-energy conversion involving biological (e.g. anaerobic digestion and fermentation), thermal and thermochemical technologies (e.g. incineration, pyrolysis, gasification and hydrothermal oxidation). The competitive advantages of these technologies as well as the challenges associated with them are discussed. In addition, the future directions for more effective utilization of food waste for renewable energy generation are suggested from an interdisciplinary perspective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Transitions in the wrong direction? Digital technologies and daily life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    2013-01-01

    The environmental implications of information and communication technology (ICT) have been the subject of study since the early 1990s. Although previous research covers energy issues quite extensively, the treatment of the energy impacts of ICT integration in everyday life is still inadequate....... The purpose of this paper is to complement the existing research by applying a perspective in which everyday life takes centre stage. A theoretical framework for describing and analysing the energy impacts of everyday life is outlined, based on a combination of practice theory and time geography...

  14. Probe technology for the direct measurement and sampling of Ellsworth Subglacial Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowlem, Matthew C.; Tsaloglou, Maria-Nefeli; Waugh, Edward M.; Floquet, Cedric F. A.; Saw, Kevin; Fowler, Lee; Brown, Robin; Pearce, David; Wyatt, James B.; Beaton, Alexander D.; Brito, Mario P.; Hodgson, Dominic A.; Griffiths, Gwyn; Bentley, M.; Blake, D.; Capper, L.; Clarke, R.; Cockell, C.; Corr, H.; Harris, W.; Hill, C.; Hindmarsh, R.; King, E.; Lamb, H.; Maher, B.; Makinson, K.; Parnell, J.; Priscu, J.; Rivera, A.; Ross, N.; Siegert, M. J.; Smith, A.; Tait, A.; Tranter, M.; Wadham, J.; Whalley, B.; Woodward, J.

    The direct measurement and sampling of Ellsworth Subglacial Lake is a multidisciplinary investigation of life in extreme environments and West Antarctic ice sheet history. The project's aims are (1) to determine whether, and in what form, microbial life exists in Antarctic subglacial lakes and (2) to reveal the post-Pliocene history of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. A U.K. consortium has planned an extensive logistics and equipment development program that will deliver the necessary resources. This will include hot water drill technology for lake access through approximately 3.2 km of ice, a probe to make measurements with sensors and to collect water and sediment samples, and a percussion corer to acquire an ˜3-4 m sediment core. This chapter details the requirements and early stages of design and development of the probe system. This includes the instrumentation package, water samplers, and a mini gravity corer mounted on the front of the probe. Initial design concepts for supporting equipment required at the drill site to deploy and operate the probe are also described. A review of the literature describing relevant technology is presented. The project will implement environmental protection in line with principles set out by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research.

  15. Technology requirements for an orbiting fuel depot: A necessary element of a space infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, R. M.; Corban, R. R.; Willoughby, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    Advanced planning within NASA has identified several bold space exploration initiatives. The successful implementation of these missions will require a supporting space infrastructure which would include a fuel depot, an orbiting facility to store, transfer and process large quantities of cryogenic fluids. In order to adequately plan the technology development programs required to enable the construction and operation of a fuel depot, a multidisciplinary workshop was convened to assess critical technologies and their state of maturity. Since technology requirements depend strongly on the depot design assumptions, several depot concepts are presented with their effect on criticality ratings. Over 70 depot-related technology areas are addressed.

  16. Technology requirements for an orbiting fuel depot - A necessary element of a space infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, R. M.; Corban, R. R.; Willoughby, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    Advanced planning within NASA has identified several bold space exploration initiatives. The successful implementation of these missions will require a supporting space infrastructure which would include a fuel depot, an orbiting facility to store, transfer and process large quantities of cryogenic fluids. In order to adequately plan the technology development programs required to enable the construction and operation of a fuel depot, a multidisciplinary workshop was convened to assess critical technologies and their state of maturity. Since technology requirements depend strongly on the depot design assumptions, several depot concepts are presented with their effect of criticality ratings. Over 70 depot-related technology areas are addressed.

  17. 78 FR 49207 - Airworthiness Directives; Maule Aerospace Technology, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... in paragraph (i)(1) of this AD, before further flight, apply corrosion inhibitor to each wing lift strut. Apply the corrosion inhibitor following the INSTRUCTIONS section in PART I of Maule SB No. 11... requirements in the Appendix to this AD are met, before further flight apply corrosion inhibitor to each...

  18. Climate Change and Requirement of Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    implementation measures. I have also taken in to account the decisions of the annual meetings of the Conference of the parties (COPs) of the UNFCCC. The thesis has also made a brief comparative discussion between the provisions of international environmental laws and the provisions of intellectual property...... of international environmental debates. This thesis addresses, firstly, the possible methods of technology transfer and secondly, how current international environmental laws play its role to facilitate the transfer. Accordingly, I have focused on the concerned provisions of Kyoto Protocol and its subsequent...

  19. Hapten-directed spontaneous disulfide shuffling: a universal technology for site-directed covalent coupling of payloads to antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengl, Stefan; Hoffmann, Eike; Grote, Michael; Wagner, Cornelia; Mundigl, Olaf; Georges, Guy; Thorey, Irmgard; Stubenrauch, Kay-Gunnar; Bujotzek, Alexander; Josel, Hans-Peter; Dziadek, Sebastian; Benz, Joerg; Brinkmann, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Humanized hapten-binding IgGs were designed with an accessible cysteine close to their binding pockets, for specific covalent payload attachment. Individual analyses of known structures of digoxigenin (Dig)- and fluorescein (Fluo) binding antibodies and a new structure of a biotin (Biot)-binder, revealed a “universal” coupling position (52+2) in proximity to binding pockets but without contributing to hapten interactions. Payloads that carry a free thiol are positioned on the antibody and covalently linked to it via disulfides. Covalent coupling is achieved and driven toward complete (95–100%) payload occupancy by spontaneous redox shuffling between antibody and payload. Attachment at the universal position works with different haptens, antibodies, and payloads. Examples are the haptens Fluo, Dig, and Biot combined with various fluorescent or peptidic payloads. Disulfide-bonded covalent antibody-payload complexes do not dissociate in vitro and in vivo. Coupling requires the designed cysteine and matching payload thiol because payload or antibody without the Cys/thiol are not linked (<5% nonspecific coupling). Hapten-mediated positioning is necessary as hapten-thiol-payload is only coupled to antibodies that bind matching haptens. Covalent complexes are more stable in vivo than noncovalent counterparts because digoxigeninylated or biotinylated fluorescent payloads without disulfide-linkage are cleared more rapidly in mice (approximately 50% reduced 48 hour serum levels) compared with their covalently linked counterparts. The coupling technology is applicable to many haptens and hapten binding antibodies (confirmed by automated analyses of the structures of 140 additional hapten binding antibodies) and can be applied to modulate the pharmacokinetics of small compounds or peptides. It is also suitable to link payloads in a reduction-releasable manner to tumor- or tissue-targeting delivery vehicles.—Dengl, S., Hoffmann, E., Grote, M., Wagner, C., Mundigl, O

  20. Digital technology use by the students and english teachers and self-directed language learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehir Sert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The digital era is a new challenge for teachers. While children get acquainted with the digital technology before the age of six, teachers, who have encountered with the digital world at a later time in their lives, struggle with it. Self-directed learning, which is crucial for lifelong learning, can be enhanced by the use technology particularly beyond the classroom settings. The aim of this study was to examine the difference between the perceptions of 5-8 graders in low and high income groups about their technology use skills and their English teachers’ technology use skills. It also tested the correlation between their perceptions of their self-directed language learning behaviors and their technology use skills as well as their English teachers’ technology use skills. The population of the study consisted of 145 students. Inter group comparisons and correlational research methods were adopted. The results indicated that the low and high income students’ perceptions did not differ regarding their own technology use skills, and similarly their English teachers’ technology use skills. There was no correlation between the perceptions of the low/high income group combination regarding their technology use skills and their English teachers’ technology use skills. And lastly, their perceptions on their self-directed learning behaviors did not correlate with their perceptions on their technology use skills and their English teachers’ technology use skills. The educational implications of these results were discussed and suggestions were put forward so as to produce more effective learning environments.

  1. Web-Based Collaboration Technology and Requirements for Peace Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    platform-neutral asynchronous collaborative authoring via the Internet. Internationalization ( I18N ) and localization ( L10N ) addresses differences in...via the Internet. Internationalization ( I18N ) and localization ( L10N ) addresses differences in language requirements and local expectations that...17 D. INTERNATIONALIZATION ( I18N ) .........................................................19 E. LOCALIZATION ( L10N

  2. Technology Requirements For a Square-Meter, Arcsecond-Resolution Telescope for X-Rays: The SMART-X Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.; Allured, Ryan; Bookbinder, Jay; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Forman, William; Freeman, Mark; McMuldroch, Stuart; Reid, Paul; Tananbaum, Harvey; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Rudeger; Gubarev, Mikhail; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; O'Dell, Steve; Ramsey, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the astrophysical problems of the 2020's requires sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with square meter effective area. Such requirements can be derived, for example, by considering deep x-ray surveys to find the young black holes in the early universe (large redshifts) which will grow into the first supermassive black holes. We have envisioned a mission based on adjustable x-ray optics technology, in order to achieve the required reduction of mass to collecting area for the mirrors. We are pursuing technology which effects this adjustment via thin film piezoelectric "cells" deposited directly on the non-reflecting sides of thin, slumped glass. While SMARTX will also incorporate state-of-the-art x-ray cameras, the remaining spacecraft systems have no more stringent requirements than those which are well understood and proven on the current Chandra X-ray Observatory.

  3. Linking Technology Capabilities to Marketing Requirements: Case of Indonesian Aircraft Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulianto Suharto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The relationship between strategic technology planning and the overall business strategy has been one of the growing fields that attract much interest both from academics and industrials point of view. The increasingly important role that technology plays in today’s business success is well established.Strategic technology planning activities--within a corporate level--are often implemented by applying integrated planning instrument, which allow firms to consider both technology-oriented and product-oriented aspects. This paper is an attempt to explore the role of strategic planning in the high tech industry using a specific case of aerospace industry in Indonesia.  In order to compete effectively inthe open global marketplace, the company must learn to integrate technology managementwith strategic planning. In other words, all top managers have to linktheir technology capabilities to marketing requirements.Keywords:  technology planning; business strategy; technology capability; marketing requirement; strategic mix 

  4. Transitions in the wrong direction? Digital technologies and daily life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    2013-01-01

    The environmental implications of information and communication technology (ICT) have been the subject of study since the early 1990s. Although previous research covers energy issues quite extensively, the treatment of the energy impacts of ICT integration in everyday life is still inadequate....... The purpose of this paper is to complement the existing research by applying a perspective in which everyday life takes centre stage. A theoretical framework for describing and analysing the energy impacts of everyday life is outlined, based on a combination of practice theory and time geography....... The framework is applied to a discussion of how ICT co-develops with changing everyday practices and energy-demanding features of everyday life. Based on empirical findings, we explore how the use of ICT affects practices in relation to time and space, and it is argued that observed changes may increase energy...

  5. ECASTAR: Energy conservation. An assessment of systems, technologies and requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A methodology was presented for a systems approach to energy conservation actions and their potentials and impacts in the United States. Constraints affecting the approach were ranked, and the most important ones are the present economic and technical conditions. The following unresolved issues were identified: consumptive lifestyles vs. conservation ethic, environmental standards vs. energy conservation, capital availability, decentralization and vertical integration vs. centralization, fuel rich regions vs. fuel poor regions, supply vs. end use conservation, life cycle costing vs. initial cost, mandatory savings vs. voluntary savings, labor intensive vs. capital intensive, price control vs. free market. The following recommendations were made: provide action/impact assessment, establish regional energy centers, improve technology articulation with government, design total energy systems, utilize existing systems approach expertise.

  6. Users of assistive technology also require assistance with ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This case study describes an ergonomics workstation assessment conducted for an administrative worker with vision impairment due to keratoconus. The worker, PT, was provided with multiple assistive technology devices to help her with her work, but this resulted in an overcrowded workspace. The purpose of the workstation assessment was to assist the worker with her workstation arrangement to make it more comfortable and efficient. During the assessment, a range of physical, cognitive and organisational ergonomics issues were identified and addressed. Multidisciplinary teams are often used in the rehabilitation of workers with complex medical problems. An ergonomist can play a valuable role on this team. © 2011 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved

  7. ECASTAR: Energy Conservation; an Assessment of Systems, Technologies and Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A methodology for a systems approach display and assessment of the potential for energy conservation actions and the impacts of those actions was presented. The U.S. economy is divided into four sectors: energy industry, industry, residential/commercial and transportation. Each sector is assessed with respect to energy conservation actions and impacts. The four sectors are combined and three strategies for energy conservation actions for the combined sectors are assessed. The three strategies (national energy conservation, electrification and diversification) represent energy conservation actions for the near term (now to 1985), the mid term (1985 to 2000) and the far term (2000 and beyond). The assessment procedure includes input/output analysis to bridge the flows between the sectors, and net economics and net energetics as performance criteria for the conservation actions. Targets of opportunity for large net energy net energy savings and the application of technology to achieve these savings are discussed.

  8. The Sensor Spectrum:Technology,Trends,and Requirements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph; M.; Hellerstein; Samuel; R.; Madden

    2007-01-01

    Though physical sensing instruments have long been used in astronomy,biology,and civil engineering,the recent emergence of wireless sensor networks and RFID has spurred a renaissance in sensor interest in both academia and industry. In this paper,we examine the spectrum of sensing platforms,from billion dollar satellites to tiny RF tags,and discuss the technological differences between them. We show that battery powered sensor networks,with low-power multihop radios and low-cost processors,occupy a sweet spot in this spectrum that is rife with opportunity for novel database research. We briefly summarize some of our research work in this space and present a number of examples of interesting sensor network-related problems that the database community is uniquely equipped to address.

  9. Direct Air Capture of CO2 - an Overview of Carbon Engineering's Technology and Pilot Plant Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, G.; Corless, A.

    2014-12-01

    At Carbon Engineering, we are developing and commercializing technology to scrub CO2 directly from atmospheric air at industrial scale. By providing atmospheric CO2 for use in fuel production, we can enable production of transportation fuels with ultra-low carbon intensities, which command price premiums in the growing set of constrained fuels markets such as California's LCFS. We are a Calgary based startup founded in 2009 with 10 employees, and we are considered a global leader in the direct air capture (DAC) field. We will review CE's DAC technology, based on a wet-scrubbing "air contactor" which absorbs CO2 into aqueous solution, and a chemical looping "regeneration" component, which liberates pure CO2 from this aqueous solution while re-making the original absorption chemical. CE's DAC tecnology exports purified atmospheric CO2, combined with the combustion CO2 from plant energy usage, as the end product. We will also discuss CE's 2014-2015 end-to-end Pilot Demonstration Unit. This is a $7M technology demonstration plant that CE is building with the help of key industrial partners and equipment vendors. Vendor design and engineering requirements have been used to specify the pilot air contactor, pellet reactor, calciner, and slaker modules, as well as auxiliary systems. These modules will be run for several months to obtain the engineering and performance data needed for subsequent commercial plant design, as well as to test the residual integration risks associated with CE's process. By the time of the AGU conference, the pilot is expected to be in late stages of fabrication or early stages of site installation.

  10. Direct Injection Compression Ignition Diesel Automotive Technology Education GATE Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Carl L

    2006-09-25

    The underlying goal of this prqject was to provide multi-disciplinary engineering training for graduate students in the area of internal combustion engines, specifically in direct injection compression ignition engines. The program was designed to educate highly qualified engineers and scientists that will seek to overcome teclmological barriers preventing the development and production of cost-effective high-efficiency vehicles for the U.S. market. Fu1iher, these highly qualified engineers and scientists will foster an educational process to train a future workforce of automotive engineering professionals who are knowledgeable about and have experience in developing and commercializing critical advanced automotive teclmologies. Eight objectives were defmed to accomplish this goal: 1. Develop an interdisciplinary internal co1nbustion engine curriculum emphasizing direct injected combustion ignited diesel engines. 2. Encourage and promote interdisciplinary interaction of the faculty. 3. Offer a Ph.D. degree in internal combustion engines based upon an interdisciplinary cuniculum. 4. Promote strong interaction with indusuy, develop a sense of responsibility with industry and pursue a self sustaining program. 5. Establish collaborative arrangements and network universities active in internal combustion engine study. 6. Further Enhance a First Class educational facility. 7. Establish 'off-campus' M.S. and Ph.D. engine programs of study at various indusuial sites. 8. Extend and Enhance the Graduate Experience.

  11. Solar sorptive cooling. Technologies, user requirements, practical experience, future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treffinger, P. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Hardthausen (Germany); Hertlein, H.P. [eds.] [Forschungsverbund Sonnenenergie, Koeln (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Sorptive cooling techniques permit the use of low-temperature solar heat, i.e. a renewable energy of low cost and world-wide availability. The Forschungsverbund Sonnenenergie intends to develop solar sorptive cooling technologies to the prototype stage and, in cooperation with the solar industry and its end users, to promote practical application in air conditioning of buildings and cold storage of food. The workshop presents an outline of the state of development of solar sorptive cooling from the view of users and developers. Exemplary solar cooling systems are described, and the potential of open and closed sorptive processes is assessed. Future central activities will be defined in an intensive discussion between planners, producers, users and developers. [German] Der Einsatz von Sorptionstechniken zur Kaelteerzeugung erlaubt es, als treibende Solarenergie Niedertemperatur-Solarwaerme einzusetzen, also eine regenerative Energie mit sehr geringen Kosten und weltweiter Verfuegbarkeit. Der Forschungsverbund Sonnenenergie hat sich als Aufgabe gestellt, die Techniken der solaren Sorptionskuehlung bis zum Prototyp zu entwickeln und mit Industrie und Nutzern die praktische Anwendung voranzubringen. Die Anwendungsfelder sind die Klimatisierung von Gebaeuden und die Kaltlagerung von Lebensmitteln. Der Workshop gibt einen Ueberblick zum Entwicklungsstand der solaren Sorptionskuehlung aus der Sicht der Anwender und Entwickler. Bereits ausgefuehrte Beispiele zur solaren Kuehlung werden vorgestellt und das Potential geschlossener und offener Sorptionsverfahren angegeben. In intensiver Diskussion zwischen Planern, Herstellern, Nutzern und Entwicklern sollen kuenftige Arbeitsschwerpunkte herausgearbeitet werden. (orig.)

  12. Managing and Integrating Open Environmental Data - Technological Requirements and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraju, Anusuriya; Kunkel, Ralf; Jirka, Simon

    2014-05-01

    Understanding environment conditions and trends requires information. This information is usually generated from sensor observations. Today, several infrastructures (e.g., GEOSS, EarthScope, NEON, NETLAKE, OOI, TERENO, WASCAL, and PEER-EurAqua) have been deployed to promote full and open exchange of environmental data. Standards for interfaces as well as data models/formats (OGC, CUAHSI, INSPIRE, SEE Grid, ISO) and open source tools have been developed to support seamless data exchange between various domains and organizations. In spite of this growing interest, it remains a challenge to manage and integrate open environmental data on the fly due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the data. Intuitive tools and standardized interfaces are vital to hide the technical complexity of underlying data management infrastructures. Meaningful descriptions of raw sensor data are necessary to achieve interoperability among different sources. As raw sensor data sets usually goes through several layers of summarization and aggregation, metadata and quality measures associated with these should be captured. Further processing of sensor data sets requires that they should be made compatible with existing environmental models. We need data policies and management plans on how to handle and publish open sensor data coming from different institutions. Clearly, a better management and usability of open environmental data is crucial, not only to gather large amounts of data, but also to cater various aspects such as data integration, privacy and trust, uncertainty, quality control, visualization, and data management policies. The proposed talk presents several key findings in terms of requirements, ongoing developments and technical challenges concerning these aspects from our recent work. This includes two workshops on open observation data and supporting tools, as well as the long-term environmental monitoring initiatives such as TERENO and TERENO-MED. Workshops Details

  13. Design requirements for interfaces in solar energy conversion technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, B. L.

    1982-04-01

    Candidate materials for improving the durability and economics of solar energy conversion systems (SECS) are reviewed. A 30-yr lifetime is regarded as necessary for solar collector and concentrator materials in order to offset the high initial costs of SECS in parabolic dish, heliostat, parabolic trough, flat plate collector, OTEC, solar cell, and wind turbine configurations. The materials are required to transfer a maximum amount of intercepted energy without degrading from exposure to UV radiation, wind, water, dust, and temperature cycling. Glass and mirrored surfaces for reflecting or refracting optical subsystems are currently made from soda-lime, boro- and aluminosilicate, and must resist chemicals, abrasion, and permeability, and have good strength, flexibility, coefficient of expansion, and Young's modulus. Additional concerns are present in photochemical, solar cell, and in substrata components and systems.

  14. Direct hydrocarbon exploration and gas reservoir development technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Young Hoon; Oh, Jae Ho; Jeong, Tae Jin [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    In order to enhance the capability of petroleum exploration and development techniques, three year project (1994 - 1997) was initiated on the research of direct hydrocarbon exploration and gas reservoir development. This project consists of four sub-projects. (1) Oil(Gas) - source rock correlation technique: The overview of bio-marker parameters which are applicable to hydrocarbon exploration has been illustrated. Experimental analysis of saturated hydrocarbon and bio-markers of the Pohang E and F core samples has been carried out. (2) Study on surface geochemistry and microbiology for hydrocarbon exploration: the test results of the experimental device for extraction of dissolved gases from water show that the device can be utilized for the gas geochemistry of water. (3) Development of gas and gas condensate reservoirs: There are two types of reservoir characterization. For the reservoir formation characterization, calculation of conditional simulation was compared with that of unconditional simulation. In the reservoir fluid characterization, phase behavior calculations revealed that the component grouping is more important than the increase of number of components. (4) Numerical modeling of seismic wave propagation and full waveform inversion: Three individual sections are presented. The first one is devoted to the inversion theory in general sense. The second and the third sections deal with the frequency domain pseudo waveform inversion of seismic reflection data and refraction data respectively. (author). 180 refs., 91 figs., 60 tabs.

  15. Passive direct methanol fuel cells in silicon technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabate, N.; Esquivel, J.P.; Santander, J.; Torres, N.; Gracia, I.; Ivanov, P.; Fonseca, L.; Figueras, E.; Cane, C. [Inst. de Microelectronica de Barcelona-CNM (CSIC), Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-04-15

    The increased demand for light and efficient power sources in the past decade can be attributed to the increasing presence of sensing and actuating microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) used different application fields such as the automotive and food industry. The integration of these power sources presents an opportunity for the future advancement of MEMS based devices. Much research has been conducted in the field of active methanol fuel cells, in which the liquid fuel and the oxidant are generally pumped externally. However, the application of these types of cells as portable power sources has led to simpler approaches that give up ancillary devices such as pumps or gas compressors and the parasitic power losses associated with them. This passive fuel cell approach offers the advantage of a simpler and compact design. This article presented the main features of a passive silicon direct methanol fuel cell. The microdevice was based on a hybrid approach composed of a commercial membrane electrode assembly (MEA). It was concluded that methanol concentration has little impact on the fuel cell's maximum power density, and is comparable to values reported in the literature for larger passive and stainless-steel fuel cells. Temperature measurements revealed that the fuel cell temperature did not change significantly and is independent of the methanol crossover rate. 12 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  16. The Impact of Information Technology on Job Requirements and Qualifications for Catalogers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, Zahiruddin

    2003-01-01

    Reviews job advertisements published in "American Libraries" and "College and Research Libraries News" to assess the impact of the use of information technology in libraries on job requirements and qualifications for catalogers. Examines position titles, degree requirements, and required skills, and suggests implications for…

  17. Enabling Technologies for Direct Detection Optical Phase Modulation Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xian

    Phase modulation formats are believed to be one of the key enabling techniques for next generation high speed long haul fiber-optic communication systems due to the following main advantages: (1) with a balanced detection, a better receiver sensitivity over conventional intensity modulation formats, e.g., a ˜3-dB sensitivity improvement using differential phase shift keying (DPSK) and a ˜1.3-dB sensitivity improvement using differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK); (2) excellent robustness against fiber nonlinearities; (3) high spectrum efficiency when using multilevel phase modulation formats, such as DQPSK. As the information is encoded in the phase of the optical field, the phase modulation formats are sensitive to the phase-related impairments and the deterioration induced in the phase-intensity conversion. This consequently creates new challenging issues. The research objective of this thesis is to depict some of the challenging issues and provide possible solutions. The first challenge is the cross-phase modulation (XPM) penalty for the phase modulated channels co-propagating with the intensity modulated channels. The penalty comes from the pattern dependent intensity fluctuations of the neighboring intensity modulated channels being converted into phase noise in the phase modulation channels. We propose a model to theoretically analyze the XPM penalty dependence on the walk off effect. From this model, we suggest that using fibers with large local dispersion or intentionally introducing some residual dispersion per span would help mitigate the XPM penalty. The second challenge is the polarization dependent frequency shift (PDf) induced penalty during the phase-intensity conversion. The direct detection DPSK is usually demodulated in a Mach-Zehnder delay interferometer (DI). The polarization dependence of DI introduces a PDf causing a frequency offset between the laser's frequency and the transmissivity peak of DI, degrading the demodulated DPSK

  18. Digital Technology Use by the Students and English Teachers and Self-Directed Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Nehir; Boynuegri, Ebru

    2017-01-01

    The digital era is a new challenge for teachers. While children get acquainted with the digital technology before the age of six, teachers, who have encountered with the digital world at a later time in their lives, struggle with it. Self-directed learning, which is crucial for lifelong learning, can be enhanced by the use technology particularly…

  19. Breakthroughs of Low-temperature Direct Rubber Mixing in Low-carbon Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Rubber mixing is the most energy-consuming procedure in tire production, covering about 40% energy of the whole tire producing workflow. The process of low temperature direct rubber mixing, developed by Triangle Group Co., Ltd., MESNAC Co., Ltd., Yiyang Rubber and Plastics Co., Ltd., TTA (Qingdao) Tire Technology Co., Ltd., Guangzhou SCUT Bestry Technology Co., Ltd., etc.

  20. Social network analysis for technology-enhanced learning: review and future directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sie, Rory; Ullmann, Thomas; Rajagopal, Kamakshi; Cela, Karina; Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Sloep, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Sie, R. L. L., Ullmann, T. D., Rajagopal, K., Cela, K., Bitter-Rijpkema, M., & Sloep, P. B. (2012). Social network analysis for technology-enhanced learning: review and future directions. International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning, 4(3/4), 172-190.

  1. Development of a direct feed fused deposition modelling technology for multi-material manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zuoxin; Salaoru, Iulia; Morris, Peter; Gibbons, Gregory J.

    2016-10-01

    Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) is one of the most widely used Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies to fabricate a three-dimensional (3D) object via melt processing of a thermoplastic filament. However, it is limited in the variety of materials that can be fed and mixed during the process. In this study, a concept of direct feed FDM technology was presented, which allowed co-feeding of multiple materials in any available form. Different materials were mixed at predetermined ratios and deposited together to form a 3D object with variable properties and functionalities that meet specific requirements. To demonstrate the capability of this AM system, heat-sensitive polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) and its additives were processed. A geometry with various features was successfully manufactured with dimensions closely matching those of the design specification. The FDM processed PVOH showed insignificant thermal decomposition as it retained its original colour, flexibility, and water solubility. During the process, a fluorescent whitening agent was successfully incorporated into the polymer melt. Therefore, the printed sample exhibited a strong fluorescence effect from the UV-visible and fluorimeter results.

  2. THE GERMAN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN INNOVATIVE AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE RUSSIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Карина Юрьевна Ашикарьян

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions of globalization and economy modernization the special attention is paid to cooperation of the countries in the sphere of innovations and high technologies which is reached at the expense of a transfer of knowledge and technologies. One of priority instruments of innovative and technological cooperation today are direct foreign investments. Germany occupies one of leading provisions among the developed countries of the world and possesses high scientific and technical potential. The importance is got by direct investments of Germany, as main supplier of the real direct investments bringing new technologies and knowledge in economy of Russia. Thus, the German direct investments are the most important source of advanced technologies and the methods of management promoting modernization of the Russian economy and transition to an innovative way of development. Direct German investments accelerate process of integration of the Russian economy  in the world economy, improve use of various advantages of the international labor cooperation and its division, promote involvement in being formed European economic space.The article describes a role of the German direct investments in innovative and technological development of  the Russian economy.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-19

  3. Technological Innovations in Agricultural Tractors: Adopters’ behaviour towards new technological trajectories and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Ester Ferrari; Luigi Bollani; Mario Coccia; Eugenio Cavallo

    2013-01-01

    Latest advancements in tractors engineering have allowed farmers to increase productivity, and simultaneously to reduce operator’s hazards. However, little attention has been given to farmers’ behaviour and attitude toward the adoption of technological innovations concerning agricultural tractors. The study explores farmers’ behaviours on agricultural tractors current and future technological trajectories. A main case study concerning Italy is analyzed. Results show three different behaviours...

  4. Evaluation of technology modifications required to apply clean coal technologies in Russian utilities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The report describes the following: overview of the Russian power industry; electric power equipment of Russia; power industry development forecast for Russia; clean coal technology demonstration program of the US Department of Energy; reduction of coal TPS (thermal power station) environmental impacts in Russia; and base options of advanced coal thermal power plants. Terms of the application of clean coal technology at Russian TPS are discussed in the Conclusions.

  5. Creation of a certification requirement for pharmacists in direct patient care roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, David R; Hartkopf, Katherine J; Koth, Sara M; Rough, Steven S

    2017-10-01

    Steps taken by a large health system to require certification for all pharmacists in direct patient care roles are detailed. Major supply chain changes and rising payer expectations are reshaping pharmacy practice, resulting in expanded responsibilities for pharmacists and a heightened need for certification in specialized practice areas. In response, the pharmacy leadership team at UW Health, the integrated health system of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, used an iterative process and a "rolling" FAQ format to develop and implement a certification requirement. Key decisions during the process included decisions to accept only rigorous certifications (mainly those offered by the Board of Pharmacy Specialties), to provide institutional support for continuing education-based recertification, and to use an accepted definition of direct patient care in determining which pharmacists need to be certified. The team obtained the support of the UW Health human relations department by drafting a policy and rewriting all pharmacist position descriptions to incorporate the certification requirement. An all-pharmacist forum was held to build staff commitment. As a result of the requirement, 73 pharmacists were required to obtain certification by 2018 at a total cost to UW Health of $44,000; ongoing support of certification maintenance will cost an estimated $40,000 per year. Health systems can be successful in establishing uniform certification expectations for pharmacists in direct patient care roles, even across diverse practice settings, by aligning expectations with organizational goals. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Direct interaction of the molecular scaffolds POSH and JIP is required for apoptotic activation of JNKs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukekov, Nickolay V; Xu, Zhiheng; Greene, Lloyd A

    2006-06-02

    A sequential pathway (the JNK pathway) that includes activation of Rac1/Cdc42, mixed lineage kinases, MAP kinase kinases 4 and 7, and JNKs plays a required role in many paradigms of apoptotic cell death. However, the means by which this pathway is assembled and directed toward apoptotic death has been unclear. Here, we report that propagation of the apoptotic JNK pathway requires the cooperative interaction of two molecular scaffolds, POSH and JIPs. POSH (plenty of SH3s) is a multidomain GTP-Rac1-interacting protein that binds and promotes activation of mixed lineage kinases. JIPs are reported to bind MAP kinase kinases 4/7 and JNKs. We find that POSH and JIPs directly associate with one another to form a multiprotein complex, PJAC (POSH-JIP apoptotic complex), that includes all of the known kinase components of the pathway. Our observations indicate that this complex is required for JNK activation and cell death in response to apoptotic stimuli.

  7. Digital technology use in ELT classrooms and self-directed learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehir Sert

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The digital era is a new challenge for teachers. While children get acquainted with digital technology before the age of six, teachers, who have encountered the digital world at a later time in their lives, struggle with it. Self-directed learning, which is crucial for lifelong learning, can be enhanced by the use of technology within and beyond classroom settings. The aim of this study was to examine the difference between the perceptions of students in low- and high-income groups about their use of technology in a general sense and their teachers’ use of technology in ELT classrooms. It also tested the correlation between the perceptions of their self-directed learning behaviours and their own/their teachers’ technology use. The population of the study consisted of 75 students from high- and 70 students from low-income groups. Causal comparative and correlational research methods were adopted in the study. The surveys to measure the students’ perceptions about technology use were developed by the researchers. A scale, established by Demirtas and Sert (2010, was used to identify the level of self-directed learning views of the students. The data were collected at the beginning of the first term of the 2015-2016 school year. The results indicated that there was no significant difference between perceptions of the low- and high-income students regarding their own technology use. Likewise, perceptions of the low- and high-income students did not differ regarding their teachers’ technology use. There was no correlation between the perceptions of the low-/high-income mixed group regarding their use of technology and their teachers’ use of technology. Lastly, self-directed learning perceptions of the low-/high-income mixed group did not correlate with their perceptions on any aspects of technology use. The educational implications of these results were discussed and suggestions were put forward in order to produce more effective learning

  8. Real-time nutrient monitoring in rivers: adaptive sampling strategies, technological challenges and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaen, Phillip; Khamis, Kieran; Lloyd, Charlotte; Bradley, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Excessive nutrient concentrations in river waters threaten aquatic ecosystem functioning and can pose substantial risks to human health. Robust monitoring strategies are therefore required to generate reliable estimates of river nutrient loads and to improve understanding of the catchment processes that drive spatiotemporal patterns in nutrient fluxes. Furthermore, these data are vital for prediction of future trends under changing environmental conditions and thus the development of appropriate mitigation measures. In recent years, technological developments have led to an increase in the use of continuous in-situ nutrient analysers, which enable measurements at far higher temporal resolutions than can be achieved with discrete sampling and subsequent laboratory analysis. However, such instruments can be costly to run and difficult to maintain (e.g. due to high power consumption and memory requirements), leading to trade-offs between temporal and spatial monitoring resolutions. Here, we highlight how adaptive monitoring strategies, comprising a mixture of temporal sample frequencies controlled by one or more 'trigger variables' (e.g. river stage, turbidity, or nutrient concentration), can advance our understanding of catchment nutrient dynamics while simultaneously overcoming many of the practical and economic challenges encountered in typical in-situ river nutrient monitoring applications. We present examples of short-term variability in river nutrient dynamics, driven by complex catchment behaviour, which support our case for the development of monitoring systems that can adapt in real-time to rapid environmental changes. In addition, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of current nutrient monitoring techniques, and suggest new research directions based on emerging technologies and highlight how these might improve: 1) monitoring strategies, and 2) understanding of linkages between catchment processes and river nutrient fluxes.

  9. 40 CFR 51.1010 - Requirements for reasonably available control technology (RACT) and reasonably available control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology (RACT) and reasonably available control measures (RACM). 51.1010 Section 51.1010... PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1010 Requirements for reasonably available control technology...

  10. The Impact of Training on the Time Required to Implement Technology in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Troy

    2014-01-01

    Many teachers are using technology to improve student achievement, but only a few are attaining an improvement in student achievement. The purpose of this quantitative study was to identify: (1) how much time teachers spend integrating technology into their classroom, (2) how much time teachers believe is required to maximize the effectiveness of…

  11. 42 CFR 495.332 - State Medicaid health information technology (HIT) plan requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., individuals in long-term care settings and the aged, blind, and disabled. This description must address the... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State Medicaid health information technology (HIT... HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.332...

  12. 48 CFR 3052.204-70 - Security requirements for unclassified information technology resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... unclassified information technology resources. 3052.204-70 Section 3052.204-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations... for unclassified information technology resources. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3004.470-3, insert a clause substantially the same as follows: Security Requirements for Unclassified Information...

  13. 42 CFR 495.338 - Health information technology implementation advance planning document requirements (HIT IAPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health information technology implementation advance planning document requirements (HIT IAPD). 495.338 Section 495.338 Public Health CENTERS FOR... the Medicaid Program § 495.338 Health information technology implementation advance planning...

  14. 42 CFR 495.336 - Health information technology planning advance planning document requirements (HIT PAPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health information technology planning advance planning document requirements (HIT PAPD). 495.336 Section 495.336 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Medicaid Program § 495.336 Health information technology planning advance planning document...

  15. Direct interaction between two actin nucleators is required in Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Margot E

    2013-11-01

    Controlled actin assembly is crucial to a wide variety of cellular processes, including polarity establishment during early development. The recently discovered actin mesh, a structure that traverses the Drosophila oocyte during mid-oogenesis, is essential for proper establishment of the major body axes. Genetic experiments indicate that at least two proteins, Spire (Spir) and Cappuccino (Capu), are required to build this mesh. The spire and cappuccino genetic loci were first identified as maternal effect genes in Drosophila. Mutation in either locus results in the same phenotypes, including absence of the mesh, linking them functionally. Both proteins nucleate actin filaments. Spir and Capu also interact directly with each other in vitro, suggesting a novel synergistic mode of regulating actin. In order to understand how and why proteins with similar biochemical activity would be required in the same biological pathway, genetic experiments were designed to test whether a direct interaction between Spir and Capu is required during oogenesis. Indeed, data in this study indicate that Spir and Capu must interact directly with one another and then separate to function properly. Furthermore, these actin regulators are controlled by a combination of mechanisms, including interaction with one another, functional inhibition and regulation of their protein levels. Finally, this work demonstrates for the first time in a multicellular organism that the ability of a formin to assemble actin filaments is required for a specific structure.

  16. Minimum length of direct repeat sequences required for efficient homologous recombination induced by zinc finger nuclease in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, ChongHua; Yan, Qiang; Zhang, ZhiYing

    2014-10-01

    Zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) technology is a powerful molecular tool for targeted genome modifications and genetic engineering. However, screening for specific ZFs and validation of ZFN activity are labor intensive and time consuming. We previously designed a yeast-based ZFN screening and validation system by inserting a ZFN binding site flanked by a 164 bp direct repeat sequence into the middle of a Gal4 transcription factor, disrupting the open reading frame of the yeast Gal4 gene. Expression of the ZFN causes a double stranded break at its binding site, which promotes the cellular DNA repair system to restore expression of a functional Gal transcriptional factor via homologous recombination. Expression of Gal4 transcription factor leads to activation of three reporter genes in an AH109 yeast two-hybrid strain. However, the 164 bp direct repeat appears to generate spontaneous homologous recombination frequently, resulting in many false positive ZFNs. To overcome this, a series of DNA fragments of various lengths from 10 to 150 bp with 10 bp increase each and 164 bp direct repeats flanking the ZFN binding site were designed and constructed. The results demonstrated that the minimum length required for ZFN-induced homologous recombination was 30 bp, which almost eliminated spontaneous recombination. Using the 30 bp direct repeat sequence, ZFN could efficiently induce homologous recombination, while false positive ZFNs resulting from spontaneous homologous recombination were minimized. Thus, this study provided a simple, fast and sensitive ZFN screening and activity validation system in yeast.

  17. A Conceptual Methodology for Assessing Acquisition Requirements Robustness against Technology Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shuo-Ju

    2011-12-01

    In recent years the United States has shifted from a threat-based acquisition policy that developed systems for countering specific threats to a capabilities-based strategy that emphasizes the acquisition of systems that provide critical national defense capabilities. This shift in policy, in theory, allows for the creation of an "optimal force" that is robust against current and future threats regardless of the tactics and scenario involved. In broad terms, robustness can be defined as the insensitivity of an outcome to "noise" or non-controlled variables. Within this context, the outcome is the successful achievement of defense strategies and the noise variables are tactics and scenarios that will be associated with current and future enemies. Unfortunately, a lack of system capability, budget, and schedule robustness against technology performance and development uncertainties has led to major setbacks in recent acquisition programs. This lack of robustness stems from the fact that immature technologies have uncertainties in their expected performance, development cost, and schedule that cause to variations in system effectiveness and program development budget and schedule requirements. Unfortunately, the Technology Readiness Assessment process currently used by acquisition program managers and decision-makers to measure technology uncertainty during critical program decision junctions does not adequately capture the impact of technology performance and development uncertainty on program capability and development metrics. The Technology Readiness Level metric employed by the TRA to describe program technology elements uncertainties can only provide a qualitative and non-descript estimation of the technology uncertainties. In order to assess program robustness, specifically requirements robustness, against technology performance and development uncertainties, a new process is needed. This process should provide acquisition program managers and decision

  18. Staffing ratios and quality: an analysis of minimum direct care staffing requirements for nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowblis, John R

    2011-10-01

    To study the impact of minimum direct care staffing (MDCS) requirements on nurse staffing levels, nurse skill mix, and quality. U.S. nursing home facility data from the Online Survey Certification and Reporting (OSCAR) System merged with MDCS requirements. STUDY DESIGN; Facility-level outcomes of nurse staffing levels, nurse skill mix, and quality measures are regressed on the level of nurse staffing required by MDCS requirements in the prior year and other controls using fixed effect panel regression. Quality measures are care practices, resident outcomes, and regulatory deficiencies. Analysis used all OSCAR surveys from 1999 to 2004, resulting in 17,552 unique facilities with a total of 94,371 survey observations. The effect of MDCS requirements varied with reliance of the nursing home on Medicaid. Higher MDCS requirements increase nurse staffing levels, while their effect on nurse skill mix depends on the reliance of the nursing home on Medicaid. MDCS have mixed effects on care practices but are generally associated with improved resident outcomes and meeting regulatory standards. MDCS requirements change staffing levels and skill mix, improve certain aspects of quality, but can also lead to use of care practices associated with lower quality. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  19. 78 FR 59903 - Emission Mask Requirements for Digital Technologies on 800 MHz NPSPAC Channels; Analog FM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 90 Emission Mask Requirements for Digital Technologies on 800 MHz NPSPAC Channels; Analog FM Capability on Mutual Aid and Interoperability Channels AGENCY: Federal Communications... Petition for Rulemaking filed by Harris Corporation (Harris). The NPRM proposes to require digital...

  20. Current Requirements of the Society to the Professional Training of Specialists in Information Technology Industry in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pododimenko Inna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of professional training of skilled human personnel in the industry of information communication technology, the urgency of which is recognized at the state level of Ukraine and the world, has been considered. It has been traced that constantly growing requirements of the labour market, swift scientific progress require the use of innovative approaches to the training of future ІТ specialists with the aim to increase their professional level. The content of standards of professional training and development of information technologies specialists in foreign countries, particularly in Japan, has been analyzed and generalized. On the basis of analysis of educational and professional standards of Japan, basic requirements to the engineer in industry of information communication technology in the conditions of competitive environment at the labour market have been comprehensively characterized. The competencies that graduate students of educational qualification level of bachelor in the conditions of new state policy concerning upgrading the quality of higher education have been considered. The constituents of professional competence in the structure of an engineer-programmer’s personality, necessary on different levels of professional improvement of a specialist for the development of community of highly skilled ІТ specialists, have been summarized. Positive features of foreign experience and the possibility of their implementation into the native educational space have been distinguished. Directions for modernization and upgrading of the quality of higher education in Ukraine and the prospects for further scientific research concerning the practice of specialists in information technologies training have been suggested

  1. THz Direct Detector and Heterodyne Receiver Arrays in Silicon Nanoscale Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzyb, Janusz; Pfeiffer, Ullrich

    2015-10-01

    The main scope of this paper is to address various implementation aspects of THz detector arrays in the nanoscale silicon technologies operating at room temperatures. This includes the operation of single detectors, detectors operated in parallel (arrays), and arrays of detectors operated in a video-camera mode with an internal reset to support continuous-wave illumination without the need to synchronize the source with the camera (no lock-in receiver required). A systematic overview of the main advantages and limitations in using silicon technologies for THz applications is given. The on-chip antenna design challenges and co-design aspects with the active circuitry are thoroughly analyzed for broadband detector/receiver operation. A summary of the state-of-the-art arrays of broadband THz direct detectors based on two different operation principles is presented. The first is based on the non-quasistatic resistive mixing process in a MOSFET channel, whereas the other relies on the THz signal rectification by nonlinearity of the base-emitter junction in a high-speed SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT). For the MOSFET detector arrays implemented in a 65 nm bulk CMOS technology, a state-of-the-art optical noise equivalent power (NEP) of 14 pW/ at 720 GHz was measured, whereas for the HBT detector arrays in a 0.25 μm SiGe process technology, an optical NEP of 47 pW/ at 700 GHz was found. Based on the implemented 1k-pixel CMOS camera with an average power consumption of 2.5 μW/pixel, various design aspects specific to video-mode operation are outlined and co-integration issues with the readout circuitry are analyzed. Furthermore, a single-chip 2 × 2 array of heterodyne receivers for multi-color active imaging in a 160-1000 GHz band is presented with a well-balanced NEP across the operation bandwidth ranging from 0.1 to 0.24 fW/Hz (44.1-47.8 dB single-sideband NF) and an instantaneous IF bandwidth of 10 GHz. In its present implementation, the receiver RF

  2. Design technology co-optimization assessment for directed self-assembly-based lithography: design for directed self-assembly or directed self-assembly for design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kafai; Liu, Chi-Chun; Tsai, Hsinyu; Xu, Yongan; Chi, Cheng; Raghunathan, Ananthan; Dhagat, Parul; Hu, Lin; Park, Oseo; Jung, Sunggon; Cho, Wooyong; Morillo, Jaime; Pitera, Jed; Schmidt, Kristin; Guillorn, Mike; Brink, Markus; Sanders, Daniel; Felix, Nelson; Bailey, Todd; Colburn, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    We report a systematic study of the feasibility of using directed self-assembly (DSA) in real product design for 7-nm fin field effect transistor (FinFET) technology. We illustrate a design technology co-optimization (DTCO) methodology and two test cases applying both line/space type and via/cut type DSA processes. We cover the parts of DSA process flow and critical design constructs as well as a full chip capable computational lithography framework for DSA. By co-optimizing all process flow and product design constructs in a holistic way using a computational DTCO flow, we point out the feasibility of manufacturing using DSA in an advanced FinFET technology node and highlight the issues in the whole DSA ecosystem before we insert DSA into manufacturing.

  3. Overview of Ka-band communications technology requirements for the space exploration initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Edward F.

    1991-12-01

    In the Space Exploration Initiative, Ka-band frequencies are likely to carry the bulk of the communications traffic both in the vicinity of and on the return links from the moon and Mars. The four exploration architectures identified by the Synthesis Group are examined and Ka-band technology requirements to meet the data traffic needs and schedule are identified. Specific Ka-band technology requirements identified are: transmitters - 0.5 to 200 W with high efficiency; antennas - 5m and 9m diameter, with multiple beams and/or scanning beams; and spacecraft receivers - noise figure of 2 dB. For each component, the current state of technology is assessed and needed technology development programs are identified. It is concluded that to meet the schedules of lunar and Mars precursor missions beginning in approximately the year 2000, aggressive technology development and advanced development programs are required immediately for Ka-band communications systems components. Additionally, the greater data transmission rates for the cargo and piloted phases of the exploration program require further Ka-band communications technology developments targeted for operations beginning in about 2010.

  4. Investigate the Computer Information Network Security Technology and the Development Direction

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Teng

    2017-01-01

    After China’s accession to the WTO, the computer information network security technology of our country has a rapid development, bring many conveniences for the people’s life and work, indirectly changing their daily life and working mode. For the whole development situation of our country, the development direction of informatization is the inevitable trend of development in our country, while the using process of computer information network security technology in the society still exist ma...

  5. High Altitude Long Endurance UAV Analysis of Alternatives and Technology Requirements Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickol, Craig L.; Guynn, Mark D.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    An Analysis of Alternatives and a Technology Requirements Study were conducted for two mission areas utilizing various types of High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). A hurricane science mission and a communications relay mission provided air vehicle requirements which were used to derive sixteen potential HALE UAV configurations, including heavier-than-air (HTA) and lighter-than-air (LTA) concepts with both consumable fuel and solar regenerative propulsion systems. A HTA diesel-fueled wing-body-tail configuration emerged as the preferred concept given near-term technology constraints. The cost effectiveness analysis showed that simply maximizing vehicle endurance can be a sub-optimum system solution. In addition, the HTA solar regenerative configuration was utilized to perform both a mission requirements study and a technology development study. Given near-term technology constraints, the solar regenerative powered vehicle was limited to operations during the long days and short nights at higher latitudes during the summer months. Technology improvements are required in energy storage system specific energy and solar cell efficiency, along with airframe drag and mass reductions to enable the solar regenerative vehicle to meet the full mission requirements.

  6. Technological Aspects of High Speed Direct Laser Deposition Based on Heterophase Powder Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turichin, G. A.; Klimova, O. G.; Zemlyakov, E. V.; Babkin, K. D.; Kolodyazhnyy, D. Yu.; Shamray, F. A.; Travyanov, A. Ya.; Petrovskiy, P. V.

    The article deals with physical peculiarities and technology of high speed processes of direct laser deposition. On the base of theoretic research and computer modeling the powder transfer has been optimized, increasing process stability and productivity. Principles of nozzles design also have been developed in accordance with technological needs. An influence of process mode on product properties and material structure was defined for heat resisted Ni-based superalloys. Developed technology provided the mechanic properties of products on the level of rolled material and allows avoid heat treatment and HIP in production process. Possible ways for increasing process performance and economic efficiency also have been discussed.

  7. A Protein Complex Required for Polymerase V Transcripts and RNA- Directed DNA Methylation in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Julie A.

    2010-05-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification associated with gene silencing. In Arabidopsis, DNA methylation is established by DOMAINS REARRANGED METHYLTRANSFERASE 2 (DRM2), which is targeted by small interfering RNAs through a pathway termed RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) [1, 2]. Recently, RdDM was shown to require intergenic noncoding (IGN) transcripts that are dependent on the Pol V polymerase. These transcripts are proposed to function as scaffolds for the recruitment of downstream RdDM proteins, including DRM2, to loci that produce both siRNAs and IGN transcripts [3]. However, the mechanism(s) through which Pol V is targeted to specific genomic loci remains largely unknown. Through affinity purification of two known RdDM components, DEFECTIVE IN RNA-DIRECTED DNA METHYLATION 1 (DRD1) [4] and DEFECTIVE IN MERISTEM SILENCING 3 (DMS3) [5, 6], we found that they copurify with each other and with a novel protein, RNA-DIRECTED DNA METHYLATION 1 (RDM1), forming a complex we term DDR. We also found that DRD1 copurified with Pol V subunits and that RDM1, like DRD1 [3] and DMS3 [7], is required for the production of Pol V-dependent transcripts. These results suggest that the DDR complex acts in RdDM at a step upstream of the recruitment or activation of Pol V. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Study of power management technology for orbital multi-100KWe applications. Volume 3: Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildice, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    Mid to late 1980's power management technology needs to support development of a general purpose space platform, capable of suplying 100 to 250 KWe to a variety of users in low Earth orbit are examined. A typical, shuttle assembled and supplied space platform is illustred, along with a group of payloads which might reasonably be expected to use such a facility. Examination of platform and user power needs yields a set of power requirements used to evaluate power management options for life cycle cost effectivness. The most cost effective ac/dc and dc systems are evaluated, specifically to develop system details which lead to technology goals, including: array and transmission voltages, best frequency for ac power transmission, and advantages and disadvantages of ac and dc systems for this application. System and component requirements are compared with the state-of-the-art to identify areas where technological development is required.

  9. A New Direct-Pour In-Mold (DPI) Technology for Producing Ductile and Compacted Graphite Iron Castings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Hitchings; Jay R. Hitchings

    2007-07-20

    A new "Direct Pour In-Mold" (DPI) Magnesium treatment technology has been developed that can produce both Nodular and Compacted Graphite iron. The DPI technology converts the standard horizontal runner system into a vertical one, by placing a Magnesium Ferrosilicon treatment alloy and molten metal filter into a specially designed container. The DPI container is easily placed into either vertically or horizontally parted molds, and then a base metal can be poured directly into it. The metal is treated and filtered as it passes through, and then proceeds directly into a runner or casting cavity. Various sizes of containers provide all of the necessary components required to deliver a range of weights of treated and filtered metal at accurate and consistent flow rates. The DPI containers provide energy savings over competing techniques, increased mold yields, very high Magnesium recovery, zero Magnesium fume, and no post inoculation is required. By treating the metal just prior to it entering a casting cavity many other benefits and advantages are also realized.

  10. Directions in US Air Force space power technology for global virtual presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, David; Reinhardt, Kitt; Mayberry, Clay; Radzykewycz, Dan; Donet, Chuck; Marvin, Dean; Hill, Carole

    1998-01-01

    Recent trends in the development of high efficiency, light-weight, compact, reliable and cost-effective space power technologies needed to support the development of next-generation military and commercial satellites will be discussed. Development of new light-weight and reduced volume electrical power system (EPS) technologies are required to enable the design of future ``smallsats'' with power requirements less than 1500W, to ``monstersats'' having projected power levels ranging from 10-50kW for commercial communication and military space based radar type satellites. In support of these projected requirements a complement of power generation, power management and distribution, and energy storage technologies are under development at the Air Force Research Laboratory's Space Vehicles Directorate. The technologies presented in this paper include high efficiency multijunction solar cells, alkali metal thermal electric converters (AMTEC), high-voltage (70-130V)/high-efficiency/high-density power management and distribution (PMAD) electronics, and high energy density electrochemical and mechanical energy storage systems (sodium sulfur, lithium-ion, and flywheels). Development issues and impacts of individual technologies will be discussed in context with global presence satellite mission requirements.

  11. Gaze directed displays as an enabling technology for attention aware systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.

    2006-01-01

    Visual information can in principle be dynamically optimised by monitoring the user’s state of attention, e.g. by tracking eye movements. Gaze directed displays are therefore an important enabling technology for attention aware systems. We present a state-of-the-art review of both (1) techniques to

  12. Dynamic effects of social influence and direct marketing on the adoption of high-technology products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risselada, H.; Verhoef, P.C.; Bijmolt, T.H.A.

    Many firms capitalize on their customers' social networks to improve the success rate of their new products. In this article, the authors analyze the dynamic effects of social influence and direct marketing on the adoption of a new high-technology product. Social influence is likely to play a role

  13. Horizontal directional drilling: a green and sustainable technology for site remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubrecht, Michael D

    2012-03-06

    Sustainability has become an important factor in the selection of remedies to clean up contaminated sites. Horizontal directional drilling (HDD) is a relatively new drilling technology that has been successfully adapted to site remediation. In addition to the benefits that HDD provides for the logistics of site cleanup, it also delivers sustainability advantages, compared to alternative construction methods.

  14. Improving new technology venture performance under direct and indirect network externality conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podoynitsyna, Ksenia; Song, Michael; van der Bij, Hans; Weggeman, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the effectiveness of five responses to external uncertainty in markets with network externalities: avoidance, imitation, control, cooperation, and real options reasoning as a form of strategic flexibility. Our analysis of 385 new technology ventures shows that direct and indirect

  15. Dynamic effects of social influence and direct marketing on the adoption of high-technology products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risselada, H.; Verhoef, P.C.; Bijmolt, T.H.A.

    2014-01-01

    Many firms capitalize on their customers' social networks to improve the success rate of their new products. In this article, the authors analyze the dynamic effects of social influence and direct marketing on the adoption of a new high-technology product. Social influence is likely to play a role b

  16. Geothermal technology transfer for direct heat applications: Final report, 1983--1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.; Culver, G.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes a geothermal technology transfer program, performed by Oregon Institute of Technology's Geo-Heat Center, used to aid in the development of geothermal energy for direct heat applications. It provides a summary of 88 technical assistance projects performed in 10 states for space heating, district heating, green-houses, aquaculture, industrial processing, small scale binary electric power generation and heat pump applications. It describes an inventory compiled for over 100 direct heat projects that contains information on project site, resource and engineering data. An overview of information services is provided to users of the program which includes; advisory, referrals, literature distribution, geothermal technology library, quarterly Bulletin, training programs, presentations and tours, and reporting of activities for the USDOE Geothermal Progress Monitor.

  17. Waste disposal technology transfer matching requirement clusters for waste disposal facilities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Thomas; Nelles, Michael; Flamme, Sabine; Jinming, Cai

    2012-11-01

    Even though technology transfer has been part of development aid programmes for many decades, it has more often than not failed to come to fruition. One reason is the absence of simple guidelines or decision making tools that help operators or plant owners to decide on the most suitable technology to adopt. Practical suggestions for choosing the most suitable technology to combat a specific problem are hard to get and technology drawbacks are not sufficiently highlighted. Western counterparts in technology transfer or development projects often underestimate or don't sufficiently account for the high investment costs for the imported incineration plant; the differing nature of Chinese MSW; the need for trained manpower; and the need to treat flue gas, bunker leakage water, and ash, all of which contain highly toxic elements. This article sets out requirements for municipal solid waste disposal plant owner/operators in China as well as giving an attribute assessment for the prevalent waste disposal plant types in order to assist individual decision makers in their evaluation process for what plant type might be most suitable in a given situation. There is no 'best' plant for all needs and purposes, and requirement constellations rely on generalisations meaning they cannot be blindly applied, but an alignment of a type of plant to a type of owner or operator can realistically be achieved. To this end, a four-step approach is suggested and a technology matrix is set out to ease the choice of technology to transfer and avoid past errors. The four steps are (1) Identification of plant owner/operator requirement clusters; (2) Determination of different municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment plant attributes; (3) Development of a matrix matching requirement clusters to plant attributes; (4) Application of Quality Function Deployment Method to aid in technology localisation. The technology transfer matrices thus derived show significant performance differences between the

  18. Direct conversion technology. Annual summary report CY 1991, January 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massier, P.F.; Back, L.H.; Ryan, M.A.; Fabris, G.

    1992-01-07

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991. Research on AMTEC and on LMMHD was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions (Refs. 1--5) contain descriptive and performance discussions of the following direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (Nitionol heat engine); and also, more complete descriptive discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.

  19. Tbx16 and Msgn1 are required to establish directional cell migration of zebrafish mesodermal progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Alyssa J; Kimelman, David

    2015-10-15

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an essential process that occurs repeatedly during embryogenesis whereby stably adherent cells convert to an actively migrating state. While much is known about the factors and events that initiate the EMT, the steps that cells undergo to become directionally migratory are far less well understood. Zebrafish embryos lacking the transcription factors Tbx16/Spadetail and Mesogenin1 (Msgn1) are a valuable system for investigating the EMT. Mesodermal cells in these embryos are unable to perform the EMT necessary to leave the most posterior end of the body (the tailbud) and join the pre-somitic mesoderm, a process that is conserved in all vertebrates. It has previously been very difficult to study this EMT in vertebrates because of the multiple cell types in the tailbud and the morphogenetic changes the whole embryo undergoes. Here, we describe a novel tissue explant system for imaging the mesodermal cell EMT in vivo that allows us to investigate the requirements for cells to acquire migratory properties during the EMT with high spatio-temporal resolution. This method revealed that, despite the inability of tbx16;msgn1-deficient cells to leave the tailbud, actin-based protrusions form surprisingly normally in these cells and they become highly motile. However, tbx16;msgn1-deficient cells have specific cell-autonomous defects in the persistence and anterior direction of migration because the lamellipodia they form are not productive in driving anteriorward migration. Additionally, we show that mesoderm morphogenesis and differentiation are separable and that there is a migratory cue that directs mesodermal cell migration that is independent of Tbx16 and Msgn1. This work defines changes that cells undergo as they complete the EMT and provides new insight into the mechanisms required in vivo for cells to become mesenchymal.

  20. A Cognitive Systems Engineering Approach to Developing Human Machine Interface Requirements for New Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, Lisa Carolynn

    This dissertation examines the challenges inherent in designing and regulating to support human-automation interaction for new technologies that will be deployed into complex systems. A key question for new technologies with increasingly capable automation, is how work will be accomplished by human and machine agents. This question has traditionally been framed as how functions should be allocated between humans and machines. Such framing misses the coordination and synchronization that is needed for the different human and machine roles in the system to accomplish their goals. Coordination and synchronization demands are driven by the underlying human-automation architecture of the new technology, which are typically not specified explicitly by designers. The human machine interface (HMI), which is intended to facilitate human-machine interaction and cooperation, typically is defined explicitly and therefore serves as a proxy for human-automation cooperation requirements with respect to technical standards for technologies. Unfortunately, mismatches between the HMI and the coordination and synchronization demands of the underlying human-automation architecture can lead to system breakdowns. A methodology is needed that both designers and regulators can utilize to evaluate the predicted performance of a new technology given potential human-automation architectures. Three experiments were conducted to inform the minimum HMI requirements for a detect and avoid (DAA) system for unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). The results of the experiments provided empirical input to specific minimum operational performance standards that UAS manufacturers will have to meet in order to operate UAS in the National Airspace System (NAS). These studies represent a success story for how to objectively and systematically evaluate prototype technologies as part of the process for developing regulatory requirements. They also provide an opportunity to reflect on the lessons learned in order

  1. CHOICE OF TECHNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS FOR PRODUCTION OF WIRE FOR ONBOARD RINGS WITH HEIGHTENED REQUIREMENTS TO ADHESION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Demidov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The work on choice of the production technology of wire for bead rings of tires with diameter of 12,6 mm providing fulfilment of the customer requirements on size of adhesion and residual covering by rubber is carried out.

  2. Employers' Perceptions of Information Technology Competency Requirements for Management Accounting Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spraakman, Gary; O'Grady, Winifred; Askarany, Davood; Akroyd, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Management accountants work in a computerized workplace with information technology (IT) for producing financial ledgers and for reporting. Thus, the role of the management accountant has shifted from capturing and recording transactions to analyzing business issues. The research question is: what IT knowledge and skills do employers require of…

  3. 75 FR 15655 - Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AP91 Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources... Division, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (D205- 02), Environmental Protection Agency... facilities. Brick and Structural Clay Products; Clay 327122 Ceramic wall and floor tile manufacturing...

  4. Employers' Perceptions of Information Technology Competency Requirements for Management Accounting Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spraakman, Gary; O'Grady, Winifred; Askarany, Davood; Akroyd, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Management accountants work in a computerized workplace with information technology (IT) for producing financial ledgers and for reporting. Thus, the role of the management accountant has shifted from capturing and recording transactions to analyzing business issues. The research question is: what IT knowledge and skills do employers require of…

  5. Virtual environment and computer-aided technologies used for system prototyping and requirements development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Cory; Maida, James; Goldsby, Michael; Clark, Jim; Wu, Liew; Prenger, Henk

    1993-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) Data Management System (DMS) consists of distributed hardware and software which monitor and control the many onboard systems. Virtual environment and off-the-shelf computer technologies can be used at critical points in project development to aid in objectives and requirements development. Geometric models (images) coupled with off-the-shelf hardware and software technologies were used in The Space Station Mockup and Trainer Facility (SSMTF) Crew Operational Assessment Project. Rapid prototyping is shown to be a valuable tool for operational procedure and system hardware and software requirements development. The project objectives, hardware and software technologies used, data gained, current activities, future development and training objectives shall be discussed. The importance of defining prototyping objectives and staying focused while maintaining schedules are discussed along with project pitfalls.

  6. Technology Requirements for a Square Meter, Arcsecond Resolution Telescope for X-Rays: The SMART-X Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.; Allured, Ryan; Bookbinder, Jay A.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Forman, William R.; Freeman, Mark D.; McMuldroch, Stuart; Reid, Paul B.; Tananbaum, Harvey; Vikhlinin, Alexey A.; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan E.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Jackson, Thomas N.; Ramirez, J. Israel; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; ODell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the astrophysical problems of the 2020's requires sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with square meter effective area. Such requirements can be derived, for example, by considering deep x-ray surveys to find the young black holes in the early universe (large redshifts) which will grow into the first super-massive black holes. We have envisioned a mission, the Square Meter Arcsecond Resolution Telescope for X-rays (SMART-X), based on adjustable x-ray optics technology, incorporating mirrors with the required small ratio of mass to collecting area. We are pursuing technology which achieves sub-arcsecond resolution by on-orbit adjustment via thin film piezoelectric "cells" deposited directly on the non-reflecting sides of thin, slumped glass. While SMART-X will also incorporate state-of-the-art x-ray cameras, the remaining spacecraft systems have no requirements more stringent than those which are well understood and proven on the current Chandra X-ray Observatory.

  7. IDN2 and its paralogs form a complex required for RNA-directed DNA methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui-Jun Zhang

    Full Text Available IDN2/RDM12 has been previously identified as a component of the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM machinery in Arabidopsis thaliana, but how it functions in RdDM remains unknown. By affinity purification of IDN2, we co-purified two IDN2 paralogs IDP1 and IDP2 (IDN2 PARALOG 1 and 2. The coiled-coil domain between the XS and XH domains of IDN2 is essential for IDN2 homodimerization, whereas the IDN2 C-terminal XH domain but not the coiled-coil domain is required for IDN2 interaction with IDP1 and IDP2. By introducing the wild-type IDN2 sequence and its mutated derivatives into the idn2 mutant for complementation testing, we demonstrated that the previously uncharacterized IDN2 XH domain is required for the IDN2-IDP1/IDP2 complex formation as well as for IDN2 function. IDP1 is required for de novo DNA methylation, siRNA accumulation, and transcriptional gene silencing, whereas IDP2 has partially overlapping roles with IDP1. Unlike IDN2, IDP1 and IDP2 are incapable of binding double-stranded RNA, suggesting that the roles of IDP1 and IDP2 are different from those of IDN2 in the IDN2-IDP1/IDP2 complex and that IDP1 and IDP2 are essential for the functioning of the complex in RdDM.

  8. Time Required to Initiate a Defensive Reaction to Direct and Feint Attacks in Fencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Davila, Marcos; Rojas, F Javier; Gutiérrez-Cruz, Carmen; García, Carlos; Navarro, Enrique

    2016-12-01

    The two-fold purpose of this study was to analyze the time required by a fencer to initiate a defensive action in response to a direct attack, which involves identifying when the defending fencer detects the just-noticeable difference, and, secondly, to assess the effect that an attacker's rapid armed hand movement (feint attack) has on the time required to initiate a defensive move. Twenty-four elite fencers and a fencing master were included in the study. Four adapted force plates were installed on a scaffold used as a fencing piste. A 3D video analysis system recorded the location of 2 markers installed on the fencing master's shoulder and sword. The results confirm that the defending fencer has a mean movement time of 0.353 ± 0.028 s to perform the defensive action, which provides an advantage over the attacking fencer. The velocity of movement in the peripheral visual field has no influence on the time required by elite fencers to initiate a defensive action. This confirms the crucial role that response inhibition processes play when nonrelevant actions are perceived. Kinematic analysis of markers suggests that the eye movements of elite fencers are not the only source of information used while observing an attack.

  9. Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling System and Horizontal Directional Drilling Technology Demonstration, Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C.V.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Myers, D.A.; Gardner, M.G.; Williamson, T.; Huffman, J.

    1999-06-01

    The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling (EMWD) system and Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) were successfully demonstrated at the Mock Tank Leak Simulation Site and the Drilling Technology Test Site, Hanford, Washington. The use of directional drilling offers an alternative to vertical drilling site characterization. Directional drilling can develop a borehole under a structure, such as a waste tank, from an angled entry and leveling off to horizontal at the desired depth. The EMWD system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides the capability of producing real-time environmental and drill bit data during drilling operations. The technology demonstration consisted of the development of one borehole under a mock waste tank at a depth of {approximately} {minus}8 m ({minus}27 ft.), following a predetermined drill path, tracking the drill path to within a radius of {approximately}1.5 m (5 ft.), and monitoring for zones of radiological activity using the EMWD system. The purpose of the second borehole was to demonstrate the capability of drilling to a depth of {approximately} {minus}21 m ({minus}70 ft.), the depth needed to obtain access under the Hanford waste tanks, and continue drilling horizontally. This report presents information on the HDD and EMWD technologies, demonstration design, results of the demonstrations, and lessons learned.

  10. Study on Application of Bi-directional Combination Technology Integrating Residue Hydrotreating with Catalytic Cracking RICP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Chuanfeng; Gao Yongcan; Dai Lishun; Li Dadong

    2008-01-01

    After analysing the disadvantages of the traditional residue hydrotreating-catalytic cracking combination process, RIPP has proposed a bi-directional combination technology integrating residue hydrotreating with catalytic cracking called RICP which does not further recycles the FCC heavy cycle oil (HCO) inside the FCC unit and delivers HCO to the residue hydrotreating unit as a diluting oil for the residue that is concurrently subjected to hydrotreating prior to being used as the FCC feed oil. The RICP technology can stimulate residue hydrotreating reactions through utilization of HCO along with an increased yield of FCC light distillate, resulting in enhanced petroleum utilization and economic benefits of the refinery.

  11. Mix and match capability of e-beam direct-write for the 65-nm technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplanche, Yves; Charpin, Murielle; Pain, Laurent; Todeschini, J.; Henry, Daniel; Sassoulas, Pierre-Olivier; Gough, S.; Weidenmueller, Ulf; Hahmann, Peter

    2003-06-01

    An easy way to pattern 65nm CD target, when optical lithography technology is not available, is to use an Electron Beam Direct Write tool (EBDW), which is well known for its high resolution patterning potentials, with the drawback of a very low throughput. Emerging techniques of electron projection lithography also propose the same patterning capability with enhanced throughput. One of the most crucial issues, when dealing with integration, is the overlay capability of the systems. This paper exposes the studies made on the overlay capability issue of the LEICA EBDW installed in STMicroelectronics (STM) production plant in Crolles (France; proves our tool is ready to support the 65nm node technology development.

  12. Appraisal of Information Technology Requirements in Quantity Surveying Firms in Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. U. Datti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A worrisome trend in the adoption of emerging technologies for competitive advantages and improved productivities by QSs have been observed in that there is overwhelming evidence that there is an increasing usage of IT in quantity surveying firms but little or no noticeable benefits on the practice. It however becomes pertinent to ask then, that despite the increases adoption of computing and telecommunication technologies, why isn’t there any noticeable change due to the impacts of IT in the Nigerian Construction Industry with particular reference to Quantity Surveying practices. The study appraised the requirement of IT in quantity surveying practice in Nigeria. It examined the position of IT in quantity surveying firms in terms of its requirement and analyzed IT requirements-based problem constraining quantity surveying firms. The study is a survey research designed to obtain information on information technology in QS firms. A self-administered questionnaire was employed to quantity surveyors in consulting firms for responses. Responses were returned and analyzed using severity index and later ranked in order of importance. The results indicate a high level of computerization of professional services among the firms with greater number of their computers being networked. However, despite high level of networking of available computers, sharing of printers and other scarce tools/technologies are not established. Compared to developed countries such as Canada, Australia, United Kingdom and USA, the position of IT requirements in QS firms in Nigeria can be said to be at basic level with organization possessing and applying basic IT tools and technologies (e.g. scanners, digital cameras, dvd/cd-rom, general purpose software, QS application software, chat programs etc. in their daily operation and processes. While most firms are progressing toward intermediate level by possessing intermediate IT tools and technologies (e.g. teleconferencing

  13. The Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment (TWiLiTE): An Airborne Direct Detection Doppler Lidar Instrument Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Bruce; McGill, Matthew; Schwemmer, Geary; Hardesty, Michael; Brewer, Alan; Wilkerson, Thomas; Atlas, Robert; Sirota, Marcos; Lindemann, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Global measurement of tropospheric winds is a key measurement for understanding atmospheric dynamics and improving numerical weather prediction. Global wind profiles remain a high priority for the operational weather community and also for a variety of research applications including studies of the global hydrologic cycle and transport studies of aerosols and trace species. In addition to space based winds, a high altitude airborne system flown on UAV or other advanced platforms would be of great interest for studying mesoscale dynamics and hurricanes. The Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment (TWiLiTE) project was selected in 2005 by the NASA Earth Sun Technology Office as part of the Instrument Incubator Program. TWiLiTE will leverage significant research and development investments in key technologies made in the past several years. The primary focus will be on integrating these sub-systems into a complete molecular direct detection Doppler wind lidar system designed for autonomous operation on a high altitude aircraft, such as the NASA WB57, so that the nadir viewing lidar will be able to profile winds through the full troposphere. TWiLiTE is a collaboration involving scientists and technologists from NASA Goddard, NOAA ESRL, Utah State University Space Dynamics Lab and industry partners Michigan Aerospace Corporation and Sigma Space Corporation. NASA Goddard and it's partners have been at the forefront in the development of key lidar technologies (lasers, telescopes, scanning systems, detectors and receivers) required to enable spaceborne global wind lidar measurement. The TWiLiTE integrated airborne Doppler lidar instrument will be the first demonstration of a airborne scanning direct detection Doppler lidar and will serve as a critical milestone on the path to a fixture spaceborne tropospheric wind system. The completed system will have the capability to profile winds in clear air from the aircraft altitude of 18 h to the surface with 250 m vertical

  14. Novel Direct Steelmaking by Combining Microwave, Electric Arc, and Exothermal Heating Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Xiaodi Huang; Dr. J. Y. Hwang

    2005-03-28

    Steel is a basic material broadly used by perhaps every industry and individual. It is critical to our nation's economy and national security. Unfortunately, the American steel industry is losing competitiveness in the world steel production field. There is an urgent need to develop the next generation of steelmaking technology for the American steel industry. Direct steelmaking through the combination of microwave, electric arc, and exothermal heating is a revolutionary change from current steelmaking technology. This technology can produce molten steel directly from a shippable agglomerate, consisting of iron oxide fines, powdered coal, and ground limestone. This technology is projected to eliminate many current intermediate steelmaking steps including coking, pellet sintering, blast furnace (BF) ironmaking, and basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking. This technology has the potential to (a) save up to 45% of the energy consumed by conventional steelmaking; (b) dramatically reduce the emission of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, VOCs, fine particulates, and air toxics; (c) substantially reduce waste and emission control costs; (d) greatly lower capital cost; and (e) considerably reduce steel production costs. This technology is based on the unique capability of microwaves to rapidly heat steelmaking raw materials to elevated temperature, then rapidly reduce iron oxides to metal by volumetric heating. Microwave heating, augmented with electric arc and exothermal reactions, is capable of producing molten steel. This technology has the components necessary to establish the ''future'' domestic steel industry as a technology leader with a strong economically competitive position in world markets. The project goals were to assess the utilization of a new steelmaking technology for its potential to achieve better overall energy efficiency, minimize pollutants and wastes, lower capital and operating costs, and increase the competitiveness of the

  15. Directions in US Air Force space power energy generation and distribution technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Kitt; Keener, Dave; Schuller, Mike

    1997-01-01

    Recent trends in the development of high efficiency, light-weight, reliable and cost-effective space power technologies needed to support the development of near-term, next-generation government and commercial satellites will be discussed. Significant advancements in light-weight and reduced volume electrical power system (EPS) components are required to enable the design of future smallsats with power requirements of less than 1000 W to monster-sats having projected power demands ranging from 10-50 kW for civilian and military communications and space based radar needs. For these missions increased emphasis is placed on reducing total satellite mass to enable use of smaller, less costly, and easier to deploy launch vehicles. In support of these requirements a complement of power generation, power management and distribution, and energy storage technologies are under development at the Air Force Phillips Laboratory Space and Missiles Technology Directorate. Specific technologies presented in this paper include high efficiency multijunction solar cells, low-cost thin-film solar cells, ultra light-weight flexible solar arrays, solar electric thermal converters, and high-voltage (70-130 V) and high-efficiency power management and distribution (PMAD) electronics. The projected impact of EPS subsystem performance on existing, near-term, and next-generation 10-50 kW military satellites will be discussed, along with technical issues and status of EPS component development.

  16. Requirements and solutions for future pellet technology; Krav och loesningar foer framtidens pelletsteknik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulrud, Susanne; Roennbaeck, Marie; Ryde, Daniel; Laitila, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Requirements and solutions for future pellet burning technologies Since 2006, sales of pellet burning technologies to the Swedish residential market have fallen. The main reasons for this decrease are: many of the economically favorable easy conversions from oil to pellets have been made; competition from heat pumps; warm winters; a stable electricity price; and the current structure of heating in residential buildings, where electric heating dominates. To change this falling trend pellets need to become more attractive to consumers. This project aimed to analyze the requirements for the next generation of pellets systems and to develop potential solutions, in collaboration with the pellets industry. More specifically, the study looked at consumers' attitudes toward heating choices and different heating through a survey to 2000 house owners across Sweden. The project included a market analysis of Swedish and international technologies and examines the conditions for Swedish pellet burning technology in different markets. In addition, new solutions and developments for Swedish pellets burning technology are described

  17. Space flight manipulator technologies and requirements for the NASA Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chladek, John T.; Craver, William M.

    1994-01-01

    NASA Headquarters' Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology (OACT) joined efforts with Johnson Space Center's (JSC) Automation and Robotics Division and Langley Research Center's (LaRC) Information Systems Division to capture the technologies developed during the cancelled NASA Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) program planned for use on Space Station Freedom. The recent FTS technology capture effort completed the build and testing of one flight qualifiable FTS manipulator, deliverable to JSC's Automation & Robotics Division for environmental testing. The many robotic technologies developed to meet the 30 year space environment design requirements are discussed in this paper. The manipulator properties were to allow positioning control to one thousandths of an inch, with zero actuator backlash over a temperature range of -50 to +95 C, and were to include impedance control and inertial decoupling. Safety and reliability requirements are discussed that were developed to allow a thirty year life in space with minimum maintenance. The system had to meet the safety requirements for hazardous payloads for operation in the shuttle payload bay during demonstration test flights prior to station use. A brief description is contained on an orbiter based robotic experiment and operational application using the dexterous FTS manipulator operating on the end of the shuttle remote manipulator systems (SRMS) from ground control.

  18. Histone crosstalk directed by H2B ubiquitination is required for chromatin boundary integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiji Kit-Wan Ma

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Genomic maps of chromatin modifications have provided evidence for the partitioning of genomes into domains of distinct chromatin states, which assist coordinated gene regulation. The maintenance of chromatin domain integrity can require the setting of boundaries. The HS4 insulator element marks the 3' boundary of a heterochromatin region located upstream of the chicken β-globin gene cluster. Here we show that HS4 recruits the E3 ligase RNF20/BRE1A to mediate H2B mono-ubiquitination (H2Bub1 at this insulator. Knockdown experiments show that RNF20 is required for H2Bub1 and processive H3K4 methylation. Depletion of RNF20 results in a collapse of the active histone modification signature at the HS4 chromatin boundary, where H2Bub1, H3K4 methylation, and hyperacetylation of H3, H4, and H2A.Z are rapidly lost. A remarkably similar set of events occurs at the HSA/HSB regulatory elements of the FOLR1 gene, which mark the 5' boundary of the same heterochromatin region. We find that persistent H2Bub1 at the HSA/HSB and HS4 elements is required for chromatin boundary integrity. The loss of boundary function leads to the sequential spreading of H3K9me2, H3K9me3, and H4K20me3 over the entire 50 kb FOLR1 and β-globin region and silencing of FOLR1 expression. These findings show that the HSA/HSB and HS4 boundary elements direct a cascade of active histone modifications that defend the FOLR1 and β-globin gene loci from the pervasive encroachment of an adjacent heterochromatin domain. We propose that many gene loci employ H2Bub1-dependent boundaries to prevent heterochromatin spreading.

  19. THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DIRECTIONS OF DEVELOPMENT OF IT-TECHNOLOGIES IN SYSTEM OF INTERNET BANKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Sergeevna Vinnikova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of work is caused by active introduction of IT-technologies in various spheres of economic activity and in particular the bank environment, and also social and economic problems of use of information systems which arose along with a world economic crisis, sanctions and growth of the competition.Purpose: to define the main social and economic problems and the directions of development of IT-technologies in system of Internet banking at the present stage.Methodology: general scientific methods were used: analysis and synthesis, comparison, generalization, system approach.Results. Features of development of IT-technologies within remote bank customer service in Russia are defined. The directions of development of IT-technologies of the BSS company from a position of dynamic distribution of Internet banking in the future and from a position of development of the relations with clients are presented.Practical implications: results of research will be demanded by the scientists dealing with problems of Internet banking, heads of the commercial banks dealing with issues of remote bank service, students, undergraduates and graduate students of higher educational institutions.

  20. A pedagogical shift from direct instruction: Technology-assisted inquiry learning (TAIL) in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Rena Zhihong

    The purpose of this study was to develop a student-centered Technology-Assisted Inquiry Learning (TAIL) pedagogical approach and compare it with the traditional, teacher-centered, direct instruction approach in a chemistry classroom. The study investigated how the TAIL approach affected community college chemistry students' (n = 21) learning gains and perceptions during a 1.5-hour intervention when compared with the direct instruction approach. A mixed methodology was used that included both quantitative and qualitative analyses. Results led to the following three key findings for novice learners: (a) TAIL had a statistically significant effect on students' procedural application skills improvement when compared with direct instruction; (b) The magnitude of the between-group difference (Cohen's d = 1.41) indicated that TAIL had a cumulative effect on students' learning gains due to its ability to incorporate multiple components including Inquiry, Guidance, Technology, and Collaboration; (c) When combining measures of students' performance and perceived mental effort, TAIL demonstrated high-instructional efficiency with a significant difference in teaching factual knowledge and procedural applications when compared with direct instruction. In summary, the outcome of this study demonstrated both the effectiveness and efficiency of the TAIL approach as a student-centered pedagogy in teaching a basic scientific topic. This study provided a practical demonstration of the pedagogical shift in teaching science from teacher-centered direct instruction to student-centered learning by using computer software as a pedagogical agent. The results of the study contribute to the literature in the fields of guided inquiry learning pedagogy and technology-assisted science teaching.

  1. Sunsynchronous low Earth orbit spacecraft concepts and technology requirements for global change monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, L. Bernard; Butterfield, Ansel J.; Taback, Israel; Garn, Paul A.; Burrowbridge, Donald R., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The Global Change Technology Initiative listing of instruments for operation in low Earth, sunsynchronous orbits contain 21 entries, of which 20 are carried aboard multi-instrument spacecraft. This list identifies the temporal requirements for repetition of measurements and also includes groups of instruments that make complementing measurements. Definitions for individual spacecraft follows the temporal and grouping requirements to establish constellations which will provide the measurement data. The definitions of constellations for multi-instrument spacecraft show two alternatives: a constellation of 10 spacecraft, each compatible with launch by a Delta booster; a constellation of 4 spacecraft, each requiring a Titan booster. Operating subsystems for the individual spacecraft can use modular concepts that are adaptations based upon current plans for improving the performance of the NASA-Goddard Multimission Modular units. The descriptions of the spacecraft and constellations begins with a compilation of instrument related requirements that define the principal system performance parameters and operating capabilities.

  2. Some technological aspects of methane aromatization (direct and via oxidative coupling)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skutil, Krzysztof; Taniewski, Marian [Silesian Technical University, Chair of Chemical Organic Technology and Petrochemistry, ul. Krzywoustego 4, 44-101 Gliwice (Poland)

    2006-06-15

    The investigations on transformation of methane to benzene and naphthalene have been carried out in aim to verify and supplement earlier reported data and on this basis to estimate real industrial perspectives of the CH{sub 4} aromatization concept, the main challenges and barriers. Methane aromatization (direct and via oxidative coupling) has been studied over Mo/HZSM-5 catalyst used both for direct methane dehydroaromatization and for aromatization of methane oxidative coupling (OCM) products. The effects of Mo content in the catalyst, temperature, space velocity, the presence of CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6} and their mixtures in the feed have been studied. The effectiveness of the catalyst regeneration in the air was also examined. All results were confronted with the literature data and analyzed from technological point of view. It was confirmed that direct CH{sub 4} aromatization process was characterized by a low CH{sub 4} single-pass conversion, low single-pass yields of the main products (benzene, hydrogen and naphthalene) and a low catalyst stability (rapid catalyst deactivation). Various possible technological schemes were analyzed. It was concluded that real industrial chances of direct methane aromatization or aromatization via OCM would depend largely on the advancement in the cost-effective separation techniques. The methane aromatization concept was also confronted with other methane conversion processes. (author)

  3. Direct Capture Technologies for Genomics-Guided Discovery of Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Andrew N; Santa Maria, Kevin C; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Microbes are important producers of natural products, which have played key roles in understanding biology and treating disease. However, the full potential of microbes to produce natural products has yet to be realized; the overwhelming majority of natural product gene clusters encoded in microbial genomes remain "cryptic", and have not been expressed or characterized. In contrast to the fast-growing number of genomic sequences and bioinformatic tools, methods to connect these genes to natural product molecules are still limited, creating a bottleneck in genome-mining efforts to discover novel natural products. Here we review developing technologies that leverage the power of homologous recombination to directly capture natural product gene clusters and express them in model hosts for isolation and structural characterization. Although direct capture is still in its early stages of development, it has been successfully utilized in several different classes of natural products. These early successes will be reviewed, and the methods will be compared and contrasted with existing traditional technologies. Lastly, we will discuss the opportunities for the development of direct capture in other organisms, and possibilities to integrate direct capture with emerging genome-editing techniques to accelerate future study of natural products.

  4. Deriving Requirements for Pervasive Well-Being Technology From Work Stress and Intervention Theory: Framework and Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koldijk, Saskia; Kraaij, Wessel; Neerincx, Mark A

    2016-07-05

    Stress in office environments is a big concern, often leading to burn-out. New technologies are emerging, such as easily available sensors, contextual reasoning, and electronic coaching (e-coaching) apps. In the Smart Reasoning for Well-being at Home and at Work (SWELL) project, we explore the potential of using such new pervasive technologies to provide support for the self-management of well-being, with a focus on individuals' stress-coping. Ideally, these new pervasive systems should be grounded in existing work stress and intervention theory. However, there is a large diversity of theories and they hardly provide explicit directions for technology design. The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive and concise framework that can be used to design pervasive technologies that support knowledge workers to decrease stress. Based on a literature study we identify concepts relevant to well-being at work and select different work stress models to find causes of work stress that can be addressed. From a technical perspective, we then describe how sensors can be used to infer stress and the context in which it appears, and use intervention theory to further specify interventions that can be provided by means of pervasive technology. The resulting general framework relates several relevant theories: we relate "engagement and burn-out" to "stress", and describe how relevant aspects can be quantified by means of sensors. We also outline underlying causes of work stress and how these can be addressed with interventions, in particular utilizing new technologies integrating behavioral change theory. Based upon this framework we were able to derive requirements for our case study, the pervasive SWELL system, and we implemented two prototypes. Small-scale user studies proved the value of the derived technology-supported interventions. The presented framework can be used to systematically develop theory-based technology-supported interventions to address work stress. In

  5. Deriving Requirements for Pervasive Well-Being Technology From Work Stress and Intervention Theory: Framework and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koldijk, Saskia; Kraaij, Wessel

    2016-01-01

    Background Stress in office environments is a big concern, often leading to burn-out. New technologies are emerging, such as easily available sensors, contextual reasoning, and electronic coaching (e-coaching) apps. In the Smart Reasoning for Well-being at Home and at Work (SWELL) project, we explore the potential of using such new pervasive technologies to provide support for the self-management of well-being, with a focus on individuals' stress-coping. Ideally, these new pervasive systems should be grounded in existing work stress and intervention theory. However, there is a large diversity of theories and they hardly provide explicit directions for technology design. Objective The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive and concise framework that can be used to design pervasive technologies that support knowledge workers to decrease stress. Methods Based on a literature study we identify concepts relevant to well-being at work and select different work stress models to find causes of work stress that can be addressed. From a technical perspective, we then describe how sensors can be used to infer stress and the context in which it appears, and use intervention theory to further specify interventions that can be provided by means of pervasive technology. Results The resulting general framework relates several relevant theories: we relate “engagement and burn-out” to “stress”, and describe how relevant aspects can be quantified by means of sensors. We also outline underlying causes of work stress and how these can be addressed with interventions, in particular utilizing new technologies integrating behavioral change theory. Based upon this framework we were able to derive requirements for our case study, the pervasive SWELL system, and we implemented two prototypes. Small-scale user studies proved the value of the derived technology-supported interventions. Conclusions The presented framework can be used to systematically develop theory

  6. Directed International Technological Change and Climate Policy: New Methods for Identifying Robust Policies Under Conditions of Deep Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Perez, Edmundo

    It is widely recognized that international environmental technological change is key to reduce the rapidly rising greenhouse gas emissions of emerging nations. In 2010, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of the Parties (COP) agreed to the creation of the Green Climate Fund (GCF). This new multilateral organization has been created with the collective contributions of COP members, and has been tasked with directing over USD 100 billion per year towards investments that can enhance the development and diffusion of clean energy technologies in both advanced and emerging nations (Helm and Pichler, 2015). The landmark agreement arrived at the COP 21 has reaffirmed the key role that the GCF plays in enabling climate mitigation as it is now necessary to align large scale climate financing efforts with the long-term goals agreed at Paris 2015. This study argues that because of the incomplete understanding of the mechanics of international technological change, the multiplicity of policy options and ultimately the presence of climate and technological change deep uncertainty, climate financing institutions such as the GCF, require new analytical methods for designing long-term robust investment plans. Motivated by these challenges, this dissertation shows that the application of new analytical methods, such as Robust Decision Making (RDM) and Exploratory Modeling (Lempert, Popper and Bankes, 2003) to the study of international technological change and climate policy provides useful insights that can be used for designing a robust architecture of international technological cooperation for climate change mitigation. For this study I developed an exploratory dynamic integrated assessment model (EDIAM) which is used as the scenario generator in a large computational experiment. The scope of the experimental design considers an ample set of climate and technological scenarios. These scenarios combine five sources of uncertainty

  7. Design and investigation of planar technology based ultra-wideband antenna with directional radiation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, M. L.; Parmar, Girish; Kumar, Mithilesh

    2016-03-01

    A novel design technique based on planar technology for ultra-wideband (UWB) antennas with different ground shape having directional radiation pattern is being presented here. Firstly, the L-shape corner reflector ground plane antenna is designed with microstrip feed line in order to achieve large bandwidth and directivity. Thereafter, for the further improvement in the directivity as well as for better impedance matching the parabolic-shape ground plane has been introduced. The coaxial feed line is given for the proposed directional antenna in order to achieve better impedance matching with 50 ohm transmission line. The simulation analysis of the antenna is done on CST Microwave Studio software using FR-4 substrate having thickness of 1.6 mm and dielectric constant of 4.4. The simulated result shows a good return loss (S11) with respect to -10 dB. The radiation pattern characteristic, angular width, directivity and bandwidth performance of the antenna have also been compared at different resonant frequencies. The designed antennas exhibit low cost, low reflection coefficient and better directivity in the UWB frequency band.

  8. Design and investigation of planar technology based ultra-wideband antenna with directional radiation patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meena, M. L., E-mail: madan.meena.ece@gamil.com; Parmar, Girish, E-mail: girish-parmar2002@yahoo.com; Kumar, Mithilesh, E-mail: mith-kr@yahoo.com [Department of Electronics Engineering, Rajasthan Technical University, Kota (India)

    2016-03-09

    A novel design technique based on planar technology for ultra-wideband (UWB) antennas with different ground shape having directional radiation pattern is being presented here. Firstly, the L-shape corner reflector ground plane antenna is designed with microstrip feed line in order to achieve large bandwidth and directivity. Thereafter, for the further improvement in the directivity as well as for better impedance matching the parabolic-shape ground plane has been introduced. The coaxial feed line is given for the proposed directional antenna in order to achieve better impedance matching with 50 ohm transmission line. The simulation analysis of the antenna is done on CST Microwave Studio software using FR-4 substrate having thickness of 1.6 mm and dielectric constant of 4.4. The simulated result shows a good return loss (S11) with respect to -10 dB. The radiation pattern characteristic, angular width, directivity and bandwidth performance of the antenna have also been compared at different resonant frequencies. The designed antennas exhibit low cost, low reflection coefficient and better directivity in the UWB frequency band.

  9. Evaluation of legal liability for technological risks in view of requirements for peaceful coexistence and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandvoort, Henk

    2011-06-01

    Legal liability for risk-generating technological activities is evaluated in view of requirements that are necessary for peaceful human coexistence and progress in order to show possibilities for improvement. The requirements imply, given that political decision making about the activities proceeds on the basis of majority rule, that legal liability should be unconditional (absolute, strict) and unlimited (full). We analyze actual liability in international law for various risk-generating technological activities, to conclude that nowhere is the standard of unconditional and unlimited liability fully met. Apart from that there are enormous differences. Although significant international liability legislation is in place for some risk-generating technological activities, legislation is virtually absent for others. We discuss fundamental possibilities and limitations of liability and private insurance to secure credible and ethically sound risk assessment and risk management practices. The limitations stem from problems of establishing a causal link between an activity and a harm; compensating irreparable harm; financial warranty; moral hazard in insurance and in organizations; and discounting future damage to present value. As our requirements call for prior agreement among all who are subjected to the risks of an activity about the settlement of these difficult problems, precautionary ex ante regulation of risk-generating activities may be a more attractive option, either combined with liability stipulations or not. However, if ex ante regulation is not based on the consent of all subjected to the risks, it remains that the basis of liability in the law should be unconditional and unlimited liability.

  10. Direct activation of RhoA by reactive oxygen species requires a redox-sensitive motif.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Aghajanian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rho family GTPases are critical regulators of the cytoskeleton and affect cell migration, cell-cell adhesion, and cell-matrix adhesion. As with all GTPases, their activity is determined by their guanine nucleotide-bound state. Understanding how Rho proteins are activated and inactivated has largely focused on regulatory proteins such as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs and GTPase activating proteins (GAPs. However, recent in vitro studies have indicated that GTPases may also be directly regulated by redox agents. We hypothesized that this redox-based mechanism occurs in cells and affects cytoskeletal dynamics, and in this report we conclude this is indeed a novel mechanism of regulating the GTPase RhoA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, we show that RhoA can be directly activated by reactive oxygen species (ROS in cells, and that this requires two critical cysteine residues located in a unique redox-sensitive motif within the phosphoryl binding loop. First, we show that ROS can reversibly activate RhoA and induce stress fiber formation, a well characterized readout of RhoA activity. To determine the role of cysteine residues in this mechanism of regulation, we generated cysteine to alanine RhoA mutants. Mutation of these cysteines abolishes ROS-mediated activation and stress fiber formation, indicating that these residues are critical for redox-regulation of RhoA. Importantly, these mutants maintain the ability to be activated by GEFs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings identify a novel mechanism for the regulation of RhoA in cells by ROS, which is independent of classical regulatory proteins. This mechanism of regulation may be particularly relevant in pathological conditions where ROS are generated and the cellular redox-balance altered, such as in asthma and ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  11. Goal-directed hemostatic therapy using the rotational thromboelastometry in patients requiring emergent cardiovascular surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danièle Sartorius

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: We assessed the clinical impact of goal-directed coagulation management based on rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM in patients undergoing emergent cardiovascular surgical procedures. Materials and Methods: Over a 2-year period, data from 71 patients were collected prospectively and blood samples were obtained for coagulation testing. Administration of packed red blood cells (PRBC and hemostatic products were guided by an algorithm using ROTEM-derived information and hemoglobin level. Based on the amount of PRBC transfused, two groups were considered: High bleeders (≥5 PRBC; HB and low bleeders (<5 PRBC; LB. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test, unpaired t-test and analysis of variance as appropriate. Results: Pre-operatively, the HB group (n = 31 was characterized by lower blood fibrinogen and decreased clot amplitude at ROTEM compared with the LB group (n = 40. Intraoperatively, larger amounts of fibrinogen, fresh frozen plasma and platelets were required to normalize the coagulation parameters in the HB group. Post-operatively, the incidence of major thromboembolic and ischemic events did not differ between the two groups (<10% and the observed in-hospital mortality was significantly less than expected by the Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enumeration of Mortality and Morbidity (POSSUM score, 22% vs. 35% in HB and 5% vs. 13% in LB group. Conclusions: ROTEM-derived information is helpful to detect early coagulation abnormalities and to monitor the response to hemostatic therapy. Early goal-directed management of coagulopathy may improve outcome after cardiovascular surgery.

  12. A Cognitive Systems Engineering Approach to Developing HMI Requirements for New Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, Lisa Carolynn

    2016-01-01

    This document examines the challenges inherent in designing and regulating to support human-automation interaction for new technologies that will deployed into complex systems. A key question for new technologies, is how work will be accomplished by the human and machine agents. This question has traditionally been framed as how functions should be allocated between humans and machines. Such framing misses the coordination and synchronization that is needed for the different human and machine roles in the system to accomplish their goals. Coordination and synchronization demands are driven by the underlying human-automation architecture of the new technology, which are typically not specified explicitly by the designers. The human machine interface (HMI) which is intended to facilitate human-machine interaction and cooperation, however, typically is defined explicitly and therefore serves as a proxy for human-automation cooperation requirements with respect to technical standards for technologies. Unfortunately, mismatches between the HMI and the coordination and synchronization demands of the underlying human-automation architecture, can lead to system breakdowns. A methodology is needed that both designers and regulators can utilize to evaluate the expected performance of a new technology given potential human-automation architectures. Three experiments were conducted to inform the minimum HMI requirements a detect and avoid system for unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). The results of the experiments provided empirical input to specific minimum operational performance standards that UAS manufacturers will have to meet in order to operate UAS in the National Airspace System (NAS). These studies represent a success story for how to objectively and systematically evaluate prototype technologies as part of the process for developing regulatory requirements. They also provide an opportunity to reflect on the lessons learned from a recent research effort in order to

  13. A high-throughput readout architecture based on PCI-Express Gen3 and DirectGMA technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, L.; Vogelgesang, M.; Ardila Perez, L. E.; Caselle, M.; Chilingaryan, S.; Dritschler, T.; Zilio, N.; Kopmann, A.; Balzer, M.; Weber, M.

    2016-02-01

    Modern physics experiments produce multi-GB/s data rates. Fast data links and high performance computing stages are required for continuous data acquisition and processing. Because of their intrinsic parallelism and computational power, GPUs emerged as an ideal solution to process this data in high performance computing applications. In this paper we present a high-throughput platform based on direct FPGA-GPU communication. The architecture consists of a Direct Memory Access (DMA) engine compatible with the Xilinx PCI-Express core, a Linux driver for register access, and high- level software to manage direct memory transfers using AMD's DirectGMA technology. Measurements with a Gen3 x8 link show a throughput of 6.4 GB/s for transfers to GPU memory and 6.6 GB/s to system memory. We also assess the possibility of using the architecture in low latency systems: preliminary measurements show a round-trip latency as low as 1 μs for data transfers to system memory, while the additional latency introduced by OpenCL scheduling is the current limitation for GPU based systems. Our implementation is suitable for real-time DAQ system applications ranging from photon science and medical imaging to High Energy Physics (HEP) systems.

  14. 49 CFR 192.929 - What are the requirements for using Direct Assessment for Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCCDA)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements for using Direct Assessment for Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCCDA)? (a) Definition. Stress..., appendix A3, and remediate the threat in accordance with ASME/ANSI B31.8S, appendix A3, section A3.4....

  15. The main directions of technologic modernization in the field of subsurface resources management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Petrovich Pakhomov

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the priorities of Russia's transition to post-industrial development is the upgrade of mineral resources sector as a major system-building industry which includes exploration, extraction, refining, transportation and processing of minerals. The main directions of modernization in the subsoil resources management are improvement of methods and technologies under exploration, automation and computerization of work and equipment at the stages of production and transportation of mineral resources, improvement of equipment and technology with the use of nanotechnology in the stages of enrichment and processing of mineral raw materials. Actual direction of modernization in the ore mining industry today is creation and improvement of techniques and technologies to work in the northern climate according to the Program of subsoil resources development of the North and the Arctic shelf. Due to the exhaustion of large raw mineral deposits and geological complexity of the conditions of mining, there is a need for new types of mining and extraction equipment in the industry and development of processes to extract minerals from the non-traditional raw materials.

  16. 23 CFR 420.207 - What are the requirements for research, development, and technology transfer work programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... technology transfer work programs? 420.207 Section 420.207 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION..., Development and Technology Transfer Program Management § 420.207 What are the requirements for research, development, and technology transfer work programs? (a) The State DOT's RD&T work program must, as a...

  17. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SERVICE MANAGEMENT PROCESSES MATURITY IN THE BRAZILIAN FEDERAL DIRECT ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Albeti Vieira Vitoriano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at the scrutiny of the current situation of the Information Technology Service Management practices within the Brazilian Federal Direct Administration, from the perceptions of the Information Technology Managers of twelve Ministries. The methodology used followed the Process Maturity Framework as a guideline, which is a maturity model whose patterns are described in ITIL v3. The work consists of interviews with questions related to the five maturity levels, as follows: initial, repetitive, defined, managed and optimized. Information on the five basic Information Technology Service Management processes was collected. Besides the classification of the maturity levels of the processes, the interviews allowed us to gather information about the possible causes that hinder the improvement of the maturity of the processes. The outcomes of the survey on the researched ministries showed low maturity level in all the assessed service management processes. The Incident Management Process presented the highest level of maturity, while Problem Management proved to be the most flawed one, in relation to maturity. The other assessed processes, like Change Management, Service Assets and Configuration Management and Release and Deployment Management presented some sort of homogeneity among the ministries. As for the probable causes that hinder the improvement of the maturity level of the Information Technology Service Management processes, pointed by the managers, the following one stand out: the reduced staff, the lack of resources, the gap between the organizational targets and their processes aims, and the lack of skilled labor.

  18. Technology of High-speed Direct Laser Deposition from Ni-based Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimova-Korsmik, Olga; Turichin, Gleb; Zemlyakov, Evgeniy; Babkin, Konstantin; Petrovsky, Pavel; Travyanov, Andrey

    Recently, additive manufacturing is the one of most perspective technologies; it can replace conventional methods of casting and subsequent time-consuming machining. One of the most interesting additive technologies - high-speed direct laser deposition (HSDLD) allows realizing heterophase process during the manufacturing, which there is process takes place with a partial melting of powder. This is particularly important for materials, which are sensitive to strong fluctuations of temperature treatment regimes, like nickel base alloys with high content of gamma prime phase. This alloys are interested for many industrial areas, mostly there are used in engine systems, aircraft and shipbuilding, aeronautics. Heating and cooling rates during the producing process determine structure and affect on its properties. Using HSDLD process it possible to make a products from Ni superalloys with ultrafine microstructure and satisfactory mechanical characteristics without special subsequent heatreatment.

  19. Financing investment in environmentally sound technologies: Foreign direct investment versus foreign debt finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anyangah, Joshua Okeyo [Department of Economics, University of Lethbridge, 4401 University Drive, Lethbridge Alberta (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    This paper develops a screening model to examine the relationship between alternative sources of private capital and investment in environmentally sound technologies (ESTs). In the model, a polluter (agent) must secure investment funds from the international financial markets in order to upgrade its production and abatement technology. The requisite capital can be obtained via either market loans (debt finance) or foreign direct investment (FDI). Under debt finance, the foreign financier supplies only capital and the relationship between the two parties is more 'arms-length'. By contrast, under FDI, the investor delivers both capital and managerial skills. We use the model to derive the implications of debt finance for optimal investment decisions and compare them to those obtained under FDI. Investment incentives are more pronounced under debt finance. (author)

  20. Envisioning Improved Work Practices and Associated Technology Requirements in the Context of the Broader Socio-technical System

    OpenAIRE

    CAHILL, JOAN

    2008-01-01

    Crucially, the introduction of new technologies follows from the envisionment of new or improved work processes and related task workflows. Proposed technology concepts must be derived in conjunction with end users. Further, the advancement of new or improved work technologies must be predicated on operational requirements and fit the organisational environment. Technology innovation should support operational and organisational goals, as opposed to been driven by new or innovative technical ...

  1. An assistive technology for hearing-impaired persons: analysis, requirements and architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Matthias; Grunewald, Armin; Bruck, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution, a concept of an assistive technology for hearing-impaired and deaf persons is presented. The concept applies pattern recognition algorithms and makes use of modern communication technology to analyze the acoustic environment around a user, identify critical acoustic signatures and give an alert to the user when an event of interest happened. A detailed analysis of the needs of deaf and hearing-impaired people has been performed. Requirements for an adequate assisting device have been derived from the results of the analysis, and have been turned into an architecture for its implementation that will be presented in this article. The presented concept is the basis for an assistive system which is now under development at the Institute of Microsystem Engineering at the University of Siegen.

  2. Required Technologies for A 10-16 m UV-Visible-IR Telescope on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Wetzel, John P.

    1989-01-01

    A successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, incorporating a 10 to 16 meter mirror, and operating in the UV-Visible-IR is being considered for emplacement on the Moon in the 21st Century. To take advantage of the characteristics of the lunar environment, such a telescope requires appropriate advances in technology. These technologies are in the areas of contamination/interference control, test and evaluation, manufacturing, construction, autonomous operations and maintenance, power and heating/cooling, stable precision structures, optics, parabolic antennas, and communications/control. This telescope for the lunar surface needs to be engineered to operate for long periods with minimal intervention by humans or robots. What is essential for lunar observatory operation is enforcement of a systems engineering approach that makes compatible all lunar operations associated with habitation, resource development, and science.

  3. Required Technologies for A 10-16 m UV-Visible-IR Telescope on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Wetzel, John P.

    1989-01-01

    A successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, incorporating a 10 to 16 meter mirror, and operating in the UV-Visible-IR is being considered for emplacement on the Moon in the 21st Century. To take advantage of the characteristics of the lunar environment, such a telescope requires appropriate advances in technology. These technologies are in the areas of contamination/interference control, test and evaluation, manufacturing, construction, autonomous operations and maintenance, power and heating/cooling, stable precision structures, optics, parabolic antennas, and communications/control. This telescope for the lunar surface needs to be engineered to operate for long periods with minimal intervention by humans or robots. What is essential for lunar observatory operation is enforcement of a systems engineering approach that makes compatible all lunar operations associated with habitation, resource development, and science.

  4. Wdpcp, a PCP protein required for ciliogenesis, regulates directional cell migration and cell polarity by direct modulation of the actin cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Cheng; Chatterjee, Bishwanath; Lozito, Thomas P; Zhang, Zhen; Francis, Richard J; Yagi, Hisato; Swanhart, Lisa M; Sanker, Subramaniam; Francis, Deanne; Yu, Qing; San Agustin, Jovenal T; Puligilla, Chandrakala; Chatterjee, Tania; Tansey, Terry; Liu, Xiaoqin; Kelley, Matthew W; Spiliotis, Elias T; Kwiatkowski, Adam V; Tuan, Rocky; Pazour, Gregory J; Hukriede, Neil A; Lo, Cecilia W

    2013-11-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) regulates cell alignment required for collective cell movement during embryonic development. This requires PCP/PCP effector proteins, some of which also play essential roles in ciliogenesis, highlighting the long-standing question of the role of the cilium in PCP. Wdpcp, a PCP effector, was recently shown to regulate both ciliogenesis and collective cell movement, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here we show Wdpcp can regulate PCP by direct modulation of the actin cytoskeleton. These studies were made possible by recovery of a Wdpcp mutant mouse model. Wdpcp-deficient mice exhibit phenotypes reminiscent of Bardet-Biedl/Meckel-Gruber ciliopathy syndromes, including cardiac outflow tract and cochlea defects associated with PCP perturbation. We observed Wdpcp is localized to the transition zone, and in Wdpcp-deficient cells, Sept2, Nphp1, and Mks1 were lost from the transition zone, indicating Wdpcp is required for recruitment of proteins essential for ciliogenesis. Wdpcp is also found in the cytoplasm, where it is localized in the actin cytoskeleton and in focal adhesions. Wdpcp interacts with Sept2 and is colocalized with Sept2 in actin filaments, but in Wdpcp-deficient cells, Sept2 was lost from the actin cytoskeleton, suggesting Wdpcp is required for Sept2 recruitment to actin filaments. Significantly, organization of the actin filaments and focal contacts were markedly changed in Wdpcp-deficient cells. This was associated with decreased membrane ruffling, failure to establish cell polarity, and loss of directional cell migration. These results suggest the PCP defects in Wdpcp mutants are not caused by loss of cilia, but by direct disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. Consistent with this, Wdpcp mutant cochlea has normal kinocilia and yet exhibits PCP defects. Together, these findings provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that a PCP component required for ciliogenesis can directly modulate the actin cytoskeleton to

  5. Wdpcp, a PCP protein required for ciliogenesis, regulates directional cell migration and cell polarity by direct modulation of the actin cytoskeleton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Cui

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Planar cell polarity (PCP regulates cell alignment required for collective cell movement during embryonic development. This requires PCP/PCP effector proteins, some of which also play essential roles in ciliogenesis, highlighting the long-standing question of the role of the cilium in PCP. Wdpcp, a PCP effector, was recently shown to regulate both ciliogenesis and collective cell movement, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here we show Wdpcp can regulate PCP by direct modulation of the actin cytoskeleton. These studies were made possible by recovery of a Wdpcp mutant mouse model. Wdpcp-deficient mice exhibit phenotypes reminiscent of Bardet-Biedl/Meckel-Gruber ciliopathy syndromes, including cardiac outflow tract and cochlea defects associated with PCP perturbation. We observed Wdpcp is localized to the transition zone, and in Wdpcp-deficient cells, Sept2, Nphp1, and Mks1 were lost from the transition zone, indicating Wdpcp is required for recruitment of proteins essential for ciliogenesis. Wdpcp is also found in the cytoplasm, where it is localized in the actin cytoskeleton and in focal adhesions. Wdpcp interacts with Sept2 and is colocalized with Sept2 in actin filaments, but in Wdpcp-deficient cells, Sept2 was lost from the actin cytoskeleton, suggesting Wdpcp is required for Sept2 recruitment to actin filaments. Significantly, organization of the actin filaments and focal contacts were markedly changed in Wdpcp-deficient cells. This was associated with decreased membrane ruffling, failure to establish cell polarity, and loss of directional cell migration. These results suggest the PCP defects in Wdpcp mutants are not caused by loss of cilia, but by direct disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. Consistent with this, Wdpcp mutant cochlea has normal kinocilia and yet exhibits PCP defects. Together, these findings provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that a PCP component required for ciliogenesis can directly modulate the actin

  6. Future Directions in Medical Physics: Models, Technology, and Translation to Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewerdsen, Jeffrey

    The application of physics in medicine has been integral to major advances in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. Two primary areas represent the mainstay of medical physics research in the last century: in radiation therapy, physicists have propelled advances in conformal radiation treatment and high-precision image guidance; and in diagnostic imaging, physicists have advanced an arsenal of multi-modality imaging that includes CT, MRI, ultrasound, and PET as indispensible tools for noninvasive screening, diagnosis, and assessment of treatment response. In addition to their role in building such technologically rich fields of medicine, physicists have also become integral to daily clinical practice in these areas. The future suggests new opportunities for multi-disciplinary research bridging physics, biology, engineering, and computer science, and collaboration in medical physics carries a strong capacity for identification of significant clinical needs, access to clinical data, and translation of technologies to clinical studies. In radiation therapy, for example, the extraction of knowledge from large datasets on treatment delivery, image-based phenotypes, genomic profile, and treatment outcome will require innovation in computational modeling and connection with medical physics for the curation of large datasets. Similarly in imaging physics, the demand for new imaging technology capable of measuring physical and biological processes over orders of magnitude in scale (from molecules to whole organ systems) and exploiting new contrast mechanisms for greater sensitivity to molecular agents and subtle functional / morphological change will benefit from multi-disciplinary collaboration in physics, biology, and engineering. Also in surgery and interventional radiology, where needs for increased precision and patient safety meet constraints in cost and workflow, development of new technologies for imaging, image registration, and robotic assistance can leverage

  7. Nanomaterials and synergistic low-intensity direct current (LIDC) stimulation technology for orthopedic implantable medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirwaiker, Rohan A; Samberg, Meghan E; Cohen, Paul H; Wysk, Richard A; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A

    2013-01-01

    Nanomaterials play a significant role in biomedical research and applications because of their unique biological, mechanical, and electrical properties. In recent years, they have been utilized to improve the functionality and reliability of a wide range of implantable medical devices ranging from well-established orthopedic residual hardware devices (e.g., hip implants) that can repair defects in skeletal systems to emerging tissue engineering scaffolds that can repair or replace organ functions. This review summarizes the applications and efficacies of these nanomaterials that include synthetic or naturally occurring metals, polymers, ceramics, and composites in orthopedic implants, the largest market segment of implantable medical devices. The importance of synergistic engineering techniques that can augment or enhance the performance of nanomaterial applications in orthopedic implants is also discussed, the focus being on a low-intensity direct electric current (LIDC) stimulation technology to promote the long-term antibacterial efficacy of oligodynamic metal-based surfaces by ionization, while potentially accelerating tissue growth and osseointegration. While many nanomaterials have clearly demonstrated their ability to provide more effective implantable medical surfaces, further decisive investigations are necessary before they can translate into medically safe and commercially viable clinical applications. The article concludes with a discussion about some of the critical impending issues with the application of nanomaterials-based technologies in implantable medical devices, and potential directions to address these.

  8. Direct sampling ion trap mass spectrometry (DSITMS). Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This report describes the cost, performance, and other key characteristics of an innovative technology for determining the presence or absence, and measuring the concentration, of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in groundwater and soil, and in gaseous remediation process streams at hazardous waste sites. This new technology is Direct Sampling Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry (DSITMS). DSITMS introduces sample materials directly into an ion trap mass spectrometer by means of a very simple interface, such as a capillary restrictor or a polymer membrane. There is typically very little, if any, sample preparation and no chromatographic separation of the sample constituents. This means that the response of the instrument to the analytes or contaminants in a sample is nearly instantaneous, and that analytical methods based on DSITMS are fast. Analyses are typically completed in less than five minutes, and the analysis cost is generally 50% or less than the amount charged by commercial laboratories using Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analysis methods.

  9. Increasing the Literacy Skills of Students Who Require AAC through Modified Direct Instruction and Specific Instructional Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westover, Jennifer M.

    2010-01-01

    Literacy skills are fundamental for all learners. For students who require augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), strong literacy skills provide a gateway to generative communication, genuine social networking, improved access to academic opportunities, access to information technology and future employment opportunities. However, many…

  10. Multi-Lab EV Smart Grid Integration Requirements Study. Providing Guidance on Technology Development and Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, T. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Meintz, A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hardy, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chen, B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bohn, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Smart, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Scoffield, D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hovsapian, R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Saxena, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); MacDonald, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kahl, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pratt, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-28

    The report begins with a discussion of the current state of the energy and transportation systems, followed by a summary of some VGI scenarios and opportunities. The current efforts to create foundational interface standards are detailed, and the requirements for enabling PEVs as a grid resource are presented. Existing technology demonstrations that include vehicle to grid functions are summarized. The report also includes a data-based discussion on the magnitude and variability of PEVs as a grid resource, followed by an overview of existing simulation tools that vi This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. can be used to explore the expansion of VGI to larger grid functions that might offer system and customer value. The document concludes with a summary of the requirements and potential action items that would support greater adoption of VGI.

  11. The future direction of ITU-T SG4 and application of correlative technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Xiang

    2004-04-01

    The future of TMN in ITU-T will be heavily influenced by new telecom technologies, such as IP, and associated management needs. To meet this challenge, SG 4 has adopted two approaches. Current focus of ITU-T SG4 is common working methods for specifying protocol-neutral TMN requirements and information/models and identification of key management technologies to meet future needs. ITU-T SG4 has successfully set up the CORBA framework. The core is re-using the CORBA Common Object Services. ITU-T defines a set of CORBA interfaces for the CORBA generic information model. These interfaces are translated manually from a set of M.3100 GDMO managed object classes following the TMN CORBA framework and guidelines. Although TMN CORBA framework has finished, it still raises new issues, such as implementation conformance and complexity of additional services. It is remarkable that China has made great progress on CORBA-based network management standardization. ITU-T adopts some correlative technologies. SG4 agreed to define the Integrated Management of Hybrid Circuit Switched and Packet/IP Networks. SG4 also make progress in tML, Qos, ETS.

  12. Soft-robotic arm inspired by the octopus: II. From artificial requirements to innovative technological solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzolai, B; Margheri, L; Cianchetti, M; Dario, P; Laschi, C

    2012-06-01

    Soft robotics is a current focus in robotics research because of the expected capability of soft robots to better interact with real-world environments. As a point of inspiration in the development of innovative technologies in soft robotics, octopuses are particularly interesting 'animal models'. Octopus arms have unique biomechanical capabilities that combine significant pliability with the ability to exert a great deal of force, because they lack rigid structures but can change and control their degree of stiffness. The octopus arm motor capability is a result of the peculiar arrangement of its muscles and the properties of its tissues. These special abilities have been investigated by the authors in a specific study dedicated to identifying the key principles underlying these biological functions and deriving engineering requirements for robotics solutions. This paper, which is the second in a two-part series, presents how the identified requirements can be used to create innovative technological solutions, such as soft materials, mechanisms and actuators. Experiments indicate the ability of these proposed solutions to ensure the same performance as in the biological model in terms of compliance, elongation and force. These results represent useful and relevant components of innovative soft-robotic systems and suggest their potential use to create a new generation of highly dexterous, soft-bodied robots.

  13. Future mission opportunities and requirements for advanced space photovoltaic energy conversion technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Dennis J.

    1990-01-01

    The variety of potential future missions under consideration by NASA will impose a broad range of requirements on space solar arrays, and mandates the development of new solar cells which can offer a wide range of capabilities to mission planners. Major advances in performance have recently been achieved at several laboratories in a variety of solar cell types. Many of those recent advances are reviewed, the areas are examined where possible improvements are yet to be made, and the requirements are discussed that must be met by advanced solar cell if they are to be used in space. The solar cells of interest include single and multiple junction cells which are fabricated from single crystal, polycrystalline and amorphous materials. Single crystal cells on foreign substrates, thin film single crystal cells on superstrates, and multiple junction cells which are either mechanically stacked, monolithically grown, or hybrid structures incorporating both techniques are discussed. Advanced concentrator array technology for space applications is described, and the status of thin film, flexible solar array blanket technology is reported.

  14. Key Technologies in the Context of Future Networks: Operational and Management Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Isabel Barona López

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Future Networks is based on the premise that current infrastructures require enhanced control, service customization, self-organization and self-management capabilities to meet the new needs in a connected society, especially of mobile users. In order to provide a high-performance mobile system, three main fields must be improved: radio, network, and operation and management. In particular, operation and management capabilities are intended to enable business agility and operational sustainability, where the addition of new services does not imply an excessive increase in capital or operational expenditures. In this context, a set of key-enabled technologies have emerged in order to aid in this field. Concepts such as Software Defined Network (SDN, Network Function Virtualization (NFV and Self-Organized Networks (SON are pushing traditional systems towards the next 5G network generation.This paper presents an overview of the current status of these promising technologies and ongoing works to fulfill the operational and management requirements of mobile infrastructures. This work also details the use cases and the challenges, taking into account not only SDN, NFV, cloud computing and SON but also other paradigms.

  15. Cognitive effort in direct and inverse translation performance: Insight from eye-tracking technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Ferreira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2016v36n3p60 This case study examined the translation performance of four professional translators with the aim of exploring the cognitive effort involved in direct and inverse translation. Four professional translators translated two comparable texts from English into Spanish and from Spanish into English. Eye-tracking technology was used to analyze the total time spent in each task, fixation time, and average fixation time. Fixation count in three areas of interest was measured including: source text, target text, and browser, used as an external support. Results suggested that although total time and fixation count were indicators of cognitive effort during the tasks, fixation count in the areas of interest data showed that more effort was directed toward the source text in both tasks. Overall, this study demonstrates that while more traditional measures for translation difficulty (e.g., total time indicate more effort in the inverse translation task, eye-tracking data indicate that differences in the effort applied in both directions must be carefully analyzed, mostly regarding the areas of interest.

  16. Cognitive effort in direct and inverse translation performance: Insight from eye-tracking technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Ferreira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This case study examined the translation performance of four professional translators with the aim of exploring the cognitive effort involved in direct and inverse translation. Four professional translators translated two comparable texts from English into Spanish and from Spanish into English. Eye-tracking technology was used to analyze the total time spent in each task, fixation time, and average fixation time. Fixation count in three areas of interest was measured including: source text, target text, and browser, used as an external support. Results suggested that although total time and fixation count were indicators of cognitive effort during the tasks, fixation count in the areas of interest data showed that more effort was directed toward the source text in both tasks. Overall, this study demonstrates that while more traditional measures for translation difficulty (e.g., total time indicate more effort in the inverse translation task, eye-tracking data indicate that differences in the effort applied in both directions must be carefully analyzed, mostly regarding the areas of interest.

  17. Engineering Technology Reports, Volume 1: Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY00

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, A L; Langland, R T; Minichino, C

    2001-10-03

    In FY-2000, Engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory faced significant pressures to meet critical project milestones, and immediate demands to facilitate the reassignment of employees as the National Ignition Facility (the 600-TW laser facility being designed and built at Livermore, and one of the largest R&D construction projects in the world) was in the process of re-baselining its plan while executing full-speed its technology development efforts. This drive for change occurred as an unprecedented level of management and program changes were occurring within LLNL. I am pleased to report that we met many key milestones and achieved numerous technological breakthroughs. This report summarizes our efforts to perform feasibility and reduce-to-practice studies, demonstrations, and/or techniques--as structured through our technology centers. Whether using computational engineering to predict how giant structures like suspension bridges will respond to massive earthquakes or devising a suitcase-sized microtool to detect chemical and biological agents used by terrorists, we have made solid technical progress. Five Centers focus and guide longer-term investments within Engineering, as well as impact all of LLNL. Each Center is responsible for the vitality and growth of the core technologies it represents. My goal is that each Center will be recognized on an international scale for solving compelling national problems requiring breakthrough innovation. The Centers and their leaders are as follows: Center for Complex Distributed Systems--David B. McCallen; Center for Computational Engineering--Kyran D. Mish; Center for Microtechnology--Raymond P. Mariella, Jr.; Center for Nondestructive Characterization--Harry E. Martz, Jr.; and Center for Precision Engineering--Keith Carlisle.

  18. DICP's New Technology for Manufacture of Propylene Oxide through Direct Oxidation of Propylene by Hydrogen Peroxide Passed Appraisal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ In August 2008 the new technology for manufacture of pro-pylene oxide through direct oxidation of propylene by hy-drogen peroxide developed by Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP), CAS has passed the experts' appraisal or-ganized by the Science and Technology Department of Liaoning Province. It is told that this new technology, being an environmentally friendly new process, will eventually put an end to the severe pollution characteristic of the tradi-tional propylene oxide production process.

  19. Design Lessons about Participatory Self-Directed Online Learning in a Graduate-Level Instructional Technology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa C.; Do, Jaewoo; Skutnik, Anne L.; Thompson, Duren J.; Stephens, Adam F.; Tays, Cheryl A.

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a case of participatory self-directed online learning within the context of a graduate-level instructional technology course. The course was about online learning environments and relied on both asynchronous and synchronous technologies. In this case, the instructor and students engaged in collaborative course design…

  20. Enhancing Learners' Self-Directed Use of Technology for Language Learning: The Effectiveness of an Online Training Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chun; Shum, Mark; Tian, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing self-directed use of technology for language learning is essential for maximizing the potential of technology for language learning. Understanding how to construct learner training to promote this critical competency is of great significance. This study examined the effectiveness of an online training platform aimed at enhancing the…

  1. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dynamic-Tracking Directional Wireless Antennas for Low Powered Applications that Require Reliable Extended Range Operations in Time Critical Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott G. Bauer; Matthew O. Anderson; James R. Hanneman

    2005-10-01

    The proven value of DOD Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) will ultimately transition to National and Homeland Security missions that require real-time aerial surveillance, situation awareness, force protection, and sensor placement. Public services first responders who routinely risk personal safety to assess and report a situation for emergency actions will likely be the first to benefit from these new unmanned technologies. ‘Packable’ or ‘Portable’ small class UAVs will be particularly useful to the first responder. They require the least amount of training, no fixed infrastructure, and are capable of being launched and recovered from the point of emergency. All UAVs require wireless communication technologies for real- time applications. Typically on a small UAV, a low bandwidth telemetry link is required for command and control (C2), and systems health monitoring. If the UAV is equipped with a real-time Electro-Optical or Infrared (EO/Ir) video camera payload, a dedicated high bandwidth analog/digital link is usually required for reliable high-resolution imagery. In most cases, both the wireless telemetry and real-time video links will be integrated into the UAV with unity gain omni-directional antennas. With limited on-board power and payload capacity, a small UAV will be limited with the amount of radio-frequency (RF) energy it transmits to the users. Therefore, ‘packable’ and ‘portable’ UAVs will have limited useful operational ranges for first responders. This paper will discuss the limitations of small UAV wireless communications. The discussion will present an approach of utilizing a dynamic ground based real-time tracking high gain directional antenna to provide extend range stand-off operation, potential RF channel reuse, and assured telemetry and data communications from low-powered UAV deployed wireless assets.

  2. 49 CFR 192.927 - What are the requirements for using Internal Corrosion Direct Assessment (ICDA)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... must use the model in GRI 02-0057, “Internal Corrosion Direct Assessment of Gas Transmission Pipelines... demonstrates it is equivalent to the one shown in GRI 02-0057. A model must consider changes in pipe diameter...

  3. Situated cognitive engineering : the requirements and design of directed scenario-based training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The development of adaptive virtual learning environments as an educative tool is promising. In this paper we use the situated cognitive engineering method to analyze the operational demands, theoretical foundations and technological opportunities for the design of a Director Agent (DA). A DA uses i

  4. Environmental policy and technological change: The effects of economic incentives and direct regulation on energy-saving innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Richard G., Jr.

    Over the long run, the impacts of environmental policies will be greatly affected by the influence these policies have on the rate and direction of technological change. In particular, the roles played by energy prices and product regulation in energy-saving technology innovation are exceptionally important considerations in modeling climate change and evaluating alternative policy options. We analyze the effects of energy prices and energy-efficiency regulations on the menu of air conditioner and water heater models available on the market over a period of more than three decades, measuring their innovation in terms of improvements in the products' underlying characteristics. Through estimation of a series of "characteristics transformation surfaces," we find that during less than four decades, substantial innovation in these products reduced the total capital and operating costs of air conditioning by one-half and water heating by more than one-fifth. Although the overall rate of innovation in these products appears to be independent of energy prices and regulations, the evidence suggests that the direction of innovation may be responsive to energy price changes. This would imply that energy price increases induced innovation in a direction that lowered the capital cost tradeoffs inherent in producing more energy-efficient products. The evidence supporting "regulation-induced" changes in these tradeoffs is much weaker. Our estimates indicate that about one- to two-fifths of the energy-efficiency improvements in these products from 1973 to 1993 were associated with historical changes in energy prices. We also find that this responsiveness to price changes increased substantially after product labeling requirements came into effect, and that minimum efficiency standards had a significant positive effect on average efficiency levels. Nonetheless, a sizeable portion of historical efficiency improvements in these technologies is associated with the products' overall

  5. Temperature modeling and control of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell based on adaptive neural fuzzy technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Zhidong; Zhu Xinjian; Cao Guangyi

    2006-01-01

    Aiming at on-line controlling of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) stack, an adaptive neural fuzzy inference technology is adopted in the modeling and control of DMFC temperature system. In the modeling process, an Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) identification model of DMFC stack temperature is developed based on the input-output sampled data, which can avoid the internal complexity of DMFC stack. In the controlling process, with the network model trained well as the reference model of the DMFC control system, a novel fuzzy genetic algorithm is used to regulate the parameters and fuzzy rules of a neural fuzzy controller. In the simulation, compared with the nonlinear Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) and traditional fuzzy algorithm, the improved neural fuzzy controller designed in this paper gets better performance, as demonstrated by the simulation results.

  6. Characterization of Fogging and Develop-Loading Effects in Electron-Beam Direct-Writing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Jun-ichi; Kojima, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Yasushi; Maruyama, Takashi; Sugatani, Shinji

    2012-06-01

    We investigated long-range critical dimension (CD) error factors, such as fogging and develop loading, to improve CD uniformity in electron-beam direct-writing (EBDW) technology. It was found that the impact of both effects reached 20 mm and the CD of the monitor pattern decreased by no less than 10%. Fogging and develop loading were separated by comparing the newly designed test patterns that were exposed using both EB and a krypton-fluoride excimer laser. We confirmed that the impact of fogging and develop loading by arranging dummy patterns with a density of 40% was estimated to be +8.9 and -18.9% in the CD, respectively. Based on success in separating each effect, fogging and develop loading were decreased by applying an antistatic agent and multipuddle development, respectively.

  7. Developing technology-enhanced active learning for medical education: challenges, solutions, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Lise; Pettit, Robin K; Lewis, Joy H; Bennett, Thomas; Carrasco, Noel; Brysacz, Stanley; Makin, Inder Raj S; Hutman, Ryan; Schwartz, Frederic N

    2015-04-01

    Growing up in an era of video games and Web-based applications has primed current medical students to expect rapid, interactive feedback. To address this need, the A.T. Still University-School of Osteopathic Medicine in Arizona (Mesa) has developed and integrated a variety of approaches using technology-enhanced active learning for medical education (TEAL-MEd) into its curriculum. Over the course of 3 years (2010-2013), the authors facilitated more than 80 implementations of games and virtual patient simulations into the education of 550 osteopathic medical students. The authors report on 4 key aspects of the TEAL-MEd initiative, including purpose, portfolio of tools, progress to date regarding challenges and solutions, and future directions. Lessons learned may be of benefit to medical educators at academic and clinical training sites who wish to implement TEAL-MEd activities.

  8. Next generation video coding for mobile applications: industry requirements and technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budagavi, Madhukar; Zhou, Minhua

    2007-01-01

    Handheld battery-operated consumer electronics devices such as camera phones, digital still cameras, digital camcorders, and personal media players have become very popular in recent years. Video codecs are extensively used in these devices for video capture and/or playback. The annual shipment of such devices already exceeds a hundred million units and is growing, which makes mobile battery-operated video device requirements very important to focus in video coding research and development. This paper highlights the following unique set of requirements for video coding for these applications: low power consumption, high video quality at low complexity, and low cost, and motivates the need for a new video coding standard that enables better trade-offs of power consumption, complexity, and coding efficiency to meet the challenging requirements of portable video devices. This paper also provides a brief overview of some of the video coding technologies being presented in the ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) standardization body for computational complexity reduction and for coding efficiency improvement in a future video coding standard.

  9. Metallic Thermal Protection System Technology Development: Concepts, Requirements and Assessment Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, John T.; Poteet, Carl C.; Chen, Roger R.; Wurster, Kathryn E.

    2002-01-01

    A technology development program was conducted to evolve an earlier metallic thermal protection system (TPS) panel design, with the goals of: improving operations features, increasing adaptability (ease of attaching to a variety of tank shapes and structural concepts), and reducing weight. The resulting Adaptable Robust Metallic Operable Reusable (ARMOR) TPS system incorporates a high degree of design flexibility (allowing weight and operability to be traded and balanced) and can also be easily integrated with a large variety of tank shapes, airframe structural arrangements and airframe structure/material concepts. An initial attempt has been made to establish a set of performance based TPS design requirements. A set of general (FARtype) requirements have been proposed, focusing on defining categories that must be included for a comprehensive design. Load cases required for TPS design must reflect the full flight envelope, including a comprehensive set of limit loads, However, including additional loads. such as ascent abort trajectories, as ultimate load cases, and on-orbit debris/micro-meteoroid hypervelocity impact, as one of the discrete -source -damage load cases, will have a significant impact on system design and resulting performance, reliability and operability. Although these load cases have not been established, they are of paramount importance for reusable vehicles, and until properly included, all sizing results and assessments of reliability and operability must be considered optimistic at a minimum.

  10. Desalination and reuse of high-salinity shale gas produced water: drivers, technologies, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Devin L; Arias Chavez, Laura H; Ben-Sasson, Moshe; Romero-Vargas Castrillón, Santiago; Yip, Ngai Yin; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-09-03

    In the rapidly developing shale gas industry, managing produced water is a major challenge for maintaining the profitability of shale gas extraction while protecting public health and the environment. We review the current state of practice for produced water management across the United States and discuss the interrelated regulatory, infrastructure, and economic drivers for produced water reuse. Within this framework, we examine the Marcellus shale play, a region in the eastern United States where produced water is currently reused without desalination. In the Marcellus region, and in other shale plays worldwide with similar constraints, contraction of current reuse opportunities within the shale gas industry and growing restrictions on produced water disposal will provide strong incentives for produced water desalination for reuse outside the industry. The most challenging scenarios for the selection of desalination for reuse over other management strategies will be those involving high-salinity produced water, which must be desalinated with thermal separation processes. We explore desalination technologies for treatment of high-salinity shale gas produced water, and we critically review mechanical vapor compression (MVC), membrane distillation (MD), and forward osmosis (FO) as the technologies best suited for desalination of high-salinity produced water for reuse outside the shale gas industry. The advantages and challenges of applying MVC, MD, and FO technologies to produced water desalination are discussed, and directions for future research and development are identified. We find that desalination for reuse of produced water is technically feasible and can be economically relevant. However, because produced water management is primarily an economic decision, expanding desalination for reuse is dependent on process and material improvements to reduce capital and operating costs.

  11. Defining the Minimal Factors Required for Erythropoiesis through Direct Lineage Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Capellera-Garcia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Erythroid cell commitment and differentiation proceed through activation of a lineage-restricted transcriptional network orchestrated by a group of well characterized genes. However, the minimal set of factors necessary for instructing red blood cell (RBC development remains undefined. We employed a screen for transcription factors allowing direct lineage reprograming from fibroblasts to induced erythroid progenitors/precursors (iEPs. We show that Gata1, Tal1, Lmo2, and c-Myc (GTLM can rapidly convert murine and human fibroblasts directly to iEPs. The transcriptional signature of murine iEPs resembled mainly that of primitive erythroid progenitors in the yolk sac, whereas addition of Klf1 or Myb to the GTLM cocktail resulted in iEPs with a more adult-type globin expression pattern. Our results demonstrate that direct lineage conversion is a suitable platform for defining and studying the core factors inducing the different waves of erythroid development.

  12. Defining the Minimal Factors Required for Erythropoiesis through Direct Lineage Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capellera-Garcia, Sandra; Pulecio, Julian; Dhulipala, Kishori; Siva, Kavitha; Rayon-Estrada, Violeta; Singbrant, Sofie; Sommarin, Mikael N E; Walkley, Carl R; Soneji, Shamit; Karlsson, Göran; Raya, Ángel; Sankaran, Vijay G; Flygare, Johan

    2016-06-14

    Erythroid cell commitment and differentiation proceed through activation of a lineage-restricted transcriptional network orchestrated by a group of well characterized genes. However, the minimal set of factors necessary for instructing red blood cell (RBC) development remains undefined. We employed a screen for transcription factors allowing direct lineage reprograming from fibroblasts to induced erythroid progenitors/precursors (iEPs). We show that Gata1, Tal1, Lmo2, and c-Myc (GTLM) can rapidly convert murine and human fibroblasts directly to iEPs. The transcriptional signature of murine iEPs resembled mainly that of primitive erythroid progenitors in the yolk sac, whereas addition of Klf1 or Myb to the GTLM cocktail resulted in iEPs with a more adult-type globin expression pattern. Our results demonstrate that direct lineage conversion is a suitable platform for defining and studying the core factors inducing the different waves of erythroid development.

  13. Contradictory directionalities of digital learning technology and its implications for the scope of imaginable possibilities for collaborating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    and directionalities of learning it is promoting. Building on a productive critique of Jean Lave’s (1996) learning theory, I analytically differentiate between a learning scene’s situatedly enacted telos, its subject-world relation and its learning mechanisms. I illustrate how this could be helpful for the study......Contradictory learning directionalities are immanent to digital learning technology: Any technology suggests a limited multiplicity of situated uses in a learning practice, of understandings of how to learn and of what learning should be about. Herewith any technology offers a scope of imaginable...... possibilities for acting through it. Sociomaterially maintained learning directionalities – among others through the intended uses of learning technology in educational arrangements – afford the enactment of a delimited ensemble of experiential modes, sensualities, epistemologies, knowledges, and future hopes...

  14. Discussion on Direct Seeding Technology%电视直播技术与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏剑

    2012-01-01

    The current broadcasting system commonly used live technical means are: microwave, optical fiber, satellite and 3G network. Over the past few years in the actual live work, the several broadcast transmission mode is used, the following combination of experience in practical work, in view of the task and not broadcast program requirements, on the live transmission technology is used under different conditions%目前常用的电视直播技术手段有微波、光纤、卫星和3G网络等,结合实际的电视直播工作,探讨针对不同直播任务和要求,如何合理使用直播传送技术。

  15. Improvement of MEAs for direct-methanol fuel cells by tuned layer preparation and coating technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindermeir, A.; Rosenthal, G.; Kunz, U.; Hoffmann, U. [Institute for Chemical Process Engineering, Technical University of Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 17, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    Large scale production of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for fuel cells requires a fabrication technology, which is not only based on electrochemical phenomena but also takes into account aspects of materials processing and conversion. For the fabrication of MEAs for DMFC a production sequence consisting of wet ball-milling, wet spray coating and calendering was developed at the ICVT Clausthal. This has a proven ability for the preparation of diffusion backings and catalyst layers with high reproducibility. To improve MEA performance, investigations concerning the influence of layer fabrication and composition are made with respect to the resulting morphology of the structures. Intermediates and MEAs are evaluated by conductivity measurements, determination of permeability values and current density-voltage characteristics supported by SEM and optical microscopy. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. Novel Pulping Technology: Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    The general objectives of this new project are the same as those described in the original proposal. Conventional kraft pulping technologies will be modified for significant improvements in pulp production, such as strength, bleachability, and yield by using green liquor, a naturally high, kraft mill-derived sulfidity source. Although split white liquor sulfidity and other high sulfidity procedures have the promise of addressing several of the latter important economic needs of pulp mills, they require considerable engineering/capital retrofits, redesigned production methods, and thus add to overall mill expenditures. Green liquor use, however, possesses the required high sulfidity to obtain in general the benefits attributable to higher sulfidity cooking, without the required capital constraints for implementation. Before introduction of green liquor in our industrial operations, a stronger understanding of its fundamental chemical interaction with the lignin and carbohydrates in US hardwood and softwoods must be obtained. In addition, its effect on bleachability, enhancement of pulp properties, and influence on the overall energy and recovery of the mill requires further exploration before the process witnesses widespread mill use in North America. Thus, proof of principle will be accomplished in this work and the consequent effect of green liquor and other high sulfide sources on the pulping and bleaching operations will be explored for US kraft mills. The first year of this project will generate the pertinent information to validate its ability for implementation in US pulping operations, whereas year two will continue this work while proceeding to analyze pulp bleachability and final pulp/paper properties and develop a general economic and feasibility analysis for its eventual implementation in North America.

  17. 40 CFR 125.94 - How will requirements reflecting best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact be established for my Phase II existing... technology available to minimize adverse environmental impact for your facility in accordance with paragraphs... technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact. This determination must be based...

  18. Direct-write maskless lithography of LBL nanocomposite films and its prospects for MEMS technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yongxiao; Ho, Szushen; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2012-08-01

    Application of nanocomposites in MEMS, flexible electronics, and biomedical devices is likely to demonstrate new performance standards and resolve a number of difficult technical problems enabled by the unique combinations of electrical, optical, and mechanical properties. This study explores the possibility of making microscale nanocomposite patterns using the fusion of two highly versatile techniques: direct-write maskless UV patterning and layer-by-layer assembly (LBL). Together they can be applied to the production of a wide variety of nanostructured coatings with complex patterns. Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and gold nanoparticle LBL nanocomposites assembled with chitosan (CH) were made into prototypical patterns such as concentric helices and bus-line-and-stimulation-pads (BLASPs) used in flexible antennas and neuroprosthetic devices. The spatial resolution of the technique was established with the standard line grids to be at least 1 μm. Gold nanoparticle films revealed better accuracy and higher resolution in direct-write patterning than SWNT composites, possibly due to the granular rather than fibrous nature of the composites. The conductivity of the patterned composites was 6.45 × 10(-5)Ω m and 3.80 × 10(-6)Ω m at 20 °C for nanotube and nanoparticle composites, respectively; in both cases it exceeds electrical parameters of similar composites. Fundamental and technological prospects of nanocomposite MEMS devices in different areas including implantable biomedical, sensing, and optical devices are discussed.

  19. Use of models to support the monitoring requirements in the water framework directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Højberg, A.L.; Refsgaard, J.C.; Geer, F. van; Jørgensen, L.F.; Zsuffa, I.

    2007-01-01

    Implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) poses many new challenges to European water managers. Monitoring programmes play a key role to assess the status and identify possible trends in the environmental conditions of river basins; to gain new knowledge on water processes and to

  20. Use of models to support the monitoring requirements in the water framework directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Højberg, A.L.; Refsgaard, J.C.; Geer, F. van; Jørgensen, L.F.; Zsuffa, I.

    2007-01-01

    Implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) poses many new challenges to European water managers. Monitoring programmes play a key role to assess the status and identify possible trends in the environmental conditions of river basins; to gain new knowledge on water processes and to asse

  1. Directional resolution of head-related transfer functions required in binaural synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minnaar, Pauli; Plogsties, Jan; Christensen, Flemming

    2005-01-01

    In binaural synthesis a virtual sound source is implemented by convolving an anechoic signal with a pair of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs). In order to represent all possible directions of the sound source with respect to the listener a discrete number of HRTFs are measured...

  2. 77 FR 4688 - National School Lunch Program: Direct Certification Continuous Improvement Plans Required by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... the NSLP and/or School Breakfast Program to establish, by school year (SY) 2008-2009, a system to... agencies and FNS timelier access to data elements important for the direct certification rate calculation... breakfast and lunch programs. 7 CFR Part 272 Alaska, Civil rights, Claims, Food stamps, Grant...

  3. 48 CFR 3004.470 - Security requirements for access to unclassified facilities, Information Technology resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... access to unclassified facilities, Information Technology resources, and sensitive information. 3004.470... Technology resources, and sensitive information. ... ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Safeguarding Classified and Sensitive...

  4. 78 FR 12221 - National School Lunch Program: Direct Certification Continuous Improvement Plans Required by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... require all local educational agencies (LEAs) that participate in the NSLP and/or School Breakfast Program... able to adapt to improved data sources. It is important to point out that there is already some built... attend NSLP schools. Also, it is important to remember that the benchmarks are not set at 100%; and...

  5. Defining the Minimal Factors Required for Erythropoiesis through Direct Lineage Conversion

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Summary Erythroid cell commitment and differentiation proceed through activation of a lineage-restricted transcriptional network orchestrated by a group of well characterized genes. However, the minimal set of factors necessary for instructing red blood cell (RBC) development remains undefined. We employed a screen for transcription factors allowing direct lineage reprograming from fibroblasts to induced erythroid progenitors/precursors (iEPs). We show that Gata1, Tal1, Lmo2, and c-Myc (GTLM)...

  6. Assessing Space Exploration Technology Requirements as a First Step Towards Ensuring Technology Readiness for International Cooperation in Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurini, Kathleen C.; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Satoh, Maoki; Piedboeuf, Jean-Claude; Neumann, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Advancing critical and enhancing technologies is considered essential to enabling sustainable and affordable human space exploration. Critical technologies are those that enable a certain class of mission, such as technologies necessary for safe landing on the Martian surface, advanced propulsion, and closed loop life support. Others enhance the mission by leading to a greater satisfaction of mission objectives or increased probability of mission success. Advanced technologies are needed to reduce mass and cost. Many space agencies have studied exploration mission architectures and scenarios with the resulting lists of critical and enhancing technologies being very similar. With this in mind, and with the recognition that human space exploration will only be enabled by agencies working together to address these challenges, interested agencies participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) have agreed to perform a technology assessment as an important step in exploring cooperation opportunities for future exploration mission scenarios. "The Global Exploration Strategy: The Framework for Coordination" was developed by fourteen space agencies and released in May 2007. Since the fall of 2008, several International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) participating space agencies have been studying concepts for human exploration of the moon. They have identified technologies considered critical and enhancing of sustainable space exploration. Technologies such as in-situ resource utilization, advanced power generation/energy storage systems, reliable dust resistant mobility systems, and closed loop life support systems are important examples. Similarly, agencies such as NASA, ESA, and Russia have studied Mars exploration missions and identified critical technologies. They recognize that human and robotic precursor missions to destinations such as LEO, moon, and near earth objects provide opportunities to demonstrate the

  7. Assessing Space Exploration Technology Requirements as a First Step Towards Ensuring Technology Readiness for International Cooperation in Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurini, Kathleen C.; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Satoh, Maoki; Piedboeuf, Jean-Claude; Neumann, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Advancing critical and enhancing technologies is considered essential to enabling sustainable and affordable human space exploration. Critical technologies are those that enable a certain class of mission, such as technologies necessary for safe landing on the Martian surface, advanced propulsion, and closed loop life support. Others enhance the mission by leading to a greater satisfaction of mission objectives or increased probability of mission success. Advanced technologies are needed to reduce mass and cost. Many space agencies have studied exploration mission architectures and scenarios with the resulting lists of critical and enhancing technologies being very similar. With this in mind, and with the recognition that human space exploration will only be enabled by agencies working together to address these challenges, interested agencies participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) have agreed to perform a technology assessment as an important step in exploring cooperation opportunities for future exploration mission scenarios. "The Global Exploration Strategy: The Framework for Coordination" was developed by fourteen space agencies and released in May 2007. Since the fall of 2008, several International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) participating space agencies have been studying concepts for human exploration of the moon. They have identified technologies considered critical and enhancing of sustainable space exploration. Technologies such as in-situ resource utilization, advanced power generation/energy storage systems, reliable dust resistant mobility systems, and closed loop life support systems are important examples. Similarly, agencies such as NASA, ESA, and Russia have studied Mars exploration missions and identified critical technologies. They recognize that human and robotic precursor missions to destinations such as LEO, moon, and near earth objects provide opportunities to demonstrate the

  8. Addressing Ontario water management plan requirements through the application of spatial technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArdle, S. [4DM Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Tonkin, C. [Ontario Power Generation Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation outlined Ontario Power Generation's (OPG) water management plans as they refer to changes to Ontario's electricity market. It included water management planning requirements after the planning process and the OPG's commitment to water management planning in general. The OPG is actively involved in the planning process and advisory committee meetings. It also implemented a decision support software system as an approach for monitoring water management plans in watershed areas in which the OPG operates. A water management review (WMR) was initiated in Ontario in 1995. A review was also undertaken in 2005 and a number of information technology projects that were implemented were discussed. One of the software applications entitled Water View was presented in more detail. The purpose of this software is to address compliance and reporting requirements related to WMR. It represents a starting point for building information along a river system in a spatial context. Last, the presentation identified next steps which include the potential to expand into other OPG watersheds; enhancements to existing functionality; new functionality; and exploring interest with other waterpower producers. 2 figs.

  9. Information management and technology strategy in healthcare: local timescales and national requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Smith

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The UK National Health Service’s strategic switch-back is well documented and each centrally originated change results in various attempts to record the repercussions and predict the outcomes. The most recent shift is embodied in the Department of Health’s information strategy, Information for health published in September 1998. This document provides the context for an examination of the issue of developing an Information Management and Technology (IM&T strategy at the local level within the changing national requirements for NHS information management. The particular pressures on an individual unit and the need to react to them alongside the requirements of the national strategy are the subjects of this article. The case detailed is that of Clatterbridge Centre for Oncology (CCO on Merseyside, the second largest centre of its type in the UK. Its initial investigation of information needs preceded the publication of the national strategy and its implementation straddled the timescale devised by the NHS Information Authority. The inevitable incompatibility between timescales for the local and the national developments is examined within the case. The work of the new NHS Information Authority and its supporting guidance in its Circular, Information for Health: Initial Local Implementation Strategies, is evaluated as a tool in aligning local and national strategy. Information Managers in other centrally governed organisations within the public sector and large corporations are often alert to similar issues.

  10. Direct interaction between two actin nucleators is required in Drosophila oogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Quinlan, Margot E.

    2013-01-01

    Controlled actin assembly is crucial to a wide variety of cellular processes, including polarity establishment during early development. The recently discovered actin mesh, a structure that traverses the Drosophila oocyte during mid-oogenesis, is essential for proper establishment of the major body axes. Genetic experiments indicate that at least two proteins, Spire (Spir) and Cappuccino (Capu), are required to build this mesh. The spire and cappuccino genetic loci were first identified as ma...

  11. Cardiovascular pressure measurement in safety assessment studies: technology requirements and potential errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarazan, R Dustan

    2014-01-01

    In the early days of in vivo nonclinical pressure measurement, most laboratories were required to have considerable technical/engineering expertise to configure and maintain pressure transducers, amplifiers, tape recorders, chart recorders, etc. Graduate students and postdoctoral fellows typically had some training in the requirements and limitations of the technology they used and were closely engaged in the collection and evaluation of data from their own experiments. More recently, pressure sensing telemetry and data acquisition/analysis systems are provided by vendors as turnkey systems, often resulting in a situation where users are less familiar with the technicalities of their operation. Also, investigators are now more likely to be absent and rely on technical staff for the collection of raw in vivo pressure data from their experiments than in the past. Depending on the goals of an experiment, an investigator may require the measurement of a variety of different pressure parameters, over varying periods of time. A basic understanding of the requirements and limitations that can affect the accuracy and precision of these parameters is important to ensure that the results and conclusions from an experiment are reliable. Factors to consider include the possibility of hydrostatic pressure effects from blood inside the vasculature of the animal, depending on the location of the sensor, as well as from fluid inside a fluid-filled catheter system; long-term stability (lack of drift) of a sensor over time, which can affect the interpretation of absolute pressure changes over a prolonged experiment; frequency response of the sensor and associated electronics; and the phase shift that occurs depending on location of the sensor in the vasculature or because of a fluid-filled catheter system. Each of these factors is discussed, and the particular requirements of frequency response as applied to the measurement of cardiac left ventricular pressure are emphasized. When

  12. Everyday technologies for Alzheimer's disease care: Research findings, directions, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Maria C; Dishman, Eric; Plowman, Tim

    2009-11-01

    The Everyday Technologies for Alzheimer's Care initiative was launched by the Alzheimer's Association and Intel Corporation in 2003 to identify and fund promising research in the use of technology-especially information and communication technologies-for monitoring, diagnosing, and treating Alzheimer's disease. At the last two progress meetings, scientific leaders of the two partners, together with aging health technology academic scientists, met to review the most recent research and discuss how current and developing technologies can address growing needs in Alzheimer care.

  13. Direct-write maskless lithography of LBL nanocomposite films and its prospects for MEMS technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yongxiao; Ho, Szushen; Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2012-07-01

    Application of nanocomposites in MEMS, flexible electronics, and biomedical devices is likely to demonstrate new performance standards and resolve a number of difficult technical problems enabled by the unique combinations of electrical, optical, and mechanical properties. This study explores the possibility of making microscale nanocomposite patterns using the fusion of two highly versatile techniques: direct-write maskless UV patterning and layer-by-layer assembly (LBL). Together they can be applied to the production of a wide variety of nanostructured coatings with complex patterns. Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and gold nanoparticle LBL nanocomposites assembled with chitosan (CH) were made into prototypical patterns such as concentric helices and bus-line-and-stimulation-pads (BLASPs) used in flexible antennas and neuroprosthetic devices. The spatial resolution of the technique was established with the standard line grids to be at least 1 μm. Gold nanoparticle films revealed better accuracy and higher resolution in direct-write patterning than SWNT composites, possibly due to the granular rather than fibrous nature of the composites. The conductivity of the patterned composites was 6.45 × 10-5 Ω m and 3.80 × 10-6 Ω m at 20 °C for nanotube and nanoparticle composites, respectively; in both cases it exceeds electrical parameters of similar composites. Fundamental and technological prospects of nanocomposite MEMS devices in different areas including implantable biomedical, sensing, and optical devices are discussed.Application of nanocomposites in MEMS, flexible electronics, and biomedical devices is likely to demonstrate new performance standards and resolve a number of difficult technical problems enabled by the unique combinations of electrical, optical, and mechanical properties. This study explores the possibility of making microscale nanocomposite patterns using the fusion of two highly versatile techniques: direct-write maskless UV patterning

  14. Blood vessel endothelium-directed tumor cell streaming in breast tumors requires the HGF/C-Met signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, E; Xue, A; Wang, Y; Rougerie, P; Sharma, V P; Eddy, R; Cox, D; Condeelis, J

    2016-11-28

    During metastasis to distant sites, tumor cells migrate to blood vessels. In vivo, breast tumor cells utilize a specialized mode of migration known as streaming, where a linear assembly of tumor cells migrate directionally towards blood vessels on fibronectin-collagen I-containing extracellular matrix (ECM) fibers in response to chemotactic signals. We have successfully reconstructed tumor cell streaming in vitro by co-plating tumors cells, macrophages and endothelial cells on 2.5 μm thick ECM-coated micro-patterned substrates. We found that tumor cells and macrophages, when plated together on the micro-patterned substrates, do not demonstrate sustained directional migration in only one direction (sustained directionality) but show random bi-directional walking. Sustained directionality of tumor cells as seen in vivo was established in vitro when beads coated with human umbilical vein endothelial cells were placed at one end of the micro-patterned 'ECM fibers' within the assay. We demonstrated that these endothelial cells supply the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) required for the chemotactic gradient responsible for sustained directionality. Using this in vitro reconstituted streaming system, we found that directional streaming is dependent on, and most effectively blocked, by inhibiting the HGF/C-Met signaling pathway between endothelial cells and tumor cells. Key observations made with the in vitro reconstituted system implicating C-Met signaling were confirmed in vivo in mammary tumors using the in vivo invasion assay and intravital multiphoton imaging of tumor cell streaming. These results establish HGF/C-Met as a central organizing signal in blood vessel-directed tumor cell migration in vivo and highlight a promising role for C-Met inhibitors in blocking tumor cell streaming and metastasis in vivo, and for use in human trials.Oncogene advance online publication, 28 November 2016; doi:10.1038/onc.2016.421.

  15. Stem cell technology for tendon regeneration: current status, challenges, and future research directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lui PP

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pauline Po Yee Lui Headquarter, Hospital Authority, Hong Kong SAR, People's Republic of China Abstract: Tendon injuries are a common cause of physical disability. They present a clinical challenge to orthopedic surgeons because injured tendons respond poorly to current treatments without tissue regeneration and the time required for rehabilitation is long. New treatment options are required. Stem cell-based therapies offer great potential to promote tendon regeneration due to their high proliferative, synthetic, and immunomodulatory activities as well as their potential to differentiate to the target cell types and undergo genetic modification. In this review, I first recapped the challenges of tendon repair by reviewing the anatomy of tendon. Next, I discussed the advantages and limitations of using different types of stem cells compared to terminally differentiated cells for tendon tissue engineering. The safety and efficacy of application of stem cells and their modified counterparts for tendon tissue engineering were then summarized after a systematic literature search in PubMed. The challenges and future research directions to enhance, optimize, and standardize stem cell-based therapies for augmenting tendon repair were then discussed. Keywords: stem cells, tendon repair, tendon tissue engineering, tendon injuries

  16. Ka-band Technologies for Small Spacecraft Communications via Relays and Direct Data Downlink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinger, James M.; Niederhaus, Charles; Reinhart, Richard; Downey, Joe; Roberts, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    As the scientific capabilities and number of small spacecraft missions in the near Earth region increase, standard yet configurable user spacecraft terminals operating in Ka-band are needed to lower mission cost and risk and enable significantly higher data return than current UHF or S-band terminals. These compact Ka-band terminals are intended to operate with both the current and next generation of Ka-band relay satellites and via direct data communications with near Earth tracking terminals. This presentation provides an overview of emerging NASA-sponsored and commercially provided technologies in software defined radios (SDRs), transceivers, and electronically steered antennas that will enable data rates from hundreds of kbps to over 1 Gbps and operate in multiple frequency bands (such as S- and X-bands) and expand the use of NASA's common Ka-bands frequencies: 22.55-23.15 GHz for forward data or uplink; and 25.5-27.0 GHz for return data or downlink. Reductions in mass, power and volume come from integration of multiple radio functions, operations in Ka-band, high efficiency amplifiers and receivers, and compact, flat and vibration free electronically steered narrow beam antennas for up to + 60 degrees field of regard. The software defined near Earth space transceiver (SD-NEST) described in the presentation is intended to be compliant with NASA's space telecommunications radio system (STRS) standard for communications waveforms and hardware interoperability.

  17. Requirements for intermediaries and advisors in the area of mortgages resulting from Mortgage Credit Directive – implications for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Waliszewski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic development of the mortgage market, especially in the period before the current financial crisis, revealed that within the EU there are local mortgage credit markets and that it is necessary to harmonize the rules of the system and consumer protection within the Community. The intention of the creators of the Mortgage Credit Directive was to organize the mortgage lending market for residential purposes and make it transparent, as well as increase the safety of the consumer credit market, along the lines of what took place earlier in the consumer credit market regulations (The Consumer Credit Directives no. 2008/48/EC and earlier no. 87/102/EEC. The Mortgage Credit Directive implies for lenders - credit institutions to act at every stage of the lending process with respect to the consumer’s interest and to provide them with adequate services for their needs. Due to the large role of indirect distribution channels of mortgages by banks there are certain requirements for intermediaries, brokers and credit advisors. The implementation term of the Directive, appointed for March 2016, implies action to be taken in order to implement the provisions of this Directive into Polish law. The legislative process is being conducted by the Ministry of Finance and supported by the Group on implementation of the Mortgage Credit Directive operating with the Council of Financial Market Development.

  18. Determination of technology transfer requirements for enhanced oil recovery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, T.D.; Scott, J.P.

    1980-09-01

    A detailed field study was conducted to determine the technical information needs of current and potential users of enhanced oil recovery data. Under the direction of the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC), the study (1) identifies groups which have a need for EOR-related information, (2) delineate the specific information needs of each user-group, and (3) outlines methods for improved transfer of appropriate information to the end users. This study also assesses attitudes toward the EOR-related efforts of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the BETC, and the role each should play in facilitating the commercialization of EOR processes. More than 300 users and potential users of EOR information were surveyed. Included in the survey sample were representatives of major oil companies, independent oil companies, engineering consulting firms, university and private research organizations, financial institutions and federal, state, and local policy-making bodies. In-depth questionnaires were specifically designed for each group. This study analyzes each group's position pertaining to (1) current level of EOR activity or interest, (2) current and projected EOR information needs, (3) assessments of the BETC's current information services and suggestions for improvement, (4) delineation of technical and economic constraints to increased EOR activity, and (5) steps the DOE might take to enhance the attractiveness of commercial EOR operations.

  19. The Specific Direction Requirement for Aiding and Abetting: A Call for Revisiting Comparative Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksenova, Marina

    2015-01-01

    The ‘specific direction’ saga has been dominating the jurisprudence of the ICTY for nearly two years, and the end is yet to be seen. The story centers on the correct interpretation of liability for aiding and abetting, while, at the same time, exposing broader concerns of international criminal law...... criminal law is essential to resolving the legal conundrum that this standard causes....... a substantial effect on the crimes committed in the context of war - was insufficient to create individual criminal responsibility in these cases. The response to this new and heightened interpretation of aiding and abetting followed quickly, as the Šainović et al. appeal judgment rejected the novel requirement...

  20. Alternatives to the use of animals in safety testing as required by the EU-Cosmetics Directive 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Ingredients of cosmetic products are no longer allowed to be tested by animal experimentation (EU-Cosmetics Directive 76/768 EEC). For several toxicological endpoints this testing ban applies since March 11, 2009, while repeated dose toxicity tests and the test on skin sensitisation will follow on March 11, 2013. All currently available alternatives meeting the requirements of the first deadline are compiled in the following.

  1. Integration of e-beam direct write in BEOL processes of 28nm SRAM technology node using mix and match

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutsch, Manuela; Choi, Kang-Hoon; Hanisch, Norbert; Hohle, Christoph; Seidel, Robert; Steidel, Katja; Thrun, Xaver; Werner, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Many efforts were spent in the development of EUV technologies, but from a customer point of view EUV is still behind expectations. In parallel since years maskless lithography is included in the ITRS roadmap wherein multi electron beam direct patterning is considered as an alternative or complementary approach for patterning of advanced technology nodes. The process of multi beam exposures can be emulated by single beam technologies available in the field. While variable shape-beam direct writers are already used for niche applications, the integration capability of e-beam direct write at advanced nodes has not been proven, yet. In this study the e-beam lithography was implemented in the BEoL processes of the 28nm SRAM technology. Integrated 300mm wafers with a 28nm back-end of line (BEoL) stack from GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Dresden, were used for the experiments. For the patterning of the Metal layer a Mix and Match concept based on the sequence litho - etch - litho - etch (LELE) was developed and evaluated wherein several exposure fields were blanked out during the optical exposure. E-beam patterning results of BEoL Metal and Via layers are presented using a 50kV VISTEC SB3050DW variable shaped electron beam direct writer at Fraunhofer IPMS-CNT. Etch results are shown and compared to the POR. In summary we demonstrate the integration capability of EBDW into a productive CMOS process flow at the example of the 28nm SRAM technology node.

  2. Direction for the Estimation of Required Resources for Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning based on BIM via Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Insu [Korea Institute of Construction Technology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woojung [KHNP-Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Ways to estimate decommissioning of required resources in the past have imposed great uncertainty since they analyze required resources at the construction stage, analyzing and consulting decommissioning required resources of overseas nuclear power plants. As demands on efficient management and use of complicated construction information increased these days, demands on the introduction of Building Information Modeling (herein after referred to as BIM) technology has increased. In the area of quotation, considerable effects are expected as to the accuracy and reliability predicting construction costs through the characteristics that can automatically estimate quantities by using attribute information of BIM model. BIM-based estimation and quotation of required resources is more accurate than the existing 2D-based quotations and have many advantages such as reviews over constructability and interference. It can be desirable to estimate decommissioning required resources in nuclear power plants using BIM as well as using tools that are compatible with usual international/industrial standards. As we looked into the cases where required resources were estimated, using BIM in Korea and abroad, they dealt with estimation of required resources, estimation of construction cost and process management at large. In each area, methodologies, classification systems, BIM, and realization tests have been used variably. Nonetheless, several problems have been reported, and among them, it is noticeable that although BIM standard classification system exists, no case was found that has used standard classification system. This means that no interlink among OBS (Object Breakdown Structure), WBS (Work Breakdown Structure) and CBS (Cost Breakdown Structure) was possible. Thus, for nuclear power plant decommissioning, decommissioning method and process, etc. shall be defined clearly in the stage of decommissioning strategy establishment, so that classification systems must be set up

  3. One version of direct response priming requires automatization of the relevant associations but not awareness of the prime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapp, Stuart T

    2015-07-01

    Priming is the influence of one event on performance during a second event. One type of priming is known as semantic priming because it biases interpretation of the subsequent stimulus. Another type, direct response priming, biases responding directly without semantic mediation. Research reviewed in this article indicates that two versions of the second type, direct response priming, can be distinguished. One version, explicit priming, requires awareness of the prime. The other version, associative response priming, occurs even if the prime is masked and not phenomenally visible. This version, which is attributed to associations relating specific sensory events to movements of particular muscles, is enabled only if the association has previously been automatized by brief practice in which the to-be-primed response is made to the stimulus that subsequently appears as the prime. Associative response priming can be explained by a simple stimulus-response interpretation; other varieties of priming are more theoretically challenging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The No Shelf Required Guide to E-book Purchasing A Library Technology Report

    CERN Document Server

    Polanka, Sue

    2011-01-01

    This issue of "Library Technology Reports" provides strategies, best practices, and case studies for meeting the unprecedented legal, technological, and vendor challenges that come with e-book purchasing.

  5. Technology-assisted Interventions for Parents of Young Children: Emerging Practices, Current Research, and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Cristin M.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    Technology can potentially expand the reach and cut the costs of providing effective, evidence-based interventions. This paper reviews existing publications that describe the application and evaluation of technology-assisted interventions for parents of young children. A broad review of the early childhood literature revealed 48 studies describing technology-assisted parent education and interventions. Across these studies, multiple forms of technology were used, including web-based platforms...

  6. Advancing vector biology research: a community survey for future directions, research applications and infrastructure requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Alain; Pondeville, Emilie; Schnettler, Esther; Crisanti, Andrea; Supparo, Clelia; Christophides, George K; Kersey, Paul J; Maslen, Gareth L; Takken, Willem; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; Oliva, Clelia F; Busquets, Núria; Abad, F Xavier; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Levashina, Elena A; Wilson, Anthony J; Veronesi, Eva; Pichard, Maëlle; Arnaud Marsh, Sarah; Simard, Frédéric; Vernick, Kenneth D

    2016-01-01

    Vector-borne pathogens impact public health, animal production, and animal welfare. Research on arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies, and midges which transmit pathogens to humans and economically important animals is crucial for development of new control measures that target transmission by the vector. While insecticides are an important part of this arsenal, appearance of resistance mechanisms is increasingly common. Novel tools for genetic manipulation of vectors, use of Wolbachia endosymbiotic bacteria, and other biological control mechanisms to prevent pathogen transmission have led to promising new intervention strategies, adding to strong interest in vector biology and genetics as well as vector-pathogen interactions. Vector research is therefore at a crucial juncture, and strategic decisions on future research directions and research infrastructure investment should be informed by the research community. A survey initiated by the European Horizon 2020 INFRAVEC-2 consortium set out to canvass priorities in the vector biology research community and to determine key activities that are needed for researchers to efficiently study vectors, vector-pathogen interactions, as well as access the structures and services that allow such activities to be carried out. We summarize the most important findings of the survey which in particular reflect the priorities of researchers in European countries, and which will be of use to stakeholders that include researchers, government, and research organizations.

  7. MAIN DIRECTIONS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROGRAM-IMITATING SIMULATORS TECHNOLOGY IN THE SPHERE OF MILITARY EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleh Yu. Shyshka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the directions of software simulators development in the professional training of military personnel. It is outlined the theoretical approaches to understanding ICT training. The authors found out the essential features of the concepts of "software simulator", "educational technology", "technology of education", "programmed training". The article analyzes the domestic, foreign and international experience of using software simulators in the military education sphere. It presents the general trend of implementation of information and communication technologies and their impact on defined areas of development professional military software simulators.

  8. Reliability of the nanopheres-DNA immunization technology to produce polyclonal antibodies directed against human neogenic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaoty, Ahmed; Gouilleux-Gruart, Valérie; Casteret, Sophie; Pitard, Bruno; Bigot, Yves; Lecomte, Thierry

    2013-08-01

    The molecular domestication of several DNA transposons that occurred during the evolution of the mammalian lineage, has led to the emergence of at least 43 genes, known as neogenes. To date, the limited availability of efficient commercial antibodies directed against most of their protein isoforms hampers investigation of their expression in vitro and in situ. Since immunization protocols using peptides or recombinant proteins have revealed that it is difficult to recover antibodies, we planned to produce antisera in mice using a new technique of nanopheres/DNA immunization, the ICANtibodies™ technology. Here, we investigate the possibilities of obtaining polyclonal antibodies for 24 proteins or protein domains using this immunization strategy. We successfully obtained 13 antisera that were able to detect neogenic proteins by Western blotting and ELISA in protein extracts of transiently-transfected cells and various cancer cell lines, plus another two that only detected the in ELISA and in in situ hybridizations. The features required for the production of these antibodies are analyzed and discussed, and examples are given of the advantages they offer for the study of neogenic proteins.

  9. Linking Technology Capabilities to Marketing Requirements: Case of Indonesian Aircraft Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Yulianto Suharto

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. The relationship between strategic technology planning and the overall business strategy has been one of the growing fields that attract much interest both from academics and industrials point of view. The increasingly important role that technology plays in today’s business success is well established.Strategic technology planning activities--within a corporate level--are often implemented by applying integrated planning instrument, which allow firms to consider both technology-ori...

  10. Influence of University Level Direct Instruction on Educators' Use of Technology in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Angie M.; Bonds-Raacke, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research regarding technology integration in education has indicated that when technology is integrated into the classroom with fidelity it can enhance educational experiences. Research has also indicated, however that despite the growing presence of technology in classrooms, it is not being effectively utilized. The present study…

  11. Influence of University Level Direct Instruction on Educators' Use of Technology in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Angie M.; Bonds-Raacke, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research regarding technology integration in education has indicated that when technology is integrated into the classroom with fidelity it can enhance educational experiences. Research has also indicated, however that despite the growing presence of technology in classrooms, it is not being effectively utilized. The present study…

  12. A Phenomenological Approach to Experiences with Technology: Current State, Promise, and Future Directions for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilesiz, Sebnem

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I conceptualize experiences with technology as an object of study for educational technology research and propose phenomenology as a highly suitable method for studying this construct. I begin by reviewing existing research focusing on the construct of experiences with technology and the approaches utilized for its study. To augment…

  13. Monitoring Conformance and Containment for Geological Carbon Storage: Can Technology Meet Policy and Public Requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, D. C.; Osadetz, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Province of Alberta, Canada identified carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a key element of its 2008 Climate Change strategy. The target is a reduction in CO2 emissions of 139 Mt/year by 2050. To encourage uptake of CCS by industry, the province has provided partial funding to two demonstration scale projects, namely the Quest Project by Shell and partners (CCS), and the Alberta Carbon Trunk Line Project (pipeline and CO2-EOR). Important to commercial scale implementation of CCS will be the requirement to prove conformance and containment of the CO2 plume injected during the lifetime of the CCS project. This will be a challenge for monitoring programs. The Containment and Monitoring Institute (CaMI) is developing a Field Research Station (FRS) to calibrate various monitoring technologies for CO2 detection thresholds at relatively shallow depths. The objective being assessed with the FRS is sensitivity for early detection of loss of containment from a deeper CO2 storage project. In this project, two injection wells will be drilled to sandstone reservoir targets at depths of 300 m and 700 m. Up to four observation wells will be drilled with monitoring instruments installed. Time-lapse surface and borehole monitoring surveys will be undertaken to evaluate the movement and fate of the CO2 plume. These will include seismic, microseismic, cross well, electrical resistivity, electromagnetic, gravity, geodetic and geomechanical surveys. Initial baseline seismic data from the FRS will presented.

  14. Direct ventral hippocampal-prefrontal input is required for anxiety-related neural activity and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Coreano, Nancy; Bolkan, Scott S.; Pierce, Georgia M.; Blackman, Dakota R.; Hardin, William D.; Garcia-Garcia, Alvaro L.; Spellman, Timothy J.; Gordon, Joshua A.

    2016-01-01

    The ventral hippocampus (vHPC), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and basolateral amygdala (BLA) are each required for the expression of anxiety-like behavior. Yet the role of each individual element of the circuit is unclear. The projection from the vHPC to the mPFC has been implicated in anxiety-related neural synchrony and spatial representations of aversion. The role of this projection was examined using multi-site neural recordings combined with optogenetic terminal inhibition. Inhibition of vHPC input to the mPFC disrupted anxiety and mPFC representations of aversion, and reduced theta synchrony in a pathway-, frequency- and task-specific manner. Moreover, bilateral, but not unilateral inhibition altered physiological correlates of anxiety in the BLA, mimicking a safety-like state. These results reveal a specific role for the vHPC-mPFC projection in anxiety-related behavior and the spatial representation of aversive information within the mPFC. PMID:26853301

  15. Progress in the Science and Technology of Direct Drive Laser Fusion with the KrF Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    important parameters KrF technology leads) Direct Laser Drive is a better choice for Energy Indirect Drive (initial path for NIF ) Laser Beams x-rays Hohlraum...Pellet Direct Drive (IFE) Laser Beams Pellet .. • ID Ignition being explored on NIF • Providing high enough gain for pure fusion energy is...challenging. • DD Ignition physics can be explored on NIF . • More efficient use of laser light, and greater flexibility in applying drive provides potential for

  16. Perspective on everyday technologies for Alzheimer's care: research findings, directions, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Eric; Carrillo, Maria C

    2007-07-01

    The Everyday Technologies for Alzheimer's Care (ETAC) initiative was launched by the Alzheimer's Association and Intel Corporation in 2003 to identify and fund promising research in the use of technology--especially information and communication technologies (ICTs)--for monitoring, diagnosing, and treating Alzheimer's disease (AD). Agilent Technologies joined the initiative in 2005. In October 2006, representatives of the three partners, together with ETAC award grantees, met to review the most recent research, and discuss how current and developing technologies can address growing needs in Alzheimer's care.

  17. Introduction of CAA into a mathematics course for technology students to address a change in curriculum requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Pollock, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The mathematical requirements for engineering, science and technology students has been debated for many years and concern has been expressed about the mathematical preparedness of students entering higher education. This paper considers a mathematics course that has been specifically designed to address some of these issues for technology education students. It briefly chronicles the changes that have taken place over its lifetime and evaluates the introduction of Computer Assisted Assessmen...

  18. Meeting the future metro network challenges and requirements by adopting programmable S-BVT with direct-detection and PDM functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Laia; Svaluto Moreolo, Michela; Fàbrega, Josep M.; Vílchez, F. Javier

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we propose an advanced programmable sliceable-bandwidth variable transceiver (S-BVT) with polarization division multiplexing (PDM) capability as a key enabler to fulfill the requirements for future 5G networks. Thanks to its cost-effective optoelectronic front-end based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technology and direct-detection (DD), the proposed S-BVT becomes suitable for next generation highly flexible and scalable metro networks. Polarization beam splitters (PBSs) and controllers (PCs), available on-demand, are included at the transceivers and at the network nodes, further enhancing the system flexibility and promoting an efficient use of the spectrum. 40G-100G PDM transmission has been experimentally demonstrated, within a 4-node photonic mesh network (ADRENALINE testbed), implementing a simplified equalization process.

  19. Monitoring and control requirement definition study for dispersed storage and generation (DSG). Volume II. Final report, Appendix A: selected DSG technologies and their general control requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    A major aim of the US National Energy Policy, as well as that of the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, is to conserve energy and to shift from oil to more abundant domestic fuels and renewable energy sources. Dispersed Storage and Generation (DSG) is the term that characterizes the present and future dispersed, relatively small (<30 MW) energy systems, such as solar thermal electric, photovoltaic, wind, fuel cell, storage battery, hydro, and cogeneration, which can help achieve these national energy goals and can be dispersed throughout the distribution portion of an electric utility system. The purpose of this survey and identification of DSG technologies is to present an understanding of the special characteristics of each of these technologies in sufficient detail so that the physical principles of their operation and the internal control of each technology are evident. In this way, a better appreciation can be obtained of the monitoring and control requirements for these DSGs from a remote distribution dispatch center. A consistent approach is being sought for both hardware and software which will handle the monitoring and control necessary to integrate a number of different DSG technologies into a common distribution dispatch network. From this study it appears that the control of each of the DSG technologies is compatible with a supervisory control method of operation that lends itself to remote control from a distribution dispatch center.

  20. Development of technology-neutral safety requirements for the regulation of future nuclear power reactors: Back to basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tronea, Madalina, E-mail: madalina.tronea@gmail.co [Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-03-15

    This paper explores the current trends as regards the development of technology-neutral safety requirements to be used in the regulation of future nuclear power reactors and the role of the quantitative safety goals in the design of reactor safety systems. The use of the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) on protection against potential exposure could form the basis of a technology-neutral framework for safety requirements on new reactor designs and could contribute to international harmonisation of nuclear safety assessment practices as part of the licensing processes for future nuclear power plants.

  1. Direct effect of ownership and technology import: Firm level evidence from large and medium-enterprises in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Pingfang; LI Lei

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the direct effect of ownership and technology imports under the fiamework of neoclassical economic theory.The econometric analysis is based on panel data from a random sample of large and mediumenterprises in Shanghai,during the period of 1998 to 2003.The results show that Sino-foreign joint ventures,Sino-foralgn cooperative enterprises and foreignfunded enterprises (SANZI) enjoy higher labor productivity and total factor productlvity (TFP) than domestic enterprises.Intra-firm diffusion of non-codified technology,proxied by ovwnership,is the main source of their better performance,whereas internally transferred codified technology makes little contribution to TFP.For state-owned enterprises,codified technology imports have significantly raised both labor productivity and TFP,but such positive effect is significantly dependent on the S&T human resource.In contrast,no evidence supports that introduction of foreign technology has enhanced the productivity in domestic nonstate-owned enterprises.The empirical results indicate that SANZI do not have a distinct advantage in their codified technology.In addition,inadequate investment in assimilation process and research and development together with inefficient management of science and technology activities,may impede the use of imported technology.

  2. Consumer-Directed Goal Planning in the Delivery of Assistive Technology Services for People Who Are Ageing with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Mansha; Hammel, Joy

    2009-01-01

    Background: A consumer-directed service-delivery approach to assistive technology and environmental modification intervention was examined with people who were ageing with intellectual disabilities. Material and Methods: The intervention was based on a collaborative approach involving consumers, their social supports and service deliverers. Thirty…

  3. Technology-assisted Interventions for Parents of Young Children: Emerging Practices, Current Research, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Cristin M; Bierman, Karen L

    Technology can potentially expand the reach and cut the costs of providing effective, evidence-based interventions. This paper reviews existing publications that describe the application and evaluation of technology-assisted interventions for parents of young children. A broad review of the early childhood literature revealed 48 studies describing technology-assisted parent education and interventions. Across these studies, multiple forms of technology were used, including web-based platforms, discussion forums, mobile devices, and video conferencing. Results are described moving from feasibility and acceptability of technology-based delivery systems to more rigorous evaluations examining their impact on parent and child outcomes. Potential exists for technology to deliver interventions to parents. Limitations are discussed including differential acceptability and elevated attrition associated with internet-only intervention delivery.

  4. Information technology in pharmacovigilance: Benefits, challenges, and future directions from industry perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwu Lu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Zhengwu LuClinical Research Department, Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA, USAAbstract: Risk assessment during clinical product development needs to be conducted in a thorough and rigorous manner. However, it is impossible to identify all safety concerns during controlled clinical trials. Once a product is marketed, there is generally a large increase in the number of patients exposed, including those with comorbid conditions and those being treated with concomitant medications. Therefore, postmarketing safety data collection and clinical risk assessment based on observational data are critical for evaluating and characterizing a product’s risk profile and for making informed decisions on risk minimization. Information science promises to deliver effective e-clinical or e-health solutions to realize several core benefits: time savings, high quality, cost reductions, and increased efficiencies with safer and more efficacious medicines. The development and use of standard-based pharmacovigilance system with integration connection to electronic medical records, electronic health records, and clinical data management system holds promise as a tool for enabling early drug safety detections, data mining, results interpretation, assisting in safety decision making, and clinical collaborations among clinical partners or different functional groups. The availability of a publicly accessible global safety database updated on a frequent basis would further enhance detection and communication about safety issues. Due to recent high-profile drug safety problems, the pharmaceutical industry is faced with greater regulatory enforcement and increased accountability demands for the protection and welfare of patients. This changing climate requires biopharmaceutical companies to take a more proactive approach in dealing with drug safety and pharmacovigilance.Keywords: information technology, pharmacovigilance, safety, standard, risk management, adverse event

  5. A cautionary approach in transitioning to 'green' energy technologies and practices is required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matatiele, Puleng; Gulumian, Mary

    2016-06-01

    Renewable energy technologies (wind turbines, solar cells, biofuels, etc.) are often referred to as 'clean' or 'green' energy sources, while jobs linked to the field of environmental protection and energy efficiency are referred to as 'green' jobs. The energy efficiency of clean technologies, which is likely to reduce and/or eliminate reliance on fossil fuels, is acknowledged. However, the potential contribution of green technologies and associated practices to ill health and environmental pollution resulting from consumption of energy and raw materials, generation of waste, and the negative impacts related to some life cycle phases of these technologies are discussed. Similarly, a point is made that the green jobs theme is mistakenly oversold because the employment opportunities generated by transitioning to green technologies are not necessarily safe and healthy jobs. Emphasis is put on identifying the hazards associated with these green designs, assessing the risks to the environment and worker health and safety, and either eliminating the hazards or minimizing the risks as essential elements to the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of green technologies. The perception that it is not always economically possible to consider all risk factors associated with renewable energy technologies at the beginning without hampering their implementation, especially in the poor developing countries, is dismissed. Instead, poor countries are encouraged to start implementing environmentally sound practices while transitioning to green technologies in line with their technological development and overall economic growth.

  6. Tethys: The Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Environmental Impacts Knowledge Management System -- Requirements Specification -- Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butner, R. Scott; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Ellis, Peter C.

    2010-11-09

    The marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) environmental impacts knowledge management system (KMS), dubbed Tethys after the mythical Greek goddess of the seas, is being developed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program (WHTP) by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This requirements specification establishes the essential capabilities required of Tethys and clarifies for WHTP and the Tethys development team the results that must be achieved by the system.

  7. Remote access directional drilling : an innovative technological advancement in directional drilling based on a collaborative and strategic R and D effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buker, M. [Phoenix Income Trust, Toronto, ON (Canada); Gillett, G. [EnCana Oil and Gas Partnership, Bonnyville, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    EnCana and Phoenix Income Trust identified an opportunity to develop a system that could reduce directional personnel in the field because of numerous rigs that were in close proximity to each other and the repetitive nature of well profiles. Directional personnel also had familiarity with drilling programs. This presentation discussed an innovative technological advancement in directional drilling based on a collaborative and strategic research and development effort between EnCana and Phoenix Income Trust called remote access directional drilling (RADD). The RADD system and process were presented in detail. Challenges that were addressed included the development of a system that could provide all the necessary drilling information remotely; establishing effective communication between the command center and rig; and training of Phoenix and EnCana personnel. The presentation also reviewed equipment solutions and re-defining job roles. A total of 265 wells have been drilled with this system at a cost savings of $350,000 and a savings of 12-15 per cent of total directional costs. It was concluded that fewer wellsite trailers are needed when field personnel is reduced, resulting in reduced cost and reduced safety liability. 2 figs.

  8. The Innovative Directions In Development And Implementations Of Hybrid Technologies In Surface Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazurkiewicz A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the development of modern technology depends, to a great extent, on the possibilities of producing the innovative materials with high functionality parameters, which could be used in modern, highly advanced technological processes. Surface engineering plays a very important role in this area. This is mainly due to the fact that, for many structural materials, the possibilities of classical formation of their properties (e.g., by heat treatment or the selection of the microstructure, chemical and phase composition have been practically used up. The material and technological achievements in the surface engineering area allow the modification of the properties of the surface layer of tool and machine components. As a result, they may be better suited to work in increasingly difficult and more demanding conditions. The hybrid technologies, combining several different methods of surface treatment in one complex technological process, are the most advanced solutions compared to already known surface engineering methods. In the article, the authors present the possibilities of shaping the functional properties of the surface layer. The authors describe problems associated with the development of the hybrid technology and provide the examples of physical modelling, design, technological development, and the practical application of a hybrid technology. In this work, the authors also identify the areas whose development is needed for more effective transfer of surface engineering innovations to business applications.

  9. 75 FR 28554 - Elimination of Classification Requirement in the Green Technology Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Greenhouse Gas ] Reduction, 74 FR 64666 (December 8, 2009), 1349 Off. Gaz. Pat. Office 362 (December 29, 2009... Technology Pilot Program AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) implemented the Green Technology Pilot...

  10. Addressing AACSB Global and Technology Requirements: Exploratory Assessment of a Marketing Management Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Scott; Bao, Yongchuan

    2009-01-01

    The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) standards mandate knowledge of global and technology issues. Businesses desire employees with ability to analyze international markets and to be adept with technology. Taxpayers supporting public universities and organizations hiring business school graduates expect accountability…

  11. Removing Obstacles to the Pedagogical Changes Required by Jonassen's Vision of Authentic Technology-Enabled Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertmer, Peggy A.; Ottenbreit-Leftwich, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Educators have been striving to achieve meaningful technology use in our K-12 classrooms for over 30 years. Yet, despite significant investments of time and money in infrastructure, training, and support "we have few assurances that [educators] are able to use technology for teaching and learning" (NEA, 2008, p. 1). In this article, we call for a…

  12. Codes and Standards Requirements for Deployment of Emerging Fuel Cell Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, R.; Buttner, W.; Riykin, C.

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this NREL report is to provide information on codes and standards (of two emerging hydrogen power fuel cell technology markets; forklift trucks and backup power units), that would ease the implementation of emerging fuel cell technologies. This information should help project developers, project engineers, code officials and other interested parties in developing and reviewing permit applications for regulatory compliance.

  13. Addressing AACSB Global and Technology Requirements: Exploratory Assessment of a Marketing Management Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Scott; Bao, Yongchuan

    2009-01-01

    The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) standards mandate knowledge of global and technology issues. Businesses desire employees with ability to analyze international markets and to be adept with technology. Taxpayers supporting public universities and organizations hiring business school graduates expect accountability…

  14. Functional requirements for assistive technology for people with cognitive impairments and dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meiland, F.J.M.; Boer, M.E. de; Hoof, J. van; Leeuw, J. van der; Witte, L. de; Blom, M.; Karkowski, I.P.; Mulvenna, M.D.; Droes, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    The amount of technological aids on the market to support people in their everyday functioning is increasing. For example mobile telephone, electronic diary, skyping and domotics. Many of these aids are too complicated to operate for people with cognitive impairments, like dementia. For technology

  15. Additive manufacturing technologies 3D printing, rapid prototyping, and direct digital manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Ian; Stucker, Brent

    2015-01-01

    This book covers in detail the various aspects of joining materials to form parts. A conceptual overview of rapid prototyping and layered manufacturing is given,  beginning with the fundamentals so that readers can get up to speed quickly. Unusual and emerging applications such as micro-scale manufacturing, medical applications, aerospace, and rapid manufacturing are also discussed. This book provides a comprehensive overview of rapid prototyping technologies as well as support technologies such as software systems, vacuum casting, investment casting, plating, infiltration and other systems. This book also: Reflects recent developments and trends and adheres to the ASTM, SI, and other standards Includes chapters on automotive technology, aerospace technology and low-cost AM technologies Provides a broad range of technical questions to ensure comprehensive understanding of the concepts covered  

  16. E-learning as a technological tool to meet the requirements of occupational standards in training of it specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokareva, N. A.; Tyatyushkina, O. Y.; Cheremisina, E. N.

    2016-09-01

    We discuss issues of updating educational programs to meet requirements of the labor market and occupational standards of IT industry. We suggest the technology of e-learning that utilizes an open educational resource to provide the employers' participation in the development of educational content and the intensification of practical training.

  17. Virtual reality technology as a tool for human factors requirements evaluation in design of the nuclear reactors control desks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grecco, Claudio H.S.; Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Mol, Antonio C.A.; Carvalho, Paulo V.R.; Silva, Antonio C.F.; Ferreira, Francisco J.O.; Dutra, Marco A.M. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: grecco@ien.gov.br; luquetti@ien.gov.br; mol@ien.gov.br; paulov@ien.gov.br; tonico@ien.gov.br; fferreira@ien.gov.br; dutra@ien.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    The Virtual Reality (VR) is an advanced computer interface technology that allows the user to internet or to explore a three-dimensional environment through the computer, as was part of the virtual world. This technology presents great applicability in the most diverse areas of the human knowledge. This paper presents a study on the use of the VR as tool for human factors requirements evaluation in design of the nuclear reactors control desks. Moreover, this paper presents a case study: a virtual model of the control desk, developed using virtual reality technology to be used in the human factors requirements evaluation. This case study was developed in the Virtual Reality Laboratory at IEN, and understands the stereo visualization of the Argonauta research nuclear reactor control desk for a static ergonomic evaluation using check-lists, in accordance to the standards and human factors nuclear international guides (IEC 1771, NUREG-0700). (author)

  18. Residual DNA analysis in biologics development: review of measurement and quantitation technologies and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Morgan, Donna M; Wang, Gan; Mozier, Ned M

    2012-02-01

    Residual DNA (rDNA) is comprised of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragments and longer length molecules originating from the host organism that may be present in samples from recombinant biological processes. Although similar in basic structural base pair units, rDNA may exist in different sizes and physical forms. Interest in measuring rDNA in recombinant products is based primarily on demonstration of effective purification during manufacturing, but also on some hypothetical concerns that, in rare cases, depending on the host expression system, some DNA sequences may be potentially infectious or oncogenic (e.g., HIV virus and the Ras oncogene, respectively). Recent studies suggest that a sequence known as long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1), widely distributed in the mammalian genome, is active as a retrotransposon that can be transcribed to RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and inserts into a new site in genome. This integration process could potentially disrupt critical gene functions or induce tumorigenesis in mammals. Genomic DNA from microbial sources, on the other hand, could add to risk of immunogenicity to the target recombinant protein being expressed, due to the high CpG content and unmethylated DNA sequence. For these and other reasons, it is necessary for manufacturers to show clearance of DNA throughout production processes and to confirm low levels in the final drug substance using an appropriately specific and quantitative analytical method. The heterogeneity of potential rDNA sequences that might be makes the testing of all potential analytes challenging. The most common methodology for rDNA quantitation used currently is real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), a robust and proven technology. Like most rDNA quantitation methods, the specificity of RT-PCR is limited by the sequences to which the primers are directed. To address this, primase-based whole genome amplification is introduced herein. This paper will review the recent

  19. Investigation of the current requirements engineering practices among software developers at the Universiti Utara Malaysia Information Technology (UUMIT) centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.; Abdullah, Inam

    2016-08-01

    Requirements Engineering (RE) is a systemic and integrated process of eliciting, elaborating, negotiating, validating and managing of the requirements of a system in a software development project. UUM has been supported by various systems developed and maintained by the UUM Information Technology (UUMIT) Centre. The aim of this study was to assess the current requirements engineering practices at UUMIT. The main problem that prompted this research is the lack of studies that support software development activities at the UUMIT. The study is geared at helping UUMIT produce quality but time and cost saving software products by implementing cutting edge and state of the art requirements engineering practices. Also, the study contributes to UUM by identifying the activities needed for software development so that the management will be able to allocate budget to provide adequate and precise training for the software developers. Three variables were investigated: Requirement Description, Requirements Development (comprising: Requirements Elicitation, Requirements Analysis and Negotiation, Requirements Validation), and Requirement Management. The results from the study showed that the current practice of requirement engineering in UUMIT is encouraging, but still need further development and improvement because a few RE practices were seldom practiced.

  20. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Hazardous Air Pollutant Requirements and the DOE Clean Coal Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; DePhillips, M.; Fthenakis, V.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Hemenway, A. [USDOE Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of the US Department of Energy -- Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCTP) is to provide the US energy marketplace with advanced, efficient, and environmentally sound coal-based technologies. The design, construction, and operation of Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Projects (CCTDP) will generate data needed to make informed, confident decisions on the commercial readiness of these technologies. These data also will provide information needed to ensure a proactive response by DOE and its industrial partners to the establishment of new regulations or a reactive response to existing regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The objectives of this paper are to: (1) Present a preliminary examination of the potential implications of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) -- Title 3 Hazardous Air Pollutant requirements to the commercialization of CCTDP; and (2) help define options available to DOE and its industrial partners to respond to this newly enacted Legislation.

  1. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Hazardous Air Pollutant Requirements and the DOE Clean Coal Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; DePhillips, M.; Fthenakis, V.M. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Hemenway, A. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the US Department of Energy -- Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCTP) is to provide the US energy marketplace with advanced, efficient, and environmentally sound coal-based technologies. The design, construction, and operation of Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Projects (CCTDP) will generate data needed to make informed, confident decisions on the commercial readiness of these technologies. These data also will provide information needed to ensure a proactive response by DOE and its industrial partners to the establishment of new regulations or a reactive response to existing regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The objectives of this paper are to: (1) Present a preliminary examination of the potential implications of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) -- Title 3 Hazardous Air Pollutant requirements to the commercialization of CCTDP; and (2) help define options available to DOE and its industrial partners to respond to this newly enacted Legislation.

  2. A comprehensive guide of remediation technologies for oil contaminated soil - Present works and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mee Wei; Lau, Ee Von; Poh, Phaik Eong

    2016-08-15

    Oil spills result in negative impacts on the environment, economy and society. Due to tidal and waves actions, the oil spillage affects the shorelines by adhering to the soil, making it difficult for immediate cleaning of the soil. As shoreline clean-up is the most costly component of a response operation, there is a need for effective oil remediation technologies. This paper provides a review on the remediation technologies for soil contaminated with various types of oil, including diesel, crude oil, petroleum, lubricating oil, bitumen and bunker oil. The methods discussed include solvent extraction, bioremediation, phytoremediation, chemical oxidation, electrokinetic remediation, thermal technologies, ultrasonication, flotation and integrated remediation technologies. Each of these technologies was discussed, and associated with their advantages, disadvantages, advancements and future work in detail. Nonetheless, it is important to note that no single remediation technology is considered the best solution for the remediation of oil contaminated soil. This review provides a comprehensive literature on the various remediation technologies studied in the removal of different oil types from soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Joystick control for powered mobility: current state of technology and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicianno, Brad E; Cooper, Rory A; Coltellaro, John

    2010-02-01

    Recent advancements in control interface technology have made the use of end devices such as power wheelchairs easier for individuals with disabilities, especially persons with movement disorders. In this article, we discuss the current state of control interface technology and the devices available clinically for power wheelchair control. We also discuss our research on novel hardware and software approaches that are revolutionizing joystick interface technology and allowing more customizability for individual users with special needs and abilities. Finally, we discuss the future of control interfaces and what research gaps remain.

  4. Introduction to Directly Buried Steam Pipeline Technology%浅谈蒸汽管道直埋技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段祥斌

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of economy, our country directly buried steam pipeline technology is constantly improving, in the city heat supply network gradually replaced the traditional way of aerial installation. Introduced the development of directly buried steam pipeline technology, the three different types of insulation structure on the basis of the comparison, the thermal compensation of directly buried steam pipeline is analyzed, helps to further improve in the production practice directly buried steam pipeline technology.%随着经济的飞速发展,我国蒸汽管道直埋技术水平在不断的提高,在城市热网中逐步取代了传统的架空敷设方式。介绍了蒸汽管道直埋技术的发展概况,对三种不同的保温结构形式进行了比较,分析了蒸汽直埋管道的热补偿,有助于在生产实践中进一步完善蒸汽管道直埋技术。

  5. Rad-hard Reconfigurable Bi-Directional Level Shifters Technology for Micro- and Nanosatellites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Various technologies available to space system designers that operate at different voltage levels. It is, however, important to interface, maintain, and update these...

  6. Emerging sustainable technology for epoxidation directed toward plant oil-based plasticizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chua, Seong-Chea; Xu, Xuebing; Guo, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    The chemical industry is increasingly looking toward sustainable technology to reduce the environmental impact and minimize the footprint of a chemical process. This work, which presents emerging technologies in academia and industry, discusses the development of advanced processes...... for the production of epoxidized plant oil-based plasticizers. The effects of the substrate structure, oxygen-donor properties, catalysts and biocatalysts on the specificity of the epoxidation reaction are intensively discussed. The progress in enzymatic epoxidation and the application of neoteric media...

  7. Opportunities and Challenges of Emerging Technologies in Higher Education: Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, P

    2010-01-01

    Recent unprecedented advances in digital technologies and their concomitant affordances in education seem to be a great opportunity to adequately address burgeoning demand for high quality higher education (HE) and the changing educational preferences. It is increasingly being recognised that using new technology effectively in HE is essential to prepare students for its increasing demand. E-learning is an integral component of the University of Botswana’s teaching and learning culture, how...

  8. Grand Challenges: Science, Engineering, and Societal Advances, Requiring Networking and Information Technology Research and Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — ...the U.S. Government makes critical decisions about appropriate investments in IT R and D to help society forward both socially and economically. To inform that...

  9. The Potential of RFID Technology in the Textile and Clothing Industry: Opportunities, Requirements and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legnani, Elena; Cavalieri, Sergio; Pinto, Roberto; Dotti, Stefano

    In the current competitive environment, companies need to extensively exploit the use of advanced technologies in order to develop a sustainable advantage, enhance their operational efficiency and better serve customers. In this context, RFID technology has emerged as a valid support for the company progress and its value is becoming more and more apparent. In particular, the textile and clothing industry, characterised by short life-cycles , quick response production , fast distribution, erratic customer preferences and impulsive purchasing, is one of the sectors which can extensively benefit from the RFID technology. However, actual applications are still very limited, especially in the upstream side of the supply network. This chapter provides an insight into the main benefits and potentials of this technology and highlights the main issues which are currently inhibiting its large scale development in the textile and clothing industry. The experience of two industry-academia projects and the relative fallouts are reported.

  10. Step 1: Human System Integration (HSI) FY05 Pilot-Technology Interface Requirements for Command, Control, and Communications (C3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The document provides the Human System Integration(HSI) high-level functional C3 HSI requirements for the interface to the pilot. Description includes (1) the information required by the pilot to have knowledge C3 system status, and (2) the control capability needed by the pilot to obtain C3 information. Fundamentally, these requirements provide the candidate C3 technology concepts with the necessary human-related elements to make them compatible with human capabilities and limitations. The results of the analysis describe how C3 operations and functions should interface with the pilot to provide the necessary C3 functionality to the UA-pilot system. Requirements and guidelines for C3 are partitioned into three categories: (1) Pilot-Air Traffic Control (ATC) Voice Communications (2) Pilot-ATC Data Communications, and (3) command and control of the unmanned aircraft (UA). Each requirement is stated and is supported with a rationale and associated reference(s).

  11. The iPad and mobile technology revolution: benefits and challenges for individuals who require augmentative and alternative communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, David; Light, Janice

    2013-06-01

    The iPad and other mobile technologies provide powerful new tools to potentially enhance communication for individuals with developmental disabilities, acquired neurogenic disorders, and degenerative neurological conditions. These mobile technologies offer a number of potential benefits, including: (a) increased awareness and social acceptance of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), (b) greater consumer empowerment in accessing AAC solutions, (c) increased adoption of AAC technologies, (d) greater functionality and interconnectivity, and (e) greater diffusion of AAC research and development. However, there remain a number of significant challenges that must be addressed if these benefits are to be fully realized: (a) to ensure the focus is on communication, not just technology, (b) to develop innovative models of AAC service delivery to ensure successful outcomes, (c) to ensure ease of access for all individuals who require AAC, and, (d) to maximize AAC solutions to support a wide variety of communication functions. There is an urgent need for effective collaboration among key stakeholders to support research and development activities, and to ensure the successful implementation of mobile technologies to enhance communication outcomes for individuals who require AAC and their families.

  12. Remediation approaches for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soils: Technological constraints, emerging trends and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Saranya; Thavamani, Palanisami; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Lee, Yong Bok; Naidu, Ravi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2017-02-01

    For more than a decade, the primary focus of environmental experts has been to adopt risk-based management approaches to cleanup PAH polluted sites that pose potentially destructive ecological consequences. This focus had led to the development of several physical, chemical, thermal and biological technologies that are widely implementable. Established remedial options available for treating PAH contaminated soils are incineration, thermal conduction, solvent extraction/soil washing, chemical oxidation, bioaugmentation, biostimulation, phytoremediation, composting/biopiles and bioreactors. Integrating physico-chemical and biological technologies is also widely practiced for better cleanup of PAH contaminated soils. Electrokinetic remediation, vermiremediation and biocatalyst assisted remediation are still at the development stage. Though several treatment methods to remediate PAH polluted soils currently exist, a comprehensive overview of all the available remediation technologies to date is necessary so that the right technology for field-level success is chosen. The objective of this review is to provide a critical overview in this respect, focusing only on the treatment options available for field soils and ignoring the spiked ones. The authors also propose the development of novel multifunctional green and sustainable systems like mixed cell culture system, biosurfactant flushing, transgenic approaches and nanoremediation in order to overcome the existing soil- contaminant- and microbial-associated technological limitations in tackling high molecular weight PAHs. The ultimate objective is to ensure the successful remediation of long-term PAH contaminated soils.

  13. Digital manufacturing-the development direction of the manufacturing technology in the 21st century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG You-lun; YIN Zhou-ping

    2006-01-01

    After introducing the concepts of digital manufacturing technology,the discipline framework of digital manufacturing is presented in the paper by discussing its basic concept,theory foundation,key technology and scientific problems in detail.As the core of the advanced manufacturing technology,digital manufacturing is gradually becoming the main manufacturing technology of the twenty-first century.Firstly,the main features of digital manufacturing are indicated and its key supporting technologies are investigated by grouping them into four levels related to product development, numerical control, production management,and enterprise collaboration,respectively.Moreover,the existing problems in the research on the multi-discipline theory foundation of digital manufacturing such as manufacturing informatics, computational manufacturing,and manufacturing intelligence,are also indicated.Then,the core scientific problems of digital manufacturing are discussed in depth,which focuses on digitization of manufacturing information,modeling of manufacturing constraints,high-speed and high-precision numerical control theory,and Internet-based collaboration and integration.Lastly, the development trends and application perspectives of digital manufacturing are concluded.

  14. China’s Outward Foreign Direct Investment:The Role of Natural Resources and Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN; WANG; ZHIHONG; YU

    2014-01-01

    Using the data of China’s OFDI in more than 150 host countries or regions for the period of 1991-2009, in this paper we examine the underlying motivations and locational determinants of China’s OFDI, with a focus on the role of natural resources and technology. Our findings indicate that the host country’s natural resource abundance, interacted with its institutional quality, is a crucial determinant of China’s OFDI. There is strong evidence that in the recent period of 2003-2009, the host country’s overall natural resource abundance, oil abundance and metal abundance had a sizable positive effect on China’s OFDI. In particular, China’s OFDI was driven to resource-abundant countries with poor institutional quality and governance, and this pattern was strongest for oil but not metal resources. However, we find little evidence supporting the resourceseeking motivation in the pre-2003 period. Furthermore, we find strong evidence for the technology-exploiting motivation but not for the technology-seeking hypothesis. We show that, when the host is a lowincome country, China’s OFDI increases if the host country’s technology is more backward, indicating that Chinese investors might be taking advantage of their technology gap relative to the local firms.

  15. Proceedings of the advanced research and technology development direct utilization, instrumentation and diagnostics contractors' review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiling, D.W. (USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (USA)); Goldberg, P.M. (eds.) (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The 1990 Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Direct Utilization, and Instrumentation and Diagnostics Contractors Review Meeting was held September 16--18, 1990, at the Hyatt at Chatham Center in Pittsburgh, PA. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, and the Pittsburgh and Morgantown Energy Technology Centers. Each year the meeting provides a forum for the exchange of information among the DOE AR TD contractors and interested parties. This year's meeting was hosted by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and was attended by 120 individuals from industry, academia, national laboratories, and other governmental agencies. Papers were presented on research addressing coal surface, science, devolatilization and combustion, ash behavior, emission controls for gases particulates, fluid bed combustion and utilization in diesels and turbines. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  16. Comparative health technology assessment of robotic-assisted, direct manual laparoscopic and open surgery: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Turchetti, Giuseppe; Pierotti, Francesca; Palla, Ilaria; Manetti, Stefania; Freschi, Cinzia; Ferrari, Vincenzo; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite many publications reporting on the increased hospital cost of robotic-assisted surgery (RAS) compared to direct manual laparoscopic surgery (DMLS) and open surgery (OS), the reported health economic studies lack details on clinical outcome, precluding valid health technology assessment (HTA). Methods The present prospective study reports total cost analysis on 699 patients undergoing general surgical, gynecological and thoracic operations between 2011 and 2014 in the Italia...

  17. On campus, but out of class: an investigation into students' experiences of learning technologies in their self-directed study

    OpenAIRE

    Deepwell, Frances; MALIK, Samina

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation into how students studying at university engage actively with learning technology in their self-directed study time. The case study surveyed 250 students studying at undergraduate and postgraduate level from a purposive sample of departments within one institution. The study has also conducted focus groups and a number of in-depth follow-up interviews with respondents to the survey. In this article we explore three emerging aspects of the learning experien...

  18. Advances and future directions towards virtual maintenance technology%虚拟维修技术研究与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦玉民; 张琦; 屈宏伟

    2011-01-01

    As a keynote future direction towards virtual reality technology,the virtual maintenance technology, which possesses such advantages as high integration,strong interactivity and economical efficiency, has been broadly applied in academic researches, industrial practices and software systems. Through basic elements and vital technologies highlighted on virtual maintain, the advantages and differences among different methods are analyzed and compared in terms of research advances. By summarizing the critical features of virtual maintenance technology, the future directions in this area are pinpointed.%虚拟维修技术作为虚拟现实技术中的一个重要发展方向,以集成度高、交互性强、经济高效等优点在学术研究、工业应用、软件系统有着广泛的应用,通过归纳研究虚拟维修所包含的主要内容及其关键技术,结合目前研究现状,分析比较了其各方法的优势与区别,总结了虚拟维修技术的主要特点,并对虚拟维修技术发展进行展望.

  19. Foreign Direct Investment and Technology Spillovers:Evidence from China’s manufacturing industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>FDI will cause technological advance in host industry by its spillover effects.The approaches of technology spillover include horizontal spillover and vertical spillover.Most scholars do research on the two kinds of spillover effects separately. Therefore,by using panel data and Malquist index of China’s manufactuting industry, this paper analyses the two spillover effects of FDI on China’s manufacturing industry in one frame in order to test scientifically the spillover effects of FDI on China’s manufacturing industry.

  20. CO2 capture technologies: current status and new directions using supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolding, Helene; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Riisager, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art techniques for CO2 capture are presented and discussed. Post-combustion capture of CO2 by absorption is the technology most easily retrofitted to existing installations, but at present this is not economically viable to install and run. Using ionic liquids instead...... candidate for CO2 absorption using SILP technology. Thus a solid SILP absorber comprised of 40 wt% [N6666][Pro] loaded on precalcined silica quantitatively takes up about 1.2 mole CO2 per mole of ionic liquid in consecutive absorption-desorption cycles in a flow-experiment performed with 0.09 bar of CO2 (9......% CO2 in He)....

  1. CO2 capture technologies: current status and new directions using supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolding, Helene; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Riisager, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art techniques for CO2 capture are presented and discussed. Post-combustion capture of CO2 by absorption is the technology most easily retrofitted to existing installations, but at present this is not economically viable to install and run. Using ionic liquids instead...... candidate for CO2 absorption using SILP technology. Thus a solid SILP absorber comprised of 40 wt% [N6666][Pro] loaded on precalcined silica quantitatively takes up about 1.2 mole CO2 per mole of ionic liquid in consecutive absorption-desorption cycles in a flow-experiment performed with 0.09 bar of CO2 (9......% CO2 in He)....

  2. Major requirements for building Smart Homes in Smart Cities based on Internet of Things technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, Terence K. L.; Sherratt, R. Simon; Diaz Sanchez, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The recent boom in the Internet of Things (IoT) will turn Smart Cities and Smart Homes (SH) from hype to reality. SH is the major building block for Smart Cities and have long been a dream for decades, hobbyists in the late 1970s made Home Automation (HA) possible when personal computers started invading home spaces. While SH can share most of the IoT technologies, there are unique characteristics that make SH special. From the result of a recent research survey on SH and IoT technologies, th...

  3. CONDITIONS REQUIRED FOR CREATING SOCIETAL INTELLIGENCE IN STUDENTS OF A GRADUATE SCHOOL OF TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Vladimirovich GULYAKIN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considered both the outer circumstances globally shaped and the learning environment set at a graduate school of technologies being both conditions entailing creation of societal intelligence in students of the college. The outer circumstances globally shaped mean the general features of the modern society that enters into the era of information society, reflecting the course of information processing and supply, of global-ized standards and communication round the world.Learning preconditions represent the settled circum-stances manifesting the social humanism targets for the learning environment at a graduate school of technolo-gies.

  4. Design study of technology requirements for high performance single-propeller-driven business airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlman, D. L.; Hammer, J.

    1985-01-01

    Developments in aerodyamic, structural and propulsion technologies which influence the potential for significant improvements in performance and fuel efficiency of general aviation business airplanes are discussed. The advancements include such technolgies as natural laminar flow, composite materials, and advanced intermittent combustion engines. The design goal for this parameter design study is a range of 1300 nm at 300 knots true airspeed with a payload of 1200lbs at 35,000 ft cruise altitude. The individual and synergistic effects of various advanced technologies on the optimization of this class of high performance, single engine, propeller driven business airplanes are identified.

  5. Low-Power, Rad-hard Reconfigurable, Bi-directional Flexfet? Level Shifter ReBiLS for Multiple Generation Technology Integration for Space Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The many different generations of integrated circuit (IC) technologies required for new space exploration systems demand designs operate at multiple and often...

  6. High-order adaptive optics requirements for direct detection of extrasolar planets: Application to the SPHERE instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, T; Rousset, G; Sauvage, J-F; Petit, C; Beuzit, J-L; Dohlen, K; Mouillet, D; Charton, J; Nicolle, M; Kasper, M; Baudoz, P; Puget, P

    2006-08-21

    The detection of extrasolar planets implies an extremely high-contrast, long-exposure imaging capability at near infrared and probably visible wavelengths. We present here the core of any Planet Finder instrument, that is, the extreme adaptive optics (XAO) subsystem. The level of AO correction directly impacts the exposure time required for planet detection. In addition, the capacity of the AO system to calibrate all the instrument static defects ultimately limits detectivity. Hence, the extreme AO system has to adjust for the perturbations induced by the atmospheric turbulence, as well as for the internal aberrations of the instrument itself. We propose a feasibility study for an extreme AO system in the frame of the SPHERE (Spectro-Polarimetry High-contrast Exoplanet Research) instrument, which is currently under design and should equip one of the four VLT 8-m telescopes in 2010.

  7. Use of micro-emulsion technology for the directed evolution of antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, Diane L; Acca, Felicity E; Holland, Erika G; Johnson, Katie; Maksymiuk, Gail M; Vaill, Ada; Kay, Brian K; Weitz, David A; Weiner, Michael P; Kiss, Margaret M

    2012-09-01

    Affinity reagents, such as antibodies, are needed to study protein expression patterns, sub-cellular localization, and post-translational modifications in complex mixtures and tissues. Phage Emulsion, Secretion, and Capture (ESCape) is a novel micro-emulsion technology that utilizes water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions for the identification and isolation of cells secreting phage particles that display desirable antibodies. Using this method, a large library of antibody-displaying phage will bind to beads in individual compartments. Rather than using biopanning on a large mixed population, phage micro-emulsion technology allows us to individually query clonal populations of amplified phage against the antigen. The use of emulsions to generate microdroplets has the promise of accelerating phage selection experiments by permitting fine discrimination of kinetic parameters for binding to targets. In this study, we demonstrate the ability of phage micro-emulsion technology to distinguish two scFvs with a 300-fold difference in binding affinities (100nM and 300pM, respectively). In addition, we describe the application of phage micro-emulsion technology for the selection of scFvs that are resistant to elevated temperatures. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Directions in E-Learning Tools and Technologies and Their Relevance to Online Distance Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson-Revell, Pamela

    2007-01-01

    This paper attempts to draw together current developments in e-learning tools and technologies with a view to extending distance language educators' (teachers, materials developers, programme leaders) awareness of the technical possibilities at their disposal for developing online distance learning resources. The paper briefly outlines the…

  9. Directions in E-Learning Tools and Technologies and Their Relevance to Online Distance Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson-Revell, Pamela

    2007-01-01

    This paper attempts to draw together current developments in e-learning tools and technologies with a view to extending distance language educators' (teachers, materials developers, programme leaders) awareness of the technical possibilities at their disposal for developing online distance learning resources. The paper briefly outlines the…

  10. Beyond Preservation: New Directions for Technological Innovation through Intangible Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    While many digitization projects are currently underway, to help preserve Indigenous traditions, few explore the full potential of the development of digital media and networked technology through Indigenous cultures. This paper outlines the three phases necessary for a robust digital preservation, promotion and growth project: 1) Straightforward…

  11. A New Direction for Technology-Based Economic Development: The Role of Innovation Intermediaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendis, Richard A.; Seline, Richard S.; Byler, Ethan J.

    2008-01-01

    Accelerating innovation to drive economic growth is the foremost goal for technology-based economic development organizations today. Realizing this goal through programmes is challenged by limited and outdated operating models. The authors outline their 21st Century Innovation Intermediary model, which pairs commercialization with regional…

  12. Enhancing Self-Directed Learning through Educational Technology: When Students Resist the Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlind, Gerlese S.; Trevitt, A. Chris

    1999-01-01

    Discusses why the introduction of new technologies (or other educational innovations) as a means to greater learner autonomy is likely to produce some student resistance. Considers factors involved in determining the strength of resistance, and ways teachers can assist students to recognize and overcome associated problems. Presents the authors'…

  13. Perspectives of Students on Acceptance of Tablets and Self-Directed Learning with Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcearslan, Sahin

    2017-01-01

    Recent mobile learning technologies offer the opportunity for students to take charge of the learning process both inside and outside the classroom. One of these tools is the tablet PC (hereafter "tablet"). In parallel with increased access to e-content, the role of tablets in learning has recently begun to be examined. This study aims…

  14. Using Digital Technologies to Support Self-Directed Learning for Preservice Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Shawn Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article begins with the perspective that teacher education programmes are cultural institutions and are thus compelled to respond to the societal push for teachers to be conversant in so-called twenty-first-century skills, grounded primarily in the ability to use digital technologies for pedagogical purposes. The results of an attempt to…

  15. Foucauldian Critique of Positive Education and Related Self-Technologies: Some Problems and New Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, James

    2015-01-01

    By focusing on positive education, this article draws out the educational implications of Binkley's Foucauldian critique of neoliberal subjects being pressured to learn how to manage their emotions. From the latter author's perspective, positive education self-technologies such as school-based mindfulness training can be construed as functioning…

  16. Technologies required for safe and profitable deep level gold mining, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Willis

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 14th CMMI conference, held in Edinburgh in 1990, at which a paper was presented by the author (Willis, 1990) reviewing the role of integrating new technology as a survival strategy for South African gold mines, considerable change has...

  17. Digital Technology in Teaching International Business: Is a Tradeoff between Richness and Reach Required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymbs, Cliff; Kijne, Hugo

    2003-01-01

    This analysis extends the traditional marketing tradeoffs between richness (depth of knowledge) and reach (geographic area coverage) to the emerging technology-mediated education industry, and then specifically evaluates their effect on the teaching of international business. It asserts that interactive learning, particularly as it applies to team…

  18. Stem cell technology for tendon regeneration: current status, challenges, and future research directions

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Pauline Po Yee Lui Headquarter, Hospital Authority, Hong Kong SAR, People's Republic of China Abstract: Tendon injuries are a common cause of physical disability. They present a clinical challenge to orthopedic surgeons because injured tendons respond poorly to current treatments without tissue regeneration and the time required for rehabilitation is long. New treatment options are required. Stem cell-based therapies offer great potential to promote tendon regeneration due to their h...

  19. 48 CFR 352.239-72 - Security requirements for Federal information technology resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in “HHS-Controlled Facilities and Information Systems Security” requirements specified in the SOW/PWS... access to the Contractor's and subcontractors' facilities, installations, operations, documentation... of IT inspection (to include vulnerability testing), investigation, and audit to safeguard against...

  20. Science drivers and requirements for an Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST): Implications for technology development and synergies with other future facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Postman, Marc; Sembach, Kenneth; Giavalisco, Mauro; Traub, Wesley; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Calzetti, Daniela; Oegerle, William; Rich, R Michael; Stahl, H Phillip; Tumlinson, Jason; Mountain, Matt; Soummer, Rémi; Hyde, Tupper; 10.1117/12.857044

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a concept for an 8-meter to 16-meter UVOIR space observatory for launch in the 2025-2030 era. ATLAST will allow astronomers to answer fundamental questions at the forefront of modern astronphysics, including "Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy?" We present a range of science drivers that define the main performance requirements for ATLAST (8 to 16 milliarcsec angular resolution, diffraction limited imaging at 0.5 {\\mu}m wavelength, minimum collecting area of 45 square meters, high sensitivity to light wavelengths from 0.1 {\\mu}m to 2.4 {\\mu}m, high stability in wavefront sensing and control). We will also discuss the synergy between ATLAST and other anticipated future facilities (e.g., TMT, EELT, ALMA) and the priorities for technology development that will enable the construction for a cost that is comparable to current generation observatory-class space missions.

  1. Prospective directions of information and communication systems and technologies development in logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Pustynnikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present time the high trade turnover is typical of the Russian economy, which in turn, activates a sufficient intensity of goods movement. Logistics, as a goods movement path in the context of a variety of delivery methods: road, air, water, pipeline, railroad transport, including across the customs border, is acutely affected by all kinds of economic transformation. Therefore, the creation of stable conditions for movement of goods under the terms of mutually beneficial cooperation is a priority for logistics. Trends of economic development are characterized by growth of integration processes which have expressed themselves positively and proven their economic suitability. Such transformations denote the necessity of the control mechanisms improvement, including logistics. The actual issue of business processes information support in circumstances of logistical integration is considered in this article. The basis of the information system consists of information and communication resources, tools and technologies, the use of which is aimed at solving specific problems for the shaping of information infrastructure, business process reengineering, supporting economic security of business. In process of this issue studying are becoming obvious undeniable advantages of information and communication technologies use in logistics operations, the gaining of which is possible as a result of an integrated system’s interests harmonization. The article provides evidence that the market has a certain influence on the improvement of information and communication systems and technologies for complex carrying out logistical operations, which, in turn, optimizes the duration of the movement of goods and related with this process costs, thereby determines the improvement of logistic conditions in terms of business growth and competitiveness development The article provides evidence that the market has a certain influence on the improvement of information

  2. SaaS – direction of technology development in ERP/MRP systems

    OpenAIRE

    W. Torbacki

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The main issue of this paper is present modern SaaS technology (Software as a Service) used in ERP/MRP class systems designated for production companies from different SME lines.Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents assumptions and aims of implementation of SaaSsystems on a background of classic computing system licences designated for company management.Findings: A present state of SaaS software development produced for manufacturing and enterprise resourceplanning as well...

  3. Introducing RFID technology in dynamic and time-critical medical settings: requirements and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlak, Siddika; Sarcevic, Aleksandra; Marsic, Ivan; Burd, Randall S

    2012-10-01

    We describe the process of introducing RFID technology in the trauma bay of a trauma center to support fast-paced and complex teamwork during resuscitation. We analyzed trauma resuscitation tasks, photographs of medical tools, and videos of simulated resuscitations to gain insight into resuscitation tasks, work practices and procedures. Based on these data, we discuss strategies for placing RFID tags on medical tools and for placing antennas in the environment for optimal tracking and activity recognition. Results from our preliminary RFID deployment in the trauma bay show the feasibility of our approach for tracking tools and for recognizing trauma team activities. We conclude by discussing implications for and challenges to introducing RFID technology in other similar settings characterized by dynamic and collocated collaboration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The direct posterior esthetic restoration using state-of-the-art composite resin technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescatore, C

    2000-01-01

    As a result of the evolution of both materials and techniques, the direct posterior composite restoration has become a common procedure in today's dental practice. Advances in the adhesive protocol have allowed for the conservative preparation of the dentition by using the micromechanical potential of the sound tooth structure. Improvements of composite resin materials have further enabled the practitioner to re-create the natural esthetic beauty of the dentition while at the same time restoring the functional morphology. This article describes the technical protocol and materials necessary to perform the direct posterior composite restoration in the posterior dentition.

  5. DoD Environmental Technology Program Research and Development Requirements Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Develop an Environmentally Compliant Test to Detect Dense Particles in Plastic Media WS&P – Haz. Waste WS&P – Mixed Waste WS&P – Solid Waste Low...Dense Particles in Plastic Media Low 93 Development of Fluid System Nonvolatile Residue (NVR) Test Process Low 94 Disposal of Nickel-Cadmium (Ni-Cd...06- 01] The Army needs to identify biobased technologies and validate them for use in Army mission areas. Development, demonstration and validation

  6. Personal radiation detector at a high technology readiness level that satisfies DARPA's SN-13-47 and SIGMA program requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, D.; Knafo, Y.; Manor, A.; Seif, R.; Ghelman, M.; Ellenbogen, M.; Pushkarsky, V.; Ifergan, Y.; Semyonov, N.; Wengrowicz, U.; Mazor, T.; Kadmon, Y.; Cohen, Y.; Osovizky, A.

    2015-06-01

    There is a need to develop new personal radiation detector (PRD) technologies that can be mass produced. On August 2013, DARPA released a request for information (RFI) seeking innovative radiation detection technologies. In addition, on December 2013, a Broad Agency Announcement (BAA) for the SIGMA program was released. The RFI requirements focused on a sensor that should possess three main properties: low cost, high compactness and radioisotope identification capabilities. The identification performances should facilitate the detection of a hidden threat, ranging from special nuclear materials (SNM) to commonly used radiological sources. Subsequently, the BAA presented the specific requirements at an instrument level and provided a comparison between the current market status (state-of-the-art) and the SIGMA program objectives. This work presents an optional alternative for both the detection technology (sensor with communication output and without user interface) for DARPA's initial RFI and for the PRD required by the SIGMA program. A broad discussion is dedicated to the method proposed to fulfill the program objectives and to the selected alternative that is based on the PDS-GO design and technology. The PDS-GO is the first commercially available PRD that is based on a scintillation crystal optically coupled with a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM), a solid-state light sensor. This work presents the current performance of the instrument and possible future upgrades based on recent technological improvements in the SiPM design. The approach of utilizing the SiPM with a commonly available CsI(Tl) crystal is the key for achieving the program objectives. This approach provides the appropriate performance, low cost, mass production and small dimensions; however, it requires a creative approach to overcome the obstacles of the solid-state detector dark current (noise) and gain stabilization over a wide temperature range. Based on the presented results, we presume that

  7. Suppressing a Sea of Starlight : enabling technology for the direct imaging of exoplanets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, G.P.P.L.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we present multiple techniques to suppress starlight in order to better directly image planets around other stars. We propose a laboratory setup to test a new focal-plane wavefront sensing technique. We also show an optical device that suppresses starlight using liquid crystals (the

  8. Technology enhanced self directed and self regulated learning outside the campus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Falk, Lars; Bach Jensen, Louise

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reveal how to support and enhance all students’ self-directed learning activities outside the campus. The data collection was carried out among radiography students and students of hospitality and tourism management at University College North in Denmark. By the use...

  9. Suppressing a Sea of Starlight : enabling technology for the direct imaging of exoplanets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, G.P.P.L.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we present multiple techniques to suppress starlight in order to better directly image planets around other stars. We propose a laboratory setup to test a new focal-plane wavefront sensing technique. We also show an optical device that suppresses starlight using liquid crystals (the v

  10. Impact of Spacecraft Shielding on Direct Ionization Soft Error Rates for sub-130 nm Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.; Xapsos, Michael A.; Stauffer, Craig A.; Jordan, Michael M.; Sanders, Anthony B.; Ladbury, Raymond L.; Oldham, Timothy R.; Marshall, Paul W.; Heidel, David F.; Rodbell, Kenneth P.

    2010-01-01

    We use ray tracing software to model various levels of spacecraft shielding complexity and energy deposition pulse height analysis to study how it affects the direct ionization soft error rate of microelectronic components in space. The analysis incorporates the galactic cosmic ray background, trapped proton, and solar heavy ion environments as well as the October 1989 and July 2000 solar particle events.

  11. UNIVERSITY RESEARCH PROGRAMS IN ROBOTICS, TECHNOLOGIES FOR MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS IN DIRECTED STOCKPILE WORK RADIATION AND ENGINEERING CAMPAIGNS - 2005-06 FINAL ANNUAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James S. Tulenko; Dean Schoenfeld; David Hintenlang; Carl Crane; Shannon Ridgeway; Jose Santiago; Charles Scheer

    2006-11-30

    The research performed by the University of Florida (UF) is directed to the development of technologies that can be utilized at a micro-scale in varied environments. Work is focused on micro-scale energy systems, visualization, and mechanical devices. This work will impact the NNSA need related to micro-assembly operations. The URPR activities are executed in a University environment, yet many applications of the resulting technologies may be classified or highly restrictive in nature. The NNSA robotics technologists apply an NNSA needs focus to the URPR research, and actively work to transition relevant research into the deployment projects in which they are involved. This provides a “Research to Development to Application” structure within which innovative research has maximum opportunity for impact without requiring URPR researchers to be involved in specific NNSA projects. URPR researchers need to be aware of the NNSA applications in order to ensure the research being conducted has relevance, the URPR shall rely upon the NNSA sites for direction.

  12. A research proposal for investigating the effect of foreign direct investments on technology transfer in the Arabian Gulf (GCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahat, Kaher; Whelan, Susan

    2015-02-01

    In terms of hosting countries perspectives, Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) could have a positive effect on its developing economy, by transferring, both: resources of finance in addition to the international technology (ITT) (Choi, 1997). Multinational companies (MNC) are engaging in the transferring of the new technology, internally as well as licensing older one; they create "Spillover" (Knowledge) for facilitating the transfer of ITT in line with geographical location, period of investment, and the type of industry. Furthermore, the effect of these spillovers depends on the level of transferring this knowledge based on FDI attraction policies of the host country (Huang, 2009). Considering the Arabian Gulf council countries (GCC) as "FDI- rich hosting countries", who are not seeking for financial resources, i.e., they already have a huge financial capacity for funding their different projects, even though FDI has been powerfully presented in GCC . They saw noticeable increases in FDI inflows beginning in 2002, (www.unctad.org.fdistatistics). Therefore by assumption, FDI inflows to GCC could positively affect their economic growth through transferring the advanced technology, in order to build up their level of technology (productivity growth) as well as their economic diversification strategy. If so how this Knowledge could be diffused and measured in order to maximize its benefit and enhancing the productivity growth, and what is the current status of (GCC).

  13. An overview of aerodynamic research and technology requirements as related to some military needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    Based on unclassified sources, a general review is presented of some military needs in light of the perceived U.S.S.R. doctrine, force balances, inventory growth, inventory items, and current actions. The Soviets appear to be attempting to increase their sphere of influence throught economic and political control as well as possible military control of land, sea, air, and space. To offset such possibilities, certain areas of deterrent needs that the Western World might pursue are suggested. Particular emphasis is placed on the role of research and technology related to aerospace systems as part of the deterrent needs.

  14. Activation of p115-RhoGEF requires direct association of Gα13 and the Dbl homology domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Guo, Liang; Hadas, Jana; Gutowski, Stephen; Sprang, Stephen R; Sternweis, Paul C

    2012-07-20

    RGS-containing RhoGEFs (RGS-RhoGEFs) represent a direct link between the G(12) class of heterotrimeric G proteins and the monomeric GTPases. In addition to the canonical Dbl homology (DH) and pleckstrin homology domains that carry out the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity toward RhoA, these RhoGEFs also possess RGS homology (RH) domains that interact with activated α subunits of G(12) and G(13). Although the GEF activity of p115-RhoGEF (p115), an RGS-RhoGEF, can be stimulated by Gα(13), the exact mechanism of the stimulation has remained unclear. Using combined studies with small angle x-ray scattering, biochemistry, and mutagenesis, we identify an additional binding site for activated Gα(13) in the DH domain of p115. Small angle x-ray scattering reveals that the helical domain of Gα(13) docks onto the DH domain, opposite to the surface of DH that binds RhoA. Mutation of a single tryptophan residue in the α3b helix of DH reduces binding to activated Gα(13) and ablates the stimulation of p115 by Gα(13). Complementary mutations at the predicted DH-binding site in the αB-αC loop of the helical domain of Gα(13) also affect stimulation of p115 by Gα(13). Although the GAP activity of p115 is not required for stimulation by Gα(13), two hydrophobic motifs in RH outside of the consensus RGS box are critical for this process. Therefore, the binding of Gα(13) to the RH domain facilitates direct association of Gα(13) to the DH domain to regulate its exchange activity. This study provides new insight into the mechanism of regulation of the RGS-RhoGEF and broadens our understanding of G protein signaling.

  15. In the shadow of the Cosmetic Directive--inconsistencies in EU environmental hazard classification requirements for UV-filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, A; Bejgarn, S; Rudén, C; Molander, L; Breitholtz, M

    2013-09-01

    UV-filters are chemicals with potentially environmental hazardous properties. In the European Union (EU), UV-filters contained in sunscreen products are currently regulated by the Cosmetic Directive (from July 2013 by the Cosmetic Products Regulation). Environmental hazard classifications according to the regulation on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP) must be determined for UV-filters contained in industrial chemical products, whereas UV-filters contained in sunscreens are exempted from CLP. In this study we determined the potential environmental hazard classifications of UV-filters and sunscreen products if the CLP regulation was to be required for cosmetic products. Two sunscreen products were evaluated in accordance with the aquatic environmental hazard criteria for mixtures. The results highlight that the inconsistencies in the current EU regulation of UV filters hamper the risk management of environmental hazards of UV filters used in cosmetic products. Almost 50% of the investigated UV-filters approved for use in cosmetic products on the European market according to the current Cosmetic Directive were identified to meet the CLP classification as being hazardous to the aquatic environment. Assuming a worst-case scenario, the two examined sunscreens could both be classified as hazardous to the aquatic environment with long-lasting effects according to CLP classification criteria. Hence, if the CLP regulation was applicable to sunscreen products, both brands could potentially be labelled with the environmental hazard pictogram and associated hazard and precautionary statements. Including cosmetic products, and thereby sunscreens, in the CLP regulation would contribute to a more harmonized and transparent regulation of potentially hazardous substances on the EU market.

  16. Using Web 2.0 Technologies to Meet Quality Matters[TM] (QM) Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollacia, Lissa; McCallister, Terrie

    2009-01-01

    Quality Matters[TM] (QM) is a set of standards to measure the quality of instruction and design in online or hybrid courses. Adopted by a growing number of institutions nationwide, QM is based on best practices and instructional design research. To meet or exceed QM standards requires that resources and learning activities in an online course…

  17. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 218 - Requirements and Considerations for Implementing Technology Aided Point Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... driver behavior (e.g., driving erratically) of any approaching motor vehicles. 6. Either the camera... protection as well as specific additional requirements for those operations involving remote control... engineer, remote control operator, other crewmember or other qualified person, such as a yardmaster. If the...

  18. Economic assessment of geothermal direct heat technology: A review of five DOE demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hederman, William F. Jr.; Cohen, Laura A.

    1981-06-01

    In this report the cost of using low temperature geothermal energy resources for direct heating applications is compared to the costs associated with conventional heating fuels. The projects compared all involved replacing conventional fuels (e.g., natural gas and fuel oils) with geothermal energy in existing heating systems. The cost of using geothermal energy in existing systems was also compared with the cost of new coal-fired equipment.

  19. THEORETICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL BASIS OF CASTING OF HOLLOW BILLETS BY THE METHOD OF DIRECTIONAL SOLIDIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Marukovich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The new method of continuously iterative casting of hollow cylindrical castings from cast iron without application of core, based on the principle of direction of metal solidification is presented in the work. the thermal condition of crystallizer at iterative temperature influences on its internal surface and solidification of casting in the conditions of intensive one-way heat sink and presence of constant overheat on front of solidification is examined.

  20. Horizontal Directional Drilling-Length Detection Technology While Drilling Based on Bi-Electro-Magnetic Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yudan; Wen, Guojun; Chen, Han

    2017-04-27

    The drilling length is an important parameter in the process of horizontal directional drilling (HDD) exploration and recovery, but there has been a lack of accurate, automatically obtained statistics regarding this parameter. Herein, a technique for real-time HDD length detection and a management system based on the electromagnetic detection method with a microprocessor and two magnetoresistive sensors employing the software LabVIEW are proposed. The basic principle is to detect the change in the magnetic-field strength near a current coil while the drill stem and drill-stem joint successively pass through the current coil forward or backward. The detection system consists of a hardware subsystem and a software subsystem. The hardware subsystem employs a single-chip microprocessor as the main controller. A current coil is installed in front of the clamping unit, and two magneto resistive sensors are installed on the sides of the coil symmetrically and perpendicular to the direction of movement of the drill pipe. Their responses are used to judge whether the drill-stem joint is passing through the clamping unit; then, the order of their responses is used to judge the movement direction. The software subsystem is composed of a visual software running on the host computer and a software running in the slave microprocessor. The host-computer software processes, displays, and saves the drilling-length data, whereas the slave microprocessor software operates the hardware system. A combined test demonstrated the feasibility of the entire drilling-length detection system.

  1. Assessment of the technology required to develop photovoltaic power system for large scale national energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutwack, R.

    1974-01-01

    A technical assessment of a program to develop photovoltaic power system technology for large-scale national energy applications was made by analyzing and judging the alternative candidate photovoltaic systems and development tasks. A program plan was constructed based on achieving the 10 year objective of a program to establish the practicability of large-scale terrestrial power installations using photovoltaic conversion arrays costing less than $0.50/peak W. Guidelines for the tasks of a 5 year program were derived from a set of 5 year objectives deduced from the 10 year objective. This report indicates the need for an early emphasis on the development of the single-crystal Si photovoltaic system for commercial utilization; a production goal of 5 x 10 to the 8th power peak W/year of $0.50 cells was projected for the year 1985. The developments of other photovoltaic conversion systems were assigned to longer range development roles. The status of the technology developments and the applicability of solar arrays in particular power installations, ranging from houses to central power plants, was scheduled to be verified in a series of demonstration projects. The budget recommended for the first 5 year phase of the program is $268.5M.

  2. A Framework for Better Understanding and Enhancing Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD) in Terms of Module Design, Cost Analysis and Energy Required

    KAUST Repository

    AbuHannoud, Ali

    2011-07-01

    Water is becoming scarcer and several authors have highlighted the upcoming problem of higher water salinity and the difficulty of treating and discharging water. Moreover, current discoveries of problems with chemicals that have been used for pretreating or post-treating water alerted scientists to research better solutions to treat water. Membrane distillation (MD) is a promising technology that might replace current processes as it has lower pretreatment requirements combined with a tremendous ability to treat a wide range of feed sources while producing very high product quality. If it enters the market, it will have a big influence on all products, from food industry to spaceflight. However, there are several problems which make MD a hot topic for research. One of them is the question about the real cost of MD in terms of heating feed and cooling distillate over time with respect to product quantity and quality. In this work, extensive heating and cooling analyses are covered to answer this question in order to enhance the MD process. Results show energy cost to produce water and the main source of energy loss for direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD), and several suggestions are made in order to better understand and hence enhance the process.

  3. Estimating pollutant removal requirements for landfills in the UK: I. Benchmark study and characteristics of waste treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, D H; Drury, D; Gronow, J R; Rosevear, A; Pollard, S J T; Smith, R

    2006-12-01

    Introduction of the EU Landfill Directive is having a significant impact on waste management in the UK and in other member states that have relied on landfilling. This paper considers the length of the aftercare period required by the municipal solid waste streams that the UK will most probably generate following implementation of the Landfill Directive. Data were derived from literature to identify properties of residues from the most likely treatment processes and the probable management times these residues will require within the landfill environment were then modelled. Results suggest that for chloride the relevant water quality standard (250 mg l(-1)) will be achieved with a management period of 40 years and for lead (0.1 mg I(-1)), 240 years. This has considerable implications for the sustainability of landfill and suggests that current timescales for aftercare of landfills may be inadequate.

  4. Discrete levels of Twist activity are required to direct distinct cell functions during gastrulation and somatic myogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ching Wong

    Full Text Available Twist (Twi, a conserved basic helix-loop-helix transcriptional regulator, directs the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT, and regulates changes in cell fate, cell polarity, cell division and cell migration in organisms from flies to humans. Analogous to its role in EMT, Twist has been implicated in metastasis in numerous cancer types, including breast, pancreatic and prostate. In the Drosophila embryo, Twist is essential for discrete events in gastrulation and mesodermal patterning. In this study, we derive a twi allelic series by examining the various cellular events required for gastrulation in Drosophila. By genetically manipulating the levels of Twi activity during gastrulation, we find that coordination of cell division is the most sensitive cellular event, whereas changes in cell shape are the least sensitive. Strikingly, we show that by increasing levels of Snail expression in a severe twi hypomorphic allelic background, but not a twi null background, we can reconstitute gastrulation and produce viable adult flies. Our results demonstrate that the level of Twi activity determines whether the cellular events of ventral furrow formation, EMT, cell division and mesodermal migration occur.

  5. Horizontal Directional Drilling-Length Detection Technology While Drilling Based on Bi-Electro-Magnetic Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudan Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The drilling length is an important parameter in the process of horizontal directional drilling (HDD exploration and recovery, but there has been a lack of accurate, automatically obtained statistics regarding this parameter. Herein, a technique for real-time HDD length detection and a management system based on the electromagnetic detection method with a microprocessor and two magnetoresistive sensors employing the software LabVIEW are proposed. The basic principle is to detect the change in the magnetic-field strength near a current coil while the drill stem and drill-stem joint successively pass through the current coil forward or backward. The detection system consists of a hardware subsystem and a software subsystem. The hardware subsystem employs a single-chip microprocessor as the main controller. A current coil is installed in front of the clamping unit, and two magneto resistive sensors are installed on the sides of the coil symmetrically and perpendicular to the direction of movement of the drill pipe. Their responses are used to judge whether the drill-stem joint is passing through the clamping unit; then, the order of their responses is used to judge the movement direction. The software subsystem is composed of a visual software running on the host computer and a software running in the slave microprocessor. The host-computer software processes, displays, and saves the drilling-length data, whereas the slave microprocessor software operates the hardware system. A combined test demonstrated the feasibility of the entire drilling-length detection system.

  6. Continuous and directional solidification technology of titanium alloys with cold crucible

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Rui-run; DING Hong-sheng; GUO Jing-jie; BI Wei-sheng; FU Heng-zhi

    2006-01-01

    The experiments of continuous and directional solidification of titanium alloys with cold crucible were carried out in a multifunctional electromagnetic cold crucible apparatus. Parameters and factors influencing the surface crack and macrostructure of titanium alloy ingots were studied. The mechanism of the parameters and factors influencing the surface crack and macrostructure of the ingots were interpreted. The results show that the surface cracks of the prepared ingots decrease with the increase of the input power from 50 to 60 kW or with the increase of the coil turns from 3 to 5 circles. The surface cracks increase with the increase of withdrawal velocity from 3 to 5 mm/min or the height of the primer from 2 to 3 cm, then decrease with the increase of withdrawal velocity from 5 to 8.7 mm/min or the height of the primer from 3 to 4 cm. Coil turns is the most important one in all parameters effect on the surface crack, the input power is more important, then the withdrawal velocity is important and the height of the primer is the least important. Withdrawal velocity is the most important factor affecting the macrostructure, and effects of other factors on macrostructure is slight. With the decrease of velocity from 8.7 to 0.5 mm/min, the quantity of grains reduces, the grain orientation degree becomes small, and the solidification fronts change from concave to plane to convex. The ingot can be directional solidified at velocity of 1 mm/min. The ingot with free surface crack and directional macrostructure is prepared under definite conditions.

  7. Application of crossed beam technology to direct measurements of sound sources in turbulent jets, part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L. N.

    1970-01-01

    The mathematical bases for the direct measurement of sound source intensities in turbulent jets using the crossed-beam technique are discussed in detail. It is found that the problems associated with such measurements lie in three main areas: (1) measurement of the correct flow covariance, (2) accounting for retarded time effects in the measurements, and (3) transformation of measurements to a moving frame of reference. The determination of the particular conditions under which these problems can be circumvented is the main goal of the study.

  8. Does new technology inspire new directions? Examples drawn from pelagic visual ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Sönke

    2007-12-01

    Oceanography has seen the recent development of many new tools and techniques. The subfield of pelagic visual ecology in particular has benefited from the development of more reliable, portable, and economic tools and techniques that can be taken to sea including spectrometers, microspectrophotometery, electroretinography, and ultraviolet and polarization imaging systems. These advances have led to a relative wealth of data on the visual physiology of pelagic species and on the optical properties of these species and their environment. These data, particularly in combination with computational methods, have tested long-standing hypotheses in pelagic ecology and led to new hypotheses and research directions. While the ability to study pelagic species still lags far behind what is possible in terrestrial and coastal environments, a renaissance may be developing in the study of the integrative biology of pelagic species.

  9. The Most Important Directions Of Development Of Technology Convergence And The Basic Scope Of Nanoproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Prigulnyy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The author investigated the evolution of the process of production in a nanosphere, analyzes the features and achievements of production units of nanotechnology, nanomaterials and nano-products in various sectors of the Russian economy: electronics, medical and pharmacological industry, genetic engineering, production of construction materials, electric power industry. Considered sectoral and regional distribution of particular nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Allocated Rupp leading countries of the nanospheres. As the proliferation of nanotechnology leaders selected USA, Japan, Germany and South Korea. In the next group of countries with high development of nanotechnology, with a lower level of activity states - Israel, Singapore, the Netherlands, Sweden and Switzerland. The next group consists of France, Britain and China, where the level exceeds the level of real nanoaktivnosti nanotechnology. Based on the Letter of the world and practice, the author of the nanotechnology sector is estimated to be the most attractive to venture capital. The problem lies in the expansion of the Russian practice of attracting foreign venture capital to fund research. One of the most realistic solution to this problem is in the framework of the strategy of cooperation between science, business and government, to accelerate the transition of technologies from laboratory to industrial nanomaterials from fragmentary studies to design innovation.

  10. Large-screen display industry: market and technology trends for direct view and projection displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Joseph A.; Mentley, David E.

    1996-03-01

    Large screen information displays are defined as dynamic electronic displays that can be viewed by more than one person and are at least 2-feet wide. These large area displays for public viewing provide convenience, entertainment, security, and efficiency to the viewers. There are numerous uses for large screen information displays including those in advertising, transportation, traffic control, conference room presentations, computer aided design, banking, and military command/control. A noticeable characteristic of the large screen display market is the interchangeability of display types. For any given application, the user can usually choose from at least three alternative technologies, and sometimes from many more. Some display types have features that make them suitable for specific applications due to temperature, brightness, power consumption, or other such characteristic. The overall worldwide unit consumption of large screen information displays of all types and for all applications (excluding consumer TV) will increase from 401,109 units in 1995 to 655,797 units in 2002. On a unit consumption basis, applications in business and education represent the largest share of unit consumption over this time period; in 1995, this application represented 69.7% of the total. The market (value of shipments) will grow from DOL3.1 billion in 1995 to DOL3.9 billion in 2002. The market will be dominated by front LCD projectors and LCD overhead projector plates.

  11. In the shadow of the Cosmetic Directive — Inconsistencies in EU environmental hazard classification requirements for UV-filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobek, A., E-mail: anna.sobek@itm.su.se; Bejgarn, S.; Rudén, C.; Molander, L.; Breitholtz, M.

    2013-09-01

    UV-filters are chemicals with potentially environmental hazardous properties. In the European Union (EU), UV-filters contained in sunscreen products are currently regulated by the Cosmetic Directive (from July 2013 by the Cosmetic Products Regulation). Environmental hazard classifications according to the regulation on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP) must be determined for UV-filters contained in industrial chemical products, whereas UV-filters contained in sunscreens are exempted from CLP. In this study we determined the potential environmental hazard classifications of UV-filters and sunscreen products if the CLP regulation was to be required for cosmetic products. Two sunscreen products were evaluated in accordance with the aquatic environmental hazard criteria for mixtures. The results highlight that the inconsistencies in the current EU regulation of UV filters hamper the risk management of environmental hazards of UV filters used in cosmetic products. Almost 50% of the investigated UV-filters approved for use in cosmetic products on the European market according to the current Cosmetic Directive were identified to meet the CLP classification as being hazardous to the aquatic environment. Assuming a worst-case scenario, the two examined sunscreens could both be classified as hazardous to the aquatic environment with long-lasting effects according to CLP classification criteria. Hence, if the CLP regulation was applicable to sunscreen products, both brands could potentially be labelled with the environmental hazard pictogram and associated hazard and precautionary statements. Including cosmetic products, and thereby sunscreens, in the CLP regulation would contribute to a more harmonized and transparent regulation of potentially hazardous substances on the EU market. - Highlights: • UV-filters are used in both cosmetic and industrial products/applications • UV-filters in cosmetic products are excluded from CLP • We

  12. 300 mm InGaAs-on-insulator substrates fabricated using direct wafer bonding and the Smart Cut™ technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiez, Julie; Sollier, Sébastien; Baron, Thierry; Martin, Mickaël; Gaudin, Gweltaz; Mazen, Frédéric; Madeira, Florence; Favier, Sylvie; Salaun, Amélie; Alcotte, Reynald; Beche, Elodie; Grampeix, Helen; Veytizou, Christelle; Moulet, Jean-Sébastien

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports the first demonstration of 300 mm In0.53Ga0.47As-on-insulator (InGaAs-OI) substrates. The use of direct wafer bonding and the Smart Cut™ technology lead to the transfer of high quality InGaAs layer on large Si wafer size (300 mm) at low effective cost, taking into account the reclaim of the III-V on Si donor substrate. The optimization of the three key building blocks of this technology is detailed. (1) The III-V epitaxial growth on 300 mm Si wafers has been optimized to decrease the defect density. (2) For the first time, hydrogen-induced thermal splitting is made inside the indium phosphide (InP) epitaxial layer and a wide implantation condition ranges is observed on the contrary to bulk InP. (3) Finally a specific direct wafer bonding with alumina oxide has been chosen to avoid outgas diffusion at the alumina oxide/III-V compound interface.

  13. Metabolic Power Requirement of Change of Direction Speed in Young Soccer Players: Not All Is What It Seems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Hader

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to 1 compare the metabolic power demand of straight-line and change of direction (COD sprints including 45° or 90°-turns, and 2 examine the relation between estimated metabolic demands and muscular activity throughout the 3 phases of COD-sprints.Twelve highly-trained soccer players performed one 25-m and three 20-m sprints, either in straight-line or with one 45°- or 90°-COD. Sprints were monitored with 2 synchronized 100-Hz laser guns to assess players' velocities before, during and after the COD. Acceleration and deceleration were derived from changes in speed over time. Metabolic power was estimated based on di Prampero's approach (2005. Electromyography amplitude (RMS of 2 lower limb muscles was measured. The expected energy expenditure during time-adjusted straight-line sprints (matching COD sprints time was also calculated.Locomotor-dependant metabolic demand was largely lower with COD (90°, 142.1±13.5 J.kg(-1 compared with time-adjusted (effect size, ES = -3.0; 193.2±18.6 J.kg(-1 and non-adjusted straight-line sprints (ES = -1.7; 168.4±15.3 J.kg(-1. Metabolic power requirement was angle-dependent, moderately lower for 90°-COD vs. 45°-COD sprint (ES = -1.0; 149.5±10.4 J.kg(-1. Conversely, the RMS was slightly- (45°, ES = +0.5; +2.1%, 90% confidence limits (±3.6 for vastus lateralis muscle (VL to-largely (90°, ES = +1.6; +6.1 (3.3% for VL greater for COD-sprints. Metabolic power/RMS ratio was 2 to 4 times lower during deceleration than acceleration phases.Present results show that COD-sprints are largely less metabolically demanding than linear sprints. This may be related to the very low metabolic demand associated with the deceleration phase during COD-sprints that may not be compensated by the increased requirement of the reacceleration phase. These results also highlight the dissociation between metabolic and muscle activity demands during COD-sprints, which questions the use of metabolic power

  14. Computer technology-based interventions in HIV prevention: state of the evidence and future directions for research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M.

    2015-01-01

    Computer technology-based interventions (CBIs) represent a promising area for HIV prevention behavioral intervention research. Such programs are a compelling prevention option given their potential for broad reach, customized content, and low cost delivery. The purpose of the current article is to provide a review of the state of the literature on CBIs. First, we define CBIs in HIV prevention and highlight the many advantages of such interventions. Next, we provide an overview of what is currently known regarding the efficacy of CBIs in HIV prevention, focusing on two recent meta-analyses of this literature. Finally, we propose an agenda for future directions for research in the area of CBIs, using the RE-AIM model as an organizing guide. We conclude that with the continued growth of computer technologies, opportunities to apply such technologies in HIV prevention will continue to blossom. Further research is greatly needed to advance an understanding of not only how and under what circumstances CBIs can be efficacious, but also how the reach, adoption, implementation, and maintenance of such programs in clinical and community settings can be achieved. PMID:21287420

  15. The role of technology in minimally invasive surgery: state of the art, recent developments and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonutti, Michele; Elson, Daniel S; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara W; Sodergren, Mikael H

    2017-03-01

    The diffusion of minimally invasive surgery has thrived in recent years, providing substantial benefits over traditional techniques for a number of surgical interventions. This rapid growth has been possible due to significant advancements in medical technology, which partly solved some of the technical and clinical challenges associated with minimally invasive techniques. The issues that still limit its widespread adoption for some applications include the limited field of view; reduced manoeuvrability of the tools; lack of haptic feedback; loss of depth perception; extended learning curve; prolonged operative times and higher financial costs. The present review discusses some of the main recent technological advancements that fuelled the uptake of minimally invasive surgery, focussing especially on the areas of imaging, instrumentation, cameras and robotics. The current limitations of state-of-the-art technology are identified and addressed, proposing future research directions necessary to overcome them. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Comparative investigation of the detective quantum efficiency of direct and indirect conversion detector technologies in dedicated breast CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttig, Jan D; Steiding, Christian; Kolditz, Daniel; Hupfer, Martin; Karolczak, Marek; Kalender, Willi A

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the dose saving potential of direct-converting CdTe photon-counting detector technology for dedicated breast CT. We analyzed the modulation transfer function (MTF), the noise power spectrum (NPS) and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of two detector technologies, suitable for breast CT (BCT): a flat-panel energy-integrating detector with a 70 μm and a 208 μm thick gadolinium oxysulfide (GOS) and a 150 μm thick cesium iodide (CsI) scintillator and a photon-counting detector with a 1000 μm thick CdTe sensor. The measurements for GOS scintillator thicknesses of 70 μm and 208 μm delivered 10% pre-sampled MTF values of 6.6 mm(-1) and 3.2 mm(-1), and DQE(0) values of 23% and 61%. The 10% pre-sampled MTF value for the 150 μm thick CsI scintillator 6.9 mm(-1), and the DQE(0) value was 49%. The CdTe sensor reached a 10% pre-sampled MTF value of 8.5 mm(-1) and a DQE(0) value of 85%. The photon-counting CdTe detector technology allows for significant dose reduction compared to the energy-integrating scintillation detector technology used in BCT today. Our comparative evaluation indicates that a high potential dose saving may be possible for BCT by using CdTe detectors, without loss of spatial resolution. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Information technology in pharmacovigilance: Benefits, challenges, and future directions from industry perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhengwu

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessment during clinical product development needs to be conducted in a thorough and rigorous manner. However, it is impossible to identify all safety concerns during controlled clinical trials. Once a product is marketed, there is generally a large increase in the number of patients exposed, including those with comorbid conditions and those being treated with concomitant medications. Therefore, postmarketing safety data collection and clinical risk assessment based on observational data are critical for evaluating and characterizing a product's risk profile and for making informed decisions on risk minimization. Information science promises to deliver effective e-clinical or e-health solutions to realize several core benefits: time savings, high quality, cost reductions, and increased efficiencies with safer and more efficacious medicines. The development and use of standard-based pharmacovigilance system with integration connection to electronic medical records, electronic health records, and clinical data management system holds promise as a tool for enabling early drug safety detections, data mining, results interpretation, assisting in safety decision making, and clinical collaborations among clinical partners or different functional groups. The availability of a publicly accessible global safety database updated on a frequent basis would further enhance detection and communication about safety issues. Due to recent high-profile drug safety problems, the pharmaceutical industry is faced with greater regulatory enforcement and increased accountability demands for the protection and welfare of patients. This changing climate requires biopharmaceutical companies to take a more proactive approach in dealing with drug safety and pharmacovigilance.

  18. Catalysis looks to the future. Panel on new directions in catalytic science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    Catalysts play a vital role in providing society with fuels, commodity and fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and means for protecting the environment. To be useful, a good catalyst must have a high turnover frequency (activity), produce the right kind of product (selectivity), and have a long life (durability), all at an acceptable cost. Research in the field of catalysis provides the tools and understanding required to facilitate and accelerate the development of improved catalysts and to open opportunities for the discovery of new catalytic processes. The aim of this report is to identify the research opportunities and challenges for catalysis in the coming decades and to detail the resources necessary to ensure steady progress. Chapter 2 discusses opportunities for developing new catalysts to meet the demands of the chemical and fuel industries, and the increasing role of catalysis in environmental protection. The intellectual challenges for advancing the frontiers of catalytic science are outlined in Chapter 3. The human and institutional resources available in the US for carrying out research on catalysis are summarized in Chapter 4. The findings and recommendations of the panel for industry, academe, the national laboratories, and the federal government are presented in Chapter 5.

  19. Requirements in screening cDNA libraries for new genes and solutions offered by SBH technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drmanac, R.; Drmanac, S.; Labat, I.; Stavropoulos, N.

    1993-12-31

    Under different assumptions about the total number of genes, the number of housekeeping and tissue-specific genes, and the difference in the number of mRNAs per cell for functional and nonfunctional genes, significantly different results can be expected from screening random cDNA clones. We have developed gene expression models as a guide for interpretation of experimental results. For statistical, biological, and technical reasons, the search for 100,000 plus genes and discrimination between nonfunctional, housekeeping, and tissue-specific genes requires the analysis of up to 10 million clones from 20 to 50 tissues. Oligonucleotide hybridization of dense clone blots is an inexpensive and fast way to screen such large clone sets. Our preliminary results on control clones and thousands of cDNA clones from an infant brain library demonstrate the feasibility of the method. We present several models of gene expression and analyze the main factors which can influence the hunt for new genes via the screening of random cDNA libraries. The basic steps in the preparation and use of dense DNA dot arrays are described, and some results that demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of gene inventorying by oligonucleotide hybridization are presented. Furthermore, partial SBH and single-pass gel sequencing are compared and a gene analysis scheme that combines the two approaches is discussed.

  20. Combined cycles, impacts of technological requirements; Ciclos combinados, impactos de requerimientos tecnologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Santalo, Jose Miguel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The fundamental growth of the Mexican electrical sector for the next ten years is planned on base of the installation of 20 thousand Mw plants of combined cycle. This article presents an analysis of the impact of these power stations finding out that the power stations of combined cycle are at the moment cheaper - from 600 to 700 dollars by installed kW- than the alternative coal options or fuel oil, that are in the range of 900 to 1200 dollars per kW, in addition to which the time required for their construction is shorter. [Spanish] El crecimiento fundamental del sector electrico mexicano para los proximos diez anos esta planeado con base en la instalacion de 20 mil Mw de plantas de ciclo combinado. Este articulo presenta un analisis del impacto de dichas centrales encontrando que las centrales de ciclo combinado actualmente resultan mas baratas - de 600 a 700 dolares por kW instalado - que las opciones alternativas de carbon o combustoleo que estan en el rango de 900 a 1200 dolares por kW, ademas de que los tiempos requeridos para su construccion son menores.

  1. From the Accounting Treatment Required by the Accounting Regulations Corresponding with European Directives to the Accounting Treatment Required by IFRS - Legislative Steps Taken by Romanian Credit Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Doroº Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Legislative stages in accordance with IFRS accounting treatment began to OMF no. 907/2005- approving categories of entities applying accounting rules in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards, accounting regulations that comply with European directives, as amended, continued with NBR Order no. 13/2008, NBR Order no. 15/2009, NBR Order no. 9/2010 and ends with NBR Order No. 27/16.12.2010 - for approval of Accounting Regulations in accordance with International Financial Re...

  2. Requirements of a new communication technology for handover and the escalation of patient care: a multi-stakeholder analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Maximilian J; King, Dominic; Arora, Sonal; Cooper, Kerri; Panda, Neha Aparajita; Gosling, Rebecca; Singh, Kaushiki; Sanders, Bradley; Cox, Benita; Darzi, Ara

    2014-08-01

    In order to enable safe and efficient information transfer between health care professionals during clinical handover and escalation of care, existing communication technologies must be updated. This study aimed to provide a user-informed guide for the development of an application-based communication system (ABCS), tailored for use in patient handover and escalation of care. Current methods of inter-professional communication in health care along with information system needs for communication technology were identified through literature review. A focus group study was then conducted according to a topic guide developed by health innovation and safety researchers. Fifteen doctors and 11 nurses from three London hospitals participated in a mixture of homogeneous and heterogeneous sessions. The sessions were recorded and transcribed verbatim before being subjected to thematic analysis. Seventeen information system needs were identified from the literature review. Participants identified six themes detailing user perceptions of current communication technology, attitudes to smartphone technology and anticipated requirements of an application produced for handover and escalation of care. Participants were in favour of an ABCS over current methods and expressed enthusiasm for a system with integrated patient information and group-messaging functions. Despite concerns regarding confidentiality and information governance a robust guide for development and implementation of an ABCS was produced, taking input from multiple stakeholders into account. Handover and escalation of care are vital processes for patient safety and communication within these must be optimized. An ABCS for health care professionals would be a welcome innovation and may lead to improvements in patient safety. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Predictors of Teacher-Directed Student Use of Technology in Elementary Classrooms: A Multilevel SEM Approach Using Data from the USEIT Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Helena; Russell, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study is a secondary data analysis of the USEIT data to inform school administrators and policymakers about the factors affecting instructional technology use in elementary classrooms. Researchers developed a predictive multilevel SEM model for teacher-directed student use of technology (TDS). The model depicts relationships between factors…

  4. [Optimization of technological processes for the preparation of tablets with a low content of warfarin by direct compression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muselík, Jan; Franc, Aleš; Starková, Jana; Matějková, Zuzana

    2014-10-01

    Warfarin is a rug with an arrow therapeutic index. It is commercially available in the form of tablets with immediate release from many generic manufacturers. Though attempts are being made to replace it with new drugs, in the U.S.A.it is still the antithrombotic agent of the first choice. In the past there were cases when after replacement of the original brand preparation with the generic one, the patient suffered from complications such as the loss of control of anticoagulation and increased frequency of patients visits to the physician. One of the critical parameters of tablets containing an active substance with an arrow therapeutic index (NTI) is content uniformity, which must comply with the pharmacopoeial requirements as well as the strict criteria of regulatory authorities in the validation of the manufacture of the solid dosage form. Content uniformity is affected by a number of factors such as density, particle shape and size distribution, electrostatic charge, and concentration of the individual components. Of the technological parameters, it is mainly the intensity and length of mixing, shape of the mixing vessel and the mixer, the size of the charge, or the degree of filling of the mixing device, etc. This paper deals with the influence of the mixing time and concentration of the drug on the content uniformity of warfarin-containing tablets. In mixing the mixtures of solid substances, where the active substance is included in alow concentration, there occurs the so-called mixing-out and segregation of the active substance. For this reason it is necessary to optimize the period of mixing. This study managed to optimize the mixing time of mixtures prepared with the use of the patented technology of the Veterinary and Pharmaceutical University Brno and further to prepare tablets with varying content of warfarin (2-10 mg) from acommon blend, which fulfil the pharmacopoeial requirements as well as the requirements of regulatory authorities for content

  5. Building a transnational biosurveillance network using semantic web technologies: requirements, design, and preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, Douglas; Pasche, Emilie; Gobeill, Julien; Emonet, Stéphane; Ruch, Patrick; Lovis, Christian

    2012-05-29

    Antimicrobial resistance has reached globally alarming levels and is becoming a major public health threat. Lack of efficacious antimicrobial resistance surveillance systems was identified as one of the causes of increasing resistance, due to the lag time between new resistances and alerts to care providers. Several initiatives to track drug resistance evolution have been developed. However, no effective real-time and source-independent antimicrobial resistance monitoring system is available publicly. To design and implement an architecture that can provide real-time and source-independent antimicrobial resistance monitoring to support transnational resistance surveillance. In particular, we investigated the use of a Semantic Web-based model to foster integration and interoperability of interinstitutional and cross-border microbiology laboratory databases. Following the agile software development methodology, we derived the main requirements needed for effective antimicrobial resistance monitoring, from which we proposed a decentralized monitoring architecture based on the Semantic Web stack. The architecture uses an ontology-driven approach to promote the integration of a network of sentinel hospitals or laboratories. Local databases are wrapped into semantic data repositories that automatically expose local computing-formalized laboratory information in the Web. A central source mediator, based on local reasoning, coordinates the access to the semantic end points. On the user side, a user-friendly Web interface provides access and graphical visualization to the integrated views. We designed and implemented the online Antimicrobial Resistance Trend Monitoring System (ARTEMIS) in a pilot network of seven European health care institutions sharing 70+ million triples of information about drug resistance and consumption. Evaluation of the computing performance of the mediator demonstrated that, on average, query response time was a few seconds (mean 4.3, SD 0.1 × 10

  6. Rapid process development of chromatographic process using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry as a process analytical technology tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Binjun; Chen, Teng; Xu, Zhilin; Qu, Haibin

    2014-06-01

    The concept of quality by design (QbD) is widely applied in the process development of pharmaceuticals. However, the additional cost and time have caused some resistance about QbD implementation. To show a possible solution, this work proposed a rapid process development method, which used direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool for studying the chromatographic process of Ginkgo biloba L., as an example. The breakthrough curves were fast determined by DART-MS at-line. A high correlation coefficient of 0.9520 was found between the concentrations of ginkgolide A determined by DART-MS and HPLC. Based on the PAT tool, the impacts of process parameters on the adsorption capacity were discovered rapidly, which showed a decreased adsorption capacity with the increase of the flow rate. This work has shown the feasibility and advantages of integrating PAT into QbD implementation for rapid process development.

  7. Effect of Oxide Level on Pore Formation in A356 Alloy by X-Ray Imaging and Directional Solidification Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hengcheng; Song, Wan; Wang, Qigui; Zhao, Lei; Fan, Ran

    Effect of oxide level on porosity formation in an A356 alloy was investigated using micro-focus X-ray imaging and directional solidification technology. The increase of oxide level in liquid aluminum was achieved by violently stirring molten metal at elevated temperature. During solidification, the increased oxide content in melt significantly increases the amount of active nucleation sites for porosity and thus raises the nucleation temperature of pores. The fast growth of those early formed pores further restrains the succeeding nucleation operations of new pores in local regions and results in a considerable reduction in pore density. It was also found that the melt with high oxide content shows less dependency of growth rate reduction with local temperature.

  8. National Differences in Requirements for Ethical and Competent Authority Approval for a Multinational Vaccine Trial under the EU Directive 2001/20/EC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva van Doorn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining approval for a multinational vaccine trial from an ethics committee and the national competent authority of different Member States of the European Union (EU is challenging under clinical trial Directive 2001/20/EC because of the differences in the implementation of the directive in national laws of Member States. In this review the national differences in requirements for ethical and competent authority approval are illustrated. The national ethical and competent authority review procedures in Finland, Hungary, The Netherlands, Norway and Slovenia are described under the EU trial directive after discussing the provisions of the trial directive related to both review procedures. The review illustrates the differences between the countries in the documents that have to be submitted for the review procedures, the submission procedures and the language requirements of the documents, the organization of the ethics committees and the role of the competent authority in the approval procedure.

  9. Potential of direct metal deposition technology for manufacturing thick functionally graded coatings and parts for reactors components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivillon, L.; Bertrand, Ph.; Laget, B.; Smurov, I.

    2009-03-01

    Direct metal deposition (DMD) is an automated 3D deposition process arising from laser cladding technology with co-axial powder injection to refine or refurbish parts. Recently DMD has been extended to manufacture large-size near-net-shape components. When applied for manufacturing new parts (or their refinement), DMD can provide tailored thermal properties, high corrosion resistance, tailored tribology, multifunctional performance and cost savings due to smart material combinations. In repair (refurbishment) operations, DMD can be applied for parts with a wide variety of geometries and sizes. In contrast to the current tool repair techniques such as tungsten inert gas (TIG), metal inert gas (MIG) and plasma welding, laser cladding technology by DMD offers a well-controlled heat-treated zone due to the high energy density of the laser beam. In addition, this technology may be used for preventative maintenance and design changes/up-grading. One of the advantages of DMD is the possibility to build functionally graded coatings (from 1 mm thickness and higher) and 3D multi-material objects (for example, 100 mm-sized monolithic rectangular) in a single-step manufacturing cycle by using up to 4-channel powder feeder. Approved materials are: Fe (including stainless steel), Ni and Co alloys, (Cu,Ni 10%), WC compounds, TiC compounds. The developed coatings/parts are characterized by low porosity (<1%), fine microstructure, and their microhardness is close to the benchmark value of wrought alloys after thermal treatment (Co-based alloy Stellite, Inox 316L, stainless steel 17-4PH). The intended applications concern cooling elements with complex geometry, friction joints under high temperature and load, light-weight mechanical support structures, hermetic joints, tubes with complex geometry, and tailored inside and outside surface properties, etc.

  10. Requirement Pattern Based on Dependencies of Plan in i* for Detecting Proactivity in Information-Technology Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Pérez Acosta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present a requirement pattern based on i*’s models that allows detecting proactivityin information-technology systems from the Requirements’ phase. The pattern obtained as a result ofthis paper allows detecting proactivity when there is a plan’s dependence established between the actorsinvolved and in addition one of the actors has intentions that denote a future proactive behavior inthe software. In order to validate the pattern a case study was performed taking as logic of analysis thedevelopment of a proactive dashboard to support the decision making in a college faculty. Based on theresults of the case study, it can be concluded that the proposed pattern allowed modeling the intentionaldependencies between the actors, detecting a proactive behavior and delegating the proactivity in thesystem of software to be developed.

  11. Flow through reactors for organic chemistry: directly electrically heated tubular mini reactors as an enabling technology for organic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Kunz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Until recently traditional heating in organic chemistry has been done with oil heating baths or using electric heat exchangers. With the advent of microwave equipment, heating by microwaves was rapidly introduced as standard method in organic chemistry laboratories, mainly because of the convenient possibility to operate at high temperature accompanied by accelerated reaction rates. In the present contribution we discuss the method of heating small, continuously operated reactors by passing electric current directly through the reactor wall as an enabling technology in organic chemistry. The benefit of this method is that the heat is generated directly inside the reactor wall. By this means high heating rates comparable to microwave ovens can be reached but at much lower cost for the equipment. A tool for the comparison of microwave heating and traditional heating is provided. As an example kinetic data for the acid catalyzed hydrolysis of methyl formate were measured using this heating concept. The reaction is not only a suitable model but also one of industrial importance since this is the main production process for formic acid.

  12. Flow through reactors for organic chemistry: directly electrically heated tubular mini reactors as an enabling technology for organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Ulrich; Turek, Thomas

    2009-11-30

    Until recently traditional heating in organic chemistry has been done with oil heating baths or using electric heat exchangers. With the advent of microwave equipment, heating by microwaves was rapidly introduced as standard method in organic chemistry laboratories, mainly because of the convenient possibility to operate at high temperature accompanied by accelerated reaction rates. In the present contribution we discuss the method of heating small, continuously operated reactors by passing electric current directly through the reactor wall as an enabling technology in organic chemistry. The benefit of this method is that the heat is generated directly inside the reactor wall. By this means high heating rates comparable to microwave ovens can be reached but at much lower cost for the equipment. A tool for the comparison of microwave heating and traditional heating is provided. As an example kinetic data for the acid catalyzed hydrolysis of methyl formate were measured using this heating concept. The reaction is not only a suitable model but also one of industrial importance since this is the main production process for formic acid.

  13. Development of prostate cancer research database with the clinical data warehouse technology for direct linkage with electronic medical record system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, In Young; Park, Seungho; Park, Bumjoon; Chung, Byung Ha; Kim, Choung-Soo; Lee, Hyun Moo; Byun, Seok-Soo; Lee, Ji Youl

    2013-01-01

    In spite of increased prostate cancer patients, little is known about the impact of treatments for prostate cancer patients and outcome of different treatments based on nationwide data. In order to obtain more comprehensive information for Korean prostate cancer patients, many professionals urged to have national system to monitor the quality of prostate cancer care. To gain its objective, the prostate cancer database system was planned and cautiously accommodated different views from various professions. This prostate cancer research database system incorporates information about a prostate cancer research including demographics, medical history, operation information, laboratory, and quality of life surveys. And, this system includes three different ways of clinical data collection to produce a comprehensive data base; direct data extraction from electronic medical record (EMR) system, manual data entry after linking EMR documents like magnetic resonance imaging findings and paper-based data collection for survey from patients. We implemented clinical data warehouse technology to test direct EMR link method with St. Mary's Hospital system. Using this method, total number of eligible patients were 2,300 from 1997 until 2012. Among them, 538 patients conducted surgery and others have different treatments. Our database system could provide the infrastructure for collecting error free data to support various retrospective and prospective studies.

  14. Flow through reactors for organic chemistry: directly electrically heated tubular mini reactors as an enabling technology for organic synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turek, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Summary Until recently traditional heating in organic chemistry has been done with oil heating baths or using electric heat exchangers. With the advent of microwave equipment, heating by microwaves was rapidly introduced as standard method in organic chemistry laboratories, mainly because of the convenient possibility to operate at high temperature accompanied by accelerated reaction rates. In the present contribution we discuss the method of heating small, continuously operated reactors by passing electric current directly through the reactor wall as an enabling technology in organic chemistry. The benefit of this method is that the heat is generated directly inside the reactor wall. By this means high heating rates comparable to microwave ovens can be reached but at much lower cost for the equipment. A tool for the comparison of microwave heating and traditional heating is provided. As an example kinetic data for the acid catalyzed hydrolysis of methyl formate were measured using this heating concept. The reaction is not only a suitable model but also one of industrial importance since this is the main production process for formic acid. PMID:20300506

  15. Direct ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Alice V

    2015-01-01

    First described by Engvall and Perlmann, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a rapid and sensitive method for detection and quantitation of an antigen using an enzyme-labeled antibody. Besides routine laboratory usage, ELISA has been utilized in medical field and food industry as diagnostic and quality control tools. Traditionally performed in 96-well or 384-well polystyrene plates, the technology has expanded to other platforms with increase in automation. Depending on the antigen epitope and availability of specific antibody, there are variations in ELISA setup. The four basic formats are direct, indirect, sandwich, and competitive ELISAs. Direct ELISA is the simplest format requiring an antigen and an enzyme-conjugated antibody specific to the antigen. This chapter describes the individual steps for detection of a plate-bound antigen using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated antibody and luminol-based enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) substrate. The methodological approach to optimize the assay by chessboard titration is also provided.

  16. [Method for direct generation data for formatted case report forms based on requirement for data authenticity in actual clinical conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ming-Yi; Liu, Bao-Yan; He, Li-Yun; Zhang, Run-Shun

    2013-04-01

    Data authenticity is the basic requirement of clinical studies. In actual clinical conditions how to establish formatted case report forms (CRF) in line with the requirement for data authenticity is the key to ensure clinical data quality. On the basis of the characteristics of clinical data in actual clinical conditions, we determined elements for establishing formatted case report forms by comparing differences in data characteristics of CRFs in traditional clinical studies and in actual clinical conditions, and then generated formatted case report forms in line with the requirement for data authenticity in actual clinical conditions. The data of formatted CRFs generated in this study could not only meet the requirement for data authenticity of clinical studies in actual clinical conditions, but also comply with data management practices for clinical studies, thus it is deemed as a progress in technical methods.

  17. Directed Energy Technology Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    called “ Vesta ”. This effort moved the high power laser chain from laboratory tabletop demonstration closer to the goal of an engineered, fieldable...measuring 40 inches on a side, or a ~ 1 m^2 footprint. 2nd generation gain modules were also developed for this laser chain. The Vesta chain put

  18. Vertical flight training: An overview of training and flight simulator technology with emphasis on rotary-wing requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderete, Thomas S.; Ascencio-Lee, Carmen E.; Bray, Richard; Carlton, John; Dohme, Jack; Eshow, Michelle M.; Francis, Stephen; Lee, Owen M.; Lintern, Gavan; Lombardo, David A.

    1994-01-01

    The principal purpose of this publication is to provide a broad overview of the technology that is relevant to the design of aviation training systems and of the techniques applicable to the development, use, and evaluation of those systems. The issues addressed in our 11 chapters are, for the most part, those that would be expected to surface in any informed discussion of the major characterizing elements of aviation training systems. Indeed, many of the same facets of vertical-flight training discussed were recognized and, to some extent, dealt with at the 1991 NASA/FAA Helicopter Simulator Workshop. These generic topics are essential to a sound understanding of training and training systems, and they quite properly form the basis of any attempt to systematize the development and evaluation of more effective, more efficient, more productive, and more economical approaches to aircrew training. Individual chapters address the following topics: an overview of the vertical flight industry: the source of training requirements; training and training schools: meeting current requirements; training systems design and development; transfer of training and cost-effectiveness; the military quest for flight training effectiveness; alternative training systems; training device manufacturing; simulator aero model implementation; simulation validation in the frequency domain; cockpit motion in helicopter simulation; and visual space perception in flight simulators.

  19. Performance/Design Requirements and Detailed Technical Description for a Computer-Directed Training Subsystem for Integration into the Air Force Phase II Base Level System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, A. K.; And Others

    The performance/design requirements and a detailed technical description for a Computer-Directed Training Subsystem to be integrated into the Air Force Phase II Base Level System are described. The subsystem may be used for computer-assisted lesson construction and has presentation capability for on-the-job training for data automation, staff, and…

  20. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety Verification and Validation F Appendix F to Part 236... F to Part 236—Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System... independent third-party assessment of PTC system safety verification and validation pursuant to subpart H or I...

  1. Notification of suspected and unexpected serious adverse reactions according to the Clinical Trials Directive - A descriptive analysis of the legislation and the requirements in a European context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ellen Moseholm; Grarup, Jesper; Gey, Daniela Christine

    2010-01-01

    The European Clinical Trials Directive (CTD) came into force on May 1st 2004. The CTD provides the legal basis for monitoring the safety of clinical trials and covers the requirements for notification of SUSAR. Implementation of the CTD into national legislation in each Member State has resulted ...

  2. Demonstration of New Technologies Required for the Treatment of Mixed Waste Contaminated with {ge}260 ppm Mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, M.I.

    2002-02-06

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) defines several categories of mercury wastes, each of which has a defined technology or concentration-based treatment standard, or universal treatment standard (UTS). RCRA defines mercury hazardous wastes as any waste that has a TCLP value for mercury of 0.2 mg/L or greater. Three of these categories, all nonwastewaters, fall within the scope of this report on new technologies to treat mercury-contaminated wastes: wastes as elemental mercury; hazardous wastes with less than 260 mg/kg [parts per million (ppm)] mercury; and hazardous wastes with 260 ppm or more of mercury. While this report deals specifically with the last category--hazardous wastes with 260 ppm or more of mercury--the other two categories will be discussed briefly so that the full range of mercury treatment challenges can be understood. The treatment methods for these three categories are as follows: Waste as elemental mercury--RCRA identifies amalgamation (AMLGM) as the treatment standard for radioactive elemental mercury. However, radioactive mercury condensates from retorting (RMERC) processes also require amalgamation. In addition, incineration (IMERC) and RMERC processes that produce residues with >260 ppm of radioactive mercury contamination and that fail the RCRA toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) limit for mercury (0.20 mg/L) require RMERC, followed by AMLGM of the condensate. Waste with <260 ppm mercury--No specific treatment method is specified for hazardous wastes containing <260 ppm. However, RCRA regulations require that such wastes (other than RMERC residues) that exceed a TCLP mercury concentration of 0.20 mg/L be treated by a suitable method to meet the TCLP limit for mercury of 0.025 mg/L. RMERC residues must meet the TCLP value of {ge}0.20 mg/L, or be stabilized and meet the {ge}0.025 mg/L limit. Waste with {ge}260 ppm mercury--For hazardous wastes with mercury contaminant concentrations {ge}260 ppm and RCRA

  3. Demonstration of Air-Power-Assist Engine Technology for Clean Combustion and Direct Energy Recovery in Heavy Duty Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyungsuk Kang; Chun Tai

    2010-05-01

    The first phase of the project consists of four months of applied research, starting from September 1, 2005 and was completed by December 31, 2005. During this time, the project team heavily relied on highly detailed numerical modeling techniques to evaluate the feasibility of the APA technology. Specifically, (i) A GT-Power{sup TM}engine simulation model was constructed to predict engine efficiency at various operating conditions. Efficiency was defined based on the second-law thermodynamic availability. (ii) The engine efficiency map generated by the engine simulation was then fed into a simplified vehicle model, which was constructed in the Matlab/Simulink environment, to predict fuel consumption of a refuse truck on a simple collection cycle. (iii) Design and analysis work supporting the concept of retrofitting an existing Sturman Industries Hydraulic Valve Actuation (HVA) system with the modifications that are required to run the HVA system with Air Power Assist functionality. A Matlab/Simulink model was used to calculate the dynamic response of the HVA system. Computer aided design (CAD) was done in Solidworks for mechanical design and hydraulic layout. At the end of Phase I, 11% fuel economy improvement was predicted. During Phase II, the engine simulation group completed the engine mapping work. The air handling group made substantial progress in identifying suppliers and conducting 3D modelling design. Sturman Industries completed design modification of the HVA system, which was reviewed and accepted by Volvo Powertrain. In Phase II, the possibility of 15% fuel economy improvement was shown with new EGR cooler design by reducing EGR cooler outlet temperature with APA engine technology from Air Handling Group. In addition, Vehicle Simulation with APA technology estimated 4 -21% fuel economy improvement over a wide range of driving cycles. During Phase III, the engine experimental setup was initiated at VPTNA, Hagerstown, MD. Air Handling system and HVA

  4. Strategies to meet the requirements of the Nitrates Directive on arable and field vegetable farms in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, J.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Intensive fertilisation practices in the Netherlands make it cumbersome to comply with the EU Nitrate Directive. Over the years, government has adopted increasingly strict environmental legislation, including the farm gate balance system MINAS (MINeral Accounting System) and a compulsory manure surp

  5. Use of integrated technology in team sports: a review of opportunities, challenges, and future directions for athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellaserra, Carla L; Gao, Yong; Ransdell, Lynda

    2014-02-01

    Integrated technology (IT), which includes accelerometers, global positioning systems (GPSs), and heart rate monitors, has been used frequently in public health. More recently, IT data have been used in sports settings to assess training and performance demands. However, the impact of IT in sports settings is yet to be evaluated, particularly in field-based team sports. This narrative-qualitative review provides an overview of the emerging impact of IT in sports settings. Twenty electronic databases (e.g., Medline, SPORTdiscus, and ScienceDirect), print publications (e.g., Signal Processing Magazine and Catapult Innovations news releases), and internet resources were searched using different combinations of keywords as follows: accelerometers, heart rate monitors, GPS, sport training, and field-based sports for relevant articles published from 1990 to the present. A total of 114 publications were identified, and 39 that examined a field-based team sport using a form of IT were analyzed. The articles chosen for analysis examined a field-based team sport using a form of IT. The uses of IT can be divided into 4 categories: (a) quantifying movement patterns (n = 22), (b) assessing the differences between demands of training and competition (n = 12), (c) measuring physiological and metabolic responses (n = 16), and (d) determining a valid definition for velocity and a sprint effort (n = 8). Most studies used elite adult male athletes as participants and analyzed the sports of Australian Rules football, field hockey, cricket, and soccer, with sample sizes between 5 and 20 participants. The limitations of IT in a sports setting include scalability issues, cost, and the inability to receive signals within indoor environments. Integrated technology can contribute to significant improvements in the preparation, training, and recovery aspects of field-based team sports. Future research should focus on using IT with female athlete populations and developing resources to use IT

  6. The de novo cytosine methyltransferase DRM2 requires intact UBA domains and a catalytically mutated paralog DRM3 during RNA-directed DNA methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R Henderson

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic DNA cytosine methylation can be used to transcriptionally silence repetitive sequences, including transposons and retroviruses. This silencing is stable between cell generations as cytosine methylation is maintained epigenetically through DNA replication. The Arabidopsis thaliana Dnmt3 cytosine methyltransferase ortholog DOMAINS rearranged methyltransferase2 (DRM2 is required for establishment of small interfering RNA (siRNA directed DNA methylation. In mammals PIWI proteins and piRNA act in a convergently evolved RNA-directed DNA methylation system that is required to repress transposon expression in the germ line. De novo methylation may also be independent of RNA interference and small RNAs, as in Neurospora crassa. Here we identify a clade of catalytically mutated DRM2 paralogs in flowering plant genomes, which in A.thaliana we term domains rearranged methyltransferase3 (DRM3. Despite being catalytically mutated, DRM3 is required for normal maintenance of non-CG DNA methylation, establishment of RNA-directed DNA methylation triggered by repeat sequences and accumulation of repeat-associated small RNAs. Although the mammalian catalytically inactive Dnmt3L paralogs act in an analogous manner, phylogenetic analysis indicates that the DRM and Dnmt3 protein families diverged independently in plants and animals. We also show by site-directed mutagenesis that both the DRM2 N-terminal UBA domains and C-terminal methyltransferase domain are required for normal RNA-directed DNA methylation, supporting an essential targeting function for the UBA domains. These results suggest that plant and mammalian RNA-directed DNA methylation systems consist of a combination of ancestral and convergent features.

  7. The effects of direct instruction on the single-word reading skills of children who require augmentative and alternative communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Karen A; Light, Janice; McNaughton, David; Drager, Kathryn; Hammer, Carol

    2004-12-01

    Current literature suggests a lack of empirically validated strategies for teaching reading skills to children who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). The current study implemented a single-subject, multiple-probe-across-subjects design to investigate the effects of direct instruction in single-word reading on the performance of students who use AAC. The instructional program targeted the reading skills of 5 participants who had severe speech impairments and ranged in age from 9 to 14 years old. All 5 participants reached criterion for matching targeted written words to corresponding pictures. Three of the 5 participants demonstrated generalization of reading skills to novel-word reading, and 4 of the 5 generalized reading skills to book contexts. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  8. Synthesis of the european national requirements and practices for recycling in HMA and WMA (DIRECT_MAT PROJECT)

    OpenAIRE

    IPAVEC, Aleksander; Marsac, Paul; Mollenhauer, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the 2009-2011 European project DIsmantling and RECycling Techniques for road MATerials is to contribute to the waste minimization in road maintenance and construction by sharing and disseminating, at a European level, the national know-how and sustainable practices regarding the dismantling of the pavements and the recycling of the reclaimed materials. In the framework of the DIRECT_MAT subproject Asphalt materials, the present paper gives a broad overview of the European polic...

  9. Cartilage development requires the function of Estrogen-related receptor alpha that directly regulates sox9 expression in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Il; No Lee, Joon; Bhandari, Sushil; Nam, In-Koo; Yoo, Kyeong-Won; Kim, Se-Jin; Oh, Gi-Su; Kim, Hyung-Jin; So, Hong-Seob; Choe, Seong-Kyu; Park, Raekil

    2015-12-10

    Estrogen-related receptor alpha (ESRRa) regulates a number of cellular processes including development of bone and muscles. However, direct evidence regarding its involvement in cartilage development remains elusive. In this report, we establish an in vivo role of Esrra in cartilage development during embryogenesis in zebrafish. Gene expression analysis indicates that esrra is expressed in developing pharyngeal arches where genes necessary for cartilage development are also expressed. Loss of function analysis shows that knockdown of esrra impairs expression of genes including sox9, col2a1, sox5, sox6, runx2 and col10a1 thus induces abnormally formed cartilage in pharyngeal arches. Importantly, we identify putative ESRRa binding elements in upstream regions of sox9 to which ESRRa can directly bind, indicating that Esrra may directly regulate sox9 expression. Accordingly, ectopic expression of sox9 rescues defective formation of cartilage induced by the knockdown of esrra. Taken together, our results indicate for the first time that ESRRa is essential for cartilage development by regulating sox9 expression during vertebrate development.

  10. A novel mechanism for direct real-time polymerase chain reaction that does not require DNA isolation from prokaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejima, Takashi; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Abe, Fumiaki

    2016-06-23

    Typically, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is performed after DNA isolation. Real-time PCR (qPCR), also known as direct qPCR in mammalian cells with weak membranes, is a common technique using crude samples subjected to preliminary boiling to elute DNA. However, applying this methodology to prokaryotic cells, which have solid cell walls, in contrast to mammalian cells which immediately burst in water, can result in poor detection. We successfully achieved PCR elongation with the addition of 1.3 cfu of Cronobacter muytjensii to a newly developed direct qPCR master mix without performing any crude DNA extraction (detection limit of 1.6 × 10(0) cfu/ml for the test sample compared with a detection limit of 1.6 × 10(3) cfu/ml primarily for crude (boiling) or classical DNA isolation). We revealed that the chromosomal DNA retained in prokaryotic cells can function as a PCR template, similarly to the mechanism in in situ PCR. Elucidating this reaction mechanism may contribute to the development of an innovative master mix for direct qPCR to detect genes in a single bacterium with solid cell walls and might lead to numerous novel findings in prokaryotic genomics research.

  11. Gender Gap in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM): Current Knowledge, Implications for Practice, Policy, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica L

    2017-03-01

    Although the gender gap in math course-taking and performance has narrowed in recent decades, females continue to be underrepresented in math-intensive fields of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). Career pathways encompass the ability to pursue a career as well as the motivation to employ that ability. Individual differences in cognitive capacity and motivation are also influenced by broader sociocultural factors. After reviewing research from the fields of psychology, sociology, economics, and education over the past 30 years, we summarize six explanations for US women's underrepresentation in math-intensive STEM fields: (a) cognitive ability, (b) relative cognitive strengths, (c) occupational interests or preferences, (d) lifestyle values or work-family balance preferences, (e) field-specific ability beliefs, and (f) gender-related stereotypes and biases. We then describe the potential biological and sociocultural explanations for observed gender differences on cognitive and motivational factors and demonstrate the developmental period(s) during which each factor becomes most relevant. We then propose evidence-based recommendations for policy and practice to improve STEM diversity and recommendations for future research directions.

  12. Process Design and Costing of Bioethanol Technology: A Tool for Determining the Status and Direction of Research and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooley; Ruth; Glassner; Sheehan

    1999-10-01

    Bioethanol is a fuel-grade ethanol made from trees, grasses, and waste materials. It represents a sustainable substitute for gasoline in today's passenger cars. Modeling and design of processes for making bioethanol are critical tools used in the U.S. Department of Energy's bioethanol research and development program. We use such analysis to guide new directions for research and to help us understand the level at which and the time when bioethanol will achieve commercial success. This paper provides an update on our latest estimates for current and projected costs of bioethanol. These estimates are the result of very sophisticated modeling and costing efforts undertaken in the program over the past few years. Bioethanol could cost anywhere from $1.16 to $1.44 per gallon, depending on the technology and the availability of low cost feedstocks for conversion to ethanol. While this cost range opens the door to fuel blending opportunities, in which ethanol can be used, for example, to improve the octane rating of gasoline, it is not currently competitive with gasoline as a bulk fuel. Research strategies and goals described in this paper have been translated into cost savings for ethanol. Our analysis of these goals shows that the cost of ethanol could drop by 40 cents per gallon over the next ten years by taking advantage of exciting new tools in biotechnology that will improve yield and performance in the conversion process.

  13. Study of device mass production capability of the character projection based electron beam direct writing process technology toward 14 nm node and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Yasushi; Takakuwa, Masaki; Ohshio, Shuzo; Sugatani, Shinji; Tujimura, Ryo; Takita, Hiroshi; Ogino, Kozo; Hoshino, Hiromi; Ito, Yoshio; Miyajima, Masaaki; Kon, Jun-ichi

    2012-03-01

    Techniques to appropriately control the key factors for a character projection (CP) based electron beam direct writing (EBDW) technology for mass production are shown and discussed. In order to achieve accurate CD control, the CP technique using the master CP is adopted. Another CP technique, the Packed CP, is used to obtain suitable shot count. For the alignment on the some critical layers which have the normally an even surface, the alignment methodology differ from photolithography is required. The process that etches the SiO2 material in the shallow trench isolation is added and then the alignment marks can be detected using electron beam even at the gate layer, which is normally on an even surface. The proximity effect correction using the simplified electron energy flux model and the hybrid exposure are used to obtain enough process margins. As a result, the sufficient CD accuracy, overlay accuracy, and yield are obtained on the 65 nm node device. The condition in our system is checked using self-diagnosis on a regular basis, and scheduled maintenances have been properly performed. Due to the proper system control, more than 10,000 production wafers have been successfully exposed so far without any major system downtime. It is shown that those techniques can be adapted to the 32 nm node production with slight modifications. For the 14 nm node and beyond, however, the drastic increment of the shot count becomes more of a concern. The Multi column cell (MCC) exposure method, the key concept of which is the parallelization of the electron beam columns with a CP, can overcome this concern. It is expected that by using the MCC exposure system, those techniques will be applicable to the rapid establishment for the 14 nm node technology.

  14. An Investigation of the Effect of Production Rate Variation on Direct Labor Requirements for Missile Production Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    Model Coefficient Variability Modelo B0 as0 1 A81 a Model Reduced Full (%) Reduced Full (%) 2 1 1775 1882 6 -.20 -.19 -5 -.04 2 1863 1890 1.4...logarithms. Analysis of the data is begun by calculating and printing the Pearson correlation coefficients of the three variables: direct labor...hh44444ehe4ŔH4 M2K 233K PART 1I - PEARSON CORREATION COEFFICIENTS AN RECRESSIMN ANALTSIS 23IK CALCILATE AN PRINT PEESGE CORRLATION COEFFICIENTS 2363

  15. Getting Out of Orbit: Water Recycling Requirements and Technology Needs for Long Duration Missions Away from Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Deep-space crewed missions will not have regular access to the Earth's resources or the ability to rapidly return to Earth if a system fails. As crewed missions extend farther from Earth for longer periods, habitation systems must become more self-sufficient and reliable for safe, healthy, and sustainable human exploration. For human missions to Mars, Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) must be able operate for up to 1,100 days with minimal spares and consumables. These missions will require capabilities to more fully recycle atmospheric gases and wastewater to substantially reduce mission costs. Even with relatively austere requirements for use, water represents one of the largest consumables by mass. Systems must be available to extract and recycle water from all sources of waste. And given that there will be no opportunity to send samples back to Earth for analysis, analytical measurements will be limited to monitoring hardware brought on board the spacecraft. The Earth Reliant phase of NASA's exploration strategy includes leveraging the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate advanced capabilities for a robust and reliable ECLSS. The ISS Water Recovery System (WRS) includes a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) for distillation and recovery of water from urine and a Water Processor Assembly (WPA) to process humidity condensate and urine distillate into potable water. Possible enhancements to more fully "close the water loop" include recovery of water from waste brines and solid wastes. A possible game changer is the recovery of water from local planetary resources through use of In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) technologies. As part of the development and demonstration sequence, NASA intends to utilize cis-Lunar space as a Proving Ground to verify systems for deep space habitation by conducting extended duration missions to validate our readiness for Mars.

  16. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  17. Improving the safety of health information technology requires shared responsibility: It is time we all step up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittig, Dean F; Belmont, Elisabeth; Singh, Hardeep

    2017-07-14

    In 2011, an Institute of Medicine report on health information technology (IT) and patient safety highlighted that building health-IT for safer use is a shared responsibility between key stakeholders including: "vendors, care providers, healthcare organizations, health-IT departments, and public and private agencies". Use of electronic health records (EHRs) involves all these stakeholders, but they often have conflicting priorities and requirements. Since 2011, the concept of shared responsibility has gained little traction and EHR developers and users continue to attribute the substantial, long list of problems to each other. In this article, we discuss how these key stakeholders have complementary roles in improving EHR safety and must share responsibility to improve the current state of EHR use. We use real-world safety examples and outline a comprehensive shared responsibility approach to help guide development of future rules, regulations, and standards for EHR usability, interoperability and security as outlined in the 21st Century Cures Act. This approach clearly defines the responsibilities of each party and helps create appropriate measures for success. National and international policymakers must facilitate the local organizational and socio-political climate to stimulate the adoption of shared responsibility principles. When all major stakeholders are sharing responsibility, we will be more likely to usher in a new age of progress and innovation related to health IT. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Direct or Directed: Orchestrating a More Harmonious Approach to Teaching Technology within an Art & Design Higher Education Curriculum with Special Reference to Visual Communications Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Lindsey; Meachem, Lester

    2007-01-01

    In this scoping study we have investigated the integration of subject-specific software into the structure of visual communications courses. There is a view that the response within visual communications courses to the rapid developments in technology has been linked to necessity rather than by design. Through perceptions of staff with day-to-day…

  19. Raldh expression in embryos of the direct developing frog Eleutherodactylus coqui and the conserved retinoic acid requirement for forelimb initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elinson, Richard P; Walton, Zachary; Nath, Kimberly

    2008-11-15

    Embryos of the direct developing frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui, provide opportunities to examine frog early limb development that are not available in species with tadpoles. We cloned two retinaldehyde dehydrogenase genes, EcRaldh1 and EcRaldh2, to see which enzyme likely supplies retinoic acid for limb development. EcRaldh1 is expressed in the dorsal retina, otic vesicle, pronephros, and pronephric duct, but not in the limb. EcRaldh2 is expressed early at the blastoporal lip and then in the mesoderm in the neurula, so this expression could function in forelimb initiation. Later EcRaldh2 is expressed in the mesoderm at the base of the limbs and in the ventral spinal cord where motor neurons innervating the limbs emerge. These observations on a frog support the functional conservation of EcRaldh2 in forelimb initiation in Osteichthyans and in limb patterning and motor neuron specification in tetrapods.

  20. Direct interaction of FliX and FlbD is required for their regulatory activity in Caulobacter crescentus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutton Rachel J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The temporal and spatial expression of late flagellar genes in Caulobacter crescentus is activated by the transcription factor FlbD and its partner trans-acting factor FliX. The physical interaction of these two proteins represents an alternative mechanism for regulating the activity of σ54 transcription factors. This study is to characterize the interaction of the two proteins and the consequences of the interaction on their regulatory activity. Results FliX and FlbD form stable complexes, which can stand the interference of 2.65 M NaCl. The stability of FliX and FlbD was affected by the co-existence of each other. Five FliX mutants (R71A, L85K, Δ117-118, T130L, and L136K were created by site-directed mutagenesis in conserved regions of the protein. All mutants were successfully expressed in both wild-type and ΔfliX Caulobacter strains. All but FliXL85K could rescue the motility and cell division defects of a ΔfliX mutant strain. The ability of FliX to regulate the transcription of class II and class III/IV flagellar promoters was fully diminished due to the L85K mutation. Co-immunoprecipitation experiment revealed that FliXL85K was unable to physically interact with FlbD. Conclusions FliX interacts with FlbD and thereby directly regulates the activity of FlbD in response to flagellar assembly. Mutations in highly conserved regions of FliX could severely affect the recognition between FliX and FlbD and hence interrupt the normal progression of flagellar synthesis and other developmental events in Caulobacter.

  1. Direct type I IFN but not MDA5/TLR3 activation of dendritic cells is required for maturation and metabolic shift to glycolysis after poly IC stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Pantel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Type I interferons (IFNs play an important role in direct antiviral defense as well as linking the innate and adaptive immune responses. On dendritic cells (DCs, IFNs facilitate their activation and contribute to CD8(+ and CD4(+ T cell priming. However, the precise molecular mechanism by which IFNs regulate maturation and immunogenicity of DCs in vivo has not been studied in depth. Here we show that, after in vivo stimulation with the TLR ligand poly IC, IFNs dominate transcriptional changes in DCs. In contrast to direct TLR3/mda5 signaling, IFNs are required for upregulation of all pathways associated with DC immunogenicity. In addition, metabolic pathways, particularly the switch from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis, are also regulated by IFNs and required for DC maturation. These data provide evidence for a metabolic reprogramming concomitant with DC maturation and offer a novel mechanism by which IFNs modulate DC maturation.

  2. Remotely-Supervised Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS for Clinical Trials: Guidelines for Technology and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh E Charvet

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is cumulative. Treatment protocols typically require multiple consecutive sessions spanning weeks or months. However, traveling to clinic for a tDCS session can present an obstacle to subjects and their caregivers. With modified devices and headgear, tDCS treatment can be administered remotely under clinical supervision, potentially enhancing recruitment, throughput, and convenience. Here we propose standards and protocols for clinical trials utilizing remotely-supervised tDCS with the goal of providing safe, reproducible and well-tolerated stimulation therapy outside of the clinic. The recommendations include: 1 training of staff in tDCS treatment and supervision, 2 assessment of the user’s capability to participate in tDCS remotely, 3 ongoing training procedures and materials including assessments of the user and/or caregiver, 4 simple and fail-safe electrode preparation techniques and tDCS headgear, 5 strict dose control for each session, 6 ongoing monitoring to quantify compliance (device preparation, electrode saturation/placement, stimulation protocol, with corresponding corrective steps as required, 7 monitoring for treatment-emergent adverse effects, 8 guidelines for discontinuation of a session and/or study participation including emergency failsafe procedures tailored to the treatment population’s level of need. These guidelines are intended to provide a minimal level of methodological rigor for clinical trials seeking to apply tDCS outside a specialized treatment center. We outline indication-specific applications (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Depression, Multiple Sclerosis, Palliative Care following these recommendations that support a standardized framework for evaluating the tolerability and reproducibility of remote-supervised tDCS that, once established, will allow for translation of tDCS clinical trials to a greater size and range of patient populations.

  3. A Pre-mRNA-splicing factor is required for RNA-directed DNA methylation in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Feng Huang

    Full Text Available Cytosine DNA methylation is a stable epigenetic mark that is frequently associated with the silencing of genes and transposable elements (TEs. In Arabidopsis, the establishment of DNA methylation is through the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM pathway. Here, we report the identification and characterization of RDM16, a new factor in the RdDM pathway. Mutation of RDM16 reduced the DNA methylation levels and partially released the silencing of a reporter gene as well as some endogenous genomic loci in the DNA demethylase ros1-1 mutant background. The rdm16 mutant had morphological defects and was hypersensitive to salt stress and abscisic acid (ABA. Map-based cloning and complementation test led to the identification of RDM16, which encodes a pre-mRNA-splicing factor 3, a component of the U4/U6 snRNP. RNA-seq analysis showed that 308 intron retention events occurred in rdm16, confirming that RDM16 is involved in pre-mRNA splicing in planta. RNA-seq and mRNA expression analysis also revealed that the RDM16 mutation did not affect the pre-mRNA splicing of known RdDM genes, suggesting that RDM16 might be directly involved in RdDM. Small RNA expression analysis on loci showing RDM16-dependent DNA methylation suggested that unlike the previously reported putative splicing factor mutants, rdm16 did not affect small RNA levels; instead, the rdm16 mutation caused a decrease in the levels of Pol V transcripts. ChIP assays revealed that RDM16 was enriched at some Pol V target loci. Our results suggest that RDM16 regulates DNA methylation through influencing Pol V transcript levels. Finally, our genome-wide DNA methylation analysis indicated that RDM16 regulates the overall methylation of TEs and gene-surrounding regions, and preferentially targets Pol IV-dependent DNA methylation loci and the ROS1 target loci. Our work thus contributes to the understanding of RdDM and its interactions with active DNA demethylation.

  4. Consumers' Understanding of FDA Approval Requirements and Composite Scores in Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Print Ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Amie C; Sullivan, Helen W; Williams, Pamela A; Squire, Claudia; Betts, Kevin R; Fitts Willoughby, Jessica; Parvanta, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    In 2 studies, we investigated how laypersons perceive the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval process, FDA authority, and the presentation of composite scores in direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug print ads. The 1st study consisted of 4 focus groups (N = 38) in 2 cities. Using a semi-structured guide, a moderator led participants through the viewing of 3 existing DTC print ads that differed in the presence or absence of composite score information, and participants discussed their views of the ads and their understanding of composite scores. The 2nd study surveyed a nationally representative sample of 1,629 individuals from the general population who saw a fictitious DTC print ad and answered closed-ended questions about the same topics. Results showed that knowledge of FDA approval and authority was mixed, with several misconceptions apparent. Many consumers were not familiar with the use of composite scores in a medical context or in advertising and, in the 1st study, expressed distrust of the product and the ad after learning about how composite scores are used. In the 2nd study, receiving composite score information changed the perceived clarity of the ad but not the perceived risk or benefits. Implications for the presentation of complex medical information are discussed.

  5. Twelve-bit 20-GHz reduced size pipeline accumulator in 0.25 µm SiGe:C technology for direct digital synthesiser applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Brian Sveistrup; Khafaji, M. Mahdi; Johansen, Tom Keinicke

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a 20 GHz, 12-bit pipeline accumulator with a reduced number of registers, suitable for direct digital synthesizer (DDS) applications. The accumulator is implemented in the IHP SG25H1 (0.25um) SiGe:C technology featuring heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBT) with Ft/Fmax o...

  6. Toward Understanding the Role of Web 2.0 Technology in Self-Directed Learning and Job Performance in a Single Organizational Setting: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Shirley J.

    2016-01-01

    This single instrumental qualitative case study explores and thickly describes job performance outcomes based upon the manner in which self-directed learning activities of a purposefully selected sample of 3 construction managers are conducted, mediated by the use of Web 2.0 technology. The data collected revealed that construction managers are…

  7. Capturing Detailed Outcrop Geology Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning (Lidar) and Other Digital Technologies: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. R.; McCaffrey, K. J.

    2007-12-01

    Geospatial data acquisition at global to regional scales has wide acceptance, and tools such as Google Earth have been instrumental in extending Earth visualisation far beyond specialist users of GIS and satellite imagery. At the outcrop scale, the number of industry and academic geoscientists adopting digital technologies to gather field data is steadily increasing. When integrated with traditional field skills, these technologies offer two fundamental advantages: firstly, outcrop geology can now be recorded with very high detail and precision; secondly, observations and data are precisely georeferenced, which is a prerequisite for 2D and 3D spatial analysis. Digital outcrop data are being used in a wide variety of ways, many of which can be characterised in terms of two end members. Firstly, using methods such as terrestrial laser scanning and digital photogrammetry, it is possible to create highly realistic virtual copies of the outcrop. These virtual outcrop models can be used to great effect to enhance teaching, to provide virtual field-trips (most effective in conjunction with a real visit to the outcrop), to promote group discussion and interpretation, or as part of Health & Safety briefing. Secondly, digital outcrop data is also being used to derive quantitative attribute measurements from specific geological features. Here the emphasis is not on capturing a photo-realistic copy of the outcrop, but rather on gathering the relevant types of data at the most appropriate resolution and geospatial precision for the type of analysis undertaken. In addition to laser scanning, useful technologies include dGPS, laser range-finding, and Total Station surveying. Examples of this kind of quantitative analysis include fault curvature, roughness, branch-line geometry, spatial variation in fault displacement, fracture spacing and 3D spatial clustering, fold curvature, sedimentary channel morphology, lateral and vertical facies variations, and geomorphological analysis of

  8. VHA mental health information system: applying health information technology to monitor and facilitate implementation of VHA Uniform Mental Health Services Handbook requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trafton, Jodie A; Greenberg, Greg; Harris, Alex H S; Tavakoli, Sara; Kearney, Lisa; McCarthy, John; Blow, Fredric; Hoff, Rani; Schohn, Mary

    2013-03-01

    To describe the design and deployment of health information technology to support implementation of mental health services policy requirements in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Using administrative and self-report survey data, we developed and fielded metrics regarding implementation of the requirements delineated in the VHA Uniform Mental Health Services Handbook. Finalized metrics were incorporated into 2 external facilitation-based quality improvement programs led by the VHA Mental Health Operations. To support these programs, tailored site-specific reports were generated. Metric development required close collaboration between program evaluators, policy makers and clinical leadership, and consideration of policy language and intent. Electronic reports supporting different purposes required distinct formatting and presentation features, despite their having similar general goals and using the same metrics. Health information technology can facilitate mental health policy implementation but must be integrated into a process of consensus building and close collaboration with policy makers, evaluators, and practitioners.

  9. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  10. Information science and the scientist. A look at information requirements and the technologies available to scientists in the pursuit of information

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    A review article looking at the type of information requirements commonly shared by scientists and their use of traditional information services. Areas covered include primary requirements of IFE (Institute of Freshwater Ecology) staff, pure versus applied research, informal and personal sources of information, and traditional library and information services. It goes on to describe how research into information systems and technology may improve the wider accessibility and use of information...

  11. DIRECTIONS OF PREPARATION OF FUTURE TEACHERS TO THE USE OF DISTANCE LEARNING TECHNOLOGIES IN PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITY (PRAXIOLOGICAL ASPECT OF THE ACTIVITY APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana A. Boronenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to demonstrate the need of preparing future teachers to use distance learning technologies in the professional activities. Introduction in educational process of distance learning technologies contributes to improving the quality of education. Methods. The authors’ technique of preparation of students of pedagogical specialities to work in the information-educational environment is designed on the basis of the analysis and generalisation of numerous scientific publications. Results. The system of training to implementation of the distance learning technologies in the teaching activity is developed and described, consisting of the following directions: realisation within the program of the principal educational program of specialised training courses in variable-based curriculum parts; the organisation of educational and research activity of students with the use of distance learning technologies; classroom-based and extracurricular independent work of students directed to designing of teaching and learning aids and materials on the basis of distance learning technologies; application of elements of distance learning technologies for students’ teaching; attraction of students to formation of corpus of multimedia educational resources of university. The purposes, the content and expected results of each direction are specified. Scientific novelty. The authors point out that concrete scientifically wellfounded methodical recommendations for the future teachers on implementation of distance learning technologies haven’t been presented in the Russian literature till now; despite an abundance of scientifically-information sources of distance learning technologies and sufficiently high-leveled degree knowledge of the issues of its efficiency in educational activity, conditions of introduction of such technologies in high school, construction of models of distance training. Authors of article have tried to close this

  12. Directed technical change and the adoption of CO2 abatement technology: The case of CO2 capture and storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otto, V.M.; Reilly, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the cost-effectiveness of combining traditional environmental policy, such as CO2-trading schemes, and technology policy that has aims of reducing the cost and speeding the adoption of CO2 abatement technology. For this purpose, we develop a dynamic general equilibrium model that

  13. Directed technical change and the adoption of CO2 abatement technology: The case of CO2 capture and storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otto, V.M.; Reilly, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the cost-effectiveness of combining traditional environmental policy, such as CO2-trading schemes, and technology policy that has aims of reducing the cost and speeding the adoption of CO2 abatement technology. For this purpose, we develop a dynamic general equilibrium model that

  14. The Effect of Recent and Futuristic Changes in Cotton Production Technology on Direct and Fixed Costs Per Acre, Mississippi, 2004

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of genetically modified seed technology dramatically changed cotton production practices. Production systems based on reduced tillage and BtRR varieties improved net returns by $47.35 per acre (53%) when compared to systems based on conventional tillage and non-transgenic varieties. The impact of other technology induced changes are reported.

  15. Assessment of the portable radiophone users' exposure to electromagnetic fields, with use of numerical simulations and Directive 2013/35/EU requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patryk Zradziński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The assessment of electromagnetic field distribution near radiophones and their use warranted an analysis of thermal exposure hazards and related health effects, based on i.e. numerical calculations of specific energy absorption rate (SAR. Materials and Methods: The investigation concerned radiophones of conventional and trunked communication systems. Electromagnetic hazards assessment involved numerical simulations of SAR inside users' models (male and female for 5 radiophones locations - near the ear, arm, chest, hip and face. Results: Maximum SAR (10 g values depend on radiophone type, output power and locations. Near the chest, hip and face they are 6-, 2- and 2-fold higher than for location near the ear. SAR (10 g may exceed Directive 2013/35/EU limits at maximum (4 W output power of conventional radiophones, and the distance between antenna and worker's body shorter than 5 cm. SAR (10 g values near trunked radiophones do not exceed 35% of the Directive limits. The Polish safety and health regulations in particular cases of radiophones use and local exposure may not guarantee the compliance with Directive 2013/35/EU requirements, i.e. SAR (10 g may locally exceed exposure limit values (ELVs during exposure to electromagnetic fields of hazardous, and even intermediate zones. Conclusions: It was demonstrated that exposure of trunked radiophones users does not exceed the limits laid down in the Polish safety and health regulations and Directive 2013/35/EU, however, in particular scenarios of the conventional radiophones use overexposure can be observed. The results showed that in exposure to electromagnetic field emitted by sources located near workers' body there is a need for more detailed analysis of the compliance of Polish safety and health regulations with Directive 2013/35/EU requirements. Med Pr 2013;64(6:817–827

  16. Personal radiation detector at a high technology readiness level that satisfies DARPA’s SN-13-47 and SIGMA program requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzburg, D., E-mail: dimgiz@rotemi.co.il [Radiation Detection Department, Rotem Industries Ltd. (Israel); Knafo, Y.; Manor, A. [Radiation Detection Department, Rotem Industries Ltd. (Israel); Seif, R.; Ghelman, M. [Electronics & Control Laboratories, Nuclear Research Center, Negev, Beersheba (Israel); Ellenbogen, M.; Pushkarsky, V. [Radiation Detection Department, Rotem Industries Ltd. (Israel); Ifergan, Y. [Electronics & Control Laboratories, Nuclear Research Center, Negev, Beersheba (Israel); Semyonov, N. [Radiation Detection Department, Rotem Industries Ltd. (Israel); Wengrowicz, U.; Mazor, T.; Kadmon, Y.; Cohen, Y. [Electronics & Control Laboratories, Nuclear Research Center, Negev, Beersheba (Israel); Osovizky, A. [Radiation Detection Department, Rotem Industries Ltd. (Israel)

    2015-06-01

    There is a need to develop new personal radiation detector (PRD) technologies that can be mass produced. On August 2013, DARPA released a request for information (RFI) seeking innovative radiation detection technologies. In addition, on December 2013, a Broad Agency Announcement (BAA) for the SIGMA program was released. The RFI requirements focused on a sensor that should possess three main properties: low cost, high compactness and radioisotope identification capabilities. The identification performances should facilitate the detection of a hidden threat, ranging from special nuclear materials (SNM) to commonly used radiological sources. Subsequently, the BAA presented the specific requirements at an instrument level and provided a comparison between the current market status (state-of-the-art) and the SIGMA program objectives. This work presents an optional alternative for both the detection technology (sensor with communication output and without user interface) for DARPA’s initial RFI and for the PRD required by the SIGMA program. A broad discussion is dedicated to the method proposed to fulfill the program objectives and to the selected alternative that is based on the PDS-GO design and technology. The PDS-GO is the first commercially available PRD that is based on a scintillation crystal optically coupled with a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM), a solid-state light sensor. This work presents the current performance of the instrument and possible future upgrades based on recent technological improvements in the SiPM design. The approach of utilizing the SiPM with a commonly available CsI(Tl) crystal is the key for achieving the program objectives. This approach provides the appropriate performance, low cost, mass production and small dimensions; however, it requires a creative approach to overcome the obstacles of the solid-state detector dark current (noise) and gain stabilization over a wide temperature range. Based on the presented results, we presume that

  17. Direct interaction of FtsZ and MreB is required for septum synthesis and cell division in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Andrew K; Gerdes, Kenn

    2013-07-03

    How bacteria coordinate cell growth with division is not well understood. Bacterial cell elongation is controlled by actin-MreB while cell division is governed by tubulin-FtsZ. A ring-like structure containing FtsZ (the Z ring) at mid-cell attracts other cell division proteins to form the divisome, an essential protein assembly required for septum synthesis and cell separation. The Z ring exists at mid-cell during a major part of the cell cycle without contracting. Here, we show that MreB and FtsZ of Escherichia coli interact directly and that this interaction is required for Z ring contraction. We further show that the MreB-FtsZ interaction is required for transfer of cell-wall biosynthetic enzymes from the lateral to the mature divisome, allowing cells to synthesise the septum. Our observations show that bacterial cell division is coupled to cell elongation via a direct and essential interaction between FtsZ and MreB.

  18. Determining Consistency of Tillage Direction with Soil Erosion Protection Requirements as The Element of Decision-Making Process in Planning and Applying Land Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozek, Piotr; Janus, Jaroslaw; Taszakowski, Jaroslaw; Glowacka, Agnieszka

    2016-10-01

    boundaries, it is impossible to adapt the direction of cultivation to the requirements of protection against erosion.

  19. Research on Directional Gas Drainage Technology in Coal Mine%煤矿井下瓦斯定向抽采钻孔技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白凤妮

    2013-01-01

    钻孔抽采煤矿井下瓦斯,是我国煤矿业高效治理、预防瓦斯灾害的重要措施。为深入探讨井下瓦斯定向抽采钻孔技术在提高煤矿安全性中的关键作用,笔者以概述井下瓦斯预抽技术为出发点,分析了扇形布孔、倾向布孔、常规钻孔布孔的具体内容,并在此基础上,全面介绍了井下瓦斯定向抽采钻孔技术,诸如顺层瓦斯钻孔布置技术、井下瓦斯穿层抽采技术与井下瓦斯钻孔施工技术,以及定向钻进系统的主要内容。%Draining mine gas with drilling is an important measure of high effetively controlling and preventing gas disasters in Chinese coal industry. In order to further discuss the key role of the drilling technology in underground gas directional drainage in improving safety in coal mines,the author takes an overview of underground gas pre-pumping technology as a starting point, analyzes the fan-shaped holes inclined hole arrangement, the specific content of the conventional drill hole arrangement, and on this basis, comprehensively introductes direct underground gas pumping mining drilling technology, such as: bedding gas drilling layout technology, the underground gas wear layer technology and underground gas drainage drilling construction technology, as well as main content of the directional drilling system.

  20. 3D technology of Sony Bloggie has no advantage in decision-making of tennis serve direction: A randomized placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sicong; Ritchie, Jason; Sáenz-Moncaleano, Camilo; Ward, Savanna K; Paulsen, Cody; Klein, Tyler; Gutierrez, Oscar; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed at exploring whether 3D technology enhances tennis decision-making under the conceptual framework of human performance model. A 3 (skill-level: varsity, club, recreational) × 3 (experimental condition: placebo, weak 3D [W3D], strong 3D [S3D]) between-participant design was used. Allocated to experimental conditions by a skill-level stratified randomization, 105 tennis players judged tennis serve direction from video scenarios and rated their perceptions of enjoyment, flow, and presence during task performance. Results showed that varsity players made more accurate decisions than less skilled ones. Additionally, applying 3D technology to typical video displays reduced tennis players' decision-making accuracy, although wearing the 3D glasses led to a placebo effect that shortened the decision-making reaction time. The unexpected negative effect of 3D technology on decision-making was possibly due to participants being more familiar to W3D than to S3D, and relatedly, a suboptimal task-technology match. Future directions for advancing this area of research are offered. Highlights 3D technology augments binocular depth cues to tradition video displays, and thus results in the attainment of more authentic visual representation. This process enhances task fidelity in researching perceptual-cognitive skills in sports. The paper clarified both conceptual and methodological difficulties in testing 3D technology in sports settings. Namely, the nomenclature of video footage (with/without 3D technology) and the possible placebo effect (arising from wearing glasses of 3D technology) merit researchers' attention. Participants varying in level of domain-specific expertise were randomized into viewing conditions using a placebo-controlled design. Measurement consisted of both participants' subjective experience (i.e., presence, flow, and enjoyment) and objective performance (i.e., accuracy and reaction time) in a decision-making task. Findings revealed that

  1. 滚动体加工工艺技术与装备发展方向%Machining Process Technology and Development Direction of Equipment for Rolling Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永乾

    2015-01-01

    The machining process technology and equipment are introduced for rolling elements in China,and the cur-rent situation and existing main problems about machining process for rolling elements in China are analyzed.The de-velopment direction of machining process technology for rolling elements is discussed.%通过对国内滚动体加工工艺技术及装备的介绍,分析了我国滚动体加工工艺现状及存在的主要问题,探讨了滚动体加工工艺技术的发展方向。

  2. Goal-Directed Fluid Therapy Using Stroke Volume Variation Does Not Result in Pulmonary Fluid Overload in Thoracic Surgery Requiring One-Lung Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Haas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Goal-directed fluid therapy (GDT guided by functional parameters of preload, such as stroke volume variation (SVV, seems to optimize hemodynamics and possibly improves clinical outcome. However, this strategy is believed to be rather fluid aggressive, and, furthermore, during surgery requiring thoracotomy, the ability of SVV to predict volume responsiveness has raised some controversy. So far it is not known whether GDT is associated with pulmonary fluid overload and a deleterious reduction in pulmonary function in thoracic surgery requiring one-lung-ventilation (OLV. Therefore, we assessed the perioperative course of extravascular lung water index (EVLWI and paO2/FiO2-ratio during and after thoracic surgery requiring lateral thoracotomy and OLV to evaluate the hypothesis that fluid therapy guided by SVV results in pulmonary fluid overload. Methods. A total of 27 patients (group T were enrolled in this prospective study with 11 patients undergoing lung surgery (group L and 16 patients undergoing esophagectomy (group E. Goal-directed fluid management was guided by SVV (SVV 0.05 in EVLWI during the observation period (BL: 7.8 ± 2.5, 24postop: 8.1 ± 2.4 mL/kg. A subgroup analysis for group L and group E also did not reveal significant changes of EVLWI. The paO2/FiO2-ratio decreased significantly during the observation period (group L: BL: 462 ± 140, OLVterm15: 338 ± 112 mmHg; group E: BL: 389 ± 101, 24postop: 303 ± 74 mmHg but remained >300 mmHg except during OLV. Conclusions. SVV-guided fluid management in thoracic surgery requiring lateral thoracotomy and one-lung ventilation does not result in pulmonary fluid overload. Although oxygenation was reduced, pulmonary function remained within a clinically acceptable range.

  3. Federal technology transfer requirements :a focused study of principal agencies approaches with implications for the Department of Homeland Security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koker, Denise; Micheau, Jill M.

    2006-07-01

    This report provides relevant information and analysis to the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) that will assist DHS in determining how to meet the requirements of federal technology transfer legislation. These legal requirements are grouped into five categories: (1) establishing an Office of Research and Technology Applications, or providing the functions thereof; (2) information management; (3) enabling agreements with non-federal partners; (4) royalty sharing; and (5) invention ownership/obligations. These five categories provide the organizing framework for this study, which benchmarks other federal agencies/laboratories engaged in technology transfer/transition Four key agencies--the Department of Health & Human Services (HHS), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Department of Energy (DOE), and the Department of Defense (DoD)--and several of their laboratories have been surveyed. An analysis of DHS's mission needs for commercializing R&D compared to those agencies/laboratories is presented with implications and next steps for DHS's consideration. Federal technology transfer legislation, requirements, and practices have evolved over the decades as agencies and laboratories have grown more knowledgeable and sophisticated in their efforts to conduct technology transfer and as needs and opinions in the federal sector have changed with regards to what is appropriate. The need to address requirements in a fairly thorough manner has, therefore, resulted in a lengthy paper. There are two ways to find summary information. Each chapter concludes with a summary, and there is an overall ''Summary and Next Steps'' chapter on pages 57-60. For those readers who are unable to read the entire document, we recommend referring to these pages.

  4. Development of superconductor application technology - Fabrication of superconducting plate using tape casting and development of directional growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Kwang Soo; Yoon, Dae Sung; Lee, Joon Sung; Jun, Byung Hyuk; Woo, Sung Soo; Hong, Seung Bum; Kim, Eun Ah; Song, Han Wook [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-05-01

    This study concerns the establishment of the fabrication techniques of the high temperature superconductor tape using tape coating, the heat treatment and directional growth techniques in order to fabricate high temperature superconductor bulks having high current density. This study is important in the development of bulk high temperature superconductors and in the applications in bulk forms. Development of Tape Casting Technique : Fabrication of the high temperature superconductor tape using different processing condition. Fabrication of Y- and Bi- High Temperature Superconductor Tapes : Based on the optimum processing condition, the superconductor tapes were fabricated. Development of Directional Growth Techniques : The tapes were heat-treated at proper condition and directionally growth using different directional growth condition. The superconducting properties were tested on the directionally grown samples. 21 figs. (author)

  5. Precision Rolled-Ink Nano-Technology; Development of a Direct Write Technique for the Fabrication of Thin Films and Conductive Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    feature sizes on substrates with complex topographies like textiles , textured surfaces, and woven fiber composites. It is possible that some of the...deposition on to flat, uniform planes, and also for traversing of transitions on complex surfaces like textiles , fiber reinforced polymer composites...Today 2004, 7/8, 32–39. 5. Robinson, C.J.; Stucker, B.; et. al. Integration of Direct-Write (DW) and Ultrasonic Consolidation (UC) Technologies to

  6. [The possibilities for using anti-A, anti-B and anti-H immunoreagents obtained by new technology in direct and indirect immunofluorescence reactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iudina, G S; Zaretskaia, E F

    1999-01-01

    The authors propose to prepare group-specific immunoreagents anti-A, anti-B, and anti-H for direct and indirect immunofluorescence from non-precipitated antisera of the appropriate specificities by a new technology making use of routine bioadsorbents and synthetic oligosaccharides. The method has been developed at Research Center of Forensic Medical Expert Evaluations of the Russian Ministry of Health. The immunoreagents were tried on a vast scope of experimental and expert specimens at several institutions.

  7. A rotating directional probe for the measurements of fast ion losses and plasma rotation at Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rack, M; Liang, Y; Jaegers, H; Assmann, J; Satheeswaran, G; Xu, Y; Pearson, J; Yang, Y; Denner, P; Zeng, L

    2013-08-01

    This work discusses a new directional probe designed for measurements of fast ion losses and the plasma rotation with a high angular resolution in magnetically confined plasmas. Directional and especially Mach probes are commonly used diagnostics for plasma flow measurements, and their applicability for the fast ion losses detection has been demonstrated. A limitation of static Mach probes is their low angular resolution. At the Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research, the angular resolution is strongly restricted by the finite number of available measurement channels. In a dynamic plasma, where instabilities can lead to local changes of the field line pitch-angle, plasma flow, or fast ion losses, a low angular resolution makes a precise data analysis difficult and reduces the quality of the measured data. The new probe design, the rotating directional probe, combines the features of early directional probes and Mach probes. It consists of two radially aligned arrays of nine Langmuir probe pins with each array facing opposite directions. During the measurement the probe head rotates along its axis to measure the ion saturation current from all directions. As a result, the rotating directional probe simultaneously provides an angular dependent plasma flow and fast ion losses measurement at different radial positions. Based on the angular dependent data, a precise determination of the current density is made. In addition, the simultaneous measurement of the ion saturation current at different radial positions allows for resolving radially varying field line pitch-angles and identifying the radial dynamic of processes like fast ion losses.

  8. Higher education and second language learning promoting self-directed learning in new technological and educational contexts

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    This volume explores the challenges involved in facilitating student learning of second languages at university level. Easy access to information and communication technologies inside and outside the classroom, alongside an increasing tendency for students to play an active role in shaping their own learning, are having a significant impact on second language learning and teaching in the twenty-first century. Although several recent publications have focused on technologies in education and student-centred learning, there has been very little previous research into how second languages are lea

  9. Determining the directions of increasing the innovative potential of the region by developing innovative technologies and competences when preparing and implementing large investment projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur V. Kramin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the directions of increasing the innovative potential of a region through the development of innovative technologies and competences in the process of preparation and implementation of large investment projects in the Republic of Tatarstan. Methods methodology of project management institutional approach. Results it is proved that the main largescale directions of innovative potential development in the Republic of Tatarstan as a result of preparation and implementing of Universiade 2013 in Kazan are knowledge management information technologies risk management. It is shown that in the framework of the considered innovative areas a complete system was formed of competences of employees and managers in the fields of education trade hospitality and service. Scientific novelty the key directions were defined of increasing the innovative potential of a region through the development of innovative technologies and competences in the process of preparation and implementation of large investment projects by the example of the World Summer Student Games in Kazan in 2013. Practical significance on the basis of specific examples the authors illustrate the practiceoriented mechanism of innovative potential development of a region as a result of implementation of large investment projects. nbsp

  10. DEFINITION OF PERSPECTIVE DIRECTIONS OF TRANSFERT OF TECHNOLOGIES AT THE BASE OF SWOT-ANALYSIS OF SCIENTIFIC ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Suhovey

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes approbating at Sverdlovsk region methodic of analysis of strength and weakness sides of scientific organization. Using this methodic is give possibility to define perspective directions of foundation innovation infrastructure of region.

  11. Direct and indirect effects of nutritional status, physical function and cognitive function on activities of daily living in Japanese older adults requiring long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamo, Tomohiko; Nishida, Yuusuke

    2014-10-01

    To identify the direct and indirect effects of nutritional status, physical function, and cognitive function on activities of daily living in Japanese older adults requiring long-term care. In total, 179 participants aged ≥ 65 years who were eligible for long-term care insurance (mean age 85.5 ± 7.8 years) were recruited for this study. Nutritional status (Mini Nutritional Assessment, Short Form) and physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery) were examined. Activities of daily living, cognitive function and frailty were assessed using the Barthel Index, Mini-Mental State Examination and Clinical Frailty Scale, respectively. Path analysis was used to determine relationships between these factors and the activities of daily living. For Japanese older adults requiring long-term care, pathways were modeled for nutritional status, physical function and the activities of daily living. The total effect of nutritional status was 0.516 (Pnutritional status through physical function on the activities of daily living was 0.458 (Pnutritional status on activities of daily living was observed (b=0.058, P=0.258). The present study identified the complex pathway from nutritional status to the activities of daily living through physical function in aged Japanese people requiring long-term care. These findings suggest that maintaining good nutritional status and nutritional support might delay physical function decline, and prolong the activities of daily living. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  12. RAISING INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES COMPETENCE OF SCIENTIFIC AND PEDAGOGICAL EMPLOYEES - A KEY REQUIREMENT OF THE QUALITY OF EDUCATIONAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia V. Morze

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article it was analyzed one of the basic conditions of providing the quality of higher education according to the system of internal quality assurance standards ESG (European quality assurance standards and guidelines to increase the ICT competence of scientific-pedagogical staff of the University. It was described the modular system of training for scientific and pedagogical staff of the Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University. Special attention is paid to the description of the system of raising the level of formation the ICT competence as one of the key competences of the modern teacher. The system of professional development, which is based on creating mixed studying and technology of "flipped classroom", formative assessment, innovative educational and ICT technologies according to the specially designed informative module "Informational and communication technologies", which allows scientific-pedagogical staff to use modern ICT and educational technologies effectively for their further applying in the provision of educational services and the development of quality of open educational content and open educational e-environment available to the student at any convenient time, which will significantly improve the quality of the educational process.

  13. 加固技术的新方向——纳米加固技术%The New Direction for the Reinforcement Technology ——Nano-reinforcement Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨平

    2001-01-01

    The research situation of the reinforcement technology, especi ally the reinforc ement technology of resisting impact and attenuating vibration is reviewed in t his paper. In the meantime, the research situation and the future of nano-techn ology are summarized. The new direction of reinforcement technology-nano-reinforceme nt technology is proposed , and the research category,the key point, the execute route and developmen step of the new direction are discussed%对加固技术特别是抗振冲加固技术的研究现状进行了总结;阐述了当前纳米技术的 研究发展现状,提出加固技术的新方向——纳米加固技术,探讨了纳米加固技术范畴、关键 技术、实现途径并对其发展步骤进行了预测。

  14. System Requirements Analysis and Technological Support for the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) - FY07 Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    formal requirement for a distributed-system protocol ( leader election ) operating with non- ideal communication links. The proof-of-concept prototype is as...in OMNeT++ Figure 5 shows the top-level statechart of a leader election (LE) module. The top-level statechart consists of four states, the...component under test using events, time, and data information specified in the component. The likelihood of success of the leader - election requirement

  15. Analysis on requirement and development of space propulsion technology%空间推进技术需求与发展分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩泉东; 洪鑫; 周海清

    2012-01-01

    在分析国内外空间推进技术(内容涵盖了星、船、弹、箭、器等领域)现状的基础上,梳理了空间推进技术的发展趋势和对我国的启示。在对未来任务和技术需求分析的基础上,对空间推进技术的发展趋势进行了预测,对存在的差距进行了分析,提出了发展思路和重点发展方向建议。%Based on the analysis of the current situation of space propulsion technology in the world,the development trend of space propulsion technology is summarized and the enlightenment for the technology development in China is shown.According to the spacecraft development requirements in China in the future,the development trend of space propulsion technology is predicted and the technology gap between homeland and overseas are analyzed.Some development ideas and suggestions,to which the first priority should be given,are proposed.

  16. Directions of scientific literature in knowledge management from the perspective of their relationships with innovation, information and technology management

    OpenAIRE

    Ligia Maria Moura Madeira; Thais Elaine Vick; Marcelo Seido Nagano

    2013-01-01

    Given the establishment of new journals as a way to fill in gaps and further studies in the area of Knowledge Management and the impact Knowledge Management has had for two decades as a tool for competitive advantage, the aim of the study was to point out tendencies and discuss academic production in Knowledge Management over the years. As the focus of discussion, the article analyzes the relationship of Knowledge Management between Innovation Management, Technology Management and Information...

  17. N2Vision technology application for direct identification of commercial hydrocarbons in Trenton-Black River Formations of Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agou, S. [Productive Geoscience Exploration Inc., Whitby, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    N2Vision seismic signal interpretation technology has been used to evaluate the petroleum and natural gas potential in the Trenton-Black River (TBR) formations of Ontario. The technology was developed in Russia in the 1980s to solve complex problems in frontier exploration. The N2Vision neural networks algorithm is a multilayer feed-forward neural network (MFFN) for pattern recognition and is based on data from existing wells collected over 20 years of method application. The algorithm recognizes hydrocarbons by establishing relationships between all attributes of the seismic field and data from existing wells. In Ontario, the algorithm was trained on data from many productive and non-productive wells from the researched and adjacent fields, as well as on seismic patterns of geological features obtained from the Yurubchen-Tokhom oil field in easter Siberia. The 2D seismic data was collected by different companies. It targeted shallower horizons and had non-consistent quality. The results of N2Vision were shown to be well correlated with the objective data. The common geological features of southern Ontario, Yurubchen field and the Baltic Syneclise were presented in this paper. All 3 regions are found in specific geodynamically prestressed and heated up zones that are represented primarily by shallow carbonates, leaching dolomites and highly permeable reservoirs with vertical fracturing. This paper demonstrated that the technology can greatly reduce the risk of selecting drilling locations, while significantly decreasing the cost of hydrocarbon exploration. tabs., figs.

  18. Directions of scientific literature in knowledge management from the perspective of their relationships with innovation, information and technology management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Maria Moura Madeira

    Full Text Available Given the establishment of new journals as a way to fill in gaps and further studies in the area of Knowledge Management and the impact Knowledge Management has had for two decades as a tool for competitive advantage, the aim of the study was to point out tendencies and discuss academic production in Knowledge Management over the years. As the focus of discussion, the article analyzes the relationship of Knowledge Management between Innovation Management, Technology Management and Information Management. The source material for mapping academic output was ten international journals, which were selected from 2006 to 2012, obtaining an initial sample of 2,900 papers. The systematic search was conducted to identify which relationships are more predominant in the journals selected. Through the analysis of relationships in publications within the time interval established, it was found that the relationship between Knowledge Management and Technology Management appears much more frequently in all publications over the years. The relationship between Knowledge Management and Technology Management decreased significantly in recent years. In contrast, there was an increase in papers discussing Knowledge Management and Innovation Management.

  19. A Study on: Exploring U.S. Missile Defense Requirements in 2010: What Are the Policy and Technology Challenges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    military offi- cers, law enforcement personnel, and organized crime groups are willing to engage in illegal activ- ities for a price. This willingness...Interview with Gennady G. Yanpolsky, "A New Era for Russian Defense Export," Military Technology, December 1995, p. 33. Vago Muradian, "Russia Wants...34 that have hindered ballistic missile devel- opment in the past. For example, rocket- society papers on staging problems, discussions on guid- ance

  20. Application of nanodisc technology for direct electrochemical investigation of plant cytochrome P450s and their NADPH P450 oxidoreductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bavishi, Krutika; Laursen, Tomas; Martinez, Karen Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Direct electrochemistry of cytochrome P450 containing systems has primarily focused on investigating enzymes from microbes and animals for bio-sensing applications. Plant P450s receive electrons from NADPH P450 oxidoreductase (POR) to orchestrate the bio-synthesis of a plethora of commercially...... was electro-catalytically active while the P450s generated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). These nanodisc-based investigations lay the prospects and guidelines for construction of a simplified platform to perform mediator-free, direct electrochemistry of non-engineered cytochromes P450 under native-like conditions...

  1. Foreign direct investment and technology spillovers in low and middle-income countries : a comparative cross-sectoral analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacob, J.; Sasso, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the trends in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) flows worldwide across sectors and across value-chain activities, with a particular focus on low- and middle-income countries in comparison with advanced countries. We begin by discussing the growing fragmentation of global produ

  2. Effects of Project-Based Learning Strategy on Self-Directed Learning Skills of Educational Technology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Mohsen; Ali, Wan Zah Wan; Abdullah, Maria Chong Binti; Daud, Shaffe Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Given the importance of globalization as well as the need to train skilled and knowledgeable employees for the 21st century workforce, higher education needs to take a more critical look at the educational practices and instructional methods which lead to improvements in students' essential skills such as self-directed learning. This study sought…

  3. Does the bathing water classification depend on sampling strategy? A bootstrap approach for bathing water quality assessment, according to Directive 2006/7/EC requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Iago; Alvarez, César; Gil, José L; Revilla, José A

    2012-11-30

    Data on the 95th and 90th percentiles of bacteriological quality indicators are used to classify bathing waters in Europe, according to the requirements of Directive 2006/7/EC. However, percentile values and consequently, classification of bathing waters depend both on sampling effort and sample-size, which may undermine an appropriate assessment of bathing water classification. To analyse the influence of sampling effort and sample size on water classification, a bootstrap approach was applied to 55 bacteriological quality datasets of several beaches in the Balearic Islands (Spain). Our results show that the probability of failing the regulatory standards of the Directive is high when sample size is low, due to a higher variability in percentile values. In this way, 49% of the bathing waters reaching an "Excellent" classification (95th percentile of Escherichia coli under 250 cfu/100 ml) can fail the "Excellent" regulatory standard due to sampling strategy, when 23 samples per season are considered. This percentage increases to 81% when 4 samples per season are considered. "Good" regulatory standards can also be failed in bathing waters with an "Excellent" classification as a result of these sampling strategies. The variability in percentile values may affect bathing water classification and is critical for the appropriate design and implementation of bathing water Quality Monitoring and Assessment Programs. Hence, variability of percentile values should be taken into account by authorities if an adequate management of these areas is to be achieved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An Alternative Organizational Structure to Address the Technology Requirements in Health Science Library Information in the '80's

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    Virginia Commonwealth University's University Library Services offers through its organizational structure an opportunity for librarians to work directly with media experts. University Library Services envisions the future librarian as an information manager, information specialist, and teacher. In joining together Technical Services, Public Services, Collection Management, Special Collections, Learning Resource Centers, Media Production Center, AV Services, TV Services, Engineering and Telec...

  5. Calcium requirement of phytochrome-mediated fern-spore germination: no direct phytochrome-calcium interaction in the phytochrome-initiated transduction chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuerlein, R.; Wayne, R.; Roux, S. J.

    1989-01-01

    Phytochrome-mediated germination of fern spores of Dryopteris paleacea Sw. was initiated by a saturating red-light (R) irradiation after 20 h of imbibition. For its realization external Ca2+ was required, with a threshold at a submicromolar concentration, and an optimum was reached around 10(-4) M. At concentrations > or = 10(-1) M only a reduced response was obtained, based probably on an unspecific osmotic or ionic effect. The germination response was inhibited by La3+, an antagonist of Ca2+. From these results it is concluded that Ca2+ influx from the medium into the spores may be an important event in phytochrome-mediated germination. In the absence of Ca2+ the R-stimulated system remained capable of responding to Ca2+, added as late as 40 h after R. Moreover, Ca2+ was effective even if added after the active form of phytochrome, Pfr, had been abolished by far-red (FR) 24 h after R. Thus, the primary effect of Pfr, that initiates the transduction chain, does not require calcium. "Coupling" of Pfr to subsequent dark reactions has been investigated by R-FR irradiations with various dark intervals. The resulting "escape kinetics" were characterized by a lag phase (6 h) and half-maximal escape from FR reversibility (19 h). These kinetics were not significantly changed by the presence or absence of calcium. Thus, direct interaction of Pfr and calcium is not a step in the transduction chain initiated by the active form of phytochrome.

  6. Method of Maintaining the Required Values of Surface Roughness and Prediction of Technological Conditions for Cold Sheet Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valíček J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on results obtained from topography of surfaces of sheets rolled from deep-drawing steel of the type KOHAL grade 697, non-alloy low-carbon structural steel EN 10263-2:2004 and aluminium. The presented results document correctness of the assumption that the rolling force Froll increases with the increasing reduction Δh and the quality of the rolled surface is improved at the simultaneous increasing of strength of rolled sheets and the decreasing of size of structural grains. The experiment was performed on the two-high rolling stand DUO 210 SVa, which enables only non-continuous technology in contrast to the rolling mill with continuous reduction on one sheet in several degrees on rolling trains, in consequence of which the obtained height parameters of the section are in close correlation with the predicted dependence. Contribution of the work consists in the creation of a mathematical model (algorithm for predicting technological parameters of the two-high rolling stand DUO 210 SVa at change of the absolute reduction Δh, for example for a deep-drawing steel of the type KOHAL grade 697 and non-alloy lowcarbon structural steel PN EN 10263-2:2004 and aluminium, and also in the development of a method of calculation applicable to any material being rolled in general, because the authors have found that various materials can be differentiated by a derived analytical criterion IKP. This criterion is a function of ratio between the modulus of elasticity of reference material and that of actually rolled material. The reference material is here deep-drawing steel of the type KOHAL grade 697. Verification was carried out by measuring changes of final surface roughness profile and final strength of rolled sheets of the stated materials in relation to reductions and those were compared with theoretically predicted values. It is possible to identify and predict on the basis of this algorithm an instant state of surface topography in

  7. Method of Maintaining the Required Values of Surface Roughness and Prediction of Technological Conditions for Cold Sheet Rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valíček, J.; Harničárová, M.; Kušnerová, M.; Zavadil, J.; Grznárik, R.

    2014-06-01

    The paper is based on results obtained from topography of surfaces of sheets rolled from deep-drawing steel of the type KOHAL grade 697, non-alloy low-carbon structural steel EN 10263-2:2004 and aluminium. The presented results document correctness of the assumption that the rolling force Froll increases with the increasing reduction Δh and the quality of the rolled surface is improved at the simultaneous increasing of strength of rolled sheets and the decreasing of size of structural grains. The experiment was performed on the two-high rolling stand DUO 210 SVa, which enables only non-continuous technology in contrast to the rolling mill with continuous reduction on one sheet in several degrees on rolling trains, in consequence of which the obtained height parameters of the section are in close correlation with the predicted dependence. Contribution of the work consists in the creation of a mathematical model (algorithm) for predicting technological parameters of the two-high rolling stand DUO 210 SVa at change of the absolute reduction Δh, for example for a deep-drawing steel of the type KOHAL grade 697 and non-alloy lowcarbon structural steel PN EN 10263-2:2004 and aluminium, and also in the development of a method of calculation applicable to any material being rolled in general, because the authors have found that various materials can be differentiated by a derived analytical criterion IKP. This criterion is a function of ratio between the modulus of elasticity of reference material and that of actually rolled material. The reference material is here deep-drawing steel of the type KOHAL grade 697. Verification was carried out by measuring changes of final surface roughness profile and final strength of rolled sheets of the stated materials in relation to reductions and those were compared with theoretically predicted values. It is possible to identify and predict on the basis of this algorithm an instant state of surface topography in respect to variable

  8. SafeLand guidelines for landslide monitoring and early warning systems in Europe - Design and required technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, S.

    2012-04-01

    Landslide monitoring means the comparison of landslide characteristics like areal extent, speed of movement, surface topography and soil humidity from different periods in order to assess landslide activity. An ultimate "universal" methodology for this purpose does not exist; every technology has its own advantages and disadvantages. End-users should carefully consider each one to select the methodologies that represent the best compromise between pros and cons, and are best suited for their needs. Besides monitoring technology, there are many factors governing the choice of an Early Warning System (EWS). A people-centred EWS necessarily comprises five key elements: (1) knowledge of the risks; (2) identification, monitoring, analysis and forecasting of the hazards; (3) operational centre; (4) communication or dissemination of alerts and warnings; and (5) local capabilities to respond to the warnings received. The expression "end-to-end warning system" is also used to emphasize that EWSs need to span all steps from hazard detection through to community response. The aim of the present work is to provide guidelines for establishing the different components for landslide EWSs. One of the main deliverables of the EC-FP7 SafeLand project addresses the technical and practical issues related to monitoring and early warning for landslides, and identifies the best technologies available in the context of both hazard assessment and design of EWSs. This deliverable targets the end-users and aims to facilitate the decision process by providing guidelines. For the purpose of sharing the globally accumulated expertise, a screening study was done on 14 EWSs from 8 different countries. On these bases, the report presents a synoptic view of existing monitoring methodologies and early-warning strategies and their applicability for different landslide types, scales and risk management steps. Several comprehensive checklists and toolboxes are also included to support informed

  9. Development of advanced pump impeller fabrication technology using direct nano- ceramic dispersion casting for long time erosion durability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Chang Kyu; Lee, Min Ku; Park, Jin Ju [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2008-09-15

    Many components of pump impeller of nuclear power plants is generally made of stainless steel and Al-bronze with superior corrosion resistance to sea water. However, they should be replaced by one- to five-year period because of material damage by a very big cavitation impact load, even though their designed durability is twenty years. Especially, in case of Young-Gwang nuclear power plant located at the west sea, damage of components of pump impeller is so critical due to the additional damage by solid particle erosion and hence their replacement period is very short as several months compared to other nuclear power plants. In addition, it is very difficult to maintain and repair the components of pump impeller since there is no database on the exact durability and damage mechanism. Therefore, in this study, fabrication technology of new advanced materials modified by dispersion of nano-carbide and -oxide ceramics into the matrix is developed first. Secondly, technology to estimate the dynamic damage by solid particle erosion is established and hence applied to the prediction of the service life of the components of pump impeller.

  10. Power plant ash and slag waste management technological direction when Kansk-Achinsk brown coal is burned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihach Snejana A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Today resource efficiency technology development in all industries where conventional raw material is being replaced by local natural resources and industrial waste is an essential matter. Along with that most producing operations are overload with wide range of waste produced during technological process. Thermal power stations are real world evidence. Their main waste is ash and slag which accumulated in great amounts in often overfull ash dumps. The goal of present work is to find perspective ash dump waste utilization methods. The study will be based on experimentally obtained data: elementary compound and properties of Kansk-Achinsk brown coal. Research methods: experimental, chemical silicate analysis, mineralogical forms identification within samples by using ASM X-ray diffraction analysis. Experiments resulted with the following conclusions: silica is ash main component, and ash has the form of ore concentrate analogy in a number of elements. We think that ASM main properties which make it useful for utilization are: high content of calcium oxide; high ash sorption properties; ASM radiation safety class which makes them safe to be used in materials, goods, and structures production for residence and public buildings construction and reconstruction; sufficiently high content of individual elements.

  11. Research on Technology and Development Direction of Steel Structure Building%建筑钢结构技术与发展方向研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俏; 董羽

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, with the wide application of steel structure in industrial buildings and public buildings, building steel structure of the new technology, new processes and new materials continue to bring forth the new through the old, this paper built in recent years at home and abroad, build_ing steel structure, the introduction of new technology and devel_opment direction of construction steel.%近些年来,随着建筑钢结构在工业建筑和公共建筑中的广泛应用,建筑钢结构的新技术、新工艺和新材料不断推陈出新,本文结合近些年国内外在建筑钢结构的建造的实例,介绍建筑钢结构新技术与发展方向。

  12. An Alternative Organizational Structure to Address the Technology Requirements in Health Science Library Information in the '80's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winant, Richard M.

    1983-01-01

    Virginia Commonwealth University's University Library Services offers through its organizational structure an opportunity for librarians to work directly with media experts. University Library Services envisions the future librarian as an information manager, information specialist, and teacher. In joining together Technical Services, Public Services, Collection Management, Special Collections, Learning Resource Centers, Media Production Center, AV Services, TV Services, Engineering and Telecommunications, the librarian is in an environment which gives the opportunity for growth and support by media expertise.

  13. Flicker noise comparison of direct conversion mixers using Schottky and HBT dioderings in SiGe:C BiCMOS technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Rasmus Schandorph; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Tamborg, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present flicker noise measurements of two X-band direct conversion mixers implemented in a SiGe:C BiCMOS technology. Both mixers use a ring structure with either Schottky diodes or diode-connected HBTs for double balanced operation. The mixers are packaged in a metal casing...... on an Arlon 25N substrate to shield the sensitive noise measurement. Conversion loss measurements of both mixers is performed both for on-wafer and packaged versions. The experimental results shows that the Schottky diode mixer exhibits a 1/f noise corner frequency of 250 kHz, while the diode connected HBT...

  14. Twelve-bit 20-GHz reduced size pipeline accumulator in 0.25 μm SiGe:C technology for direct digital synthesiser applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Brian Sveistrup; Khafaji, M. M.; Johansen, T. K.;

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a 20 GHz, 12-bit pipeline accumulator with a reduced number of registers, suitable for direct digital synthesiser (DDS) applications. The accumulator is implemented in the IHP SG25H1 (0.25 μm) SiGe:C technology featuring heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) with Ft......), the implemented 12-bit accumulator reduces the number of registers by 55% and the power by approximately 32%, while obtaining the highest clock frequency for SiGe:C accumulators intended for DDS applications....

  15. Sequence requirements for viral RNA replication and VPg uridylylation directed by the internal cis-acting replication element (cre) of human rhinovirus type 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Rijnbrand, Rene; McKnight, Kevin L; Wimmer, Eckard; Paul, Aniko; Martin, Annette; Lemon, Stanley M

    2002-08-01

    Until recently, the cis-acting signals required for replication of picornaviral RNAs were believed to be restricted to the 5' and 3' noncoding regions of the genome. However, an RNA stem-loop in the VP1-coding sequence of human rhinovirus type 14 (HRV-14) is essential for viral minus-strand RNA synthesis (K. L. McKnight and S. M. Lemon, RNA 4:1569-1584, 1998). The nucleotide sequence of the apical loop of this internal cis-acting replication element (cre) was critical for RNA synthesis, while secondary RNA structure, but not primary sequence, was shown to be important within the duplex stem. Similar cres have since been identified in other picornaviral genomes. These RNA segments appear to serve as template for the uridylylation of the genome-linked protein, VPg, providing the VPg-pUpU primer required for viral RNA transcription (A. V. Paul et al., J. Virol. 74:10359-10370, 2000). Here, we show that the minimal functional HRV-14 cre resides within a 33-nucleotide (nt) RNA segment that is predicted to form a simple stem-loop with a 14-nt loop sequence. An extensive mutational analysis involving every possible base substitution at each position within the loop segment defined the sequence that is required within this loop for efficient replication of subgenomic HRV-14 replicon RNAs. These results indicate that three consecutive adenosine residues (nt 2367 to 2369) within the 5' half of this loop are critically important for cre function and suggest that a common RNNNAARNNNNNNR loop motif exists among the cre sequences of enteroviruses and rhinoviruses. We found a direct, positive correlation between the capacity of mutated cres to support RNA replication and their ability to function as template in an in vitro VPg uridylylation reaction, suggesting that these functions are intimately linked. These data thus define more precisely the sequence and structural requirements of the HRV-14 cre and provide additional support for a model in which the role of the cre in RNA

  16. The case for applying an early-lifecycle technology evaluation methodology to comparative evaluation of requirements engineering research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, Martin S.

    2003-01-01

    The premise of this paper is taht there is a useful analogy between evaluation of proposed problem solutions and evaluation of requirements engineering research itself. Both of these application areas face the challenges of evaluation early in the lifecycle, of the need to consider a wide variety of factors, and of the need to combine inputs from multiple stakeholders in making thse evaluation and subsequent decisions.

  17. The case for applying an early-lifecycle technology evaluation methodology to comparative evaluation of requirements engineering research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, Martin S.

    2003-01-01

    The premise of this paper is taht there is a useful analogy between evaluation of proposed problem solutions and evaluation of requirements engineering research itself. Both of these application areas face the challenges of evaluation early in the lifecycle, of the need to consider a wide variety of factors, and of the need to combine inputs from multiple stakeholders in making thse evaluation and subsequent decisions.

  18. A comparative efficacy study of photic driving brainwave entrainment technology with a novel form of more direct entrainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Richard Thomas

    This exploratory study compared the efficacy of a novel brainwave electromagnetic (EM) entrainment technology against a more conventional technology utilizing the photic-driving technique. Both experimental conditions were also compared with a 7-minute control session that took place immediately before each stimulation session. The Schumann Resonance (SR) frequency was selected as the delivery signal and was chosen because of previous findings suggesting that entrainment to this frequency can often produce transpersonal if not paranormal, experiences in the entrainee, which sometimes resemble remote viewing or out-of-body experiences. A pilot study determined which of two novel entrainment modalities (a copper coil or a 16-solenoid headset) worked most effectively for use with the rest of the study. In the main study, an artificial SR signal at 7.8Hz was delivered during the photic-driving sessions, but a recording of the real-time SR was used to deliver the entrainment signal during sessions devoted to the electromagnetic entrainment modality. Sixteen participants were recruited from the local area, and EEG recordings were acquired via a 32-channel Deymed electroencephalography system. Comparative analyses were performed between the control and experimental portions of each session to assess for efficacy of the novel entrainment modality used, and, in the main study, between the electromagnetic and photic-driving sessions, to assess for differential entrainment efficacy between these groups. A follow-up study was additionally performed primarily to determine whether responders could replicate their entrainment effect from the main study. Results showed that EM entrainment appeared to be possible but is not nearly as robust or reliable as photic driving. Additionally, no profound transpersonal or paranormal experiences were elicited during the course of the study, and, when asked, participants were not able to determine with any degree of success, when the

  19. Using the direct current voltage gradient technology as a quality control tool during construction of new pipelines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masilela, Z

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info masilela_1998.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 11826 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name masilela_1998.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 En`ineerin` Failure... used on new pipelines as a good quality control tool[ The bene_ts of using the DCVG technique on new pipelines is clearly evident as more than 79) of coating defects were a direct result of mechanical damage during construction[ On such evidence...

  20. Range estimation techniques in single-station thunderstorm warning sensors based upon gated, wideband, magnetic direction finder technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifer, Alburt E.; Hiscox, William L.; Cummins, Kenneth L.; Neumann, William T.

    1991-01-01

    Gated, wideband, magnetic direction finders (DFs) were originally designed to measure the bearing of cloud-to-ground lightning relative to the sensor. A recent addition to this device uses proprietary waveform discrimination logic to select return stroke signatures and certain range dependent features in the waveform to provide an estimate of range of flashes within 50 kms. The enhanced ranging techniques are discussed which were designed and developed for use in single station thunderstorm warning sensor. Included are the results of on-going evaluations being conducted under a variety of meteorological and geographic conditions.