WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology reduced consumption

  1. Applying Smart Grid Technology For Reducing Electric Energy Consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Roy

    2010-09-15

    In recent years the term 'Smart Grid' has become a widely used buzz word with respect to the operation of Electric Power Systems. One analysis has suggested that a Smart Grid could potentially reduce annual energy consumption in the USA by 56 to 203 billion kWh in 2030, corresponding to a 1.2 to 4.3% reduction in projected retail electricity sales in 2030. This paper discusses some of the smart grid technologies pertaining to the operation of electric power distribution networks.

  2. NASA Fixed Wing Project Propulsion Research and Technology Development Activities to Reduce Thrust Specific Energy Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Michael D.; DelRasario, Ruben; Madavan, Nateri K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the propulsion research and technology portfolio of NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Fixed Wing Project. The research is aimed at significantly reducing the thrust specific fuel/energy consumption of notional advanced fixed wing aircraft (by 60 % relative to a baseline Boeing 737-800 aircraft with CFM56-7B engines) in the 2030-2035 time frame. The research investments described herein are aimed at improving propulsive efficiency through higher bypass ratio fans, improving thermal efficiency through compact high overall pressure ratio gas generators, and exploring the potential benefits of boundary layer ingestion propulsion and hybrid gas-electric propulsion concepts.

  3. Potential of HVAC and solar technologies for hospital retrofit to reduce heating energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Octavian G.; Abrudan, Ancuta C.; Adace, Dan S.; Pocola, Adrian G.; Balan, Mugur C.

    2018-02-01

    The study presents a combination of several energy efficient technologies together with their potential to reduce the energy consumption and to increase the comfort through the retrofit of a hospital building. The existing situation is characterized by an old and inefficient heating system, by the complete missing of any ventilation and by no cooling. The retrofit proposal includes thermal insulation and a distributed HVAC system consisting of several units that includes air to air heat exchangers and air to air heat pumps. A condensing boiler was also considered for heating. A solar thermal system for preparing domestic hot water and a solar photovoltaic system to assist the HVAC units are also proposed. Heat transfer principles are used for modelling the thermal response of the building to the environmental parameters and thermodynamic principles are used for modelling the behaviour of HVAC, solar thermal system and photovoltaic system. All the components of the heating loads were determined for one year period. The study reveals the capacity of the proposed systems to provide ventilation and thermal comfort with a global reduction of energy consumption of 71.6 %.

  4. Potential of HVAC and solar technologies for hospital retrofit to reduce heating energy consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Octavian G.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents a combination of several energy efficient technologies together with their potential to reduce the energy consumption and to increase the comfort through the retrofit of a hospital building. The existing situation is characterized by an old and inefficient heating system, by the complete missing of any ventilation and by no cooling. The retrofit proposal includes thermal insulation and a distributed HVAC system consisting of several units that includes air to air heat exchangers and air to air heat pumps. A condensing boiler was also considered for heating. A solar thermal system for preparing domestic hot water and a solar photovoltaic system to assist the HVAC units are also proposed. Heat transfer principles are used for modelling the thermal response of the building to the environmental parameters and thermodynamic principles are used for modelling the behaviour of HVAC, solar thermal system and photovoltaic system. All the components of the heating loads were determined for one year period. The study reveals the capacity of the proposed systems to provide ventilation and thermal comfort with a global reduction of energy consumption of 71.6 %.

  5. Efficient technologies or user behaviour, which is the more important when reducing households' energy consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    , both for understanding why some households consume much more energy than others, and when looking for relevant approaches to a future low-carbon society. The paper uses several sources to explore this question, most of them from a Danish context, including results from the researcher's own projects......Much policy effort focuses on energy efficiency of technology, though not only efficiency but also user behaviour is an important factor influencing the amount of consumed energy. This paper explores to what extent energy efficiency of appliances and houses or user behaviour is the more important...... in Denmark. In the conclusion, these results are discussed in a broader international perspective and it is concluded that more research in this field is necessary. In relation to energy policy, it is argued that it is not a question of technology efficiency or behaviour, as both have to be included...

  6. REDUCING ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY PASSENGER CAR WITH USING OF NON-ELECTRICAL HYBRID DRIVE TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Skrucany

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Not only electrical hybrid technology is used for drivetrain of passenger cars. Also other systems using non-electrical principles (hydraulic or air pressure, mechanical energy storage can be found in current vehicles. There is a quantification of the spared energy by using a hybrid vehicle in the paper. Driving cy-cle ECE 15 was chosen as a platform for simulation of driving resistances.

  7. Reducing consumption through communal living

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, Horace [The Open Univ., Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Energy and Environment Research Unit

    2003-07-01

    This paper examines ways consumers and communities can voluntarily adopt a low consumption (or low carbon) lifestyle, often termed 'voluntary simplicity' or a policy of 'sufficiency'. There is an increasing academic literature within Europe in the last five years on the whole question of 'sustainable consumption', and the relationship between income levels and consumption particularly at the household. This debate has moved beyond 'green consumerism' to look at building 'new concepts of prosperity' through local community actions, or reducing working time to allow more time for the creation of social capital. The paper will concentrate on one aspect of the quest for sustainable communities, the relevance of communal living to reducing consumption through examining energy consumption (both direct and indirect) in one such community in the UK. The results from this preliminary study reveal that it is not the sharing of resources that reduces consumption but the mutual reinforcement of attitudes towards a low consumption lifestyle. Thus it is the creation of social capital in a community that is its key to its ecological lifestyle.

  8. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B.; Ariely, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that “moral disgust” influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior. PMID:25125931

  9. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan

    2014-07-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior.

  10. Energy consumption and technological developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okorokov, V.R.

    1990-02-01

    The paper determines an outline of the world energy prospects based on principal trends of the development of energy consumption analysed over the long past period. According to the author's conclusion the development of energy systems will be determined in the nearest future (30 - 40 years) by contemporary energy technologies based on the exploitation of traditional energy resources but in the far future technologies based on the exploitation of thermonuclear and solar energy will play the decisive role. (author)

  11. REDUCING GREENHOUSE EMISSIONS AND FUEL CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A. SHAHEEN, Ph.D.

    2007-01-01

    Fortunately, transportation technologies and strategies are emerging that can help to meet the climate challenge. These include automotive and fuel technologies, intelligent transportation systems (ITS, and mobility management strategies that can reduce the demand for private vehicles. While the climate change benefits of innovative engine and vehicle technologies are relatively well understood, there are fewer studies available on the energy and emission impacts of ITS and mobility management strategies. In the future, ITS and mobility management will likely play a greater role in reducing fuel consumption. Studies are often based on simulation models, scenario analysis, and limited deployment experience. Thus, more research is needed to quantify potential impacts. Of the nine ITS technologies examined, traffic signal control, electronic toll collection, bus rapid transit, and traveler information have been deployed more widely and demonstrated positive impacts (but often on a limited basis. Mobility management approaches that have established the greatest CO2 reduction potential, to date, include road pricing policies (congestion and cordon and carsharing (short-term auto access. Other approaches have also indicated CO2 reduction potential including: low-speed modes, integrated regional smart cards, park-and-ride facilities, parking cash out, smart growth, telecommuting, and carpooling.

  12. Research on Heat Recovery Technology for Reducing the Energy Consumption of Dedicated Ventilation Systems: An Application to the Operating Model of a Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the application of heat pipes in the air handler dedicated to decoupling dehumidification from cooling to reduce energy consumption was simulated and investigated by simulations and experimental studies. The cooling load profiles and heat pipes with effectiveness of 0.45 and 0.6, respectively, were evaluated in achieving the desired space conditions and calculated hour by hour. The results demonstrated that for all examined cases, a heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHX can be used to save over 80% of the energy during the hours of operation of air conditioning. The overall energy reduction rate was from 3.2% to 4.5% under air conditioning system conditions. It was found that the energy saving potential of a laboratory was higher than for other kinds of buildings. Therefore, the dedicated ventilation system combined with heat recovery technology can be efficiently applied to buildings, especially for laboratories in subtropical areas.

  13. Learning to REDUCE: A Reduced Electricity Consumption Prediction Ensemble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aman, Saima; Chelmis, Charalampos; Prasanna, Viktor

    2016-02-12

    Utilities use Demand Response (DR) to balance supply and demand in the electric grid by involving customers in efforts to reduce electricity consumption during peak periods. To implement and adapt DR under dynamically changing conditions of the grid, reliable prediction of reduced consumption is critical. However, despite the wealth of research on electricity consumption prediction and DR being long in practice, the problem of reduced consumption prediction remains largely un-addressed. In this paper, we identify unique computational challenges associated with the prediction of reduced consumption and contrast this to that of normal consumption and DR baseline prediction.We propose a novel ensemble model that leverages different sequences of daily electricity consumption on DR event days as well as contextual attributes for reduced consumption prediction. We demonstrate the success of our model on a large, real-world, high resolution dataset from a university microgrid comprising of over 950 DR events across a diverse set of 32 buildings. Our model achieves an average error of 13.5%, an 8.8% improvement over the baseline. Our work is particularly relevant for buildings where electricity consumption is not tied to strict schedules. Our results and insights should prove useful to the researchers and practitioners working in the sustainable energy domain.

  14. Oxytocin reduces alcohol consumption in prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J R; Wenner, S M; Freestone, D M; Romaine, C C; Parian, M C; Christian, S M; Bohidar, A E; Ndem, J R; Vogel, I R; O'Kane, C M

    2017-10-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) negatively affects millions of people every year in the United States, and effective treatments for AUD are still needed. The neuropeptide oxytocin has shown promise for reducing alcohol drinking in mice and rats. Because oxytocin also plays a key role in complex prosocial behaviors like bonding and attachment, we tested the effect of oxytocin on alcohol drinking in prairie voles, a species that both consumes high amounts of alcohol and forms oxytocin dependent social bonds in a manner similar to humans. Oxytocin treatment (1.0, 3.0, and 10.0mg/kg, i.p.) reduced alcohol consumption in male and female prairie voles in animals that had access to 15% ethanol vs water every other day for 12 alcohol drinking sessions. In animals with continuous access to 15% alcohol and water, oxytocin (3.0mg/kg) reduced alcohol consumption only in the first hour of access after treatment, with no significant effects on consumption over the 24-hr period. In an open field locomotor test, oxytocin (1.0, 3.0, and 10.0mg/kg, i.p.) did not affect overall locomotor activity; however, ethanol (2g/kg, i.p.) increased locomotor activity in males and females, and produced anxiolytic effects (increased time in the center of an open field) in females only. Because prairie voles have been shown to match the alcohol consumption of their cage mate, we evaluated the relationship between cage mates' alcohol drinking. There was an overall pattern of social facilitation (consumption by one cage mate predicted consumption by the other cage mate); however, we found significant individual differences across cages in which many cages did not show significant matching, and, in some cases one cage mate's consumption negatively predicted the other cage mate's consumption. Overall, our data provide support for the potential of oxytocin as a treatment to reduce alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Estimating Reduced Consumption for Dynamic Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelmis, Charalampos [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Aman, Saima [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Saeed, Muhammad Rizwan [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Frincu, Marc [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Prasanna, Viktor K. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-01-30

    Growing demand is straining our existing electricity generation facilities and requires active participation of the utility and the consumers to achieve energy sustainability. One of the most effective and widely used ways to achieve this goal in the smart grid is demand response (DR), whereby consumers reduce their electricity consumption in response to a request sent from the utility whenever it anticipates a peak in demand. To successfully plan and implement demand response, the utility requires reliable estimate of reduced consumption during DR. This also helps in optimal selection of consumers and curtailment strategies during DR. While much work has been done on predicting normal consumption, reduced consumption prediction is an open problem that is under-studied. In this paper, we introduce and formalize the problem of reduced consumption prediction, and discuss the challenges associated with it. We also describe computational methods that use historical DR data as well as pre-DR conditions to make such predictions. Our experiments are conducted in the real-world setting of a university campus microgrid, and our preliminary results set the foundation for more detailed modeling.

  16. Technological Improvements to Automobile Fuel Consumption : Volume 1. Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-02-01

    This report is a priliminary survey of the technological feasibility of reducing the fuel consumption of automobiles. The study uses as a reference information derived from literature, automobile industry contacts, and testing conducted as part of th...

  17. Nalmefene for Reducing Alcohol Consumption in People with Alcohol Dependence: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Matt; Pandor, Abdullah; Stevens, John W; Rawdin, Andrew; Rice, Peter; Thompson, Jez; Morgan, Marsha Y

    2015-08-01

    As part of its single technology appraisal process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the company (Lundbeck) marketing nalmefene (Selincro) to submit evidence of its clinical and cost effectiveness for reducing alcohol consumption in people with alcohol dependence. The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG) and to produce a critical review of the company's submission to NICE. The clinical evidence was derived from three phase III, company-sponsored, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in adults with a diagnosis of alcohol dependence comparing nalmefene, taken on an as-needed basis, in conjunction with psychosocial support with placebo in conjunction with psychosocial support. Psychosocial support was provided in the form of BRENDA, an intervention of lower intensity than that recommended in NICE Clinical Guideline 115 (NICE CG115). Post-hoc subgroup analyses were conducted in people who were drinking at high or very high risk levels at baseline and maintained this level of drinking during the screening phase prior to randomisation. This subgroup forms the licensed population. There were a number of limitations and uncertainties in the clinical evidence base which warrant caution in its interpretation. In particular, the post-hoc subgroup analyses and high dropout rates in the three nalmefene studies meant that the inference of treatment effects might be confounded. The company's economic evaluation showed that use of nalmefene in conjunction with psychosocial support in the form of BRENDA dominated the use of BRENDA in conjunction with placebo, providing more quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) at a reduced cost. However, this evaluation did not meet the final scope issued by NICE, which specified that the comparator should be psychological intervention as defined in NICE CG115. The ERG

  18. Attentional retraining can reduce chocolate consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika; Orr, Jenna; Grear, Justine

    2014-03-01

    There is emerging evidence that attentional biases are related to the consumption of substances such as alcohol and tobacco, and that attentional bias modification can reduce unwanted consumption of these substances. We present evidence for the first time to our knowledge that the same logical argument applies in the food and eating domain. We conducted two experiments that used a modified dot probe paradigm to train undergraduate women to direct their attention toward ("attend") or away from ("avoid") food cues (i.e., pictures of chocolate). In Experiment 1, attentional bias for chocolate cues increased in the "attend" group, and decreased in the "avoid" group. Experiment 2 showed that these training effects generalized to novel, previously unseen chocolate pictures. Importantly, attentional retraining affected chocolate consumption and craving. In both experiments, participants in the "avoid" group ate less chocolate in a so-called taste test than did those in the "attend" group. In addition, in Experiment 2, but not in Experiment 1, the "attend" group reported stronger chocolate cravings following training, whereas the "avoid" group reported less intense cravings. The results support predictions of cognitive-motivational models of craving and consumption that attentional biases play a causal role in consumption behavior. Furthermore, they present a promising avenue for tackling unwanted food cravings and (over)eating. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  19. Reduced energy consumption for melting in foundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skov-Hansen, S.

    2007-09-15

    By improving the gating technology in traditional gating systems it is possible to reduce the amount of metal to be re-melted, and hence reduce the energy consumption for melting in foundries. Traditional gating systems are known for a straight tapered down runner a well base and 90 deg. bends in the runner system. In the streamlined gating systems there are no sharp changes in direction and a large effort is done to confine and control the flow of the molten metal during mould filling. Experiments in real production lines have proven that using streamlined gating systems improves yield by decreasing the poured weight compared to traditional layouts. In a layout for casting of valve housings in a vertically parted mould the weight of the gating system was reduced by 1,1kg which is a 20% weight reduction for the gating system. In a layout for horizontally parted moulds the weight of the gating system has been reduced by 3,7kg which is a weight reduction of 60% for the gating system. The experiments casting valve housings in ductile iron also proved that it is possible to lower the pouring temperature from 1400 deg. C to 1300 deg. C without the risk of cold runs. Glass plate fronted moulds have been used to study the flow of melt during mould filling. These experiments have also been used for studying the flow pattern when ceramic filters are used. The thorough study of the use of filters revealed that the metal passing through the filter is divided into a number of small jets. This proves that filters do not have the claimed positive effect on the flow of metal. The volumes necessary on either side of the filter is not filled till a backpressure is build up and results in formation of pressure shocks when backfilled. These pressure shocks result in more turbulence inside the casting than the same gating system with no filter. Not using filters can mean a reduction in poured weight of 0,6kg. To examine if the experiments using glass plate fronted moulds give

  20. New approach to reducing water consumption in commercial kitchen hood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmuin, N.; Pairan, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    Water mist sprays are used in wide range of application. However it is depend to the spray characteristic to suit the particular application. The modern commercial kitchen hood ventilation system was adopted with the water mist nozzle technology as an additional tool to increase the filtration efficiency. However, low level of filtration effectiveness and high water consumption were the major problems among the Commercial Kitchen Ventilation expert. Therefore, this study aims to develop a new mist spray technology to replacing the conventional KSJB nozzle (KSJB is a nozzle’s name). At the same time, an appropriate recommended location to install the nozzle in kitchen hood system was suggested. An extensive simulation works were carried out to observe the spray characteristics, ANSYS (FLUENT) was used for simulation wise. In the case of nozzle studies, nozzles were tested at 1 bar pressure of water and air. In comparison with conventional nozzles configuration, this new approach suggested nozzle configuration was reduce up to 50% of water consumption, which by adopted 3 numbers of nozzles instead of 6 numbers of nozzles in the commercial kitchen hood system. Therefore, this nozzle will be used in industry for their benefits of water consumption, filtration efficiency and reduced the safety limitations.

  1. CONSUMPTION OF REDUCED-FAT PEANUT BUTTER IN ADDITION TO THE CONSUMPTION OF REGULAR PEANUT BUTTER

    OpenAIRE

    He, Senhui; Fletcher, Stanley M.; Rimal, Arbindra

    2004-01-01

    A set of factors has been identified to affect consumption of reduced-fat peanut butter in addition to regular peanut butter. We found that consumption of reduced-fat peanut butter, which is an imperfect substitute for regular peanut butter, may expand total demand for peanut butter. Interestingly, for those who usually buy the same brand of peanut butter, their consumption of reduced-fat peanut butter is more likely in addition to consumption of regular peanut butter, implying promotion of a...

  2. A systems approach to reduce urban rail energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Gil, A.; Palacin, R.; Batty, P.; Powell, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An insightful overview of energy usage in urban rail systems is given. • The principal measures to reduce urban rail energy consumption are appraised. • A methodology is proposed to help implement energy saving schemes in urban rail. • Regenerative braking is shown to offer the greatest energy saving potential. - Abstract: There is increasing interest in the potential of urban rail to reduce the impact of metropolitan transportation due to its high capacity, reliability and absence of local emissions. However, in a context characterised by increasing capacity demands and rising energy costs, and where other transport modes are considerably improving their environmental performance, urban rail must minimise its energy use without affecting its service quality. Urban rail energy consumption is defined by a wide range of interdependent factors; therefore, a system wide perspective is required, rather than focusing on energy savings at subsystem level. This paper contributes to the current literature by proposing an holistic approach to reduce the overall energy consumption of urban rail. Firstly, a general description of this transport mode is given, which includes an assessment of its typical energy breakdown. Secondly, a comprehensive appraisal of the main practices, strategies and technologies currently available to minimise its energy use is provided. These comprise: regenerative braking, energy-efficient driving, traction losses reduction, comfort functions optimisation, energy metering, smart power management and renewable energy micro-generation. Finally, a clear, logical methodology is described to optimally define and implement energy saving schemes in urban rail systems. This includes general guidelines for a qualitative assessment and comparison of measures alongside a discussion on the principal interdependences between them. As a hypothetical example of application, the paper concludes that the energy consumption in existing urban

  3. Teenage consumption of information and communication technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten [Danish Building Research Inst., Hoersholm (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    A Danish database with data from 50,000 households, their energy consumption combined with building characteristics and the socio-economic data on their inhabitants documents that one teenager in a household entails a 20% higher electricity consumption than that of an average adult. These data will be presented as an introduction to the paper. There are however also other reasons for being interested in the consumer behaviour of teenagers. On the one hand teenagers are the adult consumers of tomorrow and some of their energy consuming behaviour may follow them throughout their life. On the other hand teenagers as consumers are known from other studies to be a special consumer group in that they are very much aware of and sensitive to the opinions and behaviour of their peer-groups. Departing from these reflections, a qualitative interview investigation with a focus on families with teenagers was carried out. In-depth interviews with nine parents and their teenagers focused on how teenagers use and purchase information and communication technology (ICT) such as televisions, mobile phones, computers etc. The paper reports on the qualitative findings on the dynamics of consumption among teenagers' ICT use. The analyses draw on recent consumer theory and discuss in the conclusion how such findings can give new directions for energy policies.

  4. Extending OFDM Symbols to Reduce Power Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    Existing communication standards have limited capabilities to adapt to low SNR environments or to exploit low data rate requirements in a power efficient way. Existing techniques like e.g. control coding do not reduce the computational load when reducing data rates. In this paper, we introduce

  5. The Effects of Utilizing Natural Light to Reduce Energy Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    SHEIKH, Shilla; GHALEHNOVI, Afsane

    2015-01-01

    Abstract.While Iran has the richest energy source, but wastage and improper use of it has imposed irretrievable damages to our annual budget; such that construction division has allocated the most level of energy to itself with more than 40% of total energy produced in Iran and consumption of expenses equal to 30% of earning gained from oil sale. Since electricity energy has the most share of energy consumption in construction division, providing modern ways to reduce the consumption of this ...

  6. Research on DTX Technology and Power Consumption Performance of Mobile Communication Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Shui Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the power consumption of GSM and TD-SCDMA mobile communication system terminal, the paper starts with DTX (Discontinuous Transmission technology of GSM and TD-SCDMA systems, offers a detailed analysis of the DTX’s function in optimizing power consumption of GSM and TDSCDMA mobile communication system terminal and reducing system interference, and verifies DTX’s positive role in reducing the power consumption of the mobile terminal by experiment.

  7. Technology for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Programs have been initiated by NASA to develop and demonstrate advanced technology for reducing aircraft gas turbine and piston engine pollutant emissions. These programs encompass engines currently in use for a wide variety of aircraft from widebody-jets to general aviation. Emission goals for these programs are consistent with the established EPA standards. Full-scale engine demonstrations of the most promising pollutant reduction techniques are planned within the next three years. Preliminary tests of advanced technology gas turbine engine combustors indicate that significant reductions in all major pollutant emissions should be attainable in present generation aircraft engines without adverse effects on fuel consumption. Fundamental-type programs are yielding results which indicate that future generation gas turbine aircraft engines may be able to utilize extremely low pollutant emission combustion systems.

  8. Brand switching or reduced consumption? A study of how cigarette taxes affect tobacco consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiang-Ming; Chang, Kuo-Liang; Lin, Lin; Lee, Jwo-Leun

    2014-12-01

    We examined the influence of cigarette taxes on tobacco consumption, with an emphasis on smokers' choice between reducing cigarette consumption and switching brands. We constructed three scenario-based models to study the following two subjects: (1) the relationship between deciding whether to reduce one's cigarette consumption and to practice brand switching (simultaneous or sequential); (2) the key determinants that affect smokers' decisions in terms of their consumption and brand switching when facing higher taxes. We applied data collected from a survey in Taiwan, and the results indicated that both independent and two-stage decision-making models generated very similar conclusions. We also found that gender difference contributed to reduce cigarette consumption. In addition, this study indicated that high-income smokers were less likely to switch brands, whereas well-educated smokers were more likely to switch brands. Most importantly, we questioned the effectiveness of cigarette tax policy, as our results suggested that higher price did not necessarily reduce consumption. Indeed, data indicated that consumption after the tax on cigarettes increased.

  9. Technological Improvements to Automobile Fuel Consumption : Volume 2A. Sections 1 through 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-01

    This report is a preliminary survey of the technological feasibility of reducing the fuel consumption of automobiles. The study uses as a reference information derived from literature, automobile industry contacts, and testing conducted as part of th...

  10. Technology acceptance perception for promotion of sustainable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Aindrila; Roy, Mousumi

    2018-03-01

    Economic growth in the past decades has resulted in change in consumption pattern and emergence of tech-savvy generation with unprecedented increase in the usage of social network technology. In this paper, the technology acceptance value gap adapted from the technology acceptance model has been applied as a tool supporting social network technology usage and subsequent promotion of sustainable consumption. The data generated through the use of structured questionnaires have been analyzed using structural equation modeling. The validity of the model and path estimates signifies the robustness of Technology Acceptance value gap in adjudicating the efficiency of social network technology usage in augmentation of sustainable consumption and awareness. The results indicate that subjective norm gap, ease-of-operation gap, and quality of green information gap have the most adversarial impact on social network technology usage. Eventually social networking technology usage has been identified as a significant antecedent of sustainable consumption.

  11. Ramp metering with an objective to reduce fuel consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Woldeab, Zeremariam; de Koning, Anne; Bie, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Ramp meters successfully decrease congestion but leave a burden on the traffic situation at on-ramps. Chaotic queuing leads to many stop-and-go movements and causes inefficiency where fuel consumption is concerned. As part of the eCoMove project, complementary strategies are being designed and evaluated to reduce fuel consumption at metered on-ramps, using vehicle-to-infrastructure communication. This paper presents the design of two strategies, as well as their effect as derived from simulat...

  12. Reducing cooling energy consumption in data centres and critical facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Gareth

    Given the rise of our everyday reliance on computers in all walks of life, from checking the train times to paying our credit card bills online, the need for computational power is ever increasing. Other than the ever-increasing performance of home Personal Computers (PC's) this reliance has given rise to a new phenomenon in the last 10 years ago. The data centre. Data centres contain vast arrays of IT cabinets loaded with servers that perform millions of computational equations every second. It is these data centres that allow us to continue with our reliance on the internet and the PC. As more and more data centres become necessary due to the increase in computing processing power required for the everyday activities we all take for granted so the energy consumed by these data centres rises. Not only are more and more data centres being constructed daily, but operators are also looking at ways to squeeze more processing from their existing data centres. This in turn leads to greater heat outputs and therefore requires more cooling. Cooling data centres requires a sizeable energy input, indeed to many megawatts per data centre site. Given the large amounts of money dependant on the successful operation of data centres, in particular for data centres operated by financial institutions, the onus is predominantly on ensuring the data centres operate with no technical glitches rather than in an energy conscious fashion. This report aims to investigate the ways and means of reducing energy consumption within data centres without compromising the technology the data centres are designed to house. As well as discussing the individual merits of the technologies and their implementation technical calculations will be undertaken where necessary to determine the levels of energy saving, if any, from each proposal. To enable comparison between each proposal any design calculations within this report will be undertaken against a notional data facility. This data facility will

  13. Investment appraisal of technology innovations on dairy farm electricity consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, J; Murphy, M; De Boer, I J M; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; Berentsen, P B M; Shalloo, L

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct an investment appraisal for milk-cooling, water-heating, and milk-harvesting technologies on a range of farm sizes in 2 different electricity-pricing environments. This was achieved by using a model for electricity consumption on dairy farms. The model simulated the effect of 6 technology investment scenarios on the electricity consumption and electricity costs of the 3 largest electricity-consuming systems within the dairy farm (i.e., milk-cooling, water-heating, and milking machine systems). The technology investment scenarios were direct expansion milk-cooling, ice bank milk-cooling, milk precooling, solar water-heating, and variable speed drive vacuum pump-milking systems. A dairy farm profitability calculator was combined with the electricity consumption model to assess the effect of each investment scenario on the total discounted net income over a 10-yr period subsequent to the investment taking place. Included in the calculation were the initial investments, which were depreciated to zero over the 10-yr period. The return on additional investment for 5 investment scenarios compared with a base scenario was computed as the investment appraisal metric. The results of this study showed that the highest return on investment figures were realized by using a direct expansion milk-cooling system with precooling of milk to 15°C with water before milk entry to the storage tank, heating water with an electrical water-heating system, and using standard vacuum pump control on the milking system. Return on investment figures did not exceed the suggested hurdle rate of 10% for any of the ice bank scenarios, making the ice bank system reliant on a grant aid framework to reduce the initial capital investment and improve the return on investment. The solar water-heating and variable speed drive vacuum pump scenarios failed to produce positive return on investment figures on any of the 3 farm sizes considered on either the day and night

  14. Information communication technology and electricity consumption in emerging economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadorsky, Perry

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of information communication technology (ICT) on electricity consumption in emerging economies. The empirical results, obtained from dynamic panel demand models, show a positive and statistically significant relationship between ICT and electricity consumption when ICT is measured using internet connections, mobile phones or the number of PCs. Long-run ICT elasticities are smaller than income elasticities but because ICT growth rates are so much higher than income growth rates, the impact of ICT on electricity demand is greater than the impact of income on electricity demand. One implication of these results is that policies designed to close the “digital divide” between developed and developing economics by increasing the adoption of ICT in developing countries are put at odds with energy policies to reduce GHG emissions. - Highlights: ► ICT usage is growing rapidly in developing countries. ► ICT usage affects electricity consumption. ► Three different measures of ICT are examined. ► Short-run and long-run ICT elasticities are calculated. ► Implications for energy policy are discussed.

  15. Method of increased bioethanol concentration with reduced heat consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremers, G.; Blija, A.

    2003-01-01

    Ethanol dehydration applying method of non-reflux saline distillation was conduced on a laboratory scale and in bigger pilot equipment. Results make possible recommend new method for the increased of ethanol concentration. Heat consumption reduced by 50% and cooling water consumption by 90 % when the non-reflux distillation was applied. Reflux flow in the column is replacing with contact mass, which consist from saline layer and seclude medium. Basis diagram of ethanol non-reflux saline distillation was established. Distillation equipment and number of plates in the column can calculate using basis diagram. Absolute ethanol can obtain with non-reflux saline distillation. Absolute ethanol use in produce of biofuel (author)

  16. The significance of sensory appeal for reduced meat consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Corrina A

    2014-10-01

    Reducing meat (over-)consumption as a way to help address environmental deterioration will require a range of strategies, and any such strategies will benefit from understanding how individuals might respond to various meat consumption practices. To investigate how New Zealanders perceive such a range of practices, in this instance in vitro meat, eating nose-to-tail, entomophagy and reducing meat consumption, focus groups involving a total of 69 participants were held around the country. While it is the damaging environmental implications of intensive farming practices and the projected continuation of increasing global consumer demand for meat products that has propelled this research, when asked to consider variations on the conventional meat-centric diet common to many New Zealanders, it was the sensory appeal of the areas considered that was deemed most problematic. While an ecological rationale for considering these 'meat' alternatives was recognised and considered important by most, transforming this value into action looks far less promising given the recurrent sensory objections to consuming different protein-based foods or of reducing meat consumption. This article considers the responses of focus group participants in relation to each of the dietary practices outlined, and offers suggestions on ways to encourage a more environmentally viable diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Methods for Reducing the Energy Consumption of Mobile Broadband Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Gilbert

    2010-01-01

    traffic the energy consumption remains high. This article proposes two major solutions for mitigating this problem. In the first case, an energy saving between 14% and 36% is observed by allowing the network to dynamically optimize its available capacity based on the traffic being carried. In the second......Up until recently, very little consideration has been given towards reducing the energy consumption of the networks supporting mobile communication. This has now become an important issue since with the predicted boost in traffic, network operators are required to upgrade and extend their networks......, increasing also their overall energy consumption. However, traffic analysis shows that during a 24 hour period, the volume of carried traffic varies continuously, with the network operating anywhere close to its full capacity for very short periods of time. The problem is that during hours of low network...

  18. Instruments for reducing the specific fuel consumption of cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, S.; Maibach, M.; Marti, P.

    2001-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents three possible courses of action that are to be taken to reduce the specific fuel consumption of private cars. The report first examines existing targets and the degree to which they have been met up to now, whereby the situation both in Switzerland and in the European Union is looked at. The report makes a suggestion for a future target scenario and elaborates three possible ways to met these targets: regulations on fuel-consumption, a bonus/malus system and tradable certificates. For each of the proposed instruments, the report examines implementation variants and discusses the means for their implementation. The report presents the best models for each of the implementation-variants on the basis of comparisons and the results of evaluations of their effects. For these chosen variants, the authors present comparisons of their effect on fuel consumption in graphical form and recommend tradable certificates as the best instrument

  19. Evaluation of existing cooling systems for reducing cooling power consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatamipour, M.S. [Chemical Engineering Department, Isfahan University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahiyar, H.; Taheri, M. [Chemical Engineering Department, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    This work was designed to estimate the cooling load power consumption during the summer in the hot and humid areas of Iran. The actual electrical energy consumption for cooling systems of some typical buildings with various applications (3 residential home buildings, 2 industrial plant buildings, a trade center with 38 shops, 3 public sectors and a city hospital) in a hot and humid region in South of Iran was recorded during the peak load period of the year (July-August). The records were used for estimating the total power consumption of the cooling systems in this region. According to this estimation, which was confirmed by the regional electrical power distribution office, the cooling systems power consumption in this region accounted for more than 60% of the total power consumption during the peak load period of the year. A computer program was developed for simulating the effect of various parameters on cooling load of the buildings in hot and humid regions. According to the simulation results, use of double glazed windows, light colored walls and roofs, and insulated walls and roofs can reduce the cooling load of the buildings more than 40%. (author)

  20. Psychological strategies to reduce energy consumption: project summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, L J; Seligman, C; Darley, J M

    1979-06-30

    This report reviews the research conducted in connection with a project to apply psychological theory and procedures to the problems of encouraging residential energy conservation. A major part of the project involved surveys of residents' energy-related attitudes. The best (and only consistent) attitudinal predictor of residents' actual energy consumption was their attitude about thermal comfort. A number of other attitudes that could conceivably have been related to consumption, such as attitudes about the reality of the crisis, were not found to be related to consumption. Another major focus of the project was on the effectiveness of feedback (that is, giving residents information about their energy use) as an aid to residents' conservation efforts. A series of experiments demonstrated that frequent, credible energy-consumption feedback, coupled with encouragement to adopt a reasonable but difficult energy-conservation goal, could facilitate conservation. However, these studies also demonstrated that residents could not be given just any kind of information about their energy use as feedback and that even proper feedback would not lead to conservation in all households. Conditions that are crucial for the success of feedback as a conservation aid are discussed. Other studies conducted by the project looked at the effect on energy consumption of (1) a device to reduce air-conditioning waste by signalling when it is cool outside, (2) an automatic multi-setback thermostat, and (3) utility companies' average payment plans. A survey of residents' knowledge of their energy use also was conducted. 23 references.

  1. Opportunities to reduce children's excessive consumption of calories from beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Ryan K; Mullen, Kathy B; Sterkel, Randall; Strunk, Robert C; Garbutt, Jane M

    2014-10-01

    To describe children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and 100% fruit juice (FJ), and identify factors that may reduce excessive consumption. A total of 830 parents of young children completed a 36-item questionnaire at the pediatricians' office. Children consumed soda (62.2%), other SSBs (61.6%), and FJ (88.2%): 26.9% exceeded the American Academy of Pediatrics' recommended daily FJ intake. 157 (18.9%) children consumed excessive calories (>200 kcal/d) from beverages (median = 292.2 kcal/d, range 203.8-2177.0 kcal/d). Risk factors for excessive calorie consumption from beverages were exceeding recommendations for FJ (odds ratio [OR] = 119.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 52.2-274.7), being 7 to 12 years old (OR = 4.3, 95%CI = 1.9-9.9), and having Medicaid insurance (OR = 2.6, 95%CI = 1.1-6.0). Parents would likely reduce beverage consumption if recommended by the physician (65.6%). About 1 in 5 children consumes excessive calories from soda, other SSBs and FJ, with FJ the major contributor. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Consumption of fuels and energy in the coking industry and ways of reducing consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasil' ev, Yu.S.; Tsel' ik, M.P.; Belkina, T.V. (Khar' kovskii Nauchno-Issledovatel' skii Uglekhimicheski Institut (USSR))

    1989-08-01

    Coking plants in the USSR consume 4,000 million kWh electric energy, 100 million GJ heat energy and 35,000 million m{sup 3} gaseous fuels per year. Structure of energy consumption is the following: 68% gaseous fuels, 24% steam and 8% electric energy. Processes of coal preparation, crushing, mixing, coking and quenching are analyzed from the point of view of energy consumption. The following methods for reducing energy consumption are discussed: using the FM-25 flotation machines for flotation of coking coal slurries, briquetting the whole coal charge for coking, optimization of air supply rates for combustion of gases used for coke oven heating, use of control systems for coke oven heating considering coal charge density, waste heat utilization from quenching. 4 refs.

  3. Measures to reduce car-fleet consumption - Estimation of effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iten, R.; Hammer, S.; Keller, M.; Schmidt, N.; Sammer, K.; Wuestenhagen, R.

    2005-09-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the results of a study that estimated the effects of measures that were to be taken in order to reduce the fuel consumption of fleets of vehicles as part of the SwissEnergy programme. The research reported on aimed to estimate the effects of the Energy Label on energy consumption and research concerning the results to be expected from the introduction of a bonus-malus system. Questions reviewed include the effect of fuel consumption data on making decisions concerning which vehicle to purchase, the effects of the Energy Label on consumption, the awareness of other appropriate information sources, the possible effects of a bonus-malus system and how the effectiveness of the Energy Label could be improved. The answers and results obtained are reviewed and commented on. Finally, an overall appraisal of the situation is presented and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of the Energy Label are made

  4. Reducing Sugary Drink Consumption: New York City’s Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennelly, Maura O.; Nonas, Cathy A.; Curtis, Christine J.; Van Wye, Gretchen; Goodman, Andrew; Farley, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have linked the consumption of sugary drinks to weight gain, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Since 2006, New York City has taken several actions to reduce consumption. Nutrition standards limited sugary drinks served by city agencies. Mass media campaigns educated New Yorkers on the added sugars in sugary drinks and their health impact. Policy proposals included an excise tax, a restriction on use of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits, and a cap on sugary drink portion sizes in food service establishments. These initiatives were accompanied by a 35% decrease in the number of New York City adults consuming one or more sugary drinks a day and a 27% decrease in public high school students doing so from 2007 to 2013. PMID:25713971

  5. Reducing sugary drink consumption: New York City's approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansagra, Susan M; Kennelly, Maura O; Nonas, Cathy A; Curtis, Christine J; Van Wye, Gretchen; Goodman, Andrew; Farley, Thomas A

    2015-04-01

    Studies have linked the consumption of sugary drinks to weight gain, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Since 2006, New York City has taken several actions to reduce consumption. Nutrition standards limited sugary drinks served by city agencies. Mass media campaigns educated New Yorkers on the added sugars in sugary drinks and their health impact. Policy proposals included an excise tax, a restriction on use of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits, and a cap on sugary drink portion sizes in food service establishments. These initiatives were accompanied by a 35% decrease in the number of New York City adults consuming one or more sugary drinks a day and a 27% decrease in public high school students doing so from 2007 to 2013.

  6. Controlled cooling of an electronic system for reduced energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2018-01-30

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided. The control includes automatically determining at least one adjusted control setting for at least one adjustable cooling component of a cooling system cooling the electronic system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on power being consumed by the cooling system and temperature of a heat sink to which heat extracted by the cooling system is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on one or more experimentally obtained models relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the one or more adjustable cooling components of the cooling system.

  7. Biodiversity conservation: The key is reducing meat consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machovina, Brian; Feeley, Kenneth J; Ripple, William J

    2015-12-01

    The consumption of animal-sourced food products by humans is one of the most powerful negative forces affecting the conservation of terrestrial ecosystems and biological diversity. Livestock production is the single largest driver of habitat loss, and both livestock and feedstock production are increasing in developing tropical countries where the majority of biological diversity resides. Bushmeat consumption in Africa and southeastern Asia, as well as the high growth-rate of per capita livestock consumption in China are of special concern. The projected land base required by 2050 to support livestock production in several megadiverse countries exceeds 30-50% of their current agricultural areas. Livestock production is also a leading cause of climate change, soil loss, water and nutrient pollution, and decreases of apex predators and wild herbivores, compounding pressures on ecosystems and biodiversity. It is possible to greatly reduce the impacts of animal product consumption by humans on natural ecosystems and biodiversity while meeting nutritional needs of people, including the projected 2-3 billion people to be added to human population. We suggest that impacts can be remediated through several solutions: (1) reducing demand for animal-based food products and increasing proportions of plant-based foods in diets, the latter ideally to a global average of 90% of food consumed; (2) replacing ecologically-inefficient ruminants (e.g. cattle, goats, sheep) and bushmeat with monogastrics (e.g. poultry, pigs), integrated aquaculture, and other more-efficient protein sources; and (3) reintegrating livestock production away from single-product, intensive, fossil-fuel based systems into diverse, coupled systems designed more closely around the structure and functions of ecosystems that conserve energy and nutrients. Such efforts would also impart positive impacts on human health through reduction of diseases of nutritional extravagance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All

  8. Reducing stress and fuel consumption providing road information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor CORCOBA MAGAÑA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a solution to reduce the stress level of the driver, minimize fuel consumption and improve safety. The system analyzes the driving style and the driver’s workload during the trip while driving. If it discovers an area where the stress increases and the driving style is not appropriate from the point of view of energy efficiency and safety for a particular driver, the location of this area is saved in a shared database. On the other hand, the implemented solution warns a particular user when approaching a region where the driving is difficult (high fuel consumption and stress using the shared database based on previous recorded knowledge of similar drivers in that area. In this case, the proposal provides an optimal deceleration profile if the vehicle speed is not adequate. Therefore, he or she may adjust the vehicle speed with both a positive impact on the driver workload and fuel consumption. The Data Envelopment Analysis algorithm is used to estimate the efficiency of driving and the driver’s workload in in each area. We employ this method because there is no preconceived form on the data in order to calculate the efficiency and stress level. A validation experiment has been conducted using both a driving simulator and a real environment with 12 participants who made 168 driving tests. The system reduced the slowdowns (38%, heart rate (4.70%, and fuel consumption (12.41% in the real environment. The proposed solution is implemented on Android mobile devices and does not require the installation of infrastructure on the road. It can be installed on any model of vehicle.

  9. How to reduce emissions related to consumption: which public policies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, Meike; Gautier, Celia

    2014-05-01

    This report proposes an assessment of greenhouse gas emissions related to consumption in the world. It examines which are currently the world emission flows which come with trade exchanges (intermediate and final goods) between countries. The first part tries to highlight hidden emissions present in our imports and exports. It presents the different methods of greenhouse gas accounting, discusses the emission flows at the planet level, and the challenge of the limitation of 'carbon leaks', and discusses what makes a country a net emission importer or exporter. The second part discusses how France can reduce its consumption-based emissions, how to reach a factor 4 of reduction on these emissions, how to act against leaks and inflows of emissions through measures at the world level (international agreement, reduction of emissions by sea and air transport, reduction of industry emissions) or at the national level (relocation of polluting industries in France or Europe, promotion of short circuits, eco-design, changes in consumption modes, measures on groups of products which import emissions)

  10. Reducing Stress and Fuel Consumption Providing Road Information

    OpenAIRE

    Corcoba Magaña, Víctor; Muñoz Organero, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The porceeding at: 6th International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence (ISAmI 2015), took place in June,3-5, 2015, in Salamanca (Spain). In this paper, we propose a solution to reduce the stress level of the driver, minimize fuel consumption and improve safety. The system analyzes the driving and driver workload during the trip. If it discovers an area where the stress increases and the driving style is worse from the point of view of energy efficiency, a photo is taken and is saved along...

  11. Reducing stress and fuel consumption providing road information

    OpenAIRE

    Corcoba Magaña, Víctor; Muñoz Organero, Mario

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a solution to reduce the stress level of the driver, minimize fuel consumption and improve safety. The system analyzes the driving style and the driver's workload during the trip while driving. If it discovers an area where the stress increases and the driving style is not appropriate from the point of view of energy efficiency and safety for a particular driver, the location of this area is saved in a shared database. On the other hand, the implemented solution warn...

  12. Technology use in sweet potato production, consumption and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to identify the technology used by households in the production, consumption and utilization of sweet potato in Southeastern Nigeria. Two difference types of structured interview schedules for farmers and consumers were utilized in obtaining information from one hundred and forty-four farmers and ...

  13. Investment appraisal of technology innovations on dairy farm electricity consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upton, J.; Murphy, M.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Shalloo, L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct an investment appraisal for milk-cooling, water-heating, and milk-harvesting technologies on a range of farm sizes in 2 different electricity-pricing environments. This was achieved by using a model for electricity consumption on dairy farms. The model simulated

  14. Reducing the energy consumption of an earth–air heat exchanger with a PID control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Mendez, S.E.; Patiño-Carachure, C.; Herrera-Castillo, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The application of control actions to green technologies has been simulated. • Energy consumption of green technologies can be reduced even more. • The efficiency of green technologies can be raised. • Environmental concerns can be diminished. • The sustainability of the planet can be increased. - Abstract: Reducing environmental emissions is one of the challenges that human being has to overcome. It can only be reached with a proper energetic efficiency and management of the processes that exist in the society nowadays. Several academic works have mentioned that raising the efficiency of a process it also increases sustainability and in turn decreases the environmental impact. One process that requires much attention is the cooling and heating of buildings; this process contributes to the major part of the electric bill, in particular, if a conventional and old air conditioning is used as commonly occurs in many countries. In recent years there have been developed new alternatives that are used in few countries, such as the earth–air heat exchanger, where air is passed through a heat exchanger buried a few meters below the ground. The heat exchanger takes advantage of the well-known difference between the temperature of the surrounding air and the temperature of the ground for cooling or heating the air that is subsequently injected into the buildings. This process requires less energy, then in the present work is thought that a PID (Proportional, Integral and Derivative) controller can be applied to an earth–air heat exchanger to reduce even more the energy consumption. Therefore, a simulation of a thermodynamic model of an earth–air heat exchanger was done and used along with a PID controller, to estimate savings in energy consumption. The results show that the energy consumption can be reduced up to 87% with the PID control, hence the efficiency of the process is increased as well as the sustainability of the planet and thus the

  15. Reduced energy consumption by using streamlined gating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Skat Tiedje

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In foundries a lot of effort is done to minimize energy consumption in the production to reduce costs and hence increase the competitiveness. At the same time the foundries must live up to the increased demands for high quality castings.Traditional gating systems are known for a straight tapered down runner, a well base and 90?bends in the runner system. Previous work has shown that the traditional way of designing gating systems creates high inconsistency in fl ow patterns during fi lling. In the streamlined gating systems there are no sharp changes in direction and a large effort is done to confi ne and control the fl ow of the molten metal during mould fi lling.The main objective in the work presented here is to use the principles of the streamlined gating systems to reduce the weight of the gating system relative to the traditional layouts. By reducing the weight of gating system and thereby improving yield, the amount of molten iron needed is also reduced, hence reducing the energy consumption for melting.Experiments in real production lines have proven that it is possible to achieve a reduction in the poured weight by using the streamlined gating systems. In a layout for casting of three valve housings in a vertically parted mould the weight of the gating system was reduced by 1.1 kg changing from the traditional layouts to the streamlined gating systems. This weight reduction corresponds in this case to a 20% weight reduction for the gating system.Using streamlined gating systems with fan gates to give a benefi cial heat distribution in the castings may be an effi cient tool to eliminate the need for heat treatment. In the experiments the change in gating system from the traditional layout to the streamlined layout removed the need for heat treatment. This obviously means a huge energy saving in the foundry. The energy consumption for heat treatment of iron has been found to be 0.489 kWh/kg. The valve housing in the experiments weighs 3

  16. Maximal Oxygen Consumption is Reduced in Aquaporin-1 Knockout Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Al-Samir

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We have measured maximal oxygen consumption (V’O2,max of mice lacking one or two of the established mouse red-cell CO2 channels AQP1, AQP9 and Rhag. We intended to study whether these proteins, by acting as channels for O2, determine O2 exchange in the lung and in the periphery. We found that V’O2,max as determined by the Helox technique is reduced by ~ 16%, when AQP1 is knocked out, but not when AQP9 or Rhag are lacking. This figure holds for animals respiring normoxic as well as hypoxic gas mixtures. To see whether the reduction of V’O2,max is due to impaired O2 uptake in the lung, we measured carotid arterial O2 saturation (SO2 by pulse oximetry. Neither under normoxic (inspiratory O2 21% nor under hypoxic conditions (11% O2 is there a difference in SO2 between AQP1null and WT mice, suggesting that AQP1 is not critical for O2 uptake in the lung. The fact that the % reduction of V’O2,max is identical in normoxia and hypoxia indicates moreover that the limitation of V’O2,max is not due to an O2 diffusion problem, neither in the lung nor in the periphery. Instead, it appears likely that AQP1null animals exhibit a reduced V’O2,max due to the reduced wall thickness and muscle mass of the left ventricles of their hearts, as reported previously. We conclude that very likely the properties of the hearts of AQP1 knockout mice cause a reduced maximal cardiac output and thus cause a reduced V’O2,max, which constitutes a new phenotype of these mice.

  17. Consumer Culture Theory: Ideology, Mythology and Meaning in Technology Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2014-01-01

    Consumer culture theory helps us take note of the cultural forces and dynamics in which technology consumption is entangled. It enables people to articulate the cultural processes (ideological, mythic, ritualistic, etc.) through which cultural meanings become granted to or denied to technological...... innovations, thus shaping the value of technologies as cultural resources sustaining consumer identities. In its urge to shed light on these aspects, CCT tends to reinforce the gaps and asymmetries between the “socio-cultural” and the “techno-material”, leaving plenty of room for further study. The authors...

  18. Research and Development Opportunities for Technologies to Influence Water Consumption Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Horner, Robert M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Muehleisen, Ralph T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    In April 2015, Argonne National Laboratory hosted a two-day workshop that convened water experts and stakeholders from across industry, government, and academia to undertake three primary tasks: 1) identify technology characteristics that are favorable for motivating behavioral change, 2) identify barriers that have prevented the development and market adoption of technologies with these characteristics in the water sector, and 3) identify concrete research and development pathways that could be undertaken to overcome these barriers, increase the penetration of technologies that influence water consumption behavior, and ultimately reduce domestic water consumption. While efforts to reduce water consumption have gained momentum in recent years, there are a number of key barriers that have limited the effectiveness of such efforts. Chief among these is the fact that many consumers have limited awareness of their water consumption patterns because of poor data availability, and/or are unmotivated to reduce their consumption because of low costs and split incentives. Without improved data availability and stronger price signals, it will be difficult to effect true transformative behavioral change. This report also reviews a number of technology characteristics that have successfully motivated behavioral change in other sectors, as well as several technologies that could be developed specifically for the water sector. Workshop participants discussed how technologies that provide active feedback and promote measurable goals and social accountability have successfully influenced changes in other types of behavior. A range of regulatory and policy actions that could be implemented to support such efforts are also presented. These include institutional aggregation, revenue decoupling, and price structure reforms. Finally, several R&D pathways were proposed, including efforts to identify optimal communication strategies and to better understand consumer perceptions and

  19. Consumptive Water Use from Electricity Generation in the Southwest under Alternative Climate, Technology, and Policy Futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talati, Shuchi; Zhai, Haibo; Kyle, G. Page; Morgan, M. Granger; Patel, Pralit; Liu, Lu

    2016-10-21

    This research assesses climate, technological, and policy impacts on consumptive water use from electricity generation in the Southwest over a planning horizon of nearly a century. We employed an integrated modeling framework taking into account feedbacks between climate change, air temperature and humidity, and consequent power plant water requirements. These direct impacts of climate change on water consumption by 2095 differ with technology improvements, cooling systems, and policy constraints, ranging from a 3–7% increase over scenarios that do not incorporate ambient air impacts. Upon additional factors being changed that alter electricity generation, water consumption increases by up to 8% over the reference scenario by 2095. With high penetration of wet recirculating cooling, consumptive water required for low-carbon electricity generation via fossil fuels will likely exacerbate regional water pressure as droughts become more common and population increases. Adaptation strategies to lower water use include the use of advanced cooling technologies and greater dependence on solar and wind. Water consumption may be reduced by 50% in 2095 from the reference, requiring an increase in dry cooling shares to 35–40%. Alternatively, the same reduction could be achieved through photovoltaic and wind power generation constituting 60% of the grid, consistent with an increase of over 250% in technology learning rates.

  20. Food transport refrigeration - Approaches to reduce energy consumption and environmental impacts of road transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassou, S.A.; De-Lille, G.; Ge, Y.T.

    2009-01-01

    Food transport refrigeration is a critical link in the food chain not only in terms of maintaining the temperature integrity of the transported products but also its impact on energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. This paper provides a review of (a) current approaches in road food transport refrigeration, (b) estimates of their environmental impacts, and (c) research on the development and application of alternative technologies to vapour compression refrigeration systems that have the potential to reduce the overall energy consumption and environmental impacts. The review and analysis indicate that greenhouse gas emissions from conventional diesel engine driven vapour compression refrigeration systems commonly employed in food transport refrigeration can be as high as 40% of the greenhouse gas emissions from the vehicle's engine. For articulated vehicles over 33 ton, which are responsible for over 80% of refrigerated food transportation in the UK, the reject heat available form the engine is sufficient to drive sorption refrigeration systems and satisfy most of the refrigeration requirements of the vehicle. Other promising technologies that can lead to a reduction in CO 2 emissions are air cycle refrigeration and hybrid systems in which conventional refrigeration technologies are integrated with thermal energy storage. For these systems, however, to effectively compete with diesel driven vapour compression systems, further research and development work is needed to improve their efficiency and reduce their weight

  1. Advanced technology development reducing CO2 emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Sup

    2010-09-15

    Responding to Korean government policies on green growth and global energy/ environmental challenges, SK energy has been developing new technologies to reduce CO2 emissions by 1) CO2 capture and utilization, 2) efficiency improvement, and 3) Li-ion batteries. The paper introduces three advanced technologies developed by SK energy; GreenPol, ACO, and Li-ion battery. Contributing to company vision, a more energy and less CO2, the three technologies are characterized as follows. GreenPol utilizes CO2 as a feedstock for making polymer. Advanced Catalytic Olefin (ACO) reduces CO2 emission by 20% and increase olefin production by 17%. Li-ion Batteries for automotive industries improves CO2 emission.

  2. Reducing power consumption during execution of an application on a plurality of compute nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Peters, Amanda E [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian E [Rochester, MN

    2012-06-05

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption during execution of an application on a plurality of compute nodes that include: executing, by each compute node, an application, the application including power consumption directives corresponding to one or more portions of the application; identifying, by each compute node, the power consumption directives included within the application during execution of the portions of the application corresponding to those identified power consumption directives; and reducing power, by each compute node, to one or more components of that compute node according to the identified power consumption directives during execution of the portions of the application corresponding to those identified power consumption directives.

  3. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and

  4. Reducing multiple births in assisted reproduction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Kamath, Mohan S

    2014-02-01

    Multiple pregnancy, a complication of assisted reproduction technology, is associated with poorer maternal and perinatal outcomes. The primary reason behind this is the strategy of replacing more than one embryo during an assisted reproduction technology cycle to maximise pregnancy rates. The solution to this problem is to reduce the number of embryos transferred during in-vitro fertilisation. The transition from triple- to double-embryo transfer, which decreased the risk of triplets without compromising pregnancy rates, was easily implemented. The adoption of a single embryo transfer policy has been slow because of concerns about impaired pregnancy rates in a fresh assisted reproduction technology cycle. Widespread availability of effective cryopreservation programmes means that elective single embryo transfer, along with subsequent frozen embryo transfers, could provide a way forward. Any such strategy will need to consider couples' preferences and existing funding policies, both of which have a profound influence on decision making around embryo transfer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reducing Operating Costs and Energy Consumption at Water Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to their unique combination of high energy usage and potential for significant savings, utilities are turning to energy-efficient technologies to help save money. Learn about cost and energy saving technologies from this brochure.

  6. Ramp metering with an objective to reduce fuel consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Woldeab, Zeremariam; de Koning, Anne; Bie, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Ramp meters successfully decrease congestion but leave a burden on the traffic situation at on-ramps. Chaotic queuing leads to many stop-and-go movements and causes inefficiency where fuel consumption is concerned. As part of the eCoMove project, complementary strategies are being designed and

  7. Reducing barriers to millet production and consumption in India ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... developed 40 new millet-based snack foods, baked goods, and other products, the research team will work with local communities, especially women's self-help groups, to implement this project. The project will take a supply chain approach to test interventions at different levels in the production-to-consumption system.

  8. Opportunities and insights for reducing fossil fuel consumption by households and organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Paul C.; Janda, Kathryn B.; Brown, Marilyn A.; Steg, Linda; Vine, Edward L.; Lutzenhiser, Loren

    2016-05-01

    Realizing the ambitious commitments of the 2015 Paris Climate Conference (COP21) will require new ways of meeting human needs previously met by burning fossil fuels. Technological developments will be critical, but so will accelerated adoption of promising low-emission technologies and practices. National commitments will be more achievable if interventions take into account key psychological, social, cultural and organizational factors that influence energy choices, along with factors of an infrastructural, technical and economic nature. Broader engagement of social and behavioural science is needed to identify promising opportunities for reducing fossil fuel consumption. Here we discuss opportunities for change in households and organizations, primarily at short and intermediate timescales, and identify opportunities that have been underused in much of energy policy. Based on this survey, we suggest design principles for interventions by governments and other organizations, and identify areas of emphasis for future social science and interdisciplinary research.

  9. Innovative technology to reduce outage time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morey, D.N.; Esteve, T.H.; Rumancik, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    A significant contributor to unavailability has been refueling outage time; therefore, utilities have expressed increasing interest in improving their outage performance. This paper discusses the initiatives at the Farley Nuclear Plant to reduce outage time and in particular a joint Westinghouse and Alabama Power effort to identify technological and operational improvements to shorten start-up and shutdown times. In summary, shorter refueling outages mean a potential for increased availability as long as those activities required for high reliability are not sacrificed. In general, the improvements that result in shorter outages have also been determined to provide benefits in radiation exposure, personnel safety, and plant safety margin.

  10. Advanced technology for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The proposed EPA regulations covering emissions of gas turbine engines will require extensive combustor development. The NASA is working to develop technology to meet these goals through a wide variety of combustor research programs conducted in-house, by contract, and by university grant. In-house efforts using the swirl-can modular combustor have demonstrated sizable reduction in NO emission levels. Testing to reduce idle pollutants has included the modification of duplex fuel nozzles to air-assisted nozzles and an exploration of the potential improvements possible with combustors using fuel staging and variable geometry. The Experimental Clean Combustor Program, a large contracted effort, is devoted to the testing and development of combustor concepts designed to achieve a large reduction in the levels of all emissions. This effort is planned to be conducted in three phases with the final phase to be an engine demonstration of the best reduced emission concepts.

  11. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation reduces cigarette consumption in schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prikryl, Radovan; Ustohal, Libor; Kucerova, Hana Prikrylova; Kasparek, Tomas; Jarkovsky, Jiri; Hublova, Veronika; Vrzalova, Michaela; Ceskova, Eva

    2014-03-03

    High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) seemed to decrease tobacco consumption and craving in nicotine-dependent people without psychiatric disorder or otherwise healthy people. Even if the prevalence of cigarette smoking in schizophrenia patients is high and estimated to be between 45% and 88%, this technique has not been systematically studied in this indication in schizophrenia yet. The aim of this study was to test the ability of high-frequency (10Hz) rTMS over the left DLPFC to decrease cigarette consumption in schizophrenia patients. The study included 35 male schizophrenia patients on stable antipsychotic medication. The patients were divided into two groups: the first (18 patients) were actively stimulated and the second (17 patients) underwent sham (placebo) stimulation. The sham rTMS was administered using a purpose-built sham coil that was identical in appearance to the real coil and made the same noise but did not deliver a substantial stimulus. The rTMS was administered at the stimulation parameters: location (left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex: DLPFC), intensity of magnetic stimulation in % of motor threshold (110%), stimulation frequency (10Hz), number of trains (20), single train duration (10s), inter-train interval (30s), and total number of stimulation sessions (21). In each stimulation session, 2000TMSpulses were given, with a total of 42,000pulses per treatment course. Patients noted the number of cigarettes smoked in the 7days before treatment, during the whole stimulation treatment (21days), and again for a 7-day period after treatment. Cigarette consumption was statistically significantly lower in the actively stimulated patients than in the sham rTMS group as early as the first week of stimulation. No statistically relevant correlations were found in the changes of ongoing negative or depressive schizophrenia symptoms and the number of cigarettes smoked. High

  12. Oral Morphine Consumption Reduces Lens Development in Rat Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Bahadoran

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Consumption of morphine, during pregnancy, in addition to inducing defects in the mother’s nervous system function, caused defects or delays in the formation and evolution of embryonic visual system. In the present study, changes in lens development was assessed in embryos exposed in utero to morphine. Material and Methods: Female Wistar rats (250-300 g were mated with male rats and pregnancy was determined by sperm observation in vaginal smear. This day was considered as embryonic day zero (E0. The females were then divided randomly into the experimental and the control groups. The control group received tap water and the experimental group received morphine (0.05 mg/ml in their water. On embryonic day 13 ( E13, blood samples were collected from the retro-orbital sinus of all animals for plasma corticosterone detection. On embryonic day 17(E17, the animals were killed by an overdose of chloroform and the embryos were taken out surgically. The embryos were fixed in 10% formalin for 30 days. At this time, the head of the embryos were removed for tissue processing and Hematoxylin- Eosin (H&E staining. The samples were evaluated using light microscope and MOTIC software. Results: Our data indicated that plasma corticosterone level was dramatically increased and the lens was thinner in the experimental group. (Although the proliferation of lens cells increased in the experiment group but that lens had delay in removing the proliferated and elongation cells with abnormal density in the lateral part of the lens in compare with control group. I have no idea what the authors are stating here. Moreover, the opening of the eyelids was delayed in the off springs of the mothers who received morphine. Conclusions: This study showed that morphine consumption during pregnancy leads to defects in fetal visual system development, particularly in the lens, and eyelids.

  13. Energymark: Empowering individual Australians to reduce their energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowd, A.; Ashworth, P.; Carr-Cornish, S.; Stenner, K.

    2012-01-01

    Commitment to increase public awareness of climate change mitigation has risen substantially and so has the appreciation of the impact that comes from voluntary behaviour change. We aimed to test whether a process could be designed that encouraged individuals – from within their existing social networks – to facilitate energy reduction discussions that ultimately changed the way they consumed energy. Our “Energymark” process was grounded in the idea that change is facilitated by several supporting factors including the provision of tailored information, social support, encouragement to set goals, and access to feedback. In this paper we report on the first trial with members of the Australian public. By the end of the trial an average emissions reduction of 20% was reported using a pre- and post-trial carbon calculator incorporating the energy used at home, waste, spending on products and services, beef consumption, and transport. While many identified as climate change aware, and had the socio-economic capacity to make changes, we found that participants of widely varying demographics and dispositions responded to program features, achieving equivalent emissions reductions. This bodes well for the program’s effectiveness and warrants further testing of the impact of voluntary action with social processes such as Energymark. - Highlights: ► Energymark program recognises the importance of voluntary individual behaviour change. ► Key features include the provision of information, social support, goal setting and access to feedback. ► At the end of the process an average individual emissions reduction of 20% was reported. ► Consequential aspects were gaining awareness and information and developing a sense of social responsibility. ► Significant also was participants’ understanding that government has a role to play in mitigation.

  14. Personalised digital interventions for reducing hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption in community-dwelling populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaner, Eileen Fs; Beyer, Fiona R; Garnett, Claire; Crane, David; Brown, Jamie; Muirhead, Colin; Redmore, James; O'Donnell, Amy; Newham, James J; de Vocht, Frank; Hickman, Matthew; Brown, Heather; Maniatopoulos, Gregory; Michie, Susan

    2017-09-25

    Excessive alcohol use contributes significantly to physical and psychological illness, injury and death, and a wide array of social harm in all age groups. A proven strategy for reducing excessive alcohol consumption levels is to offer a brief conversation-based intervention in primary care settings, but more recent technological innovations have enabled people to interact directly via computer, mobile device or smartphone with digital interventions designed to address problem alcohol consumption. To assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of digital interventions for reducing hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, or both, in people living in the community, specifically: (i) Are digital interventions more effective and cost-effective than no intervention (or minimal input) controls? (ii) Are digital interventions at least equally effective as face-to-face brief alcohol interventions? (iii) What are the effective component behaviour change techniques (BCTs) of such interventions and their mechanisms of action? (iv) What theories or models have been used in the development and/or evaluation of the intervention? Secondary objectives were (i) to assess whether outcomes differ between trials where the digital intervention targets participants attending health, social care, education or other community-based settings and those where it is offered remotely via the internet or mobile phone platforms; (ii) to specify interventions according to their mode of delivery (e.g. functionality features) and assess the impact of mode of delivery on outcomes. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, HTA and Web of Knowledge databases; ClinicalTrials.com and WHO ICTRP trials registers and relevant websites to April 2017. We also checked the reference lists of included trials and relevant systematic reviews. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effectiveness of digital interventions compared with no

  15. Reducing power consumption in multi-compressor refrigeration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widell, K.N.; Eikevik, T. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Dep. of Energy and Process Engineering, 7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2010-01-15

    An experimental analysis of compressor operation in a large refrigeration system was undertaken and a model for optimal compressor operation for energy efficiency was developed. The system used 5 screw compressors and ammonia as the refrigerant, with slide valves to regulate the compressors and match their refrigeration capacity with product freezing loads. Compressors in the existing system can operate simultaneously with reduced capacities, which results in reduced energy efficiency. Optimized operation was made both with and without a variable frequency drive. The results showed that the most electrical energy can be saved during days when not all of the tunnels were loaded. It is assumed that EUR 30 000-50 000 can be saved per year by optimizing the operation of the refrigeration system. (author)

  16. Cost/benefit tradeoffs for reducing the energy consumption of the commercial air transportation system. Volume 1: Technical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, E. F.

    1976-01-01

    The effectiveness and associated costs of operational and technical options for reduced fuel consumption by Douglas aircraft in the domestic airline fleet are assessed. Areas explored include alternative procedures for airline and flight operations, advanced and state of the art technology, modification and derivative configurations, new near-term aircraft, turboprop configuration studies, and optimum aircraft geometry. Data for each aircraft studied is presented in tables and graphs.

  17. New Building Principles In Consequence Of Legislative Demands For Reduced Energy Consumption In Danish Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Rasmus Zederkof; Brohus, Henrik; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2006-01-01

    demands regarding energy consumption. More often than not sustainable aspects like the need for reduced energy consumption are implemented late in the design process. This paper investigates the affect of incorporating aspects like solar heat gain and energy consumption in the initial concept......The increasing restrictions in coming building codes regarding energy consumption in housing generate a need to rethink the building design as well as the building process. This paper discusses the need to change/challenge the way structures are conceived in order to accommodate new legislative...

  18. Moderate consumption of white and fortified wine is associated with reduced odds of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Eva K; Xie, Jing; Man, Ryan Eyn Kidd; Lim, Lyndell L; Flood, Victoria M; Finger, Robert P; Wong, Tien Y; Lamoureux, Ecosse L

    2015-01-01

    To explore the association between alcohol consumption and the severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR). In this cross-sectional study, patients with type 2 diabetes answered questions on consumption of low and full-strength beer, white wine/champagne, red wine, fortified wines, and spirits. Never, moderate and high consumption of each alcoholic beverage, and overall alcoholic beverage consumption, were defined as 14 standard drinks/week, respectively. DR was categorized into none; non vision-threatening DR (VTDR) and VTDR. Multivariable logistic regression determined the associations between alcohol consumption and DR. Of the 395 participants (mean age±SD [standard deviation] 65.9±10.4years; males=253), 188 (47.6%) consumed alcohol and 235 (59.5%) had any DR. Compared to no alcohol consumption, moderate alcohol consumption (overall) was significantly associated with reduced odds of any DR (OR=0.47, 95% CI [confidence interval] 0.26-0.85). Moderate consumption of white wine/champagne or fortified wine was also associated with reduced odds of any DR (OR=0.48, 95% CI 0.25-0.91, and OR=0.15, 95% CI 0.04-0.62, respectively). Similar results were observed for non-VTDR and VTDR. The amount and type of alcohol are associated with risk of DR in patients with type 2 diabetes. A longitudinal study is needed to assess the protective effect of alcohol consumption and DR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of Techniques for Reducing In-Use Automotive Fuel Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of proposed techniques for reducing fuel consumption in the in-use light duty road vehicle fleet. Three general classes of techniques are treated: (1) modification of vehicles, (2) modification of traffic flow, and ...

  20. Temporal patterns of alcohol consumption and attempts to reduce alcohol intake in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank de Vocht

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Alcohol Toolkit Study (ATS is a monthly survey of approximately 1700 adults per month aged 16 years of age or more in England. We aimed to explore patterns of alcohol consumption and motivation to reduce alcohol use in England throughout the year. Methods Data from 38,372 participants who answered questions about alcohol consumption (March 2014 to January 2016 were analysed using weighted regression using the R survey package. Questions assessed alcohol consumption (AUDIT-C and attempts to reduce consumption. Results Sixty-seven percent of participants reported using alcohol, with a small negative trend of about 2 % reduction over 12 months in the studied period (P < 0.01. These include ~25 % higher risk drinkers and ~10 % regular binge drinkers. About 20 % of higher risk drinkers indicated they were attempting to reduce their alcohol consumption. Attempts were lowest in December (−20 %; 95 % CI 0–35 %, but increases significantly in January (+41 %; 95 % CI 16–73 % compared with other months (P < 0.001, indicating a small net gain; at least in attempts to reduce. However, there was no evidence that the increased motivation in January was accompanied by a reported decrease in consumption or binge drinking events. This could be an artefact of the use of AUDIT questions, but could also reflect a disconnect between attempting to reduce alcohol consumption and subsequent change; maybe as a result of lack of continuing support. Conclusions January is associated with moderate increased attempts to reduce alcohol consumption. However, we find little evidence of a change in alcohol consumption. In part, this may be due to temporal insensitivity of the AUDIT questions.

  1. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of the stand-by consumption power reduction technology. Verification experiment on the technology to reduce stand-by power of household electric appliances; 2000 nendo taikiji shohi denryoku sakugen gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kaden seihin taikiji denryoku sakugen gijutsu no jissho jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Study was made of the energy conservation by reducing stand-by consumption power of household electric appliances. In the study, remote control, household electric appliance, and outlet box were developed, and a system was developed in which each of the three was connected by network and the commercial power source supply is cut off at the time of the stand-by state of household electric appliances. The outlet box collectively manages timer information and reservation information. User sends out control command toward the outlet box using the two-way remote control, and controls all the household electric appliances connected via network. The screen data of household electric appliances are sent to the two-way remote control via the outlet box and presented to user. When the time comes for automatic execution such as video recording during absence, the outlet box carries commercial power source to household electric appliances. Using these appliances, verification experiment was carried out in the model house which was built with the ordinary house as model. A reduction in stand-by consumption power, approximately 218kWh/year(center dot)household, was verified. (NEDO)

  2. Exercise based transportation reduces oil consumption and carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, P. A.

    2004-12-01

    Current abuse and misrepresentation of science hinders society's ability to address climate change. Scientific abuse results, in part, from a widespread perception that curbing emissions will require substantial economic, political, or personal sacrifice. Here I provide one example to illustrate that this perception is false. Simply walking or biking the amount recommended for a healthy lifestyle could reduce carbon emissions up to 11 percent if the distances traveled were substituted for car travel. This level of exercise is also sufficient to eliminate obese and overweight conditions in a few years without draconian diet plans. A reduction in carbon dioxide emissions of roughly 35 percent is possible if the revenue saved through decreased health care spending on obesity is redirected toward carbon abatement. This emissions reduction far exceeds that required by the Kyoto Protocol at no net cost. Finally, widespread substitution of driving with distances traveled during recommended daily exercise would considerably ease societal dependence on oil, which leads not only to climate change but also to air pollution, political and economic instability and habitat degradation. Thus, exercise based transportation constitutes a potentially favorable alternative to the energy and diet plans that are currently under consideration and a substantial step toward dealing with the threat of climate change.

  3. Our building is smarter than your building: The use of competitive rivalry to reduce energy consumption and linked carbon footprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn McGibbon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is located within the smart city discourse and explores the linkage between smart buildings and an intelligent community, employing the University of Cape Town as a case study. It is also situated within the research stream of Green Information Systems, which examines the confluence between technology, people, data and processes, in order to achieve environmental objectives such as reduced energy consumption and its associated carbon footprint. Since approximately 80% of a university’s carbon footprint may be attributed to electricity consumption and as the portion of energy used inefficiently by buildings is estimated at 33% an argument may be made for seeing a campus as a “living laboratory” for energy consumption experiments in smart buildings. Integrated analytics were used to measure, monitor and mitigate energy consumption, directly linked to carbon footprinting. This paper examines a pilot project to reduce electricity consumption through a smart building competition. The lens used for this research was the empirical framework provided by the International Sustainable Campus Network/Global University Leadership Forum Charter. Preliminary findings suggest a link between the monitoring of smart buildings and behaviour by a segment of the intelligent community in the pursuit of a Sustainable Development strategy.

  4. On eco-efficient technologies to minimize industrial water consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mohammad C.; Mohammadifard, Hossein; Ghaffari, Ghasem

    2016-07-01

    Purpose - Water scarcity will further stress on available water systems and decrease the security of water in many areas. Therefore, innovative methods to minimize industrial water usage and waste production are of paramount importance in the process of extending fresh water resources and happen to be the main life support systems in many arid regions of the world. This paper demonstrates that there are good opportunities for many industries to save water and decrease waste water in softening process by substituting traditional with echo-friendly methods. The patented puffing method is an eco-efficient and viable technology for water saving and waste reduction in lime softening process. Design/methodology/approach - Lime softening process (LSP) is a very sensitive process to chemical reactions. In addition, optimal monitoring not only results in minimizing sludge that must be disposed of but also it reduces the operating costs of water conditioning. Weakness of the current (regular) control of LSP based on chemical analysis has been demonstrated experimentally and compared with the eco-efficient puffing method. Findings - This paper demonstrates that there is a good opportunity for many industries to save water and decrease waste water in softening process by substituting traditional method with puffing method, a patented eco-efficient technology. Originality/value - Details of the required innovative works to minimize industrial water usage and waste production are outlined in this paper. Employing the novel puffing method for monitoring of lime softening process results in saving a considerable amount of water while reducing chemical sludge.

  5. Reconfiguration of photovoltaic panels for reducing the hydrogen consumption in fuel cells of hybrid systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel González-Montoya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid generation combines advantages from fuel cell systems with non-predictable generation approaches, such as photovoltaic and wind generators. In such hybrid systems, it is desirable to minimize as much as possible the fuel consumption, for the sake of reducing costs and increasing the system autonomy. This paper proposes an optimization algorithm, referred to as population-based incremental learning, in order to maximize the produced power of a photovoltaic generator. This maximization reduces the fuel consumption in the hybrid aggregation. Moreover, the algorithm's speed enables the real-time computation of the best configuration for the photovoltaic system, which also optimizes the fuel consumption in the complementary fuel cell system. Finally, a system experimental validation is presented considering 6 photovoltaic modules and a NEXA 1.2KW fuel cell. Such a validation demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm to reduce the hydrogen consumption in these hybrid systems.

  6. Impact of idling on fuel consumption and exhaust emissions and available idle-reduction technologies for diesel vehicles – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.M. Ashrafur; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Abedin, M.J.; Sanjid, A.; Sajjad, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • In this paper we reviewed the impact of diesel vehicles idling on fuel consumption and exhaust emission. • Fuel consumption and emissions during idling are very high compared to driving cycle. • The effects of various operating on fuel consumption and exhaust emission were discussed. • Available idle-reduction technologies impact on idling fuel consumption and emissions were discussed. • Idling reduction technologies reduce fuel consumption and emissions significantly. - Abstract: In order to maintain cab comfort truck drivers have to idle their engine to obtain the required power for accessories, such as the air conditioner, heater, television, refrigerator, and lights. This idling of the engine has a major impact on its fuel consumption and exhaust emission. Idling emissions can be as high as 86.4 g/h, 16,500 g/h, 5130 g/h, 4 g/h, and 375 g/h for HC, CO 2 , CO, PM, and NOx, respectively. Idling fuel consumption rate can be as high as 1.85 gal/h. The accessory loading, truck model, fuel-injection system, ambient temperature, idling speed, etc., also affect significantly the emission levels and fuel consumption rate. An increase in accessory loading and ambient temperature increases the emissions and fuel consumption. During idling, electronic fuel-injection systems reduce HC, PM, and CO emission, but increase NOx emissions compared with a mechanical fuel-injection system. An increase of idling speed increases fuel consumption rate. There are many systems available on the market to reduce engine idling and improve air quality and fuel consumption rate, such as an auxiliary power unit (APU), truck stop electrification, thermal storage systems, fuel cells, and direct fire heaters. A direct fire heater reduces fuel consumption by 94–96% and an APU reduces consumption by 60–87%. Furthermore, these technologies increase air quality significantly by reducing idling emissions, which is the reason why they are considered as key alternatives to

  7. Potential nanotechnology applications for reducing freshwater consumption at coal fired power plants : an early view.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2010-09-17

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the overall research effort of the Existing Plants Research Program by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. A growing challenge to the economic production of electricity from coal-fired power plants is the demand for freshwater, particularly in light of the projected trends for increasing demands and decreasing supplies of freshwater. Nanotechnology uses the unique chemical, physical, and biological properties that are associated with materials at the nanoscale to create and use materials, devices, and systems with new functions and properties. It is possible that nanotechnology may open the door to a variety of potentially interesting ways to reduce freshwater consumption at power plants. This report provides an overview of how applications of nanotechnology could potentially help reduce freshwater use at coal-fired power plants. It was developed by (1) identifying areas within a coal-fired power plant's operations where freshwater use occurs and could possibly be reduced, (2) conducting a literature review to identify potential applications of nanotechnology for facilitating such reductions, and (3) collecting additional information on potential applications from researchers and companies to clarify or expand on information obtained from the literature. Opportunities, areas, and processes for reducing freshwater use in coal-fired power plants considered in this report include the use of nontraditional waters in process and cooling water systems, carbon capture alternatives, more efficient processes for removing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, coolants that have higher thermal conductivities than water alone, energy storage options, and a variety of plant inefficiencies, which

  8. Reducing power consumption while performing collective operations on a plurality of compute nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Peters, Amanda E [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian E [Rochester, MN

    2011-10-18

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption while performing collective operations on a plurality of compute nodes that include: receiving, by each compute node, instructions to perform a type of collective operation; selecting, by each compute node from a plurality of collective operations for the collective operation type, a particular collective operation in dependence upon power consumption characteristics for each of the plurality of collective operations; and executing, by each compute node, the selected collective operation.

  9. Reducing meat consumption in today’s consumer society: questioning the citizen-consumer gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, de E.; Dagevos, H.

    2012-01-01

    Our growing demand for meat and dairy food products is unsustainable. It is hard to imagine that this global issue can be solved solely by more efficient technologies. Lowering our meat consumption seems inescapable. Yet, the question is whether modern consumers can be considered as reliable allies

  10. Strategies to reduce electricity consumption on dairy farms : an economic and environmental assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upton, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to assess how, and to what extent, do managerial and technology changes affect electricity consumption, associated costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of dairy farms. Dairy farms in Ireland are expected to expand in the future, due to policy incentives and the

  11. Woody biomass pretreatment for cellulosic ethanol production: Technology and energy consumption evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J Y; Pan, X J

    2010-07-01

    This review presents a comprehensive discussion of the key technical issues in woody biomass pretreatment: barriers to efficient cellulose saccharification, pretreatment energy consumption, in particular energy consumed for wood-size reduction, and criteria to evaluate the performance of a pretreatment. A post-chemical pretreatment size-reduction approach is proposed to significantly reduce mechanical energy consumption. Because the ultimate goal of biofuel production is net energy output, a concept of pretreatment energy efficiency (kg/MJ) based on the total sugar recovery (kg/kg wood) divided by the energy consumption in pretreatment (MJ/kg wood) is defined. It is then used to evaluate the performances of three of the most promising pretreatment technologies: steam explosion, organosolv, and sulfite pretreatment to overcome lignocelluloses recalcitrance (SPORL) for softwood pretreatment. The present study found that SPORL is the most efficient process and produced highest sugar yield. Other important issues, such as the effects of lignin on substrate saccharification and the effects of pretreatment on high-value lignin utilization in woody biomass pretreatment, are also discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. New Building Principles In Consequence Of Legislative Demands For Reduced Energy Consumption In Danish Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Rasmus Zederkof; Brohus, Henrik; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2006-01-01

    , exemplified with a case study. The case study evaluates different types of design principles of a typical Danish house, especially with respect to choices of materials etc. As the conclusion of this paper will show, unconventional thinking can negate this effect and even bring about new ways of working......The increasing restrictions in coming building codes regarding energy consumption in housing generate a need to rethink the building design as well as the building process. This paper discusses the need to change/challenge the way structures are conceived in order to accommodate new legislative...... demands regarding energy consumption. More often than not sustainable aspects like the need for reduced energy consumption are implemented late in the design process. This paper investigates the affect of incorporating aspects like solar heat gain and energy consumption in the initial concept...

  13. Electricity Consumption and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the N-11 Emerging Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Afzal, Munshi Naser Ibne; Gow, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the impact of information communication technologies (ICT) on electricity consumption in the Next 11 (N-11) emerging economies over the period 1990-2014 is examined. This period coincides with high economic growth rates in those countries and associated rapidly increasing electricity consumption as well as the ICT revolution that saw the rapid uptake of new ICT by its peoples. Little has been published on the relationship between ICT and electricity consumption in the N-11 emer...

  14. Reducing windshear risk through airborne systems technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Roland L.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary set of performance criteria for predictive windshear detection and warning systems is defined. Candidate airborne remote sensor technologies based on microwave Doppler radar, Doppler lidar, and IR radiometric techniques are examined from the viewpoint of overall system requirements, and the performance of each sensor is evaluated for representative microburst environments and ground clutter conditions. Preliminary simulation results indicate that all three sensors have potential for detecting windshear, and provide adequate warning time to permit flight crews to avoid the affected area or escape from the encounter.

  15. A Study Protocol for Testing the Effectiveness of User-Generated Content in Reducing Excessive Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herziger, Atar; Benzerga, Amel; Berkessel, Jana; Dinartika, Niken L; Franklin, Matija; Steinnes, Kamilla K; Sundström, Felicia

    2017-01-01

    Excessive consumption is on the rise, as is apparent in growing financial debt and global greenhouse gas emissions. Voluntary simplicity, a lifestyle choice of reduced consumption and sustainable consumer behavior, provides a potential solution for excessive consumers. However, voluntary simplicity is unpopular, difficult to adopt, and under researched. The outlined research project will test a method of promoting voluntary simplicity via user-generated content, thus mimicking an existing social media trend (Minimalism) in an empirical research design. The project will test (a) whether the Minimalism trend could benefit consumers interested in reducing their consumption, and (b) whether self-transcendence (i.e., biospheric) and self-enhancement (i.e., egoistic and hedonic) values and goals have a similar impact in promoting voluntary simplicity. A one-week intervention program will test the efficacy of watching user-generated voluntary simplicity videos in reducing non-essential consumption. Each of the two intervention conditions will present participants with similar tutorial videos on consumption reduction (e.g., decluttering, donating), while priming the relevant values and goals (self-transcendence or self-enhancement). These interventions will be compared to a control condition, involving no user-generated content. Participants will undergo baseline and post-intervention evaluations of: voluntary simplicity attitudes and behaviors, buying and shopping behaviors, values and goals in reducing consumption, and life satisfaction. Experience sampling will monitor affective state during the intervention. We provide a detailed stepwise procedure, materials, and equipment necessary for executing this intervention. The outlined research design is expected to contribute to the limited literature on voluntary simplicity, online behavioral change interventions, and the use of social marketing principles in consumer interventions.

  16. A Study Protocol for Testing the Effectiveness of User-Generated Content in Reducing Excessive Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atar Herziger

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive consumption is on the rise, as is apparent in growing financial debt and global greenhouse gas emissions. Voluntary simplicity, a lifestyle choice of reduced consumption and sustainable consumer behavior, provides a potential solution for excessive consumers. However, voluntary simplicity is unpopular, difficult to adopt, and under researched. The outlined research project will test a method of promoting voluntary simplicity via user-generated content, thus mimicking an existing social media trend (Minimalism in an empirical research design. The project will test (a whether the Minimalism trend could benefit consumers interested in reducing their consumption, and (b whether self-transcendence (i.e., biospheric and self-enhancement (i.e., egoistic and hedonic values and goals have a similar impact in promoting voluntary simplicity. A one-week intervention program will test the efficacy of watching user-generated voluntary simplicity videos in reducing non-essential consumption. Each of the two intervention conditions will present participants with similar tutorial videos on consumption reduction (e.g., decluttering, donating, while priming the relevant values and goals (self-transcendence or self-enhancement. These interventions will be compared to a control condition, involving no user-generated content. Participants will undergo baseline and post-intervention evaluations of: voluntary simplicity attitudes and behaviors, buying and shopping behaviors, values and goals in reducing consumption, and life satisfaction. Experience sampling will monitor affective state during the intervention. We provide a detailed stepwise procedure, materials, and equipment necessary for executing this intervention. The outlined research design is expected to contribute to the limited literature on voluntary simplicity, online behavioral change interventions, and the use of social marketing principles in consumer interventions.

  17. Measuring the Efficacy of an Energy and Environmental Awareness Campaign to Effectively Reduce Water Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laura Little

    2010-01-01

    Increased energy costs and a move toward environmental stewardship are driving many organizations, including universities, to engage in awareness efforts to reduce both energy consumption and their carbon footprint. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether organizational programs aimed at energy and environmental awareness have a…

  18. Control Motion Approach of a Lower Limb Orthosis to Reduce Energy Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sanz-Merodio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available By analysing the dynamic principles of the human gait, an economic gait-control analysis is performed, and passive elements are included to increase the energy efficiency in the motion control of active orthoses. Traditional orthoses use position patterns from the clinical gait analyses (CGAs of healthy people, which are then de-normalized and adjusted to each user. These orthoses maintain a very rigid gait, and their energy cost is very high, reducing the autonomy of the user. First, to take advantage of the inherent dynamics of the legs, a state machine pattern with different gains in each state is applied to reduce the actuator energy consumption. Next, different passive elements, such as springs and brakes in the joints, are analysed to further reduce energy consumption. After an off-line parameter optimization and a heuristic improvement with genetic algorithms, a reduction in energy consumption of 16.8% is obtained by applying a state machine control pattern, and a reduction of 18.9% is obtained by using passive elements. Finally, by combining both strategies, a more natural gait is obtained, and energy consumption is reduced by 24.6% compared with a pure CGA pattern.

  19. A New System to Estimate and Reduce Electrical Energy Consumption of Domestic Hot Water in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gutierrez-Escolar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption rose about 28% over the 2001 to 2011 period in the Spanish residential sector. In this environment, domestic hot water (DHW represents the second highest energy demand. There are several methodologies to estimate DHW consumption, but each methodology uses different inputs and some of them are based on obsolete data. DHW energy consumption estimation is a key tool to plan modifications that could enhance this consumption and we decided to update the methodologies. We studied DHW consumption with data from 10 apartments in the same building during 18 months. As a result of the study, we updated one chosen methodology, adapting it to the current situation. One of the challenges to improve efficiency of DHW use is that most of people are not aware of how it is consumed in their homes. To help this information to reach consumers, we developed a website to allow users to estimate the final electrical energy needed for DHW. The site uses three estimation methodologies and chooses the best fit based on information given by the users. Finally, the application provides users with recommendations and tips to reduce their DHW consumption while still maintaining the desired comfort level.

  20. Determination of Technological Electric Power Consumption for Its Transportation while Using Block-Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Pavlovets

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a method for calculation of the technological electric power consumption for its transportation in the elements of power network while using block-stations under conditions of differently-directed electric power transfer.The calculation of technological electric power consumption for its transportation can be applied while supplying several consumers with one element of power network simultaneously with block-station operation. 

  1. Does minimum pricing reduce alcohol consumption? The experience of a Canadian province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Tim; Auld, M Christopher; Zhao, Jinhui; Martin, Gina

    2012-05-01

    Minimum alcohol prices in British Columbia have been adjusted intermittently over the past 20 years. The present study estimates impacts of these adjustments on alcohol consumption. Time-series and longitudinal models of aggregate alcohol consumption with price and other economic data as independent variables. British Columbia (BC), Canada. The population of British Columbia, Canada, aged 15 years and over. Data on alcohol prices and sales for different beverages were provided by the BC Liquor Distribution Branch for 1989-2010. Data on household income were sourced from Statistics Canada. Longitudinal estimates suggest that a 10% increase in the minimum price of an alcoholic beverage reduced its consumption relative to other beverages by 16.1% (P consumption of spirits and liqueurs by 6.8% (P = 0.004), wine by 8.9% (P = 0.033), alcoholic sodas and ciders by 13.9% (P = 0.067), beer by 1.5% (P = 0.043) and all alcoholic drinks by 3.4% (P = 0.007). Increases in minimum prices of alcoholic beverages can substantially reduce alcohol consumption. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Introduction of a school fruit program is associated with reduced frequency of consumption of unhealthy snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Bere, Elling

    2012-11-01

    A diet high in fruit and vegetables (FV) is inversely related to chronic diseases, and some studies suggest that increasing the intake of FV reduces the intake of unhealthy snacks. The objectives were to analyze changes in the frequency of consumption of unhealthy snacks (soda, candy, and potato chips) from 2001 to 2008 in Norwegian children, to assess whether being part of a school fruit program reduces the frequency of unhealthy snack consumption, and to explore differences in sex and socioeconomic status. Within the project Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks, 1488 sixth- and seventh-grade pupils from 27 Norwegian elementary schools completed a questionnaire in 2001, and 1339 sixth- and seventh-grade pupils from the same schools completed the same questionnaire in 2008. In 2001, none of the schools had any organized school fruit program. In 2008, 15 schools participated in a program and 12 did not participate in any program. From 2001 to 2008, the frequency of unhealthy snack consumption decreased from 6.9 to 4.6 times/wk (P snack consumption in children of parents without higher education (from 7.8 to 4.0 times/wk; P = 0.004). The frequency of unhealthy snack consumption decreased from 2001 to 2008 in schoolchildren in Norway. The decrease was most evident among children at schools participating in the national free school fruit program and in children with a low socioeconomic status.

  3. SYSTEM FOR AUTOMATIC SELECTION OF THE SPEED RATE OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES FOR REDUCING THE POWER CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. O. Soroka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The work is aimed to design a system for automatic selection of the optimal traffic modes and automatic monitoring of the electric energy consumption by electric transport. This automatic system should provide for the minimum energy expenses. Methodology. Current methodologies: 1 mathematical modeling of traffic modes of ground electric vehicles; 2 comparison of modelling results with the statistical monitoring; 3 system development for automatic choice of traffic modes of electric transport with minimal electrical energy consumptions taking into account the given route schedules and the limitations imposed by the general traffic rules. Findings. The authors obtained a mathematical dependency of the energy consumption by electric transport enterprises on the monthly averaged environment temperature was obtained. A system which allows for an automatic selection of the speed limit and provides automatic monitoring of the electrical energy consumption by electric vehicles was proposed in the form of local network, which works together with existing GPS system. Originality. A mathematical model for calculating the motion curves and energy consumption of electric vehicles has been developed. This model takes into account the characteristic values of the motor engine and the steering system, the change of the mass when loading or unloading passengers, the slopes and radii of the roads, the limitations given by the general traffic rules, and other factors. The dependency of the energy consumption on the averaged monthly environment temperature for public electric transport companies has been calculated. Practical value. The developed mathematical model simplifies the calculations of the traffic dynamics and energy consumption. It can be used for calculating the routing maps, for design and upgrade of the power networks, for development of the electricity saving measures. The system simplifies the work of the vehicle driver and allows reducing

  4. Intraoperative esmolol infusion reduces postoperative analgesic consumption and anaesthetic use during septorhinoplasty: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalan Celebi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Esmolol is known to have no analgesic activity and no anaesthetic properties; however, it could potentiate the reduction in anaesthetic requirements and reduce postoperative analgesic use. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of intravenous esmolol infusion on intraoperative and postoperative analgesic consumptions as well as its effect on depth of anaesthesia. Methods: This randomized-controlled double blind study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital between March and June 2010. Sixty patients undergoing septorhinoplasty were randomized into two groups. History of allergy to drugs used in the study, ischaemic heart disease, heart block, bronchial asthma, hepatic or renal dysfunction, obesity and a history of chronic use of analgesic or β-blockers were considered cause for exclusion from the study. Thirty patients received esmolol and remifentanil (esmolol group and 30 patients received normal saline and remifentanil (control group as an intravenous infusion during the procedure. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and bispectral index values were recorded every 10min. Total remifentanil consumption, visual analogue scale scores, time to first analgesia and total postoperative morphine consumption were recorded. Results: The total remifentanil consumption, visual analogue scale scores at 0, 20 and 60 min, total morphine consumption, time to first analgesia and the number of patients who needed an intravenous morphine were lower in the esmolol group. Conclusions: Intravenous infusion of esmolol reduced the intraoperative and postoperative analgesic consumption, reduced visual analogue scale scores in the early postoperative period and prolonged the time to first analgesia; however it did not influence the depth of anaesthesia.

  5. Ways of reducing fuel consumption during the processing of aluminium scrap and waste in reverberatory furnances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsaregorodtsev, M.F.; Degtyareva, S.G.; Korneva, N.K.; Shklar, M.S.

    1980-01-01

    Results are given for the study of reverberatory furnances for melting aluminium scrap and waste. A rational thermal regimen is worked out for each furnace. Measures are recommended for improving the operation of the furnaces and reducing fuel consumption. The advantages of using layered batch-loading, increasing the extent of using vats of operating furnaces, increasing thermal loads, expanding the use of blast furnace air heated in the recuperators or automatic air heaters are pointed. Tabulated data are given on the thermal regimen of furnaces and fuel consumption. 4 figures, 3 tables.

  6. Heating technologies for limiting biomass consumption in 100% renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    district heating enables the use of combined heat and power production (CPH) and other renewable resources than biomass such as large-scale solar thermal, large-heat pumps, geothermal heat, industrial surplus heat etc. which is important for reducing the biomass consumption. Where the energy density......The utilisation of biomass poses large challenges in renewable energy systems and buildings account for a substantial part of the energy supply also in 100% renewable energy systems. The analyses of heating technologies show that district heating systems are especially important in limiting...... the dependence on biomass resources and to create cost effective systems. District heating systems are especially important in renewable energy systems with large amounts of fluctuating renewable energy sources as it enables fuel efficient and lower cost energy systems with thermal heat storages. And also...

  7. Passive Solar Techniques to Improve Thermal Comfort and Reduce Energy Consumption of Domestic Use

    OpenAIRE

    Naci Kalkan; Ihsan Dagtekin

    2016-01-01

    Passive design responds to improve indoor thermal comfort and minimize the energy consumption. The present research analyzed the how efficiently passive solar technologies generate heating and cooling and provide the system integration for domestic applications. In addition to this, the aim of this study is to increase the efficiency of solar systems system with integration some innovation and optimization. As a result, outputs of the project might start a new sector to provide environmentall...

  8. Tackling student binge drinking: Pairing incongruent messages and measures reduces alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Russell R C; Lawton, Rebecca; Pals, Elisah; O'Connor, Daryl B; McEachan, Rosemary R C

    2015-09-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is a persistent problem in Northern European cultures. Across a 2-week period, we tested the effect of varying message frames, message types, and response measures, in reducing alcohol consumption. Three hundred and twenty-three respondents were allocated to a 2 (message frame: gain vs. loss) × 2 (message type: health vs. social) × 2 (response type: engaging vs. refraining) mixed design. Binge drinking and units consumed were measured at Time 1 and Time 2 (2 weeks later). Participants read (following Time 1) a gain- or loss-framed message on binging emphasizing either social or health consequences and answered engaging in or refraining from drinking attitude measures. No main effects were identified. The key finding was that gain-framed messages, when used in conjunction with engage response measures (an incongruous pairing), were highly effective in reducing alcohol consumption 2 weeks later compared with the other message frame/response measure combinations. We suggest that for prevention behaviours, gain-framed messages, when paired with engage response measures, initiate an inconsistency resolution process. Together, our findings emphasize the importance of message frame and response type when seeking to reduce alcohol consumption using persuasive health messages. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  9. New technologies to reduce pediatric radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, Philipp; Lendl, Markus; Deinzer, Frank

    2006-01-01

    X-ray dose reduction in pediatrics is particularly important because babies and children are very sensitive to radiation exposure. We present new developments to further decrease pediatric patient dose. With the help of an advanced exposure control, a constant image quality can be maintained for all patient sizes, leading to dose savings for babies and children of up to 30%. Because objects of interest are quite small and the speed of motion is high in pediatric patients, short pulse widths down to 4 ms are important to reduce motion blurring artifacts. Further, a new noise-reduction algorithm is presented that detects and processes signal and noise in different frequency bands, generating smooth images without contrast loss. Finally, we introduce a super-resolution technique: two or more medical images, which are shifted against each other in a subpixel region, are combined to resolve structures smaller than the size of a single pixel. Advanced exposure control, short exposure times, noise reduction and super-resolution provide improved image quality, which can also be invested to save radiation exposure. All in all, the tools presented here offer a large potential to minimize the deterministic and stochastic risks of radiation exposure. (orig.)

  10. Review of Water Consumption and Water Conservation Technologies in the Algal Biofuel Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Qingshi; Lu, Mingming; Thiansathit, Worrarat; Keener, Tim C

    2016-01-01

    Although water is one of the most critical factors affecting the sustainable development of algal biofuels, it is much less studied as compared to the extensive research on algal biofuel production technologies. This paper provides a review of the recent studies on water consumption of the algae biofuel process and presents the water conservation technologies applicable at different stages of the algal biofuel process. Open ponds tend to have much higher water consumption (216 to 2000 gal/gal) than photobioreactors (25 to 72 gal/gal). Algae growth accounts for the highest water consumption (165 to 2000 gal/gal) in the open pond system. Water consumption during harvesting, oil extraction, and biofuel conversion are much less compared with the growth stage. Potential water conservation opportunities include technology innovations and better management practices at different stages of algal biofuel production.

  11. Repeated soil application of organic waste amendments reduces draught force and fuel consumption for soil tillage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltrea, Clément; Nyord, Tavs; Bruun, Sander

    2015-01-01

    for soil tillage, and this still needs to be addressed for fields that receive diverse types of organic waste of urban, agricultural and agro-industrial origin. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of changes in SOC induced by repeated soil application of OWP on draught force for soil...... tillage and tractor fuel consumption. Draught force was measured for tillage with conventional spring tillage tines, as well as bulk density, soil texture and SOC content in the CRUCIAL field experiment, Denmark in which diverse types of OWP had been applied annually for 11 years. The OWP included...... for different organic wastes influenced the specific draught. Overall, the decrease in draught force could lead to a decrease in tractor fuel consumption for soil tillage of up to 25% for compost applied at an accelerated rate and up to 14% for compost applied at a normal rate. This reduced fuel consumption...

  12. Methamphetamine self-administration reduces alcohol consumption and preference in alcohol-preferring P rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Madeline C; Greager, Emilee M; Stafford, Jacob; Bachtell, Ryan K

    2018-01-01

    Subclinical levels of polysubstance use are a prevalent and understudied phenomenon. Alcohol is a substance commonly co-used with other substances of other drug classes. These studies sought to determine the consumption effects of combining alcohol drinking and methamphetamine (MA) self-administration. Male alcohol-preferring P rats had continuous access to a two-bottle alcohol drinking procedure in the home cage. Control rats remained alcohol naïve. Rats were also surgically implanted with intra-jugular catheters and trained to self-administer saline (control) or MA in daily 2-hour sessions. We first measured the acquisition and maintenance of MA intake in alcohol-consuming or control rats. MA intake was initially enhanced by alcohol consumption on a fixed ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement, but this effect did not prevail as the difficulty of the schedule (FR5 and progressive ratio) was increased. We next measured both alcohol consumption and preference before, during and after MA (or saline) self-administration. MA self-administration significantly reduced alcohol intake and preference ratios, a robust effect that persisted across several experimental variations. Interestingly, alcohol consumption rebounded following the cessation of MA self-administration. The effects of MA self-administration were specific to alcohol intake because it did not alter total fluid consumption or consumption of sucrose. MA self-administration did not impact blood-alcohol concentrations or alcohol-induced loss of righting reflex suggesting no effect of MA intake on the alcohol metabolism or sensitivity. Together, the results suggest that MA intake disrupts alcohol consumption and preferences but not the reverse in alcohol-preferring P rats. © 2016 The Authors.Addiction Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. Methamphetamine self‐administration reduces alcohol consumption and preference in alcohol‐preferring P rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Madeline C.; Greager, Emilee M.; Stafford, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Subclinical levels of polysubstance use are a prevalent and understudied phenomenon. Alcohol is a substance commonly co‐used with other substances of other drug classes. These studies sought to determine the consumption effects of combining alcohol drinking and methamphetamine (MA) self‐administration. Male alcohol‐preferring P rats had continuous access to a two‐bottle alcohol drinking procedure in the home cage. Control rats remained alcohol naïve. Rats were also surgically implanted with intra‐jugular catheters and trained to self‐administer saline (control) or MA in daily 2‐hour sessions. We first measured the acquisition and maintenance of MA intake in alcohol‐consuming or control rats. MA intake was initially enhanced by alcohol consumption on a fixed ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement, but this effect did not prevail as the difficulty of the schedule (FR5 and progressive ratio) was increased. We next measured both alcohol consumption and preference before, during and after MA (or saline) self‐administration. MA self‐administration significantly reduced alcohol intake and preference ratios, a robust effect that persisted across several experimental variations. Interestingly, alcohol consumption rebounded following the cessation of MA self‐administration. The effects of MA self‐administration were specific to alcohol intake because it did not alter total fluid consumption or consumption of sucrose. MA self‐administration did not impact blood‐alcohol concentrations or alcohol‐induced loss of righting reflex suggesting no effect of MA intake on the alcohol metabolism or sensitivity. Together, the results suggest that MA intake disrupts alcohol consumption and preferences but not the reverse in alcohol‐preferring P rats. PMID:27860181

  14. Assessment of methods to reduce the energy consumption of food cold stores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.A.; Hammond, E.C.; Gigiel, A.J.; Fostera, A.M.; Reinholdt, L.; Fikiin, K.; Zilio, C.

    2014-01-01

    Energy is a major cost in the operation of food cold stores. Work has shown that considerable energy savings can be achieved in cold stores. Results from 38 cold store audits carried out across Europe are presented. Substantial savings could be achieved if operation of cold storage facilities were optimised in terms of heat loads on the rooms and the operation of the refrigeration system. Many improvements identified were low in cost (improved door protection, defrost optimisation, control settings and repairs). In large stores (>100 m 3 ) most improvements identified were cost effective and had short payback times, whereas in small stores there were fewer energy saving options that had realistic payback times. The potential for large energy savings of at minimum 8% and at maximum 72% were identified by optimising usage of stores, repairing current equipment and by retrofitting of energy efficient equipment. Often these improvements had short payback times of less than 1 year. In each facility the options to reduce energy consumption varied. This indicated that to fully identify the maximum energy savings, recommendations need to be specific to a particular plant. General recommendations cannot fully exploit the energy savings available and therefore to maximise energy savings it is essential to monitor and analyse data from each facility. -- Highlights: • Reasons for the large variation in cold store energy efficiency were investigated. • The issues affecting energy efficiency were categorised and compared. • Energy savings of between 8 and 82% were identified. • Payback periods to implement energy efficiency options and technologies varied. • Seventy-one percent of the issues identified had paybacks of less than 3 years

  15. A Brief Orientation Week Ecological Momentary Intervention to Reduce University Student Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Benjamin C; Conner, Tamlin S; Flett, Jayde A M; Scarf, Damian

    2015-07-01

    Orientation Week is a series of events at the beginning of the university year that introduces incoming students to university life. It is also the period of the academic year when students consume more alcohol than at any other time. Recently, we demonstrated that alcohol consumption during Orientation Week was related to alcohol consumption during the academic year. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a brief Ecological Momentary Intervention (EMI) implemented during Orientation Week could reduce alcohol consumption during Orientation Week and throughout the academic year. Participants were 130 freshman-year university students (72 women, 58 men) randomly assigned to either an Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) condition or an EMA-EMI condition. In both conditions, participants reported pre-university, Orientation Week, and academic year weekend alcohol consumption. Those in the EMA-EMI condition also received EMI text messages promoting moderation every night during Orientation Week. Although the EMI did not reduce men's drinking, women in the EMA-EMI condition, compared with women in the EMA condition, consumed significantly fewer drinks during Orientation Week, M = 17.1, SD = 13.3, vs. M = 26.4, SD = 22.5, respectively, t(70) = -1.927, p students by developing and using EMIs during Orientation Week.

  16. Who is reducing their material consumption and why? A cross-cultural analysis of dematerialization behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmarsh, Lorraine; Capstick, Stuart; Nash, Nicholas

    2017-06-13

    The environmental and economic imperatives to dematerialize economies, or 'do more with less', have been established for some years. Yet, to date, little is known about the personal drivers associated with dematerializing. This paper explores the prevalence and profile of those who are taking action to reduce consumption in different cultural contexts (UK and Brazil) and considers influences on dematerialization behaviours. We find that exemplar behaviours (avoiding buying new things and avoiding packaging) are far less common than archetypal environmental behaviours (e.g. recycling), but also that cultural context is important (Brazilians are more likely to reduce their material consumption than people in the UK). We also find that the two dematerialization behaviours are associated with different pro-environmental actions (more radical action versus green consumption, respectively); and have distinct, but overlapping, psychological (e.g. identity) and socio-demographic (e.g. education) predictors. Comparing a more traditional value-identity model of pro-environmental behaviour with a motivation-based (self-determination) model, we find that the latter explains somewhat more variance than the former. However, overall, little variance is explained, suggesting that additional factors at the personal and structural levels are important for determining these consumption behaviours. We conclude by outlining policy implications and avenues for further research.This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Gross world product and consumption in a global warming model with endogenous technological change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlagh, R.; van der Zwaan, B.C.C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the macro-economic costs and effects on consumption and energy demand of limiting the global average atmospheric temperature increase to 2 °C. We use a macro-economic model in which there are two competing energy technologies (carbon and non-carbon, respectively), technological

  18. Motivation to reduce alcohol consumption and subsequent attempts at reduction and changes in consumption in increasing and higher-risk drinkers in England: a prospective population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vocht, Frank; Brown, Jamie; Beard, Emma; West, Robert; Michie, Susan; Campbell, Rona; Hickman, Matthew

    2018-05-01

    To assess how far motivation to reduce alcohol consumption in increasing and higher-risk drinkers in England predicts self-reported attempts to reduce alcohol consumption and changes in alcohol intake during the following 6 months. This study used self-reported data from 2928 higher-risk drinkers in the Alcohol Toolkit Study (ATS): a series of monthly cross-sectional household surveys of adults aged 16+ years of age in England. Alcohol consumption was measured in an initial survey and in a 6-month telephone follow-up interview using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)-C questionnaire. Motivation was measured in the initial survey using the Motivation to Reduce Alcohol Consumption (MRAC) scale. Attempts to reduce alcohol consumption during the past 6 months were recorded at follow-up. Data were analysed using repeated-measures difference-in-differences and logistic regression models. Participants with higher initial motivation to reduce alcohol consumption were more likely to report that they had made an attempt to reduce consumption at follow-up [adjusted odds ratio (OR adj ) = 2.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.75-3.29]. There was an overall reduction in alcohol consumption between initial survey and follow-up (OR adj  = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.65-0.79), but there was insufficient evidence of an additional effect of motivation to reduce consumption on subsequent changes in alcohol consumption, with the difference-in-differences effect instead suggesting an average increase (OR adj  = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.00-1.88). Increasing and higher-risk drinkers in England who report greater motivation to reduce their consumption are more likely to report making an attempt to reduce during the next 6 months, but this may not be associated with a reduction in alcohol consumption. © 2018 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Design and Implementation of PIR-Array to Reduce Power Consumption for Iraq's Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhal Yousif Nasser

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to design and implement a model using PIR-sensors for motion detection to reduce the electrical power for designing smart home requirements for Iraq households. Reducing energy consumption of home appliances plays an important role in modern designs of smart homes. The PIR (passive infrared sensor has been designed to detect human motion and has many applications especially in security fields. The main concept of the proposed work in this paper has focused on controlling the electrical devices (appliances, based on the location of a person movement inside the home. The design of the circuit control has also been designed to run specific devices located closed to person position in a room by designing PIR sensor array mounted in different angles. The proposed work has been compared with normal state by finding consumption in power (kWh and tariffs belong to MoE-Iraq.

  20. Denton, Texas: Using Transportation Data to Reduce Fuel Consumption (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-09-29

    This fact sheet "Denton, Texas: Using Transportation Data to Reduce Fuel Consumption" explains how the City of Denton used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  1. Reducing Energy Consumption in Manet Using A Layer Three Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Robert SIMION

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET is an autonomous system based on wireless links in which information is exchanged without having any centralized administration. In this paper, one of its main challenge, the limited battery power is treated. Based on the network layer information an energy reduction algorithm was proposed and the influence of reduced energy consumption over other metrics was studied. The paper pays a special attention to the effects of the hidden terminal problem in mobile wireless network.

  2. Evaluation of white water reuse in the bleaching process for reducing fresh water consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, A A; Glória, P M; d'Angelo, J V H; Perissotto, D O; Lima, R A

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to study the technical viability of using the effluent generated in paper machines (white water) in the wash presses of the bleaching stage, reducing fresh water consumption. As a case study, the industrial process of Ripasa S.A. Celulose e Papel was evaluated. White water rate is about 700 m3/h and it is not possible to reuse all this volume in the bleaching stage without causing operational problems (fouling in tubes and clogging in the screens). A mass balance of the bleaching unit was developed in an electronic spreadsheet in order to evaluate the possibility of reducing fresh water consumption, using only a fraction of the available white water in the wash presses. To achieve this objective some physical-chemistry properties of the white water stream and of other streams of the process were determined. The maximum concentration of some non-process elements (Si, Ca, Mn and Fe), which could accumulate in the process, were determined in order to establish some parameters to allow process integration of the streams involved, considering operational constraints. The results obtained have shown that it is possible to reduce approximately by 13% the consumption of fresh water and this methodology has been satisfactory.

  3. The impact of advanced wastewater treatment technologies and wastewater strength on the energy consumption of large wastewater treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Timothy

    Wastewater treatment is an energy intensive process often requiring the use of advanced treatment technologies. Stricter effluent standards have resulted in an increase in the number of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with advanced treatment over time. Accordingly, associated energy consumption has also increased. Concerns about lowering operating costs for WWTPs and reducing associated greenhouse gas generation present an incentive to investigate energy use in WWTPs. This research investigated the impact of wastewater strength and the introduction of advanced treatment technologies, to replace traditional technologies on energy use to treat wastewater in WWTPs. Major unit processes were designed for a 100 MGD plant and variables controlling energy were identified and used to compute energy consumption. Except for primary clarification and plate and frame press dewatering, energy consumption computed using fundamental equations are within values in the literature. Results show that energy consumption for dissolved air flotation thickeners, centrifuges, gravity thickeners, and aeration basins are heavily influence by wastewater strength. Secondary treatment and tertiary treatment require a significant amount of energy. Secondary treatment requires 104 times the energy of preliminary treatment, 17 times the energy of solids processing, and 2.5 times the energy of tertiary treatment. Secondary treatment requires 41 times the energy of preliminary treatment, and 7 times the energy of solids processing. The results of this research provide a means of estimating energy consumption in the design and operation phase of a WWTP. By using the fundamental equations and methodology presented, alternative technologies can be compared or targeted for future energy savings implementation. Limitations of the methodology include design assumptions having to be made carefully, as well as assumptions of motor and equipment efficiencies.

  4. Behavioral and technological changes regarding lighting consumptions: a MARKAL case study

    OpenAIRE

    Fragnière, Emmanuel; Kanala, Roman; Lavigne, Denis; Moresino, Francesco; Nguene, Gustave

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims at assessing the joint impact of awareness campaigns and technology choice, on end-use energy consumption behaviour. Actions to achieve energy savings through the use of more energy efficient end-use technology are included. A new MARKAL framework, the Socio-MARKAL, was recently proposed by the authors. As opposed to the traditional MARKAL framework based on technical and economic considerations, the Socio-MARKAL concept integrates technological, economic and behavioura...

  5. Consumption of Salt Rich Products in the UK: Impact of The Reduced Salt Campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Abhijit; di Falco, Salvatore; Fraser, Iain

    2015-01-01

    This paper makes use of a leading UK supermarket’s loyalty card based data which records information on purchase decisions by consumers who shop at its stores in order to assess the effectiveness and impact of the UK reduced salt campaign. We present an empirical analysis of consumption data to assess the effectiveness of the UK Food Standard Agency’s (FSA) ‘reduced salt campaign’ on the basis of information on health related announcements undertaken by the FSA under its ‘low salt campaign’. ...

  6. Is this the end of the paper? Technological advances and their potential impacts on the consumption of paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Hermínio Salati Marcondes de Moraes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The supply and use of information technology have changed the profile of individuals worldwide. The analysis of the profile of Brazilian citizens indicates that the supply of information technology and the profile of the population changed in recent decades, separately or together. By obtaining an index such as, education, access to mobile telephony and computers with internet access, we can perceive changes in the habits of Brazil in recent years. With the increasing technological advances such as the emergence of tablet-PCs, e-paper, smartphones, digital cameras, among others, there is a growing expectation of a decrease in paper consumption. On the other hand, greater access to information - with internet available in several locations at low cost - and technologies such as printers increasingly affordable prices, tends to increase the volume of impressions, as well as the consumption of equipment increases the consumption of packaging based on paper. This study drew statistical studies between the increased use of information technology and paper consumption in the Brazilian market, using data for twenty years - from 1990 to 2009 - Bracelpa (Associação Brasileira de Celulose e Papel and the Annual Survey of Management Resources for Informatics at the Fundação Getúlio Vargas – Escola de Administração do Estado de São Paulo (FGV-EAESP. Through the literature review on the topic and statistical tests, it was investigated whether corporate investments in information technology provided to reduce the consumption of certain types of papers in Brazilian marketplace. To answer the hypotheses, we performed a correlation between the development of paper consumption, according to the types (newsprint, printing and writing, and investments in information technology, according to the sectors (services, industry and trade. The results corroborate the earlier study, developed by Moraes Meirelles and Nacimiento (2010, which was analyzed in a

  7. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on developing a silicon manufacturing process with reduced energy consumption. Investigation and research on analyzing practical application of a technology to manufacture solar cell silicon raw materials; 1997 nendo energy shiyo gorika silicon seizo process kaihatsu. Taiyo denchi silicon genryo seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes the achievement in fiscal 1997 of analyzing practical application of a technology to manufacture solar cell silicon raw materials. Silicon consumption for solar cells in fiscal 1997 has increased to 2000-ton level, and the supply has been very tight. For drastic improvement in the demand and supply situation, development of SOG-Si manufacturing technology and its early practical application are desired. The development of the NEDO mass-production technology using melting and refining has completed constructing the process facilities in fiscal 1998, and will enter the stage of operational research. However, insufficiency in the basic data about behavior of impurities is inhibiting the development. In the substrate manufacturing technology, discussions have shown progress on use of diversifying silicons outside the standard by using the electromagnetic casting process. For slicing and processing the substrates, development of a high-performance slicing equipment and automatic rough rinsing machine is under way. Properties required on silicon raw materials vary considerably widely because of difference in cell making systems and conditions, which is attributable to unknown impurity behavior. When 1GW production is assumed, the cell module manufacturing cost is calculated as 137 yen/W, for which low-cost mass production for its realization, slicing productivity enhancement, and cost reduction are required. The paper also describes site surveys in overseas countries. (NEDO)

  8. Daily grape juice consumption reduces oxidative DNA damage and plasma free radical levels in healthy Koreans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yoo Kyoung; Park, Eunju; Kim, Jung-Shin; Kang, Myung-Hee

    2003-01-01

    Grape contains flavonoids with antioxidant properties which are believed to be protective against various types of cancer. This antioxidative protection is possibly provided by the effective scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus defending cellular DNA from oxidative damage and potential mutations. This study of healthy adults tested whether a daily regimen of grape juice supplementation could reduce cellular DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes and reduce the amount of free radicals released. Sixty-seven healthy volunteers (16 women and 51 men) aged 19-57 years were given 480 ml of grape juice daily for 8 weeks in addition to their normal diet, and blood samples were drawn before and after the intervention. The DNA damage was determined by using the single cell gel (comet) assay with alkaline electrophoresis and was quantified by measuring tail length (TL). Levels of free radicals were determined by reading the lucigenin-perborate ROS generating source, using the Ultra-Weak Chemiluminescence Analyzer System. Grape juice consumption resulted in a significant decrease in lymphocyte DNA damage expressed by TL (before supplementation: 88.75±1.55 μm versus after supplementation: 70.25±1.31 μm; P=0.000 by paired t-test). Additionally, grape juice consumption for 8 weeks reduced the ROS/photon count by 15%, compared to the beginning of the study. The preventive effect of grape juice against DNA damage was simultaneously shown in both sexes. These results indicate that the consumption of grape juice may increase plasma antioxidant capacity, resulting in reduced DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes achieved at least partially by a reduced release of ROS. Our findings support the hypothesis that polyphenolic compounds contained in grape juice exert cancer-protective effects on lymphocytes, limiting oxidative DNA damage possibly via a decrease in free radical levels

  9. Dark chocolate and reduced snack consumption in mildly hypertensive adults: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koli, Raika; Köhler, Klaus; Tonteri, Elina; Peltonen, Juha; Tikkanen, Heikki; Fogelholm, Mikael

    2015-08-22

    Several studies have shown that cocoa and cocoa-containing foods have the potential to lower blood pressure and improve endothelial function. Most of the studies reporting the beneficial effects of dark chocolate on blood pressure have been short (≤ 4 weeks). The aim of the present 8-wks (weeks) study was to assess the effects of regular consumption of dark chocolate during a reduced snack consumption intervention on blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors in mildly hypertensive individuals. This was a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial involving 22 adults (8 women, 14 men), aged 33-64 y, BMI 27.7 ± 3.7 kg/m(2) with mild hypertension. During the intervention period (8-wks) the participants reduced the intake of habitual snacks and replaced them with dark chocolate (49 g/day). In the control period, they only reduced the snacks without any added chocolate. Data (blood lipid profile, glucose, insulin, 24 h blood pressure) was collected in the beginning and end of both periods (intervention and control), and some variables also in the run-in and run-out periods (weight, body fat percentage, blood pressure, arterial stiffness index, diet and physical activity). Daily consumption of dark chocolate had no effects on 24 h blood pressure, resting blood pressure (mean ± SD, pre 142 ± 11.5/89 ± 8.4 mmHg vs. post 142 ± 14.2/88 ± 9.4 mmHg in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively) or arterial stiffness (mean ± SD, pre 7.68 ± 0.88 vs. post 7.76 ± 0.89). Weight was reduced by 1.0 ± 2.2 kg during the control (reduced snack only) period, but was unchanged while eating chocolate (p snack period. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02130141.

  10. Ghrelin knockout mice show decreased voluntary alcohol consumption and reduced ethanol-induced conditioned place preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi, Amine; Tolle, Virginie; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Brunel, Luc; Martinez, Jean; Tomasetto, Catherine-Laure; Karam, Sherif M

    2013-05-01

    Recent work suggests that stomach-derived hormone ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonism may reduce motivational aspects of ethanol intake. In the current study we hypothesized that the endogenous GHS-R1A agonist ghrelin modulates alcohol reward mechanisms. For this purpose ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation and voluntary ethanol consumption in a two-bottle choice drinking paradigm were examined under conditions where ghrelin and its receptor were blocked, either using ghrelin knockout (KO) mice or the specific ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonist "JMV2959". We showed that ghrelin KO mice displayed lower ethanol-induced CPP than their wild-type (WT) littermates. Consistently, when injected during CPP-acquisition, JMV2959 reduced CPP-expression in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation was lower in ghrelin KO mice. Moreover, GHS-R1A blockade, using JMV2959, reduced alcohol-stimulated locomotion only in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. When alcohol consumption and preference were assessed using the two-bottle choice test, both genetic deletion of ghrelin and pharmacological antagonism of the GHS-R1A (JMV2959) reduced voluntary alcohol consumption and preference. Finally, JMV2959-induced reduction of alcohol intake was only observed in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. Taken together, these results suggest that ghrelin neurotransmission is necessary for the stimulatory effect of ethanol to occur, whereas lack of ghrelin leads to changes that reduce the voluntary intake as well as conditioned reward by ethanol. Our findings reveal a major, novel role for ghrelin in mediating ethanol behavior, and add to growing evidence that ghrelin is a key mediator of the effects of multiple abused drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Post-Harvest Management Technologies for Reducing Aflatoxin ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Post-Harvest Management Technologies for Reducing Aflatoxin Contamination in Maize Grain and Exposure to Humans in Zimbabwe. This project seeks to investigate innovative post-harvest solutions to reduce aflatoxin contamination in grain. It will aim to limit exposure to children, pregnant women, and lactating mothers, ...

  12. Rye bread consumption in early life and reduced risk of advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torfadottir, Johanna E; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A; Mucci, Lorelei; Stampfer, Meir; Kasperzyk, Julie L; Fall, Katja; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Aspelund, Thor; Olafsson, Orn; Harris, Tamara B; Jonsson, Eirikur; Tulinius, Hrafn; Adami, Hans-Olov; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey

    2012-06-01

    To determine whether consumption of whole-grain rye bread, oatmeal, and whole-wheat bread, during different periods of life, is associated with risk of prostate cancer (PCa). From 2002 to 2006, 2,268 men, aged 67-96 years, reported their dietary habits in the AGES-Reykjavik cohort study. Dietary habits were assessed for early life, midlife, and current life using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Through linkage to cancer and mortality registers, we retrieved information on PCa diagnosis and mortality through 2009. We used regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and hazard ratios (HRs) for PCa according to whole-grain consumption, adjusted for possible confounding factors including fish, fish liver oil, meat, and milk intake. Of the 2,268 men, 347 had or were diagnosed with PCa during follow-up, 63 with advanced disease (stage 3+ or died of PCa). Daily rye bread consumption in adolescence (vs. less than daily) was associated with a decreased risk of PCa diagnosis (OR = 0.76, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.59-0.98) and of advanced PCa (OR = 0.47, 95 % CI: 0.27-0.84). High intake of oatmeal in adolescence (≥5 vs. ≤4 times/week) was not significantly associated with risk of PCa diagnosis (OR = 0.99, 95 % CI: 0.77-1.27) nor advanced PCa (OR = 0.67, 95 % CI: 0.37-1.20). Midlife and late life consumption of rye bread, oatmeal, or whole-wheat bread was not associated with PCa risk. Our results suggest that rye bread consumption in adolescence may be associated with reduced risk of PCa, particularly advanced disease.

  13. Consumption of Yogurt Containing Probiotic Bifidobacterium Lactis Reduces Streptococcus mutans in Orthodontic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelia Sari Widyarman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Probiotic bacteria is commonly used as a food supplement intended to benefit the host by improving intestinal bacterial balance. Probiotics have also been investigated from the perspective of oral health. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of daily intake of yogurt containing probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 (B. lactis on salivary Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans counts in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Methods: Saliva samples were collected from each subject (n = 7; mean age, 21 years using spitting method in centrifuge tubes at baseline and two weeks after daily probiotic yogurt consumption. B. lactis BB-12 and S. mutans ATCC 25175 were cultured in BHI-broth (37ºC, anaerobic conditions. After 48-h incubation, the number of colonies on each dilution plate was used to extrapolate a standard curve. The total number of target DNA molecules were identified using real-time PCR followed by SYBR Green reagents and 16S rRNA gene specific primers S. mutans and B. lactis BB-12. Data were analyzed statistically using paired-sample t-tests. Results: Statistical evaluation indicated that there was a significant reduction in the presence of S. mutans before probiotic yogurt consumption, (4.73 ± 1.43 log10 CFU/mL and after two weeks of daily consumption of probiotic yogurt, (4.03 ± 0.77 log10 CFU/mL, p=0.001. Moreover, no B. lactis was found in the saliva of any of the subjects before probiotic consumption, but after two weeks of consumption, B. lactis was found in the saliva of four subjects. Conclusions: Consuming probiotic yogurt containing B. lactis reduced the quantity of S. mutans in the saliva of subjects during fixed orthodontic treatment. Thus, the probiotic bacteria could be beneficial in improving oral health.

  14. A decision support model for reducing electric energy consumption in elementary school facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Taehoon; Koo, Choongwan; Jeong, Kwangbok

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Decision support model is developed to reduce CO 2 emission in elementary schools. ► The model can select the school to be the most effective in energy savings. ► Decision tree improved the prediction accuracy by 1.83–3.88%. ► Using the model, decision-maker can save the electric-energy consumption by 16.58%. ► The model can make the educational-facility improvement program more effective. -- Abstract: The South Korean government has been actively promoting an educational-facility improvement program as part of its energy-saving efforts. This research seeks to develop a decision support model for selecting the facility expected to be effective in generating energy savings and making the facility improvement program more effective. In this research, project characteristics and electric-energy consumption data for the year 2009 were collected from 6282 elementary schools located in seven metropolitan cities in South Korea. In this research, the following were carried out: (i) a group of educational facilities was established based on electric-energy consumption, using a decision tree; (ii) a number of similar projects were retrieved from the same group of facilities, using case-based reasoning; and (iii) the accuracy of prediction was improved, using the combination of genetic algorithms, the artificial neural network, and multiple regression analysis. The results of this research can be useful for the following purposes: (i) preliminary research on the systematic and continuous management of educational facilities’ electric-energy consumption; (ii) basic research on electric-energy consumption prediction based on the project characteristics; and (iii) practical research for selecting an optimum facility that can more effectively apply an educational-facility improvement program as a decision support model.

  15. In control of variety. High self-control reduces the effect of variety on food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haws, Kelly L; Redden, Joseph P

    2013-10-01

    The presence of variety increases the quantity of food a person wants and consumes. A recent review of past literature (Remick, Polivy, & Pliner, 2009) concludes that although external factors influence this effect of variety, internal factors do not seem to affect it. We identify general self-control as an internal factor that moderates the effects of variety in food. A series of three studies demonstrates that lower trait self-control makes one more susceptible to the variety effect, showing both greater increases in choice regarding the quantity of consumption and desire for more food in the presence of variety. Compared to those with low self-control, people with high self-control experience reduced enjoyment for a variety of foods following consumption of one food. This increased satiation would serve to diminish the variety effect and facilitate positive health outcomes over time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Using Economic Incentives to Reduce Electricity Consumption: A field Experiment in Matsuyama, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Mizobuchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effectiveness of economic incentives in promoting electricity-conservation behavior among Japanese households. Fifty-three Japanese households participated in a field experiment and were offered monetary rewards depending on their rate of reduction in electricity consumption. To avoid bias in sample selection, which is typically present in previous studies, we adopted a request-based approach for recruiting participants. Results showed that only 34% of the participants succeeded in reducing their electricity consumption, and the average reduction rate was –4.8%. Econometric analysis confirmed that monetary rewards had a positive influence on the electricity conservation behavior, especially of family members who typically stay at home on weekdays. Responses to the questionnaires administered before and after the experiment suggest that participants may have underestimated the marginal costs of the electricity conservation behavior. The efficacy of economic incentives, established in our study, offers a potential measure for encouraging electricity-conservation behavior among Japanese households.

  17. Consumption dynamics and technological change - exemplified by the mobile phone and related technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2001-01-01

    The point of departure of this paper is the belief that the lifestyles and constantly growing consumption of the rich countries carry a large responbility for environmental problems and make it difficult to provide the necessary scope for increasing consumption for the poor. There is an urgent ne...

  18. Consumption dynamics and technological change - exemplified by the mobile phone and related technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2003-01-01

    The present paper deals with the dynamics underlying the consumption of new commodities, especially mobile phones, which are among the fastest growing categories of consumption goods in recent years. The paper is based on a research project regarding households' first-time acquisition of new...

  19. Reducing global NOx emissions: developing advanced energy and transportation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Michael J; Jones, Brian M

    2002-03-01

    Globally, energy demand is projected to continue to increase well into the future. As a result, global NOx emissions are projected to continue on an upward trend for the foreseeable future as developing countries increase their standards of living. While the US has experienced improvements in reducing NOx emissions from stationary and mobile sources to reduce ozone, further progress is needed to reduce the health and ecosystem impacts associated with NOx emissions. In other parts of the world, (in developing countries in particular) NOx emissions have been increasing steadily with the growth in demand for electricity and transportation. Advancements in energy and transportation technologies may help avoid this increase in emissions if appropriate policies are implemented. This paper evaluates commercially available power generation and transportation technologies that produce fewer NOx emissions than conventional technologies, and advanced technologies that are on the 10-year commercialization horizon. Various policy approaches will be evaluated which can be implemented on the regional, national and international levels to promote these advanced technologies and ultimately reduce NOx emissions. The concept of the technology leap is offered as a possibility for the developing world to avoid the projected increases in NOx emissions.

  20. Reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Peters, Amanda E [Cambridge, MA; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian E [Rochester, MN

    2012-04-17

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application that include: beginning, by each compute node, performance of a blocking operation specified by the parallel application, each compute node beginning the blocking operation asynchronously with respect to the other compute nodes; reducing, for each compute node, power to one or more hardware components of that compute node in response to that compute node beginning the performance of the blocking operation; and restoring, for each compute node, the power to the hardware components having power reduced in response to all of the compute nodes beginning the performance of the blocking operation.

  1. Reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Peters, Amanda A [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian E [Rochester, MN

    2012-01-10

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application that include: beginning, by each compute node, performance of a blocking operation specified by the parallel application, each compute node beginning the blocking operation asynchronously with respect to the other compute nodes; reducing, for each compute node, power to one or more hardware components of that compute node in response to that compute node beginning the performance of the blocking operation; and restoring, for each compute node, the power to the hardware components having power reduced in response to all of the compute nodes beginning the performance of the blocking operation.

  2. Trends in technology, trade and consumption likely to impact on microbial food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quested, T E; Cook, P E; Gorris, L G M; Cole, M B

    2010-05-30

    Current and potential future trends in technology, consumption and trade of food that may impact on food-borne disease are analysed and the key driving factors identified focusing on the European Union and, to a lesser extent, accounting for the United States and global issues. Understanding of factors is developed using system-based methods and their impact is discussed in relation to current events and predictions of future trends. These factors come from a wide range of spheres relevant to food and include political, economic, social, technological, regulatory and environmental drivers. The degree of certainty in assessing the impact of important driving factors is considered in relation to food-borne disease. The most important factors driving an increase in the burden of food-borne disease in the next few decades were found to be the anticipated doubling of the global demand for food and of the international trade in food next to a significantly increased consumption of certain high-value food commodities such as meat and poultry and fresh produce. A less important factor potentially increasing the food-borne disease burden would be the increased demand for convenience foods. Factors that may contribute to a reduction in the food-borne disease burden were identified as the ability of governments around the world to take effective regulatory measures as well as the development and use of new food safety technologies and detection methods. The most important factor in reducing the burden of food-borne disease was identified as our ability to first detect and investigate a food safety issue and then to develop effective control measures. Given the global scale of impact on food safety that current and potentially future trends have, either by potentially increasing or decreasing the food-borne disease burden, it is concluded that a key role is fulfilled by intergovernmental organisations and by international standard setting bodies in coordinating the

  3. Arginine consumption by the intestinal parasite Giardia intestinalis reduces proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Britta; Merino, María C; Persson, Lo; Svärd, Staffan G

    2012-01-01

    In the field of infectious diseases the multifaceted amino acid arginine has reached special attention as substrate for the hosts production of the antimicrobial agent nitric oxide (NO). A variety of infectious organisms interfere with this part of the host immune response by reducing the availability of arginine. This prompted us to further investigate additional roles of arginine during pathogen infections. As a model we used the intestinal parasite Giardia intestinalis that actively consumes arginine as main energy source and secretes an arginine-consuming enzyme, arginine deiminase (ADI). Reduced intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation is a common theme during bacterial and viral intestinal infections, but it has never been connected to arginine-consumption. Our specific question was thereby, whether the arginine-consumption by Giardia leads to reduced IEC proliferation, in addition to NO reduction. In vitro cultivation of human IEC lines in arginine-free or arginine/citrulline-complemented medium, as well as in interaction with different G. intestinalis isolates, were used to study effects on host cell replication by MTT assay. IEC proliferation was further analyzed by DNA content analysis, polyamine measurements and expressional analysis of cell cycle regulatory genes. IEC proliferation was reduced upon arginine-withdrawal and also in an arginine-dependent manner upon interaction with G. intestinalis or addition of Giardia ADI. We show that arginine-withdrawal by intestinal pathogens leads to a halt in the cell cycle in IECs through reduced polyamine levels and upregulated cell cycle inhibitory genes. This is of importance with regards to intestinal tissue homeostasis that is affected through reduced cell proliferation. Thus, the slower epithelial cell turnover helps the pathogen to maintain a more stable niche for colonization. This study also shows why supplementation therapy of diarrhea patients with arginine/citrulline is helpful and that

  4. Water conservation benefits of urban heat mitigation: can cooling strategies reduce water consumption in California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahmani, P.; Jones, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Urban areas are at the forefront of climate mitigation and adaptation efforts given their high concentration of people, industry, and infrastructure. Many cities globally are seeking strategies to counter the consequences of both a hotter and drier climate. While urban heat mitigation strategies have been shown to have beneficial effects on health, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions, their implications for water conservation have not been widely examined. Here we show that broad implementation of cool roofs, an urban heat mitigation strategy, not only results in significant cooling of air temperature, but also meaningfully decreases outdoor water consumption by reducing evaporative and irrigation water demands. Based on a suite of satellite-supported, multiyear regional climate simulations, we find that cool roof adoption has the potential to reduce outdoor water consumption across the major metropolitan areas in California by up to 9%. Irrigation water savings per capita, induced by cool roofs, range from 1.8 to 15.4 gallons per day across 18 counties examined. Total water savings in Los Angeles county alone is about 83 million gallons per day. While this effect is robust across the 15 years examined (2001-2015), including both drought and non-drought years, we find that cool roofs are most effective during the hottest days of the year, indicating that they could play an even greater role in reducing outdoor water use in a hotter future climate. We further show that this synergistic relationship between heat mitigation and water conservation is asymmetrical - policies that encourage direct reductions in irrigation water use can lead to substantial regional warming, potentially conflicting with heat mitigation efforts designed to counter the effects of the projected warming climate.

  5. Control Strategies to Reduce the Energy Consumption of Central Domestic Hot Water Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan [The Levy Partnership, Inc., New York, NY (United States). Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions; Ansanelli, Eric [The Levy Partnership, Inc., New York, NY (United States). Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions; Henderson, Hugh [The Levy Partnership, Inc., New York, NY (United States). Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions; Varshney, Kapil [The Levy Partnership, Inc., New York, NY (United States). Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions

    2016-06-23

    Domestic hot water (DHW) heating is the second largest energy end use in U.S. buildings, exceeded only by space conditioning. Recirculation systems consisting of a pump and piping loop(s) are commonly used in multifamily buildings to reduce wait time for hot water at faucets; however, constant pumping increases energy consumption by exposing supply and return line piping to continuous heat loss, even during periods when there is no demand for hot water. In this study, ARIES installed and tested two types of recirculation controls in a pair of buildings in order to evaluate their energy savings potential. Demand control, temperature modulation controls, and the simultaneous operation of both were compared to the baseline case of constant recirculation. Additionally, interactive effects between DHW control fuel reductions and space conditioning (heating and cooling) were estimated in order to make more realistic predictions of the payback and financial viability of retrofitting DHW systems with these controls. Results showed that DHW fuel consumption reduced by 7% after implementing the demand control technique, 2% after implementing temperature modulation, and 15% after implementing demand control and temperature modulation techniques simultaneously; recirculation pump runtime was reduced to 14 minutes or less per day. With space heating and cooling interactions included, the estimated annual cost savings were 8%, 1%, and 14% for the respective control techniques. Possible complications in the installation, commissioning and operation of the controls were identified and solutions offered.

  6. Control Strategies to Reduce the Energy Consumption of Central Domestic Hot Water Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan; Ansanelli, Eric; Henderson, Hugh; Varshney, Kapil

    2016-06-03

    Domestic hot water (DHW) heating is the second largest energy end use in U.S. buildings, exceeded only by space conditioning. Recirculation systems consisting of a pump and piping loop(s) are commonly used in multifamily buildings to reduce wait time for hot water at faucets; however, constant pumping increases energy consumption by exposing supply and return line piping to continuous heat loss, even during periods when there is no demand for hot water. In this study, ARIES installed and tested two types of recirculation controls in a pair of buildings in order to evaluate their energy savings potential. Demand control, temperature modulation controls, and the simultaneous operation of both were compared to the baseline case of constant recirculation. Additionally, interactive effects between DHW control fuel reductions and space conditioning (heating and cooling) were estimated in order to make more realistic predictions of the payback and financial viability of retrofitting DHW systems with these controls. Results showed that DHW fuel consumption reduced by 7% after implementing the demand control technique, 2% after implementing temperature modulation, and 15% after implementing demand control and temperature modulation techniques simultaneously; recirculation pump runtime was reduced to 14 minutes or less per day. With space heating and cooling interactions included, the estimated annual cost savings were 8%, 1%, and 14% for the respective control techniques. Possible complications in the installation, commissioning and operation of the controls were identified and solutions offered.

  7. The challenge of reducing energy consumption of the Top-1000 largest industrial enterprises in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Lynn; Wang Xuejun; Yun Jiang

    2010-01-01

    In 2005, the Chinese government announced an ambitious goal of reducing energy consumption per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 20% between 2005 and 2010. One of the key initiatives for realizing this goal is the Top-1000 Energy-Consuming Enterprises program. The energy consumption of these 1000 enterprises accounted for 33% of national and 47% of industrial energy usage in 2004. Under the Top-1000 program, 2010 energy consumption targets were determined for each enterprise. The objective of this article is to evaluate the program design and initial results, given limited information and data, to understand the possible implications of its success in terms of energy and carbon dioxide emission reductions and to recommend future program modifications based on international experience with similar target-setting agreement programs. Even though the Top-1000 program was designed and implemented rapidly, it appears that - depending upon the GDP growth rate - it could contribute to somewhere between approximately 10% and 25% of the savings required to support China's efforts to meet a 20% reduction in energy use per unit of GDP by 2010.

  8. Preventing childhood obesity by reducing consumption of carbonated drinks: cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Janet; Thomas, Peter; Cavan, David; Kerr, David

    2004-05-22

    To determine if a school based educational programme aimed at reducing consumption of carbonated drinks can prevent excessive weight gain in children. Cluster randomised controlled trial. Six primary schools in southwest England. 644 children aged 7-11 years. Focused educational programme on nutrition over one school year. Drink consumption and number of overweight and obese children. Consumption of carbonated drinks over three days decreased by 0.6 glasses (average glass size 250 ml) in the intervention group but increased by 0.2 glasses in the control group (mean difference 0.7, 95% confidence interval 0.1 to 1.3). At 12 months the percentage of overweight and obese children increased in the control group by 7.5%, compared with a decrease in the intervention group of 0.2% (mean difference 7.7%, 2.2% to 13.1%). A targeted, school based education programme produced a modest reduction in the number of carbonated drinks consumed, which was associated with a reduction in the number of overweight and obese children.

  9. The impact of information and communication technologies on electricity consumption in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, Clemens; Schlomann, Barbara; Friedewald, Michael [Fraunhofer Inst. Systems and Innovation Research, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The importance of information and communication technologies in everyday life is increasing strongly. The growing penetration of PCs in households and offices and the almost ubiquitous use of mobile communication devices are vivid examples for this development. The key drivers influencing the penetration, usage patterns and specific energy consumption of IC-equipment were examined and a bottom-up analysis of the direct energy consumption of ICT-equipment in households and offices was made for 2001 resulting an energy demand of 38 TWh. In addition, projections for the years 2005 and 2010 were developed based on the base year consumption and the key driving forces, which showed an increase of ICT energy consumption to 55 TWh in 2010. The energy consumption was analysed in normal operation mode, standby and off-mode. A differentiation was made between end-use appliances and the ICT-infrastructure in buildings for both residential and commercial use. This made it possible to identify the appliances and the infrastructure equipment with the highest growth in energy consumption and to examine the options and potentials for the increase of energy efficiency. This paper gives an overview of the state and development of the energy consumption of ICT equipment as well as the key driving forces and savings potentials in this field.

  10. Climate policy through changing consumption choices: Options and obstacles for reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girod, B.; van Vuuren, D.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X; Hertwich, E.G.

    2014-01-01

    While national climate policy can address countries’ production or consumption, climate mitigation via changes in consumption has previously received relatively little attention in climate policy literature. In the absence of an effective international climate policy, the focus on consumption is

  11. Ceftriaxone, a beta-lactam antibiotic, reduces ethanol consumption in alcohol-preferring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Youssef; Sakai, Makiko; Weedman, Jason M; Rebec, George V; Bell, Richard L

    2011-01-01

    Changes in glutamatergic transmission affect many aspects of neuroplasticity associated with ethanol and drug addiction. For instance, ethanol- and drug-seeking behavior is promoted by increased glutamate transmission in key regions of the motive circuit. We hypothesized that because glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1) is responsible for the removal of most extracellular glutamate, up-regulation or activation of GLT1 would attenuate ethanol consumption. Alcohol-preferring (P) rats were given 24 h/day concurrent access to 15 and 30% ethanol, water and food for 7 weeks. During Week 6, P rats received either 25, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg ceftriaxone (CEF, i.p.), a β-lactam antibiotic known to elevate GLT1 expression, or a saline vehicle for five consecutive days. Water intake, ethanol consumption and body weight were measured daily for 15 days starting on Day 1 of injections. We also tested the effects of CEF (100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) on daily sucrose (10%) consumption as a control for motivated behavioral drinking. Statistical analyses revealed a significant reduction in daily ethanol, but not sucrose, consumption following CEF treatment. During the post treatment period, there was a recovery of ethanol intake across days. Dose-dependent increases in water intake were manifest concurrent with the CEF-induced decreases in ethanol intake. Nevertheless, CEF did not affect body weight. An examination of a subset of the CEF-treated ethanol-drinking rats, on the third day post CEF treatment, revealed increases in GTL1 expression levels within the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. These results indicate that CEF effectively reduces ethanol intake, possibly through activation of GLT1, and may be a potential therapeutic drug for alcohol addiction treatment.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of reduced iso-α-acids in volunteers following clear bottled beer consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Luke N; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Drummer, Olaf H

    2015-05-01

    Reduced iso-α-acids (reduced IAA) consisting of the rho-, tetrahydro- and hexahydro-IAA groups (RIAA, TIAA and HIAA, respectively) are ingredient congeners specific to beer and generally found in clear and also occasionally green bottled beer. Concentrations of reduced IAA were determined in the blood and urine of five volunteers over 6h following the consumption of small volumes of beer containing each of the reduced IAA. The reduced IAA were absorbed and bioavailable with peak concentrations at 0.5h followed by a drop of generally fivefold by 2h. Preliminary pharmacokinetics of these compounds in humans shows relatively small inter-individual differences and an estimated short half-life varying between ∼38 and 46min for the three groups. Comparison of RIAA analyte ratios within the group indicate that some analytes eliminate relatively faster than others and the formation of metabolite products was observed. Preliminary urine analysis showed only unmodified RIAA analytes were detectable throughout 6h and suggests extensive phase I metabolism of TIAA and HIAA analytes. In authentic forensic casework where clear or green bottled beers are consumed, the identification of reduced IAA groups may provide a novel method to target ingredient congeners consistent with beer ingestion and suggest the type of beer consumed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Longitudinal Supra-Inguinal Fascia Iliaca Compartment Block Reduces Morphine Consumption After Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Matthias; Vermeylen, Kris; Van Herreweghe, Imré; Carlier, Laurence; Soetens, Filiep; Lambrecht, Stijn; Croes, Kathleen; Pottel, Hans; Van de Velde, Marc

    The role of a fascia iliaca compartment block (FICB) for postoperative analgesia after total hip arthroplasty (THA) remains questionable. High-dose local anesthetics and a proximal injection site may be essential for successful analgesia. High-dose local anesthetics may pose a risk for local anesthetic systemic toxicity. We hypothesized that a high-dose longitudinal supra-inguinal FICB is safe and decreases postoperative morphine consumption after anterior approach THA. We conducted a prospective, double blind, randomized controlled trial. Patients scheduled for THA were randomized to group FICB (longitudinal supra-inguinal FICB with 40-mL ropivacaine 0.5%) or group C (control, no block). Standard hypothesis tests (t test or Mann-Whitney U test, χ test) were performed to analyze baseline characteristics and outcome parameters. The primary end point of the study was total morphine (mg) consumption at 24 hours postoperatively. Serial total and free ropivacaine serum levels were determined in 10 patients. After obtaining ethical committee approval and written informed consent, 88 patients were included. Mean (SD) morphine consumption at 24 hours postoperatively was reduced in group FICB compared to group C: 10.25 (1.64) mg versus 19.0 (2.4) mg (P = 0.004). Using a mean dose of 2.6-mg/kg ropivacaine (range, 2-3.4 mg/kg), none of the patients had total or free ropivacaine levels above the maximum tolerated serum concentration. We conclude that a high-dose longitudinal supra-inguinal FICB reduces postoperative morphine requirements after anterior approach THA.Clinical Trials Registry: EU Clinical Trials Register. www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu #2014-002122-12.

  14. Hydrogen as a renewable and sustainable solution in reducing global fossil fuel consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midilli, Adnan; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, hydrogen is considered as a renewable and sustainable solution for reducing global fossil fuel consumption and combating global warming and studied exergetically through a parametric performance analysis. The environmental impact results are then compared with the ones obtained for fossil fuels. In this regard, some exergetic expressions are derived depending primarily upon the exergetic utilization ratios of fossil fuels and hydrogen: the fossil fuel based global waste exergy factor, hydrogen based global exergetic efficiency, fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based global exergetic indicator. These relations incorporate predicted exergetic utilization ratios for hydrogen energy from non-fossil fuel resources such as water, etc., and are used to investigate whether or not exergetic utilization of hydrogen can significantly reduce the fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient (ranging from 1 to +∞) indicating the fossil fuel consumption and contribute to increase the hydrogen based global exergetic indicator (ranging from 0 to 1) indicating the hydrogen utilization at a certain ratio of fossil fuel utilization. In order to verify all these exergetic expressions, the actual fossil fuel consumption and production data are taken from the literature. Due to the unavailability of appropriate hydrogen data for analysis, it is assumed that the utilization ratios of hydrogen are ranged between 0 and 1. For the verification of these parameters, the variations of fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based global exergetic indicator as the functions of fossil fuel based global waste exergy factor, hydrogen based global exergetic efficiency and exergetic utilization of hydrogen from non-fossil fuels are analyzed and discussed in detail. Consequently, if exergetic utilization ratio of hydrogen from non-fossil fuel sources at a certain exergetic utilization ratio of fossil fuels increases

  15. The economic gains of achieving reduced alcohol consumption targets for Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Anne; Cadilhac, Dominique; Sheppard, Lauren; Cumming, Toby; Pearce, Dora; Carter, Rob

    2012-07-01

    To inform prevention policy, we estimated the economic benefits to health, production, and leisure in the 2008 Australian population of a realistic target reduction in per capita annual adult alcohol consumption. We chose a target of 6.4 liters annually per capita on average. We modeled lifetime health benefits as fewer incident cases of alcohol-related disease, deaths, and disability adjusted life years. We estimated production gains with surveyed participation and absenteeism rates. We valued gains with friction cost and human capital methods. We estimated and valued household production and leisure gains from time-use surveys. A reduction of 3.4 liters of alcohol consumed annually per capita would result in one third fewer incident cases of disease (98000), deaths (380), working days lost (5 million), days of home-based production lost (54000), and a A$789-million health sector cost reduction. Workforce production had a A$427 million gain when we used the friction cost method. By contrast, we estimated a loss of 28000 leisure days and 1000 additional early retirements. Economic savings and health benefits from reduced alcohol consumption may be substantial-particularly in the health sector with reduced alcohol-related disease and injury.

  16. The Economic Gains of Achieving Reduced Alcohol Consumption Targets for Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Anne; Cadilhac, Dominique; Sheppard, Lauren; Cumming, Toby; Pearce, Dora; Carter, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To inform prevention policy, we estimated the economic benefits to health, production, and leisure in the 2008 Australian population of a realistic target reduction in per capita annual adult alcohol consumption. Methods. We chose a target of 6.4 liters annually per capita on average. We modeled lifetime health benefits as fewer incident cases of alcohol-related disease, deaths, and disability adjusted life years. We estimated production gains with surveyed participation and absenteeism rates. We valued gains with friction cost and human capital methods. We estimated and valued household production and leisure gains from time-use surveys. Results. A reduction of 3.4 liters of alcohol consumed annually per capita would result in one third fewer incident cases of disease (98 000), deaths (380), working days lost (5 million), days of home-based production lost (54 000), and a A$ 789-million health sector cost reduction. Workforce production had a A$ 427 million gain when we used the friction cost method. By contrast, we estimated a loss of 28 000 leisure days and 1000 additional early retirements. Conclusions. Economic savings and health benefits from reduced alcohol consumption may be substantial—particularly in the health sector with reduced alcohol-related disease and injury. PMID:22594720

  17. Water and Energy Consumption at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology

    KAUST Repository

    Wiche Latorre, Pia Alexandra

    2012-05-01

    Saudi Arabia is the greatest exporter of oil in the world and also the country with greatest desalination capacity. It is considered a rich country but not a developed one. Because water is scarce while energy is abundant, it becomes important to evaluate the environmental performance of populations in Saudi Arabia with regards to these two aspects. King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) is a gated community in Saudi Arabia with high living standards where water and energy are free of cost (no constraint over use). Four environmental sustainability indicators were used to determine the environmental performance of KAUST in comparison to other countries. It was found that per capita, KAUST is between the five greatest water and energy consumers in the world. Important factors to this result are the fact that KAUST is still under construction, that the peak capacity for permanent residents has not yet been reached and that there is little control over the water and energy systems at KAUST. It was concluded that KAUST should reduce its water and energy consumption per capita. To this means, some proposed solutions were to have wide-spread awareness-raising campaigns to all people working and living in KAUST, and to improve control over air conditioning control systems.

  18. Modifying Alcohol Consumption to Reduce Obesity (MACRO): development and feasibility trial of a complex community-based intervention for men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombie, Iain K; Cunningham, Kathryn B; Irvine, Linda; Williams, Brian; Sniehotta, Falko F; Norrie, John; Melson, Ambrose; Jones, Claire; Briggs, Andrew; Rice, Peter M; Achison, Marcus; McKenzie, Andrew; Dimova, Elena; Slane, Peter W

    2017-04-01

    Obese men who consume alcohol are at a greatly increased risk of liver disease; those who drink > 14 units of alcohol per week have a 19-fold increased risk of dying from liver disease. To develop an intervention to reduce alcohol consumption in obese men and to assess the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to investigate its effectiveness. The intervention was developed using formative research, public involvement and behaviour change theory. It was organised in two phases, comprising a face-to-face session with trained laypeople (study co-ordinators) followed by a series of text messages. Participants explored how alcohol consumption contributed to weight gain, both through direct calorie consumption and through its effect on increasing food consumption, particularly of high-calorie foodstuffs. Men were encouraged to set goals to reduce their alcohol consumption and to make specific plans to do so. The comparator group received an active control in the form of a conventional alcohol brief intervention. Randomisation was carried out using the secure remote web-based system provided by the Tayside Clinical Trials Unit. Randomisation was stratified by the recruitment method and restricted using block sizes of randomly varying lengths. Members of the public were involved in the development of all study methods. Men were recruited from the community, from primary care registers and by time-space sampling (TSS). The intervention was delivered in community settings such as the participant's home, community centres and libraries. Men aged 35-64 years who had a body mass index (BMI) of > 30 kg/m 2 and who drank > 21 units of alcohol per week. The screening methods successfully identified participants meeting the entry criteria. Trial recruitment was successful, with 69 men (36 from 419 approached in primary care, and 33 from 470 approached via TSS) recruited and randomised in 3 months. Of the 69 men randomised, 35 were allocated to the intervention

  19. Reducing the environmental footprint of French people consumption in 2030. Towards a deep evolution of production and consumption modes. Synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this prospective study is to propose an ambitious and realistic vision by 2030 of the evolution of production and consumption modes of French people while achieving a reduction of the environmental footprint of the French household consumption, according to the 'reduced environmental footprint' scenario. This study is based on the use of the two main analysis methods which are generally used to assess environmental impacts of consumption products or categories: life cycle analysis and input-output analysis. After having discussed the limitations of this analysis and difficulties this study has faced, context and challenges are presented and discussed: the consumption has been tripling since 1960, environmental impacts are contrasted and are related to imports, and heavy trends and weak signals can be identified. A scenario for 2030 is presented for mobility, housing, food, consumption of products off food, leisure and culture, health and education. For each of them, popular beliefs, context, and guidelines and hypotheses for a reduced environmental footprint are discussed. Results of the 2030 scenario are discussed, and some lessons learned from the 'reduced environmental footprint' are identified

  20. applications of novel technology for reducing disease risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diagnosis of trypanosome infections: applications of novel technology for reducing disease risk. K. Picozzi, A. Tilley, E.M. Fèvre, P.G. Coleman, J.W. Magona, M. Odiit, M.C. Eisler, S.C. Welburn ...

  1. The role of transportation technologies in reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-11-01

    The potential role of passenger transportation technologies in reducing greenhouse gas emissions was discussed. The technologies considered in the report were those that affect ground transportation of passengers and were in at least the early stages of development in 1995. They were: (1) technologies to improve the fuel efficiency of cars and light trucks, (2) alternative fuels for internal combustion engines, (3) electric hybrid vehicles, (4) advanced technology transit buses, (5) intelligent transportation systems, (6) high speed rail, and (7) bicycles. For each option, the advantages and disadvantages were described. The feasibility of establishing a high-speed rail system serving Canada's most densely populated region, the Windsor to Quebec City corridor, was discussed. Economic and environmental studies of such a proposal are underway. tabs

  2. A Methodology to Assess the Benefit of Operational or Tactic Adjustments to Reduce Marine Corps Fuel Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    distribution is unlimited A METHODOLOGY TO ASSESS THE BENEFIT OF OPERATIONAL OR TACTIC ADJUSTMENTS TO REDUCE MARINE CORPS FUEL CONSUMPTION by Team...SUBTITLE A METHODOLOGY TO ASSESS THE BENEFIT OF OPERATIONAL OR TACTIC ADJUSTMENTS TO REDUCE MARINE CORPS FUEL CONSUMPTION 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR...release; distribution is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) The United States Marine Corps is too dependent on fossil fuel

  3. Potential societal savings from reduced sodium consumption in the U.S. adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palar, Kartika; Sturm, Roland

    2009-01-01

    Policies that address the food environment at the population level may help prevent chronic disease, but their value to society is still uncertain. Dietary sodium is linked to increased prevalence of hypertension, a primary risk factor for cardiovascular and renal diseases. This study calculates the potential societal savings of reducing hypertension and related cardiovascular disease via a reduction in population-level sodium intake. On average, U.S. adults consume almost twice the recommended maximum of dietary sodium, most of it from processed foods. This study modeled sodium-reduction scenarios by using a cross-sectional simulation approach. The model used population-level data on blood pressure, antihypertensive medication use, and sodium intake from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2004). This data was then combined with parameters from the literature on sodium effects, disease outcomes, costs, and quality of life to yield model outcomes. This study calculated the following outcome measures: hypertension prevalence, direct health care costs, and quality-adjusted life years for noninstitutionalized U.S. adults. The simulation was conducted with STATA 9.2 and Microsoft Excel. Survey weights were used to calculate population averages. Reducing average population sodium intake to 2300 mg per day, the recommended maximum for adults, may reduce cases of hypertension by 11 million, save $18 billion health care dollars, and gain 312,000 QALYs that are worth $32 billion annually. Greater reductions in population sodium consumption bring even greater savings to society. Large benefits to society may result from efforts to lower sodium consumption on a population level by modest amounts over time. Although savings in direct health care costs are likely to be quite high, they could easily be matched or exceeded by the value of quality-of-life improvements.

  4. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Lab Directors, . .

    2001-04-05

    The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology

  5. [Which prevention programs effectively reduce the risk of alcohol consumption in young people?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buja, A; Vinelli, A; Baldovin, T; Gallimberti, L; Bardelle, G; Rausa, G; Baldo, V

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol consumption among young people is a major public health problem and the Italian National Health Institute considers it the leading cause of death for people under 24 years old, mainly due to road accidents. This study summarizes the evidence emerging from three Cochrane Collaboration reviews, aiming to orient the choice of alcohol prevention programs for young people. The first review considered schemes implemented at school to prevent alcohol consumption under 18 years of age; the second concerned studies on programs to reduce alcohol abuse by means of social norms; the third examined 56 trials on schemes for preventing young people from drinking. In the first review, 6 of 11 alcohol prevention schemes showed some signs of efficacy, and 14 of 39 schemes to combat substance abuse generally induced a significantly alcohol use reduction. The second review included three specific programs for alcohol-related problems with a > 17-month follow-up and they were effective. In the third review, 15 of 39 schemes proved effective in the short-term, 9 of 12 with medium follow-up were no longer effective (and alcohol consumption even increased in 2), while 3 long-term trials and 2 of 3 community schemes proved effective. These Cochrane reviews did not assess all strategies for preventing alcohol abuse in the young which have been implemented in different countries, because many interventions has been conducted spontaneously without any evaluation of their efficacy. An international registry on substance abuse prevention measures is warranted, with shared criteria for assessing their effects, to orient public health policies.

  6. Experimental characterization of cooled EGR in a gasoline direct injection engine for reducing fuel consumption and nitrogen oxide emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Ki; Lee, Jungkoo; Kim, Kyungcheol; Park, Seongho; Kim, Hyung-Man

    2015-11-01

    The emphasis on increasing fuel economy and reducing emissions is increasing. Attention has turned to how the performance of a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine can be improved to achieve lower fuel consumption and NOx emission. Therefore, positive effects can reduce fuel consumption and NOx emission as well as knock suppression. The cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ranges within the characteristic map are characterized from the experimental results at various speeds and brake mean effective pressures in a GDI engine. The results show that the application of cooled EGR system brought in 3.63 % reduction as for the fuel consumption and 4.34 % as for NOx emission.

  7. Estimating the benefits of public health policies that reduce harmful consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Elizabeth M; Nardinelli, Clark; Lavaty, Rosemarie A

    2015-05-01

    For products such as tobacco and junk food, where policy interventions are often designed to decrease consumption, affected consumers gain utility from improvements in lifetime health and longevity but also lose utility associated with the activity of consuming the product. In the case of anti-smoking policies, even though published estimates of gross health and longevity benefits are up to 900 times higher than the net consumer benefits suggested by a more direct willingness-to-pay estimation approach, there is little recognition in the cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness literature that gross estimates will overstate intrapersonal welfare improvements when utility losses are not netted out. This paper presents a general framework for analyzing policies that are designed to reduce inefficiently high consumption and provides a rule of thumb for the relationship between net and gross consumer welfare effects: where there exists a plausible estimate of the tax that would allow consumers to fully internalize health costs, the ratio of the tax to the per-unit long-term cost can provide an upper bound on the ratio of net to gross benefits. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Light pollution reduces activity, food consumption and growth rates in a sandy beach invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luarte, T; Bonta, C C; Silva-Rodriguez, E A; Quijón, P A; Miranda, C; Farias, A A; Duarte, C

    2016-11-01

    The continued growth of human activity and infrastructure has translated into a widespread increase in light pollution. Natural daylight and moonlight cycles play a fundamental role for many organisms and ecological processes, so an increase in light pollution may have profound effects on communities and ecosystem services. Studies assessing ecological light pollution (ELP) effects on sandy beach organisms have lagged behind the study of other sources of disturbance. Hence, we assessed the influence of this stressor on locomotor activity, foraging behavior, absorption efficiency and growth rate of adults of the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata. In the field, an artificial light system was assembled to assess the local influence of artificial light conditions on the amphipod's locomotor activity and use of food patches in comparison to natural (ambient) conditions. Meanwhile in the laboratory, two experimental chambers were set to assess amphipod locomotor activity, consumption rates, absorption efficiency and growth under artificial light in comparison to natural light-dark cycles. Our results indicate that artificial light have significantly adverse effects on the activity patterns and foraging behavior of the amphipods, resulting on reduced consumption and growth rates. Given the steady increase in artificial light pollution here and elsewhere, sandy beach communities could be negatively affected, with unexpected consequences for the whole ecosystem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The energy consumption and environmental impacts of SCR technology in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Zengying; Ma, Xiaoqian; Lin, Hai; Tang, Yuting [School of Electric Power, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Technology, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Energy and environment are drawing greater attention today, particularly with the rapid development of the economy and increase consumption of energy in China. At present, coal-fired power plants are mainly responsible for atmospheric air pollution. The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology is a highly effective method for NO{sub X} control. The present study identified and quantified the energy consumption and the environmental impacts of SCR system throughout the whole life cycle, including production and transportation of manufacturing materials, installation and operation of SCR technology. The analysis was conducted with the utilization of life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology which provided a quantitative basis for assessing potential improvements in the environmental performance of the system. The functional unit of the study was 5454 t NO{sub X} emission from an existing Chinese pulverized coal power plant for 1 year. The current study compared life cycle emissions from two types of de-NO{sub X} technologies, namely the SCR technology and the selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology, and the case that NO{sub X} was emitted into atmosphere directly. The results showed that the environmental impact loading resulting from SCR technology (66810 PET{sub 2000}) was smaller than that of flue gas emitted into atmosphere directly (164121 PET{sub 2000}) and SNCR technology (105225 PET{sub 2000}). More importantly, the SCR technology is much more effective at the elimination of acidification and nutrient enrichment than SNCR technology and the case that NO{sub X} emitted into atmosphere directly. This SCR technology is more friendly to the environment, and can play an important role in NO{sub X} control for coal-fired power plants as well as industrial boilers. (author)

  10. Milk Consumption Following Exercise Reduces Subsequent Energy Intake in Female Recreational Exercisers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Rumbold

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of skimmed milk as a recovery drink following moderate–vigorous cycling exercise on subsequent appetite and energy intake in healthy, female recreational exercisers. Utilising a randomised cross-over design, nine female recreational exercisers (19.7 ± 1.3 years completed a V̇O2peak test followed by two main exercise trials. The main trials were conducted following a standardised breakfast. Following 30 min of moderate-vigorous exercise (65% V̇O2peak, either 600 mL of skimmed milk or 600 mL of orange drink (475 mL orange juice from concentrate, 125 mL water, which were isoenergetic (0.88 MJ, were ingested, followed 60 min later with an ad libitum pasta meal. Absolute energy intake was reduced 25.2% ± 16.6% after consuming milk compared to the orange drink (2.39 ± 0.70 vs. 3.20 ± 0.84 MJ, respectively; p = 0.001. Relative energy intake (in relation to the energy content of the recovery drinks and energy expenditure was significantly lower after milk consumption compared to the orange drink (1.49 ± 0.72 vs. 2.33 ± 0.90 MJ, respectively; p = 0.005. There were no differences in AUC (× 1 h subjective appetite parameters (hunger, fullness and desire to eat between trials. The consumption of skimmed milk following 30 min of moderate-vigorous cycling exercise reduces subsequent energy intake in female recreational exercisers.

  11. Theory content of digital interventions for reducing alcohol consumption: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Garnett

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of theory in design and evaluation of interventions is likely to increase effectiveness and improve the evidence base from which future interventions are developed, though few interventions report this. Aim: To assess the extent to which digital interventions to reduce hazardous or harmful alcohol consumption have used theory in their design and evaluation. Method: Use of theory within the digital interventions evaluated in randomised controlled trials was investigated using an amended Theory Coding Scheme developed by Michie and Prestwich (2010. Composite scores were calculated for six different areas of theory use. Frequency counts and descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. Results: Of 53 interventions reported in 55 trials, a theory or model was mentioned in 27 (51%, theory or theoretical predictors were used to select or develop intervention techniques in only 21 (40%, and targeted constructs were mentioned as a predictor of behaviour in 20 (36%. The two most commonly mentioned theories or models were the Transtheoretical model (8/27 and Social Norms theory (8/27. No studies used the results of the intervention to refine theory and only one study used theory to select recipients or tailor the intervention. Conclusions: There is very limited use of theory in the development or evaluation of current digital interventions to reduce hazardous or harmful alcohol consumption and its reporting is often unclear when it is present. Almost half of all interventions made no reference to any theories or models of behaviour and only a little over a third used them to develop the intervention.

  12. Efficacy of a non-drinking mental simulation intervention for reducing student alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Dominic; Sparks, Paul; de Visser, Richard

    2015-11-01

    To assess the impact of a mental simulation intervention designed to reduce student alcohol consumption by asking participants to imagine potential positive outcomes of and/or strategic processes involved in not drinking during social occasions. English university students aged 18-25 years (n = 211, Mage = 20 years) were randomly allocated to one of four intervention conditions. The dependent variables were weekly alcohol consumption, heavy episodic drinking (HED) frequency and frequency of social occasions at which participants did not drink alcohol when others were drinking alcohol ('episodic non-drinking'). Measures of alcohol-related prototypes (i.e., prototypical non-drinker, prototypical regular drinker) were used to compute sociability prototype difference scores as a potential mediator of any intervention effects. All measures were taken at baseline and at 2- and 4-week follow-up. Participants completed one of four exercises involving either imagining positive outcomes of non-drinking during a social occasion (outcome condition); imagining strategies required for non-drinking during a social occasion (process condition); imagining both positive outcomes and required strategies (combined condition); or completing a drinks diary task (control condition). Latent growth curve analyses revealed a more substantial rate of decrease in weekly unit consumption and HED frequency among outcome condition and process condition participants, relative to control condition participants. Non-significant differences were found between the combined condition and the control condition. Across the whole sample, an inverted U-shape trend indicated an initial increase in episodic non-drinking before it returned to baseline levels. This study provides preliminary evidence that mental simulation interventions focused on non-drinking can successfully promote behaviour change. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? UK drinking recommendations advise two 'dry

  13. Aircraft Engine Technology for Green Aviation to Reduce Fuel Burn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; VanZante, Dale E.; Heidmann, James D.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project and Integrated Systems Research Program Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate are conducting research on advanced aircraft technology to address the environmental goals of reducing fuel burn, noise and NOx emissions for aircraft in 2020 and beyond. Both Projects, in collaborative partnerships with U.S. Industry, Academia, and other Government Agencies, have made significant progress toward reaching the N+2 (2020) and N+3 (beyond 2025) installed fuel burn goals by fundamental aircraft engine technology development, subscale component experimental investigations, full scale integrated systems validation testing, and development validation of state of the art computation design and analysis codes. Specific areas of propulsion technology research are discussed and progress to date.

  14. Safety of Blood and Plasma Derivatives: Pathogen Reducing Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Pourfathollah

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Human blood and blood products is the source of a wide range of medicinal products used for the treatment and prevention of a variety of injuries and disease. Despite stringent routine measures and filters employed, residual pathogen infectivity remains an important challenge in the field of blood transfusion. In this article various measures and technologies that can be applied in order to reduce the residual risk are reviewed.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of preventive interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Veerman, Lennert; Cobiac, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of many diseases and injuries, and the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimated that 6% of the burden of disease in Denmark is due to alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption thus places a considerable economic burden on society....

  16. Milling technological experiments to reduce Fusarium toxin contamination in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véha A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine 4 different DON-toxin-containing (0.74 - 1.15 - 1.19 - 2.14 mg/kg winter wheat samples: they were debranned and undebranned, and we investigated the flour’s and the by-products’ (coarse, fine bran toxin content changes. SATAKE lab-debranner was used for debranning and BRABENDER lab-mill for the milling process. Without debranning, two sample flours were above the DON toxin limit (0.75 mg/kg, which are waste. By minimum debranning (and minimum debranning mass loss; 6-8%, our experience with whole flour is that the multi-stage debranning measurement significantly reduces the content of the flour’s DON toxin, while the milling by-products, only after careful consideration and DON toxin measurements, may be produced for public consumption and for feeding.

  17. An enhanced recovery program for bariatric surgical patients significantly reduces perioperative opioid consumption and postoperative nausea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Adam B; Spann, Matthew D; Jablonski, Patrick; Wanderer, Jonathan P; Sandberg, Warren S; McEvoy, Matthew D

    2018-02-13

    Patients frequently remain in the hospital after bariatric surgery due to pain, nausea, and inability to tolerate oral intake. Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) concepts address these perioperative complications and therefore improve length of stay for bariatric surgery patients. To determine if ERAS concepts increase the proportion of patients discharged on postoperative day 1. Secondary objectives included mean length of stay, perioperative opioid use, emergency department visits, and readmissions. A large metropolitan university tertiary hospital. A quantitative before and after study was conducted for patients undergoing bariatric surgical patients. Data were collected surrounding length of stay, perioperative opioid consumption, antiemetic therapy requirements postoperatively, multimodal analgesia compliance, emergency department visits, and hospital readmission rates. Wilcoxon rank-sum and χ 2 test were used to compare continuous and categorical variables, respectively. A secondary analysis was performed using Aligned Rank Transformation and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel χ 2 tests to account for an increase in sleeve gastrectomies in the intervention group. The 2 groups had clinically similar baseline characteristics. Comparison group (N = 366) and ERAS group (N = 715) patients underwent a primary bariatric surgery procedure. There was an increase in the number of patients undergoing a laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in the intervention group. After accounting for this increase, the percentage of patients discharged on postoperative day 1 was unchanged (79.8% non-ERAS versus 83.1% ERAS, P = .52). ERAS length of stay was statistically significantly lower for gastric bypass (P<.001) and robotic gastric bypass (P = .01). Perioperative opioid consumption was reduced (41.0 versus 16.2 morphine equivalents, P<0.001), and fewer ERAS patients required postoperative antiemetics (68.8% versus 46.2%, P<.001). Emergency department visits at 7 days were reduced (6

  18. Sustainable Modular Adaptive Redundancy Technique Emphasizing Partial Reconfiguration for Reduced Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Al-Haddad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As reconfigurable devices' capacities and the complexity of applications that use them increase, the need for self-reliance of deployed systems becomes increasingly prominent. Organic computing paradigms have been proposed for fault-tolerant systems because they promote behaviors that allow complex digital systems to adapt and survive in demanding environments. In this paper, we develop a sustainable modular adaptive redundancy technique (SMART composed of a two-layered organic system. The hardware layer is implemented on a Xilinx Virtex-4 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA to provide self-repair using a novel approach called reconfigurable adaptive redundancy system (RARS. The software layer supervises the organic activities on the FPGA and extends the self-healing capabilities through application-independent, intrinsic, and evolutionary repair techniques that leverage the benefits of dynamic partial reconfiguration (PR. SMART was evaluated using a Sobel edge-detection application and was shown to tolerate stressful sequences of injected transient and permanent faults while reducing dynamic power consumption by 30% compared to conventional triple modular redundancy (TMR techniques, with nominal impact on the fault-tolerance capabilities. Moreover, PR is employed to keep the system on line while under repair and also to reduce repair time. Experiments have shown a 27.48% decrease in repair time when PR is employed compared to the full bitstream configuration case.

  19. Reconnecting the technology characterisation of the hydrogen economy to contexts of consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodson, Mike; Marvin, Simon

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses a partial but powerful view of the hydrogen economy known as 'technology characterisation' (TC). TC offers particular representations of the supply of hydrogen technologies through 'measuring' the 'state of the art'. This view is seen as an important means of generating political and policy support for technological developments through outlining technical 'possibilities' and 'options' in relation to 'costs'. Through drawing on 10 TC documents a series of practices and issues are outlined. These documents are subjected to critical interrogation as a means of saying not how TC should be applied but in outlining how it often is applied. Our analysis of these documents claims that TC conceives of technological change through a process of narrowly framing understanding of what 'relevant' costs and technological possibilities are. We claim, through this critique, that this dominant way of narrowly characterising technological change in terms of the supply of technology would benefit from an appreciation of alternative 'ways of seeing' the development of hydrogen technologies, particularly in relation to 'contexts' of their appropriation, consumption and development. We suggest that this can be done through the development of two alternative ways of seeing: a Large Technical Systems approach which addresses wider systemic considerations, and localised 'niche' developments in nurtured spaces of reflexive social learning. Through subjecting the practices of a dominant way of seeing technological development-TC-to critique this opens up the possibilities for TC practitioners to reflect on the strengths and shortcomings of their own practices. This, in addition to outlining ways of seeing the appropriation and innovation of hydrogen technologies in specific contexts, through an LTS and niche approach, offers the potential for a dialogue between the supply and the contextualised appropriation of hydrogen technologies and thus for engaging disconnected

  20. Xiaozhi decoction reduced posthemorrhoidectomy pain and analgesic medication consumption: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianbin; Luo, Xiagang; Zhou, Xiao; Tang, Chengwu; Ju, Huanyu; Xu, Yongqiang; Qin, Lianjin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Xiaozhi decoction (XZD) on posthemorrhoidectomy pain and analgesic medication consumption. From May 2013 to March 2015, 315 patients who underwent open hemorrhoidectomy in our hospital were enrolled in this study, of whom, 160 patients were randomly assigned to accept sitz bath with warm water after hemorrhoidectomy (control group) and 155 patients were randomly assigned to accept sitz bath with XZD (XZD group) after hemorrhoidectomy. Postoperative pain at 12 hours after surgery and on postoperative days (PODs) 1, 2, 7, 14 and 28 was evaluated by Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Pain on defecation on PODs 1, 2, 7, 14 and 28 was also recorded using the VAS. The consumption of analgesics was also analyzed. No significant difference was found in baseline characteristics between the two groups. Postoperative pain score of the XZD group was significantly lower on POD 2 (6.04±1.11 vs 6.33±1.14, P =0.0229), POD 7 (3.35±0.75 vs 4.22±0.87, P =0.0000) and POD 14 (2.87±0.64 vs 3.64±0.77, P =0.0000) than that of the control group. Similarly, patients in the XZD group experienced significantly less pain on defecation on POD 2 (5.02±1.34 vs 5.43±1.56, P =0.0130), POD 7 (3.08±1.17 vs 3.52±1.29, P =0.0017) and POD 14 (2.31±0.85 vs 2.68±0.99, P =0.0004). Patients in the XZD group consumed significantly less analgesic medication on POD 2 ( P =0.0136), POD 7 ( P =0.0074) and POD 14 ( P =0.0046) than the control group. XZD could effectively relieve postoperative pain and reduce analgesic medication consumption after hemorrhoidectomy.

  1. Xiaozhi decoction reduced posthemorrhoidectomy pain and analgesic medication consumption: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen JB

    2017-01-01

    : XZD could effectively relieve postoperative pain and reduce analgesic medication consumption after hemorrhoidectomy. Keywords: hemorrhoids, hemorrhoidectomy, traditional Chinese medicine, posthemorrhoidectomy pain 

  2. In which sectors could new illumination technology strategically reduce CO2 emissions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli; Andersen, Jan; Kjær, Tyge

    2009-01-01

    Illumination is responsible for the consumption of 19% of the total electricity consumption worldwide. Efforts to reduce the consumption of this energy fraction are, therefore, increasingly taking the attention of many governments. Denmark, as one of the leader countries in environmental actions,...

  3. ROUTE OPTIMIZATION TO INCREASE ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCE FUEL CONSUMPTION OF COMMUNAL VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša M Jovičić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Collection and transportation within the system of solid waste management may account more than 60% of the overall budget, most of which is for fuel costs. Furthermore, municipal vehicles have great environmental impact through exhaust gases emissions. The aim of this research was to estimate the potential for reduction of fuel consumption and thus the emission of CO2 through the communal vehicles route optimization. General methodology for route optimization is also presented. For the area under study, detailed field experimental research in the City of Kragujevac was conducted. Using GIS and GPS technology, whole municipally infrastructure for waste collection was scanned and all paths of communal tracks was recorded and allocated in developed database. Based on experimental and numerical results, one typical municipal vehicle route was analyzed by using ArcGis software. The obtained result indicates 2700 km of possible savings per year concerning one communal vehicle. In addition, the most fuel-economical route was extracted and compared with the original route, and with the routes extracted from criterions concerning the traffic time and shortest distance. According to available information for the City of Kragujevac and the results from this study, it was estimated that the total savings could be 20% in costs and the associated emissions.

  4. Profiting from negawatts: Reducing absolute consumption and emissions through a performance-based energy economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberger, Julia K.; Niel, Johan van; Bourg, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Current energy and GHG emissions policies either focus directly on emissions or promote renewable production and the implementation of specific efficiency measures. Meanwhile, the fundamental structure of the energy market based on profits through energy throughput remains largely unchallenged. This policy oversight prevents the transition to an energy economy in which profits are based on energy services delivered at the lowest energy cost: a performance-based energy economy (PBEE). The PBEE applies the combined concepts of the performance economy and energy services to the energy sector. Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) are discussed as an example of PBEE practices. The implications for energy suppliers and consumers as well as the conditions for PBEE diffusion and consequences for technological change are also explored. The expected environmental, social and economic benefits are described. However, absolute consumption and emissions reductions may prove elusive due to the rebound effect. In order to forestall rebound-led increases, complementary policy measures likely to lead to absolute reductions are required

  5. Reducing Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Is Associated with Reduced Blood Pressure: A Prospective Study among U.S. Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liwei; Caballero, Benjamin; Mitchell, Diane C.; Loria, Catherine; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Champagne, Catherine M.; Elmer, Patricia J.; Ard, Jamy D.; Batch, Bryan C.; Anderson, Cheryl A. M.; Appel, Lawrence J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been associated with an elevated risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. However, the effects of SSB consumption on blood pressure (BP) are uncertain. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between changes in SSB consumption and changes in BP among adults. Methods and Results Prospective analysis of 810 adults who participated in the PREMIER Study (an 18-month behavioral intervention trial). BP and dietary intake (by two 24-h recalls) were measured at baseline, 6-month, and 18-month. Mixed effects models were applied to estimate the changes in BP in responding to changes in SSB consumption. At baseline, mean SSB intake was 0.9 ± 1.0 servings/day (10.5 ± 11.9 fl oz/day), and mean SBP/DBP was 134.9 ± 9.6/84.8 ± 4.2 mmHg. After controlling for potential confounders, a reduction in SSB of 1 serving/day was associated with a 1.8 mmHg (95% CI: 1.2 to 2.4 mmHg) reduction in SBP and 1.1 mmHg (95% CI: 0.7 to 1.4 mmHg) reduction in DBP over 18 months. After additional adjustment for weight change over the same period, a reduction in SSB intake was still significantly associated with reductions in SBP and DBP (P sugars was also significantly associated with reduced BP. No association was found for diet beverage consumption or caffeine intake and BP. These findings suggest that sugars may be the nutrients that contribute to the observed association between SSB and BP. Conclusions Reduced consumption of SSB and sugars were significantly associated with reduced BP. Reducing SSB and sugar consumption may be an important dietary strategy to lower BP. PMID:20497980

  6. Legislative smoking bans for reducing harms from secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Kate; Callinan, Joanne E; McHugh, Jack; van Baarsel, Susan; Clarke, Anna; Doherty, Kirsten; Kelleher, Cecily

    2016-02-04

    provided in this update, an increase of eight countries from the original review. The nature of the intervention precludes randomized controlled trials. Thirty-six studies used an interrupted time series study design, 23 studies use a controlled before-and-after design and 18 studies are before-and-after studies with no control group; six of these studies use a cohort design. Seventy-two studies reported health outcomes, including cardiovascular (44), respiratory (21), and perinatal outcomes (7). Eleven studies reported national mortality rates for smoking-related diseases. A number of the studies report multiple health outcomes. There is consistent evidence of a positive impact of national smoking bans on improving cardiovascular health outcomes, and reducing mortality for associated smoking-related illnesses. Effects on respiratory and perinatal health were less consistent. We found 24 studies evaluating the impact of national smoke-free legislation on smoking behaviour. Evidence of an impact of legislative bans on smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption is inconsistent, with some studies not detecting additional long-term change in existing trends in prevalence. Since the first version of this review was published, the current evidence provides more robust support for the previous conclusions that the introduction of a legislative smoking ban does lead to improved health outcomes through reduction in SHS for countries and their populations. The clearest evidence is observed in reduced admissions for acute coronary syndrome. There is evidence of reduced mortality from smoking-related illnesses at a national level. There is inconsistent evidence of an impact on respiratory and perinatal health outcomes, and on smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

  7. Reducing Weight for Transportation Applications: Technology Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Alan I.

    Today's land, sea and air transportation industries — as a business necessity — are focused on technology solutions that will make vehicles more sustainable in terms of energy, the environment, safety and affordability. Reducing vehicle weight is a key enabler for meeting these challenges as well as increasing payload and improving performance. The potential weight reductions from substituting lightweight metals (advanced high-strength steels, aluminum, magnesium and titanium alloys) are well established. For magnesium castings, weight savings of 60% have been reported [1]. The value of weight reduction depends on the transportation sector and ranges from about 5/kg saved for automobiles to over 500/kg saved for aircraft [2]. The challenge is to optimize the material properties and develop robust, high volume, manufacturing technologies and the associated supply chain to fabricate components and subsystems at the appropriate cost for each application.

  8. Reburning technology - a means to reduce NOx emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, H.; Lorra, M.

    1999-01-01

    Nitrogen oxide emission control technologies can be classified as either combustion modifications to minimize the NO production or post-combustion flue gas treatment to reduce the NO concentration afterwards. The techniques for minimizing NOx Production includes the use of low-NOx burners, overfire air (staged combustion) and boiler combustion optimization. Procedures for flue gas treatment can be subdivided into selective catalytic reduction (SCR) or selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR). The re burning process is a selective non-catalytic technology which is applicable to a wide variety of boilers and can be implemented within a relatively short period of time. The NOx reduction potential of this technique is in the range of 50 % up to 70 %. (author)

  9. Tests to Reduce TorreCat™ Technology to Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westover, Tyler [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Emerson, Rachel Marie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-26

    Torrefaction is the thermal treatment of materials in the absence of oxygen in the temperature range of 200 to 300 °C and has been shown to improve handling and grinding properties, hydrophobicity, volatiles content, energy density, and combustion performance of renewable energy biomass feedstock materials. The disadvantages of torrefaction are its relative high cost compared to the low value input feedstock material and the energy that can be lost to volatized gases. This work will demonstrate a new technology developed by Advanced Torrefaction Systems (ATS), known as TorreCat™ Technology, that uses an oxidation catalyst in a closed system to combust and destroy volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other byproducts produced in the torrefaction process. An oxidation catalyst is a substance, or a combination of substances, that accelerate the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed by the reaction. Catalytic combustion is a reaction that occurs at temperatures 50% lower than traditional combustion, such that essentially no NOx is created. The output of the oxidation catalyst (flue gas) consists mainly of superheated steam and inert gases (carbon dioxide and nitrogen), which can be used for heat in the thermal treatment process. INL has previously developed a pilot-scale Continuous-Feed Thermal Treatment System (CFTTS) that has 10 kg/hr capacity but does not reform the flue gas to reduce environmental concerns or capture all available heat from the biomass material. Using the TorreCat™ technology in INL’s thermal treatment system will demonstrate increased thermal efficiencies during the treatment process as well as reduced environmental impact and clean-up costs. The objective of this project is to determine the effectiveness of the Torrecat™ technology to reform the flue gas and capture as much of its heat content as possible.

  10. Heat-Related Mortality in Japan after the 2011 Fukushima Disaster: An Analysis of Potential Influence of Reduced Electricity Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoonhee; Gasparrini, Antonio; Honda, Yasushi; Ng, Chris Fook Sheng; Armstrong, Ben

    2017-01-01

    Background: In March 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake devastated several power stations and caused severe electricity shortages. This accident was followed by the implementation of policies to reduce summer electricity consumption in the affected areas, for example, by limiting air-conditioning (AC) use. This provided a natural experimental scenario to investigate if these policies were associated with an increase in heat-related mortality. Objectives: We examined whether the reduced electricity consumption in warm season modified heat-related mortality from 2008 to 2012. Methods: We conducted prefecture-specific interrupted time-series (ITS) analyses to compare temperature–mortality associations before and after the earthquake, and used meta-analysis to generate combined effect estimates for the most affected and less affected areas (prefectures with >10% or ≤10% reductions in electricity consumption, respectively). We then examined whether the temperature–mortality association in Tokyo, one of the most affected areas, was modified by the percent reduction in electricity consumption relative to expected consumption for comparable days before the earthquake. Results: Contrary to expectations, we estimated a 5–9% reduction in all-cause heat-related mortality after the earthquake in the 15 prefectures with the greatest reduction in electricity consumption, and little change in the other prefectures. However, the percent reduction in observed vs. expected daily electricity consumption after the earthquake did not significantly modify daily heat-related mortality in Tokyo. Conclusions: In the prefectures with the greatest reductions in electricity consumption, heat-related mortality decreased rather than increased following the Great East Japan Earthquake. Additional research is needed to determine whether this finding holds for other populations and regions, and to clarify its implications for policies to reduce the consequences of climate change on

  11. Heat-Related Mortality in Japan after the 2011 Fukushima Disaster: An Analysis of Potential Influence of Reduced Electricity Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoonhee; Gasparrini, Antonio; Hashizume, Masahiro; Honda, Yasushi; Ng, Chris Fook Sheng; Armstrong, Ben

    2017-07-06

    In March 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake devastated several power stations and caused severe electricity shortages. This accident was followed by the implementation of policies to reduce summer electricity consumption in the affected areas, for example, by limiting air-conditioning (AC) use. This provided a natural experimental scenario to investigate if these policies were associated with an increase in heat-related mortality. We examined whether the reduced electricity consumption in warm season modified heat-related mortality from 2008 to 2012. We conducted prefecture-specific interrupted time-series (ITS) analyses to compare temperature-mortality associations before and after the earthquake, and used meta-analysis to generate combined effect estimates for the most affected and less affected areas (prefectures with >10% or ≤10% reductions in electricity consumption, respectively). We then examined whether the temperature-mortality association in Tokyo, one of the most affected areas, was modified by the percent reduction in electricity consumption relative to expected consumption for comparable days before the earthquake. Contrary to expectations, we estimated a 5-9% reduction in all-cause heat-related mortality after the earthquake in the 15 prefectures with the greatest reduction in electricity consumption, and little change in the other prefectures. However, the percent reduction in observed vs. expected daily electricity consumption after the earthquake did not significantly modify daily heat-related mortality in Tokyo. In the prefectures with the greatest reductions in electricity consumption, heat-related mortality decreased rather than increased following the Great East Japan Earthquake. Additional research is needed to determine whether this finding holds for other populations and regions, and to clarify its implications for policies to reduce the consequences of climate change on health. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP493.

  12. Evaluation of complementary technologies to reduce bio engine emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blowes, J.H.

    2003-09-01

    This report summaries the results of a study examining the technical and economic feasibility of exhaust gas treatment technologies for reducing emissions from diesel engines burning pyrolysis oil to within internationally recognised limits. Details are given of the burning of pyrolysis oils in reciprocating engines, the reviewing of information on pyrolysis oils and engines, and the aim to produce detailed information for securing investment for a British funded diesel project. The burning of the pyrolysis oils in an oxygen-rich atmosphere to allow efficient combustion with acceptable exhaust emission limits is discussed along with the problems caused by the deterioration of the injection system.

  13. Incubation of ethanol reinstatement depends on test conditions and how ethanol consumption is reduced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Brett C.; Lamb, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    In reinstatement studies (a common preclinical procedure for studying relapse), incubation occurs (longer abstinence periods result in more responding). This finding is discordant with the clinical literature. Identifying determinants of incubation could aid in interpreting reinstatement and identifying processes involved in relapse. Reinstated responding was examined in rats trained to respond for ethanol and food under a multiple concurrent schedule (Component 1: ethanol FR5, food FR150; Component 2: ethanol FR5, food FR5–alternating across the 30-min session). Ethanol consumption was then reduced for 1 or 16 sessions either by suspending training (rats remained in home cage) or by providing alternative reinforcement (only Component 2 stimuli and contingencies were presented throughout the session). In the next session, stimuli associated with Component 1 were presented and responses recorded but ethanol and food were never delivered. Two test conditions were studied: fixed-ratio completion either produced ethanol- or food-associated stimuli (signaled) or had no programmed consequence (unsignaled). Incubation of ethanol responding was observed only after suspended training during signaled test sessions. Incubation of food responding was also observed after suspended training. These results are most consistent with incubation resulting from a degradation of feedback functions limiting extinction responding, rather than an increased motivation. PMID:25595114

  14. Community organization in a school health education program to reduce sodium consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, R B; Levine, D M; Bone, L R

    1985-11-01

    This paper describes the important role of community organization in providing the enabling and reinforcing factors necessary for students to adopt dietary behavior changes recommended in a school health education program for cardiovascular health. The "Hold the Salt!" program was designed to teach sixth grade students and their families about the link between high sodium diets early in life and increased risk for cardiovascular disease, and to significantly reduce pupils' intake of high-sodium snacks. The program consists of four educational components: a classroom cafeteria curriculum unit built around a board game; parent outreach; health provider reinforcement; and community support. The program was tested in an experimental group (n = 55) of urban, black, sixth grade students, whose knowledge and behavior changes were compared to a control group (n = 23) with similar demographic statistics. Data collected before and after the school program showed a 20% increase in knowledge about sodium and health (p less than .01) and a 33% decrease in reported high-sodium snack consumption (p less than .05) in the experimental group compared to no significant knowledge or reported behavior changes in the control group. The program was piloted for two years in Baltimore City elementary schools, then adopted by the Maryland State Dept. of Education for dissemination as part of the Home Economics curriculum in all of the state's middle schools.

  15. Consumption of an acute dose of caffeine reduces acquisition but not memory in the honey bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustard, Julie A; Dews, Lauren; Brugato, Arlana; Dey, Kevin; Wright, Geraldine A

    2012-06-15

    Caffeine affects several molecules that are also involved in the processes underlying learning and memory such as cAMP and calcium. However, studies of caffeine's influence on learning and memory in mammals are often contradictory. Invertebrate model systems have provided valuable insight into the actions of many neuroactive compounds including ethanol and cocaine. We use the honey bee (Apis mellifera) to investigate how the ingestion of acute doses of caffeine before, during, and after conditioning influences performance in an appetitive olfactory learning and memory task. Consumption of caffeine doses of 0.01 M or greater during or prior to conditioning causes a significant reduction in response levels during acquisition. Although bees find the taste of caffeine to be aversive at high concentrations, the bitter taste does not explain the reduction in acquisition observed for bees fed caffeine before conditioning. While high doses of caffeine reduced performance during acquisition, the response levels of bees given caffeine were the same as those of the sucrose only control group in a recall test 24h after conditioning. In addition, caffeine administered after conditioning had no affect on recall. These results suggest that caffeine specifically affects performance during acquisition and not the processes involved in the formation of early long term memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Callinan, Joanne E

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking bans have been implemented in a variety of settings, as well as being part of policy in many jurisdictions to protect the public and employees from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke (SHS). They also offer the potential to influence social norms and smoking behaviour of those populations they affect. OBJECTIVES: To assess the extent to which legislation-based smoking bans or restrictions reduce exposure to SHS, help people who smoke to reduce tobacco consumption or lower smoking prevalence and affect the health of those in areas which have a ban or restriction in place. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Conference Paper Index, and reference lists and bibliographies of included studies. We also checked websites of various organisations. Date of most recent search; July 1st 2009. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered studies that reported legislative smoking bans and restrictions affecting populations. The minimum standard was having a ban explicitly in the study and a minimum of six months follow-up for measures of smoking behaviour. We included randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies (i.e. non-randomized controlled studies), controlled before and after studies, interrupted-time series as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group, and uncontrolled pre- and post-ban data. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Characteristics and content of the interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the included studies were extracted by one author and checked by a second. Because of heterogeneity in the design and content of the studies, we did not attempt a meta-analysis. We evaluated the studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. MAIN RESULTS: There were 50 studies included in this review. Thirty-one studies reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) with 19 studies measuring it using biomarkers. There was

  17. Evaluating the effectiveness of a smartphone app to reduce excessive alcohol consumption: protocol for a factorial randomised control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Garnett

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive alcohol consumption is a leading cause of death and morbidity worldwide and interventions to help people reduce their consumption are needed. Interventions delivered by smartphone apps have the potential to help harmful and hazardous drinkers reduce their consumption of alcohol. However, there has been little evaluation of the effectiveness of existing smartphone interventions. A systematic review, amongst other methodologies, identified promising modular content that could be delivered by an app: self-monitoring and feedback; action planning; normative feedback; cognitive bias re-training; and identity change. This protocol reports a factorial randomised controlled trial to assess the comparative potential of these five intervention modules to reduce excessive alcohol consumption. Methods A between-subject factorial randomised controlled trial. Hazardous and harmful drinkers aged 18 or over who are making a serious attempt to reduce their drinking will be randomised to one of 32 (25 experimental conditions after downloading the ‘Drink Less’ app. Participants complete baseline measures on downloading the app and are contacted after 1-month with a follow-up questionnaire. The primary outcome measure is change in past week consumption of alcohol. Secondary outcome measures are change in AUDIT score, app usage data and usability ratings for the app. A factorial between-subjects ANOVA will be conducted to assess main and interactive effects of the five intervention modules for the primary and secondary outcome measures. Discussion This study will establish the extent to which the five intervention modules offered in this app can help reduce hazardous and harmful drinking. This is the first step in optimising and understanding what component parts of an app could help to reduce excessive alcohol consumption. The findings from this study will be used to inform the content of a future integrated treatment app and

  18. Evaluating the effectiveness of a smartphone app to reduce excessive alcohol consumption: protocol for a factorial randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Claire; Crane, David; Michie, Susan; West, Robert; Brown, Jamie

    2016-07-08

    Excessive alcohol consumption is a leading cause of death and morbidity worldwide and interventions to help people reduce their consumption are needed. Interventions delivered by smartphone apps have the potential to help harmful and hazardous drinkers reduce their consumption of alcohol. However, there has been little evaluation of the effectiveness of existing smartphone interventions. A systematic review, amongst other methodologies, identified promising modular content that could be delivered by an app: self-monitoring and feedback; action planning; normative feedback; cognitive bias re-training; and identity change. This protocol reports a factorial randomised controlled trial to assess the comparative potential of these five intervention modules to reduce excessive alcohol consumption. A between-subject factorial randomised controlled trial. Hazardous and harmful drinkers aged 18 or over who are making a serious attempt to reduce their drinking will be randomised to one of 32 (2(5)) experimental conditions after downloading the 'Drink Less' app. Participants complete baseline measures on downloading the app and are contacted after 1-month with a follow-up questionnaire. The primary outcome measure is change in past week consumption of alcohol. Secondary outcome measures are change in AUDIT score, app usage data and usability ratings for the app. A factorial between-subjects ANOVA will be conducted to assess main and interactive effects of the five intervention modules for the primary and secondary outcome measures. This study will establish the extent to which the five intervention modules offered in this app can help reduce hazardous and harmful drinking. This is the first step in optimising and understanding what component parts of an app could help to reduce excessive alcohol consumption. The findings from this study will be used to inform the content of a future integrated treatment app and evaluated against a minimal control in a definitive randomised

  19. New technologies reducing emissions from combustion of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oravainen, H.

    1997-01-01

    In reducing CO 2 emissions, bioenergy will be the most important source of renewable energy in the next few decades. In principle, combustion of biomass is friendly to the environment because CO 2 released during combustion is recycled back into natural circulation. Biofuels normally contain little nitrogen and sulphur. However, depending on the combustion technology used, emissions may be quite high. This is true of combustion of biomass fuels in small appliances like wood stoves, fireplaces, small boilers etc. When fuels having high content of volatile matter are burnt in appliances using batch type combustion, the process is rather an unsteady-state combustion. Emissions of carbon monoxide, other combustible gases and particulates are quite difficult to avoid. With continuous combustion processes this is not normally a problem. This conference paper presents some means of reducing emissions from combustion of biofuels. 5 refs., 4 figs

  20. Public acceptability of population-level interventions to reduce alcohol consumption: a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechey, Rachel; Burge, Peter; Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Suhrcke, Marc; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-07-01

    Public acceptability influences policy action, but the most acceptable policies are not always the most effective. This discrete choice experiment provides a novel investigation of the acceptability of different interventions to reduce alcohol consumption and the effect of information on expected effectiveness, using a UK general population sample of 1202 adults. Policy options included high, medium and low intensity versions of: Minimum Unit Pricing (MUP) for alcohol; reducing numbers of alcohol retail outlets; and regulating alcohol advertising. Outcomes of interventions were predicted for: alcohol-related crimes; alcohol-related hospital admissions; and heavy drinkers. First, the models obtained were used to predict preferences if expected outcomes of interventions were not taken into account. In such models around half of participants or more were predicted to prefer the status quo over implementing outlet reductions or higher intensity MUP. Second, preferences were predicted when information on expected outcomes was considered, with most participants now choosing any given intervention over the status quo. Acceptability of MUP interventions increased by the greatest extent: from 43% to 63% preferring MUP of £1 to the status quo. Respondents' own drinking behaviour also influenced preferences, with around 90% of non-drinkers being predicted to choose all interventions over the status quo, and with more moderate than heavy drinkers favouring a given policy over the status quo. Importantly, the study findings suggest public acceptability of alcohol interventions is dependent on both the nature of the policy and its expected effectiveness. Policy-makers struggling to mobilise support for hitherto unpopular but promising policies should consider giving greater prominence to their expected outcomes. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Academic Demands Are Associated with Reduced Alcohol Consumption by College Students: Evidence from a Daily Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Adam B.; Spencer, Desiree; Dodge, Kama

    2011-01-01

    There is little empirical evidence linking academic demands or rigor to alcohol consumption by college students. In a 3-week daily study of full-time college students at a public, residential campus in the United States, both current day and next day's academic demands were negatively related to alcohol consumption, and these relationships were…

  2. Does advanced cryotherapy reduce pain and narcotic consumption after knee arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thienpont, Emmanuel

    2014-11-01

    Cryotherapy has been used to enhance recovery after orthopaedic surgery. Several cooling devices are available but few can guarantee a fixed temperature during a prolonged time and therefore have been criticized. The arrival of new advanced cryotherapy devices made it possible to test the effect of prolonged cooling on rehabilitation after joint replacement. The hypotheses of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) were that advanced cryotherapy devices compared with cold packs result in (1) better postoperative pain control resulting in a lower consumption of narcotics; (2) better early ROM; and (3) less postoperative bleeding and swelling. A priori sample size calculation had determined that to detect a difference of 2 points on the VAS, a sample size of 50 subjects per group at followup would be required, given a study power of 80%. One hundred sixteen patients were included and randomly allocated to receive advanced cryotherapy (n=58) or use of cold packs (n=58). The primary outcomes for the study were to evaluate pain with the VAS and analgesics consumption. Secondary outcomes were postoperative ROM, swelling, and blood loss. One hundred (50 in each group) patients had complete data available for analysis. No statistically significant differences in VAS, need for analgesics, nor in secondary outcomes were observed, except for substantially reduced flexion at 6 weeks in the advanced cryotherapy group (114° versus 120°). Advanced cryotherapy with a continuous temperature for a prolonged period does not deliver expected results of superior early recovery after knee arthroplasty. Greater sample sizes are required to fully determine significant differences between the two techniques for these study parameters. Immobilization of the knee in extension during the prolonged cryotherapy session resulted in lower active flexion at 6 weeks after surgery for the advanced cryotherapy group. Advanced cryotherapy should not be used in fast track knee arthroplasty if the

  3. Reducing urban heat island effects to improve urban comfort and balance energy consumption in Bucharest (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Dan; Ochinciuc, Cristina Victoria; Cheval, Sorin; Comşa, Ionuţ; Sîrodoev, Igor; Andone, Radu; Caracaş, Gabriela; Crăciun, Cerasella; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Georgescu, Mihaela; Ianoş, Ioan; Merciu, Cristina; Moraru, Dan; Opriş, Ana; Paraschiv, Mirela; Raeţchi, Sonia; Saghin, Irina; Schvab, Andrei; Tătui-Văidianu, Nataşa

    2017-04-01

    technical solutions for mitigating the UHI impacts and sustainable reconfiguration of urban settlements, comprising packages of architectural and urban and landscape planning solutions. This study was funded by the Romanian Programme Partnership in Priority Domains, PN - II - PCCA - 2013 - 4 - 0509 - Reducing UHI effects to improve urban comfort and balance energy consumption in Bucharest (REDBHI).

  4. The Influence of New Technologies on Tourism Consumption Behavior of the Millennials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Fortuna Șchiopu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The advent of new technologies has generated a series of mutations in the dynamics and structure of production and consumption at both global and tourism destinations level, increasing competition manifested on the tourist market, prompting efforts (concerns from tourism service providers to diversify their offer, on the one hand, and to understand and investigate the needs, changing requirements of consumers (tourists, on the other hand. Studies of international tourist flows indicate that Millennials, also named the Y Generation ‒ young people between 18 and 30 years old ‒ will be the most dynamic component of the tourism market in the next decade. This article aims to analyze how new technologies influence the tourism consumption behavior of the members of the Millennials generation in Romania. Thus, a quantitative research, a survey, was conducted based on a questionnaire that had as objective the identification of electronic equipment, the applications, the ICT sources used by young people in the stages of planning, booking and development of the journey. The hypotheses tested the link between the importance given to technological resources and the extent to which young tourists are willing to share travel experiences later. Results of the research led to the development of a set of suggestions for key players in the tourism market.

  5. Missed Opportunity? Leveraging Mobile Technology to Reduce Racial Health Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Rashawn; Sewell, Abigail A; Gilbert, Keon L; Roberts, Jennifer D

    2017-10-01

    Blacks and Latinos are less likely than whites to access health insurance and utilize health care. One way to overcome some of these racial barriers to health equity may be through advances in technology that allow people to access and utilize health care in innovative ways. Yet, little research has focused on whether the racial gap that exists for health care utilization also exists for accessing health information online and through mobile technologies. Using data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), we examine racial differences in obtaining health information online via mobile devices. We find that blacks and Latinos are more likely to trust online newspapers to get health information than whites. Minorities who have access to a mobile device are more likely to rely on the Internet for health information in a time of strong need. Federally insured individuals who are connected to mobile devices have the highest probability of reliance on the Internet as a go-to source of health information. We conclude by discussing the importance of mobile technologies for health policy, particularly related to developing health literacy, improving health outcomes, and contributing to reducing health disparities by race and health insurance status. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  6. Assessment of Vehicle Sizing, Energy Consumption and Cost Through Large Scale Simulation of Advanced Vehicle Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moawad, Ayman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kim, Namdoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shidore, Neeraj [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rousseau, Aymeric [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) has been developing more energy-efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies that will enable America to use less petroleum. The long-term aim is to develop "leapfrog" technologies that will provide Americans with greater freedom of mobility and energy security, while lowering costs and reducing impacts on the environment. This report reviews the results of the DOE VTO. It gives an assessment of the fuel and light-duty vehicle technologies that are most likely to be established, developed, and eventually commercialized during the next 30 years (up to 2045). Because of the rapid evolution of component technologies, this study is performed every two years to continuously update the results based on the latest state-of-the-art technologies.

  7. Mobile Technology for Vegetable Consumption: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study in Overweight Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Maya; King, Abby C

    2016-01-01

    consumption of green leafy vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, and dark yellow vegetables (adjusted mean difference: 2.6, 1.6, and 0.8 servings; 95% CI 0.1-5.0, 0.1-3.2, and 0.3-1.4; P=.04, P=.04, and P=.004, respectively). Participants reported positive experiences with the app, including strong agreement with the statements “I have found Vegethon easy to use” and “I would recommend Vegethon to a friend” (mean 4.6 (SD 0.6) and 4.2 (SD 0.8), respectively, (on a 5-point scale). Conclusions Vegethon demonstrated initial efficacy and user acceptability. A mobile app intervention may be useful for increasing vegetable consumption among overweight adults. The small sample size prevented precise estimates of effect sizes. Given the improved health outcomes associated with increases in vegetable consumption, these findings indicate the need for larger, longer-term evaluations of Vegethon and similar technologies among overweight adults and other suitable target groups. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01826591; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01826591 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6hYDw2AOB) PMID:27193036

  8. CO{sub 2}-AC and Bottoming cycle. Reducing fuel consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yang; Lundqvist, Per [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology; Platell, Peter [Ranotor AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    The rapid growth of automobile industry has caused an increasing environmental and economic concern due to the high pollution of automobile exhaust gas and the low efficiency of the automotive engine system. Due to the well know environmental drawback of traditional working fluids in air conditioning systems such as Ozone Depleting Potential (ODP) and Greenhouse Warming Potential (GWP), Carbon Dioxide as a natural refrigerant has evoked a renewed interest nowadays. In this project, various so called Bottoming Cycle systems, using CO{sub 2} as working fluid are designed to utilize waste heat from car engine coolant and exhaust gasses. Several designs using CO{sub 2} as a working fluid have been identified that reduce fuel consumption and thus the environmental impact. The concept reduces fuel consumption by harnessing the waste heat from the internal combustion engine. The concept also cools the exhaust gas which means more efficient so called cooled EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation), suppressing NO{sub x} emissions. Furthermore, the concept offer also an environmental friendly so-called APU (Auxiliary Power Units), meaning that it is possible to generate electricity, cool and heat when the vehicle is standing still. All these features together with the use of CO{sub 2} offer more energy efficient as well as more environmental benign Air Conditioning system for automotive applications. Two scientific papers have been written and EES programs have been further modified to calculate the second law efficiency etc. A multi-functional vehicle's A/C system is proposed by the authors to convert this energy into useful power to power the compressor of A/C system or even to be added to the propulsion system. According to different design options, several cycles are presented and compared; the relative efficiencies are calculated in EES as well. At the end of the paper, there is a thorough discussion about the CO{sub 2}'s thermodynamic properties as a working fluid

  9. Reducing OR Traffic Using Education, Policy Development, and Communication Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Jennifer; Shrinski, Keonemana; Cady, Rhonda; Belew, John

    2016-01-01

    A bundled approach to surgical site infection (SSI) prevention strategies includes reducing OR traffic. A nurse-led quality improvement (QI) team sought to reduce OR traffic through education and a process change that included wireless communication technology and policy development. The team measured OR traffic by counting the frequency of door openings per hour in seven surgical suites during 305 surgical procedures conducted during similar 22-week periods before and after the QI project intervention. Door openings decreased significantly (P < 0.05) from an average of 37.8 per hour to 32.8 per hour after the QI project intervention. This suggests that our multifaceted approach reduces OR traffic. The next steps of this project include analyzing automatically captured video to understand OR traffic patterns and expanding education to departments and external personnel frequently present in our surgical suites. Future research evaluating the effectiveness of this OR traffic initiative on SSI incidence is recommended. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing incentive contracts for reducing residential electricity consumption: new experimental methods for new results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frachet, Laure

    2013-01-01

    Facing economic, political and environmental stakes, electricity providers are nowadays developing incentive tools, in order to reduce consumer's demand, particularly during peak demand periods. For residential customers, these tools can be tariffs (dynamic pricing of time-of-use tariffs), or informative devices or services (feedbacks on historical or real-time consumption, given on various media). They might go along with automation systems that can help cutting of some electric devices when needed. In order to evaluate the capacity of these settings among their customers, electricity utilities are developing quite a few studies, which are mainly field experiment often called pilots. During these pilots, demand response tools are implemented on a population sample. These long and expensive studies lid to quantitative and qualitative analysis. We have compiled about 40 of them and extract from this survey some generalizable teachings. We have shown what these results were and highlighted pilot programs' methodological limits. In order to propose a substitute to these heavy experimentations, we assessed the capacity or experimental economics. This relatively new discipline's objective is to evaluation the efficiency of institutions, like markets, but also to study what animate economic agents' behaviour, e.g. preferences, beliefs, cognitive biases, willingness to pay... We were also able to elaborate an experimental protocol dedicated to the evaluation of some demand response contracts' acceptability. The results collected during 14 experimental sessions gave us some innovative clues and insight on these contracts acceptability. But, beyond these results, we have demonstrated that even if experimental economics can't obviously be a substitute for field experiments, it can represent an interesting exploratory methodology. To sum up the experimental economics can take part of residential customers' behaviour understanding, performing

  11. Effectiveness of a Web-Based Intervention to Reduce Alcohol Consumption among French Hazardous Drinkers: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemont, Juliette; Cogordan, Chloé; Nalpas, Bertrand; Nguyen-Thanh, Vi?t; Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Arwidson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based intervention to reduce alcohol consumption among hazardous drinkers. A two-group parallel randomized controlled trial was conducted among adults identified as hazardous drinkers according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. The intervention delivers personalized normative…

  12. Enhancing performance and reducing stress in sports technological advances

    CERN Document Server

    Ivancevic, Tijana; Greenberg, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    This book is designed to help athletes and individuals interested in high sports performance in their journey towards the perfection of human sports abilities and achievements. It has two main goals: accelerating the acquisition of motor skills and preparing and vigilantly reducing the recovery time after training and competition. The Diamond Sports Protocol (DSP) presents state-of-the-art techniques for current sport and health technologies, particularly neuromuscular electrical stimulation (Sports Wave), oxygen infusion (Oxy Sports), infrared (Sports Infrared Dome) and lactic acid cleaning (Turbo Sports). The book suggest DSP as an essential part of every future athlete's training, competition and health maintenance. The book is for everyone interested in superior sports performance, fast and effective rehabilitation from training and competition and sports injury prevention.

  13. Cashew consumption reduces total and LDL cholesterol: a randomized, crossover, controlled-feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Eunice; Schulz, Jacqueline A; Kaden, Valerie N; Lawless, Andrea L; Rotor, Jose; Mantilla, Libertie B; Liska, DeAnn J

    2017-05-01

    Background: Cashews are the third most-consumed tree nut in the United States and are abundant with monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Although a qualified Food and Drug Administration health claim exists for nuts and heart health, cashews have been exempt from its use because cashews exceed the disqualifying amount of saturated fatty acids. Approximately one-third of the saturated fat in cashews is stearic acid, which is relatively neutral on blood lipids, thereby suggesting that cashews could have effects that are similar to those of other nuts. However, clinical data on cashews and blood lipids have been limited. Objective: We investigated the effect of reasonable intakes of cashews on serum lipids in adults with or at risk of high LDL cholesterol. Design: In a randomized, crossover, isocaloric, controlled-feeding study, 51 men and women (aged 21-73 y) with a median LDL-cholesterol concentration of 159 mg/dL (95% CI: 146, 165 mg/dL) at screening consumed typical American diets with cashews (28-64 g/d; 50% of kilocalories from carbohydrate, 18% of kilocalories from protein, and 32% of kilocalories from total fat) or potato chips (control; 54% of kilocalories from carbohydrate, 18% of kilocalories from protein, and 29% of kilocalories from total fat) for 28 d with a ≥2-wk washout period. Results: Consumption of the cashew diet resulted in a significantly greater median change from baseline (compared with the control, all P cholesterol [-3.9% (95% CI: -9.3%, 1.7%) compared with 0.8% (95% CI: -1.5%, 4.5%), respectively], LDL cholesterol [-4.8% (95% CI: -12.6%, 3.1%) compared with 1.2% (95% CI: -2.3%, 7.8%), respectively], non-HDL cholesterol [-5.3% (95% CI: -8.6%, 2.1%) compared with 1.7% (95% CI: -0.9%, 5.6%), respectively], and the total-cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio [-0.0% (95% CI: -4.3%, 4.8%) compared with 3.4% (95% CI: 0.6%, 5.2%), respectively]. There were no

  14. [Yogurt consumption and reduced risk of overweight and obesity in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinchik, A N; Baturin, A K; Peskova, E V; Keshabyants, E E; Mikhaylov, N A

    2016-01-01

    Fermented dairy products comprise a large food group in Russia and are an important source of dietary nutrients like protein, calcium, fat. Obesity is a rising public health issue in Russia. Observing the role of fermented dairy in the maintenance of healthy weights is important. Current study objective was to explore the association between obesity/overweight prevalence and yogurt consumption in Russian adults. Data from RLMS-HSE 1994-2012 was used. Primary materials are available on http://www.cpc.unc.edu/projects/rlms-hse, http://www. hse.ru/org/hse/rlms. Data collected included dietary intake by single 24h recalls and anthropometric measures for 72.400 adults (≥ 19 y.o.). Logistic regression models were used to explore the relationships between yogurt consumption and obesity prevalence (BMI > 30.0 compared with. 18.5-25.0), controlling for age and gender. Daily average intake (g/day) of yogurt significantly increased from 1994 to 2012. Yogurt consumption decreased over 40 y.o. in both gender. Women yogurt consumption is inversely correlated with the magnitude of the BMI: the consumption of yogurt in women with normal BMI values (> 18.5-25.0) was significantly higher than in women who are overweight and/or obese (BMI > 25.0; or > 30.0). The mean values of BMI in women who ate yogurt, were significantly lower than in women not consuming yogurt. In men, the relationship between consumption of yogurt and BMI is not revealed. Thus, among women, a significant inverse association was observed between yogurt consumption and obesity (OR 0.582, CI 95% 0.497, 0.680; p yogurt intake and prevalence of obesity is dependent on gender: yogurt is associated with lower obesity prevalence only in women.

  15. The Modern Technologies to Reduce Turnover of Company Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaiko Tetiana O.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at analyzing and substantiating the use in practice of modern technologies to reduce turnover of staff, which do not bear significant financial costs for the company. The authors have proved that non-material measures to reduce staff turnover in companies are becoming predominant nowadays. Among them as the most important are indicated: introduction of flexible schedule (mode of work, transition to the remote form of employment, and distribution of internal shares, in particular related to the strengthening of cohesion of staff, its team spirit. Also the reasons of transition from material to intangible factors of influence on conduct of workers have been disclosed. The advantages of non-material measures of the staff turnover reduction for both employees and employers were analyzed. For the first ones the most important are motivation and job satisfaction, while for the others it is reduction of staff turnover, formation of the responsible worker, improvement of quality and productivity of work.

  16. Restricting or banning alcohol advertising to reduce alcohol consumption in adults and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, Nandi; Pienaar, David C; Ataguba, John E; Volmink, Jimmy; Kredo, Tamara; Jere, Mlenga; Parry, Charles D H

    2014-11-04

    Alcohol is estimated to be the fifth leading risk factor for global disability-adjusted life years. Restricting or banning alcohol advertising may reduce exposure to the risk posed by alcohol at the individual and general population level. To date, no systematic review has evaluated the effectiveness, possible harms and cost-effectiveness of this intervention. To evaluate the benefits, harms and costs of restricting or banning the advertising of alcohol, via any format, compared with no restrictions or counter-advertising, on alcohol consumption in adults and adolescents. We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Specialised Register (May 2014); CENTRAL (Issue 5, 2014); MEDLINE (1966 to 28 May 2014); EMBASE (1974 to 28 May 2014); PsychINFO (June 2013); and five alcohol and marketing databases in October 2013. We also searched seven conference databases and www.clinicaltrials.gov and http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/ in October 2013. We checked the reference lists of all studies identified and those of relevant systematic reviews or guidelines, and contacted researchers, policymakers and other experts in the field for published or unpublished data, regardless of language. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials, prospective and retrospective cohort studies, controlled before-and-after studies and interrupted time series (ITS) studies that evaluated the restriction or banning of alcohol advertising via any format including advertising in the press, on the television, radio, or internet, via billboards, social media or product placement in films. The data could be at the individual (adults or adolescent) or population level. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included one small RCT (80 male student participants conducted in the Netherlands and published in 2009) and three ITS studies (general population studies in Canadian provinces conducted in the 1970s and 80s).The RCT

  17. Food irradiation - a viable technology for reducing postharvest losses of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1985-01-01

    Research and development in the past 30 years have clearly demonstrated that food irradiation is a safe, effective and environmentally clean process of food preservation. Twenty-seven countries have approved over 40 irradiated foods or groups of related food items for human consumption, either on an unconditional or a restricted basis. The technology is beginning to play an important role in reducing post-harvest losses of food and in facilitating wider distribution of food in the trade. Its wide application in solving microbial spoilage losses of food, insect disinfestation, improving hygienic qualities, slowing down physiological processes of foods is reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on applications of direct relevance to countries in Asia and the Pacific region

  18. Food irradiation - a viable technology for reducing post harvest losses of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, O.

    1985-01-01

    Research and development in the past 30 years have clearly demonstrated that food irradiation is a safe, effective and environmentally clean process of food preservation. Twenty-seven countries have approved over 40 irradiated foods or groups of related food items for human consumption, either on an unconditional or a restricted basis. The technology is beginning to play an important role in reducing post-harvest losses of food in facilitating wider distribution of food in the trade. Its wide application in solving microbial spoilage loss of food, insect disinfestation, improving hygenic qualities, slowing down physiological processes of foods is reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on applications of direct relevance to countries in Asia and the Pacific region. (author)

  19. Technology consumption and cognitive control: Contrasting action video game experience with media multitasking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Leite, Pedro; Kludt, Rachel; Vignola, Gianluca; Ma, Wei Ji; Green, C. Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne

    2015-01-01

    Technology has the potential to impact cognition in many ways. Here we contrast two forms of technology usage: 1) media multitasking (i.e., the simultaneous consumption of multiple streams of media, such a texting while watching TV) and 2) playing action video games (a particular sub-type of video game). Previous work has outlined an association between high levels of media multitasking and specific deficits in handling distracting information, while playing action video games has been associated with enhanced attentional control. As these two factors are linked with reasonably opposing effects, failing to take them jointly into account may result in inappropriate conclusions as to the impact of technology use on attention. Across four experiments (AX-CPT, N-back, Task-switching and Filter task), testing different aspects of attention and cognition, we show that heavy media multitaskers perform worse than light media multitaskers. Contrary to previous reports though, the performance deficit was not specifically tied to distractors, but was instead more global in nature. Interestingly, participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking occasionally performed better than both light and heavy media multitaskers suggesting that the effects of increasing media multitasking are not monotonic. Action video game players, as expected, outperformed non-video game players on all tasks. However, surprisingly this was true only for participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking, suggesting that playing action video games does not protect against the deleterious effect of heavy media multitasking. Taken together this study shows that media consumption can have complex and counter-intuitive effects on attentional control. PMID:26474982

  20. Technology consumption and cognitive control: Contrasting action video game experience with media multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Leite, Pedro; Kludt, Rachel; Vignola, Gianluca; Ma, Wei Ji; Green, C Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne

    2016-01-01

    Technology has the potential to impact cognition in many ways. Here we contrast two forms of technology usage: (1) media multitasking (i.e., the simultaneous consumption of multiple streams of media, such a texting while watching TV) and (2) playing action video games (a particular subtype of video games). Previous work has outlined an association between high levels of media multitasking and specific deficits in handling distracting information, whereas playing action video games has been associated with enhanced attentional control. Because these two factors are linked with reasonably opposing effects, failing to take them jointly into account may result in inappropriate conclusions as to the impacts of technology use on attention. Across four tasks (AX-continuous performance, N-back, task-switching, and filter tasks), testing different aspects of attention and cognition, we showed that heavy media multitaskers perform worse than light media multitaskers. Contrary to previous reports, though, the performance deficit was not specifically tied to distractors, but was instead more global in nature. Interestingly, participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking sometimes performed better than both light and heavy media multitaskers, suggesting that the effects of increasing media multitasking are not monotonic. Action video game players, as expected, outperformed non-video-game players on all tasks. However, surprisingly, this was true only for participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking, suggesting that playing action video games does not protect against the deleterious effect of heavy media multitasking. Taken together, these findings show that media consumption can have complex and counterintuitive effects on attentional control.

  1. VSD a compressor that automatically reduces the power consumption; VSD un compresor que reduce automaticamente el consumo energetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Anda L, Pedro [Atlas Copco, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    With the purpose of verifying the behavior in the demand of air in the different plants Copco Atlas made a sampling of 135 measurements, from which it was concluded, that the air consumption of the plants behaves under three main profiles. In the following graphs the behavior of the demand of air with one color for every day of the week and 24 hours per day. In this sample Profile No. 1 is typical of the industries that work 24 hours a day and have low demand of air at night. This type of profile represents a percentage of 64% of the total of the measurements made. The second profile represents industries that work 5 days per week with two shifts and represents a percentage of 28%. The third profile is typical for applications of fixed consumption during the 5 days of the week, this represents an 8% of the measurements. With the purpose of improving the efficiency in the compressors energy consumption, Atlas Copco has been pioneering in the development of compressors with Variable Speed Drive (VSD), that offers the possibility of adapting with extreme precision the capacity of the compressor to the variable demand of compressed air of the plant. [Spanish] Con la finalidad de verificar el comportamiento en la demanda de aire en las diferentes plantas Atlas Copco realizo un muestreo de 135 mediciones, del cual se concluyo, que el consumo de aire de las plantas se comporta bajo tres perfiles principales. En las siguientes graficas se muestra el comportamiento de la demanda de aire con un color por cada dia de la semana y 24 horas al dia . En esta muestra el Perfil No. 1 es tipico de las Industrias que trabajan las 24 horas del dia y tiene baja demanda de aire en las noches. Este tipo de perfil representa un porcentaje de 64% del total de las mediciones realizadas. El segundo perfil representa industrias que traban 5 dias a la semana con dos turnos y representa un porcentaje de 28%. El tercer perfil estetico para aplicaciones de consumo fijo durante 5 dias a la semana

  2. Instruments for reducing the specific fuel consumption of cars; Instrumente zur Absenkung des spezifischen Treibstoffverbrauchs von Personenwagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, S.; Maibach, M. [Infras, Zuerich (Switzerland); Marti, P. [Metron, Brugg (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents three possible courses of action that are to be taken to reduce the specific fuel consumption of private cars. The report first examines existing targets and the degree to which they have been met up to now, whereby the situation both in Switzerland and in the European Union is looked at. The report makes a suggestion for a future target scenario and elaborates three possible ways to met these targets: regulations on fuel-consumption, a bonus/malus system and tradable certificates. For each of the proposed instruments, the report examines implementation variants and discusses the means for their implementation. The report presents the best models for each of the implementation-variants on the basis of comparisons and the results of evaluations of their effects. For these chosen variants, the authors present comparisons of their effect on fuel consumption in graphical form and recommend tradable certificates as the best instrument.

  3. Consumption bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, P

    1999-01-01

    This article focuses on the issue of consumption in relation to the growing world population. Over the past 25 years, world population increased by 53%, while world consumption per person increased by only 39%. If consumption continues to grow at 1.4%, the world consumption per person will rise by 100% over the next 50 years with the population increasing by only half that amount. The burden of reducing the environmental impact brought about by this increase lies on technology. Technology needs to deliver major changes in improving resource productivity, and decreasing the amount of waste created. Productivity such as global food production has kept up with demand. Malnutrition persists due to poverty, and not because of the inability of the world to produce enough food. However, the prospects are much worse for resources that are not traded on markets or subject to sustainable management such as groundwater, state forests, ocean fish, and communal waste sinks like rivers, lakes, and the global atmosphere. These resources are not under the direct control of people affected by shortage. People who want to change the way these resources are used or managed have to pass through the legal or political system. Usually, political responses are slow and there has to be a very widespread environmental damage before action is taken.

  4. Reducing fuel consumption by using a new fuel-efficiency support tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voort, Mascha C.; Dougherty, Mark; Dougherty, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    A fuel-efficiency support tool has been designed, which includes a normative model describing optimal driver behaviour for minimising fuel consumption. If actual behaviour deviates from optimal behaviour, the system presents advice on how to change behaviour. Evaluation revealed that drivers used

  5. Virtual stop line strategy to reduce fuel consumption of vehicles at ramp meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldeab, Z.; Vreeswijk, J.; Bie, J.

    2013-01-01

    Ramp meters successfully decrease congestion but leave a burden on the traffic situation at on-ramps. Chaotic queuing leads to many stop-and-go movements and causes inefficiency where fuel consumption is concerned. As part of the eCoMove project, complementary strategies are being designed and

  6. Consumption of flaxseed, a rich source of lignans, is associated with reduced breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowcock, Elizabeth C; Cotterchio, Michelle; Boucher, Beatrice A

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the association between intake of flaxseed-the richest source of dietary lignans (a class of phytoestrogens)-and breast cancer risk. A food frequency questionnaire was used to measure the consumption of flaxseed and flax bread by 2,999 women with breast cancer and 3,370 healthy control women who participated in the Ontario Women's Diet and Health Study (2002-2003). Logistic regression was used to investigate associations between consumption of flaxseed and flax bread and breast cancer risk. Confounding by established and suspected breast cancer risk factors, as well as dietary factors, was assessed. Flaxseed or flax bread was consumed at least weekly by 21 % of control women. None of the 19 variables assessed were identified as confounders of the associations between flaxseed or flax bread and breast cancer risk. Consumption of flaxseed was associated with a significant reduction in breast cancer risk (odds ratio (OR) = 0.82, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.69-0.97), as was consumption of flax bread (OR = 0.77, 95 % CI 0.67-0.89). This Canadian study is, to our knowledge, the first to report on the association between flaxseed alone and breast cancer risk and has found that flaxseed intake is associated with a reduction in breast cancer risk. As dietary intake of flaxseed is modifiable, this finding may be of public health importance with respect to breast cancer prevention.

  7. Reducing consumption of confectionery foods: A post-hoc segmentation analysis using a social cognition approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Paul; McCarthy, Mary; McCarthy, Sinéad

    2017-10-01

    Considering confectionary consumption behaviour this cross-sectional study used social cognition variables to identify distinct segments in terms of their motivation and efforts to decrease their consumption of such foods with the aim of informing targeted social marketing campaigns. Using Latent Class analysis on a sample of 500 adults four segments were identified: unmotivated, triers, successful actors, and thrivers. The unmotivated and triers segments reported low levels of perceived need and perceived behavioural control (PBC) in addition to high levels of habit and hedonic hunger with regards their consumption of confectionery foods. Being a younger adult was associated with higher odds of being in the unmotivated and triers segments and being female was associated with higher odds of being in the triers and successful actors segments. The findings indicate that in the absence of strong commitment to eating low amounts of confectionery foods (i.e. perceived need) people will continue to overconsume free sugars regardless of motivation to change. It is therefore necessary to identify relevant messages or 'triggers' related to sugar consumption that resonate with young adults in particular. For those motivated to change, counteracting unhealthy eating habits and the effects of hedonic hunger may necessitate changes to food environments in order to make the healthy choice more appealing and accessible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reducing GHG emissions while improving diet quality: exploring the potential of reduced meat, cheese and alcoholic and soft drinks consumption at specific moments during the day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kamp, Mirjam E; Seves, S Marije; Temme, Elisabeth H M

    2018-02-20

    The typical Western diet is associated with high levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and with obesity and other diet-related diseases. This study aims to determine the impact of adjustments to the current diet at specific moments of food consumption, to lower GHG emissions and improve diet quality. Food consumption in the Netherlands was assessed by two non-consecutive 24-h recalls for adults aged 19-69 years (n = 2102). GHG emission of food consumption was evaluated with the use of life cycle assessments. The population was stratified by gender and according to tertiles of dietary GHG emission. Scenarios were developed to lower GHG emissions of people in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emission; 1) reducing red and processed meat consumed during dinner by 50% and 75%, 2) replacing 50% and 100% of alcoholic and soft drinks (including fruit and vegetable juice and mineral water) by tap water, 3) replacing cheese consumed in between meals by plant-based alternatives and 4) two combinations of these scenarios. Effects on GHG emission as well as nutrient content of the diet were assessed. The mean habitual daily dietary GHG emission in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emission was 6.7 kg CO 2 -equivalents for men and 5.1 kg CO 2 -equivalents for women. The scenarios with reduced meat consumption and/or replacement of all alcoholic and soft drinks were most successful in reducing dietary GHG emissions (ranging from - 15% to - 34%) and also reduced saturated fatty acid intake and/or sugar intake. Both types of scenarios lead to reduced energy and iron intakes. Protein intake remained adequate. Reducing the consumption of red and processed meat during dinner and of soft and alcoholic drinks throughout the day leads to significantly lower dietary GHG emissions of people in the Netherlands in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emissions, while also having health benefits. For subgroups of the population not meeting energy or iron requirements as a

  9. Reducing GHG emissions while improving diet quality: exploring the potential of reduced meat, cheese and alcoholic and soft drinks consumption at specific moments during the day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam E. van de Kamp

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The typical Western diet is associated with high levels of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and with obesity and other diet-related diseases. This study aims to determine the impact of adjustments to the current diet at specific moments of food consumption, to lower GHG emissions and improve diet quality. Methods Food consumption in the Netherlands was assessed by two non-consecutive 24-h recalls for adults aged 19–69 years (n = 2102. GHG emission of food consumption was evaluated with the use of life cycle assessments. The population was stratified by gender and according to tertiles of dietary GHG emission. Scenarios were developed to lower GHG emissions of people in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emission; 1 reducing red and processed meat consumed during dinner by 50% and 75%, 2 replacing 50% and 100% of alcoholic and soft drinks (including fruit and vegetable juice and mineral water by tap water, 3 replacing cheese consumed in between meals by plant-based alternatives and 4 two combinations of these scenarios. Effects on GHG emission as well as nutrient content of the diet were assessed. Results The mean habitual daily dietary GHG emission in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emission was 6.7 kg CO2-equivalents for men and 5.1 kg CO2-equivalents for women. The scenarios with reduced meat consumption and/or replacement of all alcoholic and soft drinks were most successful in reducing dietary GHG emissions (ranging from − 15% to − 34% and also reduced saturated fatty acid intake and/or sugar intake. Both types of scenarios lead to reduced energy and iron intakes. Protein intake remained adequate. Conclusions Reducing the consumption of red and processed meat during dinner and of soft and alcoholic drinks throughout the day leads to significantly lower dietary GHG emissions of people in the Netherlands in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emissions, while also having health benefits. For subgroups of the

  10. Reducing the acidity of Arabica coffee beans by ohmic fermentation technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is widely consumed not only because of its typical taste, but coffee has antioxidant properties because of its polygons, and it stimulates brain performance. The main problem with the consumption of coffee is its content of caffeine. Caffeine when consumed in excess, can increase muscle tension, stimulate the heart, and increase the secretion of gastric acid. In this research, we applied ohmic fermentation technology, which is specially designed to mimic the stomach. Arabica coffee has high acidity that needs to be reduced than Luwak coffee, although it is cheaper. Hence, the ohmic technology with a time and temperature variation were applied to measure the total acidity of the coffee to determine optimum fermentation conditions. Results revealed that the total acidity of the coffee varied with fermentation conditions (0.18% – 0.73%. Generally, the longer the fermentation and the higher the temperature, the lower the total acidity. The acidity of the Luwak coffee through natural fermentation was 2.34%, which is substantially higher than the total acidity from the ohmic samples. Ohmic-based fermentation technology, therefore, offers improvements in coffee quality.

  11. Physical activity-equivalent label reduces consumption of discretionary snack foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Isabella E; Keast, Russell Sj; Liem, Dijn G

    2018-03-01

    The present research aimed to investigate the impact of the physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) front-of-pack label on consumption, prospective consumption and liking of familiar and unfamiliar discretionary snack foods. In a within-subject randomised design, participants tasted and rated liking (9-point hedonic scale) and prospective consumption (9-point category scale) of four different snack foods with four different labels (i.e. blank, fake, PACE, PACE doubled) and four control snack foods. The twenty snack foods were presented during two 45 min sessions (i.e. ten snack foods per session) which were separated by one week. The amount participants sampled of each snack food was measured. The study was conducted in the Centre for Advanced Sensory Sciences laboratory at Deakin University, Australia. The participants were 153 university students (126 females, twenty-seven males, mean age 24·3 (sd 4·9) years) currently enrolled in an undergraduate nutrition degree at Deakin University. When the PACE label was present on familiar snack foods, participants sampled 9·9 % (22·8 (sem 1·4) v. 25·3 (sem 1·5) g, P=0·03) less than when such label was not present. This was in line with a decreased prospective snack food consumption of 9·1 % (3·0 (sem 0·2) v. 3·3 (sem 0·2) servings, P=0·03). Such pattern was not seen in unfamiliar snacks. The PACE label appears to be a promising way to decrease familiar discretionary snack food consumption in young, health-minded participants.

  12. Trypsin inhibitor from tamarindus indica L. seeds reduces weight gain and food consumption and increases plasmatic cholecystokinin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joycellane Alline do Nascimento Campos Ribeiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Seeds are excellent sources of proteinase inhibitors, some of which may have satietogenic and slimming actions. We evaluated the effect of a trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus indica L. seeds on weight gain, food consumption and cholecystokinin levels in Wistar rats. METHODS: A trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus was isolated using ammonium sulfate (30-60% following precipitation with acetone and was further isolated with Trypsin-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Analyses were conducted to assess the in vivo digestibility, food intake, body weight evolution and cholecystokinin levels in Wistar rats. Histological analyses of organs and biochemical analyses of sera were performed. RESULTS: The trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus reduced food consumption, thereby reducing weight gain. The in vivo true digestibility was not significantly different between the control and Tamarindus trypsin inhibitor-treated groups. The trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus did not cause alterations in biochemical parameters or liver, stomach, intestine or pancreas histology. Rats treated with the trypsin inhibitor showed significantly elevated cholecystokinin levels compared with animals receiving casein or water. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the isolated trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus reduces weight gain by reducing food consumption, an effect that may be mediated by increased cholecystokinin. Thus, the potential use of this trypsin inhibitor in obesity prevention and/or treatment should be evaluated.

  13. Combination of haloperidol, dexamethasone, and ondansetron reduces nausea and pain intensity and morphine consumption after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevides, Márcio Luiz; Oliveira, Sérgio de Souza; Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) occur frequently after laparoscopic bariatric surgery. The combination of haloperidol, dexamethasone, and ondansetron may reduce these undesirable events. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intensity of nausea and pain, the number of vomiting episodes, and morphine consumption in postoperative (PO) obese patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). A clinical, randomized, controlled, double-blind study conducted with 90 patients with body mass index ≥ 35 kg.cm-2. Patients were divided into three groups of 30 individuals to receive ondansetron 8 mg (Group O); ondansetron 8 mg and dexamethasone 8 mg (Group OD); and ondansetron 8 mg, dexamethasone 8 mg, and haloperidol 2 mg (Group HDO). We evaluated the intensity of nausea and pain using the verbal numeric scale, cumulative number of vomiting episodes, and morphine consumption in the period of 0-2, 2-12, 12-24, and 24-36 hours postoperatively. Nausea intensity was lower in Group HDO compared to Group O (p = 0.001), pain intensity was lower in Group HDO compared to Group O (p = 0.046), and morphine consumption was lower in Group HDO compared to Group O (p = 0.037). There was no difference between groups regarding the number of vomiting episodes (p = 0.052). The combination of haloperidol, ondansetron, and dexamethasone reduced nausea and pain intensity and morphine consumption in postoperative obese patients undergoing LSG.

  14. Frequent ice cream consumption is associated with reduced striatal response to receipt of an ice cream-based milkshake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kyle S; Stice, Eric

    2012-04-01

    Weight gain leads to reduced reward-region responsivity to energy-dense food receipt, and consumption of an energy-dense diet compared with an isocaloric, low-energy-density diet leads to reduced dopamine receptors. Furthermore, phasic dopamine signaling to palatable food receipt decreases after repeated intake of that food, which collectively suggests that frequent intake of an energy-dense food may reduce striatal response to receipt of that food. We tested the hypothesis that frequent ice cream consumption would be associated with reduced activation in reward-related brain regions (eg, striatum) in response to receipt of an ice cream-based milkshake and examined the influence of adipose tissue and the specificity of this relation. Healthy-weight adolescents (n = 151) underwent fMRI during receipt of a milkshake and during receipt of a tasteless solution. Percentage body fat, reported food intake, and food craving and liking were assessed. Milkshake receipt robustly activated the striatal regions, yet frequent ice cream consumption was associated with a reduced response to milkshake receipt in these reward-related brain regions. Percentage body fat, total energy intake, percentage of energy from fat and sugar, and intake of other energy-dense foods were not related to the neural response to milkshake receipt. Our results provide novel evidence that frequent consumption of ice cream, independent of body fat, is related to a reduction in reward-region responsivity in humans, paralleling the tolerance observed in drug addiction. Data also imply that intake of a particular energy-dense food results in attenuated reward-region responsivity specifically to that food, which suggests that sensory aspects of eating and reward learning may drive the specificity.

  15. Frequent ice cream consumption is associated with reduced striatal response to receipt of an ice cream–based milkshake123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Background: Weight gain leads to reduced reward-region responsivity to energy-dense food receipt, and consumption of an energy-dense diet compared with an isocaloric, low-energy-density diet leads to reduced dopamine receptors. Furthermore, phasic dopamine signaling to palatable food receipt decreases after repeated intake of that food, which collectively suggests that frequent intake of an energy-dense food may reduce striatal response to receipt of that food. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that frequent ice cream consumption would be associated with reduced activation in reward-related brain regions (eg, striatum) in response to receipt of an ice cream–based milkshake and examined the influence of adipose tissue and the specificity of this relation. Design: Healthy-weight adolescents (n = 151) underwent fMRI during receipt of a milkshake and during receipt of a tasteless solution. Percentage body fat, reported food intake, and food craving and liking were assessed. Results: Milkshake receipt robustly activated the striatal regions, yet frequent ice cream consumption was associated with a reduced response to milkshake receipt in these reward-related brain regions. Percentage body fat, total energy intake, percentage of energy from fat and sugar, and intake of other energy-dense foods were not related to the neural response to milkshake receipt. Conclusions: Our results provide novel evidence that frequent consumption of ice cream, independent of body fat, is related to a reduction in reward-region responsivity in humans, paralleling the tolerance observed in drug addiction. Data also imply that intake of a particular energy-dense food results in attenuated reward-region responsivity specifically to that food, which suggests that sensory aspects of eating and reward learning may drive the specificity. PMID:22338036

  16. Technological Decision to Renewable Energy Usage Biogas for Off-grid Systems Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubkova Marina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the energy experiments based on electrochemical researches and the thermodynamic calculations, which are carried out on the hydrogenous fuel with the residual content of methane obtained from biogas selected organic waste. Energy indicators are examined in comparison to electrolysis hydrogen. The use of technical and electro physical indicators together with parameters of the fuel operating allowed assessing energy efficiency the module reformer - fuel cell running on a non-standard hydrogenous fuel. Numerical characteristic the efficiency of workflows fuel system reformer – fuel cell is about 39%. To operate the power installation with a predetermined capacity amount used of hydrogenous fuel is comparable to required electrolysis hydrogen amount. Shown the possibility of creation the systems of power supply based on new hydrogen technologies using renewable energy resources local waste. Confirms the relatively high efficiency the usage of hydrogenous fuel for the tasks of off-grid systems consumption.

  17. Past lessons and new uses of the mass media in reducing tobacco consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, A C; McKenna, J W; Romano, R M

    1990-01-01

    A review of mass media response to the smoking issue over the past 25 years reveals that sustained involvement of the broadcast and print media has served significantly to heighten public awareness and reduce smoking rates in the total U.S. population. Public service advertising has been an integral part of the smoking control movement from its outset, but today's intensely competitive media environment has forced health promoters to look beyond public service announcements in the development of total communication programs. Media advocacy--using the media to sharpen public awareness and mold public policy to serve the public interest, a technique derived from political campaigns--is emerging as a powerful tool in the smoking control movement. Its emphasis is on changing the entire social context of tobacco use in America, rather than the smoking behavior of people. Because media advocates' success pivots on their access to the media, they must be able both to create news and to react quickly to breaking news and unexpected events. The opportunistic, risk-taking nature of media advocacy requires that most efforts be waged at the State and local levels. An increasing number of State health departments and other organizations are using paid advertising to improve the frequency and reach of nonsmoking messages. Research verifies that paid media campaigns increase the target audience's exposure to smoking control messages, but planning and making efficient media purchases require sophistication and, of course, the necessary funds. Irrefutable medical evidence linking smoking to disease and addiction, combined with the powerful social force of the nonsmokers' rights movement, offer hope that a smoke-free society is an achievable goal. Success,however, will only be realized if tobacco control activists make use of the full range of mass media technologies to sustain and nourish this momentum.

  18. A theory-based behavior-change intervention to reduce alcohol consumption in undergraduate students: trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S; Wong, Ging Ging; Davey, Simon R

    2015-03-31

    Excessive alcohol consumption on single occasions among undergraduate students is a major health issue as research has shown this pattern of drinking to be related to maladaptive health and psychosocial outcomes. Brief, theory-based interventions targeting motivation and self-control as behavior-change techniques have been identified as effective means to reduce alcohol consumption, but few studies have examined the interactive effects of these components. The aim of the present study is to develop a brief theory-based intervention using motivational and self-control intervention techniques to reduce alcohol consumption in undergraduate students. The intervention will adopt a factorial design to test the main and interactive effects of the techniques on alcohol consumption. Using mental simulations and the strength model of self-control as the theoretical bases of the intervention, the study will adopt a fully randomized 2 (mental simulation: mental simulation vs. control irrelevant visualization exercise) × 2 (self-control training: challenging Stroop task vs. easy Stroop task) between-participants design. Non-abstinent undergraduate students aged 18 years or older will be eligible to participate in the study. Participants will complete an initial survey including self-reported alcohol consumption measures, measures of motivation and self- measures. Participants will be randomly allocated to receive either a mental simulation exercise presented in print format or a control irrelevant visualization exercise. Thereafter, participants will be randomly assigned to receive a challenging online self-control training exercise or an easy training exercise that has little self-control demand over the course of the next four weeks. Four weeks later participants will complete a follow-up alcohol consumption, motivation and self-control measures. This study will provide the first evidence for the individual and interactive effects of motivational and self-control training

  19. Loss of BIM increases mitochondrial oxygen consumption and lipid oxidation, reduces adiposity and improves insulin sensitivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Jibran A; Galic, Sandra; Tan, Christina Yr; Gurzov, Esteban N; Frazier, Ann E; Connor, Timothy; Ge, Jingjing; Pappas, Evan G; Stroud, David; Varanasi, L Chitra; Selck, Claudia; Ryan, Michael T; Thorburn, David R; Kemp, Bruce E; Krishnamurthy, Balasubramanian; Kay, Thomas Wh; McGee, Sean L; Thomas, Helen E

    2018-01-01

    BCL-2 proteins are known to engage each other to determine the fate of a cell after a death stimulus. However, their evolutionary conservation and the many other reported binding partners suggest an additional function not directly linked to apoptosis regulation. To identify such a function, we studied mice lacking the BH3-only protein BIM. BIM -/- cells had a higher mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate that was associated with higher mitochondrial complex IV activity. The consequences of increased oxygen consumption in BIM -/- mice were significantly lower body weights, reduced adiposity and lower hepatic lipid content. Consistent with reduced adiposity, BIM -/- mice had lower fasting blood glucose, improved insulin sensitivity and hepatic insulin signalling. Lipid oxidation was increased in BIM -/- mice, suggesting a mechanism for their metabolic phenotype. Our data suggest a role for BIM in regulating mitochondrial bioenergetics and metabolism and support the idea that regulation of metabolism and cell death are connected.

  20. Global exergetic dimension of hydrogen use in reducing fossil fuel consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adnan Midilli; Ibrahim Dincer

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, hydrogen is considered as a renewable and sustainable solution for minimizing the fossil fuel based-global irreversibility coefficient of global fossil fuel consumption and combating global warming and studied exergetically through a parametric performance analysis. The environmental impact results are then compared with the ones obtained for fossil fuels. In this regard, some exergetic expressions such as global waste exergy factor, global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based-global exergetic indicator. In order to investigate the role of hydrogen use at minimizing the fossil fuel based global irreversibility, the actual fossil fuel consumption data are taken from the literature. Due to the unavailability of appropriate hydrogen data for analysis, it is assumed that the utilization ratios of hydrogen are ranged between 0 and 1. Consequently, if exergetic utilization ratio of hydrogen from non-fossil fuel sources at a certain exergetic utilization ratio of fossil fuels increases, the fossil fuel based-global irreversibility coefficient will decrease. (author)

  1. Improving Quality of Service and Reducing Power Consumption with WAN accelerator in Cloud Computing Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Shin-ichi Kuribayashi

    2013-01-01

    The widespread use of cloud computing services is expected to deteriorate a Quality of Service and toincrease the power consumption of ICT devices, since the distance to a server becomes longer than before. Migration of virtual machines over a wide area can solve many problems such as load balancing and power saving in cloud computing environments. This paper proposes to dynamically apply WAN accelerator within the network when a virtual machine is moved to a distant center, in order to preve...

  2. Opportunities and insights for reducing fossil fuel consumption by households and organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stern, Paul C.; Janda, Kathryn B.; Brown, Marylin A.; Steg, Linda; Vine, Edward L.; Lutzenhiser, Loren

    2016-01-01

    Realizing the ambitious commitments of the 2015 Paris Climate Conference (COP21) will require new ways of meeting human needs previously met by burning fossil fuels. Technological developments will be critical, but so will accelerated adoption of promising low-emission technologies and practices.

  3. Potential for reducing GHG emissions and energy consumption from implementing the aluminum intensive vehicle fleet in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, J.D.; Han, W.J.; Peng, Y.H.; Gu, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    The automobile industry in China has rapidly developed in recent years which resulted in an increase in gasoline usage and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Focus on climate change has also accelerated to grow pressure on reducing vehicle weight and improving fuel efficiency. Aluminum (Al) as a light metal has demonstrated a great potential for weight savings in applications such as engine blocks, cylinder heads, wheels, hoods, tailgates etc. However, primary Al production requires intensive energy and the cost of Al is more than traditional steel, which may affect the total benefits realized from using Al in automobiles. Therefore, it is very essential to conduct a study to quantify the life cycle GHG emissions and energy consumption if the plan is to achieve fleet-wide Al intensive vehicles. This paper describes a life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and the general modeling assumptions used to evaluate the impact of Al intensive vehicle on GHG emissions and energy consumption. The results indicated that the reductions in life cycle GHG emissions and energy consumption were not significant when the maximum Al content in an automobile is 145 kg, which is the average level of Al usage in automobiles in North America. A neural network methodology was used to forecast the vehicle stock in China from 2010 to 2020 and a vehicle fleet model was established to track GHG emissions and energy consumption of the vehicle fleet. A material availability factor was also introduced into the LCA methodology to further assist decision makers in providing rational proposals for a widespread implementation of Al in automobiles. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted to study the impact of the Al content in a vehicle on the final outcomes. The GHG emissions and energy consumption could be further reduced when the Al content in an automobile increases.

  4. Advancing oral health policy and advocacy to prevent childhood obesity and reduce children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghavi, Ankit; Siddiqui, Nadia J

    2017-06-01

    While a large body of work documents the interconnections between oral health and obesity, less is known about the role that oral health professionals and organizations play to prevent childhood obesity, especially by influencing children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). This review identifies efforts by oral health professionals and organizations to influence such policy and advocacy, while informing future opportunities to leverage and expand on existing efforts. A scoping review of peer-reviewed literature and a web-based review of oral health policy and advocacy initiatives addressing prevention of obesity and reducing children's consumption of SSBs were conducted. Of 30 unique references identified, four peer-reviewed and seven non-peer-reviewed references met selection criteria. Qualitative and quantitative data were extracted using a priori determined headings. Findings suggest a strong role for oral health professionals in preventing childhood obesity and reducing children's consumption of SSBs; however, only a few national, state, and local oral-health-advocacy and -policy efforts were identified, such as policy statements by national associations, state and local education campaigns, and clinical guidelines. Evidence was limited on the role of oral health professionals in influencing broader communitywide advocacy and policy efforts such as soda taxation and limiting SSB consumption in schools. This review provides an emerging evidence base to support growing recognition among oral health professionals of their dual role in preventing childhood obesity and dental caries by targeting SSB consumption. It also identifies opportunities for oral health professionals to build on initial efforts to more proactively influence future policy and advocacy. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  5. Reducing Technology-Induced Errors: Organizational and Health Systems Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borycki, Elizabeth M; Senthriajah, Yalini; Kushniruk, Andre W; Palojoki, Sari; Saranto, Kaija; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Technology-induced errors are a growing concern for health care organizations. Such errors arise from the interaction between healthcare and information technology deployed in complex settings and contexts. As the number of health information technologies that are used to provide patient care rises so will the need to develop ways to improve the quality and safety of the technology that we use. The objective of the panel is to describe varying approaches to improving software safety from and organizational and health systems perspective. We define what a technology-induced error is. Then, we discuss how software design and testing can be used to improve health information technologies. This discussion is followed by work in the area of monitoring and reporting at a health district and national level. Lastly, we draw on the quality, safety and resilience literature. The target audience for this work are nursing and health informatics researchers, practitioners, administrators, policy makers and students.

  6. New energy efficiency technologies associated with increased natural gas demand in delivery and consumption sectors of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alghalandis, Saeid Mansouri

    2010-09-15

    Increasing population and economic growth in developing countries has changed their energy consumption patterns. So, the conventional systems of energy supply have become inadequate to deal with rising energy demand. Iran has great reservoirs of natural gas and its natural gas usage is far more than average international standard. Dominance of natural gas share in energy basket in Iran, make it necessary to consider energy efficient technologies and solutions for this domain. In this study new technologies for increasing energy efficiency (EE) in natural gas delivery and consumption sub sectors are discussed and evaluated according to available infrastructures in Iran.

  7. How to introduce new technologies to reduce nutrient losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni; Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2017-01-01

    for these technologies, however, remains a challenge. Using both primary and secondary data, this paper presents an in-depth analysis of the role of these technologies in implementation of the WFD in Denmark. Concepts of impact assessment are used to identify the most suitable approach for incorporating...... these technologies into environmental measures based on a three-faceted policy instrument typology. A voluntary approach supported by investment subsidies, or incentives that could replace existing requirements, is deemed more appropriate....

  8. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, Federico [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This report serves as the technology basis of a needed national climate change technology strategy, with the confidence that a strong technology R&D program will deliver a portfolio of technologies with the potential to provide very substantial greenhouse gas emission reductions along with continued economic growth. Much more is needed to define such a strategy, including identification of complementary deployment policies and analysis to support the seeping and prioritization of R&D programs. A national strategy must be based upon governmental, industrial, and academic partnerships.

  9. Measures to reduce car-fleet consumption - Estimation of effects; Massnahmen zur Absenkung des Flottenverbrauchs. Abschaetzung der Wirkung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iten, R.; Hammer, S.; Keller, M.; Schmidt, N. [Infras, Zuerich (Switzerland); Sammer, K.; Wuestenhagen, R. [Institut fuer Wirtschaft und Oekologie (IWOE-HSG), Universitaet St. Gallen, St. Gallen (Switzerland)

    2005-09-15

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the results of a study that estimated the effects of measures that were to be taken in order to reduce the fuel consumption of fleets of vehicles as part of the SwissEnergy programme. The research reported on aimed to estimate the effects of the Energy Label on energy consumption and research concerning the results to be expected from the introduction of a bonus-malus system. Questions reviewed include the effect of fuel consumption data on making decisions concerning which vehicle to purchase, the effects of the Energy Label on consumption, the awareness of other appropriate information sources, the possible effects of a bonus-malus system and how the effectiveness of the Energy Label could be improved. The answers and results obtained are reviewed and commented on. Finally, an overall appraisal of the situation is presented and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of the Energy Label are made

  10. REDUCING THE BOOSTER STATIONS ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY WAY OF ELIMINATING OVERPRESSURE IN THE WATER SUPPLY NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Zdor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy efficiency improvement of the city housing-and-utilities infrastructure and watersupply and water-disposal systems poses an occurrent problem. The water-supply systems energy consumption sizable share falls on the pump plants. The article deals with the issues of the operating regime management of the existing booster stations equipped with a group of pumping units regulated with frequency converters. One of the optimization directions of their energy consumption is the reduction of over-pressure in the water-distribution network and its sustentation within the regulatory values. The authors offer the structure and methodology of the data collection-and-analysis automated system utilization for revealing and eliminating the overpressure in the water-supply network. This system is designed for the group management of booster-stations operating regimes on the ground of data obtained from the pressure controlling devices at the consumers. The data exchange in the system is realized via GSM.The paper presents results of the tests carried out at the booster stations in some major cities of the Republic of Belarus. The authors analyze dependence of overpressure in the network on the methods of the plant output pressure sustentation (daily graph or constant pressure. The authors study the elimination effect of over-pressure in the water distribution network on changing the booster station pumping units operation regimes. The study shows that eliminating over pressure in the water distributing network leads to lowering the booster station pressure. This in its turn decreases its energy consumption by 15–20 % depending on the over pressure fixed level.

  11. A technique for reducing diverse habits survey data and its application to seafood consumption near Winfrith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.D.; Hunt, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    Habits surveys provide basic information to enable doses to appropriate critical groups of members of the public to be assessed. In some cases, the relevant habits of those to be included in the critical group can be quite diverse, and a simplifying method may be needed. A technique for this is described, and exemplified in relation to liquid radioactive waste discharges from AEE Winfrith, an area where the range of seafoods and radionuclide concentrations in them result in a wide variation of doses. Weighted mean consumption rates are derived for the critical group, and an example of their application in setting a revised liquid discharge authorisation is given. (author)

  12. CFD investigation of the influence of low emissivity coatings to reduce domestic energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, S.; Goffaux, C.; Jacquet, D.; Geron, L.

    2012-11-01

    The opportunity to perform energy savings at a kitchen room scale was numerically explored by applying low emissivity coatings to internal surfaces of walls and external casings of appliances. The study focuses on the radiator's heating consumption necessary to maintain the desired comfort temperature. The objective is to provide reliable scientific proof of the added value of low emissivity coatings by performing CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations. Based on this domestic cavity model and a gray-body approach, a parametric study was performed covering a wide range of surface emissivity combinations, in winter weather conditions. The risk of overheating is also analyzed in summer weather conditions.

  13. Consumption of baked nuts or seeds reduces dental plaque acidogenicity after sucrose challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Cheng, Chuoyue; Ge, Chunling; Wang, Bing; Gan, Ye-Hua

    2016-06-01

    To assess the acidogenic potential of eight different types of baked nuts or seeds eaten alone and after a sucrose challenge using in-dwelling electrode telemetry. Six participants wearing a mandibular partial prosthesis incorporated with a miniature glass pH electrode were enrolled. The plaque pH was measured after 5 or 6 days of plaque accumulation. To establish a control, the subjects were instructed to rinse with sucrose, without any subsequent treatment, at the first visit. At each subsequent test visit, the subjects were asked to chew sugar free xylitol gum or consume 10 g of baked (180 degrees C, 5 minutes) peanuts, walnuts, pistachios, cashews, almonds, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, or watermelon seeds alone and 10 minutes after a sucrose rinse. The minimum plaque pH value and area of plaque pH curve under 5.7 (AUC5.7) during and after nut/seed consumption or gum chewing alone, the plaque pH value at 10 minutes after the sucrose rinse, the time required for the pH to return to >5.7 and AUC5.7 after the sucrose rinse with or without nut/seed consumption or gum chewing were calculated from the telemetric curves. The sucrose rinse induced a rapid decrease in the plaque pH to 4.32 +/- 0.17 at 10 minutes; this value remained below 5.7 for the measurement period. The AUC5.7 values were 34.58 +/- 7.27 and 63.55 +/- 15.17 for 40 and 60 minutes after the sucrose challenge, respectively. With the exception of cashews and pumpkin seeds (minimum pH, 5.42 and 5.63 respectively), the nuts or seeds did not decrease the plaque pH to below 5.7 when consumed alone, with the AUC5.7 values during and after consumption (total 40 minutes) ranging from 0.24 to 2.5 (8.44 for cashews), which were significantly lower than those after the sucrose challenge. Furthermore, nut/seed consumption or gum chewing after the sucrose challenge significantly reversed the sucrose-induced decrease in the plaque pH, and the time required for the pH to return to >5.7 and the AUC5.7 values for 60

  14. Effects of salt labelling and repeated in-home consumption on long-term liking of reduced-salt soups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Astrid A; van Hout, Danielle H A; Zijlstra, Nicolien; Zandstra, Elizabeth H

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated the impact of salt labelling and repeated in-home consumption on liking of reduced-salt soups. Participants received a chicken noodle soup to be consumed twice weekly at home for 5 weeks. Three soups were included: (i) regular-salt soup as available on the market; (ii) 22 %-reduced-salt soup; and (iii) 32 %-reduced-salt soup. The soups were tasted blind or with the label: 'same great taste, less salt and more herbs'. In total, there were six experimental groups. All groups received the same soup over the whole period. Desire and liking were measured at each time of consumption. In-home and central location test. French consumers (n 646). There was no significant difference in liking between the three soups when consumed at home, whereas the reduced-salt soups were less liked than the regular-salt soup in the central location test. Labelling did not boost liking scores, which is probably explained by the fact that all soups were similarly liked when eaten at home. The surprising results of the present study in France suggest that a salt reduction of up to 32 % in a chicken noodle soup did not affect long-term liking score as assessed by consumers at home. In addition, initial liking measured at the central location was not predictive of liking after repeated in-home consumption. How far we can go in reducing salt in other products without compromising product quality, and how this impacts consumers' choice behaviour and in turn table salt use at home, are still unanswered questions.

  15. Consumption of thylakoid-rich spinach extract reduces hunger, increases satiety and reduces cravings for palatable food in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Egecioglu, Emil; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2015-08-01

    Green-plant membranes, thylakoids, have previously been found to increase postprandial release of the satiety hormone GLP-1, implicated in reward signaling. The purpose of this study was to investigate how treatment with a single dose of thylakoids before breakfast affects homeostatic as well as hedonic hunger, measured as wanting and liking for palatable food (VAS). We also examined whether treatment effects were correlated to scores for eating behavior. Compared to placebo, intake of thylakoids significantly reduced hunger (21% reduction, p snacks and sweets during the day (36% reduction, p snacks, respectively, and decreased subjective liking for sweet (28% reduction, p snacks, sweet-and-fat snacks in particular, were positively correlated to higher emotional eating scores (p obesity. Individuals scoring higher for emotional eating behavior may have enhanced treatment effect on cravings for palatable food. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Clomiphene citrate and letrozole to reduce follicle-stimulating hormone consumption during ovarian stimulation: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtejew, T N; Nadai, M N; Nastri, C O; Martins, W P

    2017-09-01

    To assess the available evidence comparing effectiveness of ovarian stimulation (OS) using clomiphene citrate (CC) and/or letrozole (LTZ) to reduce follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) consumption compared with standard OS. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that compared reproductive outcomes following in-vitro fertilization. We searched 11 electronic databases and hand-searched the reference lists of included studies and related reviews. We stratified the results, separating studies according to the oral agent used (CC or LTZ) and the characteristics of the included women (expected poor ovarian response or other women). When combining the results of the included studies, we assessed the relative risk (RR) for live birth, clinical pregnancy, miscarriage and cycle cancelation, the Peto odds ratio (OR) for ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and mean difference (MD) for the number of oocytes retrieved and FSH consumption. A total of 22 studies were included in the review. Considering women with expected poor ovarian response, the available evidence suggested that using CC to reduce FSH consumption during OS provided similar rates of live birth (RR, 0.9 (95% CI, 0.6-1.2), moderate-quality evidence) and clinical pregnancy (RR, 1.0 (95% CI, 0.8-1.4), moderate-quality evidence); the use of LTZ did not cause a relevant change in the number of oocytes retrieved (MD, -0.4 (95% CI, -0.9 to 0.1), high-quality evidence). Considering the studies evaluating other women, the available evidence suggested that using CC to reduce FSH consumption during OS reduced the number of oocytes retrieved (MD, -4.6 (95% CI, -6.1 to -3.0), high-quality evidence) and risk of OHSS (Peto OR, 0.2 (95% CI, 0.1-0.3), moderate-quality evidence), while results were similar for rates of live birth (RR, 0.9 (95% CI, 0.7-1.1), moderate-quality evidence) and clinical pregnancy (RR, 1.0 (95% CI, 0.8-1.1), high-quality evidence). The quality of the evidence

  17. Reduced Contextual Discrimination following Alcohol Consumption or MDMA Administration in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Emily M.; García-Gutiérrez, María S.; Moscoso-Castro, María; Manzanares, Jorge; Valverde, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The recreational drugs, alcohol and 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “Ecstasy”) have both been shown to cause immune activation in vivo, and they are linked to cognitive impairment and anxiety-like behaviors in rodents. The neuronal effects of these drugs in the hippocampal area, an area that has been a focus of studies aiming to explain the mechanisms underlying anxiety related-disorders, remains poorly understood. Therefore we investigated the specific inflammatory impact of alcohol and MDMA on this area of the brain and on a hippocampal-related behavioral task. We centered our study on two inflammatory factors linked to anxiety-related disorders, namely Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We subjected drug-consuming mice to a battery of behavioral tests to evaluate general activity, anxiety-like and depressive-live behaviors. We then introduced them to a contextual fear discrimination task and immune-related effects were examined by immunohistochemical and biochemical studies. Our results suggest that there is a relationship between the induction of immune activated pathways by voluntary alcohol consumption and a high-dose MDMA. Furthermore, the ability of mice to perform a contextual fear discrimination task was impaired by drug consumption and we report long term inflammatory alterations in the hippocampus even several weeks after drug intake. This information will be helpful for discovering new selective drug targets, and to develop treatments and preventive approaches for patients with anxiety-related disorders. PMID:26566284

  18. Reduced consumption of analgesics in patients with diabetes mellitus admitted to hospital for acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, F E; Gram-Hansen, P; Christensen, J H

    1991-01-01

    In a case-control study, the consumption of analgesics was analysed in 39 patients with diabetes, admitted with acute myocardial infarction (MI). The control group comprised of non-diabetics with MI was computer-matched to the diabetic group with respect to age and sex as well as enzyme......-estimated size of the infarction. The median number of injections of opioid analgesics in the diabetes and non-diabetes groups was 2 and 5, respectively (0.01 less than P less than 0.05), and the median consumption of morphine was 20 mg and 35 mg, respectively (0.01 less than P less than 0.......05). There was no statistically significant trend for the duration of pain to be shorter in the diabetes group. There was no difference between the two groups with respect to number of patients with Q-wave infarct, initial heart rate-blood pressure product or body weight, all of which are possible confounders. We conclude...

  19. Consumption of Hydrogen Water Reduces Paraquat-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulin Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to paraquat leads to acute lung injury and oxidative stress is widely accepted as a contributor to paraquat-induced acute lung injury. Recent studies have reported that consumption of water with dissolved molecular hydrogen to a saturated level (hydrogen water prevents oxidative stress-induced diseases. Here, we investigated whether consumption of saturated hydrogen saline protects rats against paraquat-induced acute lung injury. Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control group; hydrogen water-only group (HW group; paraquat-only group (PQ group; paraquat and hydrogen water group (PQ  +  HW group. The rats in control group and HW group drank pure water or hydrogen water; the rats in PQ group and PQ  +  HW group were intraperitonealy injected with paraquat (35 mg/kg and then provided pure water or hydrogen water. Both biochemical and histological lung alterations were measured. The results showed that hydrogen water ameliorated these alterations, demonstrating that hydrogen water alleviated paraquat-induced acute lung injury possibly by inhibition of oxidative damage.

  20. Consumer acceptance of salt-reduced 'soy sauce' bread over repeated in home consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, S.; Shimojo, R.; Holthuysen, N.T.E.; Koester, E.P.; Mojet, J.

    2013-01-01

    The stability of liking for salt reduced/re-formulated bread was tested in a home use test for three weeks. Salt was partially replaced by naturally brewed soy sauce. 56 Consumers were provided with regular bread (variant A) and another 59 were provided with salt-reduced soy sauce bread (variant B).

  1. Mode selection of China's urban heating and its potential for reducing energy consumption and CO2 emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xia; Wang, Li; Tong, Lige; Sun, Shufeng; Yue, Xianfang; Yin, Shaowu; Zheng, Lifang

    2014-01-01

    China's carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission ranks the highest in the world. CO 2 emission from urban central heating, which has an average annual growth rate of 10.3%, is responsible for 4.4% of China's total CO 2 emission. The current policy for improving urban central heating focuses on replacing coal with natural gas. This paper analyzes the existing situation and problems pertaining to urban heating, and evaluates the potential for reducing energy consumption and CO 2 emission by heat pump heating. The results show that the current policy of replacing coal with natural gas for urban central heating decreases energy consumption and CO 2 emission by 16.6% and 63.5%, respectively. On the other hand, replacing coal-based urban central heating with heat pump heating is capable of decreasing energy consumption and CO 2 emission by 57.6% and 81.4%, respectively. Replacing both urban central and decentralized heating with heat pump heating can lead to 67.7% and 85.8% reduction in energy consumption and CO 2 emission, respectively. The decreases in CO 2 emission will account for 24.5% of China's target to reduce total CO 2 emission by 2020. - Highlights: • Existing situation and problems of urban heating in China. • Feasibility of heat pump heating in China. • Potential of energy saving and emission reduction for heat pump heating. • China should adjust urban heating strategy. • Replacing urban central heating and decentralized heating with heat pump heating

  2. Consumption of large amounts of Allium vegetables reduces risk for gastric cancer in a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Zhuang, Wen; Hu, Wen; Liu, Guan-Jian; Wu, Tai-Xiang; Wu, Xiao-Ting

    2011-07-01

    The chemopreventive effects of Allium vegetables (onions, garlic, shallots, leeks, chives, and so forth) have been studied extensively, although their effect on gastric cancer risk is controversial. We performed a meta-analysis of cohort and case-control studies to analyze this association. We searched MEDLINE for studies of Allium vegetable consumption and gastric cancer that were published in any language, from January 1, 1966, to September 1, 2010. We analyzed 19 case-control and 2 cohort studies, of 543,220 subjects. We pooled the relative risks from individual studies using a random-effects model and performed dose-response, heterogeneity, and publication bias analyses. In a pooled analysis of all studies, consumption of large amounts of Allium vegetables (in a comparison of the highest and lowest consumption groups) reduced the risk for gastric cancer (odds ratio, 0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.43-0.65). Specific analyses for onion, garlic, leek, Chinese chive, scallion, garlic stalk, and Welsh onion yielded similar results, except for onion leaf. The estimated summary odds ratio for an increment of 20 g/day of Allium vegetables consumed (approximately the average weight of 1 garlic bulb) was 0.91 (95% confidence interval, 0.88-0.94), based on case-control studies from the dose-response meta-analysis. In a meta-analysis, consumption of high levels of Allium vegetables reduced the risk for gastric cancer risk. Because of potential confounding factors and exposure misclassification, further studies are required to establish this association. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reducing security risk using data loss prevention technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeskow, John

    2015-11-01

    Data loss/leakage protection (DLP) technology seeks to improve data security by answering three fundamental questions: > Where are confidential data stored? > Who is accessing the information? > How are data being handled?

  4. Moderate dose of watercress and red radish does not reduce oxygen consumption during graded exhaustive exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Meamarbashi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Very recent studies have reported positive effects of dietary nitrate on the oxygen consumption during exercise. This research aimed to study the effect of moderate dose of high-nitrate vegetables, watercress (Nasturtium officinale and red radish (Raphanus sativus compared with a control group on the incremental treadmill exercise test following a standard Bruce protocol controlled by computer. Materials and Methods: Group 1 consumed 100 g watercress (n=11, 109.5 mg nitrate/day, and group 2 consumed 100 g red radish (n=11, mg 173.2 mg nitrate/day for seven days, and control group (n=14 was prohibited from high nitrate intake. Results: During exercise, watercress group showed significant changes in the maximum values of Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER (p

  5. Acute low-level alcohol consumption reduces phase locking of event-related oscillations in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Leslie R; Wills, Derek N; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2017-07-14

    Event-related oscillations (EROs) are rhythmic changes that are evoked by a sensory and/or cognitive stimulus that can influence the dynamics of the EEG. EROs are defined by the decomposition of the EEG signal into magnitude (energy) and phase information and can be elicited in both humans and animals. EROs have been linked to several relevant genes associated with ethanol dependence phenotypes in humans and are altered in selectively bred alcohol-preferring rats. However, pharmacological studies are only beginning to emerge investigating the impact low intoxicating doses of ethanol can have on event-related neural oscillations. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effects of low levels of voluntary consumption of ethanol, in rats, on phase locking of EROs in order to give further insight into the acute intoxicating effects of ethanol on the brain. To this end, we allow rats to self-administer unsweetened 20% ethanol over 15 intermittent sessions. This method results in a stable low-dose consumption of ethanol. Using an auditory event-related potential "oddball" paradigm, we investigated the effects of alcohol on the phase variability of EROs from electrodes implanted into the frontal cortex, dorsal hippocampus, and amygdala. We found that intermittent ethanol self-administration was sufficient to produce a significant reduction in overall intraregional synchrony across all targeted regions. These data suggest that phase locking of EROs within brain regions known to be impacted by alcohol may represent a sensitive biomarker of low levels of alcohol intoxication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Can chocolate consumption reduce cardio-cerebrovascular risk? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianfredi, Vincenza; Salvatori, Tania; Nucci, Daniele; Villarini, Milena; Moretti, Massimo

    2018-02-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature was performed to assess the relationship between chocolate intake and cardio-cerebrovascular risk in the general population. A structured search of the literature was performed in the PubMed database up to September 26, 2016, using predetermined keywords. Epidemiologic studies evaluating the risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs; i.e., stroke, acute myocardial infarction [MI], heart failure, coronary heart disease) were included according to different rates of chocolate intake. The software ProMeta 3 was used to perform the meta-analysis. The systematic review identified 16 eligible studies. The majority of the studies showed a protective effect of chocolate intake compared with unexposed individuals. The overall risk ratio (effect size [ES]) of CVD for the highest versus the lowest category of chocolate consumption was 0.77 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71-0.84; P = 0.000) with a moderate heterogeneity. The risk related to subgroups of CVD and in particular, the risk for MI was further analyzed: ES = 0.78 (95% CI, 0.64-0.94; P = 0.009) without statistical heterogeneity (I 2  = 46.56%; P = 0.13). Moreover, the analysis performed based on sex found an ES = 0.85 (95% CI, 0.77-0.95; P = 0.003) for women, with a very low grade of heterogeneity (I 2  = 62.21%; P = 0.005). The results of the meta-analysis showed a potential protective effect of moderate consumption of chocolate on cardiovascular risk, especially for women, and against MI for both sexes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of electricity tariffs and cooling technologies on dairy farm electricity consumption, related costs and greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upton, J.R.; Shalloo, L.; Murphy, M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide insight into the variations in dairy farm electricity costs across five electricity tariffs. The effect of four milk cooling scenarios is also simulated to illustrate the effect of technologies on the electricity consumption, related costs and CO2 emissions of a

  8. The effectiveness of community action in reducing risky alcohol consumption and harm: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeshaft, Anthony; Doran, Christopher; Petrie, Dennis; Breen, Courtney; Havard, Alys; Abudeen, Ansari; Harwood, Elissa; Clifford, Anton; D'Este, Catherine; Gilmour, Stuart; Sanson-Fisher, Rob

    2014-03-01

    The World Health Organization, governments, and communities agree that community action is likely to reduce risky alcohol consumption and harm. Despite this agreement, there is little rigorous evidence that community action is effective: of the six randomised trials of community action published to date, all were US-based and focused on young people (rather than the whole community), and their outcomes were limited to self-report or alcohol purchase attempts. The objective of this study was to conduct the first non-US randomised controlled trial (RCT) of community action to quantify the effectiveness of this approach in reducing risky alcohol consumption and harms measured using both self-report and routinely collected data. We conducted a cluster RCT comprising 20 communities in Australia that had populations of 5,000-20,000, were at least 100 km from an urban centre (population ≥ 100,000), and were not involved in another community alcohol project. Communities were pair-matched, and one member of each pair was randomly allocated to the experimental group. Thirteen interventions were implemented in the experimental communities from 2005 to 2009: community engagement; general practitioner training in alcohol screening and brief intervention (SBI); feedback to key stakeholders; media campaign; workplace policies/practices training; school-based intervention; general practitioner feedback on their prescribing of alcohol medications; community pharmacy-based SBI; web-based SBI; Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services support for SBI; Good Sports program for sports clubs; identifying and targeting high-risk weekends; and hospital emergency department-based SBI. Primary outcomes based on routinely collected data were alcohol-related crime, traffic crashes, and hospital inpatient admissions. Routinely collected data for the entire study period (2001-2009) were obtained in 2010. Secondary outcomes based on pre- and post-intervention surveys (n = 2,977 and 2

  9. The effectiveness of community action in reducing risky alcohol consumption and harm: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Shakeshaft

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization, governments, and communities agree that community action is likely to reduce risky alcohol consumption and harm. Despite this agreement, there is little rigorous evidence that community action is effective: of the six randomised trials of community action published to date, all were US-based and focused on young people (rather than the whole community, and their outcomes were limited to self-report or alcohol purchase attempts. The objective of this study was to conduct the first non-US randomised controlled trial (RCT of community action to quantify the effectiveness of this approach in reducing risky alcohol consumption and harms measured using both self-report and routinely collected data.We conducted a cluster RCT comprising 20 communities in Australia that had populations of 5,000-20,000, were at least 100 km from an urban centre (population ≥ 100,000, and were not involved in another community alcohol project. Communities were pair-matched, and one member of each pair was randomly allocated to the experimental group. Thirteen interventions were implemented in the experimental communities from 2005 to 2009: community engagement; general practitioner training in alcohol screening and brief intervention (SBI; feedback to key stakeholders; media campaign; workplace policies/practices training; school-based intervention; general practitioner feedback on their prescribing of alcohol medications; community pharmacy-based SBI; web-based SBI; Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services support for SBI; Good Sports program for sports clubs; identifying and targeting high-risk weekends; and hospital emergency department-based SBI. Primary outcomes based on routinely collected data were alcohol-related crime, traffic crashes, and hospital inpatient admissions. Routinely collected data for the entire study period (2001-2009 were obtained in 2010. Secondary outcomes based on pre- and post-intervention surveys (n

  10. Consumption of a diet rich in Brassica vegetables is associated with a reduced abundance of sulphate‐reducing bacteria: A randomised crossover study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellingray, Lee; Tapp, Henri S.; Saha, Shikha; Doleman, Joanne F.; Narbad, Arjan

    2017-01-01

    Scope We examined whether a Brassica‐rich diet was associated with an increase in the relative abundance of intestinal lactobacilli and sulphate‐reducing bacteria (SRB), or alteration to the composition of the gut microbiota, in healthy adults. Methods and results A randomised crossover study was performed with ten healthy adults who were fed a high‐ and a low‐Brassica diet for 2‐wk periods, with a 2‐wk washout phase separating the diets. The high‐Brassica diet consisted of six 84 g portions of broccoli, six 84 g portions of cauliflower and six 300 g portions of a broccoli and sweet potato soup. The low‐Brassica diet consisted of one 84 g portion of broccoli and one 84 g portion of cauliflower. Faecal microbiota composition was measured in samples collected following 2‐wk Brassica‐free periods (consumption of all Brassica prohibited), and after each diet, whereby the only Brassica consumed was that supplied by the study team. No significant changes to the relative abundance of lactobacilli were observed (p = 0.8019). The increased consumption of Brassica was associated with a reduction in the relative abundance of SRB (p = 0.0215), and members of the Rikenellaceae, Ruminococcaceae, Mogibacteriaceae, Clostridium and unclassified Clostridiales (p Brassica vegetables was linked to a reduced relative abundance of SRB, and therefore may be potentially beneficial to gastrointestinal health. PMID:28296348

  11. China's Top-1000 Energy-Consuming Enterprises Program:Reducing Energy Consumption of the 1000 Largest Industrial Enterprises in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Price, Lynn; Wang, Xuejun; Yun, Jiang

    2008-06-02

    In 2005, the Chinese government announced an ambitious goal of reducing energy consumption per unit of GDP by 20% between 2005 and 2010. One of the key initiatives for realizing this goal is the Top-1000 Energy-Consuming Enterprises program. The energy consumption of these 1000 enterprises accounted for 33% of national and 47% of industrial energy usage in 2004. Under the Top-1000 program, 2010 energy consumption targets were determined for each enterprise. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the program design and initial results, given limited information and data, in order to understand the possible implications of its success in terms of energy and carbon dioxide emissions reductions and to recommend future program modifications based on international experience with similar target-setting agreement programs. Even though the Top-1000 Program was designed and implemented rapidly, it appears that--depending upon the GDP growth rate--it could contribute to somewhere between approximately 10% and 25% of the savings required to support China's efforts to meet a 20% reduction in energy use per unit of GDP by 2010.

  12. Prostaglandin E₂ production in mice is reduced by consumption of range-fed sources of red meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, K Shane; Rule, Daniel C; Handrich, Eldon

    2011-12-01

    Many view bison as a healthful alternative to other red meat sources, and as a way to decrease health risks, they associate it with meat consumption. Using mice as a model for immune function, we hypothesized that consumption of meat from range-fed bison would decrease prostaglandin (PG) E₂ and alter prostacyclin (PGI₂) release upon immune challenge when compared with mice fed meat from grain-finished bison, range-fed beef, feedlot steers, free-ranging elk, or chicken breast. After 2 weeks on an experimental diet and inflammatory stimulation, mouse peritoneal macrophage was isolated and analyzed in 12 animals per diet. Peritoneal cell arachidonic acid increased in response to a chicken-based diet (P meat of range-fed beef, range-fed bison, and elk but was highest with meat of grain-finished beef and intermediate in mice fed chicken (P meat had the greatest PGI₂, whereas PGI₂ was decreased in mice fed meat of either range bison, range beef, or chicken (P meat of steers or bison finished in a feedlot. We conclude that consumption of meats characteristic of range-fed ruminants or wild ungulates supports reduced PGE₂ and greater PGI₂ synthesis, indicating potentially greater immune health and lower blood clotting potential than meat from grain-finished cattle or bison in this model system. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Consumption of a single serving of red raspberries per day reduces metabolic syndrome parameters in high-fat fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, T; Miranda-Garcia, O; Sasaki, G; Shay, N F

    2017-11-15

    Using an animal model for diet-induced metabolic disease, we have shown previously that the addition of raspberry juice concentrate (RJC) and raspberry puree concentrate (RPC) at a level of 10% of kcal, equivalent to four servings per day, to an obesogenic high-fat, western-style diet (HF) significantly reduced body weight gain, serum resistin levels, and altered the expression of hepatic genes related to lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. This study was designed to examine the effect of a lower level of RJC or RPC consumption, at a level representing a single serving of food per day (2.5% of kcal). For ten weeks, four groups of C57BL/6J mice (n = 8 ea.) were fed: low fat (LF), HF, HF + RJC, or HF + RPC diets. Intake of RJC and RPC decreased final body weight. Hepatic lipid accumulation was significantly decreased in HF + RPC- and HF + RJC-fed mice, compared to HF-fed mice. Further, the relative expression of hepatic genes including Heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1) and Hormone sensitive lipase (Lipe), were altered by RPC or RJC consumption. In this mouse model of diet-induced metabolic disease, consumption of the equivalent of a single daily serving of either RPC or RJC improved metabolism in mice fed HF diet. We hypothesize that the phytochemicals contained in raspberries, and/or their subsequent metabolites, may be acting to influence gene expression and other regulatory pathways, to produce the metabolic improvements observed in this study.

  14. An Applied General Equilibrium (AGE) analysis of a policy designed to reduce the household consumption of wood in the Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufournaud, C.M.; Quinn, J.T.; Harrington, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Sudan, along with all Sahelian countries, faces urgent environmental problems caused, in part, by the clear-cutting of scrub for firewood. Analyzes the economic consequences of a policy often proposed to reduce the consumption of firewood. Specifically, the authors simulate the policy of introducing more efficient wood burning stoves into households by using an Applied General Equilibrium (AGE) model. The results indicate that the anticipated reduction in the economy-wide demand for wood, based on the increase in the technical efficiency of the stoves, is not fully realized. 23 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Assessment of the Situation and the Cause of Junk Food Consumption in Iran and Recommendation of Interventions for Reducing its Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Behzad Damari; Sahand Riazi-Isfahani; Maryam Hajian; Arezoo Rezazadeh

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: The consumption of junk food in Iran is alarmingly increasing. This study aimed to determine the influencing factors of junk food consumption and amendable interventions for decreasing  the consumption.Materials and Methods: In this qualitative study, Valid documentations were collected by searching the database using related key words and the key points were imported in a checklist and after identifying and prioritizing stakeholders through stakeholder analysis meth...

  16. New technologies reduce greenhouse gas emissions from nitrogenous fertilizer in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Feng; Dou, Zheng-Xia; He, Pan; Ju, Xiao-Tang; Powlson, David; Chadwick, Dave; Norse, David; Lu, Yue-Lai; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Liang; Chen, Xin-Ping; Cassman, Kenneth G; Zhang, Fu-Suo

    2013-05-21

    Synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer has played a key role in enhancing food production and keeping half of the world's population adequately fed. However, decades of N fertilizer overuse in many parts of the world have contributed to soil, water, and air pollution; reducing excessive N losses and emissions is a central environmental challenge in the 21st century. China's participation is essential to global efforts in reducing N-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions because China is the largest producer and consumer of fertilizer N. To evaluate the impact of China's use of N fertilizer, we quantify the carbon footprint of China's N fertilizer production and consumption chain using life cycle analysis. For every ton of N fertilizer manufactured and used, 13.5 tons of CO2-equivalent (eq) (t CO2-eq) is emitted, compared with 9.7 t CO2-eq in Europe. Emissions in China tripled from 1980 [131 terrogram (Tg) of CO2-eq (Tg CO2-eq)] to 2010 (452 Tg CO2-eq). N fertilizer-related emissions constitute about 7% of GHG emissions from the entire Chinese economy and exceed soil carbon gain resulting from N fertilizer use by several-fold. We identified potential emission reductions by comparing prevailing technologies and management practices in China with more advanced options worldwide. Mitigation opportunities include improving methane recovery during coal mining, enhancing energy efficiency in fertilizer manufacture, and minimizing N overuse in field-level crop production. We find that use of advanced technologies could cut N fertilizer-related emissions by 20-63%, amounting to 102-357 Tg CO2-eq annually. Such reduction would decrease China's total GHG emissions by 2-6%, which is significant on a global scale.

  17. Can disordered eating behaviors reduce maximum oxygen consumption in road cyclists?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max between road cyclists with and without risk for eating disorders. he sample was composed of 43 cyclists aged 18-25 years, participants of the road cycling championship of the State of Pernambuco. VO2max was measured by a computerized metabolic analyzer during an incremental test in cycleergometer. he initial test load was 50 W, with increments of 25 W every minute until volitional exhaustion or inability to maintain the current load. To evaluate disordered eating behaviors (DEB, the Eating Attitudes Test was used (EAT-26. Univariate analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare the VO2max between cyclists with (EAT-26 ≥ 21 and without (EAT-26 < 21 risk for eating disorders. he indings showed statistically signiicant VO2max diference between cyclists with and without risk to eating disorders (F(2, 41=28.44; p=0.01, indicating moderate effect size (d = 0.6. It was concluded that DEB was related to cyclists with lower VO2max.

  18. Sewage input reduces the consumption of Rhizophora mangle propagules by crabs in a subtropical mangrove system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Frederike Ricarda; Sandrini-Neto, Leonardo; Moens, Tom; da Cunha Lana, Paulo

    2016-12-01

    Mangrove forests are highly productive and play a major role in global carbon cycling. Their carbon accumulation can be influenced through the consumption of nutrient-poor leaves and propagules by herbivore crabs. Anthropogenic nutrient input from sewage contamination is widespread in these often naturally nutrient-limited ecosystems. We hypothesised that sewage-mediated nutrient input to mangrove stands of Paranaguá Bay (southern Brazil), would alter the nutrient sources available for crabs, e.g. through microphytobenthos increase, and that this would reflect in their feeding behaviour. We predicted that propagules of Rhizophora mangle in contaminated stands would experience lower grazing pressure from their two main local consumers (Ucides cordatus and Goniopsis cruentata). We compared herbivory rates on R. mangle propagules in sewage contaminated and uncontaminated mangrove stands. We found that herbivory rates were significantly lower in contaminated than uncontaminated forests, but this pattern could not be clearly attributed to increased nutrient availability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Eating 'attentively' reduces later energy consumption in overweight and obese females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Kersbergen, Inge; Higgs, Suzanne

    2014-08-28

    Attentional and memory processes underpin appetite control, but whether encouraging overweight individuals to eat more 'attentively' can promote reductions in energy consumption is unclear. In the present study with a between-subjects design, a total of forty-eight overweight and obese females consumed a fixed lunchtime meal. Their ad libitum energy intake of high-energy snack food was observed during a second laboratory session that occurred later that day. In the focused-attention condition, participants ate their lunch while listening to audio instructions that encouraged them to pay attention to the food being eaten. In a control condition, participants ate while listening to an audio book with a neutral (non-food-related) content. To test whether focused attention influenced food intake via enhancing the memory of the earlier consumed meal, we measured the participants' memory of their lunchtime meal. Ad libitum snack intake was approximately 30 % lower for participants in the focused-attention condition than for those in the control condition, and this difference was statistically significant. There was limited evidence that attention decreased later food intake by enhancing memory representation of the earlier consumed meal. Eating attentively can lead to a substantial decrease in later energy intake in overweight and obese individuals. Behavioural strategies that encourage a more 'attentive' way of eating could promote sustained reductions in energy intake and weight loss.

  20. Preoperative oral dextromethorphan does not reduce pain or morphine consumption after open cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoodzadeh Hossein

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dextromethorphan, the D-isomer of the codeine analog levorphanol, is a weak, noncompetitive N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonist. It has been suggested that NMDA receptor antagonists induce preemptive analgesia when administered before tissue injury occurs, thus decreasing the subsequent sensation of pain. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Dr. Ali Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, between February 2005 and December 2006. In this study, 72 patients scheduled for elective cholesyctectomy were randomized into three groups to receive either oral dextromethorphan 45 mg (Group D45 = 24, dextromethorphan 90 mg (Group D90 = 24, or placebo (Group C, n = 24, as premedication, 120 minutes before surgery. A visual analog scale (VAS for pain of each patient was measured at arrival in the ward and six and 24 hours after surgery. Results: The demographic characteristics of patients, ASA physical status class, duration of surgery, and the basal VAS pain score were similar in the two groups. There was no significant difference in the mean of the VAS pain scores measured over time or morphine consumption among the three groups. Conclusion: Dextromethorphan 45 mg and 90 mg, administrated orally, two hours before surgery, had no effect on postoperative morphine requirement and pain intensity.

  1. New technology expected to increase sharpness, reduce prices of scalpels

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Earlier this year, MDW Technologies introduced a new blade sharpening method called Ultra-Quantum. By combining micro machining and high-energy physics, cutting edges can be manufactured with an edge radius as small as one billionth of an inch and should make surgical tools cheaper and more effective (1 paragraph).

  2. Reasons for adopting technological innovations reducing physical workload in bricklaying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.M. de; Vink, P.; Kroon, J.C.A. de

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the adoption of technological innovations to improve the work of bricklayers and bricklayers' assistants is evaluated. Two studies were performed among 323 subjects to determine the adoption of the working methods, the perceived workload, experiences with the working methods, and the

  3. Consumption of green tea, but not black tea or coffee, is associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeko Noguchi-Shinohara

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine whether the consumption of green tea, coffee, or black tea influences the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI in older people. We conducted a population-based prospective study with Japanese residents aged >60 years from Nakajima, Japan (the Nakajima Project. Participants received an evaluation of cognitive function and blood tests. The consumption of green tea, coffee, and black tea was also evaluated at baseline. Of 723 participants with normal cognitive function at a baseline survey (2007-2008, 490 completed the follow up survey in 2011-2013. The incidence of dementia during the follow-up period (mean ± SD: 4.9 ± 0.9 years was 5.3%, and that of MCI was 13.1%. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of overall cognitive decline (dementia or MCI was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.16-0.64 among individuals who consumed green tea every day and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.25-0.86 among those who consumed green tea 1-6 days per week compared with individuals who did not consume green tea at all. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of dementia was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.06-1.06 among individuals who consumed green tea every day compared with those who did not consume green tea at all. No association was found between coffee or black tea consumption and the incidence of dementia or MCI. Our results indicate that green tea consumption is significantly associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline, even after adjustment for possible confounding factors.

  4. Consumption of green tea, but not black tea or coffee, is associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi-Shinohara, Moeko; Yuki, Sohshi; Dohmoto, Chiaki; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Samuraki, Miharu; Iwasa, Kazuo; Yokogawa, Masami; Asai, Kimiko; Komai, Kiyonobu; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Masahito

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether the consumption of green tea, coffee, or black tea influences the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in older people. We conducted a population-based prospective study with Japanese residents aged >60 years from Nakajima, Japan (the Nakajima Project). Participants received an evaluation of cognitive function and blood tests. The consumption of green tea, coffee, and black tea was also evaluated at baseline. Of 723 participants with normal cognitive function at a baseline survey (2007-2008), 490 completed the follow up survey in 2011-2013. The incidence of dementia during the follow-up period (mean ± SD: 4.9 ± 0.9 years) was 5.3%, and that of MCI was 13.1%. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of overall cognitive decline (dementia or MCI) was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.16-0.64) among individuals who consumed green tea every day and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.25-0.86) among those who consumed green tea 1-6 days per week compared with individuals who did not consume green tea at all. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of dementia was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.06-1.06) among individuals who consumed green tea every day compared with those who did not consume green tea at all. No association was found between coffee or black tea consumption and the incidence of dementia or MCI. Our results indicate that green tea consumption is significantly associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline, even after adjustment for possible confounding factors.

  5. Consumption of reduced-fat products: Effects on parameters of anti-oxidative capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis- Wierik, E.J.M. te; Berg, H. van den; Weststrate, J.A.; Hof, K.H. van het; Graaf, C. de

    1996-01-01

    Objective: Dietary fat intake is higher than recommended in most western countries and is associated with the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, obesity and cancer. The growing public concern about the adverse effects of a high fat intake has led to an increased availability of 'reduced-fat'

  6. 'Switched Biasing' reduces both MOSFET 1/f Noise and Power consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gierkink, Sander L.J.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria; Nauta, Bram

    1999-01-01

    “Switched Biasing” is proposed as a new circuit technique that exploits an intriguing physical effect: cycling a MOS transistor between strong inversion and accumulation reduces its intrinsic 1/f noise. The technique is implemented in a 0.8mm CMOS sawtooth oscillator by periodically off-switching of

  7. Reducing MOSFET 1/f Noise and Power Consumption by 'switched biasing'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gierkink, Sander L.J.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria; Nauta, Bram

    1999-01-01

    "Switched Biasing" is proposed as a new circuit technique that exploits an intriguing physical effect: cycling a MOS transistor between strong inversion and accumulation reduces its intrinsic 1/f noise. The technique is implemented in a 0.8µm CMOS sawtooth oscillator by periodically off-switching of

  8. Schooling reduces energy consumption in swimming male European eels, Anguilla anguilla L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgerhout, E.; Tudorache, C.; Brittijn, S.A.; Palstra, A.P.; Dirks, R.P.; Thillart, G.E.E.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    During migration, swimming in schools provides fish with a number of behavioural and ecological advantages, including increased food supply and reduced predation risk. Previous work shows that carangiform and tunniform swimming result in energetic advantages for individuals using a diamond swimming

  9. Maternal ethanol consumption reduces Se antioxidant function in placenta and liver of embryos and breastfeeding pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogales, Fátima; Ojeda, M Luisa; Jotty, Karick; Murillo, M Luisa; Carreras, Olimpia

    2017-12-01

    The fetal alcohol exposition during pregnancy leads to different disorders in offspring, related to the oxidative stress generated by alcohol. It is well-documented that there is an impairment of the antioxidant selenoprotein Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in ethanol offspring during the embryo period, although no-one has described Selenium (Se) status. The aim is to analyze for the first time Se deposits in vivo and Se's biological implication in embryos and placenta after alcohol exposure and in offspring whose mothers continued to drink ethanol during lactation. Se deposits, GPx and glutathione reductase (GR) activity, lipid and protein oxidation and the expression of GPx1 were measured in placenta and liver of both embryos (E-19) and breastfeeding pups (L-21) in control and ethanol groups (20% v/v). Ethanol consumption decreased Se deposits, GPx activity and GPx1 expression, while increasing biomolecular oxidation in placenta and in the liver of E-19 and L-21. The GR/GPx ratio decreased in placenta and in E-19, together with an increase in lipid oxidation, while increased in the liver of L-21 pups with protein oxidation. Ethanol also decreased the GPx1 expression/GPx activity ratio in the liver of E-19 and L-21, indicating that alcohol decreases GPx activity by both depleting Se deposits and promoting GPx inactivation. In placenta GPx activity is proportional to the GPx1 expression found, so the ethanol affects GPx activity in offspring more than in dams. Therefore, Se supplementation therapy in dams could contribute as an interesting antioxidant that prevents fetal alcohol syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Assistive technologies in reducing caregiver burden among informal caregivers of older adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madara Marasinghe, Keshini

    2016-01-01

    The world population is rapidly ageing. As population age, the incidence of functional limitations increases, demanding higher levels of care from caregivers. Assistive technologies improve individuals' functioning, independence, well-being and quality of life. By increasing independence of older adults, assistive technologies decrease workloads required from informal caregivers. This review investigates, evaluates, and synthesises existing findings to examine whether and how assistive technologies reduce caregiver burden. Databases searched included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, and Cochrane Library. Three groups of keywords were combined: those relating to assistive technology, caregiver burden, and older adults. Two theories emerged from the analysis of study results. Caregivers reported that assistive technologies decrease caregiver burden. However, caregivers had concerns that assistive technologies could add to caregiver burden, highlighting the limitations of assistive technology. As suggested by a majority of the studies in this review, assistive technologies contribute to reducing caregiver burden among caregivers of older adults. Assistive technologies assisted caregivers by reducing time, levels of assistance and energy put towards caregiving, anxiety and fear, task difficulty, safety risk particularly for activities requiring physical assistance and increasing the independence of the users. Further research is required to better understand limitations of assistive technologies. Implications for Rehabilitation Support for informal caregivers of older adults need more attention and recognition. Assistive technologies can reduce caregiver burden among informal caregivers of older adults. Further research is required to better understand the effectiveness of assistive technologies in reducing caregiver burden as well as limitations and barriers associated with using assistive technologies.

  11. Reducing CO2 emissions and energy consumption of heat-integrated distillation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadalla, Mamdouh A; Olujic, Zarko; Jansens, Peter J; Jobson, Megan; Smith, Robin

    2005-09-01

    Distillation systems are energy and power intensive processes and contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions (e.g. carbon dioxide). Reducing CO2 emissions is an absolute necessity and expensive challenge to the chemical process industries in orderto meetthe environmental targets as agreed in the Kyoto Protocol. A simple model for the calculation of CO2 emissions from heat-integrated distillation systems is introduced, considering typical process industry utility devices such as boilers, furnaces, and turbines. Furnaces and turbines consume large quantities of fuels to provide electricity and process heats. As a result, they produce considerable amounts of CO2 gas to the atmosphere. Boilers are necessary to supply steam for heating purposes; besides, they are also significant emissions contributors. The model is used in an optimization-based approach to optimize the process conditions of an existing crude oil atmospheric tower in order to reduce its CO2 emissions and energy demands. It is also applied to generate design options to reduce the emissions from a novel internally heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A gas turbine can be integrated with these distillation systems for larger emissions reduction and further energy savings. Results show that existing crude oil installations can save up to 21% in energy and 22% in emissions, when the process conditions are optimized. Additionally, by integrating a gas turbine, the total emissions can be reduced further by 48%. Internal heat-integrated columns can be a good alternative to conventional heat pump and other energy intensive close boiling mixtures separations. Energy savings can reach up to 100% with respect to reboiler heat requirements. Emissions of these configurations are cut down by up to 83%, compared to conventional units, and by 36%, with respect to heat pump alternatives. Importantly, cost savings and more profit are gained in parallel to emissions minimization.

  12. The need for multisectoral food chain approaches to reduce trans fat consumption in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Shauna M; Singh, Archna; Gupta, Vidhu; Lock, Karen; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna

    2015-07-22

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends virtually eliminating trans fat from the global food supply. Although several high-income countries have successfully reduced trans fat levels in foods, low- and middle-income countries such as India face additional challenges to its removal from the food supply. This study provides a systems analysis of the Indian food chain to assess intervention options for reducing trans fat intake in low-income consumers. Data were collected at the manufacturer, retailer and consumer levels. Qualitative interviews were conducted with vanaspati manufacturers (n = 13) and local food vendors (n = 44). Laboratory analyses (n = 39) of street foods/snacks sold by the vendors were also conducted. Trans fat and snack intakes were also examined in low-income consumers in two rural villages (n = 260) and an urban slum (n = 261). Manufacturers of vanaspati described reducing trans fat levels as feasible but identified challenges in using healthier oils. The fat content of sampled oils from street vendors contained high levels of saturated fat (24.7-69.3 % of total fat) and trans fat (0.1-29.9 % of total fat). Households were consuming snacks high in trans fat as part of daily diets (31 % village and 84.3 % of slum households) and 4 % of rural and 13 % of urban households exceeded WHO recommendations for trans fat intakes. A multisectoral food chain approach to reducing trans fat is needed in India and likely in other low- and middle-income countries worldwide. This will require investment in development of competitively priced bakery shortenings and economic incentives for manufacturing foods using healthier oils. Increased production of healthier oils will also be required alongside these investments, which will become increasingly important as more and more countries begin investing in palm oil production.

  13. Using architecture information and real-time resource state to reduce power consumption and communication costs in parallel applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, James M.; Devine, Karen Dragon; Gentile, Ann C.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Olivier, Stephen Lecler; Pedretti, Kevin; Rajamanickam, Sivasankaran; Bunde, David P.; Deveci, Mehmet; Catalyurek, Umit V.

    2014-09-01

    As computer systems grow in both size and complexity, the need for applications and run-time systems to adjust to their dynamic environment also grows. The goal of the RAAMP LDRD was to combine static architecture information and real-time system state with algorithms to conserve power, reduce communication costs, and avoid network contention. We devel- oped new data collection and aggregation tools to extract static hardware information (e.g., node/core hierarchy, network routing) as well as real-time performance data (e.g., CPU uti- lization, power consumption, memory bandwidth saturation, percentage of used bandwidth, number of network stalls). We created application interfaces that allowed this data to be used easily by algorithms. Finally, we demonstrated the benefit of integrating system and application information for two use cases. The first used real-time power consumption and memory bandwidth saturation data to throttle concurrency to save power without increasing application execution time. The second used static or real-time network traffic information to reduce or avoid network congestion by remapping MPI tasks to allocated processors. Results from our work are summarized in this report; more details are available in our publications [2, 6, 14, 16, 22, 29, 38, 44, 51, 54].

  14. A nightly conditioning method to reduce parasitic power consumption in molten-salt central-receiver solar-power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, J.E.

    1995-06-01

    A method to reduce nightly parasitic power consumption in a molten salt central receiver is discussed where salt is drained from the piping and heat tracing is turned off to allow the piping to cool to ambient overnight, then in the morning the pipes are filled while they are cold. Since the piping and areas of the receiver in a molten-nitrate salt central-receiver solar power plant must be electrically heated to maintain their temperatures above the nitrate salt freezing point (430{degrees}F, 221{degrees}C), considerable energy could be used to maintain such temperatures during nightly shut down and bad weather. Experiments and analyses have been conducted to investigate cold filling receiver panels and piping as a way of reducing parasitic electrical power consumption and increasing the availability of the plant. The two major concerns with cold filling are: (1) how far can the molten salt penetrate cold piping before freezing closed and (2) what thermal stresses develop during the associated thermal shock. Experiments and analysis are discussed.

  15. Intraoperative ketamine reduces immediate postoperative opioid consumption after spinal fusion surgery in chronic pain patients with opioid dependency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Vibeke; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm; Siegel, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    Perioperative handling of surgical patients with opioid dependency represents an important clinical problem. Animal studies suggest that ketamine attenuates central sensitization and hyperalgesia and thereby reduces postoperative opioid tolerance. We hypothesized that intraoperative ketamine would...... to 24 hours postoperatively (visual analogue scale), adverse events, and persistent pain 6 months postoperatively. One hundred fifty patients were randomly assigned to intraoperative S-ketamine bolus 0.5 mg/kg and infusion 0.25 mg·kg·h or placebo. Postoperatively, patients received their usual opioids......, paracetamol and IV patient-controlled analgesia with morphine. In the final analyses, 147 patients were included. Patient-controlled analgesia IV morphine consumption 0 to 24 hours postoperatively was significantly reduced in the ketamine group compared with the placebo group: 79 (47) vs 121 (53) mg IV, mean...

  16. Integration of absorption refrigeration systems into Rankine power cycles to reduce water consumption: A thermodynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, R.; Belmonte, J.F.; Almendros-Ibáñez, J.A.; Molina, A.E.

    2017-01-01

    A high percentage of the heat that is supplied to thermoelectric power plants is discarded to ambient and must be handled by an external cooling system. This cooling system typically consists of wet cooling towers because of the excellent thermo-physical properties of water. However, the amount of water consumed for power production has reached alarming levels in developed countries. Air-cooled heat exchangers (ACHXs) appear to be the most adequate technology to substitute for wet cooling towers, but the use of this technology has some limitations. The most important limitation is the higher condenser pressures in the cycle, which produce backpressures at the condensing turbine's exit, increases in heat rejection and losses in the net plant efficiency. This paper presents a concept for the use of ACHXs in the cooling systems of power plants using an absorption refrigeration system (ARS) as an intermediary. Heat from the steam condenser is handled by the evaporator of the ARS and “lifted” to a higher temperature level, where the ACHXs are fitted to work. The generator of the ARS is fed by the power plant itself, extracting (bleeding off) some of the steam that flows through the steam turbine at the correct pressure and temperature. - Highlights: • Integration of absorption refrigeration system into the Rankine cycle of power plant. • The absorption refrigeration system will be driven by bleeding off steam turbine. • Lift rejection temperatures to a higher level to operate with air cooled condensers. • The water savings are estimated to be in the range of 1.12–5.58 m 3 /MWh. • Studying the integration with single- and double-effect absorption machines.

  17. Valuing patents on cost-reducing technology: A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Triest, S.P.; van de Vis, Wim

    2007-01-01

    We present an approach for valuing patents on production process improvements. Specifically, we focus on valuing a patent on cost-reducing process improvements from the viewpoint of the patent holding firm. We do this by considering the relevant cash flows that result from owning the patent. The

  18. Male and female alcohol consumption and live birth after assisted reproductive technology treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vittrup, Ida; Petersen, Gitte Lindved; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to assess the potential association between female and male alcohol consumption and probability of achieving a live birth after assisted reproductive treatment. From a nationwide Danish register-based cohort information on alcohol consumption at assisted reproductive treatment......, 22.6% and 20.2% of cycles resulted in a live birth for abstainers and heavy consumers (>14 drinks/week), respectively. No statistically significant associations between alcohol consumption and live birth were observed. Adjusted odds ratios from trend analyses were 1.00 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.......99-1.01) and 0.99 (95% CI 0.97-1.01) for every one-unit increase in female and male weekly alcohol consumption at assisted reproductive treatment initiation, respectively. In conclusion, this study did not show significant associations between male or female alcohol consumption and odds of live birth after...

  19. Consumers' attitudes toward consumption of cloned beef. The impact of exposure to technological information about animal cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizaki, Hideo; Sawada, Manabu; Sato, Kazuo

    2011-10-01

    Novel food technologies, such as cloning, have been introduced into the meat production sector; however, their use is not widely supported by many consumers. This study was designed to assess whether Japanese consumers' attitudes toward consumption of cloned beef (specifically, beef derived from bovine embryo and somatic cell-cloned cattle) would change after they were provided with technological information on animal cloning through a web-based survey. The results revealed that most respondents did not discriminate between their attitudes toward the consumption of the two types of cloned beef, and that most respondents did not change their attitudes toward cloned beef after receiving the technological information. The respondents' individual characteristics, including their knowledge about the food safety of cloned beef and their basic knowledge about animal cloning, influenced the likelihood of a change in their attitudes after they received the information. In conclusion, some consumers might become less uncomfortable about the consumption of cloned beef by the straightforward provision of technological information about animal cloning; however, most consumers are likely to maintain their attitudes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Predicting Comfort Temperature in Indonesia, an Initial Step to Reduce Cooling Energy Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Harso Karyono

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has no reliable thermal comfort standard that is based on research works. The current national standard (SNI 6390:2011 states only a single range of comfort temperature that is 25.5 °C Ta, with a range of +1.5 °C Ta. Previous thermal studies in a number of different buildings in Indonesia showed that the neutral (comfort temperatures of subjects were about 27 to 28 °C, which is higher than the values stated in the standard. As a big country with various ambient temperatures, Indonesian needs a better and more reliable thermal comfort predictor which can be applied properly across the country. This study is an attempt to propose an initial Indonesian thermal predictor, in the form of a simple equation, which could predict comfort temperatures properly across the country. Reanalysing the previous comfort studies in Indonesia, a simple regression equation is constructed as to be used as the initial Indonesian comfort predictor. Using this predictor, the comfort temperatures in a lowland or coastal cities like Jakarta is found to be higher than the current comfort standard. It is expected that this predictor would help to provide a better indoor thermal environment and at the same reduce the cooling energy in air conditioning (AC building, thus reducing a building’s carbon emissions.

  1. A microsimulation cost-utility analysis of alcohol screening and brief intervention to reduce heavy alcohol consumption in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zur, Richard M; Zaric, Gregory S

    2016-05-01

    Screening and brief intervention (SBI) is a public health intervention that has been shown to be effective in reducing heavy alcohol consumption. The aim of this study is to estimate the cost-effectiveness of implementing universal alcohol SBI in primary care in Canada. We developed a microsimulation model of alcohol consumption and its effects on 18 alcohol-related causes of death. The model simulates a Canadian population. The model simulates individuals and their alcohol consumption on a continuous scale starting from age 17 years to death. The reference case assumes no SBI in Canada. The base case assumes screening was conducted using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) at a threshold score of 8. Additional analyses included evaluating SBI using the AUDIT at threshold scores between 4 and 8 or the Derived Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) at threshold scores between 3 and 7. The model estimates the direct health-care costs, life years gained and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained, which are then used to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of SBI versus no SBI. SBI with AUDIT (at a threshold score of 8) had an ICER of $8729/QALY. Our results suggest that using AUDIT thresholds between 8 and 4, inclusive, would be cost-effective for the whole population, as well as for men and women individually. Our results suggest that the AUDIT-C would be cost-effective at thresholds of 7 to 3, inclusive, for men, women and the whole population. In Canada, screening and brief intervention via Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and Derived Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) to reduce heavy alcohol consumption appears to be cost-effective for men and women at Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) thresholds of 8 and lower and at Derived Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) thresholds of 7 and lower. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Does the Use of Diagnostic Technology Reduce Fetal Mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytten, Jostein; Skau, Irene; Sørensen, Rune; Eskild, Anne

    2018-01-19

    To examine the effect that the introduction of new diagnostic technology in obstetric care has had on fetal death. The Medical Birth Registry of Norway provided detailed medical information for approximately 1.2 million deliveries from 1967 to 1995. Information about diagnostic technology was collected directly from the maternity units, using a questionnaire. The data were analyzed using a hospital fixed-effects regression with fetal mortality as the outcome measure. The key independent variables were the introduction of ultrasound and electronic fetal monitoring at each maternity ward. Hospital-specific trends and risk factors of the mother were included as control variables. The richness of the data allowed us to perform several robustness tests. The introduction of ultrasound caused a significant drop in fetal mortality rate, while the introduction of electronic fetal monitoring had no effect on the rate. In the population as a whole, ultrasound contributed to a reduction in fetal deaths of nearly 20 percent. For post-term deliveries, the reduction was well over 50 percent. The introduction of ultrasound made a major contribution to the decline in fetal mortality at the end of the last century. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  3. Development of technology for production of reduced fat processed cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Torres Silva e Alves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An increasing share of foods with reduced fat has been observed in the diet of the Brazilian population, a trend also seen in many other countries. In this context, our-aim was to study the manufacturing parameters and to develop a process to produce a spreadable processed cheese (requeijão cremoso with reduced fat content. In the first stage of this study, modifications were performed in the traditional manufacturing process of requeijão cremoso with regular fat content to produce a reduced fat product. During the second stage of this study, two reduced fat cheeses, with and withoutthe addition of whey protein concentrate (WPC were developed, both using JOHA S9 and JOHA PZ as emulsifying salts, resulting in four different formulations. The amounts of cream and water used in both products were calculated in order to obtain a final product with 10% fat and 33% total solids. The product which presented the best results was produced with curd obtained by direct acidification of skimmed milk heated at 68-70 ºC, using 1,3% emulsifying salt JOHA S9 in the melting process and 2% WPC 34% as a partial fat substitute, both calculated as a percentage of the amountof curd used as raw material. It was also important to add WPC 34% to the product at the first cooking step of the process (70 ºC, in order to obtain a final product withthe typical spreadable texture of the traditional requeijão cremoso.

  4. A New Method for Low Cost Production of Titanium Alloys for Reducing Energy Consumption of Mechanical Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Z. Zak [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Chandran, Ravi [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Koopman, Mark [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-02-29

    This project investigated an innovative manufacturing process intended to minimize the cost of production of titanium materials and components, and increase the adoption of Ti components for energy consuming applications, such as automobiles. A key innovation of the proposed manufacturing approach is a novel Ti powder sintering technology for making titanium materials with ultrafine grain microstructure in the as-sintered state with minimum, or an absence, of post-sintering processes. The new sintering technology is termed Hydrogen Sintering and Phase Transformations (HSPT), and constitutes a promising manufacturing technology that can be used to produce titanium (Ti) materials and components in a near-net-shape form, thus also minimizing machining costs. Our objective was to meet, or possibly surpass, the mechanical property levels for ASTM B348 Grade 5 for wrought Ti-6Al-4V. Although specific applications call for varying mechanical property requirements, ASTM B348 was created for the demanding applications of the aerospace industry, and is the established standard for Ti-6Al-4V. While the primary goal was to meet, or exceed this standard, the team also had the goal of demonstrating this could be done at a significantly lower cost of production. Interim goals of the project were to fully develop this novel sintering process, and provide sufficient baseline testing to make the method practical and attractive to industry. By optimizing the process parameters for the sintering of titanium hydride (TiH2) powders in a hydrogen atmosphere and controlling the phase transformations during and after sintering, the HSPT process was expected to reduce the energy consumption, and thus cost, of making Ti alloys and fabricating Ti components. The process was designed such that no high temperature melting is required for producing Ti alloys; little or no post-sintering processing is needed for producing desired microstructures (and therefore enhanced mechanical

  5. Reducing water consumption in the paper mill; Paperitehtaan vedenkaeytoen vaehentaeminen (WACI) - EKY 02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekuri, T.; Pekkanen, A. [UPM-Kymmene Oyj, Valkeakoski (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    This WACI-project was divided into several subprojects, which were started with gathering of present knowledge and entering to laboratory and pilot tests. In some projects there were mill scale trials in water connections and internal purification systems. In the `Quality Demands of Water` subproject the process waters used in the printing paper machines of UPM-Kymmene were surveyed. Lab tests were made for the different applications like shower, washing, seal and dilution of internally purified circulation waters. In `Mechanical Pulp Washing` project the target was to study how the different water connections around the TMP washing press will affect the paper machine runnability. It was also started to develop separating technique for TMP fibre extractive. `Micro and Electroflotation` studies have been made mainly on pilot scale but also in new mill-scale unit. `Membrane Technology` research consisted of both lab, pilot and mill scale studies, where different membrane qualities with different process waters have been tested. `Evaporation` trials were made on pilot scale for different process waters and condensates and concentrates were analysed. Condensates were tested for different applications. The possibility to `Reuse Waste Water` concentrated mainly on how to remove the brown colour. `Simulations` were done to find out what will be the new dcs balance in different wet end processes after new water connections including so-called kidneys. In the `Paper Quality` subproject the effects of dcs on bonding ability of TMP fibres were studied on lab scale with artificial pitch component and also with circulation concentrates. This 2.5 year Tekes-project was completed at the end of April 1998. (orig.)

  6. The Influence of Herbs, Spices, and Regular Sausage and Chicken Consumption on Liking of Reduced Fat Breakfast and Lunch Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsky, Sarit; Beck, Jimikaye; Stark, Rebecca A.; Pan, Zhaoxing; Hill, James O.; Peters, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Adults often consume more fat than is recommended. We examined factors that may improve liking of reduced fat and reduced saturated fat foods, including the addition of herbs and spices and habitual consumption of different high-fat and low-fat food items. We randomized adults to taste three different conditions: full fat (FF), reduced fat with no added spice (RF), and reduced fat plus spice (RFS). Subjects rated their liking of French toast, sausage and the overall meal, or chicken, vegetables, pasta and the overall meal on a nine-point hedonic Likert scale. Overall liking of the RF breakfast and lunch meals were lower than the FF and RFS versions (Breakfast: 6.50 RF vs. 6.84 FF, p=0.0061; 6.50 RF vs. 6.82 RFS, p=0.0030; Lunch: 6.35 RF vs. 6.94 FF, pHerbs and spices may be useful for improving the liking of lower-fat foods and helping Americans maintain a diet consistent with the US Dietary Guidelines. PMID:25219391

  7. The influence of herbs, spices, and regular sausage and chicken consumption on liking of reduced fat breakfast and lunch items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsky, Sarit; Beck, Jimikaye; Stark, Rebecca A; Pan, Zhaoxing; Hill, James O; Peters, John C

    2014-10-01

    Adults often consume more fat than is recommended. We examined factors that may improve liking of reduced fat and reduced saturated fat foods, including the addition of herbs and spices and habitual consumption of different high-fat and low-fat food items. We randomized adults to taste 3 different conditions: full fat (FF), reduced fat with no added spice (RF), and reduced fat plus spice (RFS). Subjects rated their liking of French toast, sausage and the overall meal, or chicken, vegetables, pasta, and the overall meal on a 9-point hedonic Likert scale. Overall liking of the RF breakfast and lunch meals were lower than the FF and RFS versions (breakfast: 6.50 RF compared with 6.84 FF, P = 0.0061; 6.50 RF compared with 6.82 RFS, P = 0.0030; lunch: 6.35 RF compared with 6.94 FF, P breakfast and lunch meals, French toast, chicken, and vegetable likings were similar. FF and RFS conditions were liked more than RF for the breakfast and lunch meals, French toast, chicken entrée, and vegetables. Liking of all 3 sausage conditions was similar. FF pasta was liked more than RFS and RF (7.47 FF compared with 6.42 RFS, P consumption of roasted chicken was associated with reduced liking of FF chicken (r = -0.23, P = 0.004) and FF pasta (r = -0.23, P = 0.005). Herbs and spices may be useful for improving the liking of lower fat foods and helping Americans maintain a diet consistent with the U.S. Dietary Guidelines. Americans consume more fat than is recommended in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. This study shows that you can take foods like French toast, chicken, or a vegetable side and cut the fat and calories by up to 50% while restoring flavor with herbs and spices. People typically use butter, cheese, or fatty meat to enhance the flavor of their food. We found that even when we reduced the fat in our meals by using lower fat dairy and meat products but then added herbs and spices, we were able to deliver the flavor people desire for a fraction of the calories. © 2014

  8. Patient preferences and perspectives regarding reducing alcohol consumption: role of nalmefene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luquiens A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Amandine Luquiens, Henri-Jean Aubin INSERM U669, Université Paris Sud, Hôpital Paul Brousse, Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP, Villejuif, France Abstract: Alcohol use disorder is a major public health issue. The absolute mortality burden of alcohol-attributable death has increased over the last 20 years. However, access to care remains very poor and many people with alcohol use disorder are untreated. The main limiting factor for access to care in alcohol use disorder appears to be the reluctance to engage in abstinence. Risk reduction is a developing approach in the treatment of alcohol use disorders, drawing its inspiration, with quite a delay, from the decades-long dominant approach in other substance use disorders. A paradigm shift has recently occurred that places more of an emphasis on reducing alcohol as a therapeutic strategy for patients with alcohol use disorder, to better meet the patients’ preferences and needs. The development and recent approval of nalmefene, in alcohol-dependent adults with a high drinking risk level, contributes to enlarging the therapeutic arsenal for alcohol dependence, strengthening the legitimacy of alcohol reduction strategies. Keywords: harm reduction, alcohol use disorder, therapeutic goal, patients’ satisfaction

  9. The Role of Water Governance and Irrigation Technologies in Regional-Scale Water Use and Consumption in the US West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, R. B.; Grogan, D. S.; Frolking, S. E.; Proussevitch, A. A.; Zuidema, S.; Fowler, L.; Caccese, R. T.; Peklak, D. L.; Fisher-Vanden, K.

    2017-12-01

    Water management in the Western USA is challenged by the demands of an increased population, ecological needs and changing values for water use, and a broadening of variability in climate, which together have created physical limits on water availability. The management of scarce water resources in this region is strictly constrained by the current legal structure (prior appropriation water rights) on one hand, and on the other assisted by the development of new, efficient water delivery and application technologies. Therefore, critical components for a complete understanding of the hydrological landscape include the institutions governing water rights, the technologies used for the highly water consumptive agricultural sector, and the role institutions and technologies play in altering when and where water is used and consumed by humans or reserved for the environment. To explore the sensitivities of water availability within the human-physical system, we present a method to incorporate water rights allocated under the prior appropriation doctrine for the western U.S. into the University of New Hampshire macro-scale Water Balance Model to capture the essential structure of these rights and their impacts on different economic sectors in Idaho and across the US West. In addition to legal structures, new irrigation technologies also alter the efficiency and timing of water use. We assess the impacts of a variety of technologies for both the delivery of water to the agricultural fields and the application methods for bringing water to the crops on consumptive and non-consumptive agricultural water use. We explore the impacts relative to natural climate variability, investigate the role that return flows from different agricultural technologies have on regional water balance, and examine the sensitivity of the entire system to extremes such as extended drought. These methods are sufficiently generalizable to be used by other hydrological models.

  10. Strategic materials: Technologies to reduce US import vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    Three nations, South Africa, Zaire, and the U.S.S.R., account for over half of the world's production of chromium, cobalt, manganese, and platinum group metals. These metals are essential in the production of high-temperature alloys, steel and stainless steel, industrial and automotive catalysts, electronics, and other applications that are critical to the U.S. economy and the national defense. With minor exceptions, there is no domestic mine production of any of the four metals. Government actions to assure secure supplies of metals critical to the United States have been limited largely to reliance on the national defense stockpile to ensure the availability of materials required for national defense in time of war, leaving it to the free market to provide a diversity of suppliers for the industrial economy. An overall strategy to reduce U.S. reliance on uncertain sources of supply of strategic materials should be based on a combination of three technical approaches: increase the diversity of the world supply of strategic metals through the development of promising deposits; decrease demand for strategic metals through the implementation of improved manufacturing processes and recycling of strategic materials from scrap and waste; and identify and test substitute materials for current applications and develop new materials with reduced strategic material content for future applications.

  11. Interactions between Cool Roofs and Urban Irrigation: Do Cooling Strategies Reduce Water Consumption in the San Francisco Bay Area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahmani, P.; Jones, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    California has experienced progressive drought since 2012, with 2012-2014 constituting a nearly 10,000-year drought event, resulting in a suite of policies with the goal of reducing water consumption. At the same time, climate warming effects of accelerated urbanization along with projected global climate change raise an urgent need for sustainable mitigation and adaptation strategies to cool urban climates. In this study, for the first time, we assess the overarching benefits of cooling strategies on urban water consumption. We employ a satellite-supported regional climate-modeling framework over the San Francisco Bay Area to assess the effects of cool roofs on urban irrigation, a topic of increasing importance as it accounts for a significant fraction of urban water use particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. We use a suit of climatological simulations at high (1.5 km) spatial resolution, based on a Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Urban Canopy Model (UCM) modeling framework, reinforced with remotely sensed observations of Green Vegetation Fraction (GVF), leaf area index (LAI), and albedo. Our analysis shows that widespread incorporation of cool roofs would result in a mean daytime cooling of about 0.7° C, which in turn results in roughly 4% reduction in irrigation water, largely due to decreases in surface evapotranspiration rates. We further investigate the critical interactions between cool roofs, wind, and sea-breeze patterns as well as fog formation, a dominant weather pattern in San Francisco Bay area.

  12. Hybrid PSO-SA Type Algorithms for Multimodal Function Optimization and Reducing Energy Consumption in Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lhassane Idoumghar

    2011-01-01

    When a local optimal solution is reached with PSO, all particles gather around it, and escaping from this local optima becomes difficult. To avoid premature convergence of PSO, we present a new hybrid evolutionary algorithm, called HPSO-SA, based on the idea that PSO ensures fast convergence, while SA brings the search out of local optima because of its strong local-search ability. The proposed HPSO-SA algorithm is validated on ten standard benchmark multimodal functions for which we obtained significant improvements. The results are compared with these obtained by existing hybrid PSO-SA algorithms. In this paper, we provide also two versions of HPSO-SA (sequential and distributed for minimizing the energy consumption in embedded systems memories. The two versions, of HPSO-SA, reduce the energy consumption in memories from 76% up to 98% as compared to Tabu Search (TS. Moreover, the distributed version of HPSO-SA provides execution time saving of about 73% up to 84% on a cluster of 4 PCs.

  13. Use of Local Intelligence to Reduce Energy Consumption of Wireless Sensor Nodes in Elderly Health Monitoring Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Lampoltshammer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The percentage of elderly people in European countries is increasing. Such conjuncture affects socio-economic structures and creates demands for resourceful solutions, such as Ambient Assisted Living (AAL, which is a possible methodology to foster health care for elderly people. In this context, sensor-based devices play a leading role in surveying, e.g., health conditions of elderly people, to alert care personnel in case of an incident. However, the adoption of such devices strongly depends on the comfort of wearing the devices. In most cases, the bottleneck is the battery lifetime, which impacts the effectiveness of the system. In this paper we propose an approach to reduce the energy consumption of sensors’ by use of local sensors’ intelligence. By increasing the intelligence of the sensor node, a substantial decrease in the necessary communication payload can be achieved. The results show a significant potential to preserve energy and decrease the actual size of the sensor device units.

  14. Increased delignification rate of Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxburgh nees by Schizophyllum commune Fr.; Fr. to reduce chemical consumption during pulping process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Kumar Saini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pulp and paper industry is traditionally known to be a large contributor to environmental pollution due its largeconsumption of energy and chemicals. To reduce the chemical consumption, rate of delignification was increased bySchizophyllum commune in destructured sample of Dendrocalamus stictus, which was destructured by Impressafiner (compression-cum dewatering process. The extent of delignification was determined and comparison was made between thenon-destructured and destructured samples. The influence of physical parameters like incubation time, moisture level, media,media concentration, pH and temperature were also examined during the study. It was found that rate of delignification wassignificantly 6.43% more in destructured sample than non-destructured sample. Kraft pulping of treated destructured sampleshows 2.59 point reduction in kappa number than untreated non-destructured sample. Thus this paper provides an insight ofthe delignification extent in Dendrocalamus strictus after mechanical operation at varying physical parameters.

  15. Use of Local Intelligence to Reduce Energy Consumption of Wireless Sensor Nodes in Elderly Health Monitoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampoltshammer, Thomas J.; de Freitas, Edison Pignaton; Nowotny, Thomas; Plank, Stefan; da Costa, João Paulo Carvalho Lustosa; Larsson, Tony; Heistracher, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The percentage of elderly people in European countries is increasing. Such conjuncture affects socio-economic structures and creates demands for resourceful solutions, such as Ambient Assisted Living (AAL), which is a possible methodology to foster health care for elderly people. In this context, sensor-based devices play a leading role in surveying, e.g., health conditions of elderly people, to alert care personnel in case of an incident. However, the adoption of such devices strongly depends on the comfort of wearing the devices. In most cases, the bottleneck is the battery lifetime, which impacts the effectiveness of the system. In this paper we propose an approach to reduce the energy consumption of sensors' by use of local sensors' intelligence. By increasing the intelligence of the sensor node, a substantial decrease in the necessary communication payload can be achieved. The results show a significant potential to preserve energy and decrease the actual size of the sensor device units. PMID:24618777

  16. Management options to reduce exposure to methyl mercury through the consumption of fish and fishery products by the French population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crépet, A; Tressou, J; Verger, P; Leblanc, J Ch

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents an updated assessment of exposure in France to methyl mercury through the consumption of fish and fishery products, and proposes several management scenarios which could reduce this exposure through changes to fish contamination levels or fish consumption patterns. The exposure model was applied in line with previous methodological results [Tressou, J., Crépet, A., Bertail, P., Feinberg, M.H., Leblanc J.Ch., 2004a. Probabilistic exposure assessment to food chemicals based on extreme value theory: application to heavy metals from fish and sea products. Food Chem. Toxicol. 42, 1349-1358; Tressou, J., Leblanc, J.Ch., Feinberg, M., Bertail, P., 2004b. Statistical methodology to evaluate food exposure to a contaminant and influence of sanitary limits: application to ochratoxin A. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 40, 252-263] so as to obtain a realistic estimate of probability and confidence intervals (95% CI) concerning French consumers exposed to levels exceeding the revised fixed provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) for methyl mercury of 1.6 microg/week/kg of body weight, established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 2003. The results showed that young children aged between 3 and 6 years old or 7 and 10 years old, and women of childbearing age were at the risk groups. With respect to these groups and according to the fish consumers patterns (consumers of predatory fish only or consumers of predatory and nonpredatory fish), the results suggested that strategies to diminish MeHg exposure by reducing the amount of predatory fish consumed would be more efficient in significantly decreasing the probability of exceeding the PTWI than the implementation of international standards.

  17. Avoiding the ingestion of cytotoxic concentrations of ethanol may reduce the risk of cancer associated with alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén-Mancina, Emilio; Calderón-Montaño, José Manuel; López-Lázaro, Miguel

    2018-02-01

    Alcohol consumption is a known risk factor for cancer. Almost 6% of all cancers worldwide are attributable to alcohol use. Approximately half of them occur in tissues highly exposed to ethanol, such as the oral cavity, pharynx, upper larynx and esophagus. However, since ethanol is not mutagenic and the mutagenic metabolite of ethanol (acetaldehyde) is mainly produced in the liver, it is unclear why alcohol consumption preferentially exerts a local carcinogenic effect. Recent findings indicate that the risk of cancer in a tissue is strongly correlated with the number of stem cell divisions accumulated by the tissue; the accumulation of stem cell divisions leads to the accumulation of cancer-promoting errors such as mutations occurring during DNA replication. Since cell death activates the division of stem cells, we recently proposed that the possible cytotoxicity of ethanol on the cells lining the tissues in direct contact with alcoholic beverages could explain the local carcinogenic effect of alcohol. Here we report that short-term exposures (2-3 s) to ethanol concentrations between 10% and 15% start to cause a marked cytotoxic effect on human epithelial keratinocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. We propose that choosing alcoholic beverages containing non-cytotoxic concentrations of ethanol, or diluting ethanol to non-cytotoxic concentrations, may be a simple and effective way to reduce the risk of cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx and esophagus in alcohol users. This preventive strategy may also reduce the known synergistic effect of alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking on the risk of these cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of policies to reduce oil consumption and greenhouse-gas emissions from the US transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross Morrow, W.; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Collantes, Gustavo; Lee, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Even as the US debates an economy-wide CO 2 cap-and-trade policy the transportation sector remains a significant oil security and climate change concern. Transportation alone consumes the majority of the US's imported oil and produces a third of total US Greenhouse-Gas (GHG) emissions. This study examines different sector-specific policy scenarios for reducing GHG emissions and oil consumption in the US transportation sector under economy-wide CO 2 prices. The 2009 version of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), a general equilibrium model of US energy markets, enables quantitative estimates of the impact of economy-wide CO 2 prices and various transportation-specific policy options. We analyze fuel taxes, continued increases in fuel economy standards, and purchase tax credits for new vehicle purchases, as well as the impacts of combining these policies. All policy scenarios modeled fail to meet the Obama administration's goal of reducing GHG emissions 14% below 2005 levels by 2020. Purchase tax credits are expensive and ineffective at reducing emissions, while the largest reductions in GHG emissions result from increasing the cost of driving, thereby damping growth in vehicle miles traveled.

  19. Diffusion of energy efficient technologies in the German steel industry and their impact on energy consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arens, M.; Worrell, E.

    2014-01-01

    We try to understand the role of technological change and diffusion of energy efficient technologies in order to explain the trend of energy intensity developments in the German steel industry. We selected six key energy efficient technologies and collected data to derive their diffusion since their

  20. Randomized, controlled trial promotes physical activity and reduces consumption of sweets and sodium among overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Maria Cecília F; Gigante, Denise P; Cardoso, Marly A; Sartorelli, Daniela S; Santos, Iná S

    2010-08-01

    The present study sought to assess the impact of an intervention to reduce weight and control risk factors of noncommunicable chronic diseases in overweight or obese adults who are users of primary and secondary healthcare units of the public health system of Pelotas, Brazil. We hypothesized that individuals who received an educational intervention regarding how to lose weight and prevent other noncommunicable chronic disease risk factors through nutrition would lose weight and acquire active habits during leisure time more frequently than individuals under regular care. Two hundred forty-one participants from the Nutrition Outpatient Clinic of the Medical Teaching Hospital of the Federal University of Pelotas, Brazil, aged 20 years or older and classified as overweight or obese were randomly allocated to either the intervention group (IG; n = 120) or control group (CG; n = 121). The IG received individualized nutritional care for 6 months, and the CG received individualized usual care of the health services. Intention-to-treat analyses showed that at 6 months, mean fasting glycemia and daily consumption of sweet foods and sodium were reduced, and the time spent on physical leisure activity was increased in IG. Analysis of adherence to the protocol of the study revealed that individuals from IG had lost more in body weight, waist circumference, and fasting glucose compared to the CG. Leisure time physical activity increased in IG. Individuals adhered equally to the dietetic recommendations, irrespective of the nutrition approach that was used. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Extended-release naltrexone reduces alcohol consumption among released prisoners with HIV disease as they transition to the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Sandra A; Di Paola, Angela; Azar, Marwan M; Barbour, Russell; Krishnan, Archana; Altice, Frederick L

    2017-05-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are highly prevalent among persons living with HIV (PLH) within the criminal justice system (CJS). Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) has not been previously evaluated among CJS-involved PLH with AUDs. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 100 HIV+ prisoners with AUDs. Participants were randomized 2:1 to receive 6 monthly injections of XR-NTX or placebo starting one week prior to release. Using multiple imputation strategies for data missing completely at random, data were analyzed for the 6-month post-incarceration period. Main outcomes included: time to first heavy drinking day; number of standardized drinks/drinking day; percent of heavy drinking days; pre- to post-incarceration change in average drinks/day; total number of drinking days; and a composite alcohol improvement score comprised of all 5 parameters. There was no statistically significant difference overall between treatment arms for time-to-heavy-drinking day. However, participants aged 20-29 years who received XR-NTX had a longer time to first heavy drinking day compared to the placebo group (24.1 vs. 9.5days; p<0.001). There were no statistically significant differences between groups for other individual drinking outcomes. A sub-analysis, however, found participants who received ≥4 XR-NTX were more likely (p<0.005) to have improved composite alcohol scores than the placebo group. Post-hoc power analysis revealed that despite the study being powered for HIV outcomes, sufficient power (0.94) was available to distinguish the observed differences. Among CJS-involved PLH with AUDs transitioning to the community, XR-NTX lengthens the time to heavy drinking day for younger persons; reduces alcohol consumption when using a composite alcohol consumption score; and is not associated with any serious adverse events. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Performance of 14 full-scale sewage treatment plants: comparison between four aerobic technologies regarding effluent quality, sludge production and energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, I; Sáez, K; Vidal, G

    2013-01-01

    The performance of 14 Full-Scale Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) was evaluated. STPs were divided into four aerobic technologies: a) Aerated Lagoon (AL), and three configurations of activated sludge technologies, b) conventional (CAS), c) Extended Aeration (EA), d) Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). Comparison between these configurations were made regarding: a) control parameters, organic loading rate (OLR), Mixed Liquor Volatile Suspended Solids (MLVSS) concentrations, Food to Microorganism ratio (F/M), sludge age (theta(c)), Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) and return sludge ratio (R); b) effluent quality, through 5-day Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), Total Phosphorus (TP); and c) indicators related to sludge production (on a dry basis) and electrical energy consumption. Also, complementary costs analyses were made. The results show that in terms of effluent quality, for all configurations organic matter (BOD5 and COD) and TKN removal efficiency were up to 90%, while TSS and TP were up to 90% and 50%, respectively. However, CAS, EA, SBR, and AL had stability problems with effluent concentrations. The results of the electrical energy consumption and sludge production analyses show that SBRs reduce these indicators by 40%. Cost analysis showed that CAS, EA, SBR and AL had similar cost structures, with more than 50% of total operating and maintenance cost being related to electrical energy and sludge management. Therefore, SBR could be defined as the configuration with a more stable performance.

  3. Understanding Teenagers' Personal Contexts to Design Technology That Supports Learning about Energy Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramides, Katerina; Craft, Brock; Luckin, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Energy sustainability is prevalent in political and popular rhetoric and yet energy consumption is rising. Teenagers are an important category of future energy consumers, but little is known of their conceptions about energy and energy saving. We report on empirical research with two groups of teenagers. This is part of ongoing work to design…

  4. Woody biomass pretreatment for cellulosic ethanol production : technology and energy consumption evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junyong Zhu; X.J. Pan

    2010-01-01

    This review presents a comprehensive discussion of the key technical issues in woody biomass pretreatment: barriers to efficient cellulose saccharification, pretreatment energy consumption, in particular energy consumed for wood-size reduction, and criteria to evaluate the performance of a pretreatment. A post-chemical pretreatment size-reduction approach is proposed...

  5. Near field communications technology and the potential to reduce medication errors through multidisciplinary application

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Connell, Emer

    2016-07-01

    Patient safety requires optimal management of medications. Electronic systems are encouraged to reduce medication errors. Near field communications (NFC) is an emerging technology that may be used to develop novel medication management systems.

  6. Minimum Pricing of Alcohol versus Volumetric Taxation: Which Policy Will Reduce Heavy Consumption without Adversely Affecting Light and Moderate Consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anurag; Vandenberg, Brian; Hollingsworth, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Background We estimate the effect on light, moderate and heavy consumers of alcohol from implementing a minimum unit price for alcohol (MUP) compared with a uniform volumetric tax. Methods We analyse scanner data from a panel survey of demographically representative households (n = 885) collected over a one-year period (24 Jan 2010–22 Jan 2011) in the state of Victoria, Australia, which includes detailed records of each household's off-trade alcohol purchasing. Findings The heaviest consumers (3% of the sample) currently purchase 20% of the total litres of alcohol (LALs), are more likely to purchase cask wine and full strength beer, and pay significantly less on average per standard drink compared to the lightest consumers (A$1.31 [95% CI 1.20–1.41] compared to $2.21 [95% CI 2.10–2.31]). Applying a MUP of A$1 per standard drink has a greater effect on reducing the mean annual volume of alcohol purchased by the heaviest consumers of wine (15.78 LALs [95% CI 14.86–16.69]) and beer (1.85 LALs [95% CI 1.64–2.05]) compared to a uniform volumetric tax (9.56 LALs [95% CI 9.10–10.01] and 0.49 LALs [95% CI 0.46–0.41], respectively). A MUP results in smaller increases in the annual cost for the heaviest consumers of wine ($393.60 [95% CI 374.19–413.00]) and beer ($108.26 [95% CI 94.76–121.75]), compared to a uniform volumetric tax ($552.46 [95% CI 530.55–574.36] and $163.92 [95% CI 152.79–175.03], respectively). Both a MUP and uniform volumetric tax have little effect on changing the annual cost of wine and beer for light and moderate consumers, and likewise little effect upon their purchasing. Conclusions While both a MUP and a uniform volumetric tax have potential to reduce heavy consumption of wine and beer without adversely affecting light and moderate consumers, a MUP offers the potential to achieve greater reductions in heavy consumption at a lower overall annual cost to consumers. PMID:24465368

  7. Assessment of the Situation and the Cause of Junk Food Consumption in Iran and Recommendation of Interventions for Reducing its Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Damari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The consumption of junk food in Iran is alarmingly increasing. This study aimed to determine the influencing factors of junk food consumption and amendable interventions for decreasing  the consumption.Materials and Methods: In this qualitative study, Valid documentations were collected by searching the database using related key words and the key points were imported in a checklist and after identifying and prioritizing stakeholders through stakeholder analysis method, it was provided to stakeholders in the form of a questionnaire. The qualitative Method was Delphi. The questionnaire was sent by email to stakeholders and they asked to select and prioritize problems and required interventions. Consensus was reached after three rounds.      Results: The study showed that mean junk food consumption was high in Iran, especially in children and adolescents and the most important influencing factors was availability, low price, the impact of media, taste preferences, diversity and attractiveness of the package, inadequate awareness and lifestyle changes. Recommended interventions by stakeholders was including creation of a supportive environment, educational interventions, increased access to healthy food and control junk-food advertising in the media and imposed major changes in supportive priorities of  ministry of industry and mining toward producing healthy snacks.Conclusion: According to the findings, in line with public Policymaking, presentation of the results of this study as an advocacy paper to health policymakers and integrating it in the operational programs of the ministries of Health and Education and the media and holding supportive meetings with the producers of alternative products is proposed.

  8. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this chapter is to explore the role of consumption and consumers in relation to sustainability transition processes and wider systemic transformations. In contrast to the individualistic focus in much research on sustainable consumption, the embeddedness of consumption activities...... in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...

  9. Energy consumption analysis and simulation of waste heat recovery technology of ceramic rotary kiln

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiguang; Zhou, Yu; Qin, Chaokui; Zhang, Xuemei

    2018-03-01

    Ceramsite is widely used in the construction industry, insulation works and oil industry in China, and the manufacture equipment is mainly industrial kiln. In this paper, energy consumption analysis had been carried out through experimental test of a Ceramsite kiln in Henan province. Results showed that the discharge temperature of Ceramsite was about 1393K, and the waste heat accounted for 22.1% of the total energy consumption. A structure of cyclone preheater which recovered waste heat of the high temperature Ceramsite by blast cooling was designed. Then, using Fluent software, performance of the unit was simulated. The minimum temperature that Ceramsite could reach, heat dissipating capacity of Ceramsite, temperature at air outlet, wall temperature of the unit and pressure loss were analyzed. Performance of the designed unit under different inlet velocity was analyzed as well.

  10. Do You Know What Your Kids Are Drinking? Evaluation of a Media Campaign to Reduce Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Amy; Jordan, Amy; Mallya, Giridhar; Hennessy, Michael; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates a citywide media campaign that targeted reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption as a strategy for addressing obesity. Rolling cross-sectional survey data, collected before and during the media campaign, with 1367 parents to assess exposure to and effect of a televised public service advertisement (TV PSA) developed using a reasoned action approach. Televised public service advertisement campaign created by the Philadelphia Department of Public Health and disseminated on cable television channels within the Philadelphia market. Philadelphia parents/primary caregivers with a child between the ages of 3 and 16. Linear regression analysis shows that exposure to the TV PSA was significantly associated with intention to substitute nonsugary drinks for SSBs for the parent ( P = .04) and the child ( P = .02). The effect of exposure on intention to reduce child's SSB consumption increased the longer the campaign was in the field. Exposure was also significantly associated with the belief that reducing SSB consumption decreases the risk of diabetes ( P = .04) and was significantly negatively related to the belief that reducing SSB consumption would make mealtimes less enjoyable ( P = .04). These findings suggest that a theory-based mass media campaign can achieve positive changes in intention related to SSB consumption by changing relevant and salient underlying beliefs.

  11. A simple method to reduce the risk of cadmium exposure from consumption of Iceland scallops (Chlamys islandica) fished in Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Lis; Sonne, Christian; Rigét, Frank F; Dietz, Rune; Asmund, Gert

    2014-08-01

    This paper studied the levels and organ distribution of the toxic heavy metal cadmium in scallops from unpolluted Greenlandic waters. The scallops had an average cadmium concentration of 2.93 ± 0.94 μg/g wet weight in the total soft tissues and no concentration dependent effect was found for gender or size (both p>0.05). The kidney was the primary organ for cadmium accumulation with a mean of 226.2 ± 111.7 μg/g wet weight, and despite the small weight of the kidney, it appeared as the principal contributor of cadmium with 92% of the total cadmium body burden. The cadmium concentrations in the total soft tissues far exceeded the EU-limit of 1 μg/g wet weight for cadmium in bivalves. Based on this, selective evisceration of the cadmium-rich kidney and digestive gland during processing can be regarded as a reliable measure to be taken in order to reduce the cadmium content of scallops used for human consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reducing environmental damage through the use of unmanned aerial vehicles as the best available technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedulova, E. A.; Akulov, A. O.; Rada, A. O.; Alabina, T. A.; Savina, Ju Ju

    2018-01-01

    The article examines the possibilities of using unmanned aerial vehicles as the best available technologies in the field of agriculture and mining. The object of the study is the use of unmanned aerial vehicles as the best available technology. The main areas of application of this technology are identified: agro technical operations, aerial photography of mining operations. The technology of unmanned aerial vehicles is compared with the technologies of ground agricultural machinery. The research methodology includes an expert evaluation of the unmanned aerial vehicle technology belonging to the class of the best available technologies by the criteria: the level of environmental impact, resource saving, the use of low-waste, non-waste processes, the existence of at least two objects, economic efficiency. Expert evaluations were processed using the apparatus of fuzzy sets, which make it possible to construct membership functions. This allowed us to prove that the technology of unmanned aerial vehicles belongs to a fuzzy set of the best available technologies. The results of the research show that the use of unmanned aerial vehicles provides a saving of resources, especially non-renewable combustible minerals, reduces emissions and discharges of pollutants into the atmosphere, and also reduces soil erosion. Unmanned aerial vehicles should be included in the national directories of the best available technologies for the mining industry and agriculture.

  13. Table grape consumption reduces adiposity and markers of hepatic lipogenesis and alters gut microbiota in butter fat-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Jessie; Collins, Brian; Wolf, Patricia G; Martinez, Kristina; Shen, Wan; Chuang, Chia-Chi; Zhong, Wei; Cooney, Paula; Cockrell, Chase; Chang, Eugene; Gaskins, H Rex; McIntosh, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to determine if consuming table grapes reduces adiposity and its metabolic consequences and alters gut microbiota in mice fed a high-fat (HF), butter-rich diet. C57BL/6J mice were fed a low-fat (LF) diet or HF diet with 3% or 5% grapes for 11weeks. Total body and inguinal fat were moderately but significantly reduced in mice fed both levels of grapes compared to their controls. Mice fed 5% grapes had lower liver weights and triglyceride levels and decreased expression of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (Gpat1) compared to the 5% controls. Mice fed 3% grapes had lower hepatic mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2, sterol-CoA desaturase 1, fatty-acid binding protein 4 and Gpat1 compared to the 3% controls. Although grape feeding had only a minor impact on markers of inflammation or lipogenesis in adipose tissue or intestine, 3% of grapes decreased the intestinal abundance of sulfidogenic Desulfobacter spp. and the Bilophila wadsworthia-specific dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene and tended to increase the abundance of the beneficial bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila compared to controls. In addition, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Allobaculum and several other genera correlated negatively with adiposity. Allobaculum in particular was increased in the LF and 3% grapes groups compared to the HF-fed controls. Notably, grape feeding attenuated the HF-induced impairment in epithelial localization of the intestinal tight junction protein zonula occludens. Collectively, these data indicate that some of the adverse health consequences of consuming an HF diet rich in saturated fat can be attenuated by table grape consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The prolonged intake of L-arginine-L-aspartate reduces blood lactate accumulation and oxygen consumption during submaximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtscher, Martin; Brunner, Fritz; Faulhaber, Martin; Hotter, Barbara; Likar, Rudolf

    2005-09-01

    L-arginine-L-aspartate is widely used by athletes for its potentially ergogenic properties. However, only little information on its real efficacy is available from controlled studies. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of prolonged supplementation with L-arginine-L-aspartate on metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses to submaximal exercise in healthy athletes by a double blind placebo-controlled trial. Sixteen healthy male volunteers (22 ± 3 years) performed incremental cycle spiroergometry up to 150 watts before and after intake of L-arginine-L-aspartate (3 grams per day) or placebo for a period of 3 weeks. After intake of L-arginine-L-aspartate, blood lactate at 150 watts dropped from 2.8 ± 0.8 to 2.0 ± 0.9 mmol·l(-1) (p L-arginine-L-aspartate supplementation effected an increased fat utilisation at 50 watts. L-arginine and L-aspartate seem to have induced synergistic metabolic effects. L-arginine might have reduced lactic acid production by the inhibition of glycolysis and L-aspartate may have favoured fatty acid oxidation. Besides, the results indicate improved work efficiency after L-arginine-L-aspartate intake. The resulting increases of submaximal work capacity and exercise tolerance may have important implications for athletes as well as patients. Key PointsAmino acids are among the most common nutritional supplements taken by athletes. They are involved in numerous metabolic pathways that affect exercise metabolism.Three weeks of L-arginine-L-aspartate supplementation resulted in lower blood lactate concentrations and oxygen consumption, diminished glucose and enhanced fat oxidation, and reduced heart rate and ventilation during submaximal cycle exercise.This implies increased submaximal work capacity and exercise tolerance, which may have important implications for both athletes as well as patients.

  15. Low-fat, light, and reduced in calories : Do these claims really lead to an increase in consumption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Versluis (Iris); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractRecent experimental research has shown that light, low-fat and other claims that signal low calorie content can increase consumption and hence can be counter-effective. In this article we use detailed data from the Dutch National Food Consumption survey to determine the extent to which

  16. Measurement of Fine Particles From Mobile and Stationary Sources, and Reducing the Air Conditioner Power Consumption in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Eli Henry

    We study the PM2.5and ultrafine exhaust emissions from a new natural gas-fired turbine power facility to better understand air pollution in California. To characterize the emissions from new natural gas turbines, a series of tests were performed on a GE LMS100 gas turbine. These tests included PM2.5 and wet chemical tests for SO2/SO 3 and NH3, as well as ultrafine (less than 100 nm in diameter) particulate matter measurements. The turbine exhaust had an average particle number concentration that was 2.3x103 times higher than ambient air. The majority of these particles were nanoparticles; at the 100 nm size, stack particle concentrations were about 20 times higher than ambient, and increased to 3.9x104 times higher on average in the 2.5 - 3 nm particle size range. This study also found that ammonia emissions were higher than expected, but in compliance with permit conditions. This was possibly due to an ammonia imbalance entering the catalyst, some flue gas bypassing the catalyst, or not enough catalyst volume. SO3 accounted for an average of 23% of the total sulfur oxides emissions measured. Some of the SO3 is formed in the combustion process, it is likely that the majority formed as the SO2 in the combustion products passed across the oxidizing CO catalyst and SCR catalyst. The 100 MW turbine sampled in this study emitted particle loadings similar to those previously measured from turbines in the SCAQMD area, however, the turbine exhaust contained far more particles than ambient air. The power consumed by an air conditioner accounts for a significant fraction of the total power used by hybrid and electric vehicles especially during summer. This study examined the effect of recirculation of cabin air on power consumption of mobile air conditioners both in-lab and on-road. Real time power consumption and vehicle mileage were recorded by an On Board Diagnostic monitor and carbon balance method. Vehicle mileage improved with increased cabin air recirculation. The

  17. Determination of feasibility and advantages of using additional turbines to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emission of a distillation column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svang-Ariyaskul Apichit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Distillation is a process that consumes an extensive amount of energy and emits an enormous amount of CO2. It is attractive to reduce the energy consumption and CO2 emission for distillation. A new design of distillation is proposed by adding turbines in the vapor process streams before the condenser and after a reboiler to produce domestic electricity. As a result, this new design helps in reducing energy consumption and CO2 emission. The key variables are the distillate to feed ratio and the reflux ratio because they are the direct factors that control the vapor flowrates supplying the turbines. The distillation of an alkane mixture of C4 - C8 commonly found in a petroleum refinery was used as a test model to prove the process feasibility. The energy consumption and CO2 emission of the new process are reduced to 0.93 - 0.96 and 0.89 - 0.90 of the conventional process, respectively. This new design increases process efficiency in terms of second law efficiency by reducing the entropy generation from the conventional distillation at low distillate to feed ratios and reflux ratios. The distillation with additional turbines is promising to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emission and to increase process efficiency.

  18. Reducing of thermal power energy-intensive pro-cesses costs in the mixed fodders technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Lytkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methodological approach to the creation of energy-efficient processes with direct involvement in the produc-tion process of heat pump technology for the preparation of of energy resources in obtaining of mixed fodders of the given particle size distribution was formed. Completed experimental and analytical studies paved the way for the development of energy efficient technolo-gies of mixed fodders with a vapor compression connection (VCHP and steam ejector (SEHP heat pumps on the closed thermody-namic schemes. It was shown that the strategy of the operational management of process parameters in the allowable technological properties of the resulting mixed fodder production does not allow a compromise between the conflicting technical and economic param-eters and let the main technical contradiction between productivity and power consumption. The control problem becomes much more complicated when there is no practical possibility of a detailed description of thermal processes occurring in the closed thermodynamic recycles based on the phenomenological laws of thermodynamics considering a balance of material and energy flows in the technologi-cal system. There is a need for adaptive control systems based on the extreme characteristics of the controlled object. The adaptation effect is achieved by obtaining information about the processes occurring in the conditions of technological line of mixed fodders pro-duction equalized particle size distribution, which allows to generate a control signal for the extreme value of the objective function. The scheme of automatic optimization ensuring continuous monitoring of the minimum value of the specific heat energy costs is proposed. It provides optimal consumption of the starting loose mixed fodder and rational strain on the line equipment.

  19. Conceptual approaches to innovative energy saving technologies and reducing greenhouse effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buyadgie, Dmytro; Sechenyh, Vitaliy; Buyadgie, Olexiy; Nichenko, Sergii; Vasil' ev, Igor

    2010-09-15

    The study attempts a comprehensive overview of the effects of human activities and proposes technical solutions for compensation of human anthropogenic intervention. Attention is focused on energy consumption optimization and reduction of harmful emissions at current stage of civilization development. Natural sources of energy and their associated greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions are considered in the paper along with the existed approaches to energy utilization, its merits and demerits. The role of heat-utilizing thermotransformers in reduction of thermal release and GHG emissions is specified. The examples of energy efficient technologies, based on application of jet devices, are presented in the study.

  20. Institute a modest carbon tax to reduce carbon emissions, finance clean energy technology development, cut taxes, and reduce the deficit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muro, Mark; Rothwell, Jonathan

    2012-11-15

    The nation should institute a modest carbon tax in order to help clean up the economy and stabilize the nation’s finances. Specifically, Congress and the president should implement a $20 per ton, steadily increasing carbon excise fee that would discourage carbon dioxide emissions while shifting taxation onto pollution, financing energy efficiency (EE) and clean technology development, and providing opportunities to cut taxes or reduce the deficit. The net effect of these policies would be to curb harmful carbon emissions, improve the nation’s balance sheet, and stimulate job-creation and economic renewal.

  1. Primary care interventions to reduce childhood obesity and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption: Food for thought for oral health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Diane; Moultrie, Nicolette M; Sites, Elsbeth; Crawford, Patricia B

    2017-06-01

    Childhood obesity remains a significant threat to America's children. Health care leaders have increasingly called upon oral health professionals to integrate healthy weight promotion and enhanced sugar-sweetened beverage counseling into their professional practices. The aim of this scoping review is to examine recent evidence regarding the effectiveness of primary care childhood obesity interventions that have potential for adoption by oral health professionals. Medine, and PubMed were searched from 2010 to 2016 for review articles and studies reporting patient outcomes or policy outcomes relevant to primary care childhood obesity interventions for children ages 2-11 years. Additional articles were accessed through relevant websites, journals, and references. Our screening criteria included interventions that could be adopted by oral health professionals. Forty-two articles met inclusion criteria. Effective interventions fell into four domains: family-based programs, motivational interviewing, office-based practice tools, and policy interventions. Despite strong evidence linking the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages to childhood obesity, our review did not find evidence of primary care programs effectively targeting and reducing childhood sugary drinks. Effective primary care interventions for addressing childhood obesity have been identified, although only short-term effectiveness has been demonstrated. Dissemination of these practices as well as further research and advocacy are needed. Childhood obesity and poor oral health share many common risk factors. Additional research should focus on the benefits and feasibility of widespread interdisciplinary medical-oral health collaboration in addressing the two most prevalent diseases of childhood. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  2. THE PROLONGED INTAKE OF L-ARGININE-L-ASPARTATE REDUCES BLOOD LACTATE ACCUMULATION AND OXYGEN CONSUMPTION DURING SUBMAXIMAL EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Burtscher

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available L-arginine-L-aspartate is widely used by athletes for its potentially ergogenic properties. However, only little information on its real efficacy is available from controlled studies. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of prolonged supplementation with L-arginine-L-aspartate on metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses to submaximal exercise in healthy athletes by a double blind placebo-controlled trial. Sixteen healthy male volunteers (22 ± 3 years performed incremental cycle spiroergometry up to 150 watts before and after intake of L-arginine-L-aspartate (3 grams per day or placebo for a period of 3 weeks. After intake of L-arginine-L-aspartate, blood lactate at 150 watts dropped from 2.8 ± 0.8 to 2.0 ± 0.9 mmol·l-1 (p < 0.001 and total oxygen consumption during the 3-min period at 150 watts from 6.32 ± 0.51 to 5.95 ± 0.40 l (p = 0.04 compared to placebo (2.7 ± 1.1 to 2.7 ± 1.4 mmol·l-1; p = 0.9 and 6.07 ± 0.51 to 5.91 ± 0.50 l; p = 0.3. Additionally, L-arginine-L-aspartate supplementation effected an increased fat utilisation at 50 watts. L-arginine and L-aspartate seem to have induced synergistic metabolic effects. L-arginine might have reduced lactic acid production by the inhibition of glycolysis and L-aspartate may have favoured fatty acid oxidation. Besides, the results indicate improved work efficiency after L-arginine-L-aspartate intake. The resulting increases of submaximal work capacity and exercise tolerance may have important implications for athletes as well as patients

  3. The Benefits of Social Technology Use Among Older Adults Are Mediated by Reduced Loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopik, William J

    2016-09-01

    Technology has the ability to enhance and enrich the lives of older adults by facilitating better interpersonal relationships. However, few studies have directly examined associations between technology use for social reasons and physical and psychological health among older adults. The current study examines the benefits of technology use in 591 older adults from the 2012 wave of the Health and Retirement Study (Mage = 68.18, SD = 10.75; 55.5% female). Social technology use was assessed through five technology-based behaviors (i.e., using e-mail, social networking sites, online video/phone calls, online chatting/instant messaging, using a smartphone). Attitudes toward the usability and benefits of technology use were also assessed. Older adults had generally positive attitudes toward technology. Higher social technology use was associated with better self-rated health, fewer chronic illnesses, higher subjective well-being, and fewer depressive symptoms. Furthermore, each of the links between social technology use and physical and psychological health was mediated by reduced loneliness. Close relationships are a large determinant of physical health and well-being, and technology has the potential to cultivate successful relationships among older adults.

  4. Analysis of technologies and experiences for reducing occupational radiation dose and study for applying to regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Joo Hyun; Park, Moon Soo; Lee, Un Jang; Song, Jae Hyuk; Kim, Byeong Soo; Kim, Chong Uk [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-01-15

    To reduce Occupational Radiation Dose (ORD) effectively and enhance the radiological safety, the comprehensive assessment of the experiences to reduce ORD should be made by regulatory body as well as utilities. Hence, the objective of this study is to assess the experiences for reducing ORD from the regulatory viewpoint. With the research objective, the followings are performed in this research; analysis of occupational dose trends at domestic and foreign NPPs, identification of the effective technologies for reducing ORD, examination of the effects of the technologies for reducing ORD, derivation of the regulatory means for implementing he research results. From this study, the regulatory means for effective reduction of ORD are derived. Hence, the results can be utilized as a basic materials for ALARA requirements.

  5. Reduced Analgesics Consumption and Pain Intensity after Injections with a New Hyaluronic Acid in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russu Octav Marius

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the influence of a new intraarticular hyaluronic acid based hydrogel (Hymovis® injections on the amount of analgesics consumption in patients diagnosed with primary knee OA.

  6. Effectiveness of an email-based intervention helping parents to enhance alcohol-related parenting skills and reduce their children's alcohol consumption: A randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurdak, M.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Wolstein, J.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Developing and evaluating an email-based intervention (EBI) to enhance alcohol-related parenting skills and reduce alcohol consumption among adolescents. Methods: Over four weeks, participating parents received a weekly email containing scientific findings, practical advice and exercises in

  7. Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with improved insulin sensitivity, reduced basal insulin secretion rate and lower fasting glucagon concentration in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, F; Disse, E; Laville, M

    2012-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes with a stronger effect in women. As the underlying mechanisms remain poorly characterised, we investigated its relationship with insulin resistance, insulin secretion, clearance of insulin and glucagon concentration....

  8. Integrating nutrient bioavailability and co-production links when identifying sustainable diets: How low should we reduce meat consumption?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangui Barré

    Full Text Available Reducing the consumption of meat and other animal-based products is widely advocated to improve the sustainability of diets in high-income countries. However, such reduction may impair nutritional adequacy, since the bioavailability of key nutrients is higher when they come from animal- vs plant-based foods. Meat reduction may also affect the balance between foods co-produced within the same animal production system.The objective was to assess the impact of introducing nutrient bioavailability and co-production links considerations on the dietary changes needed - especially regarding meat ‒ to improve diet sustainability.Diet optimization with linear and non-linear programming was used to design, for each gender, three modeled diets departing the least from the mean observed French diet (OBS while reducing by at least 30% the diet-related environmental impacts (greenhouse gas emissions, eutrophication, acidification: i in the nutrition-environment (NE model, the fulfillment of recommended dietary allowances for all nutrients was imposed; ii in the NE-bioavailability (NEB model, nutritional adequacy was further ensured by accounting for iron, zinc, protein and provitamin A bioavailability; iii in the NEB-co-production (NEB-CP model, two links between co-produced animal foods (milk-beef and blood sausage-pork were additionally included into the models by proportionally co-constraining their respective quantities. The price and environmental impacts of individual foods were assumed to be constant.'Fruit and vegetables' and 'Starches' quantities increased in all modeled diets compared to OBS. In parallel, total meat and ruminant meat quantities decreased. Starting from 110g/d women's OBS diet (168g/d for men, total meat quantity decreased by 78%, 67% and 32% for women (68%, 66% and 62% for men in NE, NEB and NEB-CP diets, respectively. Starting from 36g/d women's OBS diet (54g/d for men, ruminant meat quantity dropped severely by 84% and 87% in NE

  9. Integrating nutrient bioavailability and co-production links when identifying sustainable diets: How low should we reduce meat consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barré, Tangui; Perignon, Marlène; Gazan, Rozenn; Vieux, Florent; Micard, Valérie; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Darmon, Nicole

    2018-01-01

    Reducing the consumption of meat and other animal-based products is widely advocated to improve the sustainability of diets in high-income countries. However, such reduction may impair nutritional adequacy, since the bioavailability of key nutrients is higher when they come from animal- vs plant-based foods. Meat reduction may also affect the balance between foods co-produced within the same animal production system. The objective was to assess the impact of introducing nutrient bioavailability and co-production links considerations on the dietary changes needed - especially regarding meat ‒ to improve diet sustainability. Diet optimization with linear and non-linear programming was used to design, for each gender, three modeled diets departing the least from the mean observed French diet (OBS) while reducing by at least 30% the diet-related environmental impacts (greenhouse gas emissions, eutrophication, acidification): i) in the nutrition-environment (NE) model, the fulfillment of recommended dietary allowances for all nutrients was imposed; ii) in the NE-bioavailability (NEB) model, nutritional adequacy was further ensured by accounting for iron, zinc, protein and provitamin A bioavailability; iii) in the NEB-co-production (NEB-CP) model, two links between co-produced animal foods (milk-beef and blood sausage-pork) were additionally included into the models by proportionally co-constraining their respective quantities. The price and environmental impacts of individual foods were assumed to be constant. 'Fruit and vegetables' and 'Starches' quantities increased in all modeled diets compared to OBS. In parallel, total meat and ruminant meat quantities decreased. Starting from 110g/d women's OBS diet (168g/d for men), total meat quantity decreased by 78%, 67% and 32% for women (68%, 66% and 62% for men) in NE, NEB and NEB-CP diets, respectively. Starting from 36g/d women's OBS diet (54g/d for men), ruminant meat quantity dropped severely by 84% and 87% in NE and

  10. Adding 75 mg pregabalin to analgesic regimen reduces pain scores and opioid consumption in adults following percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Aydoğan, Harun; Kucuk, Ahmet; Yuce, Hasan Husnu; Karahan, Mahmut Alp; Ciftci, Halil; Gulum, Mehmet; Aksoy, Nurten; Yalcin, Saban

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives:Adding novel adjunctive drugs like gabapentinoids to multimodal analgesic regimen might be reasonable for lessening postoperative pain scores, total opioid consumption and side effects after percutaneous nephrolithotomy. We aimed to evaluate the effect of pregabalin on postoperative pain scores, analgesic consumption and renal functions expressed by creatinine clearance (CrCl) and blood neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and cystatin C (Cys C) levels i...

  11. Modest alcohol consumption reduces the incidence of fatty liver in men: a population-based large-scale cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Kojima, Takao; Ohshima, Yasuhiro; Ohbora, Akihiro; Kato, Takahiro; Nakamura, Naoto; Fukui, Michiaki

    2015-03-01

    Recent cross-sectional studies have been reported the possibility that light to moderate alcohol consumption might be negatively associated with fatty liver. However, there has been no large-scale longitudinal study addressing an impact of alcohol consumption on a development of fatty liver diagnosed by ultrasonography. Thus, we investigated the impact of alcohol consumption on a natural history of fatty liver. We analyzed 5437 apparently healthy Japanese who received the health checkup programs repeatedly over 10 years. In this study, we used a standardized questionnaire for addressing the medical history and lifestyle and used a standardized ultrasonographic diagnosis for fatty liver. The total amount of alcohol consumed per week was calculated and classified into four grades; none or minimal, light, moderate, or heavy alcohol consumption ( 280 g/week, respectively). The hazard risks of alcohol consumption for the development of fatty liver were calculated by Cox hazard model after adjusting age, BMI, and parameters for lifestyle. During 10 years of follow-up, fatty liver was continuously diagnosed just in 10% of men and 20% of women with fatty liver at the baseline. In men, the adjusted hazard risks of light and moderate alcohol consumption for the development of fatty liver were 0.72 (95% confidence interval 0.60-0.86, P alcohol. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Can storage reduce electricity consumption? A general equation for the grid-wide efficiency impact of using cooling thermal energy storage for load shifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deetjen, Thomas A.; Reimers, Andrew S.; Webber, Michael E.

    2018-02-01

    This study estimates changes in grid-wide, energy consumption caused by load shifting via cooling thermal energy storage (CTES) in the building sector. It develops a general equation for relating generator fleet fuel consumption to building cooling demand as a function of ambient temperature, relative humidity, transmission and distribution current, and baseline power plant efficiency. The results present a graphical sensitivity analysis that can be used to estimate how shifting load from cooling demand to cooling storage could affect overall, grid-wide, energy consumption. In particular, because power plants, air conditioners and transmission systems all have higher efficiencies at cooler ambient temperatures, it is possible to identify operating conditions such that CTES increases system efficiency rather than decreasing it as is typical for conventional storage approaches. A case study of the Dallas-Fort Worth metro area in Texas, USA shows that using CTES to shift daytime cooling load to nighttime cooling storage can reduce annual, system-wide, primary fuel consumption by 17.6 MWh for each MWh of installed CTES capacity. The study concludes that, under the right circumstances, cooling thermal energy storage can reduce grid-wide energy consumption, challenging the perception of energy storage as a net energy consumer.

  13. Reducing GHG emissions while improving diet quality: exploring the potential of reduced meat, cheese and alcoholic and soft drinks consumption at specific moments during the day.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kamp, Mirjam E; Seves, S Marije; Temme, Elisabeth H M

    2018-01-01

    The typical Western diet is associated with high levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and with obesity and other diet-related diseases. This study aims to determine the impact of adjustments to the current diet at specific moments of food consumption, to lower GHG emissions and improve diet

  14. The status of development of energy technologies to reduce greenhousegas emissions in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salokoski, P.; Aeijaelae, M.

    1997-01-01

    In Finland there is a versatile energy production in which the combined heat and power production (CHP) plays a remarkable role. In the total power supply, the CHP production accounts for about 30 %. Biomass is also widely used. In all fuels, wood and peat accounts for 21 %, the largest share in Western Countries. The utilization of wood based fuels is also remarkable, about 16 %. The high rate of CHP production and the utilization of biomass have contributed to the lower CO 2 -emissions. In future, fossil fuels will probably be utilized in larger volumes because there are limits to the increasing of the capacity of the CHP production, biomass utilization, nuclear power and hydro power. Consequently added use of fossil fuels will increase the CO 2 -emissions. The methods with most potential in reducing CO 2 -emissions in Finland are an increased use of biomass, an expanding production of nuclear power, a larger number of CHP plants and an increase in the utilization of natural gas. Other important methods with a minor effect are technologies which increase the power/heat ratio or the efficiency. These technologies include the IGCC-technologies, the gasification-diesel or the diesel technology in general with small heat loads. These technologies will grow in importance if the substitutive fuel is biomass. Most of the technologies mentioned above are in use in Finland and, in our experience, can be recommended to other countries. Viable commercial technologies are, for example, the CHP techniques in both district heating and industrial processes, various small-scale power plants integrated to CHP or condensate power plants, the fluidized-bed technology in power production or heat production only the diesel technology; the cofiring of biomass and coal as well as the harvesting, handling, drying and utilization technologies of biomass. Technologies still in the developmental stage include the IGCC-technology for biomasses, the gasification-diesel, and the production

  15. The role of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in household energy consumption-prospects for the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martiskainen, M.; Coburn, J. [Sussex Energy Group, SPRU (Science and Technology Policy Research), University of Sussex, Freeman Centre, Falmer, Brighton, East Sussex, BN1 9QE (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Growing concerns about climate change and energy security have led to a strong focus on energy demand reduction and energy efficiency within United Kingdom (UK) energy policy. At the same time, information and communication technologies (ICTs) have become pervasive in society and this has brought with it new policy options which use them as enabling technologies. One such policy option planned for implementation in the UK is the use of smart meters and real-time displays to encourage people to become more aware of their energy consumption and possibly change their energy-related behaviours. Smart meters and display units by definition link individuals, technologies and society, and their effectiveness is influenced by a range of factors. Ten semi-structured stakeholder interviews with industry, government and academia and a review of literature were conducted in order to identify which factors are most likely to contribute to the effectiveness of implementing smart meters and real-time displays in the UK. Further analysis showed a number of key themes and perspectives on behavioural change, particularly as they relate to household electricity use and the role of smart meters in the UK energy policy, including the role of ICTs in energy demand reduction more generally.

  16. Power Consumption Efficiency Evaluation of Multi-User Full-Duplex Visible Light Communication Systems for Smart Home Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tabish Niaz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Visible light communication (VLC has recently gained significant academic and industrial attention. VLC has great potential to supplement the functioning of the upcoming radio-frequency (RF-based 5G networks. It is best suited for home, office, and commercial indoor environments as it provides a high bandwidth and high data rate, and the visible light spectrum is free to use. This paper proposes a multi-user full-duplex VLC system using red-green-blue (RGB, and white emitting diodes (LEDs for smart home technologies. It utilizes red, green, and blue LEDs for downlink transmission and a simple phosphor white LED for uplink transmission. The red and green color bands are used for user data and smart devices, respectively, while the blue color band is used with the white LED for uplink transmission. The simulation was carried out to verify the performance of the proposed multi-user full-duplex VLC system. In addition to the performance evaluation, a cost-power consumption analysis was performed by comparing the power consumption and the resulting cost of the proposed VLC system to the power consumed and resulting cost of traditional Wi-Fi based systems and hybrid systems that utilized both VLC and Wi-Fi. Our findings showed that the proposed system improved the data rate and bit-error rate performance, while minimizing the power consumption and the associated costs. These results have demonstrated that a full-duplex VLC system is a feasible solution suitable for indoor environments as it provides greater cost savings and energy efficiency when compared to traditional Wi-Fi-based systems and hybrid systems that utilize both VLC and Wi-Fi.

  17. Neuroimmunophilin GPI-1046 reduces ethanol consumption in part through activation of GLT1 in alcohol-preferring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Y; Sreemantula, S N

    2012-12-27

    We have previously shown that ceftriaxone, β-lactam antibiotic known to upregulate glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1), reduced ethanol intake in alcohol-preferring (P) rats. GLT1 is a glial glutamate transporter that regulates the majority of extracellular glutamate uptake. We tested in this study the effects of neuroimmunophilin GPI-1046 (3-(3-pyridyl)-1-propyl (2S)-1-(3,3-dimethyl-1,2-dioxopentyl)-2-pyrrolidinecarboxylate), known also to upregulate GLT1 expression, in ethanol intake in P rats. Male P rats had concurrent access to free choice of 15% and 30% ethanol, water, and food for five weeks. On Week 6, P rats continued in this drinking and food regimen and they were administered either 10 or 20mg/kg GPI-1046 (i.p.), or a vehicle for five consecutive days. Body weight, ethanol intake, and water consumption were measured daily for 8 days starting on Day 1 of GPI-1046 or vehicle i.p. injections. We have also tested the effect of GPI-1046 (20mg/kg) on daily sucrose (10%) intake. The data revealed significant dose-dependent effects in the reduction of ethanol intake starting 48 h after the first treatment with GPI-1046 throughout treatment and post-treatment periods. There were also dose-dependent increases in water intake. However, GPI-1046 treatment did not affect the body weight of all animals nor sucrose intake. Importantly, GPI-1046 (20mg/kg) increased GLT1 level compared to all groups in nucleus accumbens core (NAc-core). Alternatively, GPI-1046 (10mg/kg) upregulated GLT1 level in NAc-core compared to vehicle (ethanol naïve) group. Moreover, both doses of GPI-1046 increased significantly GLT1 level in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) compared to ethanol naïve vehicle group. GPI-1046 (20mg/kg) increased GLT1 level in PFC compared to naïve control group that was exposed to water and food only. These findings demonstrated that neuroimmunophilin GPI-1046 attenuates ethanol intake in part through the upregulation of GLT1 in PFC and NAc-core. Copyright © 2012 IBRO

  18. Energy Consumption of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Germany up to 2010. Summary of the final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, C.; Eichhammer, W.; Friedewald, M.; Georgieff, P.; Rieth-Hoerst, S.; Schlomann, B.; Zoche, P.; Aebischer, B.; Huser, A.

    2003-01-01

    Increasing power consumption for ICT applications represents a basic risk both with regard to climate protection and against the background of the expected shutdown of nuclear power stations in Germany. On the other hand, the prospects for improved energy use due to ICT applications should not be neglected. These are found in existing electricity saving potentials in the ICT sector itself, which could be exploited to a greater extent, as well as in possibilities to save energy in other sectors through increased use of new ICT applications (e.g. through remote monitoring in the transport sector, in the intelligent home, in energy technology auxiliary systems, especially in contracting and in logistics). Neither aspect has been the subject of much research so far. Nor have the indirect impacts of ICT on energy consumption been analysed to any great extent so far. This is particularly true for transport services which, on the one hand, may become unnecessary due to electronic services (e.g. electronic banking services, telephone conferences, decentralised printing of daily newspapers), but, on the other, may create additional transport services (e.g. e-commerce). (orig.)

  19. Consumption of diacylglycerol oil as part of a reduced-energy diet enhances loss of body weight and fat in comparison with consumption of a triacylglycerol control oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Davidson, Michael H; Tsushima, Rikio; Matsuo, Noboru; Tokimitsu, Ichiro; Umporowicz, Denise M; Dicklin, Mary R; Foster, Gregory S; Ingram, Kate A; Anderson, Barbara D; Frost, Scott D; Bell, Marjorie

    2002-12-01

    Diacylglycerol is a natural component of edible oils that has metabolic characteristics that are distinct from those of triacylglycerol. We assessed the efficacy of an oil containing mainly 1,3-diacylglycerol in reducing body weight and fat mass when incorporated into a reduced-energy diet. The study was a randomized, double-blind, parallel intervention trial that was conducted at an outpatient clinical research center. The subjects (n = 131) were overweight or obese men (waist circumference > or = 90 cm) and women (waist circumference > or = 87 cm). Food products (muffins, crackers, soup, cookies, and granola bars) containing diacylglycerol or triacylglycerol oil and having the same fatty acid composition were incorporated into a reduced-energy diet (2100-3350-kJ/d deficit) for 24 wk. Percentages of change in body weight, fat mass, and intraabdominal fat area were assessed. In an intention-to-treat analysis, body weight and fat mass decreased significantly more in the diacylglycerol group than in the triacylglycerol group (P = 0.025 and 0.037, respectively). By the end of the trial, mean body weight had decreased 3.6% and 2.5% in the diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol groups, respectively. Fat mass decreased 8.3% and 5.6% in the diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol groups, respectively. Foods containing diacylglycerol oil promoted weight loss and body fat reduction and may be useful as an adjunct to diet therapy in the management of obesity.

  20. EXAMPLES OF 3D-TECHNOLOGIES IN FOUNDRY PROCESSES. DECREASE IN METAL CONSUMPTION IN CASTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Doroshenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The review describes the design of metal castings produced by use of 3D-technologies. Some new ways of 3D-processing of materials connected with additive processes are described, which represents the next step in environmental resource-saving production. Examples of patterns and casting of complex design with an optimal combination of materials, durability and attractive appearance are shown. Described 3D high-tech processes are expanding the existing range of metal products and the ways of its production.

  1. The impact of green tea and coffee consumption on the reduced risk of stroke incidence in Japanese population: the Japan public health center-based study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Iso, Hiroyasu; Saito, Isao; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Junko; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2013-05-01

    Few prospective studies have examined the impact of both green tea and coffee consumption on strokes. We investigated the association of the combination of those consumption with stroke incidence in a general population. We studied 82 369 Japanese (aged 45-74 years; without cardiovascular disease [CVD] or cancer in 1995 and 1998 for Cohort I and II, respectively) who received 13 years of mean follow-up through the end of 2007. Green tea and coffee consumption was assessed by self-administered food frequency questionnaire at baseline. In the 1 066 718 person-years of follow-up, we documented the incidence of strokes (n=3425) and coronary heart disease (n=910). Compared with seldom drinking green tea, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of all strokes were 0.86 (0.78-0.95) and 0.80 (0.73-0.89) in green tea 2 to 3 and ≥ 4 cups/d, respectively. Higher green tea consumption was associated with inverse risks of CVD and strokes subtypes. Compared with seldom drinking coffee, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of all strokes were 0.89 (0.80-0.99), 0.80 (0.72-0.90), and 0.81 (0.72-0.91) for coffee 3 to 6 times/week and 1 and ≥ 2 times/day, respectively. Coffee consumption was associated with an inverse risk of CVD and cerebral infarction. Higher green tea or coffee consumption reduced the risks of CVD and stroke subtypes (especially in intracerebral hemorrhage, P for interaction between green tea and coffee=0.04). None of the significant association was observed in coronary heart disease. Higher green tea and coffee consumption were inversely associated with risk of CVD and stroke in general population.

  2. Development of Advanced Technologies to Reduce Design, Fabrication and Construction Costs for Future Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiNunzio, Camillo A.; Gupta, Abhinav; Golay, Michael; Luk, Vincent; Turk, Rich; Morrow, Charles; Geum-Taek Jin

    2002-01-01

    OAK-B135 This report presents a summation of the third and final year of a three-year investigation into methods and technologies for substantially reducing the capital costs and total schedule for future nuclear plants. In addition, this is the final technical report for the three-year period of studies

  3. Development of Advanced Technologies to Reduce Design, Fabrication and Construction Costs for Future Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiNunzio, Camillo A. [Framatome ANP DE& S, Marlborough, MA (United States); Gupta, Abhinav [Univ. of North Carolina, Raleigh, NC (United States); Golay, Michael [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Luk, Vincent [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turk, Rich [Westinghouse Electric Company Nuclear Systems, Windsor, CT (United States); Morrow, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jin, Geum-Taek [Korea Power Engineering Company Inc., Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-11-30

    This report presents a summation of the third and final year of a three-year investigation into methods and technologies for substantially reducing the capital costs and total schedule for future nuclear plants. In addition, this is the final technical report for the three-year period of studies.

  4. Reducing Warehouse Employee Errors Using Voice-Assisted Technology That Provided Immediate Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Samuel M.; Ludwig, Timothy D.

    2007-01-01

    A foodservice distributor in the southeastern United States implemented a voice assisted selecting tool to reduce selector errors by providing immediate feedback when errors occurred. An AB design with a nonequivalent comparison group was used to examine the effects of the voice technology on 132 selectors whose mispicks and shorts were collected…

  5. Strategies for the Commercialization and Deployment of Greenhouse Gas Intensity-Reducing Technologies and Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology Integration (CCCSTI)

    2009-01-01

    New technologies will be a critical component--perhaps the critical component--of our efforts to tackle the related challenges of energy security, climate change, and air pollution, all the while maintaining a strong economy. But just developing new technologies is not enough. Our ability to accelerate the market penetration of clean energy, enabling, and other climate-related technologies will have a determining impact on our ability to slow, stop, and reverse the growth in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Title XVI, Subtitle A, of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005) directs the Administration to report on its strategy to promote the commercialization and deployment (C&D) of GHG intensity-reducing technologies and practices. The Act also requests the Administration to prepare an inventory of climate-friendly technologies suitable for deployment and to identify the barriers and commercial risks facing advanced technologies. Because these issues are related, they are integrated here within a single report that we, representing the Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology Integration (CCCSTI), are pleased to provide the President, the Congress, and the public. Over the past eight years, the Administration of President George W. Bush has pursued a series of policies and measures aimed at encouraging the development and deployment of advanced technologies to reduce GHG emissions. This report highlights these policies and measures, discusses the barriers to each, and integrates them within a larger body of other extant policy. Taken together, more than 300 policies and measures described in this document may be viewed in conjunction with the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program's (CCTP's) Strategic Plan, published in September 2006, which focuses primarily on the role of advanced technology and associated research and development (R&D) for mitigating GHG emissions. The CCTP, a multi-agency technology planning and coordination program

  6. Moderate alcohol consumption reduces plasma C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels : a randomized, diet-controlled intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, A.; Gaag, M.S. van der; Kluft, C.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on the acute phase proteins C-reactive protein and fibrinogen. Design: Randomized, diet-controlled, cross-over study. Setting: The study was performed at TNO Nutrition and Food Research, Zeist, The Netherlands. Subjects: Ten

  7. Cell phones and their religions: technology consumption as an expression of faith among pentecostals and umbandistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Rubia da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the connections between cell phone use and religiosity in a low-income community in South Brazil. Drawing from ethnographic data collected through in-depth interviews and participant observation, it describes the new social and cultural practices that have arisen as a result of the integration of cell phones in the lives of Pentecostals and followers of umbanda, the most popular Afro-Brazilian religion. The article examines the dynamics and meanings involved in the process of social change that negotiates and brings together technology and religion in unique ways, particularly focusing on the role of bluetooth as a phone function that addresses social inequalities. It is suggested that cell phones not only enable new possibilities for the expression and practice of faith, but also, similarly to religion, empower community members, thus becoming an instrument that can help them cope with poverty.

  8. The relationship between amount of soda consumed and intention to reduce soda consumption among adults exposed to the Choose Health LA 'Sugar Pack' health marketing campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Brenda; Blitstein, Jonathan L; Lieberman, Alicea J; Barragan, Noel C; Gase, Lauren N; Kuo, Tony

    2015-10-01

    To examine behavioural intention to reduce soda consumption after exposure to the Choose Health LA 'Sugar Pack' campaign in Los Angeles County, California, USA. A cross-sectional street-intercept survey was conducted to assess knowledge, attitudes, health behaviours and behavioural intentions after exposure to the 'Sugar Pack' campaign. A multivariable regression analysis was performed to examine the relationships between the amount of soda consumed and self-reported intention to reduce consumption of non-diet soda among adults who saw the campaign. Three pre-selected Los Angeles County Metro bus shelters and/or rail stops with the highest number of 'Sugar Pack' campaign advertisement placements. Riders of the region's Metro buses and railways who were the intended audience of the campaign advertisements. The overall survey response rate was 56 % (resulting n 1041). Almost 60 % of respondents were exposed to the advertisements (619/1041). The multivariable logistic regression analysis suggested that the odds of reporting intention to reduce soda consumption among moderate consumers (1-6 sodas/week) were 1·95 times greater than among heavy consumers (≥1 soda/d), after controlling for clustering and covariates. Respondents with less than a high-school education and who perceived sugary beverage consumption as harmful also had higher odds; in contrast, respondents aged ≥65 years had lower odds. Results suggest that future campaigns should be tailored differently for moderate v. heavy consumers of soda. Similar tailoring strategies are likely needed for younger groups, for those with less educational attainment and for those who do not perceive consumption of soda as harmful.

  9. Experimental Evaluation of Simple Thermal Storage Control Strategies in Low-Energy Solar Houses to Reduce Electricity Consumption during Grid On-Peak Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Ho Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in zero-energy and low-energy buildings, which have a net energy consumption (on an annual basis of almost zero. Because they can generate both electricity and thermal energy through the use of solar photovoltaic (PV and solar thermal collectors, and with the help of reduced building thermal demand, low-energy buildings can not only make a significant contribution to energy conservation on an annual basis, but also reduce energy consumption and peak demand. This study focused on electricity consumption during the on-peak period in a low-energy residential solar building and considers the use of a building’s thermal mass and thermal storage to reduce electricity consumption in summer and winter by modulation of temperature setpoints for heat pump and indoor thermostats in summer and additional use of a solar heating loop in winter. Experiments were performed at a low-energy solar demonstration house that has solar collectors, hot water storage, a ground-coupled heat pump, and a thermal storage tank. It was assumed that the on-peak periods were from 2 pm to 5 pm on hot summer days and from 5 pm to 8 pm on cold winter days. To evaluate the potential for utilizing the building’s thermal storage capacity in space cooling and heating, the use of simple control strategies on three test days in summer and two test days in the early spring were compared in terms of net electricity consumption and peak demand, which also considered the electricity generation from solar PV modules on the roof of the house.

  10. Green supply chain management using the queuing theory to handle congestion and reduce energy consumption and emissions from supply chain transportation fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziziankohan, A.; Jolai, F.; Khalilzadeh, M.; Soltani, R.; Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, R.

    2017-07-01

    Purpose: Nowadays, governments and people pay more attention to use green products due to environmental pollution, irreplaceable energy and shortage of resources. Green products are resulted from the application of green supply chain management strategies to the organizations' performance strategies, so that we can reduce environmental pollutants and wastes and take a step towards saving energy with limited resources. Methodology: In this paper, the effect of reducing energy consumption in green supply chain is examined by using queuing theory and transportation models. Data was generated and solved by a commercial optimization epackage. Findings: The findings indicate that suitable assignment of existing transportation fleet with specified capacity, and using queueing theory in a closed-loop network to reduce the queue length and handle congestion, can cause a reduction in energy consumption by optimizing transportation and waiting times in a green supply chain. Originality/value: Adopting investment strategy in improving the environmental performance of the supply chain, will yield in many advantages and benefits. This article investigates the effect of queuing theory on reducing waiting time, optimizing energy consumption in green supply chain, and consequently decreasing pollution.

  11. Green supply chain management using the queuing theory to handle congestion and reduce energy consumption and emissions from supply chain transportation fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziziankohan, A.; Jolai, F.; Khalilzadeh, M.; Soltani, R.; Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Nowadays, governments and people pay more attention to use green products due to environmental pollution, irreplaceable energy and shortage of resources. Green products are resulted from the application of green supply chain management strategies to the organizations' performance strategies, so that we can reduce environmental pollutants and wastes and take a step towards saving energy with limited resources. Methodology: In this paper, the effect of reducing energy consumption in green supply chain is examined by using queuing theory and transportation models. Data was generated and solved by a commercial optimization epackage. Findings: The findings indicate that suitable assignment of existing transportation fleet with specified capacity, and using queueing theory in a closed-loop network to reduce the queue length and handle congestion, can cause a reduction in energy consumption by optimizing transportation and waiting times in a green supply chain. Originality/value: Adopting investment strategy in improving the environmental performance of the supply chain, will yield in many advantages and benefits. This article investigates the effect of queuing theory on reducing waiting time, optimizing energy consumption in green supply chain, and consequently decreasing pollution.

  12. Green supply chain management using the queuing theory to handle congestion and reduce energy consumption and emissions from supply chain transportation fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvin Aziziankohan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nowadays, governments and people pay more attention to use green products due to environmental pollution, irreplaceable energy and shortage of resources. Green products are resulted from the application of green supply chain management strategies to the organizations' performance strategies, so that we can reduce environmental pollutants and wastes and take a step towards saving energy with limited resources. Methodology:  In this paper, the effect of reducing energy consumption in green supply chain is examined by using queuing theory and transportation models. Data was generated and solved by a commercial optimization epackage. Findings:  The findings indicate that suitable assignment of existing transportation fleet with specified capacity, and using queueing theory in a closed-loop network to reduce the queue length and handle congestion, can cause a reduction in energy consumption by optimizing transportation and waiting times in a green supply chain. Originality/value: Adopting investment strategy in improving the environmental performance of the supply chain, will yield in many advantages and benefits. This article investigates the effect of queuing theory on reducing waiting time, optimizing energy consumption in green supply chain, and consequently decreasing pollution.

  13. Fuel-saving wings. Aircraft constructors learn from birds and reduce kerosene consumption; Spritsparende Schwingen. Flugzeugbauer lernen vom Vogelflug - und reduzieren den Kerosinverbrauch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, N.

    1996-12-01

    Wings that automatically adapt to the flight situation are to reduce the fuel consumption of future passenger aircraft. With the so-called Fowler flap, the pilot controls the lift of the aircraft during touchdown. Researchers are now working on how to make the rigid flap flexible so that it can be adjusted during the flight. The aerodynamic characteristics can be improved and fuel consumption reduced by changing the camber in the posterior section of the Fowler flap. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] Tragflaechen, die sich automatisch der Flugsituation anpassen, sollen den Treibstoffverbrauch kuenftiger Verkehrsflugzeuge verringern. Durch die sogenannte Fowlerklappe beeinflusst der Pilot waehrend der Landung den Auftrieb seines Flugzeugs. Inzwischen arbeiten Forscher daran, die starre Klappe zu flexibilisieren. Sie soll auch waehrend des Flugs veraendert werden koennen. Die Zu- oder Entwoelbung des hinteren Teils der Fowlerklappe verbessert die Aerodynamik und traegt so zu einem geringeren Treibstoffverbrauch bei. (orig./AKF)

  14. Using a mobile health application to reduce alcohol consumption: a mixed-methods evaluation of the drinkaware track & calculate units application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Attwood

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smartphone applications (“apps” offer promise as tools to help people monitor and reduce their alcohol consumption. To date, few evaluations of alcohol reduction apps exist, with even fewer considering apps already available to the public. The aim of this study was to evaluate an existing publically available app, designed by Drinkaware, a UK-based alcohol awareness charity. Methods We adopted a mixed-methods design, analysing routinely collected app usage data to explore user characteristics and patterns of usage. Following this, in-depth interviews were conducted with a sub-sample of app users to examine perceptions of acceptability, usability and perceived effectiveness, as well as to provide recommendations on how to improve the app. Results One hundred nineteen thousand seven hundred thirteen people downloaded and entered data into the app over a 13-month period. High attrition was observed after 1 week. Users who engaged with the app tended to be “high risk” drinkers and to report being motivated “to reduce drinking” at the point of first download. In those who consistently engaged with the app over time, self-reported alcohol consumption levels reduced, with most change occurring in the first week of usage. Our qualitative findings indicate satisfaction with the usability of the app, but mixed feedback was given regarding individual features. Users expressed conflicting views concerning the type of feedback and notifications that the app currently provides. A common preference was expressed for more personalised content. Conclusions The Drinkaware app is a useful tool to support behaviour change in individuals who are already motivated and committed to reducing their alcohol consumption. The Drinkaware app would benefit from greater personalisation and tailoring to promote longer term use. This evaluation provides insight into the usability and acceptability of various app features and contains a number of

  15. Medical specialists' views on the impact of reducing alcohol consumption on prognosis of, and risk of, hospital admission due to specific medical conditions: results from a Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mdege, Noreen D; Raistrick, Duncan; Johnson, Graham

    2014-02-01

    To find consensus, or lack thereof, on the impact of reducing alcohol consumption on prognosis and the risk of hospital admissions for a number of alcohol-attributable disorders. A modified two-round Delphi survey utilizing web-based questionnaires to collect quantitative and qualitative data was used. Alcohol treatment experts from cardiology, emergency medicine, gastroenterology and oncology in the United Kingdom were invited to participate. The main outcomes were median impact ratings (on a scale of 1-9) and consensus (unanimous, strong, moderate, weak or no consensus). Of 192 experts invited to participate, 59 completed first questionnaires. The overall retention rate to the second questionnaires was about 51% (30/59). There was strong support that reducing alcohol consumption could result in improvement in prognosis for gastroenterology and emergency medicine patients; but uncertainty on the benefits for cardiology and oncology patients. Overall, the responses from the expert panel did not reflect the assumption that reducing alcohol consumption would result in benefits on hospital admissions for any of the specialties. The specialists viewed the severity of disorders as important when considering the impact of reducing alcohol consumption. The highest impact of treatment for problem drinking in hospitals is considered to be for alcohol-related disorders associated with gastroenterology and emergency medicine. At policy level, if targeted screening for alcohol problems by presenting disease or condition is the strategy of choice, it would be logical to implement screening and easily accessible interventions or addiction specialists within these areas where alcohol treatment is considered as having a high impact. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Reducing alarms and prioritising interventions in pig production by simultaneous monitoring of water consumption in multiple pens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominiak, Katarina Nielsen; Hindsborg, Jeff; Pedersen, L. J.

    Spatial modelling of water consumption in growing pigs can be a useful tool for identifying high risk pens or sections in early detection of diseases and various behavioural problems. In this study a multivariate dynamic linear model (DLM) is developed based on data from simultaneous monitoring o...... levels to pen levels. This study is a part of an on-going project aiming to improve welfare and productivity in growing pigs using advanced ICT methods....

  17. Most effective combustion technologies for reducing Nox emissions in aero gas turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ommi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth in air transportation volume has important global environmental impacts associated with the potential for climate change. Jet aircraft emissions are deposited directly into the upper atmosphere and some of them have a greater warming effect than gases emitted closer to the surface. One of the key issues that is addressed in virtually every aero gas turbine application is emissions, particularly Nox emissions. There are different technologies for nitrogen oxide emission control in aircraft gas turbines. In this paper, we have briefly reviewed the technologies with the greatest potential to reduce Nox emissions in aero engines.

  18. The role of information technology (IT) in reducing offshore operating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    The rapid changes in information technology (IT) and its application have helped to improve efficiency and reduce operating costs offshore. Developments in IT itself, in terms of technology, organization and standards together with cultural change have created new opportunities. In the application of IT, the most significant impact on operations costs and effectiveness has come from the use of information throughout the life cycle, and improved telecommunications. This paper describes recent developments in IT and its application, and cites examples where oil companies have derived major benefits

  19. Energy drink consumption is associated with reduced sleep quality among college students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Mo'ez Al-Islam E; Jahrami, Haitham; Al-Hilali, Marwa M; Chehyber, Noor J; Ali, Sara O; Shahda, Sara D; Obaid, Reyad S

    2017-07-01

    Intake of caffeinated energy drinks has significantly increased, specifically among young adults and adolescents. College students are prone to developing unhealthy eating habits and dependence on stimulants, which puts them at a greater risk of sleep problems. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of caffeinated energy drink consumption and its association with sleep quality in college students. A sample of 919 randomly selected adults (237 males and 682 females) from various colleges at the University of Sharjah/United Arab Emirates participated in this cross-sectional study. Data were collected using an online validated questionnaire. The current study revealed that 376 students (41%) were consuming energy drinks on a regular basis. Approximately half of the students had normal sleep patterns; the other half had sleep problems (anxiety and intermittent sleep). Results of the present study revealed a significant (r = -0.10, P sleep quality and patterns. Moderate consumption of energy drinks was reported among college students. Consumption of energy drinks was significantly associated with changes in sleep quality and patterns of students. © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  20. Strategies for Reducing Energy Consumption in a Student Cafeteria in a Hot-Humid Climate: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Alhaji Mohammed

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention is being given to energy consumption and potential for energy savings in public buildings in order to improve energy performance. Due to their size and functional requirements, public buildings especially cafeteria facilities tend to consume a significant amount of energy. Furthermore, due to their operational characteristics and construction pattern, unnecessary energy is likely to be used for maintaining acceptable indoor environmental quality. In this study, a student cafeteria at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Saudi Arabia, was selected for the assessment of its energy performance and potential energy conservation opportunities. Energy simulation software Visual DOE 4.1 was used to develop an energy performance model for assessing various energy conservation measures pertinent to the building envelope and HVAC system design. Data required for setting up the model were gathered through simple energy audits. The architectural and mechanical drawings and the history of electrical consumption were collected. Various energy conservation strategies were then implemented including standards, single and combined energy conservation measures. These measures resulted in a combined design saving of 27.4%, the HVAC system saving 10.6%, implementation of standards saving about 16.7%, lighting 6.6%, equipment 2.6%, insulation 2.5% and glazing 1.4%. Based on these results, it is apparent that there is a significant potential for improving energy performance and justification to employ the suggested measures for achieving substantial energy savings and minimize energy consumption.

  1. Effect of Technological Treatments on Human-Like Leptin Level in Bovine Milk for Human Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiano Magistrelli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, raw milk and commercially available full-cream UHT milk, semi-skimmed UHT milk, skimmed UHT milk, full-cream pasteurized milk, semi-skimmed pasteurized milk and infant formulas for babies between 6 and 12 months of age were analyzed by RIA, with a method using an antibody directed against human leptin and human leptin as reference standard. Raw milk and full-cream UHT milk did not differ for human-like leptin. Leptin content of full-cream pasteurized milk was not different to that of full-cream UHT milk, but it was 14% lower (p < 0.05 than that observed in raw milk. Human-like leptin level of semi-skimmed UHT milk was not different to that of semi-skimmed pasteurized milk, but it was 30% lower (p < 0.0001 than those of full-cream UHT and full-cream pasteurized milks. In skimmed UHT milk, leptin was 40% lower (p < 0.0001 than in full-cream UHT milk. Leptin was correlated (p < 0.001 with lipid content. Leptin level of infant formulas was not different to that of skimmed milks. Results suggest that the heat treatment (pasteurization or UHT is not a modifier of human-like leptin content of edible commercial bovine milks, whereas the skimming process significantly reduces milk leptin level.

  2. Effect of Technological Treatments on Human-Like Leptin Level in Bovine Milk for Human Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistrelli, Damiano; Rosi, Fabia

    2014-07-23

    In this experiment, raw milk and commercially available full-cream UHT milk, semi-skimmed UHT milk, skimmed UHT milk, full-cream pasteurized milk, semi-skimmed pasteurized milk and infant formulas for babies between 6 and 12 months of age were analyzed by RIA, with a method using an antibody directed against human leptin and human leptin as reference standard. Raw milk and full-cream UHT milk did not differ for human-like leptin. Leptin content of full-cream pasteurized milk was not different to that of full-cream UHT milk, but it was 14% lower ( p raw milk. Human-like leptin level of semi-skimmed UHT milk was not different to that of semi-skimmed pasteurized milk, but it was 30% lower ( p pasteurized milks. In skimmed UHT milk, leptin was 40% lower ( p milk. Leptin was correlated ( p milks. Results suggest that the heat treatment (pasteurization or UHT) is not a modifier of human-like leptin content of edible commercial bovine milks, whereas the skimming process significantly reduces milk leptin level.

  3. Energy consumption and commercial applications of liquid foam insulation technology for greenhouses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve, J. [Environnement-MJ, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); De Halleux, D. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. des Sols et de Genie Agroalimentaire; Aberkani, K. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Centre de Recherche en Horticulture; Vineberg, S. [Sunarc of Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Sunarc of Canada has developed an energy saving system for commercial greenhouse growers. Large amounts of energy are needed to operate commercial greenhouses in northern latitudes, and as energy prices fluctuate, it is important to enable growers to control their microclimate. Sunarc's liquid foam insulating system was installed in 2007 at 2 sites in Ontario. The first site had an area of 14,700 ft{sup 2} while the other site had an area of 43,000 ft{sup 2}. Both facilities were monitored for energy use during the winter period. Night-time energy savings ranged from above 60 per cent to below 10 per cent depending on outdoor temperatures. The greater savings occurred during colder outdoor temperatures. Monthly average night-time energy savings from February, March and April were 46.6, 42, and 32.3 per cent respectively. After initial commercial testing, the liquid foam system was re-engineered to optimize operations, reduce fill time, and improve liquid foam formulas. The new system was installed at a third site in Quebec as a demonstration unit. The company is currently negotiating international distribution rights with several partners.

  4. Shifting the balance: equity and sustainable consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, Sonja; Garside, Ben; De Morais, Gabriela Weber

    2009-01-15

    On our finite planet, the dictates of ecology and technology limit growth. Yet a key element of this issue – consumption – has until recently hardly figured on policy agendas. Now there is growing recognition that transformation towards a low-carbon, resource-efficient economy means tackling consumption as well as production. Governments and businesses are beginning to make concerted, if uncoordinated, efforts to reduce energy and resource use. Rethinking consumption could, however, drive an even bigger wedge between rich and poor. Any new agenda for consumption needs to factor in equity as well as environmental benefit.

  5. The role of technology in reducing health care costs. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sill, A.E.; Warren, S.; Dillinger, J.D.; Cloer, B.K.

    1997-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories applied a systems approach to identifying innovative biomedical technologies with the potential to reduce U.S. health care delivery costs while maintaining care quality. This study was conducted by implementing both top-down and bottom-up strategies. The top-down approach used prosperity gaming methodology to identify future health care delivery needs. This effort provided roadmaps for the development and integration of technology to meet perceived care delivery requirements. The bottom-up approach identified and ranked interventional therapies employed in existing care delivery systems for a host of health-related conditions. Economic analysis formed the basis for development of care pathway interaction models for two of the most pervasive, chronic disease/disability conditions: coronary artery disease (CAD) and benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). Societal cost-benefit relationships based on these analyses were used to evaluate the effect of emerging technology in these treatment areas. 17 figs., 48 tabs.

  6. Status of Technological Advancements for Reducing Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Pollutant Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Combustor test rig results indicate that substantial reductions from current emission levels of carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbons (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and smoke are achievable by employing varying degrees of technological advancements in combustion systems. Minor to moderate modifications to existing conventional combustors produced significant reductions in CO and THC emissions at engine low power (idle/taxi) operating conditions but did not effectively reduce NOx at engine full power (takeoff) operating conditions. Staged combusiton techniques were needed to simultaneously reduce the levels of all the emissions over the entire engine operating range (from idle to takeoff). Emission levels that approached or were below the requirements of the 1979 EPA standards were achieved with the staged combustion systems and in some cases with the minor to moderate modifications to existing conventional combustion systems. Results from research programs indicate that an entire new generation of combustor technology with extremely low emission levels may be possible in the future.

  7. Development of Microarrays-Based Metagenomics Technology for Monitoring Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Subsurface Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cindy, Shi

    2015-07-17

    At the contaminated DOE sites, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are a significant population and play an important role in the microbial community during biostimulation for metal reduction. However, the diversity, structure and dynamics of SRB communities are poorly understood. Therefore, this project aims to use high throughput sequencing-based metagenomics technologies for characterizing the diversity, structure, functions, and activities of SRB communities by developing genomic and bioinformatics tools to link the SRB biodiversity with ecosystem functioning.

  8. Reducing automotive emissions-The potentials of combustion engine technologies and the power of policy

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Christian; Magnusson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Reducing transport emissions, in particular vehicular emissions, is a key element for mitigating the risks of climate change. In much of the academic and public discourse the focus has been on alternative vehicle technologies and fuels (e.g. electric cars, fuel cells and hydrogen), whereas vehicles based on internal combustion engines have been perceived as close to their development limits. This paper offers a different perspective by demonstrating the accelerated improvement processes takin...

  9. Social marketing and community mobilisation to reduce underage alcohol consumption in Australia: A cluster randomised community trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Bosco Charles; Williams, Joanne; Smith, Rachel; Hall, Jessica Kate; Osborn, Amber; Kremer, Peter; Kelly, Adrian B; Leslie, Evie; Patton, George; Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Toumbourou, John W

    2018-03-02

    In many countries adolescent alcohol use is a major health problem. To supplement national policies, it is important to trial community interventions as a potential strategy to prevent adolescent alcohol use. This study evaluated a multicomponent community intervention that included community mobilisation, social marketing, and the monitoring of alcohol sales to minors. Evaluation was a clustered randomised trial design with 14 intervention and 14 control communities. Prior to randomisation, communities were matched on socioeconomic status and location. Intervention communities were not blinded. 3545 Year 8 students (M = 12 years) were surveyed at baseline from 75 schools; 3377 students were surveyed post intervention in 2013 from 54 schools. It was hypothesised that the primary outcome, individual alcohol consumption in last 30 days, after the intervention would be 15% lower in intervention communities. Secondary outcomes were consumption in the past year and intention not to drink before age 18. The intervention communities showed larger relative reductions compared to the controls in last 30-day consumption and past year (10%), but not significantly different. A significantly lower proportion of participants in the intervention community (63%), compared to the controls (71%), reported intending to drink before 18 years old. Subgroup analysis identified regional and state differences for some secondary measures. Intervention assignment was associated with lower adolescent intention to drink before the age of 18. However, more intensive and longer-term intervention may be required to measure significant differences in behaviour change. ACTRN12612000384853. Rowland B, Toumbourou JW, Osborn A, et al. BMJ Open 2013;3:e002423. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002423? Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Computer-delivered interventions for reducing alcohol consumption: meta-analysis and meta-regression using behaviour change techniques and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Nicola; Mullan, Barbara; Sharpe, Louise

    2016-09-01

    The current aim was to examine the effectiveness of behaviour change techniques (BCTs), theory and other characteristics in increasing the effectiveness of computer-delivered interventions (CDIs) to reduce alcohol consumption. Included were randomised studies with a primary aim of reducing alcohol consumption, which compared self-directed CDIs to assessment-only control groups. CDIs were coded for the use of 42 BCTs from an alcohol-specific taxonomy, the use of theory according to a theory coding scheme and general characteristics such as length of the CDI. Effectiveness of CDIs was assessed using random-effects meta-analysis and the association between the moderators and effect size was assessed using univariate and multivariate meta-regression. Ninety-three CDIs were included in at least one analysis and produced small, significant effects on five outcomes (d+ = 0.07-0.15). Larger effects occurred with some personal contact, provision of normative information or feedback on performance, prompting commitment or goal review, the social norms approach and in samples with more women. Smaller effects occurred when information on the consequences of alcohol consumption was provided. These findings can be used to inform both intervention- and theory-development. Intervention developers should focus on, including specific, effective techniques, rather than many techniques or more-elaborate approaches.

  11. [Household purchase of sodas and cookies reduces the effect of an intervention to promote the consumption of fruits and vegetables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Fabio da Silva; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo E; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de

    2017-04-03

    This study examines the influence of increasing household availability of sodas and cookies on the effects of an intervention to promote the consumption of fruits and vegetables. The study analyzed data from 70 families living in low-income communities in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, selected in a stratified probabilistic sample, and who completed a 30-day food record before and after the intervention. The intervention contributed to a significant increase in the household availability of fruit and vegetables (+2.7 p.p.; 95%CI: 1.5; 4.0), contrary to the trend towards stagnation of such availability in the general population in Brazil. Meanwhile, the purchase of sodas and cookies, which was not the intervention's target, mirrored the upward trend in the consumption of these products (+5.8 p.p.; 95%CI: 3.3; 8.4). Families that increased their purchase of sodas and cookies showed lower increases, or even decreases, in the purchase of fruits and vegetables (p < 0.05), and had nearly fourfold lower odds of experiencing any increase in the household availability of fruits and vegetables.

  12. Reducing automotive emissions—The potentials of combustion engine technologies and the power of policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berggren, Christian; Magnusson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Reducing transport emissions, in particular vehicular emissions, is a key element for mitigating the risks of climate change. In much of the academic and public discourse the focus has been on alternative vehicle technologies and fuels (e.g. electric cars, fuel cells and hydrogen), whereas vehicles based on internal combustion engines have been perceived as close to their development limits. This paper offers a different perspective by demonstrating the accelerated improvement processes taking place in established combustion technologies as a result of a new competition between manufacturers and technologies, encouraged both by more stringent EU legislation and new CAFE levels in the US. The short-term perspective is complemented by an analysis of future improvement potentials in internal combustion technologies, which may be realized if efficient regulation is in place. Based on a comparison of four different regulatory approaches, the paper identifies the need for a long-term technology-neutral framework with stepwise increasing stringencies, arguing that this will encourage continual innovation and diffusion in the most effective way. - Highlights: ► From 1990 to 2008, CO 2 emissions from road transportation in the EU increased by 21%. ► Alternative vehicles are important, but internal combustion engines (ICE) will remain dominant. ► The paper shows how competition and new regulation accelerate the improvement of ICE-vehicles. ► The key factor for long-term emissions reduction is appropriate regulation, not technology. ► Most effective is a technology-neutral framework with stepwise increasing stringencies.

  13. "I have no clue what I drunk last night" using Smartphone technology to compare in-vivo and retrospective self-reports of alcohol consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Louise Monk

    Full Text Available This research compared real-time measurements of alcohol consumption with retrospective accounts of alcohol consumption to examine possible discrepancies between, and contextual influences on, the different accounts.Building on previous investigations, a specifically designed Smartphone technology was utilized to measure alcohol consumption and contextual influences in de facto real-time. Real-time data (a total of 10,560 data points relating to type and number of drinks and current social / environmental context were compared with daily and weekly retrospective accounts of alcohol consumption.Participants reported consuming more alcoholic drinks during real-time assessment than retrospectively. For daily accounts a higher number of drinks consumed in real-time was related to a higher discrepancy between real-time and retrospective accounts. This effect was found across all drink types but was not shaped by social and environmental contexts. Higher in-vivo alcohol consumption appeared to be related to a higher discrepancy in retrospectively reported weekly consumption for alcohol beverage types other than wine. When including contextual factors into the statistical models, being with two or more friends (as opposed to being alone decreased the discrepancy between real-time and retrospective reports, whilst being in the pub (relative to being at home was associated with greater discrepancies.Overall, retrospective accounts may underestimate the amount of actual, real-time alcohol consumed. Increased consumption may also exacerbate differences between real-time and retrospective accounts. Nonetheless, this is not a global effect as environmental and social contexts interact with the type of alcohol consumed and the time frame given for reporting (weekly vs. daily retrospective. A degree of caution therefore appears warranted with regards to the use of retrospective self-report methods of recording alcohol consumption. Whilst real-time sampling is

  14. How environmentally significant is water consumption during wastewater treatment? Application of recent developments in LCA to WWT technologies used at 3 contrasted geographical locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Eva; Loubet, Philippe; Núñez, Montserrat; Roux, Philippe

    2014-06-15

    Environmental impact assessment models are readily available for the assessment of pollution-related impacts in life cycle assessment (LCA). These models have led to an increased focus on water pollution issues resulting in numerous LCA studies. Recently, there have been significant developments in methods assessing freshwater use. These improvements widen the scope for the assessment of wastewater treatment (WWT) technologies, now allowing us to apprehend, for the first time, a combination of operational (energy and chemicals use), qualitative (environmental pollution) and quantitative (water deprivation) issues in wastewater treatment. This enables us to address the following question: Is water consumption during wastewater treatment environmentally significant compared to other impacts? To answer this question, a standard life cycle inventory (LCI) was performed with a focus on consumptive water uses at plant level, where several WWT technologies were operating, in different climatic conditions. The impacts of water consumption were assessed by integrating regionalized characterization factors for water deprivation within an existing life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) method. Results at the midpoint level, show that water deprivation impacts are highly variable in relation to the chosen WWT technology (water volume used) and of WWTP location (local water scarcity). At the endpoint level, water deprivation impacts on ecosystem quality and on the resource damage categories are significant for WWT technologies with great water uses in water-scarce areas. Therefore, our study shows the consideration of water consumption-related impacts is essential and underlines the need for a greater understanding of the water consumption impacts caused by WWT systems. This knowledge will help water managers better mitigate local water deprivation impacts, especially in selecting WWT technologies suitable for arid and semi-arid areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  15. Low-fat yogurt consumption reduces biomarkers of chronic inflammation and inhibits markers of endotoxin exposure in healthy premenopausal women: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Ruisong; DiMarco, Diana M; Putt, Kelley K; Martin, Derek A; Gu, Qinlei; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; White, Heather M; Scarlett, Cameron O; Bruno, Richard S; Bolling, Bradley W

    2017-12-01

    The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of low-fat dairy product consumption are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether low-fat yogurt reduces biomarkers of chronic inflammation and endotoxin exposure in women. Premenopausal women (BMI 18·5-27 and 30-40 kg/m2) were randomised to consume 339 g of low-fat yogurt (yogurt non-obese (YN); yogurt obese (YO)) or 324 g of soya pudding (control non-obese; control obese (CO)) daily for 9 weeks (n 30/group). Fasting blood samples were analysed for IL-6, TNF-α/soluble TNF II (sTNF-RII), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, anandamide, monocyte gene expression, soluble CD14 (sCD14), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS binding protein (LBP), IgM endotoxin-core antibody (IgM EndoCAb), and zonulin. BMI, waist circumference and blood pressure were also determined. After 9-week yogurt consumption, YO and YN had decreased TNF-α/sTNFR-RII. Yogurt consumption increased plasma IgM EndoCAb regardless of obesity status. sCD14 was not affected by diet, but LBP/sCD14 was lowered by yogurt consumption in both YN and YO. Yogurt intervention increased plasma 2-arachidonoylglycerol in YO but not YN. YO peripheral blood mononuclear cells expression of NF-κB inhibitor α and transforming growth factor β1 increased relative to CO at 9 weeks. Other biomarkers were unchanged by diet. CO and YO gained approximately 0·9 kg in body weight. YO had 3·6 % lower diastolic blood pressure at week 3. Low-fat yogurt for 9 weeks reduced biomarkers of chronic inflammation and endotoxin exposure in premenopausal women compared with a non-dairy control food. This trial was registered as NCT01686204.

  16. Plug-in HEVs: A Near-Term Option to Reduce Petroleum Consumption from FY05 Milestone Report (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, T.; O' Keefe, M.; Simpson, A.; Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.

    2006-01-19

    Presented to DOE management staff on September 14, 2005 at the DOE headquarters in Washington DC. Content was updated January 19, 2006 for publication. This presentation addresses plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) market and technology issues for research and development efforts.

  17. Voluntary ethanol consumption reduces GABAergic neuroactive steroid (3α,5α)3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THP) in the amygdala of the cynomolgus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Matthew C; Maldonado-Devincci, Antoniette M; Porcu, Patrizia; O'Buckley, Todd K; Daunais, James B; Grant, Kathleen A; Morrow, A Leslie

    2017-03-01

    Neuroactive steroids such as (3α,5α)3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THP, allopregnanolone) enhance the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic effects of ethanol and modulate excessive drinking in rodents. Moreover, chronic ethanol consumption reduces 3α,5α-THP levels in human plasma, rat hippocampus and mouse limbic regions. We explored the relationship between 3α,5α-THP levels in limbic brain areas and voluntary ethanol consumption in the cynomolgus monkey following daily self-administration of ethanol for 12 months and further examined the relationship to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function prior to ethanol exposure. Monkeys were subjected to scheduled induction of ethanol consumption followed by free access to ethanol or water for 22 h/day over 12 months. Immunohistochemistry was performed using an anti-3α,5α-THP antibody. Prolonged voluntary drinking resulted in individual differences in ethanol consumption that ranged from 1.2 to 4.2 g/kg/day over 12 months. Prolonged ethanol consumption reduced cellular 3α,5α-THP immunoreactivity by 13 ± 2 percent (P amygdala and 17 ± 2 percent (P amygdala. The effect of ethanol was most pronounced in heavy drinkers that consumed ≥3 g/kg ≥ 20 percent of days. Consequently, 3α,5α-THP immunoreactivity in both the lateral and basolateral amygdala was inversely correlated with average daily ethanol intake (Spearman r = -0.87 and -0.72, respectively, P amygdala. 3α,5α-THP immunoreactivity following ethanol exposure was also correlated with HPA axis function prior to ethanol exposure. These data indicate that voluntary ethanol drinking reduces amygdala levels of 3α,5α-THP in non-human primates and that amygdala 3α,5α-THP levels may be linked to HPA axis function. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Design and methods for a community-based intervention to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among youth: H2GO! study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica L. Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB intake is an important dietary target among underserved children at high risk for obesity and associated morbidities. Community-based approaches to reduce SSB intake are needed. The use of narrative-based approaches (presenting messages within the context of a story can facilitate connection with target health messages and empower children as behavior change agents within their families. The H2GO! program is a community-based behavioral intervention that integrates narrative-based strategies to reduce SSB consumption and promote water intake among school-age youth and parents. Methods Guided by the Social Cognitive Theory and the Social Ecological Model, the H2GO! intervention consists of 6 weekly sessions that target beverage knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors through youth-produced messages and narratives to reduce SSB intake and encourage water intake and parent–child activities. To reach underserved youth and families, we identified Boys & Girls Clubs (B&GC (youth-based community centers that serve an ethnically diverse and predominantly low socioeconomic status population as a community partner and study setting. Participants (children ages 9–12 years and their parents will be recruited from B&GC sites in Massachusetts, USA. Intervention efficacy will be assessed through a site-randomized trial (N = 2 youth-based community sites, pair-matched for size and racial/ethnic composition with 54 parent–child pairs (N = 108 enrolled per site (N = 216 total. The comparison site will carry on with usual practice. Child and parental SSB and water consumption (primary outcomes and parent and child beverage knowledge and attitudes (secondary outcomes will be measured via self-report surveys. Additional outcomes include children’s anthropometric data, additional dietary behaviors, and physical activity. Measures will be collected at baseline, 2 and 6 months follow-up. With

  19. The Role of Social Norms in the Portion Size Effect: Reducing normative relevance reduces the effect of portion size on consumption decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eVersluis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available People typically eat more from large portions of food than from small portions. An explanation that has often been given for this so-called portion size effect is that the portion size acts as a social norm and as such communicates how much is appropriate to eat. In this paper, we tested this explanation by examining whether manipulating the relevance of the portion size as a social norm changes the portion size effect, as assessed by prospective consumption decisions. We conducted one pilot experiment and one full experiment in which participants respectively indicated how much they would eat or serve themselves from a given amount of different foods. In the pilot (N = 63, we manipulated normative relevance by allegedly basing the portion size on the behavior of either students of the own university (in-group or of another university (out-group. In the main experiment (N = 321, we told participants that either a minority or majority of people similar to them approved of the portion size. Results show that in both experiments, participants expected to serve themselves and to eat more from larger than from smaller portions. As expected, however, the portion size effect was less pronounced when the reference portions were allegedly based on the behavior of an out-group (pilot or approved only by a minority (main experiment. These findings suggest that the portion size indeed provides normative information, because participants were less influenced by it if it communicated the behaviors or values of a less relevant social group. In addition, in the main experiment, the relation between portion size and the expected amount served was partially mediated by the amount that was considered appropriate, suggesting that concerns about eating an appropriate amount indeed play a role in the portion size effect. However, since the portion size effect was weakened but not eliminated by the normative relevance manipulations and since mediation was only partial

  20. The role of new technologies in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the use of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldthorpe, S.; Buwalda, H. [Woodward-Clyde (New Zealand) Ltd. (New Zealand)

    1995-12-31

    Concern over the possibility of climate change associated with the emission of greenhouse gases (principally CO{sub 2}) has become an issue for all coal using businesses to address. Government obligations under the Framework Convention on Climate Change are feeding through to companies as a need to review their activities, to determine emissions and to examine how the application of efficiency measures and new technologies can contribute to reduced emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper describes strategies that can be implemented in the short term as least regrets measures which have low cost and other economic or environmental benefits in addition to emissions reduction. Protection of the long term market for coal in a world where CO{sub 2} emissions may have to be more tightly controlled may require the application of new technologies of CO{sub 2} abatement. Some options are described. Procedures to assist with the implementation of new technologies for the control of greenhouse gas emissions are required. At a national level a system for voluntary agreements on CO{sub 2} emissions is in place. At an international level, protocols for the facilitation of technology transfer are in the process of being developed. These mechanisms are discussed.

  1. The role of technology in reducing health care costs. Phase II and phase III.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cilke, John F.; Parks, Raymond C.; Funkhouser, Donald Ray; Tebo, Michael A.; Murphy, Martin D.; Hightower, Marion Michael; Gallagher, Linda K.; Craft, Richard Layne, II; Garcia, Rudy John

    2004-04-01

    In Phase I of this project, reported in SAND97-1922, Sandia National Laboratories applied a systems approach to identifying innovative biomedical technologies with the potential to reduce U.S. health care delivery costs while maintaining care quality. The effort provided roadmaps for the development and integration of technology to meet perceived care delivery requirements and an economic analysis model for development of care pathway costs for two conditions: coronary artery disease (CAD) and benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). Phases II and III of this project, which are presented in this report, were directed at detailing the parameters of telemedicine that influence care delivery costs and quality. These results were used to identify and field test the communication, interoperability, and security capabilities needed for cost-effective, secure, and reliable health care via telemedicine.

  2. Snow control - an RCT protocol for a web-based self-help therapy to reduce cocaine consumption in problematic cocaine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Michael; Sullivan, Robin; Stark, Lars

    2011-09-25

    Cocaine use has increased in most European countries, including Switzerland, and many states worldwide. The international literature has described treatment models that target the general population. In addition to supplying informative measures at the level of primary and secondary prevention, the literature also offers web-based self-help tools for problematic substance users, which is in line with tertiary prevention. Such programs, however, have been primarily tested on individuals with problematic alcohol and cannabis consumption, but not on cocaine-dependent individuals. This paper presents the protocol of a randomised clinical trial to test the effectiveness of a web-based self-help therapy to reduce cocaine use in problematic cocaine users. The primary outcome is severity of cocaine dependence. Secondary outcome measures include cocaine craving, consumption of cocaine and other substances of abuse in the past month, and changes in depression characteristics. The therapy group will receive a 6-week self-help therapy to reduce cocaine consumption based on methods of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, principles of Motivational Interviewing and self-control practices. The control group will be presented weekly psycho-educative information with a quiz. The predictive validity of participant characteristics on treatment retention and outcome will be explored. To the best of our knowledge, this will be the first randomised clinical trial to test the effectiveness of online self-help therapy to reduce or abstain from cocaine use. It will also investigate predictors of outcome and retention. This trial is registered at Current Controlled Trials and is traceable as NTR-ISRCTN93702927.

  3. Snow Control - An RCT protocol for a web-based self-help therapy to reduce cocaine consumption in problematic cocaine users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullivan Robin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cocaine use has increased in most European countries, including Switzerland, and many states worldwide. The international literature has described treatment models that target the general population. In addition to supplying informative measures at the level of primary and secondary prevention, the literature also offers web-based self-help tools for problematic substance users, which is in line with tertiary prevention. Such programs, however, have been primarily tested on individuals with problematic alcohol and cannabis consumption, but not on cocaine-dependent individuals. Methods/Design This paper presents the protocol of a randomised clinical trial to test the effectiveness of a web-based self-help therapy to reduce cocaine use in problematic cocaine users. The primary outcome is severity of cocaine dependence. Secondary outcome measures include cocaine craving, consumption of cocaine and other substances of abuse in the past month, and changes in depression characteristics. The therapy group will receive a 6-week self-help therapy to reduce cocaine consumption based on methods of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, principles of Motivational Interviewing and self-control practices. The control group will be presented weekly psycho-educative information with a quiz. The predictive validity of participant characteristics on treatment retention and outcome will be explored. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this will be the first randomised clinical trial to test the effectiveness of online self-help therapy to reduce or abstain from cocaine use. It will also investigate predictors of outcome and retention. This trial is registered at Current Controlled Trials and is traceable as NTR-ISRCTN93702927.

  4. Consumption of a fermented dairy product containing the probiotic Lactobacillus casei DN-114001 reduces the duration of respiratory infections in the elderly in a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemard, E; Tondu, F; Lacoin, F; Schrezenmeir, J

    2010-01-01

    Common infectious diseases (CID) of the airways and the gastrointestinal tract are still a considerable cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly. The present study examined the beneficial effect of a dairy product containing the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 (fermented product) on the resistance of free-living elderly to CID. The study was multicentric, double blind and controlled, involving 1072 volunteers (median age = 76.0 years) randomised for consumption of either 200 g/d of fermented (n 537) or control (non-fermented) dairy product (n 535) for 3 months, followed by an additional 1 month's follow-up. The results showed that, when considering all CID, the fermented product significantly reduced the average duration per episode of CID (6.5 v. 8 d in control group; P = 0.008) and the cumulative duration of CID (7 v. 8 d in control group; P = 0.009). Reduction in both episode and cumulative durations was also significant for all upper respiratory tract infections (URTI; P fermented product consumption (2-3.8 x 107 equivalents of colony-forming unit/g of stools, P fermented product was safe and well tolerated. In conclusion, consumption of a fermented dairy product containing the probiotic strain L. casei DN-114 001 in elderly was associated with a decreased duration of CID in comparison with the control group, especially for URTI such as rhinopharyngitis.

  5. Control strategies for reducing consumption and pollutant emission on isolated junctions: field results; Enjeux de la regulation aux carrefours pour reduire la consommation et la polution: resultats experimentaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midenet, S.; Boillot, F.; Pierrelee, J.C. [Institut National de Recherche sur les Transports et leur Securite, INRETS, Lab. Genie des Reseaux de Transports et Informatique Avancee, GRETIA, 94 - Arcueil (France)

    2000-07-01

    We present experimental results dealing with traffic light control strategies for reducing CO{sub 2} emission and fuel consumption on isolated intersection. The experimental site, located near Paris, is a 400 meter area centred on an isolated junction that has been equipped with video sensors (for queue lengths and other spatial traffic measurements). A complete control device enables to actually control the junction traffic lights from our INRETS laboratory. A model has been designed to estimate emission and consumption mean costs based on video traffic measurements. The model's coefficients have been calibrated with real life kinematics profiles and corresponding instantaneous emission measurements, provided by INRETS-LTE; we ended up with coefficients for diesel, catalyst gasoline and non-catalyst gasoline passenger cars. An 8 months experimental period in 1998-1999 led to constitute a large database of one-hour traffic measurement samples, that cover the usual traffic condition ranges for each strategy applied on field. The consumption and emission costs for each strategy, along with comparative benefits have been computed on this basis. We show that the CRONOS adaptive real-time strategy based on waiting time minimization leads to important benefits on the part of the cost that is related to stops and waiting time: 14 % on average for CO{sub 2} emission. This benefit remains significant on the total cost (around 4 % for CO{sub 2}) and noticeable whatever the traffic conditions. (authors)

  6. Attitudes on Technological, Social, and Behavioral Economic Strategies to Reduce Cellphone Use While Driving in Teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, M Kit; McDonald, Catherine C; Winston, Flaura K; Halpern, Scott D; Buttenheim, Alison M; Setubal, Claudia; Huang, Yanlan; Saulsgiver, Kathryn A; Lee, Yi-Ching

    2018-04-13

    The majority of U.S. teens admit to handheld cellphone use while driving, an increasingly common cause of crashes. Attitudes towards novel cellphone applications and settings that block use while driving are poorly understood, potentially limiting uptake. We examined teens' willingness to reduce cellphone use while driving and perceptions of potential strategies to limit this behavior. Teen drivers (n = 153) aged 16-17 who owned smartphones and admitted to texting while driving completed an online survey. Survey instruments measured willingness to give up cellphone use and perceptions of technological and behavioral economic strategies to reduce cellphone use while driving. We used Chi-square tests to test the hypothesis that willingness to give up certain types of cellphone use while driving and the perceptions of strategies to reduce cellphone use while driving would differ by self-reported frequency of texting while driving in the past 30 days (low [1-5 days] vs. high [6 or more days]. Most teens were willing or somewhat willing to give up reading texts (90%), sending texts (95%), and social media (99%) while driving. However they were not willing to give up navigation (59%) and music applications (43%). Those who engaged in high-frequency texting while driving were more likely to say they were not willing to give up navigation applications (73% vs. 44%, P distraction (86%). The predominant reason for not wanting to use this technology was not wanting parents to monitor their behavior (60%). Promising strategies for increasing acceptance of cellphone blocking technology among teen drivers include automated screen locking and permitting hands-free navigation and music combined with behavioral economic incentives to sustain engagement.

  7. Hybridization of powertrain and downsizing of IC engine - A way to reduce fuel consumption and pollutant emissions - Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katrasnik, Tomaz

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this two part paper is to present the results of extensive simulation and analytical analysis of the energy conversion efficiency in parallel hybrid powertrains. The simulation approach is based on an accurate and fast forward facing simulation model of a parallel hybrid powertrain and a conventional internal combustion engine powertrain. The model of the ICE is based on a verified dynamic model that provides sufficiently small time steps to model adequately the dynamics of electric systems during transient test cycles. Models of the electrical devices enable computation of the instantaneous energy consumption, production and storage as well as computation of the instantaneous energy losses and component efficiencies. Moreover, the paper offers an analytical approach based on the energy balance in order to analyze and predict the energy conversion efficiency of hybrid powertrains. The analysis covers a broad range of parallel hybrid powertrain configurations from mild to full hybrids. Combined simulation and analytical analysis enables deep insight into the energy conversion phenomena in hybrid powertrains. The paper reveals the conditions and influences that lead to improved fuel economy of hybrid powertrains with the emphasis on determining the optimum hybridization ratio. The theoretical background, simulation program and brief analysis of one test cycle are presented in Part 1, whereas the extensive analysis and parametric study is presented in the companion paper, Part 2

  8. Twelve-bit 20-GHz reduced size pipeline accumulator in 0.25 µm SiGe:C technology for direct digital synthesiser applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Brian Sveistrup; Khafaji, M. Mahdi; Johansen, Tom Keinicke

    2012-01-01

    /Fmax of 180/220 GHz respectively. The accumulator architecture omits the pre-skewing registers of the pipeline, thereby lowering both power consumption and circuit complexity. Some limitations to this design are discussed and the necessary equations for determining the phase jump encountered each time......This article presents a 20 GHz, 12-bit pipeline accumulator with a reduced number of registers, suitable for direct digital synthesizer (DDS) applications. The accumulator is implemented in the IHP SG25H1 (0.25um) SiGe:C technology featuring heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBT) with Ft...... the control word (synthesized frequency) is changed are presented. For many applications employing signal processing after detection, this phase shift can then be corrected for. Compared to a full pipeline architecture, the implemented 12-bit accumulator reduces the number of registers by 55% and the power...

  9. You Have to Be Prepared to Drink: Students' Views about Reducing Excessive Alcohol Consumption at University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Emma L.; Law, Cara; Hennelly, Sarah E.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Many existing interventions to reduce excessive drinking in university students attempt to target individual cognitions, which ignore the wider contextual features that drive excessive drinking and mark this as an important aspect of university life. The purpose of this paper is to explore students' views about preventing excessive…

  10. Image noise reduction technology reduces radiation in a radial-first cardiac catheterization laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunja, Ateka; Pandey, Yagya [Department of Veterans Affairs, Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Xie, Hui [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Wolska, Beata M. [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Center for Cardiovascular Research, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Shroff, Adhir R.; Ardati, Amer K. [Department of Veterans Affairs, Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Vidovich, Mladen I., E-mail: miv@uic.edu [Department of Veterans Affairs, Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Background: Transradial coronary angiography (TRA) has been associated with increased radiation doses. We hypothesized that contemporary image noise reduction technology would reduce radiation doses in the cardiac catheterization laboratory in a typical clinical setting. Methods and results: We performed a single-center, retrospective analysis of 400 consecutive patients who underwent diagnostic and interventional cardiac catheterizations in a predominantly TRA laboratory with traditional fluoroscopy (N = 200) and a new image noise reduction fluoroscopy system (N = 200). The primary endpoint was radiation dose (mGy cm{sup 2}). Secondary endpoints were contrast dose, fluoroscopy times, number of cineangiograms, and radiation dose by operator between the two study periods. Radiation was reduced by 44.7% between the old and new cardiac catheterization laboratory (75.8 mGy cm{sup 2} ± 74.0 vs. 41.9 mGy cm{sup 2} ± 40.7, p < 0.0001). Radiation was reduced for both diagnostic procedures (45.9%, p < 0.0001) and interventional procedures (37.7%, p < 0.0001). There was no statistically significant difference in radiation dose between individual operators (p = 0.84). In multivariate analysis, radiation dose remained significantly decreased with the use of the new system (p < 0.0001) and was associated with weight (p < 0.0001), previous coronary artery bypass grafting (p < 0.0007) and greater than 3 stents used (p < 0.0004). TRA was used in 90% of all cases in both periods. Compared with a transfemoral approach (TFA), TRA was not associated with higher radiation doses (p = 0.20). Conclusions: Image noise reduction technology significantly reduces radiation dose in a contemporary radial-first cardiac catheterization clinical practice. - Highlights: • Radial arterial access has been associated with higher doses compared to femoral access. • In a radial-first cardiac catheterization laboratory (90% radial) we examined radiation doses reduction with a contemporary image

  11. Genetically Engineered Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 Synbiotics Reduce Metabolic Effects Induced by Chronic Consumption of Dietary Fructose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhari Archana Somabhai

    Full Text Available To assess protective efficacy of genetically modified Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN on metabolic effects induced by chronic consumption of dietary fructose.EcN was genetically modified with fructose dehydrogenase (fdh gene for conversion of fructose to 5-keto-D-fructose and mannitol-2-dehydrogenase (mtlK gene for conversion to mannitol, a prebiotic. Charles foster rats weighing 150-200 g were fed with 20% fructose in drinking water for two months. Probiotic treatment of EcN (pqq, EcN (pqq-glf-mtlK, EcN (pqq-fdh was given once per week 109 cells for two months. Furthermore, blood and liver parameters for oxidative stress, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia were estimated. Fecal samples were collected to determine the production of short chain fatty acids and pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ production.EcN (pqq-glf-mtlK, EcN (pqq-fdh transformants were confirmed by restriction digestion and functionality was checked by PQQ estimation and HPLC analysis. There was significant increase in body weight, serum glucose, liver injury markers, lipid profile in serum and liver, and decrease in antioxidant enzyme activity in high-fructose-fed rats. However the rats treated with EcN (pqq-glf-mtlK and EcN (pqq-fdh showed significant reduction in lipid peroxidation along with increase in serum and hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities. Restoration of liver injury marker enzymes was also seen. Increase in short chain fatty acids (SCFA demonstrated the prebiotic effects of mannitol and gluconic acid.Our study demonstrated the effectiveness of probiotic EcN producing PQQ and fructose metabolizing enzymes against the fructose induced hepatic steatosis suggesting that its potential for use in treating fructose induced metabolic syndrome.

  12. Orange juice intake during a fatty meal consumption reduces the postprandial low-grade inflammatory response in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerletti, C; Gianfagna, F; Tamburrelli, C; De Curtis, A; D'Imperio, M; Coletta, W; Giordano, L; Lorenzet, R; Rapisarda, P; Reforgiato Recupero, G; Rotilio, D; Iacoviello, L; de Gaetano, G; Donati, M B

    2015-02-01

    Evidence associates polyphenol-rich foods to reduction of low-grade inflammation and mortality for cardiovascular disease, the mechanisms underlying such effects being still unclear. Consumption of a fatty meal by healthy volunteers induces rapid and reversible low-grade inflammation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of orange juice on cellular modifications induced by a fatty meal. 18 apparently healthy subjects consumed a fatty meal, during which they drunk orange juice, either blond or red, or water, according to a randomized cross-over design. Two hours after the end of the fatty meal, both white blood cell (WBC) and platelet counts significantly increased (12.5 and 5%, respectively), while mean platelet volume decreased and a 25% release of myeloperoxidase (MPO) from polymorphonuclear leukocyte occurred. Both juices significantly prevented WBC increase and MPO degranulation, in respect to control. Triglycerides significantly increased (42%) after the fatty meal, but at a lower extent when red orange juice was consumed with the meal (20%), in respect to blond orange juice or control. This effect was statistically significant in the subgroup of 8 subjects with hypertriglyceridemia. Vascular stiffness (augmentation index), measured by Endo-PAT2000, significantly decreased after the meal only in conjunction with red orange juice. In healthy subjects the concomitant intake of orange juice may prevent the low-grade inflammatory reaction induced by a fatty meal, at cellular and possibly at vascular function levels. The relative role of different polyphenols on the observed effects of orange juices remains to be established. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reduced ethanol consumption by alcohol-preferring (P) rats following pharmacological silencing and deep brain stimulation of the nucleus accumbens shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilden, Jessica A; Qing, Kurt Y; Hauser, Sheketha R; McBride, William J; Irazoqui, Pedro P; Rodd, Zachary A

    2014-04-01

    There is increasing interest in deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of addiction. Initial testing must be conducted in animals, and the alcohol-preferring (P) rat meets the criteria for an animal model of alcoholism. This study is composed of 2 experiments designed to examine the effects of 1) pharmacological inactivation and 2) DBS of the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) on the consumption of alcohol by P rats. In the first experiment, the effects of reversible inactivation of the AcbSh were investigated by administering intracranial injections of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonists. Bilateral microinjections of drug were administered to the AcbSh in P rats (8-10 rats/group), after which the animals were placed in operant chambers containing 2 levers--one used to administer water and the other to administer 15% EtOH--to examine the acquisition and maintenance of oral EtOH self-administration. In the second experiment, a DBS electrode was placed in each P rat's left AcbSh. The animals then received 100 or 200 μA (3-4 rats/group) of DBS to examine the effect on daily consumption of oral EtOH in a free-access paradigm. In the first experiment, pharmacological silencing of the AcbSh with GABA agonists did not decrease the acquisition of EtOH drinking behavior but did reduce EtOH consumption by 55% in chronically drinking rats. Similarly, in the second experiment, 200 μA of DBS consistently reduced EtOH intake by 47% in chronically drinking rats. The amount of EtOH consumption returned to baseline levels following termination of therapy in both experiments. Pharmacological silencing and DBS of the AcbSh reduced EtOH intake after chronic EtOH use had been established in rodents. The AcbSh is a neuroanatomical substrate for the reinforcing effects of alcohol and may be a target for surgical intervention in cases of alcoholism.

  14. Kelston Beverages Pilot Study: Rationale, design and implementation of a community and school based intervention to reduce sugary drink consumption among children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundborn, G; Ni Mhurchu, C; Ness, C; Latu, H; Jackson, R

    2014-03-01

    The Kelston Beverages Study was designed to increase awareness of the sugar content of sugary drinks, the poor health consequences that high intake of these drinks have, and inform on ways to reduce intake of students. The aims of this pilot study were to refine interventions and processes designed to raise awareness of the harms that sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) have on health, and to reduce their consumption among the youth of a small West Auckland suburb. There were three arms to this interventional study, one in schools, another in community organisations (churches, sports clubs and community groups), and the final arm is in the local retail sector. The school arm was the most extensive component and initially involved a survey of children's knowledge and consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) using a brief questionnaire. The study evaluated any SSB policies in schools and for schools that did not have policies, opportunities were scoped to develop and implement them; a canteen AUDIT focussed particularly on beverages was carried out; and finally a student partnered social marketing exercise was undertaken that comprised 2 competitions, one to design a poster, and another to write and perform a rap. Children were re-surveyed at the completion of the intervention (7 months later) to determine change in knowledge and self-reported consumption of SSBs. Both the community organisations and retail arms of this study focussed on raising awareness into the harmful effects of SSBs and establishing healthy beverage policy in the respective organisations. Promising results with regards to acceptability, feasibility, and recruitment as well as valuable learnings with regard to process support the development of a proposal to conduct a cluster randomised trial of the interventions successfully tested in this pilot study.

  15. Reducing Time to Science: Unidata and JupyterHub Technology Using the Jetstream Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastang, J.; Signell, R. P.; Fischer, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Cloud computing can accelerate scientific workflows, discovery, and collaborations by reducing research and data friction. We describe the deployment of Unidata and JupyterHub technologies on the NSF-funded XSEDE Jetstream cloud. With the aid of virtual machines and Docker technology, we deploy a Unidata JupyterHub server co-located with a Local Data Manager (LDM), THREDDS data server (TDS), and RAMADDA geoscience content management system. We provide Jupyter Notebooks and the pre-built Python environments needed to run them. The notebooks can be used for instruction and as templates for scientific experimentation and discovery. We also supply a large quantity of NCEP forecast model results to allow data-proximate analysis and visualization. In addition, users can transfer data using Globus command line tools, and perform their own data-proximate analysis and visualization with Notebook technology. These data can be shared with others via a dedicated TDS server for scientific distribution and collaboration. There are many benefits of this approach. Not only is the cloud computing environment fast, reliable and scalable, but scientists can analyze, visualize, and share data using only their web browser. No local specialized desktop software or a fast internet connection is required. This environment will enable scientists to spend less time managing their software and more time doing science.

  16. Emerging biorefinery technologies for Indian forest industry to reduce GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Naman; Nainwal, Shubham; Jain, Shivani; Jain, Siddharth

    2015-11-01

    The production of biofuels as alternative energy source over fossil fuels has gained immense interest over the years as it can contribute significantly to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy production and utilization. Also with rapidly increasing fuel price and fall in oil wells, the present scenario forces us to look for an alternative source of energy that will help us in the operation of industrial as well as the transportation sector. The pulp mills in India are one of the many options. The pulp mills in India can help us to produce bio-fuels by thermo-chemical/biochemical conversion of black liquor and wood residues. These technologies include extraction of hemi-cellulose from wooden chips and black liquor, lignin from black liquor, methanol from evaporator condensates, biogas production from waste sludge, syngas production from biomass using gasification and bio-oil production from biomass using pyrolysis. The objective of this paper is to overview these emerging bio-refinery technologies that can be implemented in Indian Forest Industry to get bio-fuels, bio-chemicals and bio-energy to reduce GHG emissions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Four-Week Consumption of Malaysian Honey Reduces Excess Weight Gain and Improves Obesity-Related Parameters in High Fat Diet Induced Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhana Samat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies revealed the potential of honey consumption in controlling obesity. However, no study has been conducted using Malaysian honey. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of two local Malaysian honey types: Gelam and Acacia honey in reducing excess weight gain and other parameters related to obesity. The quality of both honey types was determined through physicochemical analysis and contents of phenolic and flavonoid. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced to become obese using high fat diet (HFD prior to introduction with/without honey or orlistat for four weeks. Significant reductions in excess weight gain and adiposity index were observed in rats fed with Gelam honey compared to HFD rats. Moreover, levels of plasma glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol, plasma leptin and resistin, liver enzymes, renal function test, and relative organ weight in Gelam and Acacia honey treated groups were reduced significantly when compared to rats fed with HFD only. Similar results were also displayed in rats treated with orlistat, but with hepatotoxicity effects. In conclusion, consumption of honey can be used to control obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and appears to be more effective than orlistat.

  18. Alendronate reduces the daily consumption of insulin (DCI) in patients with senile type I diabetes and osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maugeri, D; Panebianco, P; Rosso, D; Calanna, A; Speciale, S; Santangelo, A; Rizza, I; Motta, M; Lentini, A; Malaguarnera, M

    2002-01-01

    The use of Alendronate for the treatment of senile diabetes with osteopenia or osteoporosis is a common practice today, although the reasons for the success of this treatment are not completely understood. We investigated 40 elderly female patients, over 70 years of age, divided in two Groups (A and B) 20 cases of each, with insulin-dependent senile diabetes and fair metabolic balance, with an average disease duration of 30 +/- 4 years. They all had osteoporosis shown by the mean T-score of bone mineral densitometry. The Groups were treated as follows, Group A with 10 mg/day of Alendronate per os, with morning fasting plus a supplementation of calcium and vitamin D3, while the Group B received only calcium and vitamin D3 per os. Bone mineral density (BMD) expressed in mg/cm2, and in terms of T-score and Z-score at the spine (L1-L4) was monitored over time after 12 and 24 months, using dexa technique with a Lunar DPX densitometer. Moreover, the variation of daily consumption of insulin (DCI) of all the study population was calculated 12 and 24 months after the start of treatments. The data of Group A showed an improvement of osteoporosis, as evidenced by the increase of BMD at both times of measurement, accompanied by a significant reduction in the DCI (-21.6% by the 12th month, and -36.2% by the end of the observation period). In the Group B only small, statistically insignificant changes were observed in both the BMD and DCI. The most plausible explanation of reduction of DCI in Group A seems to be that Alendronate has improved the clinical symptoms of osteoporosis (pain, rigidity, and reduction of movements) through its action on the bone mass recovery and slowing down the bone turnover and under these conditions the diabetic patients improved their own physical performance. The better and more extensive movements certainly produced a reduction in the DCI, since a correct and adequate physical activity does contribute to an improved glucose metabolism.

  19. An application of a double bootstrap to investigate the effects of technological progress on total-factor energy consumption performance in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ke; Lin, Boqiang

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a total-factor energy consumption performance index (TEPI) for measuring China's energy efficiency across 30 provinces during the period 1997 to 2012. The TEPI is derived by solving an improved non-radial data envelopment analysis (DEA) model, which is based on an energy distance function. The production possibility set is constructed by combining the super-efficiency and sequential DEA models to avoid “discriminating power problem” and “technical regress”. In order to explore the impacts of technological progress on TEPI and perform statistical inferences on the results, a two-stage double bootstrap approach is adopted. The important findings are that China's energy technology innovation produces a negative effect on TEPI, while technology import and imitative innovation produce positive effects on TEPI. Thus, the main contribution of TEPI improvement is technology import. These conclusions imply that technology import especially foreign direct investment (FDI) is important for imitative innovation and can improve China's energy efficiency. In the long run, as the technical level of China approaches to the frontier, energy technology innovation and its wide adoption become a sustained way to improve energy efficiency. Therefore, it is urgent for China to introduce measures such as technology translation and spillover policies as well as energy pricing reforms to support energy technology innovation. - Highlights: • A total-factor energy consumption performance index (TEPI) is introduced. • Three types of technological progress have various effects on TEPI. • FDI is the main contributor of TEPI improvement. • An improved DEA calculation method is introduced. • A two-stage double-bootstrap non-radial DEA model is used.

  20. Potential of biogas production to reduce firewood consumption in remote high-elevation Himalayan communities in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gross Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote communities in the Nepalese mountains above 2500 m a.s.l. belong to the most precarious in the world. Inhabitants struggle for the minimum in terms of safe drinking water, food and sanitation. Reliable, affordable and clean energy for cooking, room heating and warm water for personal hygiene is often lacking and dependency on firewood very high. The remoteness and unlikeliness of electric grid connection in the coming decades make a diversified energy supply from renewable local resources crucial. Small-scale anaerobic digestion (AD of organic substrates has been used for long in rural areas of developing countries to produce biogas as energy source and recover residue as organic fertilizer. AD is challenging at high elevations due to year around lower ambient temperatures and lower annual biomass production per area compared to lowlands. Nevertheless, examples of operational household AD exist even above 3000 m a.s.l. in the Andes. Here we compare firewood consumption with biogas potential from organic substrates in a community with 39 households at 3150 m a.s.l. in Jumla District, Nepal. In five households with varying numbers of members and animals kept, mean firewood use and its energy content per capita (cap and day (d were 2.1 kg or ca. 25 MJ in spring and 2.3 kg or ca. 28 MJ in winter. Easily available substrates include cow, sheep and horse dung from overnight shelters and human excrements from pit latrines, amounting on average to 1.7 kg wet weight (kgww cap−1 d−1 in spring and 2.2 kgww cap−1 d−1 in winter. Adjusted to normal conditions (Nm3 at 0 °C, 1013.15 hPa, these substrates yielded on average 0.08 Nm3 cap−1 d−1 biogas in spring and 0.12 Nm3 cap−1 d−1 in winter (35–60% methane content in biochemical methane potential (BMPs tests at 36 °C. This could provide up to 60% of basic cooking needs on average and up to 75% in a “typical” household in terms of members

  1. Impact of responsive insertion technology (RIT) on reducing discomfort during colonoscopy: randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, Artur; Szura, Miroslaw; Solecki, Rafal; Matyja, Maciej; Szczepanik, Antoni; Matyja, Andrzej

    2017-05-01

    In many countries, colonoscopies for colorectal cancer screening are performed without sedation due to the cost. Changes in the structure of the endoscopes are designed to facilitate the colonoscopic examination, reduce the duration of the procedure, and improve the imaging of the intestinal lumen. The variable stiffness of the endoscope and the recently introduced responsive insertion technology (RIT) are features aimed at easing colonoscope insertion and reducing the discomfort and pain during the examination. The aim of the study is to analyze whether the new RIT system can improve the practice of colonoscopy under no anesthesia with respect to the widely available variable stiffness colonoscopes. This analysis included 647 patients who underwent complete colonoscopy in the screening program. All colonoscopies were performed without sedation. Olympus series 180 and 190 endoscopes equipped with a magnetic positioning system were used. Group I included patients who were examined using endoscopes equipped with responsive insertion technology (RIT), and group II included patients who were examined using conventional variable stiffness colonoscopies. The main objective was to evaluate the cecal intubation time, the number of loops, the requirement to apply manual pressure to different areas of the abdomen and the degree of discomfort and pain expressed on a visual analogue scale (VAS). ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01688557. Group I consisted of 329 patients, and group II included 318 patients. The mean age of the patients was 58.4 years (SD ± 4.21). Both groups were compared in terms of age, sex, and BMI. The mean cecal intubation time was 209 s in group I and 224 s in group II (p < 0.05). Increased loop formation was observed upon endoscope insertion in group II (1.7 vs. 1.35) (p < 0.05) and required more manual pressure to the abdomen (2.2 vs. 1.7) (p = 0.001). In group I, less discomfort and pain, as graded on a VAS (2.3 vs. 2.6), were noted. The

  2. Analysis of the research and development effort in the private sector to reduce energy consumption in irrigated agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, E.A.; Cone, B.W.

    1980-09-01

    Manufacturers of irrigation equipment perform research and development in an effort to improve or maintain their position in a very competitive market. The market forces and conditions that create the intense competition and provide incentive for invention are described. Particular emphasis is placed on the market force of increased energy costs, but the analysis is developed from the perspective that energy is but one of many inputs to agricultural production. The analysis is based upon published literature, patent activity profiles, microeconomic theory, and conversations with many representatives of the irrigation industry. The published literature provides an understanding of the historical development of irrigation technology, a description of the industry's structure, and various data, which were important for the quantitative analyses. The patent activity profiles, obtained from the US Patent Office, provided details of patent activity within the irrigation industry over the past decade. Microeconomic theory was used to estimate industry-wide research and development expenditures on energy-conserving products. The results of these analyses were then compared with the insights gained from conversations with the industry representatives.

  3. Non-Competitive NMDA Receptor Antagonist Hemantane Reduces Ethanol Consumption in Long-Term Alcohol Experienced Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolik, L G; Nadorova, A V; Seredenin, S B

    2017-12-01

    Activity of hemantane, an amino adamantane derivative, exhibiting the properties of lowaffinity non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, was evaluated in experimental in vivo models of alcoholism. Hemantane had no effects on the formation and manifestation of behavioral sensitization to ethanol in DBA/2 mice. Under conditions of free choice between 10% ethanol and water, hemantane (20 mg/kg/day for 14 days, intraperitoneally) significantly reduced the daily ethanol intake in random-bred male rats with formed alcohol motivation (>4 g/kg of ethanol). During modelling of withdrawal syndrome, hemantane administered intraperitoneally in doses of 5-20 mg/kg dose-dependently attenuated alcohol-deprivation effect after acute withdrawal with no effects on protracted abstinence. It was found that hemantane suppressed alcohol drinking behavior in long-term ethanol experienced rats and attenuated alcohol-seeking behavior after acute withdrawal.

  4. Health information technology and quality of health care: strategies for reducing disparities in underresourced settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millery, Mari; Kukafka, Rita

    2010-10-01

    Health information technology (health IT) has potential for facilitating quality improvement and reducing quality disparities found in underresourced settings (URSs). With this systematic literature review, complemented by key informant interviews, the authors sought to identify evidence regarding health IT and quality outcomes in URSs. The review included 105 peer-reviewed studies (2004-2009) in all settings. Only 15 studies included URSs, and 8 focused on URSs. Based on literature across settings, most evidence was available for quality impact of order entry, clinical decision support systems, and computerized reminders. Study designs were predominantly quasi-experimental (37%) or descriptive (35%); 90% of the studies focused on the microsystem level of quality improvement, indicating a need for expanding research into patient experience and organizational and environmental levels. Key informants highlighted organizational partnerships and health IT champions and emphasized that for health IT to have an impact on quality, there must be an organizational culture of quality improvement.

  5. Green Materials Science and Engineering Reduces Biofouling: Approaches for Medical and Membrane-based Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerianne M Dobosz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous engineered and natural environments suffer deleterious effects from biofouling and/or biofilm formation. For instance, bacterial contamination on biomedical devices pose serious health concerns. In membrane-based technologies, such as desalination and wastewater reuse, biofouling decreases membrane lifetime and increases the energy required to produce clean water. Traditionally, approaches have combatted bacteria using bactericidal agents. However, due to globalization, a decline in antibiotic discovery, and the widespread resistance of microbes to many commercial antibiotics and metallic nanoparticles, new materials and approaches to reduce biofilm formation are needed. In this mini-review, we cover the recent strategies that have been explored to combat microbial contamination without exerting evolutionary pressure on microorganisms. Renewable feedstocks, relying on structure-property relationships, bioinspired/nature-derived compounds, and green processing methods are discussed. Greener strategies that mitigate biofouling hold great potential to positively impact human health and safety.

  6. Process Evaluation and Costing of a Multifaceted Population-Wide Intervention to Reduce Salt Consumption in Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jacqui; Pillay, Arti; Suku, Arleen; Gohil, Paayal; Santos, Joseph Alvin; Schultz, Jimaima; Wate, Jillian; Trieu, Kathy; Hope, Silvia; Snowdon, Wendy; Moodie, Marj; Jan, Stephen; Bell, Colin

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports the process evaluation and costing of a national salt reduction intervention in Fiji. The population-wide intervention included engaging food industry to reduce salt in foods, strategic health communication and a hospital program. The evaluation showed a 1.4 g/day drop in salt intake from the 11.7 g/day at baseline; however, this was not statistically significant. To better understand intervention implementation, we collated data to assess intervention fidelity, reach, context and costs. Government and management changes affected intervention implementation, meaning fidelity was relatively low. There was no active mechanism for ensuring food companies adhered to the voluntary salt reduction targets. Communication activities had wide reach but most activities were one-off, meaning the overall dose was low and impact on behavior limited. Intervention costs were moderate (FJD $277,410 or $0.31 per person) but the strategy relied on multi-sector action which was not fully operationalised. The cyclone also delayed monitoring and likely impacted the results. However, 73% of people surveyed had heard about the campaign and salt reduction policies have been mainstreamed into government programs. Longer-term monitoring of salt intake is planned through future surveys and lessons from this process evaluation will be used to inform future strategies in the Pacific Islands and globally. PMID:29385758

  7. Process Evaluation and Costing of a Multifaceted Population-Wide Intervention to Reduce Salt Consumption in Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqui Webster

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the process evaluation and costing of a national salt reduction intervention in Fiji. The population-wide intervention included engaging food industry to reduce salt in foods, strategic health communication and a hospital program. The evaluation showed a 1.4 g/day drop in salt intake from the 11.7 g/day at baseline; however, this was not statistically significant. To better understand intervention implementation, we collated data to assess intervention fidelity, reach, context and costs. Government and management changes affected intervention implementation, meaning fidelity was relatively low. There was no active mechanism for ensuring food companies adhered to the voluntary salt reduction targets. Communication activities had wide reach but most activities were one-off, meaning the overall dose was low and impact on behavior limited. Intervention costs were moderate (FJD $277,410 or $0.31 per person but the strategy relied on multi-sector action which was not fully operationalised. The cyclone also delayed monitoring and likely impacted the results. However, 73% of people surveyed had heard about the campaign and salt reduction policies have been mainstreamed into government programs. Longer-term monitoring of salt intake is planned through future surveys and lessons from this process evaluation will be used to inform future strategies in the Pacific Islands and globally.

  8. Opportunities for Low Cost Titanium in Reduced Fuel Consumption, Improved Emissions, and Enhanced Durability Heavy Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, E.H.

    2002-07-22

    The purpose of this study was to determine which components of heavy-duty highway vehicles are candidates for the substitution of titanium materials for current materials if the cost of those Ti components is very significantly reduced from current levels. The processes which could be used to produce those low cost components were also investigated. Heavy-duty highway vehicles are defined as all trucks and busses included in Classes 2C through 8. These include heavy pickups and vans above 8,500 lbs. GVWR, through highway tractor trailers. Class 8 is characterized as being a very cyclic market, with ''normal'' year volume, such as in 2000, of approximately 240,000 new vehicles. Classes 3-7 are less cyclic, with ''normal'' i.e., year 2000, volume totaling approximately 325,000 new vehicles. Classes 3-8 are powered about 88.5% by diesel engines, and Class 2C at very roughly 83% diesel. The engine portion of the study therefore focused on diesels. Vehicle production volumes were used in estimates of the market size for candidate components.

  9. Analysis of energy consumption in selected Danish firms and development of methods of reducing it. Part 2. Analyse af energiforbruget til intern transport i udvalgte danske erhversvirksomheder samt udvikling af metoder til nedbringelse af dette. Del 2; Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    A continuation of a pilot project on the same subject, comprizing an investigation of energy consumption in relation to internal transport of commodities caried out by the firm itself within its own grounds by conveyor belts and tubes and electric-powered vehicles etc. The purpose of the investigation was to suggest means for reducing energy consumption in this respect. The firms chosen this time were a supermarket chain and a packaging firm. Suggestions for reducing energy consumption are presented in detail in each case. (AB).

  10. Oxygen consumption remains stable while ammonia excretion is reduced upon short time exposure to high salinity in Macrobrachium acanthurus (Caridae: Palaemonidae, a recent freshwater colonizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina A. Freire

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Palaemonid shrimps occur in the tropical and temperate regions of South America and the Indo-Pacific, in brackish/freshwater habitats, and marine coastal areas. They form a clade that recently (i.e., ~30 mya invaded freshwater, and one included genus, Macrobrachium Bate, 1868, is especially successful in limnic habitats. Adult Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836 dwell in coastal freshwaters, have diadromous habit, and need brackish water to develop. Thus, they are widely recognized as euryhaline. Here we test how this species responds to a short-term exposure to increased salinity. We hypothesized that abrupt exposure to high salinity would result in reduced gill ventilation/perfusion and decreased oxygen consumption. Shrimps were subjected to control (0 psu and experimental salinities (10, 20, 30 psu, for four and eight hours (n = 8 in each group. The water in the experimental containers was saturated with oxygen before the beginning of the experiment; aeration was interrupted before placing the shrimp in the experimental container. Dissolved oxygen (DO, ammonia concentration, and pH were measured from the aquaria water, at the start and end of each experiment. After exposure, the shrimp’s hemolymph was sampled for lactate and osmolality assays. Muscle tissue was sampled for hydration content (Muscle Water Content, MWC. Oxygen consumption was not reduced and hemolymph lactate did not increase with increased salinity. The pH of the water decreased with time, under all conditions. Ammonia excretion decreased with increased salinity. Hemolymph osmolality and MWC remained stable at 10 and 20 psu, but osmolality increased (~50% and MWC decreased (~4% at 30 psu. The expected reduction in oxygen consumption was not observed. This shrimp is able to tolerate significant changes in water salt concentrations for a few hours by keeping its metabolism in aerobic mode, and putatively shutting down branchial salt uptake to avoid massive salt

  11. Reducing the financial impact of pathogen inactivation technology for platelet components: our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girona-Llobera, Enrique; Jimenez-Marco, Teresa; Galmes-Trueba, Ana; Muncunill, Josep; Serret, Carmen; Serra, Neus; Sedeño, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    Pathogen inactivation (PI) technology for blood components enhances blood safety by inactivating viruses, bacteria, parasites, and white blood cells. Additionally, PI for platelet (PLT) components has the potential to extend PLT storage time from 5 to 7 days. A retrospective analysis was conducted into the percentage of outdated PLT components during the 3 years before and after the adoption of PLT PI technology in our institution. The PLT transfusion dose for both pre-PI and post-PI periods was similar. A retrospective analysis to study clinical safety and component utilization was also performed in the Balearic Islands University Hospital. As a result of PI implementation in our institution, the PLT production cost increased by 85.5%. However, due to the extension of PLT storage time, the percentage of outdated PLT units substantially decreased (-83.9%) and, consequently, the cost associated with outdated units (-69.8%). This decrease represented a 13.7% reduction of the initial cost increase which, together with the saving in blood transportation (0.1%), led to a saving of 13.8% over the initial cost. Therefore, the initial 85.5% increase in the cost of PLT production was markedly reduced to 71.7%. The mean number of PLT concentrates per patient was similar during both periods. The extension of PLT storage time can substantially contribute to reducing the financial impact of PI by decreasing the percentage of outdated PLTs while improving blood safety. Since the adoption of PI, there have been no documented cases of PLT transfusion-related sepsis in our region. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  12. Reducing Risk of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Collegiate Music Ensembles Using Ambient Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jason; Chesky, Kris

    2017-09-01

    Student musicians are at risk for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) as they develop skills and perform during instructional activities. Studies using longitudinal dosimeter data show that pedagogical procedures and instructor behaviors are highly predictive of NIHL risk, thus implying the need for innovative approaches to increase instructor competency in managing instructional activities without interfering with artistic and academic freedom. Ambient information systems, an emerging trend in human-computer interaction that infuses psychological behavioral theories into technologies, can help construct informative risk-regulating systems. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of introducing an ambient information system into the ensemble setting. The system used two ambient displays and a counterbalanced within-subjects treatment study design with six jazz ensemble instructors to determine if the system could induce a behavior change that alters trends in measures resulting from dosimeter data. This study assessed efficacy using time series analysis to determine changes in eight statistical measures of behavior over a 9-wk period. Analysis showed that the system was effective, as all instructors showed changes in a combination of measures. This study is in an important step in developing non-interfering technology to reduce NIHL among academic musicians.

  13. Efficacy of three light technologies for reducing microbial populations in liquid suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmpa, Angeliki; Vantarakis, Apostolos; Paparrodopoulos, Spyros; Whyte, Paul; Lyng, James

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of three nonthermal light technologies (NUV-Vis, continuous UV, and HILP) on their ability to inactivate Escherichia coli K12 and Listeria innocua.  E. coli K12 was selected as a representative microorganism for the enterohaemorrhagic foodborne pathogen E. coli O157:H7 and L. innocua as a surrogate microorganism for the common foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, respectively. The liquid matrix used for the disinfection experiments was a liquid matrix (MRD solution). The results of the present study show that the HILP treatment inactivated both E. coli and L. innocua more rapidly and effectively than either continuous UV-C or NUV-vis treatment. With HILP at 2.5 cm from the lamp, E. coli and L. innocua populations were reduced by 3.07 and 3.77 log10 CFU/mL, respectively, after a 5 sec treatment time, and were shown to be below the limit of detection (<0.22 log10 CFU/mL) following 30 sec exposure to HILP (106.2 J/cm(2)). These studies demonstrate the bactericidal efficacy of alternative nonthermal light technologies and their potential as decontamination strategies in the food industry.

  14. Efficacy of Three Light Technologies for Reducing Microbial Populations in Liquid Suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki Birmpa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of three nonthermal light technologies (NUV-Vis, continuous UV, and HILP on their ability to inactivate Escherichia coli K12 and Listeria innocua.  E. coli K12 was selected as a representative microorganism for the enterohaemorrhagic foodborne pathogen E. coli O157:H7 and L. innocua as a surrogate microorganism for the common foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, respectively. The liquid matrix used for the disinfection experiments was a liquid matrix (MRD solution. The results of the present study show that the HILP treatment inactivated both E. coli and L. innocua more rapidly and effectively than either continuous UV-C or NUV-vis treatment. With HILP at 2.5 cm from the lamp, E. coli and L. innocua populations were reduced by 3.07 and 3.77 log10 CFU/mL, respectively, after a 5 sec treatment time, and were shown to be below the limit of detection (<0.22 log10 CFU/mL following 30 sec exposure to HILP (106.2 J/cm2. These studies demonstrate the bactericidal efficacy of alternative nonthermal light technologies and their potential as decontamination strategies in the food industry.

  15. Consumption of soy isoflavone enriched bread in men with prostate cancer is associated with reduced proinflammatory cytokines and immunosuppressive cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesinski, Gregory B; Reville, Patrick K; Mace, Thomas A; Young, Gregory S; Ahn-Jarvis, Jennifer; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer; Vodovotz, Yael; Ameen, Zeenath; Grainger, Elizabeth; Riedl, Kenneth; Schwartz, Steven; Clinton, Steven K

    2015-11-01

    We hypothesized that soy phytochemicals may have immunomodulatory properties that may affect prostate carcinogenesis and progression. A randomized, phase II trial was conducted in 32 patients with prostate cancer with asymptomatic biochemical recurrence but no measurable disease on standard staging studies. Patients were randomized to two slices of soy bread (34 mg isoflavones/slice) or soy bread containing almond powder daily as a source of β-glucosidase. Flow cytometry and bioplex assays were used to measure cytokines or immune cell phenotype in blood at baseline (day 0) and following intervention (day 56). Adequate blood samples were available at enrollment and day 56 and evaluated. Multiple plasma cytokines and chemokines were significantly decreased on day 56 versus baseline. Subgroup analysis indicated reduced TH1 (P = 0.028) and myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC)-associated cytokines (P = 0.035). TH2 and TH17 cytokines were not significantly altered. Phenotypic analysis revealed no change in CD8(+) or CD4(+) T cells but showed increased CD56(+) natural killer (NK) cells (P = 0.038). The percentage of cells with a T regulatory cell phenotype (CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+)) was significantly decreased after 56 days of soy bread (P = 0.0136). Significantly decreased monocytic (CD33(+)HLADR(neg)CD14(+)) MDSC were observed in patients consuming soy bread (P = 0.0056). These data suggest that soy bread modulates systemic soluble and cellular biomarkers consistent with limiting inflammation and suppression of MDSCs. Additional studies to elucidate impact on the carcinogenic process or as a complement to immune-based therapy are required. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Does breast-feeding reduce offspring junk food consumption during childhood? Examinations by socio-economic status and race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dylan B; Johnson, Kecia R

    2017-06-01

    To examine whether breast-feeding duration and socio-economic status (SES) interact to predict junk food consumption among offspring and whether the interaction differs across racial/ethnic groups. Survey research using a longitudinal panel design. Hierarchical linear regression was used to analyse the data. In-home interviews with the child's parents over a 5-year period across the USA. Approximately 10 000 American children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). The findings revealed that longer breast-feeding durations correspond to lower levels of junk food consumption, but that this relationship emerges consistently only among low-SES blacks. Efforts to promote breast-feeding among low-SES black women may have the added benefit of reducing their children's junk food intake, and may thereby promote their general health and well-being. Future research should seek to explore the mechanisms by which breast-feeding might benefit the dietary habits of low-SES black children.

  17. Reducing cognitive load in the chemistry laboratory by using technology-driven guided inquiry experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubacz, Frank, Jr.

    The chemistry laboratory is an integral component of the learning experience for students enrolled in college-level general chemistry courses. Science education research has shown that guided inquiry investigations provide students with an optimum learning environment within the laboratory. These investigations reflect the basic tenets of constructivism by engaging students in a learning environment that allows them to experience what they learn and to then construct, in their own minds, a meaningful understanding of the ideas and concepts investigated. However, educational research also indicates that the physical plant of the laboratory environment combined with the procedural requirements of the investigation itself often produces a great demand upon a student's working memory. This demand, which is often superfluous to the chemical concept under investigation, creates a sensory overload or extraneous cognitive load within the working memory and becomes a significant obstacle to student learning. Extraneous cognitive load inhibits necessary schema formation within the learner's working memory thereby impeding the transfer of ideas to the learner's long-term memory. Cognitive Load Theory suggests that instructional material developed to reduce extraneous cognitive load leads to an improved learning environment for the student which better allows for schema formation. This study first compared the cognitive load demand, as measured by mental effort, experienced by 33 participants enrolled in a first-year general chemistry course in which the treatment group, using technology based investigations, and the non-treatment group, using traditional labware, investigated identical chemical concepts on five different exercises. Mental effort was measured via a mental effort survey, a statistical comparison of individual survey results to a procedural step count, and an analysis of fourteen post-treatment interviews. Next, a statistical analysis of achievement was

  18. Turbocharging and variable valve trains. Fuel reducing technologies for worldwide use; Aufladung und variable Ventiltriebe. Verbrauchstechnologien fuer den weltweiten Einsatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klauer, Norbert; Klueting, Manfred; Steinparzer, Fritz; Unger, Harald [BMW Group, Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Strongly increasing prices of crude oil terrify the fear around energy shortage and result in a distinct increase of the fuel prices. The customers react to it with a changed behaviour of purchase. The national regularization increases beyond Europe strongly. With the holistic approach BMW EfficientDynamics years ago, BMW Group already began to react to these changed requirements adequately in order to secure a sustainable mobility. Electrification, energy recovery, engine start/stop and efficient propulsion technologies thereby are the substantial components of this approach. In the near future, the combustion engine plays the leading role with the vehicle drives and thus is in the focus of further reductions of consumption. With the introduction of Valvetronic 2001 at BMW Ottomotoren, a significant reduction of consumption sinking in serial production had been presented for the first time. With the direct injection and the turbocharging, further milestones could be established for the reduction of consumption by means of the engine technology. Their consistent advancement and its intelligent combination in new engine concepts and concepts of powertrain can be a main part of innovative new drives for the world-wide employment in future.

  19. Comparison of the outcomes between reduced and nonreduced triplet pregnancies achieved by Assisted Reproductive Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva, Marzieh; Mohammadi Yeganeh, Ladan; Mirzaagha, Elaheh; Chehrazi, Mohammad; Bagheri Lankarani, Narges

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, the significant increase in multiple pregnancies as a result of assisted reproductive technology (ART) has introduced the concept of multifetal reduction techniques. However, it is still unclear whether there are significant advantages of using this technique. To compare the outcomes of triplet pregnancies achieved by ART managed expectantly with those receiving fetal reduction interventions. In this retrospective study of 115 triplet pregnancies, 57 pregnancies were reduced to twins while 58 were managed expectantly. The fetal loss rate before 24 weeks did not differ between reduced and nonreduced pregnancies (12.3% vs 12.1%). However, the results of those using fetal reduction techniques showed a lower incidence of preterm labour (26.3% vs 50%, P = 0.009), higher mean gestational age at delivery (35.1 ± 2.6 vs 32.4 ± 3.6 weeks, P = 0.002) and higher mean birthweights compared with the control group (2188 ± 547 vs 1674 ± 546 g, P fetal loss. Additionally, there was a lower perinatal mortality, higher live birth rate and lower NICU admission. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  20. Cap-and-trade policy: The influence on investments in carbon dioxide reducing technologies in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahie, Monique

    With most of the energy produced in the state of Indiana coming from coal, the implementation of policy instruments such as cap-and-trade, which is included in the most recent climate bill, will have significant effects. This thesis provides an analysis of the effects that a cap-and-trade policy might have on the investment decisions for alternative technologies in the power plant sector in Indiana. Two economic models of representative coal-fired power plants, Gallagher (600MW) and Rockport (2600MW), are selected and used to evaluate the repowering decision of a plant for several technologies: integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), wind farm combined with natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) and supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC). The firm will make its decisions based on the net present value (NPV) of cost estimates for these CO2 reducing technologies, the cost of purchasing offsets and CO 2 allowances. This model is applied to a base case and three American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 cases derived from the Energy Information Administration (EIA, 2009b). A sensitivity analysis is done on the discount rate and capital costs. The results of the study indicate that a SCPC plant without carbon capture and storage (CCS) is the least costly compliance option for both plants under all of the cases while retrofitting the existing plant with CCS is the most expensive. Gallagher's three least expensive options across most scenarios were SCPC without CCS, the operation of the existing plant as is and investment in wind plus NGCC. Rockport's three least expensive compliance options across most scenarios were SCPC without CCS, the operation of the existing plant as is and IGCC without CCS. For both plants, when a 12% discount rate is utilized, NPV of costs are generally lower and the operation of the existing plant technology with the aid of allowances and offsets to be in compliance is the cheapest option. If capital costs were to decrease by 30%, a SCPC

  1. Energy consumptions and information and communication technologies (ICT) in the tertiary sector in France; Consommations d'energie et technologies de l'information et des communications (TIC) dans le secteur tertiaire en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    In France, investment expenses in information and communication technologies (ICT) reached 162 billions of French francs in 1999 with an average annual growth of 13.3% during the 1989-1999 era. In parallel, the end-use energy consumption reached 212 Mtep in 1999 with an average annual growth of 1.55% during the same period. The introduction and spreading of computer equipments and softwares in offices is one possible explanation to this evolution. This study uses the data available for the tertiary sector to model and quantify the impact of ICTs development on the electricity consumption in this sector and draws out some consumption forecasts according to different hypotheses. (J.S.)

  2. The Campus Demotechnic Index: A comparison of technological energy consumption at U.S. colleges and universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Leisha Ann

    The Campus Demotechnic Index (CDI) is a normalized metric developed to provide universities with a method for tracking progress toward or retreat from sustainability in their energy consumption. The CDI is modified after the Demotechnic Index of Mata et al. (1994). CDI values assess the total campus energy consumed against the total energy required to meet the campus population's basal metabolism. Like the D-Index, the CDI is thus a measure of the scalar quantity of energy consumed in excess of the quantity of energy required for simple survival on a per capita basis. For this research, data were collected from an on-line survey designed for U.S. colleges and universities, which requested information related to campus demographics and campus built and mobile environmental energy consumption. Data were requested for the years of 2000 to 2005. Wilcoxon signed rank test analyses were conducted to determine if CDI values significantly increased over time. ANOVAs, GLMs, correlations and regressions were conducted to determine if climate and campus size significantly influenced CDI. ANOVAs, correlations and regressions were conducted to determine the effect of acreage on mobile fuel consumption and to ascertain whether differing proportions between the built and mobile environments significantly influenced CDI values. Correlations and regressions were carried out to which variables best predicted CDI, and cluster analyses were conducted to find out if any significant groups existed based on CDI values, fossil fuel consumption and population per square foot. The knowledge gained from results of these analyses not only provides a depiction of campus energy consumption, but also puts campus energy consumption into context in that CDI scores allow peer institutional comparisons. Awareness of factors that contribute to campus energy use (and CDI ranks) could also facilitate prioritization of sustainability-related issues, as well as the design and establishment of sustainable

  3. The effectiveness of an intervention to reduce alcohol‐related violence in premises licensed for the sale and on‐site consumption of alcohol: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M. Fasihul; Heikkinen, Marjukka; Hood, Kerenza; Huang, Chao; Moore, Laurence; Murphy, Simon; Playle, Rebecca; Shepherd, Jonathan; Shovelton, Claire; Sivarajasingam, Vaseekaran; Williams, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims Premises licensed for the sale and consumption of alcohol can contribute to levels of assault‐related injury through poor operational practices that, if addressed, could reduce violence. We tested the real‐world effectiveness of an intervention designed to change premises operation, whether any intervention effect changed over time, and the effect of intervention dose. Design A parallel randomized controlled trial with the unit of allocation and outcomes measured at the level of individual premises. Setting All premises (public houses, nightclubs or hotels with a public bar) in Wales, UK. Participants A randomly selected subsample (n = 600) of eligible premises (that had one or more violent incidents recorded in police‐recorded crime data; n = 837) were randomized into control and intervention groups. Intervention and comparator Intervention premises were audited by Environmental Health Practitioners who identified risks for violence and provided feedback by varying dose (informal, through written advice, follow‐up visits) on how risks could be addressed. Control premises received usual practice. Measurements Police data were used to derive a binary variable describing whether, on each day premises were open, one or more violent incidents were evident over a 455‐day period following randomization. Findings Due to premises being unavailable at the time of intervention delivery 208 received the intervention and 245 were subject to usual practice in an intention‐to‐treat analysis. The intervention was associated with an increase in police recorded violence compared to normal practice (hazard ratio = 1.34, 95% confidence interval = 1.20–1.51). Exploratory analyses suggested that reduced violence was associated with greater intervention dose (follow‐up visits). Conclusion An Environmental Health Practitioner‐led intervention in premises licensed for the sale and on‐site consumption of alcohol resulted in an

  4. Drinker prototype alteration and cue reminders as strategies in a tailored web-based intervention reducing adults' alcohol consumption: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lettow, Britt; de Vries, Hein; Burdorf, Alex; Boon, Brigitte; van Empelen, Pepijn

    2015-02-04

    Excessive alcohol use is a prevalent and worldwide problem. Excessive drinking causes a significant burden of disease and is associated with both morbidity and excess mortality. Prototype alteration and provision of a cue reminder could be useful strategies to enhance the effectiveness of online tailored interventions for excessive drinking. Through a Web-based randomized controlled trial, 2 strategies (ie, prototype alteration and cue reminders) within an existing online personalized feedback intervention (Drinktest) aimed to reduce adults' excessive drinking. It was expected that both strategies would add to Drinktest and would result in reductions in alcohol consumption by intrinsic motivation and the seizure of opportunities to act. Participants were recruited online and through printed materials. Excessive drinking adults (N=2634) were randomly assigned to 4 conditions: original Drinktest, Drinktest plus prototype alteration, Drinktest plus cue reminder, and Drinktest plus prototype alteration and cue reminder. Evaluation took place at 1-month posttest and 6-month follow-up. Differences in drinking behavior, intentions, and behavioral willingness (ie, primary outcomes) were assessed by means of longitudinal multilevel analyses using a last observation carried forward method. Measures were based on self-reports. All conditions showed reductions in drinking behavior and willingness to drink, and increased intentions to reduce drinking. Prototype alteration (B=-0.15, Pprototypes. Thus, prototype alteration and cue reminder usage may be feasible and simple intervention strategies to promote reductions in alcohol consumption among adults, with an effect up to 6 months. Nederlands Trial Register (NTR): 4169; http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=4169 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6VD2jnxmB).

  5. Drinker Prototype Alteration and Cue Reminders as Strategies in a Tailored Web-Based Intervention Reducing Adults’ Alcohol Consumption: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol use is a prevalent and worldwide problem. Excessive drinking causes a significant burden of disease and is associated with both morbidity and excess mortality. Prototype alteration and provision of a cue reminder could be useful strategies to enhance the effectiveness of online tailored interventions for excessive drinking. Objective Through a Web-based randomized controlled trial, 2 strategies (ie, prototype alteration and cue reminders) within an existing online personalized feedback intervention (Drinktest) aimed to reduce adults’ excessive drinking. It was expected that both strategies would add to Drinktest and would result in reductions in alcohol consumption by intrinsic motivation and the seizure of opportunities to act. Methods Participants were recruited online and through printed materials. Excessive drinking adults (N=2634) were randomly assigned to 4 conditions: original Drinktest, Drinktest plus prototype alteration, Drinktest plus cue reminder, and Drinktest plus prototype alteration and cue reminder. Evaluation took place at 1-month posttest and 6-month follow-up. Differences in drinking behavior, intentions, and behavioral willingness (ie, primary outcomes) were assessed by means of longitudinal multilevel analyses using a last observation carried forward method. Measures were based on self-reports. Results All conditions showed reductions in drinking behavior and willingness to drink, and increased intentions to reduce drinking. Prototype alteration (B=–0.15, Pprototypes. Thus, prototype alteration and cue reminder usage may be feasible and simple intervention strategies to promote reductions in alcohol consumption among adults, with an effect up to 6 months. Trial Registration Nederlands Trial Register (NTR): 4169; http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=4169 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6VD2jnxmB). PMID:25653199

  6. Effect of Long-Term Consumption of Lactobacillus paracasei SD1 on Reducing Mutans streptococci and Caries Risk: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawee Teanpaisan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A previous study revealed Lactobacillus paracasei SD1, a probiotic strain, could reduce mutans streptococci (MS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of L. paracasei SD1 on the colonization of MS, and whether caries lesions developed. Methods: After informed consent, 122 children were recruited and randomly assigned to the probiotic or control groups. The probiotic group received milk-powder containing L. paracasei SD1 and the control group received standard milk-powder once daily for six months. Salivary MS and lactobacilli were enumerated using differential culture at baseline and at three-month intervals for 12 months. The persistence of L. paracasei SD1 was investigated using AP-PCR for DNA-fingerprinting. Oral health was examined at baseline and at the end of the study according to WHO criteria. Results: The long-term consumption could prolong colonization of L. paracasei SD1. Significantly reduced MS counts and increased lactobacilli levels were found among children in the probiotic group. There were less caries lesions in the probiotic group at the end of the study. A significant reduction of the development of new caries lesions (4.5 times was observed in the high caries risk group but not in the low caries risk group. Conclusions: Results demonstrate that the long-term daily ingestion of the human-derived probiotic L. paracasei SD1 significantly reduces the number of MS and caries risk in the high caries group.

  7. Twelve-bit 20-GHz reduced size pipeline accumulator in 0.25 μm SiGe:C technology for direct digital synthesiser applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Brian Sveistrup; Khafaji, M. M.; Johansen, T. K.

    2012-01-01

    /Fmax of 180/220 GHz. The accumulator architecture omits the pre-skewing registers of the pipeline, thereby lowering both power consumption and circuit complexity. Some limitations to this design are discussed and the necessary equations for determining the phase jump encountered each time the control word...... (synthesised frequency) is changed are presented. For many applications employing signal processing after detection, this phase shift can then be corrected for. Compared to a full pipeline architecture (omitting the input circuitry for the most significant bit, as is customary for such designs......This article presents a 20 GHz, 12-bit pipeline accumulator with a reduced number of registers, suitable for direct digital synthesiser (DDS) applications. The accumulator is implemented in the IHP SG25H1 (0.25 μm) SiGe:C technology featuring heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) with Ft...

  8. Using Virtual Pets to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in Children: A Technology-Assisted Social Cognitive Theory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sun Joo Grace; Johnsen, Kyle; Moore, James; Brown, Scott; Biersmith, Melanie; Ball, Catherine

    2016-02-01

    A virtual pet in the form of a mid-sized dog was developed based on the framework of social cognitive theory and tested as a vehicle for promoting fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption in children. Three groups of children (N = 68) between the ages of 7 and 13 years were studied: baseline (no treatment), computer only, and virtual dog. Children in the virtual dog condition interacted with the virtual dog for 3 days, setting F&V consumption goals and receiving evaluation and reinforcement based on whether they met their self-set goals. Children vicariously experienced future health outcomes of F&V consumption by seeing, hearing, and feeling their virtual dog's physical and mental health improve or deteriorate based on their F&V consumption in the physical world. Children in the computer only condition interacted with a computer system that presented equivalent features, but without the virtual dog. Children in the baseline condition did not receive any experimental treatment. Results indicated that children in the virtual dog condition chose to be served significantly more F&V than those in the computer only or baseline conditions did. However, children in the virtual dog condition were unable to consume significantly more F&V than those in the computer only condition, although children in those two conditions consumed more F&V than the baseline condition. Food preferences did not differ significantly across the three conditions before and after the experimental treatments. Theoretical and practical potentials of using a virtual pet to promote F&V consumption systematically in children are discussed.

  9. Early Warning System for reducing disaster risk: the technological platform DEWETRA for the Republic of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massabo, Marco; Molini, Luca; Kostic, Bojan; Campanella, Paolo; Stevanovic, Slavimir

    2015-04-01

    Disaster risk reduction has long been recognized for its role in mitigating the negative environmental, social and economic impacts of natural hazards. Flood Early Warning System is a disaster risk reduction measure based on the capacities of institutions to observe and predict extreme hydro-meteorological events and to disseminate timely and meaningful warning information; it is furthermore based on the capacities of individuals, communities and organizations to prepare and to act appropriately and in sufficient time to reduce the possibility of harm or loss. An operational definition of an Early Warning System has been suggested by ISDR - UN Office for DRR [15 January 2009]: "EWS is the set of capacities needed to generate and disseminate timely and meaningful warning information to enable individuals, communities and organizations threatened by a hazard to prepare and to act appropriately and in sufficient time to reduce the possibility of harm or loss.". ISDR continues by commenting that a people-centered early warning system necessarily comprises four key elements: 1-knowledge of the risks; 2-monitoring, analysis and forecasting of the hazards; 3-communication or dissemination of alerts and warnings; and 4- local capabilities to respond to the warnings received." The technological platform DEWETRA supports the strengthening of the first three key elements of EWS suggested by ISDR definition, hence to improve the capacities to build real-time risk scenarios and to inform and warn the population in advance The technological platform DEWETRA has been implemented for the Republic of Serbia. DEWETRA is a real time-integrate system that supports decision makers for risk forecasting and monitoring and for distributing warnings to end-user and to the general public. The system is based on the rapid availability of different data that helps to establish up-to-date and reliable risk scenarios. The integration of all relevant data for risk management significantly

  10. Using smartphone technology to reduce health impacts from atmospheric environmental hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, F. H.; Wheeler, A. J.; Williamson, G. J.; Campbell, S. L.; Jones, P. J.; Koolhof, I. S.; Lucani, C.; Cooling, N. B.; Bowman, D. M. J. S.

    2018-04-01

    Background: Global environmental change is exacerbating human vulnerability to adverse atmospheric conditions including air pollution, aeroallergens such as pollen, and extreme weather events. Public information and advisories are a central component of responses to mitigate the human impacts of environmental hazards. Digital technologies are emerging as a means of providing personalised, timely and accessible warnings. Method: We describe AirRater, an integrated online platform that combines symptom surveillance, environmental monitoring, and notifications of changing environmental conditions via a free smartphone app. It was developed and launched in Tasmania, Australia (population 510 000), with the aim of reducing health impacts and improving quality of life in people with conditions such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. We present environmental data, user uptake and results from three online evaluation surveys conducted during the first 22 months of operation, from October 2015 through August 2017. Results: There were 3,443 downloads of the app from all regions of Tasmania. Of the 1,959 individuals who registered, 79% reported having either asthma or allergic rhinitis. Downloads increased during adverse environmental conditions and following publicity. Symptom reports per active user were highest during spring (72%), lowest in autumn (37%) and spiked during periods of reduced air quality. In response to online surveys, most users reported that the app was useful and had improved their understanding of how environmental conditions affect their health, and in some cases had prompted action such as the timely use of medication. Conclusion: Active engagement and consistent positive feedback from users demonstrates the potential for considerable individual, clinical and wider public health benefits from integrated and personalised monitoring systems such as AirRater. The perceived health benefits require objective verification, and such systems need to address

  11. Peak-Seeking Control For Reduced Fuel Consumption: Flight-Test Results For The Full-Scale Advanced Systems Testbed FA-18 Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    A peak-seeking control algorithm for real-time trim optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control algorithm is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an F/A-18 airplane are used for optimization of fuel flow. Results from six research flights are presented herein. The optimization algorithm found a trim configuration that required approximately 3 percent less fuel flow than the baseline trim at the same flight condition. This presentation also focuses on the design of the flight experiment and the practical challenges of conducting the experiment.

  12. EVALUATION OF SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE SOLVENT IN SPRAY COATING APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation, part of the Pollution Prevention Clean Technology Demonstration (CTD) Program, addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues of spray paint application using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2). Anion Carbide has developed this technology and...

  13. Ship Technology Workshop Materials from Collaboration with Mexico to Reduce Emissions from Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    On September 26, 2012, a ship technology seminar was held to provide Mexican stakeholders with information about some of the ship technologies needed to meet the requirements of MARPOL Annex VI and an ECA.

  14. Think abstractly, smoke less: a brief construal-level intervention can promote self-control, leading to reduced cigarette consumption among current smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Wen-Bin; Wu, Wen-Hsiung; Chang, Ming-Hsu

    2013-05-01

    Inadequate self-control has been linked to behavioural and impulse-control problems such as overeating, alcohol and drug abuse and smoking. Construal-level theory (CLT) suggests that a high-level construal (highlighting central goals associated with an event), relative to a low-level construal (highlighting means and resources), promotes self-control. Inspired by CLT, we examined whether smokers primed with a high-level (versus low-level) construal mind-set would show reductions in smoking that might be mediated by improved self-control. A single-factor (construal level: high, low, control) between-subjects design was employed. We used a widely employed why/how paradigm to induce high/low construal levels, whereby participants were asked to respond to questions about 'why' or 'how' they would maintain good physical health. Laboratory at Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan. A community sample consisting of 102 daily smokers participated in this experiment. The Stroop task measuring self-control was implemented after the construal-level manipulation. The dependent measure was actual cigarette consumption during an ostensible survey. Participants in a high-level construal mind-set smoked fewer cigarettes [mean = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9, 1.7] than those in a low-level construal mind-set (mean = 2.6, 95% CI: 2.2, 3.0; P self-control (B = -1.14, 95% CI: -1.65, -0.74, P self-control that leads to reduced cigarette consumption. Thus, reminding smokers to think abstractly about health may be an effective strategy that could help them to smoke fewer cigarettes. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. The consumption of bread enriched with betaglucan reduces LDL-cholesterol and improves insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liatis, S; Tsapogas, P; Chala, E; Dimosthenopoulos, C; Kyriakopoulos, K; Kapantais, E; Katsilambros, N

    2009-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the water-soluble dietary fibre betaglucan, a natural component of oats, reduces cholesterol and postprandial hyperglycaemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of betaglucan-enriched bread consumption on the lipid profile and glucose homoeostasis of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We conducted a randomized, double-blind study in which 46 patients with T2D and LDL-C greater than 3.37 mmol/l (130 mg/dl) were randomized to incorporate into their diet, for 3 weeks, either bread enriched with betaglucan (providing 3g/day of betaglucan) or white bread without betaglucan. The consumption of bread containing betaglucan led to significant reductions (vs the control group) in LDL-C of 0.66 mmol/l (15.79%) versus 0.11 mmol/l (2.71%) (P=0.009), in total cholesterol of 0.80 mmol/l (12.80%) versus 0.12 mmol/l (1.88%) (P=0.006), in Fasting plasma insulin (FPI) of 3.23 microU/ml versus an increase of 3.77 microU/ml (P=0.03) and in Homa-IR (Homoeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance) by 2.08 versus an increase of 1.33 (P=0.04). Betaglucan enriched bread may contribute to the improvement of the lipid profile and insulin resistance in patients with T2D.

  16. Utilization of sonar technology and microcontroller towards reducing aviation hazards during ground handling of aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanam, Mosammat Samia; Biswas, Debasish; Rashid, Mohsina; Salam, Md Abdus

    2017-12-01

    Safety is one of the most important factors in the field of aviation. Though, modern aircraft are equipped with many instruments/devices to enhance the flight safety but it is seen that accidents/incidents are never reduced to zero. Analysis of the statistical summary of Commercial Jet Airplane accidents highlights that fatal accidents that occurred worldwide from 2006 through 2015 is 11% during taxing, loading/unloading, parking and towing. Human, handling the aircrafts is one of the most important links in aircraft maintenance and hence play a significant role in aviation safety. Effort has been made in this paper to obviate human error in aviation and outline an affordable system that monitors the uneven surface &obstacles for safe "towing in" and "towing out" of an aircraft by the ground crew. The system revolves around implementation of sonar technology by microcontroller. Ultrasonic sensors can be installed on aircraft wings and tail section to identify the uneven surface &obstacles ahead and provide early warning to the maintenance ground crews.

  17. Households' hourly electricity consumption and peak demand in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Andersen, Frits; Baldini, Mattia; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    2017-01-01

    The electrification of residential energy demand for heating and transportation is expected to increase peak load and require additional generation and transmission capacities. Electrification also provides an opportunity to increase demand response. With a focus on household electricity......, for an individual household, the consumption of each of these technologies roughly doubles the household's consumption and considerably increases their potential for flexibility. Thus, in order to introduce incentives for demand flexibility, while considering reducing peak consumption, policy makers should...... consumption, we analyse the contribution of appliances and new services, such as individual heat pumps and electric vehicles, to peak consumption and the need for demand response incentives to reduce the peak.Initially, the paper presents a new model that represents the hourly electricity consumption profile...

  18. Agricultural pathogen decontamination technology-reducing the threat of infectious agent spread.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betty, Rita G.; Bieker, Jill Marie; Tucker, Mark David

    2005-10-01

    Outbreaks of infectious agricultural diseases, whether natural occurring or introduced intentionally, could have catastrophic impacts on the U.S. economy. Examples of such agricultural pathogens include foot and mouth disease (FMD), avian influenza (AI), citrus canker, wheat and soy rust, etc. Current approaches to mitigate the spread of agricultural pathogens include quarantine, development of vaccines for animal diseases, and development of pathogen resistant crop strains in the case of plant diseases. None of these approaches is rapid, and none address the potential persistence of the pathogen in the environment, which could lead to further spread of the agent and damage after quarantine is lifted. Pathogen spread in agricultural environments commonly occurs via transfer on agricultural equipment (transportation trailers, tractors, trucks, combines, etc.), having components made from a broad range of materials (galvanized and painted steel, rubber tires, glass and Plexiglas shields, etc), and under conditions of heavy organic load (mud, soil, feces, litter, etc). A key element of stemming the spread of an outbreak is to ensure complete inactivation of the pathogens in the agricultural environment and on the equipment used in those environments. Through the combination of enhanced agricultural pathogen decontamination chemistry and a validated inactivation verification methodology, important technologies for incorporation as components of a robust response capability will be enabled. Because of the potentially devastating economic impact that could result from the spread of infectious agricultural diseases, the proposed capability components will promote critical infrastructure protection and greater border and food supply security. We investigated and developed agricultural pathogen decontamination technologies to reduce the threat of infectious-agent spread, and thus enhance agricultural biosecurity. Specifically, enhanced detergency versions of the patented

  19. Low-power-Consumption metal oxide NO2 gas sensor based on micro-heater and screen printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, S E; Lee, H K; Choi, N J; Lee, J; Yang, W S; Kim, J; Jong, J J; Yoo, D J

    2012-07-01

    An NO2 micro gas sensor was fabricated based on a micro-heater using tin oxide nano-powders for effective gas detection and monitoring system with low power consumption and high sensitivity. The processes of the fabrication were acceptable to the conventional CMOS processes for mass-production. Semiconducting SnO2 nano-powders were synthesized via the co-precipitation method; and to increase the sensitivity of the NO2 gas rare metal dopants were added. In the structure of the micro-heater, the resistances of two semi-circular Pt heaters were connected to the spreader for thermal uniformity. The resistance of each heater becomes an electrically equal Wheatstone-bridge, which was divided in half by the heat spreading structure. Based on the aforementioned design, a low-power-consumption micro-heater was fabricated using the CMOS-compatible MEMS processes. A bridge-type micro-heater based on the Si substrate was fabricated via surface micro-machining. The NO2 sensing properties of a screen-printed tin oxide thick film device were measured The micro gas sensors showed substantial sensitivity down to 0.5 ppm NO2 at a low power consumption (34.2 mW).

  20. The theory and practice of energy saving in the chemical industry: some methods for reducing thermodynamic irreversibility in chemical technology processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leites, I.L.; Sama, D.A.; Lior, N.

    2003-01-01

    The causes of thermodynamic irreversibility in chemical reactions and other industrial chemical processes (in particular absorption, stripping, and heat transfer) and ways of reducing energy consumption have been examined. Some thermodynamic principles based on the Second Law of thermodynamics such as the so called 'counteraction principle', 'driving force method', 'quasi-static method', and the result some of practical methods for energy saving design are discussed. It is demonstrated that the possibilities for reducing energy consumption are substantially higher than often seems possible. The correctness and practical effectiveness of the above methods have been confirmed by many commercial examples, for instance the lead author was able to reduce heat consumption in more than 20 commercial CO 2 removal installations by changes in networks only, without changing the absorbent. The heat consumption was reduced to about 1/2 to 1/3 of that used with conventional flow sheets

  1. Energy consumption in France's industry. Conjuncture note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-04-01

    Energy consumption in the industry represents today 1/5 of France's end-use energy consumption. Gas and electricity are the most consumed and represent 2/3 of the overall. The 5 most energy consuming industries are the following: paper and cardboard industry, food industry, rubber, plastic and other non-metallic mineral products industry, metallurgy and chemical industry. The reduction of the industry's energy consumption is explained by the decline of production, but above all by the energy efficiency improvement of the sector. Technological innovations in production means have indeed led to reduce energy consumption

  2. Can Energy Structure Optimization, Industrial Structure Changes, Technological Improvements, and Central and Local Governance Effectively Reduce Atmospheric Pollution in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei Area in China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxuan Cheng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region has been achieved by consuming large amounts of fossil fuels. This produces a large number of pollutants, which damage the physical and mental health of residents, and prevent sustainable economic development. The most urgent task at present is improving the quality of the environment. This paper takes carbon emission as a pollution index, and adopts an extended stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence, and technology (STIRPAT model in order to study the impact of the optimization of industry structure (in particular the reduction of the proportion of energy-intensive secondary industry, the optimization of the energy structure, and technological improvements on the atmospheric environmental quality. We obtain some important and enlightening discoveries. First of all, the rapid economic growth that has been based on magnanimous fossil fuel consumption is still the main reason for the deterioration of the atmospheric environment. This means that the main driving force of economic growth still comes from high pollution industries, despite a strategy for the transformation of the pattern of economic growth having been proposed for many years. Second, the optimization of the industrial structure has not played a significant role in promoting the reduction of carbon emissions. Through further research, we believe that this may be due to the low-quality development of the third industry. In other words, the traditional service industry related to high energy consumption accounts for a large proportion in regional total output, while the high-end service industry related to small pollution accounts for a relatively small proportion. Third, reducing the consumption of coal and improving the technological level can effectively curb the deterioration of the environmental quality. In addition, we find that transboundary pollution is an important factor affecting the environment in

  3. Time consumption and productivity of skidding Silver fir (Abies alba Mill. round wood in reduced accessibility conditions: a case study in windthrow salvage logging form Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Alexandru Borz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural calamities (especially windthrows may generate difficult work conditions in timber harvesting operations. When associated with the reduced accessibility conditions, the work conditions become even harder. This study investigates the time consumptions on specific work elements in timber skidding, develops time prediction models for timber skidding work elements and assesses the production rates for timber skidding in reduced accessibility stands where windthrow salvage cuttings were applied. Following a time study done for two skidders (TAF 690 OP and TAF 657 operating simultaneously in the same felling area, it has been found that, in average, in a delay free skidding cycle time, lateral winching accounted for a share of 26-33%, on-trail skidding accounted for a share of 64-71% and landing operations accounted for a share of 3%.Total delays accounted for 51% and 43% of the total work time in the case of TAF 690 OP skidder and TAF 657skidder respectively. Regression models for lateral winching (both skidders revealed that the winching distance and the number of logs were the relevant predictors for the time consumption estimation (p<0.01, whereas in the case of on-trail skidding only the skidding distance was relevant (p<0.01. For the overall skidding operation (excluding landing operations winching and skidding distances were found as relevant predictors (p<0.01 in case of TAF 690 OP, whereas the number of logs became an additional relevant predictor in case of TAF 657.In conditions of an average winching distance of 19.90 m and an average on-trail skidding distance of 980.32 m, the time study yielded a net production rate of 7.70 m3h-1 and a gross production rate of 3.75 m3h-1 in the case of TAF 690 OP skidder. By comparison, in the case of TAF 657 skidder, for an average winching distance of 22.86 m and an average on-trail skidding distance of 871.00 m, the net and gross production rates were of 5.61 m3h-1 and 3.20 m3h-1 respectively.

  4. MEGASTAR: The meaning of growth. An assessment of systems, technologies, and requirements. [methodology for display and analysis of energy production and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    A methodology for the display and analysis of postulated energy futures for the United States is presented. A systems approach methodology including the methodology of technology assessment is used to examine three energy scenarios--the Westinghouse Nuclear Electric Economy, the Ford Technical Fix Base Case and a MEGASTAR generated Alternate to the Ford Technical Fix Base Case. The three scenarios represent different paths of energy consumption from the present to the year 2000. Associated with these paths are various mixes of fuels, conversion, distribution, conservation and end-use technologies. MEGASTAR presents the estimated times and unit requirements to supply the fuels, conversion and distribution systems for the postulated end uses for the three scenarios and then estimates the aggregate manpower, materials, and capital requirements needed to develop the energy system described by the particular scenario.

  5. Modelling of energy / technology actions and measures for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the industrial sector (the industry challenge)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyboer, J.; Bailie, A.J.; Sadownik, B.

    2001-01-01

    The potential in Canadian industry for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is assessed in this report. The analysis is aimed at providing a comprehensive and integrated evaluation of a wide spectrum of technology and energy actions available to the industrial sector in Canada, providing estimates of greenhouse gas emissions reductions, costs and cost effectiveness for different actions by 2010, and simulating industry response to defined measures approved by representatives of the industry sector sub-table. The impacts of a set of measures was determined using in-house models. Four measures were tested against several actions including primary fossil and electricity consumption, using regionally specific energy prices, a discount rate approximating 40 per cent and growth rates derived from the Analysis and Modelling Group. Enhancement of voluntary initiatives, enhanced cogeneration, financial incentives for capital investment to improve efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction, and a set of cost-of-carbon-dioxide simulations were the measures tested. Total energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions by sector and in aggregate are provided as well as the costs. An indication of the total cost of reduction per tonne, some sense of the cost of the permit and the quantity of a subsidy required to induce decision-makers to purchase the more efficient technology are also provided. 9 refs., tabs

  6. Exercise and Beta-Glucan Consumption (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Improve the Metabolic Profile and Reduce the Atherogenic Index in Type 2 Diabetic Rats (HFD/STZ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Eric Francelino; Lima, Andressa Ribeiro Veiga; Nunes, Ingrid Edwiges; Orlando, Débora Ribeiro; Gondim, Paula Novato; Zangeronimo, Márcio Gilberto; Alves, Fernando Henrique Ferrari; Pereira, Luciano José

    2016-12-17

    Physical activity and the ingestion of dietary fiber are non-drug alternatives commonly used as adjuvants to glycemic control in diabetic individuals. Among these fibers, we can highlight beta-glucans. However, few studies have compared isolated and synergic effects of physical exercise and beta-glucan ingestion, especially in type 2 diabetic rats. Therefore, we evaluated the effects beta-glucan ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) consumption, associated or not to exercise, on metabolic parameters of diabetic Wistar rats. The diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by high-fat diet (HFD) associated with a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ-35 mg/kg). Trained groups were submitted to eight weeks of exercise in aquatic environment. In the last 28 days of experiment, animals received 30 mg/kg/day of beta-glucan by gavage. Isolated use of beta-glucan decreased glucose levels in fasting, Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglycerides (TAG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), the atherogenic index of plasma. Exercise alone also decreased blood glucose levels, HbA1c, and renal lesions. An additive effect for reducing the atherogenic index of plasma and renal lesions was observed when both treatments were combined. It was concluded that both beta-glucan and exercise improved metabolic parameters in type 2 (HFD/STZ) diabetic rats.

  7. Exercise and Beta-Glucan Consumption (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Improve the Metabolic Profile and Reduce the Atherogenic Index in Type 2 Diabetic Rats (HFD/STZ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Eric Francelino; Lima, Andressa Ribeiro Veiga; Nunes, Ingrid Edwiges; Orlando, Débora Ribeiro; Gondim, Paula Novato; Zangeronimo, Márcio Gilberto; Alves, Fernando Henrique Ferrari; Pereira, Luciano José

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity and the ingestion of dietary fiber are non-drug alternatives commonly used as adjuvants to glycemic control in diabetic individuals. Among these fibers, we can highlight beta-glucans. However, few studies have compared isolated and synergic effects of physical exercise and beta-glucan ingestion, especially in type 2 diabetic rats. Therefore, we evaluated the effects beta-glucan (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) consumption, associated or not to exercise, on metabolic parameters of diabetic Wistar rats. The diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by high-fat diet (HFD) associated with a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ—35 mg/kg). Trained groups were submitted to eight weeks of exercise in aquatic environment. In the last 28 days of experiment, animals received 30 mg/kg/day of beta-glucan by gavage. Isolated use of beta-glucan decreased glucose levels in fasting, Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglycerides (TAG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), the atherogenic index of plasma. Exercise alone also decreased blood glucose levels, HbA1c, and renal lesions. An additive effect for reducing the atherogenic index of plasma and renal lesions was observed when both treatments were combined. It was concluded that both beta-glucan and exercise improved metabolic parameters in type 2 (HFD/STZ) diabetic rats. PMID:27999319

  8. Exercise and Beta-Glucan Consumption (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Improve the Metabolic Profile and Reduce the Atherogenic Index in Type 2 Diabetic Rats (HFD/STZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Francelino Andrade

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity and the ingestion of dietary fiber are non-drug alternatives commonly used as adjuvants to glycemic control in diabetic individuals. Among these fibers, we can highlight beta-glucans. However, few studies have compared isolated and synergic effects of physical exercise and beta-glucan ingestion, especially in type 2 diabetic rats. Therefore, we evaluated the effects beta-glucan (Saccharomyces cerevisiae consumption, associated or not to exercise, on metabolic parameters of diabetic Wistar rats. The diabetes mellitus (DM was induced by high-fat diet (HFD associated with a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ—35 mg/kg. Trained groups were submitted to eight weeks of exercise in aquatic environment. In the last 28 days of experiment, animals received 30 mg/kg/day of beta-glucan by gavage. Isolated use of beta-glucan decreased glucose levels in fasting, Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, triglycerides (TAG, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C, the atherogenic index of plasma. Exercise alone also decreased blood glucose levels, HbA1c, and renal lesions. An additive effect for reducing the atherogenic index of plasma and renal lesions was observed when both treatments were combined. It was concluded that both beta-glucan and exercise improved metabolic parameters in type 2 (HFD/STZ diabetic rats.

  9. Sustaining elevated levels of nitrite in the oral cavity through consumption of nitrate-rich beetroot juice in young healthy adults reduces salivary pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohensinn, Barbara; Haselgrübler, Renate; Müller, Ulrike; Stadlbauer, Verena; Lanzerstorfer, Peter; Lirk, Gerald; Höglinger, Otmar; Weghuber, Julian

    2016-11-30

    Dietary inorganic nitrate (NO 3 - ) and its reduced forms nitrite (NO 2 - ) and nitric oxide (NO), respectively, are of critical importance for host defense in the oral cavity. High concentrations of salivary nitrate are linked to a lower prevalence of caries due to growth inhibition of cariogenic bacteria. In-vitro studies suggest that the formation of antimicrobial NO results in an increase of the pH preventing erosion of tooth enamel. The purpose of this study was to prove this effect in-vivo. In a randomized clinical study with 46 subjects we investigated whether NO 3 - rich beetroot juice exhibits a protective effect against caries by an increase of salivary pH. Our results show that, in comparison to a placebo group, consumption of beetroot juice that contains 4000 mg/L NO 3 - results in elevated levels of salivary NO 2 - , nitrite NO 3 - , and NO. Furthermore, we determined an increase of the mean pH of saliva from 7.0 to 7.5, confirming the anti-cariogenic effect of the used NO 3 - -rich beetroot juice. Taken together, we have found that NO 3 - -rich beetroot juice holds potential effects against dental caries by preventing acidification of human saliva. C-87-15 (Ethics Commissions of Upper Austria). Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of technology options for reducing nitrogen pollution in cropping systems of Pujiang

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, B.; Wang, G.; Berg, van den M.M.; Roetter, R.P.

    2005-01-01

    This work analyses the potential role of nitrogen pollution technology of crop systems of Pujiang, County in Eastern China¿s Zhejiang Province, rice and vegetables are important cropping systems. We used a case study approach involving comparison of farmer practices and improved technologies. This

  11. Intervenciones para reducir el consumo de sal a través del etiquetado Interventions to reduce salt consumption through labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sanz-Valero

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar el grado en que el etiquetado de productos alimentarios informa acerca del consumo de sal. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un análisis crítico y sistemático de 9 estudios -seleccionados de un total de 133- recogidos mediante revisión de la literatura científica sobre las intervenciones realizadas en población humana orientadas a reducir el consumo de sal a través de mensajes en el etiquetado. Toda la información se obtuvo mediante consulta directa y vía Internet a la literatura científica recogida en varias bases de datos. RESULTADOS: De los 133 artículos recuperados, una vez aplicados los criterios de inclusión y exclusión, se seleccionaron para la revisión 9 trabajos: en todos ellos se planteaba a la población en estudio su conocimiento acerca de la interpretación de la etiqueta sobre el contenido de sal de los alimentos. CONCLUSIONES: Los consumidores de alimentos entienden y valoran más a los logotipos que a la composición nutricional que figura en la etiqueta. Se justificaría entonces el uso de logotipos alternativos que facilitaran esta información y que además fueran normalizados. Esta situación se ve reforzada porque la inclusión de símbolos fácilmente entendibles favorece la correcta elección por parte de los consumidores.OBJECTIVE: Determine the extent to which labeling of food products informs about salt consumption. METHODS: A critical and systematic analysis was conducted of 9 studies selected out of a total of 133 studies. The studies were collected by reviewing the scientific literature on interventions conducted in the human population aimed towards reducing salt consumption through label messaging. All of the information was obtained by direct consultation and by Internet from the scientific literature collected in several databases. RESULTS: Out of the 133 articles recovered, after the inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, 9 studies were selected for review. All of them took into

  12. Innovative Water Management Technology to Reduce Environmental Impacts of Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castle, James; Rodgers, John; Alley, Bethany; Beebe, Alex; Coffey, Ruthanne; Jurinko, Kristen; Pardue, Michael; Ritter, Tina; Spacil, Michael

    2013-05-15

    Clemson University with Chevron as an industry partner developed and applied treatment technology using constructed wetland systems to decrease targeted constituents in simulated and actual produced waters to achieve reuse criteria and discharge limits. Pilot-scale and demonstration constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) experiments led to design strategies for treating a variety of constituents of concern (COCs) in produced waters including divalent metals, metalloids, oil and grease, and ammonia. Targeted biogeochemical pathways for treatment of COCs in pilot-scale CWTS experiments included divalent metal sulfide precipitation through dissimilatory sulfate reduction, metal precipitation through oxidation, reduction of selenite to insoluble elemental selenium, aerobic biodegradation of oil, nitrification of ammonia to nitrate, denitrification of nitrate to nitrogen gas, separation of oil using an oilwater separator, and sorption of ammonia to zeolite. Treatment performance results indicated that CWTSs can be designed and built to promote specific environmental and geochemical conditions in order for targeted biogeochemical pathways to operate. The demonstration system successfully achieved consistent removal extents even while inflow concentrations of COCs in the produced water differed by orders of magnitude. Design strategies used in the pilot-scale and demonstration CWTSs to promote specific conditions that can be applied to designing full-scale CWTSs include plant and soil selection, water-depth selection, addition of amendments, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). These strategies allow conditions within a CWTS to be modified to achieve ranges necessary for the preferred biogeochemical treatment pathways. In the case of renovating a produced water containing COCs that require different biogeochemical pathways for treatment, a CWTS can be designed with sequential cells that promote different conditions. For example, the pilot-scale CWTS for post

  13. Innovative Water Management Technology to Reduce Environment Impacts of Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castle, James; Rodgers, John; Alley, Bethany; Coffey, Ruthanne; Jurinko, Kristen; Pardue, Michael; Ritter, Tina; Spacil, Michael

    2013-05-15

    Clemson University with Chevron as an industry partner developed and applied treatment technology using constructed wetland systems to decrease targeted constituents in simulated and actual produced waters to achieve reuse criteria and discharge limits. Pilot-scale and demonstration constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) experiments led to design strategies for treating a variety of constituents of concern (COCs) in produced waters including divalent metals, metalloids, oil and grease, and ammonia. Targeted biogeochemical pathways for treatment of COCs in pilot-scale CWTS experiments included divalent metal sulfide precipitation through dissimilatory sulfate reduction, metal precipitation through oxidation, reduction of selenite to insoluble elemental selenium, aerobic biodegradation of oil, nitrification of ammonia to nitrate, denitrification of nitrate to nitrogen gas, separation of oil using an oilwater separator, and sorption of ammonia to zeolite. Treatment performance results indicated that CWTSs can be designed and built to promote specific environmental and geochemical conditions in order for targeted biogeochemical pathways to operate. The demonstration system successfully achieved consistent removal extents even while inflow concentrations of COCs in the produced water differed by orders of magnitude. Design strategies used in the pilot-scale and demonstration CWTSs to promote specific conditions that can be applied to designing full-scale CWTSs include plant and soil selection, water-depth selection, addition of amendments, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). These strategies allow conditions within a CWTS to be modified to achieve ranges necessary for the preferred biogeochemical treatment pathways. In the case of renovating a produced water containing COCs that require different biogeochemical pathways for treatment, a CWTS can be designed with sequential cells that promote different conditions. For example, the pilot-scale CWTS for post

  14. Innovative Water Management Technology to Reduce Environment Impacts of Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castle, James W. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Rodgers, John H. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Alley, Bethany [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Beebe, Alex [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Coffey, Ruthanne [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Jurinko, Kristen [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Pardue, Michael [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Ritter, Tina [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Spacil, Michael M. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2013-08-08

    Clemson University with Chevron as an industry partner developed and applied treatment technology using constructed wetland systems to decrease targeted constituents in simulated and actual produced waters to achieve reuse criteria and discharge limits. Pilot-scale and demonstration constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) experiments led to design strategies for treating a variety of constituents of concern (COCs) in produced waters including divalent metals, metalloids, oil and grease, and ammonia. Targeted biogeochemical pathways for treatment of COCs in pilot-scale CWTS experiments included divalent metal sulfide precipitation through dissimilatory sulfate reduction, metal precipitation through oxidation, reduction of selenite to insoluble elemental selenium, aerobic biodegradation of oil, nitrification of ammonia to nitrate, denitrification of nitrate to nitrogen gas, separation of oil using an oilwater separator, and sorption of ammonia to zeolite. Treatment performance results indicated that CWTSs can be designed and built to promote specific environmental and geochemical conditions in order for targeted biogeochemical pathways to operate. The demonstration system successfully achieved consistent removal extents even while inflow concentrations of COCs in the produced water differed by orders of magnitude. Design strategies used in the pilot-scale and demonstration CWTSs to promote specific conditions that can be applied to designing full-scale CWTSs include plant and soil selection, water-depth selection, addition of amendments, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). These strategies allow conditions within a CWTS to be modified to achieve ranges necessary for the preferred biogeochemical treatment pathways. In the case of renovating a produced water containing COCs that require different biogeochemical pathways for treatment, a CWTS can be designed with sequential cells that promote different conditions. For example, the pilot-scale CWTS for post

  15. OPTIMIZING TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE MERCURY AND ACID GAS EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-10-01

    Maps showing potential mercury, sulfur, chlorine, and moisture emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin were made from publicly available data (plates 1, 2, 3, and 4). Published equations that predict mercury capture by emission control technologies used at U.S. coal-fired utilities were applied to average coal quality values for 169 U.S. counties. The results were used to create five maps that show the influence of coal origin on mercury emissions from utility units wi