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Sample records for technology recovery scrubber

  1. Heat recovery using a venturi scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    When an air pollution problem involves scrubbing at relatively elevated temperatures, the possibility exists for practical use of the heat contained with the gas. A venturi type scrubber has been shown to successfully handle such hot exhaust gases for removal of both gases and particulates, as well as heat recovery. The use of a relatively simple overall system, using the recirculated liquid loop for space heating, can be made practical and efficient. Whenever possible, this will allow the scrubbing equipment, normally considered a nuisance, to actually produce a pay-back for the customer. Careful consideration must be given to all aspects of the system's installation, operation, and maintenance. The feasibility of such a system depends on conditions at the particular location and the relative need for a low temperature heat source

  2. Wet scrubber technology for tritium confinement at ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perevezentsev, A.N., E-mail: alexander.perevezentsev@iter.org [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Andreev, B.M.; Rozenkevich, M.B.; Pak, Yu.S.; Ovcharov, A.V.; Marunich, S.A. [Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology, 125047 Miusskaya Sq. 9, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-12-15

    Operation of the ITER machine with tritium plasma requires tritium confinement systems to protect workers and the environment. Tritium confinement at ITER is based on multistage approach. The final stage provides tritium confinement in building sectors and consists of building's walls as physical barriers and control of sub-atmospheric pressure in those volumes as a dynamic barrier. The dynamic part of the confinement function shall be provided by safety important components that are available all the time when required. Detritiation of air prior to its release to the environment is based on catalytic conversion of tritium containing gaseous species to water vapour followed by their isotopic exchange with liquid water in scrubber column of packed bed type. Wet scrubber technology has been selected because of its advantages over conventional air detritiation technique based on gas drying by water adsorption. The most important design target of system availability was very difficult to meet with conventional water adsorption driers. This paper presents results of experimental trial for validation of wet scrubber technology application in the ITER tritium confinement system and process evaluation using developed simulation computer code.

  3. Venturi/Vortex Scrubber Technology for Controlling/Recycling Chromium Electroplating Emissions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hay, K

    1999-01-01

    ...) above the plating tank. Venturi/Vortex Scrubber Technology (VVST) was designed to control chromium electroplating emissions by collecting the gas bubbles before they burst at the solution's surface...

  4. Westinghouse containment filtered venting system wet scrubber technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristensson, S.; Nilsson, P-O.

    2014-01-01

    Following the Fukushima event Westinghouse has further developed and enhanced its filtered containment venting system (FCVS) product line. The filtration efficiency of the proven FILTRA-MVSS system installed at all Swedish NPPs as well as at the Muhelberg plant in Switzerland has been enhanced and a new wet scrubber design, SVEN (Safety Venting), based on the FILTRA-MVSS tradition, developed. To meet increased filtration requirements for organic iodine these two wet scrubber products have been complemented with a zeolite module. The offering of a select choice of products allows for a better adjustment to the specific constraints and needs of each nuclear power station that is planning for the installation of such a system. The FILTRA-MVSS (MVSS=Multi Venturi Scrubber System) is a wet containment filtered vent system that uses multiple venturies to create an interaction between the vent gases and the scrubber media allowing for removal of aerosols and gaseous iodines in a very efficient manner. The FILTRA-MVSS was originally developed to meet stringent requirements on autonomy and maintained filtration efficiency over a wide range of venting conditions. The system was jointly developed in the late 80's by ABB Atom and ABB Flaekt, today Westinghouse and Alstom. Following installations in Sweden and Switzerland the system was further developed by replacement of the gravel-bed moisture separator with a standard demister and by addition of a set of sintered metal fibre filter cartridges placed after the moisture separator step. The system is today offered as a modular steel tank design to simplify installation at site. To reduce complexity and delivery time Westinghouse has developed an alternative design in which the venturi module is replaced by a submerged metal fibre filter cartridges module. This new wet scrubber design, SVEN (patent pending), provides a flexible, compact, and lower weight system, while still preserving and even enhancing the filtration

  5. Aerosol scrubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheely, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    The Submerged Gravel Scrubber is an air cleaning system developed by the Department of Energy's Liquid Metal Reactor Program. The Scrubber System has been patented by the Department of Energy. This technology is being transferred to industry by the DOE. Its basic principles can be adapted for individual applications and the commercialized version can be used to perform a variety of tasks. The gas to be cleaned is percolated through a continuously washed gravel bed. The passage of the gas through the gravel breaks the stream into many small bubbles rising in a turbulent body of water. These conditions allow very highly efficient removal of aerosols from the gas

  6. Oil spill recovery technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, J.; Cooper, W.; Nee, V.; Nigim, H.

    1992-01-01

    Current deficiencies in oil spill cleanup processes have resulted in research and development of new cleanup technologies at the University of Notre Dame. Emphasis on reducing, reusing and recycling equipment and waste at a cleanup site has prompted advances in oil recovery technology as well as improvement in sorbent materials. (author)

  7. Removal of nitrogen by Algal Turf Scrubber Technology in recirculating aquaculture system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeta, J.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing research in recirculation aquaculture focuses on evaluating and improving the purification potential of different types of filters. Algal Turf Scrubber (ATS) are special as they combine sedimentation and biofiltration. An ATS was subjected to high nutrient loads of catfish effluent to

  8. Resource Recovery Technology Application Document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    B-6 Electrostatic Precipitator (APC-C) ......................B-1O Venturi Scrubber (APC D) B-15 C Combustion Equipment (CE) C-1 Modular... Scrubber APC-D P. 1 of 4 CONTROLIII COMPONENT DESCRIPTION Types Available - Competing Components Type a. Venturi e. Moving bed Venturi b. Flooded disc f...Clean Gas to Demister (Used Separate Liquid from Gas Stream) / F C Scrubber Wall Liquid Inlet D Scrubber Liquid at Venturi Throat Inlet B E Venturi

  9. Development and evaluation of a full-scale spray scrubber for ammonia recovery and production of nitrogen fertilizer at poultry facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlocon, Lara Jane S; Manuzon, Roderick B; Zhao, Lingying

    2015-01-01

    Significant ammonia emissions from animal facilities need to be controlled due to its negative impacts on human health and the environment. The use of acid spray scrubber is promising, as it simultaneously mitigates and recovers ammonia emission for fertilizer. Its low pressure drop contribution on axial fans makes it applicable on US farms. This study develops a full-scale acid spray scrubber to recover ammonia emissions from commercial poultry facilities and produce nitrogen fertilizer. The scrubber performance and economic feasibility were evaluated at a commercial poultry manure composting facility that released ammonia from exhaust fans with concentrations of 66-278 ppmv and total emission rate of 96,143 kg yr(-1). The scrubber consisted of 15 spray scrubber modules, each equipped with three full-cone nozzles that used dilute sulphuric acid as the medium. Each nozzle was operated at 0.59 MPa with a droplet size of 113 μm and liquid flow rate of 1.8 L min(-1). The scrubber was installed with a 1.3-m exhaust fan and field tested in four seasons. Results showed that the scrubber achieved high NH3 removal efficiencies (71-81%) and low pressure drop (scrubber effluents containing 22-36% (m/v) ammonium sulphate are comparable to the commercial-grade nitrogen fertilizer. Preliminary economic analysis indicated that the break-even time is one year. This study demonstrates that acid spray scrubbers can economically and effectively recover NH3 from animal facilities for fertilizer.

  10. Scrubbers: A popular Phase I compliance strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, C.E.; Bissell, P.E.; Koch, B.J.; Rutledge, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    As utilities commit to compliance plans to meet the Phase I requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, there are indications that scrubbing may account for up to 50 percent of the total SO 2 reductions in Phase I. This paper presents and analyzes the critical reasons that explain how and why scrubber-based compliance strategies have developed into the least-cost option in Phase I for many utilities. A hypothetical utility system was simulated to study the impacts of various technological, legislative, and regulatory issues on compliance decisions and costs. Issues evaluated using the hypothetical system include the emissions cap, Clean Air Act and state incentives to scrub, improvements in scrubber technology and costs, and the integration of Phase I and II compliance strategies by the phased installation of scrubbers. In combination, these considerations increase the attractiveness of scrubbers during the 1995-1999 Phase I period. Other considerations that will ultimately influence the amount of Phase I scrubbing capacity include the additional power generation costs associated with fuel switching, the uncertainty of low-sulfur coal price projections, fuel supply flexibility, scrubber market aspects, and socioeconomic considerations

  11. Technology for recovery of byproducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyl, H.H.

    1983-02-01

    In this paper, a byproduct is considered to be any product from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant other than the principal products of uranium and plutonium. Those which have been recovered on a large scale include: 237 Np, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 85 Kr, 147 Pm, 241 Am, 244 Cm, and 144 Ce. Other byproducts which have been recovered in small amounts during development efforts are: Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, and Xe. This paper reviews the byproducts of interest, compares and contrasts byproduct recovery with waste management, describes current and past byproduct recovery operations, development status of alternative processes, and bases for selection among alternative processes in developing an integrated byproduct recovery plant

  12. Nuclear technology and mineral recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Richard M.; Niermeyer, Karl E.

    1970-01-01

    The particular aspect of nuclear technology most applicable to the mineral field, as has been pointed out by various authors, is nuclear blasting. The prime target for this nuclear blasting has usually been a large disseminated deposit of copper mineralization which, because of large dimensions, employs the nuclear devices most effectively. From the work of the AEC we know that the larger nuclear devices fragment rock for a lower energy cost per unit of ground broken than do smaller nuclear devices or chemical explosives. A mineralized deposit near the surface is usually not amenable to nuclear fragmentation, nor are the more deeply buried thin deposits. Also, one would not anticipate fragmenting a zone of excessively erratic mineralization with nuclear devices. Many of our mineralized areas would be eliminated using the above criteria, so at this point you are well aware that my self-imposed limitation is to nuclear blasting and large disseminated copper deposits. As with most other industries, copper mining faces rising costs and greater demands for its products. One of the rising cost features peculiar to extractive industries is the reliance placed on production from lower grade deposits as the higher grade deposits are depleted. As the grade or metal content of an orebody decreases more material must be handled to produce a given amount of metal. The increased volume of ore which must be handled as the grade declines requires expansion of facilities and higher capital expenditures. Expansion of facilities for mining, milling, and concentrating of the ore increases the per unit capital cost of the end product--copper. Increased copper consumption will aggravate this situation with demand for more metal, much of which will have to be obtained from lower grade deposits. As the higher grade deposits are depleted, future production will come from those deposits which cannot be exploited economically today. Most familiar of the proposed new methods for copper mining

  13. Nuclear technology and mineral recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Richard M; Niermeyer, Karl E [Anaconda Company, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1970-05-15

    The particular aspect of nuclear technology most applicable to the mineral field, as has been pointed out by various authors, is nuclear blasting. The prime target for this nuclear blasting has usually been a large disseminated deposit of copper mineralization which, because of large dimensions, employs the nuclear devices most effectively. From the work of the AEC we know that the larger nuclear devices fragment rock for a lower energy cost per unit of ground broken than do smaller nuclear devices or chemical explosives. A mineralized deposit near the surface is usually not amenable to nuclear fragmentation, nor are the more deeply buried thin deposits. Also, one would not anticipate fragmenting a zone of excessively erratic mineralization with nuclear devices. Many of our mineralized areas would be eliminated using the above criteria, so at this point you are well aware that my self-imposed limitation is to nuclear blasting and large disseminated copper deposits. As with most other industries, copper mining faces rising costs and greater demands for its products. One of the rising cost features peculiar to extractive industries is the reliance placed on production from lower grade deposits as the higher grade deposits are depleted. As the grade or metal content of an orebody decreases more material must be handled to produce a given amount of metal. The increased volume of ore which must be handled as the grade declines requires expansion of facilities and higher capital expenditures. Expansion of facilities for mining, milling, and concentrating of the ore increases the per unit capital cost of the end product--copper. Increased copper consumption will aggravate this situation with demand for more metal, much of which will have to be obtained from lower grade deposits. As the higher grade deposits are depleted, future production will come from those deposits which cannot be exploited economically today. Most familiar of the proposed new methods for copper mining

  14. Evaluation of a Zirconium Recycle Scrubber System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Barry B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    A hot-cell demonstration of the zirconium recycle process is planned as part of the Materials Recovery and Waste Forms Development (MRWFD) campaign. The process treats Zircaloy® cladding recovered from used nuclear fuel with chlorine gas to recover the zirconium as volatile ZrCl4. This releases radioactive tritium trapped in the alloy, converting it to volatile tritium chloride (TCl). To meet regulatory requirements governing radioactive emissions from nuclear fuel treatment operations, the capture and retention of a portion of this TCl may be required prior to discharge of the off-gas stream to the environment. In addition to demonstrating tritium removal from a synthetic zirconium recycle off-gas stream, the recovery and quantification of tritium may refine estimates of the amount of tritium present in the Zircaloy cladding of used nuclear fuel. To support these objectives, a bubbler-type scrubber was fabricated to remove the TCl from the zirconium recycle off-gas stream. The scrubber was fabricated from glass and polymer components that are resistant to chlorine and hydrochloric acid solutions. Because of concerns that the scrubber efficiency is not quantitative, tests were performed using DCl as a stand-in to experimentally measure the scrubbing efficiency of this unit. Scrubbing efficiency was ~108% ± 3% with water as the scrubber solution. Variations were noted when 1 M NaOH scrub solution was used, values ranged from 64% to 130%. The reason for the variations is not known. It is recommended that the equipment be operated with water as the scrubbing solution. Scrubbing efficiency is estimated at 100%.

  15. Dynawave froth scrubbing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    The DynaWave family of scrubbers was developed and patented by DuPont in the 1970's and is used extensively within the company. Because the technology was treated as confidential, information about the scrubbers was not published outside of DuPont. In 1986 Monsanto Enviro-Chem was asked to install a Reverse Jet scrubber at DuPont's Burnside spent acid recovery pant to replace an aging spray humidifying tower. Enviro-Chem was impressed with the technology and entered into a licensing agreement with DuPont in late 1987. This paper addresses the application of DynaWave froth scrubbing technology to metallurgical plant process and effluent gas streams. Froth scrubber design principles an sampling results from pilot plant trails on fluid bed roaster off-gas are presented

  16. Recovery rates, enhanced oil recovery and technological limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggeridge, Ann; Cockin, Andrew; Webb, Kevin; Frampton, Harry; Collins, Ian; Moulds, Tim; Salino, Peter

    2014-01-13

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques can significantly extend global oil reserves once oil prices are high enough to make these techniques economic. Given a broad consensus that we have entered a period of supply constraints, operators can at last plan on the assumption that the oil price is likely to remain relatively high. This, coupled with the realization that new giant fields are becoming increasingly difficult to find, is creating the conditions for extensive deployment of EOR. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the nature, status and prospects for EOR technologies. It explains why the average oil recovery factor worldwide is only between 20% and 40%, describes the factors that contribute to these low recoveries and indicates which of those factors EOR techniques can affect. The paper then summarizes the breadth of EOR processes, the history of their application and their current status. It introduces two new EOR technologies that are beginning to be deployed and which look set to enter mainstream application. Examples of existing EOR projects in the mature oil province of the North Sea are discussed. It concludes by summarizing the future opportunities for the development and deployment of EOR.

  17. Venturi scrubber modelling and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, S [National Univ., La Jolla, CA (United States). School of Engineering and Technology; Ananthanarayanan, N.V. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering; Azzopardi, B.J. [Nottingham Univ., Nottingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2005-04-01

    This study presented a method to maintain the efficiency of venturi scrubbers in removing fine particulates during gas clean operations while minimizing pressure drop. Venturi scrubbers meet stringent emission standards. In order to choose the optimal method for predicting pressure drop, 4 established models were compared for their accuracy of prediction and simplicity in application. The enhanced algorithm optimizes Pease-Anthony type venturi scrubber performance by predicting the minimum pressure drop required to achieve the desired collection efficiency. This was accomplished by optimizing the key operating and design parameters such as liquid-to-gas ratio, throat gas velocity, number of nozzles, nozzle diameter and throat aspect ratio. Two of the 4 established models were expanded by providing an empirical algorithm to better predict pressure drop in the venturi throat. Model results were validated with experimental data. The optimization algorithm considers the non-uniformity in liquid distribution. It can be applied to cylindrical and rectangular Pease-Anthony type scrubbers. It offers an effective, systematic and accurate method to optimize the performance of new and existing scrubbers. 54 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Cost effective treatment for wet FGD scrubber bleedoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janecek, K.F. [EIMCO Process Equipment Company, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kim, J.Y. [Samkook Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of)

    1994-12-31

    The dewatering of scrubber bleedoff gypsum is a thoroughly proven technology, whether for production of wallboard grade gypsum or environmentally responsible land fill. Careful review of the technology options will show which one is the most effective for the specific plant site. Likewise, a recipe for wastewater treatment for heavy metals removal can be found that will meet local regulatory limits. EIMCO has worldwide experience in FGD gypsum sludge dewatering and wastewater treatment. Contacting EIMCO can be the most important step toward a practical cost effective system for handling FGD scrubber bleed slurries.

  19. Exhaust Gas Scrubber Washwater Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    variations in the chemistry. Rivers running through soil rich in carbonates will be high in alkalinity. For example, the southern rivers of the Baltic Sea... enviro /Scrubber Test_Report_onboard_Suula.pdf) Waterco. 2010. MultiCyclone for Cooling Towers (http://www.waterco.eu/installations/water- treatment

  20. Technologies for the future : conventional recovery enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, E. [Alberta Energy Research Inst., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This conference presentation examined Alberta's oil production and water use; global finding and development costs across continents; and current trends for conventional oil. The presentation examined opportunities for testing new technologies for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and provided several tables of data on EOR production in the United States. The evolution of United States EOR production, and the number of EOR projects in Canada were also addressed. The presentation also discussed where EOR goes from here as well as the different EOR mechanisms to alter phase behaviour and to alter relative flow. It also discussed chemical methods and major challenges for chemical EOR and examined EOR technologies needing a major push in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Lessons learned from the Joffre site regarding carbon dioxide miscible flood were revealed along with how coal gasification produces substitute natural gas and carbon dioxide for EOR. Suggestions for research and technology and enhanced water management were included. tabs., figs.

  1. Technology for recovery of by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuy, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    Products of conventional nuclear fuel processing plants are uranium and plutonium, and any other recovered material is considered to be a by-product. Some by-products have been recovered from past nuclear fuel processing operations, either as a normal mode of operation or by special campaigns. Routing recovery over an extended period has been limited to neptunium, but extended campaigns were used at Hanford to recover strontium for radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Krypton is recovered at Idaho Chemical Processing Plant on a campaign basis, and isotope separation of krypton is done at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Past campaigns at Hanford PUREX have recovered cesium, promethium, amercium, cerium, and technetium. Past by-product recovery efforts were usually severely constrained by the status of flowsheet development and availability of existing facilities at the time decisions wee made to recover the by-products. Additional processes were developed to accommodate other unit operations and in response to changes in waste management objectives or user requirements. Now an impressive variety of recovery technology is available for most potential by-products, with varying degrees of demonstration under conditions which satisfy today's environmental protection and waste management constraints

  2. Waste heat recovery technologies for offshore platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Benato, Alberto; Scolari, E.

    2014-01-01

    This article aims at finding the most suitable waste heat recovery technology for existing and future offshore facilities. The technologies considered in this work are the steam Rankine cycle, the air bottoming cycle and the organic Rankine cycle. A multi-objective optimization approach is employed...... to attain optimal designs for each bottoming unit by selecting specific functions tailored to the oil and gas sector, i.e. yearly CO2 emissions, weight and economic revenue. The test case is the gas turbine-based power system serving an offshore platform in the North Sea. Results indicate that the organic...... and of the primary heat exchanger, organic Rankine cycle turbogenerators appear thus to be the preferred solution to abate CO2 emissions and pollutants on oil and gas facilities. As a practical consequence, this paper provides guidelines for the design of high-efficiency, cost-competitive and low-weight power...

  3. Implementing recovery: an analysis of the key technologies in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Over the past ten years the promotion of recovery has become a stated aim of mental health policies within a number of English speaking countries, including Scotland. Implementation of a recovery approach involves a significant reorientation of mental health services and practices, which often poses significant challenges for reformers. This article examines how four key technologies of recovery have assisted in the move towards the creation of a recovery-oriented mental health system in Scotland. Methods Drawing on documentary analysis and a series of interviews we examine the construction and implementation of four key recovery 'technologies' as they have been put to use in Scotland: recovery narratives, the Scottish Recovery Indicator (SRI), Wellness Recovery Action Planning (WRAP) and peer support. Results Our findings illuminate how each of these technologies works to instantiate, exemplify and disseminate a 'recovery orientation' at different sites within the mental health system in order to bring about a 'recovery oriented' mental health system. They also enable us to identify some of the factors that facilitate or hinder the effectiveness of those technologies in bringing about a change in how mental health services are delivered in Scotland. These finding provide a basis for some general reflections on the utility of 'recovery technologies' to implement a shift towards recovery in mental health services in Scotland and elsewhere. Conclusions Our analysis of this process within the Scottish context will be valuable for policy makers and service coordinators wishing to implement recovery values within their own national mental health systems. PMID:21569633

  4. Implementing recovery: an analysis of the key technologies in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sturdy Steve

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past ten years the promotion of recovery has become a stated aim of mental health policies within a number of English speaking countries, including Scotland. Implementation of a recovery approach involves a significant reorientation of mental health services and practices, which often poses significant challenges for reformers. This article examines how four key technologies of recovery have assisted in the move towards the creation of a recovery-oriented mental health system in Scotland. Methods Drawing on documentary analysis and a series of interviews we examine the construction and implementation of four key recovery 'technologies' as they have been put to use in Scotland: recovery narratives, the Scottish Recovery Indicator (SRI, Wellness Recovery Action Planning (WRAP and peer support. Results Our findings illuminate how each of these technologies works to instantiate, exemplify and disseminate a 'recovery orientation' at different sites within the mental health system in order to bring about a 'recovery oriented' mental health system. They also enable us to identify some of the factors that facilitate or hinder the effectiveness of those technologies in bringing about a change in how mental health services are delivered in Scotland. These finding provide a basis for some general reflections on the utility of 'recovery technologies' to implement a shift towards recovery in mental health services in Scotland and elsewhere. Conclusions Our analysis of this process within the Scottish context will be valuable for policy makers and service coordinators wishing to implement recovery values within their own national mental health systems.

  5. Disaster recovery plan for Automation Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, M.J.

    1997-06-01

    Automation Technology provides a multitude of data processing and network services to the Environmental Restoration Contract (ERC). These services include: personal computers, local and wide area networks, and Internet and intranet support and services. ERC employees and client personnel receive these services primarily from the Data Center located on the ground floor in the Bechtel Corporate Center at 3350 George Washington Way, Richland, Washington. Centralized databases, server-based software, and network services for the Bechtel Local Area Network reside on servers located in the Data Center. The data communication circuits supported in this center allow for the transmission of business information to and from all project locations in the Hanford Site complex. The loss of one or more of these functions would seriously impact the ability of the ERC to conduct business and bring a virtual standstill to many ERC employees'' activities. Upon declaration of disaster by the Contingency Manager and the Disaster Recovery Coordinator, the disaster recovery plan will be implemented. 24 tabs

  6. The economics of aquifer storage recovery technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, R.; Pyne, G.

    2014-01-01

    Aquifer storage recovery (ASR) technology is increasingly being utilized around the world for storing water underground through one or more wells during wet months and other times when water is available for storage. The water is then recovered from the same wells when needed to meet a growing variety of water supply objectives. The economics of ASR constitute the principal reason for its increasing utilization. ASR unit capital costs are typically less than half those of other water supply and water storage alternatives. Unit operating costs are usually only slightly greater than for conventional production well-fields. Marginal costs for ASR storage and recovery provide a powerful tool for making more efficient use of existing infrastructure, providing water supply sustainability and reliability at relatively low cost. The opportunity exists for a careful analysis of the net present value of ASR well-fields, addressing not only the associated capital and operating costs but also the value of the benefits achieved for each of the water supply objectives at each site. (Author)

  7. The economics of aquifer storage recovery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, R.; Pyne, G.

    2014-10-01

    Aquifer storage recovery (ASR) technology is increasingly being utilized around the world for storing water underground through one or more wells during wet months and other times when water is available for storage. The water is then recovered from the same wells when needed to meet a growing variety of water supply objectives. The economics of ASR constitute the principal reason for its increasing utilization. ASR unit capital costs are typically less than half those of other water supply and water storage alternatives. Unit operating costs are usually only slightly greater than for conventional production well-fields. Marginal costs for ASR storage and recovery provide a powerful tool for making more efficient use of existing infrastructure, providing water supply sustainability and reliability at relatively low cost. The opportunity exists for a careful analysis of the net present value of ASR well-fields, addressing not only the associated capital and operating costs but also the value of the benefits achieved for each of the water supply objectives at each site. (Author)

  8. Advanced Energy and Water Recovery Technology from Low Grade Waste Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexin Wang

    2011-12-19

    performance was also done, which shows this heat transfer enhancement approach works well in a wide parameters range for typical flue gas conditions. Better understanding of condensing heat transfer mechanism for porous membrane heat transfer surfaces, shows higher condensation and heat transfer rates than non-permeable tubes, due to existence of the porous membrane walls. Laboratory testing has documented increased TMC performance with increased exhaust gas moisture content levels, which has exponentially increased potential markets for the product. The TMC technology can uniquely enhance waste heat recovery in tandem with water vapor recovery for many other industrial processes such as drying, wet and dry scrubber exhaust gases, dewatering, and water chilling. A new metallic substrate membrane tube development and molded TMC part fabrication method, provides an economical way to expand this technology for scaled up applications with less than 3 year payback expectation. A detailed market study shows a broad application area for this advanced waste heat and water recovery technology. A commercialization partner has been lined up to expand this technology to this big market. This research work led to new findings on the TMC working mechanism to improve its performance, better scale up design approaches, and economical part fabrication methods. Field evaluation work needs to be done to verify the TMC real world performance, and get acceptance from the industry, and pave the way for our commercial partner to put it into a much larger waste heat and waste water recovery market. This project is addressing the priority areas specified for DOE Industrial Technologies Program's (ITP's): Energy Intensive Processes (EIP) Portfolio - Waste Heat Minimization and Recovery platform.

  9. Refractories for exhaust gas scrubbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Primary metal smelters are recovering a greater percentage of their stack emissions because of increased global environmental pressures. Copper and nickel producers processing sulfide ore are under particular scrutiny for sulfur dioxide emissions. The use of various acid plant designs and associated scrubbers to capture the gas is commonplace. Failure of acid plant or sulfur dioxide control devices can be very expensive, both in terms of repair costs and lost production. Close attention should be paid to ensure smooth, long term and proper operation of these vessels. With INCO flash furnace shops smelter gases are treated immediately upon leaving the furnace in a particulate scrubber where the gases are cooled and de-dusted in a water spray chamber. The amount of chlorine and fluorine in the waste gas can vary widely, ranging from non-existent to being a major source of concern for refractory wear. Developed specifically for use in hazardous waste incinerators burning fluorine-containing materials, spall-resistant, high-purity alimina bricks were installed in various gas cleaning units in copper smelting plants. Because of the materials's combination of abrasion resistance, thermal cycling resistance, and chemical durability under conditions of variable SO(3) and fluorine attack, the material has proven to be more than adequate for the challenges of gas cleaning equipment. 2 refs.

  10. Modeling of venturi scrubber efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, Jerry W.; Noll, Kenneth E.; Davis, Wayne T.

    The parameters affecting venturi scrubber performance have been rationally examined and modifications to the current modeling theory have been developed. The modified model has been validated with available experimental data for a range of throat gas velocities, liquid-to-gas ratios and particle diameters and is used to study the effect of some design parameters on collection efficiency. Most striking among the observations is the prediction of a new design parameter termed the minimum contactor length. Also noted is the prediction of little effect on collection efficiency with increasing liquid-to-gas ratio above about 2ℓ m-3. Indeed, for some cases a decrease in collection efficiency is predicted for liquid rates above this value.

  11. Separation of finest dusts in Venturi scrubber with hybrid nozzles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reither, K. [Reither Venturiwaescher GmbH, Troisdorf (Germany); Boerger, G.G.; Listner, U.; Schweitzer, M. [Bayer AG, Leverkusen (Germany)

    2001-03-01

    Venturi scrubbers are high-performance dust separators whose efficiency is closely connected with high pressure losses. The tube-slot Venturi scrubber with hybrid nozzles is a novel scrubber type of simple and compact design, by means of which high separation efficiency is reached with pressure losses practically tending to zero. This new wet scrubber is particularly suitable for refitting existing plants. (orig.)

  12. Droplet size in a rectangular Venturi scrubber

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, M. A. M.; Henrique, P. R.; Gonçalves, J. A. S.; Coury, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    The Venturi scrubber is a device which uses liquid in the form of droplets to efficiently remove fine particulate matter from gaseous streams. Droplet size is of fundamental importance for the scrubber performance. In the present experimental study, a laser diffraction technique was used in order to measure droplet size in situ in a Venturi scrubber with a rectangular cross section. Droplet size distribution was measured as a function of gas velocity (58.3 to 74.9 m/s), liquid-to-gas ratio (0...

  13. Department of Energy Recovery Act Investment in Biomass Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-11-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) provided more than $36 billion to the Department of Energy (DOE) to accelerate work on existing projects, undertake new and transformative research, and deploy clean energy technologies across the nation. Of this funding, $1029 million is supporting innovative work to advance biomass research, development, demonstration, and deployment.

  14. Technology disaster response and recovery planning a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mallery, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Featuring contributions from librarians who offer hard-won advice gained from personal experience, this compendium leads readers through a step-by-step process of creating a library technology disaster response and recovery plan.

  15. The Service Failure and Recovery in the Information Technology Services

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Luo; Weiguo Zhang.; Dabin Qin

    2010-01-01

    It is important to retain customer satisfaction in information technology services. When a service failure occurs, companies need to take service recovery action to recover their customer satisfaction. Although companies cannot avoid all problems and complaints, they should try to make up. Therefore, service failure and service recovery have become an important and challenging issue for companies. In this paper, the literature and the problems in the information technolog...

  16. Design Recovery Technology for Real-Time Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    RL-TR-95-208 Final Technical Report October 1995 DESIGN RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY FOR REAL TIME SYSTEMS The MITRE Corporation Lester J. Holtzblatt...92 - Jan 95 4. TTTLE AND SUBTITLE DESIGN RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY FOR REAL - TIME SYSTEMS 6. AUTHOR(S) Lester J. Holtzblatt, Richard Piazza, and Susan...behavior of real - time systems in general, our initial efforts have centered on recovering this information from one system in particular, the Modular

  17. The Dynamics of Aerosols in Condensational Scrubbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Jens Tue; Christensen, Jan A.; Simonsen, Ole

    1997-01-01

    A mathematical model for the simulation of the dynamics of aerosol change in condensational scrubbers and scrubbing condensers is proposed. The model is applicable for packed column gas/liquid contact when plug flow can be assumed. The model is compared with experimental data for particle removal...... for their estimation is proposed. The behaviour of scrubbers and condensers for some important technical applications is demonstrated by model simulations. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  18. Processes for exhaust purification of biomass combustion systems, dust removal, heat recovery, technologies and practical experience; Verfahren zur Abgasreinigung nach Biomasseverbrennung, Abgasentstaubung, Abgasreinigung Moeglichkeiten zur Waermerueckgewinnung; Technologien und Praxiserfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirkowsky, C.; Pretzl, R.; Sihorsch, K.

    2003-07-01

    The authors report on air pollution control systems of biomass burners: dedusting, centrifugal filtration, cyclone separators, electric filters (wet and dry), fabric filters, wet scrubbers. Technical specifications and methods of heat recovery are given. (uke)

  19. Design Aspects of Wet Scrubber System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun-Chul; Bang, Young-suk; Jung, Woo-Young; Lee, Doo-Yong [FNC Technology Co. Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The water pool in the wet scrubber system has advantage to cope with decay heat based on the thermal hydraulic balance such as condensation and evaporation inside it. This study focuses on the design aspects of the wet scrubber system to estimate the required water pool mass during the mission time and size of the scrubbing tank including inner structures. The design of the wet scrubber system include the estimation of the required water mass during the mission time and sizing of the scrubber vessel to contain the water pool. The condensation due to the inlet steam and evaporation due to the steam and non-condensable gas superheat and decay heat from filtered fission products should be considered to estimate the water mass required to maintain its function during the mission time. On the other hand, the level swelling due to the noncondensable gas is another important design aspect on the sizing of the scrubber vessel and determination of the entry elevation of the filtration components such as the droplet separator or filter. The minimum water level based on the minimum collapsed water level should be higher than the exit of scrubber nozzle.

  20. Design Aspects of Wet Scrubber System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun-Chul; Bang, Young-suk; Jung, Woo-Young; Lee, Doo-Yong

    2015-01-01

    The water pool in the wet scrubber system has advantage to cope with decay heat based on the thermal hydraulic balance such as condensation and evaporation inside it. This study focuses on the design aspects of the wet scrubber system to estimate the required water pool mass during the mission time and size of the scrubbing tank including inner structures. The design of the wet scrubber system include the estimation of the required water mass during the mission time and sizing of the scrubber vessel to contain the water pool. The condensation due to the inlet steam and evaporation due to the steam and non-condensable gas superheat and decay heat from filtered fission products should be considered to estimate the water mass required to maintain its function during the mission time. On the other hand, the level swelling due to the noncondensable gas is another important design aspect on the sizing of the scrubber vessel and determination of the entry elevation of the filtration components such as the droplet separator or filter. The minimum water level based on the minimum collapsed water level should be higher than the exit of scrubber nozzle

  1. Leveraging technology to enhance addiction treatment and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsch, Lisa A

    2012-01-01

    Technology such as the Internet and mobile phones offers considerable promise for affecting the assessment, prevention, and treatment of and recovery from substance use disorders. Technology may enable entirely new models of behavioral health care within and outside of formal systems of care. This article reviews the promise of technology-based therapeutic tools for affecting the quality and reach of addiction treatment and recovery support systems, as well as the empirical support to date for this approach. Potential models for implementing technology-based interventions targeting substance use disorders are described. Opportunities to optimize the effectiveness and impact of technology-based interventions targeting addiction and recovery, along with outstanding research needs, are discussed.

  2. A review of waste heat recovery technologies for maritime applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Dig Vijay; Pedersen, Eilif

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Major waste heat sources available on ships have been reviewed. • A review of suitable waste heat recovery systems was conducted for marine vessels. • Technologies have been compared for their potential and suitability for marine use. • Kalina cycle offers the highest potential for marine waste heat recovery. • Turbo compound system most suitable for recovering diesel exhaust pressure energy. - Abstract: A waste heat recovery system produces power by utilizing the heat energy lost to the surroundings from thermal processes, at no additional fuel input. For marine vessels, about 50 percent of the total fuel energy supplied to diesel power-plant aboard is lost to the surroundings. While the total amount of wasted energy is considerable, the quality of this energy is quite low due to its low temperature and has limited potential for power production. Effective waste heat recovery systems use the available low temperature waste heat to produce mechanical/electrical power with high efficiency value. In this study a review of different waste heat recovery systems has been conducted, to lay out the potential recovery efficiencies and suitability for marine applications. This work helps in identifying the most suitable heat recovery technologies for maritime use depending on the properties of shipboard waste heat and achievable recovery efficiencies, whilst discussing the features of each type of system.

  3. Coabsorbent and thermal recovery compression heat pumping technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Staicovici, Mihail-Dan

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces two of the most exciting heat pumping technologies, the coabsorbent and the thermal recovery (mechanical vapor) compression, characterized by a high potential in primary energy savings and environmental protection. New cycles with potential applications of nontruncated, truncated, hybrid truncated, and multi-effect coabsorbent types are introduced in this work.   Thermal-to-work recovery compression (TWRC) is the first of two particular methods explored here, including how superheat is converted into work, which diminishes the compressor work input. In the second method, thermal-to-thermal recovery compression (TTRC), the superheat is converted into useful cooling and/or heating, and added to the cycle output effect via the coabsorbent technology. These and other methods of discharge gas superheat recovery are analyzed for single-, two-, three-, and multi-stage compression cooling and heating, ammonia and ammonia-water cycles, and the effectiveness results are given.  The author presen...

  4. Thermoelectric integrated membrane evaporation water recovery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Winkler, H. E.; Dehner, G. F.

    1982-01-01

    The recently developed Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem (TIMES) offers a highly competitive approach to water recovery from waste fluids for future on-orbit stations such as the Space Operations Center. Low power, compactness and gravity insensitive operation are featured in this vacuum distillation subsystem that combines a hollow fiber membrane evaporator with a thermoelectric heat pump. The hollow fiber elements provide positive liquid/gas phase control with no moving parts other than pumps and an accumulator, thus solving problems inherent in other reclamation subsystem designs. In an extensive test program, over 850 hours of operation were accumulated during which time high quality product water was recovered from both urine and wash water at an average steady state production rate of 2.2 pounds per hour.

  5. New technologies of enhanced oil recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Wojnarowski

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available It is known from the literature that up to 27 % of oil in oilfields can be produced using primary and hydration methods. The efficiency of production can be increased by employing more advanced methods, i.e. EOR. The Polish Oil and Gas Company iwork with Polish oilfields, where currently primary methods are applied, but the Polish experiences with EOR date back to the years 1932-1987. In view of high oil prices, reconsidering EOR as a production method is economically justifiable. Therefore, it is purposeful to implement new pilot technologies, aimed at implementing new technologies, understanding accompanying phenomena, and calibrating of simulation models, including economical models for an optimal control of the oilfield exploitation. World’s new exploitation methods worked out in the last few years and suggestions for their implementation in Polish conditions are presented in the paper

  6. Droplet size in a rectangular Venturi scrubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. M. Costa

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The Venturi scrubber is a device which uses liquid in the form of droplets to efficiently remove fine particulate matter from gaseous streams. Droplet size is of fundamental importance for the scrubber performance. In the present experimental study, a laser diffraction technique was used in order to measure droplet size in situ in a Venturi scrubber with a rectangular cross section. Droplet size distribution was measured as a function of gas velocity (58.3 to 74.9 m/s, liquid-to-gas ratio (0.07 to 0.27 l/m³, and distance from liquid injection point (64 to 173 mm. It was found that all these variables significantly affect droplet size. The results were compared with the predictions from correlations found in the literature.

  7. Algal Turf Scrubbers: Cleaning Water While Capturing Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adey, W.

    2009-01-01

    Algal Turfs and Algal Turf Scrubbers (ATS) Algal Turfs are bio diverse communities of unicellular to filamentous algae of all major algal phyla. Algal Turf Scrubbers (ATS) are bioengineered ecosystems dominated by algal turfs. They clean water to very high quality, and remove CO 2 from the atmosphere by capturing solar energy at rates 10 times that of agriculture and 50 times that of forestry. ATS was invented at the Smithsonian Institution, by scientist, Walter Adey in the 1980s as a tool for controlling water quality in highly diverse model ecosystems. The technology received extensive R and D for aqua cultural, municipal, and industrial water cleaning by Dr. Adey, using venture capital, through the 1990s. Later, Hydro Mentia, Inc., of Ocala, Florida, engineered ATS to landscape scale of 20-50 Mgpd (it is important to note that this is a modular system, capable of expanding to any size.) A 2005 independent study of ATS, by the South Florida Water Management District and the IFAS Institute of the University of Florida, certified ATS as 5-100 times more cost efficient at removing nutrients from Everglades canal waters than the next competitor, the STA, a managed marsh system. ATS and STA were the final contestants in a 15-year study of nine technologies, and ATS was the only technology that created a use able byproduct.

  8. Cylinder supplied ammonia scrubber testing in IDMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, D.P.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the off-line testing the Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) ammonia scrubbers using ammonia supplied from cylinders. Three additional tests with ammonia are planned to verify the data collected during off-line testing. Operation of the ammonia scrubber during IDMS SRAT and SME processing will be completed during the next IDMS run. The Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) scrubbers were successful in removing ammonia from the vapor stream to achieve ammonia vapor concentrations far below the 10 ppM vapor exit design basis. In most of the tests, the ammonia concentration in the vapor exit was lower than the detection limit of the analyzers so results are generally reported as <0.05 parts per million (ppM). During SRAT scrubber testing, the ammonia concentration was no higher than 2 ppM and during SME testing the ammonia concentration was no higher than 0.05 m

  9. SCRUBBERS AS SHIPOWNERS’ RESPONSE TO THE SULPHUR DIRECTIVE AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN BALTIC PORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Klopott

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investogates the recent developments in exhaust gas cleaning systems and the growing interests in scrubber installation among ferry and ro-ro shipowners operating on the Baltic Sea. This technology creates the need for reception of scrubber sludge, which is produced alongside with gas cleaning. The study states that the information about the disposal of scrubber waste is largely limited or vague and evaluates – on the basis of a questionnaire - the availability of port reception facilities for the disposal of waste from sulphur scrubbers at major Baltic Sea ports. The paper concludes that a review of current legislature on port reception facilities is absolutely necessary and expresses the hope that the situation will improve in the wake of recent environmental regulations.

  10. Nitrogen tetroxide vapor scrubber using a recirculating liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisert, T. D.

    1978-01-01

    Scrubbers required to reduce N2O4 contamination of nitrogen vent gas streams to a safe level to preclude health hazard to personnel and to preclude adverse environmental effects were developed. The scrubber principle involved is to absorb and neutralize the N2O4 component in a closed circuit circulating water/chemical solution in a vertical counter-flow, packed-tower configuration. The operational and performance test requirements for the scrubbers consist of demonstrating that the exit gas contamination level from the scrubbers does not exceed 150 ppm oxidizer under any flow conditions up to 400 scfm with inlet concentrations of up to 100,000 ppm oxidizer. Several problems were encountered during the performance testing that led to a series of investigations and supplementary testing. It was finally necessary to change the scrubber liquors in oxidizer scrubber to successfully achieve performance requirements. The scrubbers, the test configuration, and the various tests performed are described.

  11. Membrane Technology for the Recovery of Lignin: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Humpert

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of renewable resources is becoming increasingly important, and only sustainable processes that convert such resources into useful products can achieve environmentally beneficial economic growth. Wastewater from the pulp and paper industry is an unutilized resource offering the potential to recover valuable products such as lignin, pigments, and water [1]. The recovery of lignin is particularly important because it has many applications, and membrane technology has been investigated as the basis of innovative recovery solutions. The concentration of lignin can be increased from 62 to 285 g∙L−1 using membranes and the recovered lignin is extremely pure. Membrane technology is also scalable and adaptable to different waste liquors from the pulp and paper industry.

  12. Membrane Technology for the Recovery of Lignin: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpert, Daniel; Ebrahimi, Mehrdad; Czermak, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Utilization of renewable resources is becoming increasingly important, and only sustainable processes that convert such resources into useful products can achieve environmentally beneficial economic growth. Wastewater from the pulp and paper industry is an unutilized resource offering the potential to recover valuable products such as lignin, pigments, and water [1]. The recovery of lignin is particularly important because it has many applications, and membrane technology has been investigated as the basis of innovative recovery solutions. The concentration of lignin can be increased from 62 to 285 g∙L−1 using membranes and the recovered lignin is extremely pure. Membrane technology is also scalable and adaptable to different waste liquors from the pulp and paper industry. PMID:27608047

  13. Study of elemental mercury re-emission through a lab-scale simulated scrubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng-Li Wu; Yan Cao; Cheng-Chun He; Zhong-Bing Dong; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology

    2010-08-15

    This paper describes a lab-scale simulated scrubber that was designed and built in the laboratory at Western Kentucky University's Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology. A series of tests on slurries of CaO, CaSO{sub 3}, CaSO{sub 4}/CaSO{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3} were carried out to simulate recirculating slurries in different oxidation modes. Elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) re-emission was replicated through the simulated scrubber. The relationship between the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of the slurries and the Hg0 re-emissions was evaluated. Elemental mercury re-emission occurred when Hg{sup 2+} that was absorbed in the simulated scrubber was converted to Hg{sup 0}; then, Hg{sup 0} was emitted from the slurry together with the carrier gas. The effects of both the reagents and the operational conditions (including the temperature, pH, and oxygen concentrations in the carrier gas) on the Hg{sup 0} re-emission rates in the simulated scrubber were investigated. The results indicated that as the operational temperature of the scrubber and the pH value of the slurry increased, the Hg{sup 0} concentrations that were emitted from the simulated scrubber increased. The Hg{sup 0} re-emission rates decreased as the O{sub 2} concentration in the carrier gas increased. In addition, the effects of additives to suppress Hg{sup 0} re-emission were evaluated in this paper. Sodium tetrasulfide, TMT 15, NaHS and HI were added to the slurry, while Hg{sup 2+}, which was absorbed in the slurry, was retained in the slurry as mercury precipitates. Therefore, there was a significant capacity for the additives to suppress Hg{sup 0} re-emission. 11 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Technology strategy for enhanced recovery; Technology Target Areas; TTA3 - enhanced recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) is facing new challenges in reserve replacement and improved recovery in order to maintain the overall oil production rate from the area. A new target for an increase in oil reserves of 800 million Sm3 of oil (5 billion barrels) by year 2015 has been set by NPD. This is an ambitious goal considering several of the large fields are on a steep decline, and most of the recent discoveries are relatively small. A significant part of these increased reserves will have to come from fields currently on production, from reservoir areas that have been partly or fully swept, and it is therefore evident that Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) methods have to play a key role in achieving this target. EOR methods can be divided into gas based EOR methods and water based EOR methods. Thermal methods are not considered applicable on the NCS due to the relatively light oils present, and the depth of the reservoirs. Gas Based EOR; Water Based EOR; CO{sub 2} injection; Surfactants; Air injection; Polymer; Nitrogen injection; Alkaline; Flue gas injection; Polymer gels; WAG; MEOR; FAWAG. The former OG21 strategy document gave high priority to Water Alternating Gas (WAG) methods and CO{sub 2} injection for enhanced recovery. A lot of research and development and evaluation projects on CO{sub 2} injection were launched and are on-going, most of these are being CO{sub 2} WAG studies. The main challenge now in order to realize CO{sub 2} injection on the NCS is on CO{sub 2} availability and transport. It is also believed that increasing gas prices will limit the availability of hydrocarbon gas for injection purposes in the future. There is, however, a clear need for developing alternative cost efficient EOR methods that can improve the sweep efficiency significantly. Since a majority of the fields on the NCS are being produced under water flooding (or WAG), methods that can improve the water flooding efficiency by chemical additives are of special interest and

  15. Retention of nitrous gases in scrubber columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazone, A.K.; Costa, R.C.; Lobao, A.S.T.; Matsuda, H.T.; Araujo, B.F. de

    1988-01-01

    During the UO 2 dissolution in nitric acid, some different species of NO (sub)x are released. The off gas can either be refluxed to the dissolver or be released and retained on special colums. The final composition of the solution is the main parameter to take in account. A process for nitrous gases retention using scrubber colums containing H 2 O or diluted HNO 3 is presented. Chemiluminescence measurement was employed to NO x evaluation before and after scrubing. Gas flow, temperature, residence time are the main parameters considered in this paper. For the dissolution of 100g UO 2 in 8M nitric acid, a 6NL/h O 2 flow was the best condition for the NO/NO 2 oxidation with maximum absorption in the scrubber columns. (author) [pt

  16. Passive self-cleaning aerosol scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postma, A.K.

    1981-01-01

    A hybrid gas scrubbing system is described, which includes features of both a pool type scrubber and a sand or ground filter, for use on nuclear reactor containment buildings to limit release of aerosol particles and absorbable gases, including radio-active materials, during postulated major accidents. The system requires no energy while in the passive state and no active energy other than pressurization of the stream of gas being scrubbed. (U.K.)

  17. Advances in primary recovery: centrifugation and membrane technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, David J; Lu, Yuefeng

    2008-01-01

    Significant and continual improvements in upstream processing for biologics have resulted in challenges for downstream processing, both primary recovery and purification. Given the high cell densities achievable in both microbial and mammalian cell culture processes, primary recovery can be a significant bottleneck in both clinical and commercial manufacturing. The combination of increased product titer and low viability leads to significant relative increases in the levels of process impurities such as lipids, intracellular proteins and nucleic acid versus the product. In addition, cell culture media components such as soy and yeast hydrolysates have been widely applied to achieve the cell culture densities needed for higher titers. Many of the process impurities can be negatively charged at harvest pH and can form colloids during the cell culture and harvest processes. The wide size distribution of these particles and the potential for additional particles to be generated by shear forces within a centrifuge may result in insufficient clarification to prevent fouling of subsequent filters. The other residual process impurities can lead to precipitation and increased turbidity during processing and even interference with the performance of the capturing chromatographic step. Primary recovery also poses significant challenges owing to the necessity to execute in an expedient manner to minimize both product degradation and bioburden concerns. Both microfiltration and centrifugation coupled with depth filtration have been employed successfully as primary recovery processing steps. Advances in the design and application of membrane technology for microfiltration and dead-end filtration have contributed to significant improvements in process performance and integration, in some cases allowing for a combination of multiple unit operations in a given step. Although these advances have increased productivity and reliability, the net result is that optimization of primary

  18. Drop size measurements in Venturi scrubbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Alonso, D.; Azzopardi, B.J. [Nottingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Goncalves, J.A.S.; Coury, J.R. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Quimica

    2001-07-01

    Venturi scrubbers are high efficiency gas cleaners in which suspended particles are removed from gas streams by drops formed by liquid atomisation, usually in the Venturi throat. The size of the drops formed are of fundamental importance to the performance of the equipment, both in terms of pressure drop and dust removal efficiency. In this study, drop sizes in a cylindrical laboratory-scale Venturi scrubber were measured using a laser diffraction technique. Gas velocity and liquid to gas ratios varied from 50 to 90 m/s and 0.5 to 2.0 1/m{sup 3}, respectively. Water was injected using two different arrangements: either as jets in the throat or as a film just upstream of the convergence. Drop size measurements were performed at three positions in the case of jet injection: two located along the throat, and the last one at the end of the diffuser. The present data shows that the Sauter mean diameter of the spray can be well correlated by the equation of Boll et al. (J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 24 (1974) 932). Drop size distributions are satisfactorily represented by a Rosin-Rammler function. This paper also provides a simple method for calculating the parameters of the Rosin-Rammler function. As a result of this work, drop sizes in Venturi scrubbers can be estimated with much higher accuracy. (Author)

  19. Phosphorus recovery from municipal wastewater: An integrated comparative technological, environmental and economic assessment of P recovery technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egle, L; Rechberger, H; Krampe, J; Zessner, M

    2016-11-15

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential and limited resource. Municipal wastewater is a promising source of P via reuse and could be used to replace P derived from phosphate rocks. The agricultural use of sewage sludge is restricted by legislation or is not practiced in several European countries due to environmental risks posed by organic micropollutants and pathogens. Several technologies have been developed in recent years to recover wastewater P. However, these technologies target different P-containing flows in wastewater treatment plants (effluent, digester supernatant, sewage sludge, and sewage sludge ash), use diverse engineering approaches and differ greatly with respect to P recycling rate, potential of removing or destroying pollutants, product quality, environmental impact and cost. This work compares 19 relevant P recovery technologies by considering their relationships with existing wastewater and sludge treatment systems. A combination of different methods, such as material flow analysis, damage units, reference soil method, annuity method, integrated cost calculation and a literature study on solubility, fertilizing effects and handling of recovered materials, is used to evaluate the different technologies with respect to technical, ecological and economic aspects. With regard to the manifold origins of data an uncertainty concept considering validity of data sources is applied. This analysis revealed that recovery from flows with dissolved P produces clean and plant-available materials. These techniques may even be beneficial from economic and technical perspectives under specific circumstances. However, the recovery rates (a maximum of 25%) relative to the wastewater treatment plant influent are relatively low. The approaches that recover P from sewage sludge apply complex technologies and generally achieve effective removal of heavy metals at moderate recovery rates (~40-50% relative to the WWTP input) and comparatively high costs. Sewage sludge ash is

  20. Theoretical study of liquid droplet dispersion in a venturi scrubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathikalajahi, J; Talaie, M R; Taheri, M

    1995-03-01

    The droplet concentration distribution in an atomizing scrubber was calculated based on droplet eddy diffusion by a three-dimensional dispersion model. This model is also capable of predicting the liquid flowing on the wall. The theoretical distribution of droplet concentration agrees well with experimental data given by Viswanathan et al. for droplet concentration distribution in a venturi-type scrubber. The results obtained by the model show a non-uniform distribution of drops over the cross section of the scrubber, as noted by the experimental data. While the maximum of droplet concentration distribution may depend on many operating parameters of the scrubber, the results of this study show that the highest uniformity of drop distribution will be reached when penetration length is approximately equal to one-fourth of the depth of the scrubber. The results of this study can be applied to evaluate the removal efficiency of a venturi scrubber.

  1. Digital innovations and emerging technologies for enhanced recovery programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michard, F; Gan, T J; Kehlet, H

    2017-01-01

    Enhanced recovery programmes (ERPs) are increasingly used to improve post-surgical recovery. However, compliance to various components of ERPs-a key determinant of success-remains sub-optimal. Emerging technologies have the potential to help patients and caregivers to improve compliance with ERPs...... of the above-mentioned ERP elements is omitted during the surgical journey.By optimizing compliance to the multiple components of ERPs, digital innovations, non-invasive techniques and wearable sensors have the potential to magnify the clinical and economic benefits of ERPs. Among the growing number...... of technical innovations, studies are needed to clarify which tools and solutions have real clinical value and are cost-effective....

  2. Technologies for waste heat recovery in off-shore applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Haglind, Fredrik; Kandepu, Rambabu

    2013-01-01

    different technologies are presented, considering the Draugen platform in the North Sea as a base case. The Turboden 65-HRS unit is considered as representative of the organic Rankine cycle technology. Air bottoming cycles are analyzed and optimal design pressure ratios are selected. We also study a one...... pressure level steam Rankine cycle employing the once-through heat recovery steam generator without bypass stack. We compare the three technologies considering the combined cycle thermal efficiency, the weight, the net present value, the profitability index and payback time. Both incomes related to CO2...... of the unit is expected to be around 250 ton. The air bottoming cycle without intercooling is also a possible alternative due to its low weight (76 ton) and low investment cost (8.8 M$). However, cycle performance and profitability index are poorer, 12.1% and 0.75. Furthermore, the results suggest...

  3. Waste Heat Recovery. Technology and Opportunities in U.S. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Ilona [BCS, Inc., Laurel, MD (United States); Choate, William T. [BCS, Inc., Laurel, MD (United States); Davidson, Amber [BCS, Inc., Laurel, MD (United States)

    2008-03-01

    This study was initiated in order to evaluate RD&D needs for improving waste heat recovery technologies. A bottomup approach is used to evaluate waste heat quantity, quality, recovery practices, and technology barriers in some of the largest energyconsuming units in U.S. manufacturing. The results from this investigation serve as a basis for understanding the state of waste heat recovery and providing recommendations for RD&D to advance waste heat recovery technologies.

  4. Predicting pressure drop in venturi scrubbers with artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseh, S; Mohebbi, A; Jeirani, Z; Sarrafi, A

    2007-05-08

    In this study a new approach based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) has been used to predict pressure drop in venturi scrubbers. The main parameters affecting the pressure drop are mainly the gas velocity in the throat of venturi scrubber (V(g)(th)), liquid to gas flow rate ratio (L/G), and axial distance of the venturi scrubber (z). Three sets of experimental data from five different venturi scrubbers have been applied to design three independent ANNs. Comparing the results of these ANNs and the calculated results from available models shows that the results of ANNs have a better agreement with experimental data.

  5. Technology of uranium recovery from wet-process phosphoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Katsutoshi [Saga Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering; Nakashio, Fumiyuki

    1982-12-01

    Rock phosphate contains from 0.005 to 0.02 wt.% of uranium. Though the content is a mere 5 to 10 % of that in uranium ore, the total recovery of uranium is significant since it is used for fertilizer manufacture in a large quantity. Wet-process phosphoric acid is produced by the reaction of rock phosphate with sulfuric acid. The recovery of uranium from this phosphoric acid is mostly by solvent extraction at present. According to U/sup 4 +/ or UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/ as the form of its existence, the technique of solvent extraction differs. The following matters are described: processing of rock phosphate; recovery techniques including the extraction by OPPA-octyl pyrophosphoric acid for U/sup 4 +/, and by mixed DEHPA-Di-(2)-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid and TOPO-tryoctyl phosphine oxide for UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/, and by OPAP-octylphenyl acid phosphate for U/sup 4 +/; the recent progress of the technology as seen in patents.

  6. Scrubber-Integrated Wet Electrostatic Precipitator; Skrubberintegrerat vaatt elektrofilter, WESP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven; Baefver, Linda; Davidsson, Kent; Pettersson, Jens; Schmidt, Hans; Strand, Michael; Yngvesson, Johan

    2011-07-01

    Combustion processes for heat and power production are an important source of sub-micron particle emissions, which cause enhanced health risks and premature deaths. To meet future requirements of economical and robust dust cleaning equipment, the Wet Electrostatic Precipitation (WESP) technology has been further developed in this project. A pilot scale slip stream WESP unit, installed by Goetaverken Miljoe, has been successfully installed and tested at the Renova Waste-to-Energy plant in Goeteborg, Sweden. The particles in the gas are charged by an ionizing electrode and collected in a concentric cylinder geometry. The WESP pilot consists of a unique combination of several existing technologies: it is integrated with a packed bed scrubber which means an ideally uniformly distributed gas flow in the WESP inlet. Furthermore, the WESP unit has a water cooled condensing collector, which facilitates continuous formation of a water film. The downward flowing water film transports the collected dust counter current to the upward flowing flue gas in order to minimize particle re-entrainment. The WESP is equipped with a high frequency transformer for stable voltage output and is fabricated in electrically conductive corrosion resistant Fibre Reinforced Plastic (FRP). The concentration of dust upstream of the WESP unit varied between 6.2 and 28 mg/Nm{sup 3} dry gas. All measured outlet dust concentrations were below 0.3 mg/Nm{sup 3} (dry gas, 11% O{sub 2}), which equals 3% of the applicable emission limit. The dust removal efficiency has been higher than 97% in all the dust measurements. The mean value of all the dust measurements was 15.2 mg/Nm{sup 3} upstream and 0.14 mg/Nm{sup 3} in downstream (both as dry gas, 11% O{sub 2}), which gives an average removal efficiency of slightly more than 99%. The removal efficiency increased with increasing inlet dust concentration, SO{sub 2} concentration and {Delta}T of the collector cooling. Chlorine, potassium, sodium, silicon and

  7. OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMICAL OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anbo Wang; Kristie L. Cooper; Gary R. Pickrell

    2003-06-01

    Efficient recovery of petroleum reserves from existing oil wells has been proven to be difficult due to the lack of robust instrumentation that can accurately and reliably monitor processes in the downhole environment. Commercially available sensors for measurement of pressure, temperature, and fluid flow exhibit shortened lifetimes in the harsh downhole conditions, which are characterized by high pressures (up to 20 kpsi), temperatures up to 250 C, and exposure to chemically reactive fluids. Development of robust sensors that deliver continuous, real-time data on reservoir performance and petroleum flow pathways will facilitate application of advanced recovery technologies, including horizontal and multilateral wells. This is the final report for the four-year program ''Optical Fiber Sensor Technologies for Efficient and Economical Oil Recovery'', funded by the National Petroleum Technology Office of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech from October 1, 1999 to March 31, 2003. The main objective of this research program was to develop cost-effective, reliable optical fiber sensor instrumentation for real-time monitoring of various key parameters crucial to efficient and economical oil production. During the program, optical fiber sensors were demonstrated for the measurement of temperature, pressure, flow, and acoustic waves, including three successful field tests in the Chevron/Texaco oil fields in Coalinga, California, and at the world-class oil flow simulation facilities in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Research efforts included the design and fabrication of sensor probes, development of signal processing algorithms, construction of test systems, development and testing of strategies for the protection of optical fibers and sensors in the downhole environment, development of remote monitoring capabilities allowing real

  8. Hydrodynamics of a Multistage Wet Scrubber Incineration Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, M. M.; Manyele, S. V.; Raphael, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the hydrodynamics of the two stage counter-current cascade wet scrubbers used during incineration of medical waste. The dependence of the hydrodynamics on two main variables was studied: Inlet air flow rate and inlet liquid flow rate. This study introduces a new wet scrubber operating features, which are…

  9. Shipping and the environment: Smokestack emissions, scrubbers and unregulated oceanic consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Turner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available While shipping has long been recognised as a very carbon-efficient transport medium, there is an increasing focus on its broader environmental consequences. The International Maritime Organisation is responsible for the regulation of ship emissions arising from fuel combustion. Their current regulations are, however, much less strict than those applying to land-based transport within the European Union. Five different groups of pollutant emission from ship smokestacks are addressed in this paper: sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, organic matter and metals. The reduction of sulphur oxide emissions into the atmosphere using scrubber technology adds another dimension to the discussion, as this approach results in focused discharge of some pollutants to the surface water. A scoping calculation shows that an open-loop scrubber on a medium-sized ship could discharge more copper and zinc daily to the surface water than the ship’s antifouling paint. The use of antifouling paint in the European Union is subject to a prior risk assessment, but scrubber discharges are not subject to any such risk assessment. This situation presents a problem from the perspective of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, as environmental monitoring programmes in some coastal areas of the Baltic Sea have shown that levels of both copper and zinc exceed environmental quality standards. To fulfil the Marine Strategy Framework Directive requirements and achieve Good Environmental Status, having knowledge of the magnitude of different anthropogenic pressures is important. Metal inputs from open-loop scrubbers have been largely neglected until now: some metals have the potential to serve as tracers for monitoring scrubber discharges.

  10. Digital innovations and emerging technologies for enhanced recovery programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michard, F; Gan, T J; Kehlet, H

    2017-07-01

    Enhanced recovery programmes (ERPs) are increasingly used to improve post-surgical recovery. However, compliance to various components of ERPs-a key determinant of success-remains sub-optimal. Emerging technologies have the potential to help patients and caregivers to improve compliance with ERPs.Preoperative physical condition, a major determinant of postoperative outcome, could be optimized with the use of text messages (SMS) or digital applications (Apps) designed to facilitate smoking cessation, modify physical activity, and better manage hypertension and diabetes. Several non-invasive haemodynamic monitoring techniques and decision support tools are now available to individualize perioperative fluid management, a key component of ERPs. Objective nociceptive assessment may help to rationalize the use of pain medications, including opioids. Wearable sensors designed to monitor cardio-respiratory function may help in the early detection of clinical deterioration during the postoperative recovery and to address 'failure to rescue'. Activity trackers may be useful to monitor early mobilization, another major element of ERPs. Finally, electronic checklists have been developed to ensure that none of the above-mentioned ERP elements is omitted during the surgical journey.By optimizing compliance to the multiple components of ERPs, digital innovations, non-invasive techniques and wearable sensors have the potential to magnify the clinical and economic benefits of ERPs. Among the growing number of technical innovations, studies are needed to clarify which tools and solutions have real clinical value and are cost-effective. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMICAL OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Wang; H. Xiao; R. May

    1999-10-29

    Efficient and complete recovery of petroleum reserves from existing oil wells has proven difficult due to a lack of robust instrumentation that can monitor processes in the downhole environment. Commercially available sensors for measurement of pressure, temperature, and fluid flow exhibit shortened lifetimes in the harsh downhole conditions, which are characterized by high pressures (up to 20 kpsi), temperatures up to 250 C, and exposure to chemically reactive fluids. Development of robust sensors that deliver continuous, real-time data on reservoir performance and petroleum flow pathways will facilitate application of advanced recovery technologies, including horizontal and multi-lateral wells. The main objective of the research program is to develop cost-effective, reliable fiber sensor instrumentation for real-time monitoring and /or control of various key parameters crucial to efficient and economical oil production. This report presents the detailed research work and technical progress from October 1, 1998 to September 30, 1999. The research performed over the first year of the program has followed the schedule as proposed, and solid research progress has been made in specification of the technical requirements, design and fabrication of the SCIIB sensor probes, development of the sensor systems, development of DSP-based signal processing techniques, and construction of the test systems. These technical achievements will significantly help to advance continued research on sensor tests and evaluation during the second year of the program.

  12. Techno-economic analysis of resource recovery technologies for wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiocchi, Riccardo; Matafome, Beatriz; Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina

    2017-01-01

    resource-recovery treatment units: (a) a chemical precipitation process, for recovery of iron phosphate fertilizer; (b) the Exelys technology, for increased biogas production; and, (c) the Phosnix technology, for recovery of struvite fertilizer. Seven upgrade strategies/flowsheets employing different...... upgrading combinations involving chemical precipitation and Exelys technologies were not found economical for the given plant. Sensitivity analyses on the economic evaluation criteria have demonstrated that the results obtained are robust against uncertainties in influent wastewater characteristics...

  13. Evaluation of surface dose rate on C-14 scrubber and gas bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gang, D. W.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, D. H.

    2003-01-01

    In CANDU(Canadian Deuterium Uranium) reactors, purge and discharge of moderator cover gas has been performed via vapor recovery system. The methods employed in C-14 removal are mainly based on reactions of CO 2 with absorber of adsorbent. In order to choose an optimum process, we should consider the characteristics of the process, such as, temperature, pressure, humidity etc. and surface dose rate on C-14 scrubber and gas bag to estimate job-related personnel doses. Assuming that the whole C-14 scrubber was completely replaced after one-cycle operation, and that its C-14 activity for one-cycle operation was 40 mCi, we calculated the surface dose rate at the six points of the C-14 scrubber. This calculation showed that the dose rate on the surface of cartridge was only 1.25μSυ/hγ because of low energy of β ray. It is concluded, therefore, that the cartridge change-out is safe because the operation of C-14 removal system causes only a small increase in dose rate

  14. Water scrubbers as new mitigating devices in Swedish reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espefaelt, R.

    1988-01-01

    Controlling the containment pressure is an important part of the Swedish severe accident mitigation strategy. As a final measure, venting of the containment atmosphere to the environment is feasible via a filtered venting system using a water scrubber as the filtering device. The comprehensive theoretical and experimental verification of the Multi Venturi Scrubber System has resulted in the following predicted scrubber performance: Both during the scrubber heat-up phase and in long periods of operation, where the water of the scrubber is heated to saturation, a decontamination factor of the order of several thousand is predicted. During no conditions foreseen in the safety analysis are decontamination factors below DF = 500 in the BWR scrubber and DF = 1500 in the PWR scrubber envisaged. These values are equivalent to a retention of 99.8 % and 99.9 % respectively and correspond to a case with only about 10-20 cm of water above the venturi tube outlets and unfavorable gas dynamic conditions. They can be compared to the design values (DF = 100 and 500, respectively) required to limit ground contamination to the very low level specified by Swedish authorities. 1 fig

  15. Mathematical modelling of non-isothermal venturi scrubbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, A. [Isfahan Univ., Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Taheri, M.; Fathikakajahi, J. [Shiraz Univ., Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2005-06-01

    Venturi scrubbers collect gaseous pollutants and particulate matter from industrial exhaust. This air pollution control device is highly efficient, easy to maintain and has a low initial cost. However, the high pressure drop through the device results in a high running cost. The main mechanism for collecting particulates is the inertial impaction of the particles on the droplets, which occurs due to high velocity between the gas stream and droplets. Droplet acceleration and irreversible drag-force which results from this high relative velocity are responsible for the high pressure drop in this type of scrubber. While several attempts have been made to mathematically model particulate removal in Venturi scrubbers, most models do not consider simultaneous heat and mass transfer. This factor is important because most Venturi scrubbers operate under non-isothermal conditions where the inlet gas is humidified in order to cool it before entering the scrubber. For that reason, the authors developed a more realistic model to determine the effects of heat and mass transfer on the particulate removal efficiency of a non-isothermal Venturi type scrubber. The model considers the effect of droplet size distribution and liquid film flow on the walls. It consists of differential equations for energy, momentum and material exchange. Model results were compared with data from experimental studies and industrial facilities. It was concluded that the removal efficiency of the scrubber is influenced by the inlet humidity temperature of the inlet gas. 26 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  16. IN SITU STEAM ENHANCED RECOVERY PROCESS - HUGHES ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS, INC. - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Innovative Technology Evaluation report summarizes the findings of an evaluation of the in situ Steam Enhanced Recovery Process (SERP) operated by Hughes Environmental Systems, Inc. at the Rainbow Disposal facility in Huntington Beach, California. he technology demonstration...

  17. Supporting Calculations For Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajunen, A. J.; Tedeschi, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    This document provides supporting calculations for the preparation of the Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study report. The supporting calculations include equipment sizing, Hazard Category determination, and LAW Melter Decontamination Factor Adjustments

  18. Supporting Calculations For Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajunen, A. J.; Tedeschi, A. R.

    2012-09-18

    This document provides supporting calculations for the preparation of the Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study report The supporting calculations include equipment sizing, Hazard Category determination, and LAW Melter Decontamination Factor Adjustments.

  19. The ways of mass transfer intensification in industrial jet scrubbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilyaev Michael

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to parametrical analysis of model, and is aimed at understanding its possibilities to find the most profitable conditions for the technical processes. These processes should consider the maximal extraction of gas and mechanical admixtures from the flow on the droplets of irrigating liquid and reduce the dimensions of hollow direct-flow jet scrubbers (DFJS and Venturi scrubbers (VS.

  20. Dust particle removal efficiency of a venturi scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Majid; Yan, Changqi; Sun, Zhongning; Gu, Haifeng; Mehboob, Khurram

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Experimental and theoretical study of dust removal efficiency in venturi scrubber. ► Dust removal efficiency 99.5% is achieved at throat gas velocity 220 m/s. ► Results obtained from mathematical model concur well with experimental results. - Abstract: The venturi scrubber is one of the most efficient gas cleaning devices to remove the contaminated particles from gaseous stream during severe accident in nuclear power plant. This study is focused on the dust particle removal efficiency of the venturi scrubber experimentally and theoretically. The venturi scrubber encapsulates the dust particles in petite water droplets flowing into it. The water injected into the scrubber is in the form of water film. The study investigates the removal efficiency of venturi scrubber for throat gas velocities of 130, 165 and 200 m/s and liquid flow rates 0.3–1 m 3 /h, whereas dust concentration ranges between 0.1 and 1 g/m 3 . The hydrophobic titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) particles having density 4.23 g/cm 3 and mean diameter of 1 μm are used as dust particles in this research. Filtration technique is used to measure the concentration of dust particles at inlet and outlet. Experimental results show that the removal efficiency is higher with the increase of throat gas velocity and liquid flow rate. A mathematical model is employed for the verification of experimental results. The model concurs well with the experimental results

  1. Integration of chemical scrubber with sodium hypochlorite and surfactant for removal of hydrocarbons in cooking oil fume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Hsin-Han; Hsieh, Chu-Chin

    2010-01-01

    There are many types of technologies to control cooking oil fumes (COFs), but current typical technologies, such as electrostatic precipitator, conventional scrubber, catalyst, or condenser, are unable to efficiently remove the odorous materials present in COFs which are the primary cause of odor-complaint cases. There is also a lack of information about using sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and surfactants to remove contaminants in COFs, and previous studies lack on-site investigations in restaurants. This study presents a chemical scrubber integrated with an automatic control system (ACS) to treat hydrocarbons (HCs) in COFs, and to monitor non-methane HCs (NMHC) and odor as indicators for its efficiency evaluation. The chemical scrubber effectively treats hydrophobic substances in COFs by combining surfactant and NaOCl under optimal operational conditions with NHMC removal efficiency as high as 85%. The mass transfer coefficient (K L a) of NMHC was enhanced by 50% under the NaOCl and surfactant conditions, as compared to typical wet scrubber. Further, this study establishes the fuzzy equations of the ACS, including the relationship between the removal efficiency and K L a, liquid/gas ratio, pH and C NaOCl .

  2. Integration of chemical scrubber with sodium hypochlorite and surfactant for removal of hydrocarbons in cooking oil fume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hsin-Han [Graduate School of Engineering Science and Technology, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Touliu, Yunlin, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Chu-Chin, E-mail: hsiehcc@yuntech.edu.tw [Department of Environmental and Safety Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Touliu, Yunlin, Taiwan (China)

    2010-10-15

    There are many types of technologies to control cooking oil fumes (COFs), but current typical technologies, such as electrostatic precipitator, conventional scrubber, catalyst, or condenser, are unable to efficiently remove the odorous materials present in COFs which are the primary cause of odor-complaint cases. There is also a lack of information about using sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and surfactants to remove contaminants in COFs, and previous studies lack on-site investigations in restaurants. This study presents a chemical scrubber integrated with an automatic control system (ACS) to treat hydrocarbons (HCs) in COFs, and to monitor non-methane HCs (NMHC) and odor as indicators for its efficiency evaluation. The chemical scrubber effectively treats hydrophobic substances in COFs by combining surfactant and NaOCl under optimal operational conditions with NHMC removal efficiency as high as 85%. The mass transfer coefficient (K{sub L}a) of NMHC was enhanced by 50% under the NaOCl and surfactant conditions, as compared to typical wet scrubber. Further, this study establishes the fuzzy equations of the ACS, including the relationship between the removal efficiency and K{sub L}a, liquid/gas ratio, pH and C{sub NaOCl}.

  3. Particle collection by a pilot plant venturi scrubber downstream from a pilot plant electrostatic precipitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, L. E.; Ramsey, G. H.; Daniel, B. E.

    The results of pilot plant experiments of particulate collection by a venturi scrubber downstream from an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) are presented. The data, which cover a range of scrubber operating conditions and ESP efficiencies, show that particle collection by the venturi scrubber is not affected by the upstream ESP; i.e., for a given scrubber pressure drop, particle collection efficiency as a function of particle diameter is the same for both ESP on and ESP off. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. Order of magnitude cost estimates indicate that particle collection by ESP scrubber systems may be economically attractive when scrubbers must be used for SO x control.

  4. Numerical Analysis on Behavior of Droplet in Venturi Scrubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, W. Y.; Lee, D. Y.; Bang, Y. S. [FNC Technology Co. Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    At throat, the velocity of the gas would be at maximum and the pressure would be the lowest. Due to pressure difference between inside and outside of the throat, the liquid submerging the venture scrubber would be sucked and atomized. As the gas flow through the diffuser, the pressure would be recovered and the dust in the gas mixture would be captured by the atomized liquid droplets. In this process of dust removal in venture scrubber, atomization (i.e. breakup of liquid droplet in the venturi scrubber) is crucial for filtering efficiency. In order to maintain the high efficiency, the injected liquid should be atomized into fine droplets and well spread. Because of its importance, the experimental study has been conducted by many researchers. However, numerical study has not been conducted extensively. As a preliminary study for estimating filtration efficiency of venturi scrubber by numerical tools, the behavior of droplet inside the venturi scrubber is simulated. Due to the pressure difference inside and outside of the throat, the liquid would be sucked and injected through the holes. The behavior that the liquid is injected through the holes, accelerated by the gas flow and atomized into small sized particles has been observed.

  5. Numerical Analysis on Behavior of Droplet in Venturi Scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, W. Y.; Lee, D. Y.; Bang, Y. S.

    2015-01-01

    At throat, the velocity of the gas would be at maximum and the pressure would be the lowest. Due to pressure difference between inside and outside of the throat, the liquid submerging the venture scrubber would be sucked and atomized. As the gas flow through the diffuser, the pressure would be recovered and the dust in the gas mixture would be captured by the atomized liquid droplets. In this process of dust removal in venture scrubber, atomization (i.e. breakup of liquid droplet in the venturi scrubber) is crucial for filtering efficiency. In order to maintain the high efficiency, the injected liquid should be atomized into fine droplets and well spread. Because of its importance, the experimental study has been conducted by many researchers. However, numerical study has not been conducted extensively. As a preliminary study for estimating filtration efficiency of venturi scrubber by numerical tools, the behavior of droplet inside the venturi scrubber is simulated. Due to the pressure difference inside and outside of the throat, the liquid would be sucked and injected through the holes. The behavior that the liquid is injected through the holes, accelerated by the gas flow and atomized into small sized particles has been observed

  6. Recovery of volatile fruit juice aroma compounds by membrane technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Jørgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.; Pinelo, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The influence of temperature (10–45°C), feed flow rate (300–500L/h) and sweeping gas flow rate (1.2–2m3/h) on the recovery of berry fruit juice aroma compounds by sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) was examined on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane...... distillation set up. The data were compared to recovery of the aroma compounds by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). The flux of SGMD increased with an increase in temperature, feed flow rate or sweeping gas flow rate. Increased temperature and feed flow rate also increased the concentration factors...... the degradation of anthocyanins and polyphenolic compounds in the juice. Industrial relevanceHigh temperature evaporation is the most widely used industrial technique for aroma recovery and concentration of juices, but membrane distillation (MD) may provide for gentler aroma stripping and lower energy consumption...

  7. Investing in Marine Scrubber under Uncertainty with Real Option Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Liping; Hansen, Carsten Ørts

    works that examine the economic feasibility of scrubber retrofitting through the net present value rule, this paper applies the Real Option Analysis to find the optimal investment strategies. The proposed decision-making framework addresses the uncertainty and the value of deferral option embedded...... in the scrubber investment. The multiple sources of investment uncertainties are explicitly analyzed and integrated in the modeling by using Rainbow option. The results demonstrate that the value of the scrubber investment has significantly increased for several cases by considering the deferral option....... It is thus important for ship owners to consider the available options before proceeding with abandoning or investing strategy. The proposed framework can be widely applied to other ship retrofitting investment evaluations, which include similar investment alternatives and uncertainties....

  8. Membrane-based processes for wastewater nutrient recovery: Technology, challenges, and future direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ming; Shon, Ho Kyong; Gray, Stephen R; Elimelech, Menachem

    2016-02-01

    Wastewater nutrient recovery holds promise for more sustainable water and agricultural industries. We critically review three emerging membrane processes - forward osmosis (FO), membrane distillation (MD) and electrodialysis (ED) - that can advance wastewater nutrient recovery. Challenges associated with wastewater nutrient recovery were identified. The advantages and challenges of applying FO, MD, and ED technologies to wastewater nutrient recovery are discussed, and directions for future research and development are identified. Emphasis is given to exploration of the unique mass transfer properties of these membrane processes in the context of wastewater nutrient recovery. We highlight that hybridising these membrane processes with existing nutrient precipitation process will lead to better management of and more diverse pathways for near complete nutrient recovery in wastewater treatment facilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of Liquid Fraction in Venturi Scrubber by E-E Method Using CFX

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Ali; Yan Changqi; Sun Zhongning; Wang Jianjun; Gu HaiFeng

    2012-01-01

    In this research, the distribution of liquid fraction in cylindrical venturi scrubber is analyzed in ANSYS CFX by Eulerian-Eulerian regime. Liquid gaps allow the aerosols to escape from the venturi scrubber. Therefore, it is vital to investigate the liquid fraction in venturi scrubber at different operating condition. The mesh model is developed in ANSYS ICEM and simulation is conducted in ANSYS CFX. k- ε turbulence model is used for simulation of two phase flow in venturi scrubber. The analy...

  10. Efficient particulate scrubber for glass melter off-gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, G.T.

    1983-01-01

    Operation of joule-heated, continuous slurry-fed melters has demonstrated that off-gas aerosols are generated by entrainment of feed slurry and vaporization of volatile species from the melt. Effective off-gas stream decontamination for these aerosols can be obtained by utilizing a suitably designed and operated wet scrubber system. Results are presented for performance tests conducted with an air aspirating-type venturi scrubber processing a simulated melter off-gas aerosol. Mass overall removal efficiencies ranged from 99.5 to 99.8%. Details of the testing program and applications for melter off-gas system design are discussed

  11. Polymer filtration: A new technology for selective metals recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Cournoyer, M.E.; Wilson, K.V.; Sauer, N.N.; Mullen, K.I.; Lu, M.T.; Jarvinen, J.J.

    1995-04-01

    Polymer Filtration (PF) was evaluated for the recovery of electroplating metal ions (zinc and nickel) from rinse waters. Polymer Filtration combines the use of water-soluble metal-binding polymers and ultrafiltration to concentrate metal ions from dilute rinse water solutions. The metal ions are retained by the polymers; the smaller, unbound species freely pass through the ultrafiltration membrane. By using this process the ultrafiltered permeate more than meets EPA discharge limits. The metal ions are recovered from the concentrated polymer solution by pH adjustment using diafiltration and can be recycled to the original electroplating baths with no deleterious effects on the test panels. Metal-ion recovery is accomplished without producing sludge.

  12. Rapid Airfield Damage Recovery: Deployable Saw Technology Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-29

    portland cement concrete for Rapid Airfield Damage Recovery (RADR). However, the next generation of RADR is focusing on lighter and leaner efforts...best tools for cutting portland cement concrete (PCC) in ADR scenarios (Bell et al. 2015 and Edwards et al. 2015). The saws are easily attached to...Various teeth are available for varying needs and jobs. Most teeth are made of steel with carbide tips. The carbide may be produced as a seat tip or

  13. Energy recovery as a key technology for future mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellbeck, Hans; Risse, Silvio [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbrennungsmotoren

    2011-07-01

    Internal and external combustion engines in both stationary and mobile applications represent an essential, basic module for a functioning economy and society. In ensuring mobility worldwide by land and by sea, the combustion engine plays the dominant role. Customer requirements to be fulfilled are manifold. Accordingly a downward trend in the demand for or indeed the abandonment of the combustion engine in personal or freight transport is in the near future unforeseeable. With regard to the continuously increasing need for mobility subject to limited resources and rising environmental consciousness, the combustion engine and the means to improve its efficiency and sustainability are under intensive investigation. Along with the application of CO{sub 2}-neutral fuels, improvements in the system itself will be valuable to its future. More specifically, compared to many other techniques the recovery of energy losses resulting from the operation of these engines promises a very high degree of optimization. An overview of the current and predicted number of combustion engines in both stationary and mobile applications is given at the beginning of the paper. Furthermore, a differentiation between personal and freight traffic must be made since there is not only a difference in their respective power requirements but also in their lifecycles. The energy losses through exhaust gases and coolants, for example, are quantified and rated in terms of their capabilities on the basis of certain fields of application and utilization profiles. With regard to additional specific boundary conditions, various concepts ranging from recuperation in theory to actual recovery in practice under conditions approximating actual production are analysed in different application scenarios for their efficiency, ecological benefit, and economy. Retroactive or synergistic effects which may follow from their integration into the complete system are considered precisely with the help of examples

  14. Microfluidics: an enabling screening technology for enhanced oil recovery (EOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifton, Victor A

    2016-05-21

    Oil production is a critical industrial process that affects the entire world population and any improvements in its efficiency while reducing its environmental impact are of utmost societal importance. The paper reviews recent applications of microfluidics and microtechnology to study processes of oil extraction and recovery. It shows that microfluidic devices can be useful tools in investigation and visualization of such processes used in the oil & gas industry as fluid propagation, flooding, fracturing, emulsification and many others. Critical macro-scale processes that define oil extraction and recovery are controlled by the micro-scale processes based on wetting, adhesion, surface tension, colloids and other concepts of microfluidics. A growing number of research efforts demonstrates that microfluidics is becoming, albeit slowly, an accepted methodology in this area. We propose several areas of development where implementation of microfluidics may bring about deeper understanding and hence better control over the processes of oil recovery based on fluid propagation, droplet generation, wettability control. Studies of processes such as hydraulic fracturing, sand particle propagation in porous networks, high throughput screening of chemicals (for example, emulsifiers and surfactants) in microfluidic devices that simulate oil reservoirs are proposed to improve our understanding of these complicated physico-chemical systems. We also discuss why methods of additive manufacturing (3D printing) should be evaluated for quick prototyping and modification of the three-dimensional structures replicating natural oil-bearing rock formations for studies accessible to a wider audience of researchers.

  15. Commercial Demonstration of Wood Recovery, Recycling, and Value Adding Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auburn Machinery, Inc.

    2004-07-15

    This commercial demonstration project demonstrated the technical feasibility of converting low-value, underutilized and waste stream solid wood fiber material into higher valued products. With a growing need to increase product/production yield and reduce waste in most sawmills, few recovery operations and practically no data existed to support the viability of recovery operations. Prior to our efforts, most all in the forest products industry believed that recovery was difficult, extremely labor intensive, not cost effective, and that recovered products had low value and were difficult to sell. This project provided an opportunity for many within the industry to see through demonstration that converting waste stream material into higher valued products does in fact offer a solution. Our work, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, throughout the project aimed to demonstrate a reasonable approach to reducing the millions of recoverable solid wood fiber tons that are annually treated as and converted into low value chips, mulch and fuel. Consequently sawmills continue to suffer from reduced availability of forest resources, higher raw material costs, growing waste disposal problems, increased global competition, and more pressure to operate in an Environmentally Friendly manner. It is our belief (based upon the experience of this project) that the successful mainstreaming of the recovery concept would assist in alleviating this burden as well as provide for a realistically achievable economic benefit to those who would seriously pursue the concept and tap into the rapidly growing ''GREEN'' building marketplace. Ultimately, with participation and aggressive pursuit of the recovery concept, the public would benefit in that: (1) Landfill/disposal waste volume could be reduced adding greater life to existing municipal landfill sites thereby minimizing the need to prematurely license and open added facilities. Also, there would be a cost

  16. Concept for a cyclonic spray scrubber as a fission product removal system for filtered containment venting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebel, Luke S., E-mail: Luke.Lebel@cnl.ca; Piro, Markus H., E-mail: Markus.Piro@cnl.ca; MacCoy, Reilly, E-mail: Reilly.MacCoy@cnl.ca; Clouthier, Anthony, E-mail: Tony.Clouthier@cnl.ca; Chin, Yu-Shan, E-mail: Sammy.Chin@cnl.ca

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A new cyclonic spray scrubber concept for filtered containment venting is presented. • Mechanistic particle removal model paired with discrete particle CFD simulations. • Calculations predict that very high decontamination factors can be achieved. - Abstract: The application of a cyclonic spray scrubber as a technology for filtered containment venting is proposed in this paper. This study has paired a mechanistic model for the kinetic particle coagulation of with Euler–Lagrange discrete particle simulations in order to predict particle decontamination factors. The continuous phase behavior has been investigated using computational fluid dynamics simulations together with phase Doppler anemometry measurements. Calculations show that spray scrubbing of radionuclide-bearing aerosols could be very effective, and predict that decontamination factors can be in excess of 10{sup 6} for micron sized particles and excess of 10{sup 3} for submicron particles. In the wake of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, filtered containment venting is being viewed as an increasingly important severe accident mitigation technology. Cyclonic spray scrubbing could be implemented as a passive technology for decontaminating containment gases in an emergency prior to their discharge to the atmosphere, and is a novel approach for this application.

  17. Concept for a cyclonic spray scrubber as a fission product removal system for filtered containment venting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebel, Luke S.; Piro, Markus H.; MacCoy, Reilly; Clouthier, Anthony; Chin, Yu-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A new cyclonic spray scrubber concept for filtered containment venting is presented. • Mechanistic particle removal model paired with discrete particle CFD simulations. • Calculations predict that very high decontamination factors can be achieved. - Abstract: The application of a cyclonic spray scrubber as a technology for filtered containment venting is proposed in this paper. This study has paired a mechanistic model for the kinetic particle coagulation of with Euler–Lagrange discrete particle simulations in order to predict particle decontamination factors. The continuous phase behavior has been investigated using computational fluid dynamics simulations together with phase Doppler anemometry measurements. Calculations show that spray scrubbing of radionuclide-bearing aerosols could be very effective, and predict that decontamination factors can be in excess of 10 6 for micron sized particles and excess of 10 3 for submicron particles. In the wake of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, filtered containment venting is being viewed as an increasingly important severe accident mitigation technology. Cyclonic spray scrubbing could be implemented as a passive technology for decontaminating containment gases in an emergency prior to their discharge to the atmosphere, and is a novel approach for this application.

  18. Industrial Waste Heat Recovery - Potential Applications, Available Technologies and Crosscutting R&D Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thekdi, Arvind [E3M Inc, North Potomac, MD (United States); Nimbalkar, Sachin U. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to explore key areas and characteristics of industrial waste heat and its generation, barriers to waste heat recovery and use, and potential research and development (R&D) opportunities. The report also provides an overview of technologies and systems currently available for waste heat recovery and discusses the issues or barriers for each. Also included is information on emerging technologies under development or at various stages of demonstrations, and R&D opportunities cross-walked by various temperature ranges, technology areas, and energy-intensive process industries.

  19. Development of alkaline/surfactant/polymer (ASP flooding technology for recovery of Karazhanbas oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birzhan Zhappasbaev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The tertiary oil recovery methods like alkaline, surfactant and polymer (ASP flooding are very perspective in order to achieve the synergetic effect out of the different impacts which are caused by these chemicals, which affect oil and water filtration in the reservoir and increase oil recovery. In this communication, we consider the applicability of hydrophobically modified polyampholyte – poly(hexadecylaminocrotonatebetaine (PHDACB as ASP flooding agent for recovery of oil from Karazhanbas oilfield. As “polysoap”, the aqueous solution of PHDACB dissolved in aqueous KOH was used. This system combines the advantages of alkaline, surfactant and polymer and exhibits the synergistic effect. The laboratory results showed that the ASP flooding considerably increases the oil recovery in addition to water flooding. In perspective, the ASP flooding may substitute the steam injection and other thermal enhanced oil recovery (EOR technologies.

  20. ECOLOGY SAFETY TECHNOLOGIES OF UNCONVENTIONAL OIL RESERVES RECOVERY FOR SUSTAINABLE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacheslav Zyrin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of effective technology for heavy oil recovery nowadays has a great importance, because of worsening geological conditions of the developed deposits, decreasing recovery factor, increasing the part of heavy oil. For the future sustainable development of oil producing industry the involved technologies must require energy effectiveness and ecological safety. The paper proves the enhanced oil recovery methods necessity for heavy oil deposits, highlighted thermal technologies as the most effective. But traditional thermal treatment technologies is a source of air pollutant emission, such as CO, NO etc. The calculation of emissions for traditional steam generator is provided. Besides, the paper shows the effectiveness of electrical enhanced oil recovery methods. The advantages of associated gas as a fuel for cogeneration plants is shown. The main approaches to implementation of carbon dioxide sequestration technologies in the oil and gas industry of Russia are defined. Conceptual view of СО2-EOR technologies potential within the context of sustainable development of oil and gas industry are presented. On the basis of the conducted research a number of scientific research and practical areas of the CCS technology development are revealed.

  1. Biohydrometallurgy and membrane technology for resource recovery from low-grade ores and mining residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Arite; Meschke, Katja; Bohlke, Kevin; Haseneder, Roland; Daus, Birgit; Repke, Jens-Uwe

    2017-01-01

    The recovery of strategic elements from secondary mineral resources and low grade ores is of increasing relevance, due to a changing global market as well as for reasons of sustainability. The present article shows the potential of biohydrometallurgy as an efficient technology for mobilization of metals from secondary mineral resources. Furthermore, the application of membrane separation as a successful technique for the recovery of metals from bioleaching solutions is presented. These issues are discussed within the scope of recent research projects.

  2. Application of polymer flooding technology for enhanced oil recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkyt Kudaivergenov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of brine-initiated gelation of gellan for conformance control and water shutoff operations in field conditions was demonstrated. The developed technology was tested in Kumkol oilfield (Kyzylorda region, Kazakhstan on five injection wells. According to the results of the first oilfield test, the amount of additionally recovered oil during 11 months (from October 1, 2013 till September 1, 2014 was equal to 5890 tons. In 2014, the JSC “NIPIneftegas” (Aktau city, Kazakhstan carried out the second pilot test of polymer flooding technology on the same oilfield. The amount of additionally recovered oil during eight months (from October 2014 till May 2015 was equal to 8695 tons. The technology was tested for water shut-off purposes in producing well of Karabulak oilfield. After one-month treatment of production well the amount of water decreased 16 times in comparison with previous results.

  3. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerke, Frank G.

    2001-01-01

    This cooperative program between the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology and Caterpillar, Inc. is aimed at demonstrating electric turbocompound technology on a Class 8 truck engine. This is a lab demonstration program, with no provision for on-truck testing of the system. The goal is to demonstrate the level of fuel efficiency improvement attainable with the electric turbocompound system. Also, electric turbocompounding adds an additional level of control to the air supply which could be a component in an emissions control strategy

  4. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Mark B.

    1999-02-24

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County New Mexico is a cost-shared field demonstration project in the US Department of Energy Class II Program. A major goal of the Class III Program is to stimulate the use of advanced technologies to increase ultimate recovery from slope-basin clastic reservoirs. Advanced characterization techniques are being used at the Nash Draw project to develop reservoir management strategies for optimizing oil recovery from this Delaware reservoir. Analysis, interpretation, and integration of recently acquired geologic, geophysical, and engineering data revealed that the initial reservoir characterization was too simplistic to capture the critical features of this complex formation. Contrary to the initial characterization, a new reservoir description evolved that provided sufficient detail regarding the complexity of the Brushy Canyon interval at Nash Draw. This new reservoir description is being used as a risk reduction tool to identify ''sweet spots'' for a development drilling program as well as to evaluate pressure maintenance strategies. The reservoir characterization, geological modeling, 3-D seismic interpretation, and simulation studies have provided a detailed model of the Brushy Canyon zones. This model was used to predict the success of different reservoir management scenarios and to aid in determining the most favorable combination of targeted drilling, pressure maintenance, well simulation, and well spacing to improve recovery from this reservoir.

  5. Status of technology of uranium recovery from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugo, Takanobu; Saito, Kyoichi.

    1990-01-01

    By bringing the solid material called adsorbent in contact with seawater, uranium can be collected, therefore, the adsorbent to which uranium was adsorbed in seawater can be regarded as the resource of uranium storing. To the adsorbent, also rare metals are concentrated in addition to uranium. From such viewpoint, the development of the technology for collecting seawater uranium is important for the Japanese energy policy. The uranium concentration in seawater is about 3 mg/m 3 and its form of dissolution is uranyl tricarbonate ions. The technology of collecting seawater uranium is the separation technology for extracting the component of very low concentration from the aqueous solution containing many components. The total amount of uranium in the whole oceans reaches about 4 billion t, which is about 1000 times as much as the uranium commercially mined on land. It is the target of the technology to make artificial uranium ore of as high quality as possible quickly. The process of collecting seawater uranium comprises adsorption, desorption, separation and enrichment. As the adsorbents, hydrated titanium oxide and chelate resin represented by amidoxime are promising. The adsorption system is described. (K.I.)

  6. Space Technology Game Changing Development- Next Generation Life Support: Spacecraft Oxygen Recovery (SCOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan; Barta, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Spacecraft Oxygen Recovery (SCOR) project element is dedicated to developing technology that enables oxygen recovery from metabolically produced carbon dioxide in space habitats. The state-of-the-art system on the International Space Station uses Sabatier technology to recover (is) approximately 50% oxygen from carbon dioxide. The remaining oxygen required for crew respiration is supplied from Earth. For long duration manned missions beyond low-Earth orbit, resupply of oxygen becomes economically and logistically prohibitive. To mitigate these challenges, the SCOR project element is targeting development of technology to increase the recovery of oxygen to 75% or more, thereby reducing the total oxygen resupply required for future missions.

  7. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery for thermal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, T.B.; Bolivar, J.

    1997-12-01

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Ninth Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 62 through 67. The first, second, third, fourth fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth reports on Annex IV, [Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5, IV-6, IV-7, and IV-8 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP) (DOE/BC-92/1/SP, DOE/BC-93/3/SP, and DOE/BC-95/3/SP)] contain the results from the first 61 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1987, November 1988, October 1991, February 1993, and March 1995 respectively.

  8. Review of technology for Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackinger, W. M.

    1980-08-01

    The technical background briefing report is the first step in the preparation of a plan for engineering research oriented toward Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery. A five-year leasing schedule for the ice-prone waters of the Arctic offshore is presented, which also shows the projected dates of the lease sale for each area. The estimated peak production rates for these areas are given. There is considerable uncertainty for all these production estimates, since no exploratory drilling has yet taken place. A flow chart is presented which relates the special Arctic factors, such as ice and permafrost, to the normal petroleum production sequence. Some highlights from the chart and from the technical review are: (1) in many Arctic offshore locations the movement of sea ice causes major lateral forces on offshore structures, which are much greater than wave forces; (2) spray ice buildup on structures, ships and aircraft will be considerable, and must be prevented or accommodated with special designs; (3) the time available for summer exploratory drilling, and for deployment of permanent production structures, is limited by the return of the pack ice. This time may be extended by ice-breaking vessels in some cases; (4) during production, icebreaking workboats will service the offshore platforms in most areas throughout the year; (5) transportation of petroleum by icebreaking tankers from offshore tanker loading points is a highly probable situation, except in the Alaskan Beaufort; and (6) Arctic pipelines must contend with permafrost, making instrumentation necessary to detect subtle changes of the pipe before rupture occurs.

  9. Recovery of acids from dilute streams : A review of process technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talnikar, Vivek Digambar; Mahajan, Yogesh Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Chemical process industries convert raw materials into useful products. Acids, among other chemicals, are used in many industries as reactants, solvents and also as catalysts in a few instances as well. Resulting streams are dilute, from which the acids must be recovered. For recovery, many technologies can be used by which acids can be regained as such or can be converted into other value-added products like esters. Membrane processes and biological processes are being researched academically and practiced industrially. These have their own advantages and disadvantages in view of conversion, energy consumption etc. These are not always advantageous and hence an alternate process technology is necessary like reactive separation (RS). RS is advantageous especially when the acid is to be converted to other useful products by reaction, due to additional advantages or because no other technology is well suited or due to cost considerations alone. Conventional process technologies use the reactor configuration followed by the subsequent separation sequence. This approach can sometimes suffer from lesser conversion, difficulties in separation etc. To overcome these problems, RS has an edge over other processes in terms of the recovery of the useful compounds. Reactive distillation (RD), reactive extraction (RE) and reactive chromatography (RC) are the separation technologies that can be useful for acid recovery in an economically feasible way. This review covers the various processes of acid recovery along with the recent work in the field of reactive separations

  10. Technologies for utilization of industrial excess heat: Potentials for energy recovery and CO2 emission reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broberg Viklund, Sarah; Johansson, Maria T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Technologies for recovery and use of industrial excess heat were investigated. • Heat harvesting, heat storage, heat utilization, and heat conversion technologies. • Heat recovery potential for Gävleborg County in Sweden was calculated. • Effects on global CO 2 emissions were calculated for future energy market scenarios. - Abstract: Industrial excess heat is a large untapped resource, for which there is potential for external use, which would create benefits for industry and society. Use of excess heat can provide a way to reduce the use of primary energy and to contribute to global CO 2 mitigation. The aim of this paper is to present different measures for the recovery and utilization of industrial excess heat and to investigate how the development of the future energy market can affect which heat utilization measure would contribute the most to global CO 2 emissions mitigation. Excess heat recovery is put into a context by applying some of the excess heat recovery measures to the untapped excess heat potential in Gävleborg County in Sweden. Two different cases for excess heat recovery are studied: heat delivery to a district heating system and heat-driven electricity generation. To investigate the impact of excess heat recovery on global CO 2 emissions, six consistent future energy market scenarios were used. Approximately 0.8 TWh/year of industrial excess heat in Gävleborg County is not used today. The results show that with the proposed recovery measures approximately 91 GWh/year of district heating, or 25 GWh/year of electricity, could be supplied from this heat. Electricity generation would result in reduced global CO 2 emissions in all of the analyzed scenarios, while heat delivery to a DH system based on combined heat and power production from biomass would result in increased global CO 2 emissions when the CO 2 emission charge is low

  11. Removal of iodomethane from air using a plot-scale corona discharge scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, L.W.; Toft-Hall, A.; Torgerson, D.F.

    1985-12-01

    This report presents the results of a study of the removal of iodomethane from air using a pilot-scale corona discharge scrubber. The removal was measured in the following parameter ranges: bulk air flow, 30 to 350 m 3 /h; initial CH 3 I concentration, 6 to 230 μmol/m 3 ; and discharge current, 0 to 75 mA DC (negative polarity). Approximately five to ten moles of iodomethane are removed per mole of electrons added to the air stream at a discharge voltage of ∼ 10 kV. This removal efficiency suggests that both ion-molecule and radical-molecule reactions may be important in the removal of iodomethane from air in a corona discharge. The results of this pilot-scale demonstration indicate that a corona discharge scrubber would be suitable for removing iodine species from air as part of the emergency filtered-air discharge system of a nuclear reactor. The application of this technology to the control of nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide emissions is being investigated. 15 refs

  12. Using mobile phone technology to provide recovery support for women offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Christy K; Johnson, Kimberly; Dennis, Michael L

    2013-10-01

    Mobile technology holds promise as a recovery tool for people with substance use disorders. However, some populations who may benefit the most may not have access to or experience with mobile phones. Incarcerated women represent a group at high risk for recidivism and relapse to substance abuse. Cost-effective mechanisms must be in place to support their recovery upon release. This study explores using mobile technology as a recovery management tool for women offenders residing in the community following release from jail. This study surveyed 325 minority women offenders with substance use disorders to determine whether or not they use cell phones, their comfort with texting and search features, and the social networks that they access from mobile phones. We found that 83% of survey subjects had cell phones; 30% of those were smartphones. Seventy-seven percent of the women reported access to supportive friends, and 88% had close family members they contacted regularly using mobile technology. Results indicated that most of the women were comfortable using a mobile phone, although the majority of them had prepaid minutes rather than plans, and most did currently use smartphones or have the capability to download applications or access social networks via their phones. Most women reported that they would be comfortable using a mobile phone to text, e-mail, and answer surveys. The high rate of adoption of mobile technology by women offenders makes them a promising target for recovery support delivered via mobile phone.

  13. Progress in recovery technology for uranium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugo, Takanobu; Saito, Kyoichi.

    1994-01-01

    By the facts that the research group in Japan improved the performance of amidoxime resin which is the adsorbent for collecting seawater uranium, proposed the method of mooring floating bodies utilizing sea current and waves as the adsorption system, and further, verified the results of laboratory basic experiment by marine experiment, the technology of collecting seawater uranium has progressed. After the oil crisis, various countries started the research on seawater uranium, but only Japan has continued the systematic study up to now. In this report, the research on seawater uranium collection carried out so far is summarized, and the characteristics of the adsorbent which was synthesized by radiation graft polymerization and the results of the uranium collection test using coastal seawater are reported. In seawater of 1 m 3 , the uranium of 3.3 mg is dissolved in the form of uranyl tricarbonate complex ions. In the total quantity of seawater, the dissolved uranium amounts to about 4.6 billion tons, about 1000 times of the uranium resources on land. The research on seawater uranium collection and the performance of uranium adsorption of synthesized amidoxime fibers are reported. (K.I.)

  14. Removing Ambiguities of IP Telephony Traffic Using Protocol Scrubbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazara I. A. Barry

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Network intrusion detection systems (NIDSs face the serious challenge of attacks such as insertion and evasion attacks that are caused by ambiguous network traffic. Such ambiguity comes as a result of the nature of network traffic which includes protocol implementation variations and errors alongside legitimate network traffic. Moreover, attackers can intentionally introduce further ambiguities in the traffic. Consequently, NIDSs need to be aware of these ambiguities when detection is performed and make sure to differentiate between true attacks and protocol implementation variations or errors; otherwise, detection accuracy can be affected negatively. In this paper we present the design and implementation of tools that are called protocol scrubbers whose main functionality is to remove ambiguities from network traffic before it is presented to the NIDS. The proposed protocol scrubbers are designed for session initiation and data transfer protocols in IP telephony systems. They guarantee that the traffic presented to NIDSs is unambiguous by eliminating ambiguous behaviors of protocols using well-designed protocol state machines, and walking through packet headers of protocols to make sure packets will be interpreted in the desired way by the NIDS. The experimental results shown in this paper demonstrate the good quality and applicability of the introduced scrubbers.

  15. Mercury removal in utility wet scrubber using a chelating agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrhein, Gerald T.

    2001-01-01

    A method for capturing and reducing the mercury content of an industrial flue gas such as that produced in the combustion of a fossil fuel or solid waste adds a chelating agent, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or other similar compounds like HEDTA, DTPA and/or NTA, to the flue gas being scrubbed in a wet scrubber used in the industrial process. The chelating agent prevents the reduction of oxidized mercury to elemental mercury, thereby increasing the mercury removal efficiency of the wet scrubber. Exemplary tests on inlet and outlet mercury concentration in an industrial flue gas were performed without and with EDTA addition. Without EDTA, mercury removal totaled 42%. With EDTA, mercury removal increased to 71%. The invention may be readily adapted to known wet scrubber systems and it specifically provides for the removal of unwanted mercury both by supplying S.sup.2- ions to convert Hg.sup.2+ ions into mercuric sulfide (HgS) and by supplying a chelating agent to sequester other ions, including but not limited to Fe.sup.2+ ions, which could otherwise induce the unwanted reduction of Hg.sup.2+ to the form, Hg.sup.0.

  16. Effect of nozzle arrangement on Venturi scrubber performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananthanarayanan, N.V.; Viswanathan, S.

    1999-12-01

    The effect of nozzle arrangement on flux distribution is studied in a rectangular, pilot-scale, Pease-Anthony-type Venturi scrubber. The annular, two-phase, heterogeneous, three-dimensional gas-liquid flow inside the scrubber is modeled using a commercial computational fluid dynamic (CFD) package, FLUENT. The comparison of predicted liquid drop concentration shows good agreement with experimental data. The model predicts the fraction of liquid flowing as film on the walls reasonably well. Visualization of flux patterns studied using four typical nozzle configurations indicate that the nonuniformity in flux distribution increases when the nozzle-to-nozzle distance is greater than 10% of the width of the side on which the nozzles are placed. An analysis of the effect of multiple jet penetration lengths on liquid flux distribution yielded a comparable distribution at 10--45% less liquid than uniform penetration for a particular nozzle configuration. This would lead to significant improvements in scrubber performance by achieving comparable collection efficiency at a lower pressure drop.

  17. Separation of Flue-Gas Scrubber Sludge into Marketable Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The reduction of sulfur oxides from high sulfur coal burning utility companies has resulted in the production of huge quantities of wet flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge. A typical 400 MW power station burning a coal containing 3.5% sulfur by weight and using a limestone absorbent would produce approximately 177,000 tons (dry weight) of scrubber sludge per year. This brownish colored, finely divided material contains calcium sulfite (CaSO 3 · 1/2 H 2 O), calcium sulfate (CaSO 4 · 2H 2 O), unreacted limestone (CaCO 3 ), and various other impurities such as fly-ash and iron oxide particles. The physical separation of the components of scrubber sludge would result in the re-use of this material. The primary use would be conversion to a highly pure synthetic gypsum. This technical report concentrates on the effect of baffle configuration on the separation of calcium sulfite/sulfate from limestone. The position of the baffles as they related to the feed inlet, and the quantity of the baffles were examined. A clean calcium sulfite/sulfate (less than 2.0% limestone by weight) was achieved with the combination of water-only cyclone and horizontally baffled column

  18. Study on the petroleum recovery technology : Analysis of pipeline flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Se Joon; Kim, Hyun Tae; Kim, In Kee; Huh, Dae Gee [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The petroleum exploration activities have been performed by our own technology in the concession Block VI-I in Korean continental shelf for more than 10 years. Gas and gas condensate were discovered from several exploratory wells drilled in this block. This year, the news of another hit in the well of Gorae-V was very encouraging. Different from the previous gas discoveries, the reservoir properties and the productivity of Gorea-V well were excellent and the reserve estimate was very optimistic for the gas field development in this region. Gas consumption was very rapidly increased during recent years because of the image of cleaner fuel compared with other fossil fuels and convenience of usage. Korea is the fifth country in the world in terms of total quantity of petroleum consumption. This is the reason why the secure supply of oil and gas in the future is vital to our industry. The development of gas or gas condensate reservoir is different from that of oil reservoir. Especially sales contract must be made before the initiation of gas field exploitation. The production facilities including pipeline system must be selected and designed for further consideration. In this study, we have selected the 'K' offshore gas field where the water depth is 155 m and the distance from the shore is 50 km. The main purpose of this production system analysis is to select the optimum size and capacity of production facilities including pipeline in order to find the most appropriate production schedule. Production system analysis using nodal analysis includes deliverability calculation of the reservoir, production system optimization, recoverable reserve estimation, and performance forecast of the reservoir with three different production rate scenarios. The reservoir pressure is 4525 psia and the temperature is 248 deg.F. The OGIP of this reservoir was calculated as 24.64 BCF/well and the reservoir is expected to produce for up to 10 years. The porosity is 6% and the

  19. Prediction of hydrodynamic characteristics of a venturi scrubber by using CFD simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Manisha Bal; Bhim Charan Meikap

    2017-01-01

    The filtered containment venting system (FCVS) is a safety relevant system, which consists of venturi scrubber and a mesh filter. FCVS needs to be further assessed to improve the existing performance of the venturi scrubber. Therefore, hydrodynamics is an important counter-component needs to be investigated to improve the design of the venturi scrubber. In the present research, Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) has been used to predict the hydrodynamic behaviour of a newly designed venturi sc...

  20. Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Using a New O-Element Design Which Replaces the Venturi Scrubber

    OpenAIRE

    P. Lestinsky; D. Jecha; V. Brummer; P. Stehlik

    2015-01-01

    Scrubbing by a liquid spraying is one of the most effective processes used for removal of fine particles and soluble gas pollutants (such as SO2, HCl, HF) from the flue gas. There are many configurations of scrubbers designed to provide contact between the liquid and gas stream for effectively capturing particles or soluble gas pollutants, such as spray plates, packed bed towers, jet scrubbers, cyclones, vortex and venturi scrubbers. The primary function of venturi scrubb...

  1. Effectiveness of multi-stage scrubbers in reducing emissions of air pollutants from pig houses

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Jong, de, M.C.M.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants from livestock houses may raise environmental problems and pose hazards to public health. They can be reduced by scrubbers installed at the air outlets of livestock houses. In this study, three multi-stage scrubbers were evaluated in terms of their effectiveness in reducing emissions of airborne dust, total bacteria, ammonia, and CO2 from pig houses in winter. The three multi-stage scrubbers were one double-stage scrubber (acid stage+ bio-filter), one double-stage ...

  2. Description of dedusting in wet flue gas scrubbers with purposeful utilization of the secondary dispersion; Detailliertere Simulation der Staubabscheidung in Nasswaeschern durch Beruecksichtigung der Sekundaerdispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldkamp, M.; Lessmann, B.; Neumann, J.; Fahlenkamp, H. [Dortmund Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl Umwelttechnik

    2003-07-01

    Modern wet gas scrubbers are used in the power plant technology for the flue gas desulphurisation of coal-fired plants. For this the washing liquid is sprayed by numerous nozzles. The specific arrangement of the nozzles in several levels makes it possible for the spray to penetrate mutually. The penetration and overlapping of the spray in the wet scrubber causes the effect of secondary dispersion. This effect can be used effectively to improve the efficiency of the atomisation and to improve the absorption of the pollution gases in a flue gas desulphurisation scrubber. Analyses show that the cleaning efficiency of a wet scrubber depends on the distribution and the size of the drops. (orig.) [German] Moderne Gaswaescher werden in der Kraftwerkstechnik fuer die Rauchgasentschwefelung kohlebefeuerter Anlagen eingesetzt. Hierzu wird Waschfluessigkeit mit Hilfe zahlreicher Duesen zerstaeubt. Eine gezielte Anordnung der Duesen in mehreren Spruehebenen ermoeglicht es den Sprays der Duesen, sich gegenseitig zu durchdringen. Der Effekt der Sekundaerdisperson, der beim Ueberschneiden und Durchdringen der Sprays waehrend der Zerstaeubung im Rauchgaswaescher auftritt, laesst sich wirksam zur Verbesserung des Wirkungsgrades einer Rauchgasentschwefelungsanlage nutzen. Durchgefuehrte Untersuchungen zeigen, dass die Reinigungsleistung eines nassen REA-Waeschers von der Verteilung und der Groesse der Tropfen abhaengt. (orig.)

  3. Resource Recovery from Wastewater by Biological Technologies: Opportunities, Challenges, and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puyol, Daniel; Batstone, Damien J.; Hülsen, Tim; Astals, Sergi; Peces, Miriam; Krömer, Jens O.

    2017-01-01

    Limits in resource availability are driving a change in current societal production systems, changing the focus from residues treatment, such as wastewater treatment, toward resource recovery. Biotechnological processes offer an economic and versatile way to concentrate and transform resources from waste/wastewater into valuable products, which is a prerequisite for the technological development of a cradle-to-cradle bio-based economy. This review identifies emerging technologies that enable resource recovery across the wastewater treatment cycle. As such, bioenergy in the form of biohydrogen (by photo and dark fermentation processes) and biogas (during anaerobic digestion processes) have been classic targets, whereby, direct transformation of lipidic biomass into biodiesel also gained attention. This concept is similar to previous biofuel concepts, but more sustainable, as third generation biofuels and other resources can be produced from waste biomass. The production of high value biopolymers (e.g., for bioplastics manufacturing) from organic acids, hydrogen, and methane is another option for carbon recovery. The recovery of carbon and nutrients can be achieved by organic fertilizer production, or single cell protein generation (depending on the source) which may be utilized as feed, feed additives, next generation fertilizers, or even as probiotics. Additionlly, chemical oxidation-reduction and bioelectrochemical systems can recover inorganics or synthesize organic products beyond the natural microbial metabolism. Anticipating the next generation of wastewater treatment plants driven by biological recovery technologies, this review is focused on the generation and re-synthesis of energetic resources and key resources to be recycled as raw materials in a cradle-to-cradle economy concept. PMID:28111567

  4. New technology for sulfide reductions and increased oil recovery: Petroleum project fact sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-14

    This Fact Sheet is written for the Inventions and Innovations Program about a new technology for sulfide reduction and increased oil recovery. The new technology, called Bio-Competitive Exclusion (BCX), results in greater oil production and prevents the production of corrosive hydrogen sulfide in oil and gas reservoirs. This BCX process is initiated and maintained by a new product, called Max-Well 2000, in which nutrients are custom designed to stimulate targeted beneficial microorganisms that live in every oil and gas reservoir. Rapid growth of these microorganisms excludes activity of harmful sulfide-producing bacteria and produces by-products that serve as effective tertiary oil recovery agents and as sulfide degradation agents. Oil and gas production is both increased and sweetened.

  5. Numerical Study on Shape of Liquid Inlet for Venturi Scrubber in Self-Priming Mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. W.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, W. S. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the simulation was developed for different design of liquid inlet to improve injection in submerged self-priming mode venturi scrubber. 1. A hole type is easy to discharged gas from liquid inlet for submerged self-priming mode. 2. A spit type, the liquid is injected into venturi scrubber for all gas volume rate in submerged self-priming mode. 3. A spit type is better than a hole type on improving injection of liquid inlet for submerged self-priming mode in venturi scrubber.The gas accelerate in convergent segment and reach maximum velocity at throat. The liquid is injected into venturi scrubber depends on static pressure difference between outside and inside of the venturi throat, then liquid is atomized into fine droplet when it contacts with high speed airflow. Aerosol removal occur in the diverging section as the inlet gas stream mixes with the fog of tiny liquid droplets. Many studies dealing with the non-submerged selfpriming venturi scrubber. In a non-submerged condition, outlet nozzle of venturi scrubber is not immersed in water pool of a tank whereas in a submerged condition, the outlet of a venturi scrubber is immersed in water pool. The scrubbing liquid is supplied by water reservoir surrounding the throat and is drawn in due to a pressure difference between the outside and the inside of the venturi throat that arises out of the hydrostatic pressure of the liquid and static pressure of the flowing gas. The performance of a venturi scrubber is improved with high gas velocities and high liquid flow rate. Therefore, it is important to study the liquid fraction in venturi scrubber operated at different condition. The venturi scrubber is used to a submerged self-priming mode because the system operates in a passive mode in CFVS. The present study focuses on the liquid flow characteristics for various shapes of liquid inlet in submerged self-priming venturi scrubber.

  6. Numerical Study on Shape of Liquid Inlet for Venturi Scrubber in Self-Priming Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. W.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, W. S.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the simulation was developed for different design of liquid inlet to improve injection in submerged self-priming mode venturi scrubber. 1. A hole type is easy to discharged gas from liquid inlet for submerged self-priming mode. 2. A spit type, the liquid is injected into venturi scrubber for all gas volume rate in submerged self-priming mode. 3. A spit type is better than a hole type on improving injection of liquid inlet for submerged self-priming mode in venturi scrubber.The gas accelerate in convergent segment and reach maximum velocity at throat. The liquid is injected into venturi scrubber depends on static pressure difference between outside and inside of the venturi throat, then liquid is atomized into fine droplet when it contacts with high speed airflow. Aerosol removal occur in the diverging section as the inlet gas stream mixes with the fog of tiny liquid droplets. Many studies dealing with the non-submerged selfpriming venturi scrubber. In a non-submerged condition, outlet nozzle of venturi scrubber is not immersed in water pool of a tank whereas in a submerged condition, the outlet of a venturi scrubber is immersed in water pool. The scrubbing liquid is supplied by water reservoir surrounding the throat and is drawn in due to a pressure difference between the outside and the inside of the venturi throat that arises out of the hydrostatic pressure of the liquid and static pressure of the flowing gas. The performance of a venturi scrubber is improved with high gas velocities and high liquid flow rate. Therefore, it is important to study the liquid fraction in venturi scrubber operated at different condition. The venturi scrubber is used to a submerged self-priming mode because the system operates in a passive mode in CFVS. The present study focuses on the liquid flow characteristics for various shapes of liquid inlet in submerged self-priming venturi scrubber.

  7. Continuous measurements of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane from air scrubbers at pig housing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heyden, C; Brusselman, E; Volcke, E I P; Demeyer, P

    2016-10-01

    Ammonia, largely emitted by agriculture, involves a great risk for eutrophication and acidification leading to biodiversity loss. Air scrubbers are widely applied to reduce ammonia emission from pig and poultry housing facilities, but it is not always clear whether their performance meets the requirements. Besides, there is a growing international concern for the livestock related greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide but hardly any data concerning their fate in air scrubbers are available. This contribution presents the results from measurement campaigns conducted at a chemical, a biological and a two-stage biological air scrubber installed at pig housing facilities in Flanders. Ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane at the inlet and outlet of the air scrubbers were monitored on-line during one week using a photoacoustic gas monitor, which allowed to investigate diurnal fluctuations in the removal performance of air scrubbers. Additionally, the homogeneity of the air scrubbers, normally checked by gas detection tubes, was investigated in more detail using the continuous data. The biological air scrubber with extra nitrification tank performed well in terms of ammonia removal (86 ± 6%), while the two-stage air scrubber suffered from nitrifying bacteria inhibition. In the chemical air scrubber the pH was not kept constant, lowering the ammonia removal efficiency. A lower ammonia removal efficiency was found during the day, when the ventilation rate was the highest. Nitrous oxide was produced inside the biological and two-stage scrubber, resulting in an increased outlet concentration of more than 200%. Methane could not be removed in the different air scrubbers because of its low water solubility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effectiveness of multi-stage scrubbers in reducing emissions of air pollutants from pig houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants from livestock houses may raise environmental problems and pose hazards to public health. They can be reduced by scrubbers installed at the air outlets of livestock houses. In this study, three multi-stage scrubbers were evaluated in terms of their effectiveness in

  9. Ammonia scrubber testing during IDMS SRAT and SME processing. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes results of the Integrated DWPF (Defense Waste Processing Facility) Melter System (IDMS) ammonia scrubber testing during the PX-7 run (the 7th IDMS run with a Purex type sludge). Operation of the ammonia scrubber during IDMS Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) processing has been completed. The ammonia scrubber was successful in removing ammonia from the vapor stream to achieve NH3 concentrations far below the 10 ppM vapor exist design basis during SRAT processing. However, during SME processing, vapor NH3 concentrations as high as 450 ppM were measured exiting the scrubber. Problems during the SRAT and SME testing were vapor bypassing the scrubber and inefficient scrubbing of the ammonia at the end of the SME cycle (50% removal efficiency; 99.9% is design basis efficiency)

  10. Performance assessment of containment filtered venting system with Venturi scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adinarayna, K.N.V.; Ali, Seik Mansoor; Balasubramaniyan, V.

    2015-01-01

    Venting through appropriate filtration systems is now being considered as a severe accident management strategy for maintaining the containment integrity and also as a means to reduce the radiological consequences to the public and environment. The option of filtered containment venting appears to have assumed significance in the post- Fukushima accident backdrop. Back-fitting of a suitable Venturi scrubber based CFVS for the Indian BWRs (TAPS- 1 and 2) at Tarapur is now being contemplated. Several key issues need to be carefully addressed for ensuring the desired functional capability of such a system. At the outset, this paper highlights a few thermal hydraulic issues that are of interest from regulatory perspective. This is followed by a detailed description of the mathematical models developed for assessing the depressurization characteristics of CFVS, energy absorption capacity of the Scrubber Tank (ST) water inventory, iodine removal and aerosol retention capability etc. Finally, application of these models to investigate the response of CFVS under twin unit SBO conditions in TAPS-1 and 2 is presented. The studies presented here give insight into the key variables affecting the CFVS performance and would be useful to both the system designer as well as the regulator. (author)

  11. Numerical Simulation of Flow Behavior within a Venturi Scrubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Toledo-Melchor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work details the three-dimensional numerical simulation of single-phase and two-phase flow (air-water in a venturi scrubber with an inlet and throat diameters of 250 and 122.5 mm, respectively. The dimensions and operating parameters correspond to industrial applications. The mass flow rate conditions were 0.483 kg/s, 0.736 kg/s, 0.861 kg/s, and 0.987 kg/s for the gas only simulation; the mass flow rate for the liquid was 0.013 kg/s and 0.038 kg/s. The gas flow was simulated in five geometries with different converging and diverging angles while the two-phase flow was only simulated for one geometry. The results obtained were validated with experimental data obtained by other researchers. The results show that the pressure drop depends significantly on the gas flow rate and that water flow rate does not have significant effects neither on the pressure drop nor on the fluid maximum velocity within the scrubber.

  12. Enhancing recovery of ammonia from swine manure anaerobic digester effluent using gas-permeable membrane technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, P J; Vanotti, M B; Szogi, A A; García-González, M C

    2016-03-01

    Gas-permeable membrane technology is useful to recover ammonia from manure. In this study, the technology was enhanced using aeration instead of alkali chemicals to increase pH and the ammonium (NH4(+)) recovery rate. Digested effluents from covered anaerobic swine lagoons containing 1465-2097 mg NH4(+)-N L(-1) were treated using submerged membranes (0.13 cm(2) cm(-3)), low-rate aeration (120 mL air L-manure(-1) min(-1)) and nitrification inhibitor (22 mg L(-1)) to prevent nitrification. The experiment included a control without aeration. The pH of the manure with aeration rose from 8.6 to 9.2 while the manure without aeration decreased from 8.6 to 8.1. With aeration, 97-99% of the NH4(+) was removed in about 5 days of operation with 96-98% recovery efficiency. In contrast, without aeration it took 25 days to treat the NH4(+). Therefore, the recovery of NH4(+) was five times faster with the low-rate aeration treatment. This enhancement could reduce costs by 70%. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. The design and simulation of new downhole vibration device about acoustic oil recovery technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Hou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available More and more oilfields are using acoustic technology to enhance oil recovery. In order to know the mechanism of acoustic oil recovery technology, the sound radiator of a new downhole vibration device is modeled and analyzed. Based on the theoretical background, this paper firstly analyzes the acoustic mechanism for the oil reservoir and then makes a acoustic response analysis on the sound radiator model for frequency and time-domain investigation by using professional acoustic simulation software–LMS Virtual.lab Acoustics, finally calculates the acoustic transmission loss in the downhole oil reservoir. The research reveals that firstly, acoustic waves have influences on the oil & water fluidity in the oil reservoir, the oil pressure gradient and the interfacial tension of capillary; secondly, the acoustic radiation power and sound pressure of field point attain a peak on the natural frequency of the sound radiator; thirdly, with the acoustic impact, the sound pressure of oil reservoir would fluctuate so as to improve the oil recovery ratio; the last but not the least one is both the sound pressure of oil reservoir point and the transmission loss of rock have a positive correlation with the vibration frequency. Therefore, it is of great importance for the research of vibration frequency and structure optimization of sound radiator.

  14. Scrubber capabilities to remove airborne microorganisms and other aerial pollutants from the exhaust air of animal houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnink, A.J.A.; Landman, W.J.M.; Melse, R.W.; Zhao, Y.; Ploegaert, J.P.M.; Huynh, T.T.T.

    2011-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to assess the efficiency of air scrubbers to reduce airborne microorganisms in the exhaust air from animal houses. First, in a field study, the effects of a bio-scrubber and an acid scrubber on total bacterial counts were assessed. Higher bacterial counts were found in the

  15. Information Technology Management: Hurricane Katrina Disaster Recovery Efforts Related to Army Information Technology Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jolliffe, Richard B; Burton, Bruce A; Wicecarver, Jacqueline L; Kince, Therese M; Ryan, Susan R; Price, Matthew J; Cleveland, Karma J; N. Pugh, Jacqueline; Milner, Jillisa H; Johnson, Meredith H

    2006-01-01

    ... of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida with Category 3 winds and torrential rain. This audit report is the first in a planned series of audits on the effects of Hurricane Katrina on DoD information technology resources...

  16. Two years of outstanding AFGD performance, pure air on the Lakes Bailly Scrubber Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, J.; Vymazal, D.C. [Pure Air, Allentown, PA (United States); Styf, D.A. [Northern Indiana Public Service Company (NIPSCO), Chesterton, IN (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    The {open_quotes}Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project{close_quotes} is a $151.3 million cooperative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy and a project company of Pure Air, a general partnership of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc. The goal of the AFGD project is to demonstrate that, by combining state-of-the-art technology, highly efficient plant operation and maintenance capabilities, and by-product gypsum sales, significant reductions of SO{sub 2} emissions can be achieved at approximately one-half the life cycle of a conventional Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system. Further, this emission reduction is achieved without generating solid waste and while minimizing liquid wastewater effluent. Briefly, this project entails the design, construction and operation of a nominal 600 MWe AFGD facility to remove SO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plant flue gas at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s Bailly Generating Station, located approximately 40 miles southeast of Chicago, Illinois. The facility is used to demonstrate a variety of advanced technical and business-related features, during a three-year period of operation which began in the summer of 1992. The aim of this demonstration is to accelerate near-term commercialization. Key features of the AFGD project are discussed. Construction of the scrubber is complete; operations began in June 1992, ahead of schedule and within budget. The Clean Coal demonstration project calls for three years of operations. After the three-year demonstration period, Pure Air on the Lake will continue to Own-and-Operate the scrubber for the next 17 years. This paper review the advanced wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) design features, and the environmental and business features of the project. Also included are data on the first two years of successful operation.

  17. IODINE REMOVAL EFFICIENCY IN NON-SUBMERGED AND SUBMERGED SELF-PRIMING VENTURI SCRUBBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAJID ALI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this conducted research is to study the iodine removal efficiency in a self-priming venturi scrubber for submerged and non-submerged operating conditions experimentally and theoretically. The alkaline solution is used as an absorbent, which is prepared by dissolving sodium hydroxide (NaOH and sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3 in water to remove the gaseous iodine (I2 from the gas. Iodine removal efficiency is examined at various gas flow rates and inlet concentrations of iodine for submerged and non-submerged operating conditions. In the non-submerged venturi scrubber, only the droplets take part in iodine removal efficiency. However, in a submerged venturi scrubber condition, the iodine gas is absorbed from gas to droplets inside the venturi scrubber and from bubbles to surrounding liquid at the outlet of a venturi scrubber. Experimentally, it is observed that the iodine removal efficiency is greater in the submerged venturi scrubber as compare to a non-submerged venturi scrubber condition. The highest iodine removal efficiency of 0.99±0.001 has been achieved in a submerged self-priming venturi scrubber condition. A mathematical correlation is used to predict the theoretical iodine removal efficiency in submerged and non-submerged conditions, and it is compared against the experimental results. The Wilkinson et al. correlation is used to predict the bubble diameter theoretically whereas the Nukiyama and Tanasawa correlation is used for droplet diameter. The mass transfer coefficient for the gas phase is calculated from the Steinberger and Treybal correlation. The calculated results for a submerged venturi scrubber agree well with experimental results but underpredicts in the case of the non-submerged venturi scrubber.

  18. Investigation of dust particle removal efficiency of self-priming venturi scrubber using computational fluid dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarim Ahmed

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A venturi scrubber is an important element of Filtered Containment Venting System (FCVS for the removal of aerosols in contaminated air. The present work involves computational fluid dynamics (CFD study of dust particle removal efficiency of a venturi scrubber operating in self-priming mode using ANSYS CFX. Titanium oxide (TiO2 particles having sizes of 1 micron have been taken as dust particles. CFD methodology to simulate the venturi scrubber has been first developed. The cascade atomization and breakup (CAB model has been used to predict deformation of water droplets, whereas the Eulerian–Lagrangian approach has been used to handle multiphase flow involving air, dust, and water. The developed methodology has been applied to simulate venturi scrubber geometry taken from the literature. Dust particle removal efficiency has been calculated for forced feed operation of venturi scrubber and found to be in good agreement with the results available in the literature. In the second part, venturi scrubber along with a tank has been modeled in CFX, and transient simulations have been performed to study self-priming phenomenon. Self-priming has been observed by plotting the velocity vector fields of water. Suction of water in the venturi scrubber occurred due to the difference between static pressure in the venturi scrubber and the hydrostatic pressure of water inside the tank. Dust particle removal efficiency has been calculated for inlet air velocities of 1 m/s and 3 m/s. It has been observed that removal efficiency is higher in case of higher inlet air velocity. Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Dust Particles, Filtered Containment Venting System, Self-priming Venturi Scrubber, Venturi Scrubber

  19. Iodine Removal Efficiency in Non-Submerged and Submerged Self-Priming Venturi Scrubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Majid; Yan, Changqi; Sun, Zhongning; Gu, Haifeng; Wang, Junlong; Mehboob; Khurram [Harbin Engineering Univ., Harbin (China)

    2013-04-15

    The objective of this conducted research is to study the iodine removal efficiency in a self-priming venturi scrubber for submerged and non-submerged operating conditions experimentally and theoretically. The alkaline solution is used as an absorbent, which is prepared by dissolving sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium thiosulphate (Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in water to remove the gaseous iodine (I{sub 2}) from the gas. Iodine removal efficiency is examined at various gas flow rates and inlet concentrations of iodine for submerged and non-submerged operating conditions. In the non-submerged venturi scrubber, only the droplets take part in iodine removal efficiency. However, in a submerged venturi scrubber condition, the iodine gas is absorbed from gas to droplets inside the venturi scrubber and from bubbles to surrounding liquid at the outlet of a venturi scrubber. Experimentally, it is observed that the iodine removal efficiency is greater in the submerged venturi scrubber as compare to a non-submerged venturi scrubber condition. The highest iodine removal efficiency of 0.99±0.001 has been achieved in a submerged self-priming venturi scrubber condition. A mathematical correlation is used to predict the theoretical iodine removal efficiency in submerged and non-submerged conditions, and it is compared against the experimental results. The Wilkinson et al. correlation is used to predict the bubble diameter theoretically whereas the Nukiyama and Tanasawa correlation is used for droplet diameter. The mass transfer coefficient for the gas phase is calculated from the Steinberger and Treybal correlation. The calculated results for a submerged venturi scrubber agree well with experimental results but underpredicts in the case of the non-submerged venturi scrubber.

  20. Iodine Removal Efficiency in Non-Submerged and Submerged Self-Priming Venturi Scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Majid; Yan, Changqi; Sun, Zhongning; Gu, Haifeng; Wang, Junlong; Mehboob; Khurram

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this conducted research is to study the iodine removal efficiency in a self-priming venturi scrubber for submerged and non-submerged operating conditions experimentally and theoretically. The alkaline solution is used as an absorbent, which is prepared by dissolving sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium thiosulphate (Na 2 S 2 O 3 ) in water to remove the gaseous iodine (I 2 ) from the gas. Iodine removal efficiency is examined at various gas flow rates and inlet concentrations of iodine for submerged and non-submerged operating conditions. In the non-submerged venturi scrubber, only the droplets take part in iodine removal efficiency. However, in a submerged venturi scrubber condition, the iodine gas is absorbed from gas to droplets inside the venturi scrubber and from bubbles to surrounding liquid at the outlet of a venturi scrubber. Experimentally, it is observed that the iodine removal efficiency is greater in the submerged venturi scrubber as compare to a non-submerged venturi scrubber condition. The highest iodine removal efficiency of 0.99±0.001 has been achieved in a submerged self-priming venturi scrubber condition. A mathematical correlation is used to predict the theoretical iodine removal efficiency in submerged and non-submerged conditions, and it is compared against the experimental results. The Wilkinson et al. correlation is used to predict the bubble diameter theoretically whereas the Nukiyama and Tanasawa correlation is used for droplet diameter. The mass transfer coefficient for the gas phase is calculated from the Steinberger and Treybal correlation. The calculated results for a submerged venturi scrubber agree well with experimental results but underpredicts in the case of the non-submerged venturi scrubber

  1. Use of Drying Technologies for Resource Recovery from Solid Wastes and Brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Alba, Ric; Fisher, John W.; Hogan, John A.; Polonsky, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Long term storage of unprocessed biological wastes and human wastes can present major health issues and a loss of potential resources. Space vehicles and planetary habitats are typically resource-scarce or resource-limited environments for long-term human habitation. To-date, most of the resources will need to be supplied from Earth, but this may not be possible for long duration human exploration. Based on present knowledge, there is only very limited in-situ resources on planetary habitats. Hence, the opportunity to "live off the land" in a planetary habitat is limited. However, if we assume that wastes generated by human explorers are viewed as resources, there is great potential to utilize and recycle them, thereby reducing the requirements for supply Earth and enabling the "live off the land" exploration scenario. Technologies used for the recovery of resources from wastes should be reliable, safe, easy to operate, fail-proof, modular, automated and preferably multifunctional in being capable of handling mixed solid and liquid wastes. For a lunar habitat, energy does not appear to be the major driving factor amongst the technologies studied. Instead, reliability appears to be more important[1] . This paper reports studies to date on drying technologies to remove water from solid wastes and brines. Experimental performance data obtained for recovery water from wastes and brine are presented. Simplicity of operation of hardware and energy efficiency are discussed. Some improvements and modifications to hardware were performed. Hopefully, this information will assist in future efforts in the "downselection" of technologies for recovery of water and resources from solid wastes and brines.

  2. Synthetic Vision System Commercial Aircraft Flight Deck Display Technologies for Unusual Attitude Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Ellis, Kyle E.; Arthur, Jarvis J.; Nicholas, Stephanie N.; Kiggins, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    A Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) study of 18 worldwide loss-of-control accidents and incidents determined that the lack of external visual references was associated with a flight crew's loss of attitude awareness or energy state awareness in 17 of these events. Therefore, CAST recommended development and implementation of virtual day-Visual Meteorological Condition (VMC) display systems, such as synthetic vision systems, which can promote flight crew attitude awareness similar to a day-VMC environment. This paper describes the results of a high-fidelity, large transport aircraft simulation experiment that evaluated virtual day-VMC displays and a "background attitude indicator" concept as an aid to pilots in recovery from unusual attitudes. Twelve commercial airline pilots performed multiple unusual attitude recoveries and both quantitative and qualitative dependent measures were collected. Experimental results and future research directions under this CAST initiative and the NASA "Technologies for Airplane State Awareness" research project are described.

  3. Low water FGD technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-15

    Conventional flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) systems require large supplies of water. Technologies which reduce water usage are becoming more important with the large number of FGD systems being installed in response to ever tightening emission regulations. Reducing water loss is particularly important in arid regions of the world. This report reviews commercial and near commercial low water FGD processes for coal-fired power plants, including dry, semi-dry and multi-pollutant technologies. Wet scrubbers, the most widely deployed FGD technology, account for around 10–15% of the water losses in power plants with water cooling systems. This figure is considerably higher when dry/air cooling systems are employed. The evaporative water losses can be reduced by some 40–50% when the flue gas is cooled before it enters the wet scrubber, a common practice in Europe and Japan. Technologies are under development to capture over 20% of the water in the flue gas exiting the wet scrubber, enabling the power plant to become a water supplier instead of a consumer. The semi-dry spray dry scrubbers and circulating dry scrubbers consume some 60% less water than conventional wet scrubbers. The commercial dry sorbent injection processes have the lowest water consumption, consuming no water, or a minimal amount if the sorbent needs hydrating or the flue gas is humidified to improve performance. Commercial multi-pollutant systems are available that consume no water.

  4. Experimental study on an innovative enthalpy recovery technology based on indirect flash evaporative cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nie, Jinzhe; Yuan, Shu; Fang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    recovery unit. The principle of the technology is to over saturate indoor exhaust air by ultrasonic atomizing humidification. The evaporation of ultrafine mists cools down indoor exhaust air to its wet-bulb temperature and makes not only sensible heat transfer but also moisture condensed in outdoor supply...... were measured to investigate and analyze its energy recover efficiencies. The results showed that in hot and humid climate, up to 71% of total heat recover efficiency could be achieved by the prototype unit, and more than 50% of the enthalpy recovered was contributed by moisture condensation...

  5. Technology for industrial waste heat recovery by organic Rankine cycle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, W. G.; Drake, R. L.; Prisco, C. J.

    1984-10-01

    The recovery of industrial waste heat and the conversion thereof to useful electric power by use of Rankine cycle systems is studied. Four different aspects of ORC technology were studied: possible destructive chemical reaction between an aluminum turbine wheel and R-113 working fluid under wheel-to-rotor rub conditions; possible chemical reaction between stainless steel or carbon steel and any of five different ORC working fluids under rotor-stator rub conditions; effects on electric generator properties of extended exposure to an environment of saturated R-113 vapor/fluid; and operational proof tests under laboratory conditions of two 1070 kW, ORC, R-113 hermetic turbogenerator power module systems.

  6. Prediction of hydrodynamic characteristics of a venturi scrubber by using CFD simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Bal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The filtered containment venting system (FCVS is a safety relevant system, which consists of venturi scrubber and a mesh filter. FCVS needs to be further assessed to improve the existing performance of the venturi scrubber. Therefore, hydrodynamics is an important counter-component needs to be investigated to improve the design of the venturi scrubber. In the present research, Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD has been used to predict the hydrodynamic behaviour of a newly designed venturi scrubber. Mesh was developed by gambit 2.4.6 and ansys fluent 15 has been used to predict the pressure drop profile inside the venturi scrubber under various flow conditions. The Reynolds Renormalization Group (RNG k-ε turbulence model and the volume of the fluid (VOF were employed for this simulation. The effect of throat gas velocity, liquid mass flow rate, and liquid loading on pressure drop was studied. Maximum pressure drop 2064.34 pa was achieved at the throat gas velocity of 60 m/s and liquid flow rate of 0.033 kg/s and minimum pressure drop 373.51 pa was achieved at the throat gas velocity of 24 m/s and liquid flow rate of 0.016 kg/s. The results of the present study will assist for proper functioning of venturi scrubber. Keywords: Venturi scrubber, Hydrodynamics, Pressure drop, Computational fluid dynamics, Nuclear power plant safety, Flow prediction

  7. An efficient venturi scrubber system to remove submicron particles in exhaust gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chuen-Jinn; Lin, Chia-Hung; Wang, Yu-Min; Hunag, Cheng-Hsiung; Li, Shou-Nan; Wu, Zong-Xue; Wang, Feng-Cai

    2005-03-01

    An efficient venturi scrubber system making use of heterogeneous nucleation and condensational growth of particles was designed and tested to remove fine particles from the exhaust of a local scrubber where residual SiH4 gas was abated and lots of fine SiO2 particles were generated. In front of the venturi scrubber, normal-temperature fine-water mist mixes with high-temperature exhaust gas to cool it to the saturation temperature, allowing submicron particles to grow into micron sizes. The grown particles are then scrubbed efficiently in the venturi scrubber. Test results show that the present venturi scrubber system is effective for removing submicron particles. For SiO2 particles greater than 0.1microm, the removal efficiency is greater than 80-90%, depending on particle concentration. The corresponding pressure drop is relatively low. For example, the pressure drop of the venturi scrubber is approximately 15.4 +/- 2.4 cm H2O when the liquid-to-gas ratio is 1.50 L/m3. A theoretical calculation has been conducted to simulate particle growth process and the removal efficiency of the venturi scrubber. The theoretical results agree with the experimental data reasonably well when SiO2 particle diameter is greater than 0.1 microm.

  8. Liquid film thickness and interfacial wave propagate in venturi scrubber for filtered venting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Yasuhiro; Horiguchi, Naoki; Kanagawa, Tetsuya; Kaneko, Akiko; Abe, Yutaka; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    As one of filtered venting systems which should be installed in light water reactors from the viewpoint of protecting a containment vessel and suppressing the diffusion of radioactive materials, there is a system composed of venturi scrubbers. The radioactive materials in the contaminated gas are collected into liquid. By forming dispersed flow in the venturi scrubber, interfacial area between liquid and gas is enhanced, finally, large decontamination factor is realized. In evaluation for the decontamination performance of the venturi scrubber, interface characteristics of droplets and liquid film are important. In this study, as a part of evaluation method of the interfacial area, the liquid film thickness in the venturi scrubber was measured. And evaluate the results of investigation experimentally for each ruffling average thickness and liquid film in a fluidized condition. The cross section area of a venturi scrubber is a rectangular one manufactured a transparent acrylic for visualization. In the venturi scrubber, a pressure drop occurs in the throat part by the inflow of air from the compressor. Water flows from the tank by a pressure difference between a suctioned hole with head pressure and a throat part. An annular spray flow is then formed in the venturi scrubber. (author)

  9. Characterization of oil and gas reservoirs and recovery technology deployment on Texas State Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, R.; Major, R.P.; Holtz, M.H. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Texas State Lands oil and gas resources are estimated at 1.6 BSTB of remaining mobile oil, 2.1 BSTB, or residual oil, and nearly 10 Tcf of remaining gas. An integrated, detailed geologic and engineering characterization of Texas State Lands has created quantitative descriptions of the oil and gas reservoirs, resulting in delineation of untapped, bypassed compartments and zones of remaining oil and gas. On Texas State Lands, the knowledge gained from such interpretative, quantitative reservoir descriptions has been the basis for designing optimized recovery strategies, including well deepening, recompletions, workovers, targeted infill drilling, injection profile modification, and waterflood optimization. The State of Texas Advanced Resource Recovery program is currently evaluating oil and gas fields along the Gulf Coast (South Copano Bay and Umbrella Point fields) and in the Permian Basin (Keystone East, Ozona, Geraldine Ford and Ford West fields). The program is grounded in advanced reservoir characterization techniques that define the residence of unrecovered oil and gas remaining in select State Land reservoirs. Integral to the program is collaboration with operators in order to deploy advanced reservoir exploitation and management plans. These plans are made on the basis of a thorough understanding of internal reservoir architecture and its controls on remaining oil and gas distribution. Continued accurate, detailed Texas State Lands reservoir description and characterization will ensure deployment of the most current and economically viable recovery technologies and strategies available.

  10. Recovery of Drug Delivery Nanoparticles from Human Plasma Using an Electrokinetic Platform Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibsen, Stuart; Sonnenberg, Avery; Schutt, Carolyn; Mukthavaram, Rajesh; Yeh, Yasan; Ortac, Inanc; Manouchehri, Sareh; Kesari, Santosh; Esener, Sadik; Heller, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    The effect of complex biological fluids on the surface and structure of nanoparticles is a rapidly expanding field of study. One of the challenges holding back this research is the difficulty of recovering therapeutic nanoparticles from biological samples due to their small size, low density, and stealth surface coatings. Here, the first demonstration of the recovery and analysis of drug delivery nanoparticles from undiluted human plasma samples through the use of a new electrokinetic platform technology is presented. The particles are recovered from plasma through a dielectrophoresis separation force that is created by innate differences in the dielectric properties between the unaltered nanoparticles and the surrounding plasma. It is shown that this can be applied to a wide range of drug delivery nanoparticles of different morphologies and materials, including low-density nanoliposomes. These recovered particles can then be analyzed using different methods including scanning electron microscopy to monitor surface and structural changes that result from plasma exposure. This new recovery technique can be broadly applied to the recovery of nanoparticles from high conductance fluids in a wide range of applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Mark B.

    1999-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate that a development program based on advanced reservoir management methods can significantly improve oil recovery at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP). The plan includes developing a control area using standard reservoir management techniques and comparing its performance to an area developed using advanced reservoir management methods. Specific goals are (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to oil and gas producers in the Permian Basin and elsewhere throughout the U.S. oil and gas industry

  12. Transport evaluation of a gas-liquid scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodner, A.J.; Bistline, J.E.; Weber, S.E.

    1982-10-01

    The hydraulics and the mass-transfer behavior of a five-tray, single-bubble-cap, single-downcomer, gas-liquid contactor were studied for use as a gas scrubber. Flooding was not observed at the maximum available liquid and gas flow rates of 0.32 and 464 L/min, respectively. The maximum liquid entrainment was 33% at a gross liquid flow rate of 0.05 L/min. The Murphree-tray efficiencies for absorption of CO 2 (5000 ppM in air) into demineralized water ranged from 0.14 to 0.74 for volumetric liquid-to-gas ratios of 4 x 10 -4 and 2 x 10 -4 , respectively, for k/sub L/a values ranging from 0.088 to 0.36 min -1 . 12 figures, 10 tables

  13. Numerical Simulation of Flow Behavior within a Venturi Scrubber

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. Toledo-Melchor; C. del C. Gutiérrez-Torres; J. A. Jiménez-Bernal; J. G. Barbosa-Saldaña; S. A. Martínez-Delgadillo; H. R. Mollinedo-Ponce de León; A. Yoguéz-Seoane; A. Alonzo-García

    2014-01-01

    The present work details the three-dimensional numerical simulation of single-phase and two-phase flow (air-water) in a venturi scrubber with an inlet and throat diameters of 250 and 122.5 mm, respectively. The dimensions and operating parameters correspond to industrial applications. The mass flow rate conditions were 0.483 kg/s, 0.736 kg/s, 0.861 kg/s, and 0.987 kg/s for the gas only simulation; the mass flow rate for the liquid was 0.013 kg/s and 0.038 kg/s. The gas flow was simulated in f...

  14. Energy and water conservation at lignite-fired power plants using drying and water recovery technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ming; Qin, Yuanzhi; Yan, Hui; Han, Xiaoqu; Chong, Daotong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pre-drying and water recovery technologies were used to conserve energy and water. • The energy and water conservation potential were analyzed with reference cases. • The air-cooling unit produces water when the water content of lignite is high enough. • Influences of main parameters on energy and water conservation were analyzed. - Abstract: Lignite is considered as a competitive energy raw material with high security of supply viewed from a global angle. However, lignite-fired power plants have many shortcomings, including high investment, low energy efficiency and high water use. To address these issues, the drying and water recovery technologies are integrated within lignite-fired power plants. Both air-cooling and wet-cooling units with three kinds of lignite as feeding fuel were analyzed quantitatively. Results showed that energy conservation and water conservation are obtained simultaneously. The power plant firing high moisture lignite becomes more environmental friendly with higher power generation efficiency and a lower water makeup rate than the one firing low moisture lignite. And further calculation revealed that the air-cooling unit needs no makeup water and even produces some water as it generates power, when the water carrying coefficient is higher than 40 g/MJ.

  15. Dynamic Modeling of Process Technologies for Closed-Loop Water Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allada, Rama Kumar; Lange, Kevin E.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed chemical process simulations are a useful tool in designing and optimizing complex systems and architectures for human life support. Dynamic and steady-state models of these systems help contrast the interactions of various operating parameters and hardware designs, which become extremely useful in trade-study analyses. NASA s Exploration Life Support technology development project recently made use of such models to compliment a series of tests on different waste water distillation systems. This paper presents dynamic simulations of chemical process for primary processor technologies including: the Cascade Distillation System (CDS), the Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) system, the Wiped-Film Rotating Disk (WFRD), and post-distillation water polishing processes such as the Volatiles Removal Assembly (VRA). These dynamic models were developed using the Aspen Custom Modeler (Registered TradeMark) and Aspen Plus(Registered TradeMark) process simulation tools. The results expand upon previous work for water recovery technology models and emphasize dynamic process modeling and results. The paper discusses system design, modeling details, and model results for each technology and presents some comparisons between the model results and available test data. Following these initial comparisons, some general conclusions and forward work are discussed.

  16. Dynamic Modeling of Process Technologies for Closed-Loop Water Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allada, Rama Kumar; Lange, Kevin; Anderson, Molly

    2011-01-01

    Detailed chemical process simulations are a useful tool in designing and optimizing complex systems and architectures for human life support. Dynamic and steady-state models of these systems help contrast the interactions of various operating parameters and hardware designs, which become extremely useful in trade-study analyses. NASA s Exploration Life Support technology development project recently made use of such models to compliment a series of tests on different waste water distillation systems. This paper presents dynamic simulations of chemical process for primary processor technologies including: the Cascade Distillation System (CDS), the Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) system, the Wiped-Film Rotating Disk (WFRD), and post-distillation water polishing processes such as the Volatiles Removal Assembly (VRA) that were developed using the Aspen Custom Modeler and Aspen Plus process simulation tools. The results expand upon previous work for water recovery technology models and emphasize dynamic process modeling and results. The paper discusses system design, modeling details, and model results for each technology and presents some comparisons between the model results and available test data. Following these initial comparisons, some general conclusions and forward work are discussed.

  17. Integrated Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring Technology Demonstration for Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Abney, Morgan B.; Knox, James C.; Parrish, Keith J.; Roman, Monserrate C.; Jan, Darrell L.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring the frontiers of deep space continues to be defined by the technological challenges presented by safely transporting a crew to and from destinations of scientific interest. Living and working on that frontier requires highly reliable and efficient life support systems that employ robust, proven process technologies. The International Space Station (ISS), including its environmental control and life support (ECLS) system, is the platform from which humanity's deep space exploration missions begin. The ISS ECLS system Atmosphere Revitalization (AR) subsystem and environmental monitoring (EM) technical architecture aboard the ISS is evaluated as the starting basis for a developmental effort being conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) via the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) Project.. An evolutionary approach is employed by the ARREM project to address the strengths and weaknesses of the ISS AR subsystem and EM equipment, core technologies, and operational approaches to reduce developmental risk, improve functional reliability, and lower lifecycle costs of an ISS-derived subsystem architecture suitable for use for crewed deep space exploration missions. The most promising technical approaches to an ISS-derived subsystem design architecture that incorporates promising core process technology upgrades will be matured through a series of integrated tests and architectural trade studies encompassing expected exploration mission requirements and constraints.

  18. Safe Disposal of Medical and Plastic Waste and Energy Recovery Possibilities using Plasma Pyrolysis Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nema, S.K.; Mukherjee, S.

    2010-01-01

    Plasma pyrolysis and plasma gasification are emerging technologies that can provide complete solution to organic solid waste disposal. In these technologies plasma torch is used as a workhorse to convert electrical energy into heat energy. These technologies dispose the organic waste in an environment friendly manner. Thermal plasma provides extremely high temperature in oxygen free or controlled air environment which is required for pyrolysis or gasification reactions. Plasma based medical waste treatment is an extremely complex technology since it has to contend with extreme temperatures and corrosion-prone environment, complex pyro-chemistry resulting in toxic and dangerous products, if not controlled. In addition, one has to take care of complete combustion of pyrolyzed gases followed by efficient scrubbing to meet the emission standards set by US EPA and Central Pollution Control Board, India. In medical waste, high volume and low packing density waste with nonstandard composition consisting of a variety of plastics, organic material and liquids used to be present. The present paper describes the work carried out at Institute for Plasma Research, India, on plasma pyrolysis of (i) medical waste disposal and the results of emission measurement done at various locations in the system and (ii) energy recovery from cotton and plastic waste. The process and system development has been done in multiple steps. Different plasma pyrolysis models were made and each subsequent model was improved upon to meet stringent emission norms and to make the system energy efficient and user friendly. FCIPT, has successfully demonstrated up to 50 kg/ hr plasma pyrolysis systems and have installed plasma pyrolysis facilities at various locations in India . Plastic Waste disposal along with energy recovery in 15 kg/ hr model has also been developed and demonstrated at FCIPT. In future, this technology has great potential to dispose safely different waste streams such as biomass

  19. Technological problems concerning the complex recovery of uranium and accompanying elements from sedimentary ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkas, K.

    1977-01-01

    In Poland a deposit of carbonaceous clay shales has been discovered, it contains 1600ppmV, 100ppmu and 180ppm Mo. On the basis of the experiments carried out on the laboratory scale, it has been shown, that the leaching of the shales by means of the diluted solutions of sulphuric acid or sodium carbonates does not assure the high recovery of vanadium and uranium because of their occurrence in shales in refractory forms. The treatment of the shales by using of the concentrated sulphuric acid /250g/1kg shales/, according to the ''acid cure'' method and baking them in the temperature of 250 0 C, has permitted the recovery of 70% vanadium and 65% uranium. From the acid leaching residue, or from the shales directly, 70% of molybdenum can be gained, employing an alkaline pretreatment. The solutions after acid leaching contain great quantities of Al and Fe, which before the separation of U and V by solvent extraction must be to some extent removed. The performed tests have confirmed this, and by using a crystallization process, as by-products the aluminum- and iron sulphates have been obtained. From the solutions, after crystallization by amine solvent extraction, the uranium and vanadium concentrates have been recovered. The currently recognized technological method has been estimated as difficult and expensive. In order to utilize, more economically, this low grade and very refractory for pretreatment shales it is necessary to continue intensive technological research on the improvement of the recognized method and explore new ways, which could contribute to successful solution of this complicated technological problem

  20. Integrated economic and experimental framework for screening of primary recovery technologies for high cell density CHO cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Daria; Stonier, Adam; Pain, David; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel J; Farid, Suzanne S

    2016-07-01

    Increases in mammalian cell culture titres and densities have placed significant demands on primary recovery operation performance. This article presents a methodology which aims to screen rapidly and evaluate primary recovery technologies for their scope for technically feasible and cost-effective operation in the context of high cell density mammalian cell cultures. It was applied to assess the performance of current (centrifugation and depth filtration options) and alternative (tangential flow filtration (TFF)) primary recovery strategies. Cell culture test materials (CCTM) were generated to simulate the most demanding cell culture conditions selected as a screening challenge for the technologies. The performance of these technology options was assessed using lab scale and ultra scale-down (USD) mimics requiring 25-110mL volumes for centrifugation and depth filtration and TFF screening experiments respectively. A centrifugation and depth filtration combination as well as both of the alternative technologies met the performance selection criteria. A detailed process economics evaluation was carried out at three scales of manufacturing (2,000L, 10,000L, 20,000L), where alternative primary recovery options were shown to potentially provide a more cost-effective primary recovery process in the future. This assessment process and the study results can aid technology selection to identify the most effective option for a specific scenario. © 2016 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Comparing environmental impact of air scrubbers for ammonia abatement at pig houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, De Jerke W.; Melse, Roland W.

    2017-01-01

    Intensive livestock production involves environmental emissions and impacts, including emission of greenhouse gases and ammonia leading to climate change and terrestrial acidification. Ammonia emission from animal housing systems can be reduced by introducing air scrubbers for cleaning the

  2. Acid in perchloroethylene scrubber solutions used in HTGR fuel preparation processes. Analytical chemistry studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.A.

    1979-02-01

    Acids and corrosion products in used perchloroethylene scrubber solutions collected from HTGR fuel preparation processes have been analyzed by several analytical methods to determine the source and possible remedy of the corrosion caused by these solutions. Hydrochloric acid was found to be concentrated on the carbon particles suspended in perchloroethylene. Filtration of carbon from the scrubber solutions removed the acid corrosion source in the process equipment. Corrosion products chemisorbed on the carbon particles were identified. Filtered perchloroethylene from used scrubber solutions contained practically no acid. It is recommended that carbon particles be separated from the scrubber solutions immediately after the scrubbing process to remove the source of acid and that an inhibitor be used to prevent the hydrolysis of perchloroethylene and the formation of acids

  3. Design procedure for sizing a submerged-bed scrubber for airborne particulate removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruecker, C.M.; Scott, P.A.

    1987-04-01

    Performance correlations to design and operate the submerged bed scrubber were developed for various applications. Structural design procedure outlined in this report focuses on off-gas scrubbing for HLW vitrification applications; however, the method is appropriate for other applications

  4. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, Scott T.; Justice James L.; Taylor, Archie R.

    1999-01-01

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs

  5. Value-Added Products From FGD Sulfite-Rich Scrubber Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivak M. Malhotra

    2006-09-30

    Massive quantities of sulfite-rich flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber materials are produced every year in the USA. In fact, at present, the production of wet sulfite-rich scrubber cake outstrips the production of wet sulfate-rich scrubber cake by about 6 million tons per year. However, most of the utilization focus has centered on FGD gypsum. Therefore, we have recently initiated research on developing new strategies for the economical, but environmentally-sound, utilization of sulfite-rich scrubber material. In this exploratory project (Phase I), we attempted to ascertain whether it is feasible to develop reconstituted wood replacement products from sulfite-rich scrubber material. In pursuit of this goal, we characterized two different wet sulfite-rich scrubber materials, obtained from two power plants burning Midwestern coal, for their suitability for the development of value-added products. The overall strategy adopted was to fabricate composites where the largest ingredient was scrubber material with additional crop materials as additives. Our results suggested that it may be feasible to develop composites with flexural strength as high as 40 MPa (5800 psi) without the addition of external polymers. We also attempted to develop load-bearing composites from scrubber material, natural fibers, and phenolic polymer. The polymer-to-solid ratio was limited to {le} 0.4. The formulated composites showed flexural strengths as high as 73 MPa (10,585 psi). We plan to harness the research outcomes from Phase I to develop parameters required to upscale our value-added products in Phase II.

  6. Droplet dispersion angle measurements on a Pease-Antony Venturi scrubber

    OpenAIRE

    Puentes,N. A. G.; Guerra,V. G.; Coury,J. R.; Gonçalves,J. A. S.

    2012-01-01

    A Pease-Anthony Venturi scrubber is a gas cleaning device that uses liquid, injected in the equipment as jets, to remove contaminants from the gas. The liquid jet is atomized into droplets, which are dispersed throughout the equipment due to the turbulence. The performance of the scrubber is affected by the spatial distribution of the droplets. Although CFD models have been used to predict the droplet dispersion, these models are expensive. Alternatively, the concept of "jet spreading angle" ...

  7. Experimental study of iodine removal efficiency in self-priming venturi scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulhane, N.P.; Landge, A.D.; Shukla, D.S.; Kale, S.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Fabrication, erection of experimental set up and carrying out experimentation with self priming venturi scrubber. • Predicting solubility of iodine in water and its pH dependency. • Increasing pH of water increases iodine removal efficiency. • Maximum iodine removal efficiency is obtained at 10 pH of water using sodium thiosulphate. - Abstract: The objective of present experimental study is to examine the iodine removal efficiency of a self-priming venturi scrubber for submerged operating condition. The venturi scrubber is used in Containment Filtered Venting System of nuclear power plants to remove the gaseous pollutants from contaminated gas during severe accidents. The experiment consists of mixing the iodine vapours with the air using suction venturi and pressure cooker system. The purpose of iodine mixing with air is to examine scrubbing performance of the designed venturi scrubber with water as scrubbing liquid. The performance parameters of venturi scrubber are expressed mainly in terms of pressure drop and iodine removal efficiency. The iodine removal efficiency of venturi scrubber is estimated for a series of two experiments by measuring the quantity of iodine in water from iodometric titration with four distinct pH of water. It has been experimentally observed that iodine removal efficiency is improved by using higher pH value of scrubbing liquid since solubility of iodine gets improved at higher pH

  8. Value-Added Products from FGD Sulfite-Rich Scrubber Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivak Malhotra

    2010-01-31

    According to the American Coal Ash Association, about 29.25 million tons of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts were produced in the USA in 2003. Out of 29.25 million tons, 17.35 million tons were sulfite-rich scrubber materials. At present, unlike its cousin FGD gypsum, the prospect for effective utilization of sulfite-rich scrubber materials is not bright. In fact, almost 16.9 million tons are leftover every year. In our pursuit to mitigate the liability of sulfite-rich FGD scrubber materials' disposal, we are attempting to develop value-added products that can commercially compete. More specifically, for this Innovative Concept Phase I project, we have the following objectives: to characterize the sulfite-rich scrubber material for toxic metals; to optimize the co-blending and processing of scrubber material and natural byproducts; to formulate and develop structural composites from sulfite-rich scrubber material; and to evaluate the composites' mechanical properties and compare them with current products on the market. After successfully demonstrating the viability of our research, a more comprehensive approach will be proposed to take these value-added materials to fruition.

  9. Retrofitting existing chemical scrubbers to biotrickling filters for H2S emission control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, David; Deshusses, Marc A

    2003-05-27

    Biological treatment is a promising alternative to conventional air-pollution control methods, but thus far biotreatment processes for odor control have always required much larger reactor volumes than chemical scrubbers. We converted an existing full-scale chemical scrubber to a biological trickling filter and showed that effective treatment of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the converted scrubber was possible even at gas contact times as low as 1.6 s. That is 8-20 times shorter than previous biotrickling filtration reports and comparable to usual contact times in chemical scrubbers. Significant removal of reduced sulfur compounds, ammonia, and volatile organic compounds present in traces in the air was also observed. Continuous operation for >8 months showed stable performance and robust behavior for H2S treatment, with pollutant-removal performance comparable to that achieved by using a chemical scrubber. Our study demonstrates that biotrickling filters can replace chemical scrubbers and be a safer, more economical technique for odor control.

  10. Recovery and treatment of uranium from uranium-containing solution by liquid membrane emulsion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Liangshu; Zhou Yantong; Xiao Yiqun; Peng Anguo; Xiao Jingshui; Chen Wei

    2014-01-01

    The recovery and treatment of uranium from uranium-containing solution using liquid membrane emulsion (LME) technology were studied in this paper, which contained the best volume ratio of membrane materials, stirring speed during emulsion process, the conditions of extracting, such as temperature, pH, initial concentration of uranium. Moreover, the mechanism for extracting uranium was also discussed. The best experimental conditions of emulsifying were acquired. The volume fractions of P 204 and liquid paraffin are 0.1 and 0.05, the volume ratios of Span80 and sulphonated kerosene to P 204 are 0.06 and 0.79 respectively, stirring speed is controlled in 2 000 r/min, and the concentration of inner phase is 4 mol/L. The recovery rate of uranium is up to 99% through the LME extracted uranium for 0.5 h at pH 2.5 and room temperature when the initial concentration is less than 400 mg/L and the volume ratio is 5 between the uranium-containing waste water and LME. The calculation results of Gibbs free energy show that the reaction process is spontaneous. (authors)

  11. Development of metallic uranium recovery technology from uranium oxide by Li reduction and electrorefining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokiwai, Moriyasu; Kawabe, Akihiro; Yuda, Ryouichi; Usami, Tsuyoshi; Fujita, Reiko; Nakamura, Hitoshi; Yahata, Hidetsugu

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to develop technology for pre-treatment of oxide fuel reprocessing through pyroprocess. In the pre-treatment process, it is necessary to reduce actinide oxide to metallic form. This paper outlines some experimental results of uranium oxide reduction and recovery of refined metallic uranium in electrorefining. Both uranium oxide granules and pellets were used for the experiments. Uranium oxide granules was completely reduced by lithium in several hours at 650degC. Reduced uranium pellets by about 70% provided a simulation of partial reduction for the process flow design. Almost all adherent residues of Li and Li 2 O were successfully washed out with fresh LiCl salt. During electrorefining, metallic uranium deposited on the iron cathode as expected. The recovery efficiencies of metallic uranium from reduced uranium oxide granules and from pellets were about 90% and 50%, respectively. The mass balance data provided the technical bases of Li reduction and refining process flow for design. (author)

  12. Advanced Membrane Separation Technologies for Energy Recovery from Industrial Process Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, J. R.; Wang, D. [Gas Technology Institute; Bischoff, B.; Ciora, [Media and Process Technology; Radhakrishnan, B.; Gorti, S. B.

    2013-01-14

    Recovery of energy from relatively low-temperature waste streams is a goal that has not been achieved on any large scale. Heat exchangers do not operate efficiently with low-temperature streams and thus require such large heat exchanger surface areas that they are not practical. Condensing economizers offer one option for heat recovery from such streams, but they have not been widely implemented by industry. A promising alternative to these heat exchangers and economizers is a prototype ceramic membrane system using transport membrane technology for separation of water vapor and recovery of heat. This system was successfully tested by the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) on a natural gas fired boiler where the flue gas is relatively clean and free of contaminants. However, since the tubes of the prototype system were constructed of aluminum oxide, the brittle nature of the tubes limited the robustness of the system and even limited the length of tubes that could be used. In order to improve the robustness of the membrane tubes and make the system more suitable for industrial applications, this project was initiated with the objective of developing a system with materials that would permit the system to function successfully on a larger scale and in contaminated and potentially corrosive industrial environments. This required identifying likely industrial environments and the hazards associated with those environments. Based on the hazardous components in these environments, candidate metallic materials were identified that are expected to have sufficient strength, thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance to permit production of longer tubes that could function in the industrial environments identified. Tests were conducted to determine the corrosion resistance of these candidate alloys, and the feasibility of forming these materials into porous substrates was assessed. Once the most promising metallic materials were identified, the ability to form an alumina

  13. Effects of Land-Applied Ammonia Scrubber Solutions on Yield, Nitrogen Uptake, Soil Test Phosphorus, and Phosphorus Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jerry W; Moore, Philip A; Li, Hong; Ashworth, Amanda J; Miles, Dana M

    2018-03-01

    Ammonia (NH) scrubbers reduce amounts of NH and dust released from animal rearing facilities while generating nitrogen (N)-rich solutions, which may be used as fertilizers. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various NH scrubber solutions on forage yields, N uptake, soil-test phosphorus (P), and P runoff. A small plot study was conducted using six treatments: (i) an unfertilized control, (ii) potassium bisulfate (KHSO) scrubber solution, (iii) aluminum sulfate [Al(SO) ⋅14HO, alum] scrubber solution, (iv) sodium bisulfate (NaHSO) scrubber solution, (v) sulfuric acid (HSO) scrubber solution, and (vi) ammonium nitrate (NHNO) fertilizer. The scrubber solutions were obtained from ARS Air Scrubbers attached to commercial broiler houses. All N sources were applied at a rate of 112 kg N ha. Plots were harvested approximately every 4 wk and soil-test P measurements were made, then a rainfall simulation study was conducted. Cumulative forage yields were greater ( scrubber solutions than for alum (6.7 Mg ha) or HSO (6.5 Mg ha) scrubber solutions or for NHNO (6.9 Mg ha). All N sources resulted in higher yields than the control (5.1 Mg ha). The additional potassium in the KHSO treatment likely resulted in higher yields. Although Mehlich-III-extractable P was not affected, water-extractable P in soil was lowered by the alum-based scrubber solution, which also resulted in lower P runoff. This study demonstrates that N captured using NH scrubbers is a viable N fertilizer. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. Uranium in phosphorus-bearing raw materials and technological problems of its recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorecki, H; Gorecka, H [Politechnika Wroclawska (Poland)

    1981-01-01

    A problem of uranium recovery from phosphorus-bearinq raw materials is discussed. The different methods of uranium recovery from extractive phosphoric acid are briefly described. The information on their applications in the industry is also given.

  15. Development of an In Situ Biosurfactant Production Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; R.M. Knapp; Kathleen Duncan; D.R. Simpson; N. Youssef; N. Ravi; M.J. Folmsbee; T.Fincher; S. Maudgalya; Jim Davis; Sandra Weiland

    2007-09-30

    The long-term economic potential for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is large with more than 300 billion barrels of oil remaining in domestic reservoirs after conventional technologies reach their economic limit. Actual EOR production in the United States has never been very large, less than 10% of the total U. S. production even though a number of economic incentives have been used to stimulate the development and application of EOR processes. The U.S. DOE Reservoir Data Base contains more than 600 reservoirs with over 12 billion barrels of unrecoverable oil that are potential targets for microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). If MEOR could be successfully applied to reduce the residual oil saturation by 10% in a quarter of these reservoirs, more than 300 million barrels of oil could be added to the U.S. oil reserve. This would stimulate oil production from domestic reservoirs and reduce our nation's dependence on foreign imports. Laboratory studies have shown that detergent-like molecules called biosurfactants, which are produced by microorganisms, are very effective in mobilizing entrapped oil from model test systems. The biosurfactants are effective at very low concentrations. Given the promising laboratory results, it is important to determine the efficacy of using biosurfactants in actual field applications. The goal of this project is to move biosurfactant-mediated oil recovery from laboratory investigations to actual field applications. In order to meet this goal, several important questions must be answered. First, it is critical to know whether biosurfactant-producing microbes are present in oil formations. If they are present, then it will be important to know whether a nutrient regime can be devised to stimulate their growth and activity in the reservoir. If biosurfactant producers are not present, then a suitable strain must be obtained that can be injected into oil reservoirs. We were successful in answering all three questions. The specific

  16. Industry-Government-University Cooperative Research Program for the Development of Structural Materials from Sulfate-Rich FGD Scrubber Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. M. Malhotra; Y. P. Chugh

    2003-08-31

    The main aim of our project was to develop technology, which converts flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sulfate-rich scrubber sludge into value-added decorative materials. Specifically, we were to establish technology for fabricating cost effective but marketable materials, like countertops and decorative tiles from the sludge. In addition, we were to explore the feasibility of forming siding material from the sludge. At the end of the project, we were to establish the potential of our products by generating 64 countertop pieces and 64 tiles of various colors. In pursuit of our above-mentioned goals, we conducted Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements of the binders and co-processed binders to identify their curing behavior. Using our 6-inch x 6-inch and 4-inch x 4-inch high pressure and high temperature hardened stainless steel dies, we developed procedures to fabricate countertop and decorative tile materials. The composites, fabricated from sulfate-rich scrubber sludge, were subjected to mechanical tests using a three-point bending machine and a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA). We compared our material's mechanical performance against commercially obtained countertops. We successfully established the procedures for the development of countertop and tile composites from scrubber sludge by mounting our materials on commercial boards. We fabricated more than 64 pieces of countertop material in at least 11 different colors having different patterns. In addition, more than 100 tiles in six different colors were fabricated. We also developed procedures by which the fabrication waste, up to 30-weight %, could be recycled in the manufacturing of our countertops and decorative tiles. Our experimental results indicated that our countertops had mechanical strength, which was comparable to high-end commercial countertop materials and contained substantially larger inorganic content than the commercial products. Our

  17. Energy recovery of the H2S and CO2 elimination with technology by hybrid plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar T, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    This document is a research focused on energy recovery from acid gas removal contained in natural gas as hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), by obtaining highly energetic gas such as syngas (mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, in particular) using plasma technology in its hybrid form, namely, gliding arc plasma, that has the property to behave like a thermal plasma and cold plasma, besides possessing among other virtues the ability to treat large flows continuously at atmospheric pressure without the need of using noble gases, with a power consumption of no more than 1000 W. Furthermore, this type of plasma has demonstrated to be a clean and efficient not only by high conversion rates of H 2 S (86%) and CO 2 (56%) and high percentages of selectivity in the production of hydrogen (H 2 ) and carbon monoxide carbon (CO) obtained in this work, but because it can even be seriously considered to replace other technologies currently used in the process of sweetening natural gas as adsorption, absorption and sequestering membranes. The results shown are based on a series of analysis, simulations, experiments and calculations, from the design of the plasma generating source based on an impulse-phase circuit, to the electrical characterization results and simulation by acquiring electrical signals, without forgetting the characterization of the resulting chemical components using various analytical techniques such as mass spectrometry, gas chromatography (GC), optical emission spectroscopy (OES), optical spectroscopy Fourier inverse transformed (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (Sem), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and multi-gas detectors (iBrid MX6). Additionally, performed chemical kinetics and reaction mechanism of the compounds involved in the degradation of H 2 S and CO 2 similar to those experienced as well as the study of energy efficiency (Ece), specific energy (Se), all this to meet a projects needs 127499, entitled -Development of alternative

  18. An LCA model for waste incineration enhanced with new technologies for metal recovery and application to the case of Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Michael E; Vadenbo, Carl; Saner, Dominik; Huter, Christoph; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-02-01

    A process model of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) and new technologies for metal recovery from combustion residues was developed. The environmental impact is modeled as a function of waste composition as well as waste treatment and material recovery technologies. The model includes combustion with a grate incinerator, several flue gas treatment technologies, electricity and steam production from waste heat recovery, metal recovery from slag and fly ash, and landfilling of residues and can be tailored to specific plants and sites (software tools can be downloaded free of charge). Application of the model to Switzerland shows that the treatment of one tonne of municipal solid waste results on average in 425 kg CO2-eq. generated in the incineration process, and 54 kg CO2-eq. accrue in upstream processes such as waste transport and the production of operating materials. Downstream processes, i.e. residue disposal, generates 5 kg CO2-eq. Savings from energy recovery are in the range of 67 to 752 kg CO2-eq. depending on the assumptions regarding the substituted energy production, while the recovery of metals from slag and fly ash currently results in a net saving of approximately 35 kg CO2-eq. A similar impact pattern is observed when assessing the MSWI model for aggregated environmental impacts (ReCiPe) and for non-renewable resource consumption (cumulative exergy demand), except that direct emissions have less and no relevance, respectively, on the total score. The study illustrates that MSWI plants can be an important element of industrial ecology as they provide waste disposal services and can help to close material and energetic cycles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Integrated funnel-and-gate/GZB product recovery technologies for in situ management of creosote NAPL-impacted aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.G.; Borchert, S.M.; Klingel, E.J.

    1997-01-01

    An in situ source management system was modeled and designed for the containment and recovery of creosote non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) at a former wood treating facility in Nashua, New Hampshire. The conceptual system was based on the integration of patented technologies for physical source containment and management (ie., funnel-and-gate technology) with patented in situ product recovery (i.e, GZB technology - described below). A funnel-and-gate physical barrier was proposed to mitigate the continued flow of NAPL into the Merrimack River. The purpose of the funnel was to divert groundwater (and potential NAPL) flow through two gate areas. Where required, an in situ system for product recovery was integrated. Mathematical modeling of the combined technologies led to the selection of a metal sheet pile barrier wall along 650 feet of the river's shoreline with the wall anchored into an underlying zone of lesser permeability. Multiple GZB wells were placed strategically within the system. This combination of technologies promised to offer a more effective, cost-efficient approach for long-term management of environmental concerns at Nashua, and related sites

  20. GBRN/DOE Project: Dynamic enhanced recovery technologies. Quarterly technical report, January 1994--March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.N.

    1994-04-15

    Global Basins Research Network will perform a field demonstration of their ``Dynamic Enhanced Recovery Technology`` to test the concept that the growth faults in EI-330 field are conduits through which producing reservoirs are charged and that enhanced production can be developed by producing directly from the fault zone. The site, operated by Penzoil, is located in 250 feet of water the productive depth intervals include 4000 to 9000 feet. Previous work, which incorporated pressure, temperature, fluid flow, heat flow, seismic, production, and well log data, indicated active fluid flow along fault zones. The field demonstration will be accomplished by drilling and production test of growth fault systems associated with the EI-330 field. The project utilizes advanced 3-D seismic analysis, geochemical studies, structural and stratigraphic reservoir characterization, reservoir simulation, and compact visualization systems. The quarterly progress reports contains accomplishments to date for the following tasks: Management start-up; database management; field and demonstration equipment; reservoir characterization, modeling; geochemistry; and data integration.

  1. A Discussion of Oxygen Recovery Definitions and Key Performance Parameters for Closed-Loop Atmosphere Revitalization Life Support Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 55 years, NASA has evolved life support for crewed space exploration vehicles from simple resupply during Project Mercury to the complex and highly integrated system of systems aboard the International Space Station. As NASA targets exploration destinations farther from low Earth orbit and mission durations of 500 to 1000 days, life support systems must evolve to meet new requirements. In addition to having more robust, reliable, and maintainable hardware, limiting resupply becomes critical for managing mission logistics and cost. Supplying a crew with the basics of food, water, and oxygen become more challenging as the destination ventures further from Earth. Aboard ISS the Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem (ARS) supplies the crew's oxygen demand by electrolyzing water. This approach makes water a primary logistics commodity that must be managed carefully. Chemical reduction of metabolic carbon dioxide (CO2) provides a method of recycling oxygen thereby reducing the net ARS water demand and therefore minimizing logistics needs. Multiple methods have been proposed to achieve this recovery and have been reported in the literature. However, depending on the architecture and the technology approach, "oxygen recovery" can be defined in various ways. This discontinuity makes it difficult to compare technologies directly. In an effort to clarify community discussions of Oxygen Recovery, we propose specific definitions and describe the methodology used to arrive at those definitions. Additionally, we discuss key performance parameters for Oxygen Recovery technology development including challenges with comparisons to state-of-the-art.

  2. Development of evaluation method for hydraulic behavior in Venturi scrubber for filtered venting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, Naoki; Nakao, Yasuhiro; Kaneko, Akiko; Abe, Yutaka; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Filtered venting systems have been installed to restart Nuclear Power Plants in Japan after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster. Venturi scrubber is main component of one of the systems. To evaluate decontamination performance of the Venturi scrubber for filtered venting, mechanistic evaluation method for hydrodynamic behavior is important. In this paper, our objective is to develop the method. As approaches, we conducted experimental observation under adiabatic (air-water) condition, developed a numerical simulation code with one-dimensional two-fluid model and made verification and validation by comparison between these results in terms of superficial gas, static pressure, superficial liquid velocity, droplet ratio and droplet diameter in Venturi scrubber. As results, we observed the hydrodynamic behavior, developed the code and confirmed that it has capability to evaluate the parameters with following accuracy, superficial gas velocity with +30%, static pressure in throat part with +-10%, superficial liquid velocity with +-80%, droplet diameter with +-30% and droplet ratio with -50%. (author)

  3. Design considerations for wet flue gas desulfurization systems - wet scrubber hardware issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurwitz, H.

    1994-12-31

    About 20 years ago the first wet flue gas desulfurization systems installed on coal fired utility boilers in the United States were experiencing extreme operating problems. In addition to their failure to achieve the necessary SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies, these FGD systems required a major investment in maintenance, both material and labor, just to remain operational. These first generation systems demonstrated that a lack of understanding of the chemistry and operating conditions of wet flue gas desulfurization can lead to diastrous results. As the air pollution control industry developed, both in the United States and in Japan, a second generation of FGD systems was introduced. These designs incorporated major improvements in both system chemistry control and in the equipment utilized in the process. Indeed, the successful introduction of utility gas desulfurization systems in Germany was possible only through the transfer of the technology improvements developed in the US and in Japan. Today, technology has evolved to a third generation of wet flue gas desulfurication systems and these systems are now offered worldwide through a series of international licensing agreements. The rapid economic growth and development in Asia and the Pacific Rim combined with existing problems in ambient air quality in these same geographic areas, has resulted in the use of advanced air pollution control systems; including flue gas desulfurization both for new utility units and for many retrofit projects. To meet the requirements of the utility industry, FGD systems must meet high standards of reliability, operability and performance. Key components in achieving these objectives are: FGD System reliability/operability/performance; FGD system supplier qualifications; process design; equipment selection. This paper will discuss each of the essential factors with a concentration on the equipment selection and wet scrubber hardware issues.

  4. The potential environmental gains from recycling waste plastics: Simulation of transferring recycling and recovery technologies to Shenyang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xudong; Xi Fengming; Geng Yong; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Urban symbiosis creates compatibility of industrial development and waste management. → Mechanical technology leads to more CO 2 emission reduction. → Energy recovery technology leads to more fossil fuel saving. → Clean energy makes recycling technologies cleaner. → Demand management is crucial for realizing potential environmental gains of recycling. - Abstract: With the increasing attention on developing a low-carbon economy, it is necessary to seek appropriate ways on reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through innovative municipal solid waste management (MSWM), such as urban symbiosis. However, quantitative assessments on the environmental benefits of urban symbiosis, especially in developing countries, are limited because only a limited number of planned synergistic activities have been successful and it is difficult to acquire detailed inventory data from private companies. This paper modifies and applies a two-step simulation system and used it to assess the potential environmental benefits, including the reduction of GHG emissions and saving of fossil fuels, by employing various Japanese plastics recycling/energy-recovery technologies in Shenyang, China. The results showed that among various recycling/energy-recovery technologies, the mechanical waste plastics recycling technology, which produces concrete formwork boards (NF boards), has the greatest potential in terms of reducing GHG emissions (1.66 kg CO 2 e/kg plastics), whereas the technology for the production of refuse plastic fuel (RPF) has the greatest potential on saving fossil fuel consumption (0.77 kgce/kg-plastics). Additional benefits can be gained by applying combined technologies that cascade the utilization of waste plastics. Moreover, the development of clean energy in conjunction with the promotion of new waste plastics recycling programs could contribute to additional reductions in GHG emissions and fossil fuel consumption.

  5. Pilot-scale field study for ammonia removal from lagoon biogas using an acid wet scrubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongjian; Wu, Xiao; Miller, Curtis; Zhu, Jun; Hadlocon, Lara Jane; Manuzon, Roderick; Zhao, Lingying

    2014-01-01

    The anaerobic activities in swine slurry storage and treatment generate biogas containing gaseous ammonia component which is a chemical agent that can cause adverse environmental impacts when released to the atmosphere. The aim of this pilot plant study was to remove ammonia from biogas generated in a covered lagoon, using a sulfuric acid wet scrubber. The data showed that, on average, the biogas contained 43.7 ppm of ammonia and its concentration was found to be exponentially related to the air temperature inside the lagoon. When the air temperature rose to 35°C and the biogas ammonia concentration reached 90 ppm, the mass transfer of ammonia/ammonium from the deeper liquid body to the interface between the air and liquid became a limiting factor. The biogas velocity was critical in affecting ammonia removal efficiency of the wet scrubber. A biogas flow velocity of 8 to 12 mm s(-1) was recommended to achieve a removal efficiency of greater than 60%. Stepwise regression revealed that the biogas velocity and air temperature, not the inlet ammonia concentration in biogas, affected the ammonia removal efficiency. Overall, when 73 g L(-1) (or 0.75 M) sulfuric acid solution was used as the scrubber solution, removal efficiencies varied from 0% to 100% with an average of 55% over a 40-d measurement period. Mass balance calculation based on ammonium-nitrogen concentration in final scrubber liquid showed that about 21.3 g of ammonia was collected from a total volume of 1169 m(3) of biogas, while the scrubber solution should still maintain its ammonia absorbing ability until its concentration reaches up to 1 M. These results showed promising use of sulfuric acid wet scrubber for ammonia removal in the digester biogas.

  6. Size reduction of ammonia scrubbers for pig and poultry houses: Use of conditional bypass vent at high air loading rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.; Wagenberg, van A.V.; Mosquera, J.

    2006-01-01

    In The Netherlands, both acid and biological air scrubbers are used for removal of ammonia from exhaust air at pig and poultry houses. Current regulations require that scrubbers are dimensioned for treating the maximum airflow rate that may occur, so on average these systems are overdimensioned and

  7. Removal of particulate matter (PM10) by air scrubbers at livestock facilities: results of an on-farm monitoring program.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.; Hofschreuder, P.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Air scrubbers are commonly used for removal of ammonia and odor from exhaust air of animal houses in the Netherlands. In addition, air scrubbers remove a part of the particulate matter. In this article, the results of an on-farm monitoring are presented in which PM10 removal was monitored at 24

  8. Effects of land-applied ammonia scrubber solutions on yield, nitrogen uptake, soil test phosphorus and phosphorus runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia (NH3) scrubbers reduce amounts of NH3 and dust released from animal rearing facilities, while generating nitrogen (N) rich solutions, which may be used as fertilizer. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various NH3 scrubber solutions on yields, N uptake by forage, so...

  9. Methane Post-Processor Development to Increase Oxygen Recovery beyond State-of-the-Art Carbon Dioxide Reduction Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary; Miller, Lee A.; Alvarez, Giraldo; Iannantuono, Michelle; Jones, Kenny

    2013-01-01

    State-of-the-art life support carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction technology, based on the Sabatier reaction, is theoretically capable of 50% recovery of oxygen from metabolic CO2. This recovery is constrained by the limited availability of reactant hydrogen. Post-processing of the methane byproduct from the Sabatier reactor results in hydrogen recycle and a subsequent increase in oxygen recovery. For this purpose, a Methane Post-Processor Assembly containing three sub-systems has been developed and tested. The assembly includes a Methane Purification Assembly (MePA) to remove residual CO2 and water vapor from the Sabatier product stream, a Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) to partially pyrolyze methane into hydrogen and acetylene, and an Acetylene Separation Assembly (ASepA) to purify the hydrogen product for recycle. The results of partially integrated testing of the sub-systems are reported

  10. Multi-Pollutant and One-Stage Scrubbers for Removal of Ammonia, Odor, and Particulate Matter from Animal House Exhaust Air

    OpenAIRE

    Ogink, N.W.M.; Melse, R.W.; Mosquera Losada, J.

    2008-01-01

    In several European countries, acid scrubbers and bio-scrubbers are off-the-shelf techniques for effective removal of ammonia from exhaust air from animal houses and, to a lesser extent, for odor. The number of operating air scrubbers at livestock operations in the Netherlands in 2008 is estimated to clean the air of approximately 10 percent of the pigs produced nationwide. Currently, a new generation of so-called multi-pollutant air scrubbers are developed for intensive livestock production ...

  11. Inconel alloy 625 clad steel for application in wet scrubber systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, S.L.; Shoemaker, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    Test panels from INCONEL 625 clad plate were successfully installed in two wet flue gas scrubber systems. In one system INCONEL 625 clad plate was located in the roof section of the absorber just ahead of the outlet ducting. The test plates, including weld seams, showed no signs to corrosion after six months of exposure. In the other scrubber test plates located in the outlet duct of an I.D. fan house, in the stack lining, and in the absorber quench area were unattacked after nine months

  12. Atomization of liquids in a Pease-Anthony Venturi scrubber. Part I. Jet dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, J A S; Costa, M A M; Henrique, P R; Coury, J R

    2003-02-28

    Jet dynamics, in particular jet penetration, is an important design parameter affecting the collection efficiency of Venturi scrubbers. A mathematical description of the trajectory, break-up and penetration of liquid jets initially transversal to a subsonic gas stream is presented. Experimental data obtained from a laboratory scale Venturi scrubber, operated with liquid injected into the throat through a single orifice, jet velocities between 6.07 and 15.9 m/s, and throat gas velocities between 58.3 and 74.9 m/s, is presented and used to validate the model.

  13. Applicability of numerical simulation code TPFIT to two-phase flow in Venturi scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, Naoki; Kanagawa, Tetsuya; Kaneko, Akiko; Abe, Yutaka; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    As one of the filtered venting devices for light water reactor, Venturi scrubber can operate with effective decontamination efficiency because dispersed flow is formed in the Venturi scrubber by pressure difference between inside and outside of holes for liquid suction. Droplet diameter and its distribution in cross-section area are important for the decontamination. However, they are changed by hydraulic behavior of suctioned liquid until atomized, and kinds of atomization phenomena. In this report, to understand the hydraulic behavior of the liquid in detail for the filtered venting, we performed visualized observation experimentally and numerical simulation by TPFIT. Then the numerical simulation result was validated by the experimental data. (author)

  14. Performance of a Venturi scrubber in the removal of fine powder from a confined gas stream

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Maria Angélica Martins; Ribeiro, Ana Paula Rodrigues Alves; Tognetti, Érica Rodrigues; Aguiar, Mônica Lopes; Gonçalves, José Antônio Silveira; Coury, José Renato

    2005-01-01

    Experimental results on the performance of a laboratory scale rectangular Venturi scrubber in the removal of fine mineral particles from a confined air stream are presented, and a new correlation is proposed and evaluated. The scrubber was operated with air velocities in the throat varying from 58 m/s to 75 m/s and liquid flow rates varying from 280 ml/min to 900 ml/min. Liquid was injected as a jet emerging from a 1.0 mm orifice at the throat. Results for dust collection grade efficiency var...

  15. Experimental study of pressure drop characteristics of venturi scrubber working at self-priming mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Meng; Sun Zhongning; Gu Haifeng; Guo Xueqing; Yu Yong

    2012-01-01

    The pressure drop characteristics of Venturi scrubber working at self-priming mode were studied experimentally. The test sections were smooth glass scrubbers, with air and water as the working medium. The results show that the trends of empirical formula are more consistent with that of the experimental results, but the relative error is large, up to ±50% or more. The experimental correlation is proposed based on the experimental research, and the calculated results of which can well predict the experimental data and the relative error is within ±15%. (authors)

  16. Performance of a Venturi scrubber in the removal of fine powder from a confined gas stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica Martins Costa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results on the performance of a laboratory scale rectangular Venturi scrubber in the removal of fine mineral particles from a confined air stream are presented, and a new correlation is proposed and evaluated. The scrubber was operated with air velocities in the throat varying from 58 m/s to 75 m/s and liquid flow rates varying from 280 ml/min to 900 ml/min. Liquid was injected as a jet emerging from a 1.0 mm orifice at the throat. Results for dust collection grade efficiency varied from 87% to 98% for particles from 0.1 µm to 2.0 µm.

  17. Micro- and Nanostructural Characteristics of Particles Before and After an Exhaust Gas Recirculation System Scrubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieke, Kirsten Inga; Rosenørn, Thomas; Pedersen, Jannik

    2013-01-01

    microscopy (TEM) grids on two stages. Micro- and nanostructural characteristics of sin-gle particles were studied by TEM. Image analysis was carried out on overview and high-resolution images, revealing influence of the exhaust gas treatment (scrubber) on the particle morphology and mixing state. Soot......This work provides insight into the morphology and mixing state of submicron particles in diesel exhaust from a ship engine with an exhaust gas recirculation scrubber. Particles from this low-speed ship engine on test bed were collected using a microiner-tial impactor with transmission electron...

  18. Resource Recovery. Redefining the 3 Rs. Reduce...Reuse...Recycle. Resources in Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the problems of waste disposal, recycling, and resource recovery. Includes information on the social and cultural impact, the three classes of resource recovery (reuse, direct recycling, and indirect recycling), and specific products (paper, glass, plastics, metals, and so on). Includes a student quiz and possible outcomes. (JOW)

  19. An LCA model for waste incineration enhanced with new technologies for metal recovery and application to the case of Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesch, Michael E.; Vadenbo, Carl; Saner, Dominik; Huter, Christoph; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An enhanced process-based LCA model for MSWI is featured and applied in case study. • LCA modeling of recent technological developments for metal recovery from fly ash. • Net release from Swiss MSWI 133 kg CO 2 -eq/tonne waste from attributional LCA perspective. • Net savings from a consequential LCA perspective reach up to 303 kg CO 2 -eq/tonne waste. • Impacts according to ReCiPe and CExD show similar pattern to climate change. - Abstract: A process model of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) and new technologies for metal recovery from combustion residues was developed. The environmental impact is modeled as a function of waste composition as well as waste treatment and material recovery technologies. The model includes combustion with a grate incinerator, several flue gas treatment technologies, electricity and steam production from waste heat recovery, metal recovery from slag and fly ash, and landfilling of residues and can be tailored to specific plants and sites (software tools can be downloaded free of charge). Application of the model to Switzerland shows that the treatment of one tonne of municipal solid waste results on average in 425 kg CO 2 -eq. generated in the incineration process, and 54 kg CO 2 -eq. accrue in upstream processes such as waste transport and the production of operating materials. Downstream processes, i.e. residue disposal, generates 5 kg CO 2 -eq. Savings from energy recovery are in the range of 67 to 752 kg CO 2 -eq. depending on the assumptions regarding the substituted energy production, while the recovery of metals from slag and fly ash currently results in a net saving of approximately 35 kg CO 2 -eq. A similar impact pattern is observed when assessing the MSWI model for aggregated environmental impacts (ReCiPe) and for non-renewable resource consumption (cumulative exergy demand), except that direct emissions have less and no relevance, respectively, on the total score. The study illustrates

  20. Tc Generator Development: Up-to-Date Tc Recovery Technologies for Increasing the Effectiveness of Mo Utilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van So Le

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A review on the Mo sources available today and on the Tc generators developed up to date for increasing the effectiveness of Mo utilisation is performed in the format of detailed description of the features and technical performance of the technological groups of the Mo production and Tc recovery. The latest results of the endeavour in this field are also surveyed in regard of the technical solution for overcoming the shortage of Mo supply. The technological topics are grouped and discussed in a way to reflect the similarity in the technological process of each group. The following groups are included in this review which are high specific activity Mo: the current issues of production, the efforts of more effective utilisation, and the high specific activity Mo-based Tc generator and Tc concentration units; low specific activity Mo: the Mo production based on neutron capture and accelerators and the direct production of Tc and the methods of increasing the specific activity of Mo using Szilard-Chalmers reaction and high electric power isotopic separator; up-to-date technologies of Tc recovery from low specific activity Mo: the solvent extraction-based Tc generator, the sublimation methods for Mo/Tc separation, the electrochemical method for Tc recovery, and the column chromatographic methods for Tc recovery. Besides the traditional Tc-generator systems, the integrated Tc generator systems (Tc generator column combined with postelution purification/concentration unit are discussed with the format of process diagram and picture of real generator systems. These systems are the technetium selective sorbent column-based generators, the high Mo-loading capacity column-based integrated Tc generator systems which include the saline-eluted generator systems, and the nonsaline aqueous and organic solvent eluent-eluted generator systems using high Mo-loading capacity molybdategel and recently developed sorbent columns. Tc concentration methods used in the

  1. An LCA model for waste incineration enhanced with new technologies for metal recovery and application to the case of Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boesch, Michael E. [Aveny GmbH, Schwandenholzstr. 212, CH-8046 Zürich (Switzerland); Vadenbo, Carl, E-mail: vadenbo@ifu.baug.ethz.ch [ETH Zurich, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Schafmattstrasse 6, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Saner, Dominik [Swiss Post, Communications, Politics and Social Responsibility, Viktoriastrasse 21, P.O. Box, CH-3030 Berne (Switzerland); Huter, Christoph [City of Zürich, ERZ Entsorgung - Recycling Zürich, Hagenholzstrasse 110, P.O. Box, CH-8050 Zürich (Switzerland); Hellweg, Stefanie [ETH Zurich, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Schafmattstrasse 6, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • An enhanced process-based LCA model for MSWI is featured and applied in case study. • LCA modeling of recent technological developments for metal recovery from fly ash. • Net release from Swiss MSWI 133 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/tonne waste from attributional LCA perspective. • Net savings from a consequential LCA perspective reach up to 303 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/tonne waste. • Impacts according to ReCiPe and CExD show similar pattern to climate change. - Abstract: A process model of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) and new technologies for metal recovery from combustion residues was developed. The environmental impact is modeled as a function of waste composition as well as waste treatment and material recovery technologies. The model includes combustion with a grate incinerator, several flue gas treatment technologies, electricity and steam production from waste heat recovery, metal recovery from slag and fly ash, and landfilling of residues and can be tailored to specific plants and sites (software tools can be downloaded free of charge). Application of the model to Switzerland shows that the treatment of one tonne of municipal solid waste results on average in 425 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. generated in the incineration process, and 54 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. accrue in upstream processes such as waste transport and the production of operating materials. Downstream processes, i.e. residue disposal, generates 5 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. Savings from energy recovery are in the range of 67 to 752 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. depending on the assumptions regarding the substituted energy production, while the recovery of metals from slag and fly ash currently results in a net saving of approximately 35 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. A similar impact pattern is observed when assessing the MSWI model for aggregated environmental impacts (ReCiPe) and for non-renewable resource consumption (cumulative exergy demand), except that direct emissions have less and no relevance, respectively, on the total

  2. Multi-Pollutant and One-Stage Scrubbers for Removal of Ammonia, Odor, and Particulate Matter from Animal House Exhaust Air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogink, N.W.M.; Melse, R.W.; Mosquera Losada, J.

    2008-01-01

    In several European countries, acid scrubbers and bio-scrubbers are off-the-shelf techniques for effective removal of ammonia from exhaust air from animal houses and, to a lesser extent, for odor. The number of operating air scrubbers at livestock operations in the Netherlands in 2008 is estimated

  3. Homeless drug users and information technology: a qualitative study with potential implications for recovery from drug dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Joanne; Stevenson, Caral

    2014-09-01

    Having access to information and communication technologies (ICTs) is a prerequisite to meaningful participation in society. This paper seeks to: i. explore the engagement of homeless drug users (HDUs) with ICTs and ii. discuss the findings with reference to recovery from drug dependence. The study design was qualitative and longitudinal, involving data collected in 2012-13 via 52 semi-structured interviews with 30 homeless drug users (25 men; five women). Participants were recruited from 17 hostels in two English cities. Interview data were analyzed using Framework. HDUs had access to ICTs, used ICTs, and wanted to engage with them more. Experiences of digital exclusion were a function of participants' inability to afford ICTs, the relatively cheap and poor quality technology available to them, limited knowledge about ICTs, and lack of support in using them. That HDUs were often unable to take full advantage of technology because they had nobody to explain what their devices could do or to show them how they worked was ironic given that using ICTs to (re)establish and maintain relationships were functions of technology that HDUs particularly liked. The physical, human, cultural, and social capital of HDUs influenced their access to, and use of, ICTs. Equally, ICTs were themselves an important recovery resource. Services and others should endeavor to provide HDUs with easy access to good quality technology, as well as offers of support and education so that all individuals have the knowledge and confidence to make optimum use of the technology that is available to them.

  4. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Archie R.

    1996-01-01

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Cross-well bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents

  5. Energy recovery from waste streams with microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.

    2012-09-15

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based technologies are promising technologies for direct energy production from various wastewaters and waste streams. Beside electrical power production, more emphasis is recently devoted to alternative applications such as hydrogen production, bioremediation, seawater desalination, and biosensors. Although the technologies are promising, a number of hurdles need to be overcome before that field applications are economically feasible. The main purpose of this work was to improve the performance, reduce the construction cost, and expand the application scopes of MFC-based bio-electrochemical systems. To reduce the energy cost in nitrogen removal and during the same process achieve phosphorus elimination, a sediment-type photomicrobial fuel cell was developed based on the cooperation between microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) and electrochemically active bacteria. The main removal mechanism of nitrogen and phosphorus was algae biomass uptake, while nitrification and denitrification process contributed to part of nitrogen removal. The key factors such as algae concentration, COD/N ratios and photoperiod were systemically studied. A self-powered submersible microbial electrolysis cell was developed for in situ biohydrogen production from anaerobic reactors. The hydrogen production increased along with acetate and buffer concentration. The hydrogen production rate of 32.2 mL/L/d and yield of 1.43 mol-H2/mol-acetate were achieved. Alternate exchanging the function between the two cell units was found to be an effective approach to inhibit methanogens. A sensor, based on a submersible microbial fuel cell, was developed for in situ monitoring of microbial activity and biochemical oxygen demand in groundwater. Presence or absence of a biofilm on the anode was a decisive factor for the applicability of the sensor. Temperature, pH, conductivity and inorganic solid content were significantly affecting the sensitivity of the sensor. The sensor showed

  6. Concept definition study for recovery of tumbling satellites. Volume 2: Supporting research and technology report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, D. A.; Derocher, W. L., Jr.; Cathcart, J. A.; Keeley, M. G.; Madayev, L.; Nguyen, T. K.; Preese, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    A number of areas of research and laboratory experiments were identified which could lead to development of a cost efficient remote, disable satellite recovery system. Estimates were planned of disabled satellite motion. A concept is defined as a Tumbling Satellite Recovery kit which includes a modular system, composed of a number of subsystem mechanisms that can be readily integrated into varying combinations. This would enable the user to quickly configure a tailored remote, disabled satellite recovery kit to meet a broad spectrum of potential scenarios. The capability was determined of U.S. Earth based satellite tracking facilities to adequately determine the orientation and motion rates of disabled satellites.

  7. Assessment of the greenhouse effect impact of technologies used for energy recovery from municipal waste: a case for England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, A; Barton, J R; Karagiannidis, A

    2009-07-01

    Waste management activities contribute to global greenhouse gas emissions approximately by 4%. In particular the disposal of waste in landfills generates methane that has high global warming potential. Effective mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions is important and could provide environmental benefits and sustainable development, as well as reduce adverse impacts on public health. The European and UK waste policy force sustainable waste management and especially diversion from landfill, through reduction, reuse, recycling and composting, and recovery of value from waste. Energy from waste is a waste management option that could provide diversion from landfill and at the same time save a significant amount of greenhouse gas emissions, since it recovers energy from waste which usually replaces an equivalent amount of energy generated from fossil fuels. Energy from waste is a wide definition and includes technologies such as incineration of waste with energy recovery, or combustion of waste-derived fuels for energy production or advanced thermal treatment of waste with technologies such as gasification and pyrolysis, with energy recovery. The present study assessed the greenhouse gas emission impacts of three technologies that could be used for the treatment of Municipal Solid Waste in order to recover energy from it. These technologies are Mass Burn Incineration with energy recovery, Mechanical Biological Treatment via bio-drying and Mechanical Heat Treatment, which is a relatively new and uninvestigated method, compared to the other two. Mechanical Biological Treatment and Mechanical Heat Treatment can turn Municipal Solid Waste into Solid Recovered Fuel that could be combusted for energy production or replace other fuels in various industrial processes. The analysis showed that performance of these two technologies depends strongly on the final use of the produced fuel and they could produce GHG emissions savings only when there is end market for the fuel. On the

  8. Use of a heated graphite scrubber as a means of reducing interferences in UV-absorbance measurements of atmospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Turnipseed

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A new solid-phase scrubber for use in conventional ozone (O3 photometers was investigated as a means of reducing interferences from other UV-absorbing species and water vapor. It was found that when heated to 100–130 °C, a tubular graphite scrubber efficiently removed up to 500 ppb ozone and ozone monitors using the heated graphite scrubber were found to be less susceptible to interferences from water vapor, mercury vapor, and aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs compared to conventional metal oxide scrubbers. Ambient measurements from a graphite scrubber-equipped photometer and a co-located Federal equivalent method (FEM ozone analyzer showed excellent agreement over 38 days of measurements and indicated no loss in the scrubber's ability to remove ozone when operated at 130 °C. The use of a heated graphite scrubber was found to reduce the interference from mercury vapor to ≤ 3 % of that obtained using a packed-bed Hopcalite scrubber. For a series of substituted aromatic compounds (ranging in volatility and absorption cross section at 253.7 nm, the graphite scrubber was observed to consistently exhibit reduced levels of interference, typically by factors of 2.5 to 20 less than with Hopcalite. Conventional solid-phase scrubbers also exhibited complex VOC adsorption and desorption characteristics that were dependent upon the relative humidity (RH, volatility of the VOC, and the available surface area of the scrubber. This complex behavior involving humidity is avoided by use of a heated graphite scrubber. These results suggest that heated graphite scrubbers could be substituted in most ozone photometers as a means of reducing interferences from other UV-absorbing species found in the atmosphere. This could be particularly important in ozone monitoring for compliance with the United States (U.S. Clean Air Act or for use in VOC-rich environments such as in smog chambers and monitoring indoor air quality.

  9. Recovery of uranium from seawater-status of technology and needed future research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelmers, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of recent publications concerning uranium recovery from seawater shows that considerable experimental work in this area is currently under way in Japan, less in European countries. Repeated screening programs have identified hydrous titanium oxide as the most promising candidate adsorbent; however, many of its properties, such as distribution coefficient, selectivity, loading, and possibly stability, appear to fall far short of those required for a practical recovery system. In addition, various evaluations of the energy efficiency of pumped or tidal power schemes for contacting the sorbent and seawater are in serious disagreement. Needed future research and development tasks have been identified. A fundamental development program to achieve significantly improved adsorbent properties would be required to permit economical recovery of uranium from seawater. Unresolved engineering aspects of such recovery systems are also identified and discussed. 63 references

  10. Life cycle assessment as development and decision support tool for wastewater resource recovery technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Linda L.; Valverde Perez, Borja; Damgaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    resource recovery. The freshwater and nutrient content of wastewater are recognized as potential valuable resources that can be recovered for beneficial reuse. Both recovery and reuse are intended to address existing environmental concerns, for example, water scarcity and use of non-renewable phosphorus...... and water recovery system in its potential operating environment, we assess the potential environmental impacts of such a system using the EASETECH model. In the simulation, recovered water and nutrients are used in scenarios of agricultural irrigation-fertilization and aquifer recharge. In these scenarios......, TRENS reduces global warming up to 15% and marine eutrophication impacts up to 9% compared to conventional treatment. This is due to the recovery and reuse of nutrient resources, primarily nitrogen. The key environmental concerns obtained through the LCA are linked to increased human toxicity impacts...

  11. The potential environmental gains from recycling waste plastics: simulation of transferring recycling and recovery technologies to Shenyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xudong; Xi, Fengming; Geng, Yong; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing attention on developing a low-carbon economy, it is necessary to seek appropriate ways on reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through innovative municipal solid waste management (MSWM), such as urban symbiosis. However, quantitative assessments on the environmental benefits of urban symbiosis, especially in developing countries, are limited because only a limited number of planned synergistic activities have been successful and it is difficult to acquire detailed inventory data from private companies. This paper modifies and applies a two-step simulation system and used it to assess the potential environmental benefits, including the reduction of GHG emissions and saving of fossil fuels, by employing various Japanese plastics recycling/energy-recovery technologies in Shenyang, China. The results showed that among various recycling/energy-recovery technologies, the mechanical waste plastics recycling technology, which produces concrete formwork boards (NF boards), has the greatest potential in terms of reducing GHG emissions (1.66 kg CO(2)e/kg plastics), whereas the technology for the production of refuse plastic fuel (RPF) has the greatest potential on saving fossil fuel consumption (0.77 kg ce/kg-plastics). Additional benefits can be gained by applying combined technologies that cascade the utilization of waste plastics. Moreover, the development of clean energy in conjunction with the promotion of new waste plastics recycling programs could contribute to additional reductions in GHG emissions and fossil fuel consumption. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of water scrubbers to reduce fine dust emission from poultry houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogink, N.W.M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Harn, van J.; Melse, R.W.; Cambra-Lopez, M.

    2010-01-01

    Poultry housings with litter are a major contributor to fine dust emissions (PM10/PM2.5) in the Netherlands. Poultry producers are in need of dust mitigation options that are cost effective. Such an option could be provided by adequately designed water scrubbers. Catchment of dust particles by water

  13. Dust captures effectiveness of scrubber systems on mechanical miners operating in larger roadways.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hole, BJ

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The project was directed towards bord and pillar working by mechanised miners operating in larger section roadways, where the problem of scrubber capture tends to be greatest owing to the limited size of the zone of influence around exhaust...

  14. Maximizing the performance of a multiple-stage variable-throat venturi scrubber for particle collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, D. M.; Akeredolu, F.

    The high collection efficiencies that are required nowadays to meet the stricter pollution control standards necessitate the use of high-energy scrubbers, such as the venturi scrubber, for the arrestment of fine particulate matter from exhaust gas streams. To achieve more energy-efficient particle collection, several venturi stages may be used in series. This paper is principally a theoretical investigation of the performance of a multiple-stage venturi scrubber, the main objective of the study being to establish the best venturi design configuration for any given set of operating conditions. A mathematical model is used to predict collection efficiency vs pressure drop relationships for particle sizes in the range 0.2-5.0 μm for one-, two-, three- and four-stage scrubbers. The theoretical predictions are borne out qualitatively by experimental work. The paper shows that the three-stage venturi produces the highest collection efficiencies over the normal operating range except for the collection of very fine particles at low pressure drops, when the single-stage venturi is best. The significant improvement in performance achieved by the three-stage venturi when compared with conventional single-stage operation increases as both the particle size and system pressure drop increase.

  15. Development of structure design program for venturi scrubber working at self-priming mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Meng; Sun Zhongning; Gu Haifeng

    2012-01-01

    A structure design program was developed for Venturi scrubber working at the self-priming mode. This program proposed a complete logic for thermal parameters calculation and structure design of the throat. A revised calculation for resistance relationship was carried out based on experimental study. The relative error between revised results and experimental values is within 8.6%. (authors)

  16. Research on injection characteristics of venturi scrubber worked in self-priming mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yanmin; Sun Zhongning; Gu Haifeng; Miao Zhuang

    2015-01-01

    The injection characteristics of Venturi scrubber worked in self-priming mode in containment filter venting system was studied experimentally under different air flows, liquid levels and system pressures. The results indicate that with the increase of superficial gas velocity in throat, the static pressure drop of both sides of the suction grows approximately following a parabolic law, and the injection flow rate injecting into the Venturi scrubber increases linearly. The effect of liquid level on injection characteristics relates closely with the relative position to the outlet of the Venturi scrubber. When the liquid level is below the outlet, the injection flow rate improves significantly with increasing liquid level and presents a partition phenomenon, and in the low throat velocity, the increase of liquid level is more effective to improve the injection flow rate. However, when the liquid level is above the outlet, it almost has no impact on the injection flow rate. The pressure is another important factor affecting the injection characteristic of self-priming Venturi scrubber, which is mainly caused by the change on gas density. In the range of 0.150 kPa, with the increase of pressure, the injection flow rate improves greatly and the influence of pressure is more obvious in high throat velocity than in low throat velocity. (authors)

  17. Radiological engineering evaluation of the delay time line air scrubber located at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huneycutt, S.E.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the addition of an air scrubber to an already existing delay line and whether it would scrub 11 CO 2 . There were three main objectives of this study. The first objective was to determine the scrubbing efficiency of the scrubber. The scrubbing efficiency was then used to predict the dose rates in the scrubber area and compare those values with measurements from radiological surveys. The third objective was to determine if the shield blocks were effective in reducing the dose rates in the scrubber area. The activities were measured before and during scrubber operation and this information was used to calculate the scrubbing efficiency and the efficiency of 11 CO 2 removal was determined to be around 50%. Microshield was then used to predict dose rates and compared those values with measurements from radiological surveys. This was also used to determine the that the shield blocks around the scrubber were effective in reducing the dose rates from the radiation field produced by the radionuclides in the scrubber

  18. Study of iodine removal efficiency in self-priming venturi scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Majid; Yan, Changqi; Sun, Zhongning; Gu, Haifeng; Wang, Junlong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Study of iodine removal efficiency in a self-priming venturi scrubber. ► Investigation of iodine removal efficiency at different gas and liquid flow rates. ► Investigation of different inlet concentrations of iodine. ► Mathematical model based on mass transfer. - Abstract: Venturi scrubber is used in filtered vented containment system of nuclear power plants to remove the gaseous pollutants from contaminated gas during severe accidents. In this research, an experimental and theoretical investigation has been carried out to study the iodine removal efficiency in a self-priming venturi scrubber. The aqueous solution is prepared by adding weight percentage of sodium hydroxide 0.5% and sodium thiosulphate 0.2% in scrubbing water to increase the absorbance of inorganic iodine (I 2 ) from the contaminated gas during emission. The iodine removal efficiency is investigated at various gas and liquid flow rates, and iodine inlet concentrations. The iodine removal efficiency is measured experimentally by measuring the inlet and outlet concentration of iodine at sampling ports. The petite droplets are formed in a venturi scrubber to absorb the iodine through the mass transfer phenomenon. A mathematical model for mass transfer based on a gas liquid interface is employed for the verification of experimental results. The contact time between iodine and scrubbing solution depends on the total volumetric flow of gas and liquid, and volume of throat and diffuser of the venturi scrubber. Sauter mean diameter is calculated from the Nukiyama and Tanasawa correlation. Steinberger and Treybal’s correlation is used to measure the mass transfer coefficient for the gas phase. The results calculated from the model under predict the experimental data

  19. An Assessment of the Drivers and Barriers for the Deployment of Urban Phosphorus Recovery Technologies: A Case Study of The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa A. de Boer

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P, being one of the building blocks of life, is essential for a multitude of applications, primarily for fertilizer usage. Sustainable management of phosphorus is becoming increasingly important in light of adverse environmental effects, ambiguous reserves, increasing global demand and unilateral dependence. Recovery of phosphorus from the biggest loss stream, communal wastewater, has the potential to tackle each of these problems. The implementation of phosphorus recovery technologies at wastewater treatment plants is not widespread, despite prolonged efforts primarily done by researchers over the past decade. This study aimed to assess the drivers and barriers of a phosphorus recovery transition. Several key stakeholders involved in this transition in The Netherlands were interviewed. The Netherlands was taken as a case study, since it serves as a frontrunner in the implementation of phosphorus recovery technologies. This study shows that the main barriers from the point of view of fertilizer companies are the different and unclear characteristics of the phosphorus recovery product struvite compared to common fertilizers. Moreover, the end-of-waste status of struvite is mentioned as a prominent barrier for a phosphorus transition, since it hinders free market trade. Many water boards indicate that the main barrier is the high investment cost with an uncertain return on investment for onsite struvite recovery processes. The specified main driver for water boards for onsite struvite phosphorus recovery technology is the reduction of maintenance costs, and for phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge ash, the low organic pollutant in the P recovery product.

  20. Computers in the Cop Car: Impact of the Mobile Digital Terminal Technology on Motor Vehicle Theft Clearance and Recovery Rates in a Texas City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Samuel

    1993-01-01

    Assessed the impact of the Mobile Digital Terminal technology (computers used to communicate with remote crime databases) on motor vehicle theft clearance (arresting a perpetrator) and recovery rates in Fort Worth (Texas), using a time series analysis. Impact has been ambiguous, with little evidence of improved clearance or recovery. (SLD)

  1. Current technologies and new insights for the recovery of high valuable compounds from fruits by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrentino, Giovanna; Asaduzzaman, Md; Scampicchio, Matteo Mario

    2018-02-11

    The recovery of high valuable compounds from food waste is becoming a tighten issue in food processing. The large amount of non-edible residues produced by food industries causes pollution, difficulties in the management, and economic loss. The waste produced during the transformation of fruits includes a huge amount of materials such as peels, seeds, and bagasse, whose disposal usually represents a problem. Research over the past 20 years revealed that many food wastes could serve as a source of potentially valuable bioactive compounds, such as antioxidants and vitamins with increasing scientific interest thanks to their beneficial effects on human health. The challenge for the recovery of these compounds is to find the most appropriate and environment friendly extraction technique able to achieve the maximum extraction yield without compromising the stability of the extracted products. Based on this scenario, the aim of the current review is twofold. The first is to give a brief overview of the most important bioactive compounds occurring in fruit wastes. The second is to describe the pro and cons of the most up-to-dated innovative and environment friendly extraction technologies that can be an alternative to the classical solvent extraction procedures for the recovery of valuable compounds from fruit processing. Furthermore, a final section will take into account published findings on the combination of some of these technologies to increase the extracts yields of bioactives.

  2. Enhancing nutrient recovery and compost maturity of coconut husk by vermicomposting technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarnam, T P; Velmurugan, A; Pandey, Sanjay Kumar; Dam Roy, S

    2016-05-01

    Vermicompost was prepared by five different treatments from relatively resistant coconut husk mixed with either pig slurry or poultry manure. The recovery of vermicompost varied from 35% to 43% and it resulted in significant increase in pH, microbial biomass carbon, macro and micro nutrients concentration. Among the treatments highest relative N (1.6) and K (1.3) recovery were observed for 20% feedstock substitution by pig slurry while poultry manure substitution recorded highest P recovery (2.4). Compost maturity parameters significantly differed and well correlated. The characteristics of different treatments established the maturity indices as C/N 15-20; Cw1.5 and HI>15.0. The manurial value of the coconut husk compost was improved by feedstock substitution with pig slurry (80:20). The results revealed the technical feasibility of converting coconut husk into valuable compost by feedstock substitution with pig slurry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Air Evaporation closed cycle water recovery technology - Advanced energy saving designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morasko, Gwyndolyn; Putnam, David F.; Bagdigian, Robert

    1986-01-01

    The Air Evaporation water recovery system is a visible candidate for Space Station application. A four-man Air Evaporation open cycle system has been successfully demonstrated for waste water recovery in manned chamber tests. The design improvements described in this paper greatly enhance the system operation and energy efficiency of the air evaporation process. A state-of-the-art wick feed design which results in reduced logistics requirements is presented. In addition, several design concepts that incorporate regenerative features to minimize the energy input to the system are discussed. These include a recuperative heat exchanger, a heat pump for energy transfer to the air heater, and solar collectors for evaporative heat. The addition of the energy recovery devices will result in an energy reduction of more than 80 percent over the systems used in earlier manned chamber tests.

  4. A review of technologies and performances of thermal treatment systems for energy recovery from waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, Lidia, E-mail: lidia.lombardi@unicusano.it [Niccolò Cusano University, via Don Carlo Gnocchi, 3, 00166 Rome (Italy); Carnevale, Ennio [Industrial Engineering Department, University of Florence, via Santa Marta, 3, 50129 Florence (Italy); Corti, Andrea [Department of Information Engineering and Mathematics, University of Siena, via Roma, 56, 53100 (Italy)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The topic of energy recovery from waste by thermal treatment is reviewed. • Combustion, gasification and pyrolysis were considered. • Data about energy recovery performances were collected and compared. • Main limitations to high values of energy performances were illustrated. • Diffusion of energy recovery from waste in EU, USA and other countries was discussed. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to identify the current level of energy recovery through waste thermal treatment. The state of the art in energy recovery from waste was investigated, highlighting the differences for different types of thermal treatment, considering combustion/incineration, gasification and pyrolysis. Also different types of wastes – Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) or Solid Refuse Fuels (SRF) and some typologies of Industrial Waste (IW) (sludge, plastic scraps, etc.) – were included in the analysis. The investigation was carried out mainly reviewing papers, published in scientific journals and conferences, but also considering technical reports, to gather more information. In particular the goal of this review work was to synthesize studies in order to compare the values of energy conversion efficiencies measured or calculated for different types of thermal processes and different types of waste. It emerged that the dominant type of thermal treatment is incineration associated to energy recovery in a steam cycle. When waste gasification is applied, the produced syngas is generally combusted in a boiler to generate steam for energy recovery in a steam cycle. For both the possibilities – incineration or gasification – cogeneration is the mean to improve energy recovery, especially for small scale plants. In the case of only electricity production, the achievable values are strongly dependent on the plant size: for large plant size, where advanced technical solutions can be applied and sustained from an economic point of view, net

  5. The Potential of Wastewater Energy Recovery in Smart Buildings by using Internet of Things Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Per

    2015-01-01

    exchanger technology in combination with smart building and Internet of Things technologies. By using advanced artificial intelligence and the Internet of Things technologies found in smart homes the heat recovering process is organized, controlled and planned intelligently; this provides the savings...

  6. A New Perspective at the Ship-Air-Sea-Interface: The Environmental Impacts of Exhaust Gas Scrubber Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Endres

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Shipping emissions are likely to increase significantly in the coming decades, alongside increasing emphasis on the sustainability and environmental impacts of the maritime transport sector. Exhaust gas cleaning systems (“scrubbers”, using seawater or fresh water as cleaning media for sulfur dioxide, are progressively used by shipping companies to comply with emissions regulations. Little is known about the chemical composition of the scrubber effluent and its ecological consequences for marine life and biogeochemical processes. If scrubbers become a central tool for atmospheric pollution reduction from shipping, modeling, and experimental studies will be necessary to determine the ecological and biogeochemical effects of scrubber wash water discharge on the marine environment. Furthermore, attention must be paid to the regulation and enforcement of environmental protection standards concerning scrubber use. Close collaboration between natural scientists and social scientists is crucial for progress toward sustainable shipping and protection of the marine environment.

  7. Study on the use of oxidant scrubbers for elimination of interferences due to nitrogen dioxide in analysis of atmospheric dimethylsulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Beatriz A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, oxidant scrubbers were evaluated for their ability to prevent sampling losses of dimethylsulfide caused by reactions with nitrogen dioxide. Various compounds and mixtures were used in the preparation of the oxidant scrubbers. An automatic flow analysis device was used to compare scrubbing efficiency for nitrogen dioxide. Among the scrubbers tested, the best were shown to be the one made with filter paper or glass wool coated with iron (II sulfate, sulfuric acid and pyrogallic acid, and the one made from with paper coated with triethanolamine. The results obtained under laboratory conditions, using dimethylsulfide standard gas, and in field experiments confirmed that these scrubbers are suitable for the prevention of oxidation during sampling.

  8. Inactivation of airborne Enterococcus faecalis and infectious bursal disease virus using a pilot-scale ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation scrubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Xin, H.

    2014-01-01

    High microbial concentrations and emissions associated with livestock houses raise health and environmental concerns. A pilot-scale ultraviolet photocatalytic (UV-PCO) scrubber was tested for its efficacy to inactivate aerosolized Enterococcus faecalis and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV).

  9. Modeling and optimization of integrated exhaust gas recirculation and multi-stage waste heat recovery in marine engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyriakidis, Fotis; Sørensen, Kim; Singh, Shobhana

    2017-01-01

    Waste heat recovery combined with exhaust gas recirculation is a promising technology that can address both the issue of NOx (nitrogen oxides) reduction and fuel savings by including a pressurized boiler. In the present study, a theoretical optimization of the performance of two different...... configurations of steam Rankine cycles, with integrated exhaust gas recirculation for a marine diesel engine, is presented. The first configuration employs two pressure levels and the second is configured with three-pressure levels. The models are developed in MATLAB based on the typical data of a large two......-stroke marine diesel engine. A turbocharger model together with a blower, a pre-scrubber and a cooler for the exhaust gas recirculation line, are included. The steam turbine, depending on the configuration, is modeled as either a dual or triple pressure level turbine. The condensation and pre-heating process...

  10. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery: EOR thermal processes. Seventh Amendment and Extension to Annex 4, Enhanced oil recovery thermal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, T B [USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States); Colonomos, P [INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1993-02-01

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Seventh Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 50 through 55. The first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh reports on Annex IV, Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5 and IV-6 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-89/l/SP, DOE/BC-90/l/SP, and DOE/BC-92/l/SP) contain the results for the first 49 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1987, November 1988, December 1989, and October 1991, respectively. Each task report has been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. Ethanol production from food waste at high solids content with vacuum recovery technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haibo; Qureshi, Nasib; Chen, Ming-Hsu; Liu, Wei; Singh, Vijay

    2015-03-18

    Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve environmental issues but also provides renewable biofuels. This study investigated the feasibility of producing ethanol from food wastes at high solids content (35%, w/w). A vacuum recovery system was developed and applied to remove ethanol from fermentation broth to reduce yeast ethanol inhibition. A high concentration of ethanol (144 g/L) was produced by the conventional fermentation of food waste without a vacuum recovery system. When the vacuum recovery is applied to the fermentation process, the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth was controlled below 100 g/L, thus reducing yeast ethanol inhibition. At the end of the conventional fermentation, the residual glucose in the fermentation broth was 5.7 g/L, indicating incomplete utilization of glucose, while the vacuum fermentation allowed for complete utilization of glucose. The ethanol yield for the vacuum fermentation was found to be 358 g/kg of food waste (dry basis), higher than that for the conventional fermentation at 327 g/kg of food waste (dry basis).

  12. Study on incineration technology of oil gas generated during the recovery process of oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Shuhn-Shyurng [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kun Shan University, Tainan 71003 (China); Ko, Yung-Chang [China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung 81233 (China); Lin, Ta-Hui [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101 (China)

    2011-03-15

    The objective of this study is to design, set up and operate an incinerator system capable of providing clean exhaust and safety control for burning oil gas generated during the recovery process of oil spill in Taiwan. In this study, we successfully develop a vertical-type incinerator, which consists of five oil gas burners with entrained primary air, a pilot burner, and an auxiliary burner. The incinerator system is equipped with necessary control units in order to achieve safe, easy, fast, and efficient operation. Flame appearance, flue gas temperature and CO emission of the incinerator system for burning oil gas are reported and discussed. Under the long-term operation, it is found that the new designed incinerator is satisfactory for burning oil gas with low supply pressure at various compositions and supply rates during the recovery process of oil spill. It is noteworthy that the results obtained herein are of great significance to provide a good guidance for those who need to design, set up and operate an incinerator system providing clean exhaust and safety control for burning oil gas generated during the recovery process of oil spill in a polluted site with a large area. (author)

  13. Study on incineration technology of oil gas generated during the recovery process of oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Shuhn-Shyurng; Ko, Yung-Chang; Lin, Ta-Hui

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to design, set up and operate an incinerator system capable of providing clean exhaust and safety control for burning oil gas generated during the recovery process of oil spill in Taiwan. In this study, we successfully develop a vertical-type incinerator, which consists of five oil gas burners with entrained primary air, a pilot burner, and an auxiliary burner. The incinerator system is equipped with necessary control units in order to achieve safe, easy, fast, and efficient operation. Flame appearance, flue gas temperature and CO emission of the incinerator system for burning oil gas are reported and discussed. Under the long-term operation, it is found that the new designed incinerator is satisfactory for burning oil gas with low supply pressure at various compositions and supply rates during the recovery process of oil spill. It is noteworthy that the results obtained herein are of great significance to provide a good guidance for those who need to design, set up and operate an incinerator system providing clean exhaust and safety control for burning oil gas generated during the recovery process of oil spill in a polluted site with a large area.

  14. Advancements in Imaging Technology: Do They (or Will They) Equate to Advancements in Our Knowledge of Recovery in Whiplash?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, James M; Dayanidhi, Sudarshan; Hazle, Charles; Hoggarth, Mark A; McPherson, Jacob; Sparks, Cheryl L; Weber, Kenneth A

    2016-10-01

    Synopsis It is generally accepted that up to 50% of those with a whiplash injury following a motor vehicle collision will fail to fully recover. Twenty-five percent of these patients will demonstrate a markedly complex clinical picture that includes severe pain-related disability, sensory and motor disturbances, and psychological distress. A number of psychosocial factors have shown prognostic value for recovery following whiplash from a motor vehicle collision. To date, no management approach (eg, physical therapies, education, psychological interventions, or interdisciplinary strategies) for acute whiplash has positively influenced recovery rates. For many of the probable pathoanatomical lesions (eg, fracture, ligamentous rupture, disc injury), there remains a lack of available clinical tests for identifying their presence. Fractures, particularly at the craniovertebral and cervicothoracic junctions, may be radiographically occult. While high-resolution computed tomography scans can detect fractures, there remains a lack of prevalence data for fractures in this population. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging has not consistently revealed lesions in patients with acute or chronic whiplash, a "failure" that may be due to limitations in the resolution of available devices and the use of standard sequences. The technological evolution of imaging techniques and sequences eventually might provide greater resolution to reveal currently elusive anatomical lesions (or, perhaps more importantly, temporal changes in physiological responses to assumed lesions) in those patients at risk of poor recovery. Preliminary findings from 2 prospective cohort studies in 2 different countries suggest that this is so, as evidenced by changes to the structure of skeletal muscles in those who do not fully recover. In this clinical commentary, we will briefly introduce the available imaging decision rules and the current knowledge underlying the pathomechanics and pathophysiology of

  15. Development of an Automated Diffusion Scrubber-Conductometry System for Measuring Atmospheric Ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bok Young; Lee, Chong Keun; Lee, Dong Soo

    2011-01-01

    A semi-continuous and automated method for quantifying atmospheric ammonia at the parts per billion level has been developed. The instrument consists of a high efficiency diffusion scrubber, an electrolytic on-line anion exchange device, and a conductivity detector. Water soluble gases in sampled air diffuse through the porous membrane and are absorbed in an absorbing solution. Interferences are eliminated by using an anion exchange devises. The electrical conductivity of the solution is measured without chromatographic separation. The collection efficiency was over 99%. Over the 0-200 ppbv concentration range, the calibration was linear with r"2 = 0.99. The lower limit of detection was 0.09 ppbv. A parallel analysis of Seoul air over several days using this method and a diffusion scrubber coupled to an ion chromatography system showed acceptable agreement, r"2 = 0.940 (n = 686). This method can be applied for ambient air monitoring of ammonia

  16. Numerical Simulations of Airflow and Droplet Dispersion in a Horizontal Ammonia Scrubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia released in pig production industries can lead to eutrophication of surface waters, soil acidification, fertilization of vegetation and changes in ecosystems, etc. Air scrubbers with spray of aerosolized sulphur solution were used to remove the ammonia mixed in the airflow ventilated out...... plate or a flow straightener were tested. Impact of nozzle velocity and droplet residue size were analysed. It is found that additional input on the pump pressure to increase the injection velocity may not cause any more benefit in our cases, and the ammonia removal efficiency of the horizontal scrubber...... from a piggery. In this study, numerical method were used to investigate airflow pattern, droplet dispersion, ammonia absorption at droplet surface and overall removal efficiency in an air cleaner. Droplet trajectories and elapsed time in air were adopted to characterize the absorption efficiency...

  17. Development of an Automated Diffusion Scrubber-Conductometry System for Measuring Atmospheric Ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bok Young; Lee, Chong Keun; Lee, Dong Soo [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    A semi-continuous and automated method for quantifying atmospheric ammonia at the parts per billion level has been developed. The instrument consists of a high efficiency diffusion scrubber, an electrolytic on-line anion exchange device, and a conductivity detector. Water soluble gases in sampled air diffuse through the porous membrane and are absorbed in an absorbing solution. Interferences are eliminated by using an anion exchange devises. The electrical conductivity of the solution is measured without chromatographic separation. The collection efficiency was over 99%. Over the 0-200 ppbv concentration range, the calibration was linear with r{sup 2} = 0.99. The lower limit of detection was 0.09 ppbv. A parallel analysis of Seoul air over several days using this method and a diffusion scrubber coupled to an ion chromatography system showed acceptable agreement, r{sup 2} = 0.940 (n = 686). This method can be applied for ambient air monitoring of ammonia.

  18. SPREADING OF A FLUID JET ON THE CORRUGATED SURFACE OF THE STRUCTURED PACKING OF WET SCRUBBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorodilov A.A.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The new packing for wet scrubbers for cooling exhaust gases of furnaces is presented. Spreading features of the fluid jet on the corrugated surface of the proposed packing have been studied. Flow rate of the liquid flowing through slits to the opposite side of the packing element was determined. Several regimes of a fluid flow on the surface of the proposed structured packing were determined. An optimal range of rational flow rates for more intense cooling of exhaust gases is proposed. It was discovered that the range of optimum flow rates may be extended if the surface of the packing element is pre-wetted. The way of increasing the rate of effective interfacial surface area for gas-liquid contact per unit volume of the packing of the scrubber is presented.

  19. Solubility of flue gas components in NaOH based scrubber solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandelin, K; Backman, R

    1997-11-01

    The work reported here is a thermodynamic study on the solubility of flue gas components in aqueous solutions containing sodium salts. The result of the work is an equilibrium model. The model presented here includes sodium hydroxide and sodium salts that makes it possible to study simultaneous absorption of flue gas components in alkaline scrubber solutions. The model is applied on the absorption of a flue gas into a NaOH scrubber solution. The calculations show that it is possible to simultaneously absorb sulfur dioxide, sulfuric acid, and ammonia without carbon dioxide co-absorption. The calculations also show that gaseous NO and N{sub 2}O cannot be scrubbed unless they are oxidized to nitrate or reduced to ammonia. (author) SIHTI 2 Research Programme. 59 refs.

  20. Venturi scrubber with integrated separating column for aerosol precipitation and gas sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayinger, F.; Lehner, M.

    1992-01-01

    A concept for a novel, compact process combination in the form of a Venturi scrubber with integrated separating column was developed. The design of the system is such as to meet the boundary conditions encountered in practice. Comprehensive tests were carried through with this high-performance Venturi scrubber in a wide range of parameters, using the superfine dusts titanium dioxide and zinc oxide as test aerosols. Separating efficiency was found to be excellent, especially for multi-stage spray injection of the scrubbing fluid. Multi-stage spray injection achieves a more favourable pulse exchange between gas and fluid so that pressure losses are relatively low even though loading may be high. A provisional experimental set-up is used for further optimization of separating efficiency and pressure loss. (orig.) [de

  1. Design of artificial neural networks using a genetic algorithm to predict collection efficiency in venturi scrubbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Mahboobeh; Mohebbi, Ali

    2008-08-30

    In this study, a new approach for the auto-design of neural networks, based on a genetic algorithm (GA), has been used to predict collection efficiency in venturi scrubbers. The experimental input data, including particle diameter, throat gas velocity, liquid to gas flow rate ratio, throat hydraulic diameter, pressure drop across the venturi scrubber and collection efficiency as an output, have been used to create a GA-artificial neural network (ANN) model. The testing results from the model are in good agreement with the experimental data. Comparison of the results of the GA optimized ANN model with the results from the trial-and-error calibrated ANN model indicates that the GA-ANN model is more efficient. Finally, the effects of operating parameters such as liquid to gas flow rate ratio, throat gas velocity, and particle diameter on collection efficiency were determined.

  2. Gas pollutants removal in a single- and two-stage ejector-venturi scrubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamisans, Xavier; Sarrà, Montserrrat; Lafuente, F Javier

    2002-03-29

    The absorption of SO(2) and NH(3) from the flue gas into NaOH and H(2)SO(4) solutions, respectively has been studied using an industrial scale ejector-venturi scrubber. A statistical methodology is presented to characterise the performance of the scrubber by varying several factors such as gas pollutant concentration, air flowrate and absorbing solution flowrate. Some types of venturi tube constructions were assessed, including the use of a two-stage venturi tube. The results showed a strong influence of the liquid scrubbing flowrate on pollutant removal efficiency. The initial pollutant concentration and the gas flowrate had a slight influence. The use of a two-stage venturi tube considerably improved the absorption efficiency, although it increased energy consumption. The results of this study will be applicable to the optimal design of venturi-based absorbers for gaseous pollution control or chemical reactors.

  3. Large-scale tests of aqueous scrubber systems for LMFBR vented containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, J.D.; Hilliard, R.K.; Postma, A.K.

    1980-01-01

    Six large-scale air cleaning tests performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF) are described. The test conditions simulated those postulated for hypothetical accidents in an LMFBR involving containment venting to control hydrogen concentration and containment overpressure. Sodium aerosols were generated by continously spraying sodium into air and adding steam and/or carbon dioxide to create the desired Na 2 O 2 , Na 2 CO 3 or NaOH aerosol. Two air cleaning systems were tested: (a) spray quench chamber, educator venturi scrubber and high efficiency fibrous scrubber in series; and (b) the same except with the spray quench chamber eliminated. The gas flow rates ranged up to 0.8 m 3 /s (1700 acfm) at temperatures to 313 0 C (600 0 F). Quantities of aerosol removed from the gas stream ranged up to 700 kg per test. The systems performed very satisfactorily with overall aerosol mass removal efficiencies exceeding 99.9% in each test

  4. Fabrication of remote steam atomized scrubbers for DWPF off-gas system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, M.G.; Lafferty, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    The defense waste processing facility (DWPF) is being constructed for the purpose of processing high-level waste from sludge to a vitrified borosilicate glass. In the operation of continuous slurry-fed melters, off-gas aerosols are created by entrainment of feed slurries and the vaporization of volatile species from the molten glass mixture. It is necessary to decontaminate these aerosols in order to minimize discharge of airborne radionuclide particulates. A steam atomized scrubber (SAS) has been developed for DWPF which utilizes a patented hydro- sonic system gas scrubbing method. The Hydro-Sonic System utilizes a steam aspirating-type venturi scrubber that requires very precise fabrication tolerances in order to obtain acceptable decontamination factors. In addition to the process-related tolerances, precision mounting and nozzle tolerances are required for remote service at DWPF

  5. Development of the venturi scrubber model for the FILTRA-MVSS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luangdilok, W.; Epstein, M.; Berger, W.E.; Augustsson, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The thermal-hydraulic model of the venturi scrubber for the FILTRA-MVSS system was developed. The developed model was then incorporated into the MAAP4 code for performance analysis purposes. The results show that during severe accident conditions where the vent line control valve is used to regulate the flow to the vent line, the scrubbing performance of the venturi can peak at a value of about 5000 in the decontamination factor. For a fixed valve throttling there is a time window where scrubbing is effective. Outside this window the venturi scrubbing is ineffective due to either too high or too low pressure. To optimize the scrubbing performance, it would be necessary (1) to allow a substantial fraction of the high vent flow to bypass the venturi scrubber tubes so that a certain amount of vent flow is always scrubbed as well as (2) to adjust the flow control valve to its optimal position during the containment venting. (author)

  6. Fifth DOE symposium on enhanced oil and gas recovery and improved drilling technology. Volume 2. Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linville, B. [ed.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 2 contains papers from the following sessions: residual oil determination; thermal methods; heavy oil-tar sands; technology transfer; and carbon dioxide flooding. Individual papers were processed.

  7. Parameters influencing the aerosol capture performance of the Submerged-Bed Scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruecker, C.M.; Scott, P.A.

    1987-04-01

    The Submerged-Bed Scrubber (SBS) is a novel air cleaning device that has been investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for scrubbing off gases from liquid-fed ceramic melters used to vitrify high-level waste (HLW). The concept for the SBS was originally conceived at Hanford for emergency venting of a reactor containment building. The SBS was adapted for use as a quenching scrubber at PNL because it can cool the hot melter off gas as well as remove over 90% of the airborne particles, thus meeting the minimum particulate decontamination factor (DF) of 10 required of a primary scrubber. The experiments in this study showed that the submicron aerosol DF for the SBS can exceed 100 under certain conditions. A conventional device, the ejector-venturi scrubber (EVS), has been previously used in this application. The EVS also adequately cools the hot gases from the melter while exhibiting aerosol removal DFs in the range of 5 to 30. In addition to achieving higher DFs than the EVS, however, the SBS has the advantage of being a passive system, better suited to the remote environment of an HLW processing system. The objective of this study was to characterize the performance of the SBS and to improve the aerosol capture efficiency by modifying the operating procedure or the design. A partial factorial experimental matrix was completed to determine the main effects of aerosol solubility, inlet off-gas temperature, inlet off-gas flow rate, steam-to-air ratio, bed diameter and packing diameter on the particulate removal efficiency of the SBS. Several additional experiments were conducted to measure the influence of the inlet aerosol concentration and scrubbing-water concentration on aerosol-removal performance. 33 refs., 17 figs., 14 tabs

  8. The CO{sub 2} capture performance of a high-intensity vortex spray scrubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javed, K.H.; Mahmud, T.; Purba, E. [University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    The present study focuses on the enhancement of CO{sub 2} capture efficiency using a high-intensity vortex spray scrubber by imparting swirl to the gas flow, which has the ability to augment the rates of heat and mass transfer. Experimental investigations into the reactive absorption of CO{sub 2} from a mixture of air-CO{sub 2} into an aqueous solution of NaOH in a laboratory-scale counter-current spray scrubber have been carried out. The mass transfer characteristics, in terms of the overall gas phase mass transfer coefficient (K{sub g}a) were investigated for both the swirling and the non-swirling (axial) gas flows through the scrubber in order to quantify the effect of swirl. The effects of the gas/liquid flow rates, flow arrangements, scrubber height and spray nozzle type on the CO{sub 2} capture performance were examined. For both the axial and the swirling flows, the K{sub g}a increases initially with increasing gas flow rate up to a certain limit, beyond which it becomes essentially constant, whereas the K{sub g}a increases continuously with the liquid flow rate within the measured range. The counter-current gas-droplets flow provides higher mass transfer rates compared with those in co-current flow. The K{sub g}a deceases with the increase in the tower height. The spray nozzle producing finer droplets provides enhanced mass transfer rates. It is found that imparting swirl in the gas flow enhances the K(g)a up to around 49% compared with that in axial flows.

  9. Selective removal/recovery of RCRA metals from waste and process solutions using polymer filtration{trademark} technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals are found in a number of process and waste streams at many DOE, U.S. Department of Defense, and industrial facilities. RCRA metals consist principally of chromium, mercury, cadmium, lead, and silver. Arsenic and selenium, which form oxyanions, are also considered RCRA elements. Discharge limits for each of these metals are based on toxicity and dictated by state and federal regulations (e.g., drinking water, RCRA, etc.). RCRA metals are used in many current operations, are generated in decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) operations, and are also present in old process wastes that require treatment and stabilization. These metals can exist in solutions, as part of sludges, or as contaminants on soils or solid surfaces, as individual metals or as mixtures with other metals, mixtures with radioactive metals such as actinides (defined as mixed waste), or as mixtures with a variety of inert metals such as calcium and sodium. The authors have successfully completed a preliminary proof-of-principle evaluation of Polymer Filtration{trademark} (PF) technology for the dissolution of metallic mercury and have also shown that they can remove and concentrate RCRA metals from dilute solutions for a variety of aqueous solution types using PF technology. Another application successfully demonstrated is the dilute metal removal of americium and plutonium from process streams. This application was used to remove the total alpha contamination to below 30 pCi/L for the wastewater treatment plant at TA-50 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and from nitric acid distillate in the acid recovery process at TA-55, the Plutonium Facility at LANL (ESP-CP TTP AL16C322). This project will develop and optimize the PF technology for specific DOE process streams containing RCRA metals and coordinate it with the needs of the commercial sector to ensure that technology transfer occurs.

  10. Selective removal/recovery of RCRA metals from waste and process solutions using polymer filtration trademark technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.F.

    1997-01-01

    Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals are found in a number of process and waste streams at many DOE, U.S. Department of Defense, and industrial facilities. RCRA metals consist principally of chromium, mercury, cadmium, lead, and silver. Arsenic and selenium, which form oxyanions, are also considered RCRA elements. Discharge limits for each of these metals are based on toxicity and dictated by state and federal regulations (e.g., drinking water, RCRA, etc.). RCRA metals are used in many current operations, are generated in decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) operations, and are also present in old process wastes that require treatment and stabilization. These metals can exist in solutions, as part of sludges, or as contaminants on soils or solid surfaces, as individual metals or as mixtures with other metals, mixtures with radioactive metals such as actinides (defined as mixed waste), or as mixtures with a variety of inert metals such as calcium and sodium. The authors have successfully completed a preliminary proof-of-principle evaluation of Polymer Filtration trademark (PF) technology for the dissolution of metallic mercury and have also shown that they can remove and concentrate RCRA metals from dilute solutions for a variety of aqueous solution types using PF technology. Another application successfully demonstrated is the dilute metal removal of americium and plutonium from process streams. This application was used to remove the total alpha contamination to below 30 pCi/L for the wastewater treatment plant at TA-50 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and from nitric acid distillate in the acid recovery process at TA-55, the Plutonium Facility at LANL (ESP-CP TTP AL16C322). This project will develop and optimize the PF technology for specific DOE process streams containing RCRA metals and coordinate it with the needs of the commercial sector to ensure that technology transfer occurs

  11. Poor recovery of households from out-of-pocket payment for assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Silke J; Vinoos, Latiefa; Ataguba, John E

    2017-12-01

    How do households recover financially from direct out-of-pocket payment for government subsidized ART? After a mean of 3.8 years, there was poor recovery from initiated financial coping strategies with the poorest households being disproportionatley affected. Out-of-pocket payment for health services can create financial burdens for households and inequities in access to care. A previous study conducted at a public-academic institution in South Africa documented that patient co-payment for one cycle of ART resulted in catastrophic expenditure for one in five households, and more frequently among the poorest, requiring diverse financial coping strategies to offset costs. An observational follow-up study was conducted ~4 years later to assess financial recovery among the 135 couples who had participated in this previous study. Data were collected over 12 months from 73 informants. The study was conducted at a level three referral hospital in the public-academic health sector of South Africa. At this institution ART is subsidized but requires patient co-payments. A purpose-built questionnaire capturing socio-economic information and recovery from financial coping strategies which had been activated was administered to all informants. Financial recovery was defined as the resolution of strategies initiated for the specific purpose of covering the original ART cycle. Results were analysed by strategy and household with the latter including analysis by tertiles based on socio-economic status at the time of the original expenditure. In addition to descriptive statistics, the Pearson Chi squared test was used to determine differences between socioeconomic tertiles and associations between recovery and other variables. The participation rate in this follow-up study was 54.1% with equal representation from the three socio-economic tertiles. The average duration of follow-up was 46.1 months (±9.78 SD) and respondents' mean age was 42 years (range 31-52). The recovery rate

  12. School District Information Technology Disaster Recovery Planning: An Explanatory Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Shaun L.

    2017-01-01

    Despite research and practitioner articles outlining the importance information technology disaster plans (ITDRPs) to organizational success, barriers have impeded the process of disaster preparation for Burlington County New Jersey school districts. The purpose of this explanatory qualitative case study was to understand how technology leader…

  13. The importance of CFD methods to the design of huge scrubber systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, H.

    2005-01-01

    Due to the influence of the multiphase flow on the scrubber removal performance Austrian Energy and Environment started research end development in co-operation with universities on the simulation of wet scrubber systems using CFD methods (Computational removal performance). In November 2001 the spray banks were reconstructed with a minimum of requirements according to the concept of AE and E. The first experiences in operation already showed a significant improvement. In July 2002 measurements of the SO 2 -profile confirmed the experiences of the client. The high SO 2 peaks nearly disappeared at the absorber wall. Furthermore the changes resulted in a more homogenous SO 2 distribution in the clean gas which was also found out by measurements in the outlet duct. According to the client the LG-ratio could be reduced. Nearly every load case can now be handled with one active spray bank less. With respect to energy consumption of the plant this means a remarkable reduction of operational costs. Compared to that the scrubbers of the FGD system in Neurath will have a flue gas capacity nearly twice much as that of the FGD plant in Heyden. The start up will take place in 2008

  14. Experimental and theoretical investigation of droplet dispersion in venturi scrubbers with axial liquid injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtarian, N.; Talaei, A.; Karimikhosroabadi, M. [Islamic Azad University, Shahreza Branch, Shahreza (Iran); Sadeghi, F. [Chemical Engineering Department, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran); Talaie, M.R.

    2009-05-15

    Droplet dispersion in a Venturi scrubber with axial liquid injection was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The main objective of this study was to develop a mathematical model to predict droplet dispersion in a Venturi scrubber with axial liquid injection. The effects of the Peclet number and droplet size distribution on droplet dispersion were studied using the developed model. Sampling of the droplets was carried out, isokinetically, in 16 positions at the end of the throat section. The experimental data were used to find the parameters of the developed model, such as the Peclet number. From the results of this study, it was found that the Peclet number was not constant across the cross section of the scrubber channel. In order to achieve a better agreement between the results of the model and the experimental data, it was required to consider Peclet number variations across the Venturi channel. It was also revealed that the parameter representing the width of the Rosin-Rammler distribution of droplet size could not be considered constant and it was influenced significantly by the operating parameters such as liquid flow rate and gas velocity. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Droplet dispersion angle measurements on a Pease-Antony Venturi scrubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. G. Puentes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A Pease-Anthony Venturi scrubber is a gas cleaning device that uses liquid, injected in the equipment as jets, to remove contaminants from the gas. The liquid jet is atomized into droplets, which are dispersed throughout the equipment due to the turbulence. The performance of the scrubber is affected by the spatial distribution of the droplets. Although CFD models have been used to predict the droplet dispersion, these models are expensive. Alternatively, the concept of "jet spreading angle" could be used as a simple and quick way to estimate droplet dispersion. The purpose of this paper is to measure the spreading angle of jets transversally injected into the throat of a Venturi scrubber and correlate it with both gas and jet velocities. The throat gas velocities varied between 59 and 74 m/s and the jet velocity between 3.18 and 19.1 m/s. The angles were measured through image analysis, obtained with high velocity photography. The spreading angle was found to be strongly dependent on jet velocity.

  16. Review: Water recovery from brines and salt-saturated solutions: operability and thermodynamic efficiency considerations for desalination technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vane, Leland M

    2017-03-08

    When water is recovered from a saline source, a brine concentrate stream is produced. Management of the brine stream can be problematic, particularly in inland regions. An alternative to brine disposal is recovery of water and possibly salts from the concentrate. This review provides an overview of desalination technologies and discusses the thermodynamic efficiencies and operational issues associated with the various technologies particularly with regard to high salinity streams. Due to the high osmotic pressures of the brine concentrates, reverse osmosis, the most common desalination technology, is impractical. Mechanical vapor compression which, like reverse osmosis, utilizes mechanical work to operate, is reported to have the highest thermodynamic efficiency of the desalination technologies for treatment of salt-saturated brines. Thermally-driven processes, such as flash evaporation and distillation, are technically able to process saturated salt solutions, but suffer from low thermodynamic efficiencies. This inefficiency could be offset if an inexpensive source of waste or renewable heat could be used. Overarching issues posed by high salinity solutions include corrosion and the formation of scales/precipitates. These issues limit the materials, conditions, and unit operation designs that can be used.

  17. The study of water droplets electrical charging effect on spray tower scrubber efficiency for feldspar particles removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Golmohammadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: One of the modern ways introduced nowadays for increasing the collection efficiency of particulate, is the use of electric charge in wet scrubbers. These systems can be used in places in which scrubbers are suitable for contaminant collection. In fact, this system only increases the collection efficiency, and it is not a new technology for contaminant collection.   Methods: First, according to ACGIH recommendation for pilot study a ventilation system was designed and installed. Later, water was charged by using an DC electric exchanger (1275 Volt, DC& product 3×1014 electron on system. Air velocity in the duct was determined by Pitot tube, pressure drop and speed equations, and sampling prop diameter was calculated considering isokenetic conditions. Sampling was performed at two flow rates of 20.3 and 11.4 liter per minute and in overall 72 samples were collected. Sample analysis was performed using gravimetric method and data analysis was performed using SPSS software.      Results: The collection efficiency of inhalable particles in the flow rate of 20.3 liter per minute in a non-electric intervention, and electric intervention with positive and negative charge was 66, 77.67 and 73 percent and in the flow rate of 11.4 liters per minute 60, 69.43 and 68.32 percent respectively. For non-inhalable particles the efficiency in the flow rate 20.3 liter per minute in a non-electric intervention and electric intervention with positive and negative charge was 94.67, 98.33 and 97.67 percent, and in the flow charge of 11/4 liter per minute the flow charge was 91.33, 95, and 97.33 percent respectively.  Conclusion: The results obtained from the experiments, showed that in a certain flow rate, electric intervention increases the efficiency of inhalable particle collection. By the way, this electric intervention has no significant effect on non-inhalable particle collection. Also, the effect of electric intervention with

  18. Technologies for recovery of transuranics and immobilization of non-high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, G.L.

    1976-06-01

    This paper supplements the preceding Symposium paper on ''Treatment Technologies for Non-High-Level Wastes (U.S.A.)'' by C. R. Cooley and D. E. Clark (HEDL-SA-851), and covers the additional treatment technologies in use and under development for recovering transuranics and immobilizing non-high-level wastes for transportation and storage. Methods used for nondestructive assay (NDA) of TRU elements in non-high-level wastes are also discussed briefly

  19. Integrating Microbial Electrochemical Technology with Forward Osmosis and Membrane Bioreactors: Low-Energy Wastewater Treatment, Energy Recovery and Water Reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Werner, Craig M.

    2014-06-01

    Wastewater treatment is energy intensive, with modern wastewater treatment processes consuming 0.6 kWh/m3 of water treated, half of which is required for aeration. Considering that wastewater contains approximately 2 kWh/m3 of energy and represents a reliable alternative water resource, capturing part of this energy and reclaiming the water would offset or even eliminate energy requirements for wastewater treatment and provide a means to augment traditional water supplies. Microbial electrochemical technology is a novel technology platform that uses bacteria capable of producing an electric current outside of the cell to recover energy from wastewater. These bacteria do not require oxygen to respire but instead use an insoluble electrode as their terminal electron acceptor. Two types of microbial electrochemical technologies were investigated in this dissertation: 1) a microbial fuel cell that produces electricity; and 2) a microbial electrolysis cell that produces hydrogen with the addition of external power. On their own, microbial electrochemical technologies do not achieve sufficiently high treatment levels. Innovative approaches that integrate microbial electrochemical technologies with emerging and established membrane-based treatment processes may improve the overall extent of wastewater treatment and reclaim treated water. Forward osmosis is an emerging low-energy membrane-based technology for seawater desalination. In forward osmosis water is transported across a semipermeable membrane driven by an osmotic gradient. The microbial osmotic fuel cell described in this dissertation integrates a microbial fuel cell with forward osmosis to achieve wastewater treatment, energy recovery and partial desalination. This system required no aeration and generated more power than conventional microbial fuel cells using ion exchange membranes by minimizing electrochemical losses. Membrane bioreactors incorporate semipermeable membranes within a biological wastewater

  20. Biohydrometallurgy and membrane technology for resource recovery from low-grade ores and mining residuals; Biohydrometallurgie und Membrantechnik zur Wertstoffgewinnung aus Armerzlagerstaetten und bergbaulichen Altablagerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Arite; Meschke, Katja; Bohlke, Kevin; Haseneder, Roland [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik, Umwelt-, Naturstoffverfahrenstechnik (ITUN); Daus, Birgit [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung GmbH - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. Analytik; Repke, Jens-Uwe [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). FG Dynamik und Betrieb Technischer Anlagen

    2017-02-15

    The recovery of strategic elements from secondary mineral resources and low grade ores is of increasing relevance, due to a changing global market as well as for reasons of sustainability. The present article shows the potential of biohydrometallurgy as an efficient technology for mobilization of metals from secondary mineral resources. Furthermore, the application of membrane separation as a successful technique for the recovery of metals from bioleaching solutions is presented. These issues are discussed within the scope of recent research projects.

  1. Total recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus from three wetland plants by fast pyrolysis technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Zeng, Fan-Xin; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2011-02-01

    Fast pyrolysis of three wetland plants (Alligator weed, Oenanthe javanica and Typha angustifolia) in a vertical drop fixed bed reactor was investigated in this study. The experiments were carried out at different pyrolysis temperatures, and the maximum bio-oil yields achieved were 42.3%, 40.2% and 43.6% for Alligator weed, Oenanthe javanica and Typha angustifolia, respectively. The elemental composition of the bio-oil and char were analyzed, and the results show that a low temperature was appropriate for the nitrogen and phosphorus enrichment in char. GC-MS analysis shows that nitrogenous compounds, phenols and oxygenates were the main categories in the bio-oil. A series of leaching tests were carried out to examine the recovery of the nitrogen and phosphorus in the char, and the results indicate that significant fractions of nitrogen and phosphorus could be recovered by leaching process. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Preliminary market assessment of fluidized-bed waste-heat recovery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, F.T.; Fey, C.L.; Grogan, P.J.; Klein, N.P.

    1980-06-01

    A preliminary assessment of fluidized-bed waste-heat recovery (FBWHR) system market potential is presented with emphasis on the factors influencing industrial acceptability. Preliminary market potential areas are identified based on the availability of waste heat. Trends in energy use are examined to see the effect they might have on these market potential areas in the future. Focus groups interviews are used to explore important factors in the industrial decision-making process. These important factors are explored quantitatively in a survey of industrial plant engineers. The survey deals with the waste-heat boiler configuration of the FBWHR system. Results indicate market acceptance of the fluidized-bed waste-heat boiler could be quite low.

  3. Detailed Modeling of Distillation Technologies for Closed-Loop Water Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allada, Rama Kumar; Lange, Kevin E.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2011-01-01

    Detailed chemical process simulations are a useful tool in designing and optimizing complex systems and architectures for human life support. Dynamic and steady-state models of these systems help contrast the interactions of various operating parameters and hardware designs, which become extremely useful in trade-study analyses. NASA?s Exploration Life Support technology development project recently made use of such models to compliment a series of tests on different waste water distillation systems. This paper presents efforts to develop chemical process simulations for three technologies: the Cascade Distillation System (CDS), the Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) system and the Wiped-Film Rotating Disk (WFRD) using the Aspen Custom Modeler and Aspen Plus process simulation tools. The paper discusses system design, modeling details, and modeling results for each technology and presents some comparisons between the model results and recent test data. Following these initial comparisons, some general conclusions and forward work are discussed.

  4. Kinetic energy recovery turbine technology: resource assessment and site development strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briand, Marie-Helene; Ng, Karen

    2010-09-15

    New technologies to extract readily available energy from waves, tides and river flow are being developed and are promising but are still at the demonstration stage. Harnessing kinetic energy from currents (hydrokinetic power) is considered an attractive and cost-effective renewable energy solution to replace thermal generation without requiring construction of a dam or large civil works. The nature of this innovative hydrokinetic technology requires an adaptation of conventional approach to project engineering and environmental impact studies. This paper presents the approach developed by RSW to design a hydrokinetic site in the riverine environment, from resource assessment to detailed engineering design.

  5. Energy recovery potential and life cycle impact assessment of municipal solid waste management technologies in Asian countries using ELP model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandyaswargo, Andante Hadi; Onoda, Hiroshi; Nagata, Katsuya [Waseda Univ., Saitama (Japan). Graduate School of Environment and Energy Engineering

    2012-11-01

    Natural resource scarcity and the effects of environmental destruction have pushed societies to use and reuse resources more efficiently. Waste should no longer be seen as a burden but rather as another source of material such as energy fuel. This study analyzes the potential of three waste management technologies - incineration with energy recovery, composting, and sanitary landfill gas collection - as ways to recover energy and material from municipal solid waste. The study applies the environmental load point (ELP) method and utilizes municipal waste characteristics and composition from India, Indonesia, and China as case studies. The ELP methodology employs integrated weighting in the quantification process to get a one-unit result. This study particularly uses analytic hierarchical process questionnaires to get the weighting value of the nine impact categories: energy depletion, global warming, ozone depletion, resource consumption, ecosystem influence, water pollution, waste disposal, air pollution, and acid rain. The results show that the scenario which includes composting organic waste and sanitary landfill with gas collection for energy recovery has medium environmental impact and the highest practicability. The optimum material and energy potential is from the Chinese case study in which 254 tonnes of compost fertilizer and 60 MWh of electricity is the estimated output for every 1,000 tonnes of waste treated. (orig.)

  6. Recovery of valuable nitrogen compounds from agricultural liquid wastes: potential possibilities, bottlenecks and future technological challenges.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulkens, W.H.; Klapwijk, A.; Willers, H.C.

    1998-01-01

    Agricultural liquid livestock wastes are an important potential source of valuable nitrogen-containing compounds such as ammonia and proteins. Large volumetric quantities of these wastes are produced in areas with a high livestock production density. Much technological research has been carried out

  7. Water Recovery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Water Recovery Project (WRP) is advancing environmental control and life support systems water recovery technologies to support human exploration beyond low...

  8. Re-Innovating. Technological research contribution in the recovery of Our Lady of Mercy Church in Baranzate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mangiarotti

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The recovery project of Our Lady of Mercy Church in Baranzate, by Angelo Mangiarotti and Bruno Morassutti, with Aldo Favini for structures, built in 1956, and now in charge by Giulio Barazzetta, Anna Mangiarotti, Ingrid Paoletti, Tito Neri for structures and Giancarlo Chiesa for hvac, has requested a high technological effort in order to identify the technical options in order to ‘re-innovate’ on this building. The aim is to increase performances and internal comfort, while maintaining the original concept of the church. The deteriorated envelope will be changed with a façade envelope in steel dry assembled and a triple glazed unit high performance and with face fritted surfaced in order to reproduce the original architectural effects. Thanks to hvac, performances are radically improved.

  9. Supporting Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery-EOR Thermal Processes Report IV-12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izequeido, Alexandor

    2001-04-01

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Ninth Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 62 through 67. The first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eight, and ninth reports on Annex IV, [Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5, IV-6, IV-7, and IV-8 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-89/1/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP) DOE/BC-92/1/SP, DOE/BC-93/3/SP, and DOE/BC-95/3/SP] contain the results from the first 61 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1! 987, November 1988, December 1989, October 1991, February 1993, and March 1995 respectively.

  10. Recuperator with microjet technology as a proposal for heat recovery from low-temperature sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajs Jan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A tendency to increase the importance of so-called dispersed generation, based on the local energy sources and the working systems utilizing both the fossil fuels and the renewable energy resources is observed nowadays. Generation of electricity on industrial or domestic scale together with production of heat can be obtained for example through employment of the ORC systems. It is mentioned in the EU directive 2012/27/EU for cogenerative production of heat and electricity. For such systems the crucial points are connected with the heat exchangers, which should be small in size but be able to transfer high heat fluxes. In presented paper the prototype microjet heat exchanger dedicated for heat recovery systems is introduced. Its novel construction is described together with the systematical experimental analysis of heat transfer and flow characteristics. Reported results showed high values of the overall heat transfer coefficient and slight increase in the pressure drop. The results of microjet heat exchanger were compared with the results of commercially available compact plate heat exchanger.

  11. Recuperator with microjet technology as a proposal for heat recovery from low-temperature sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajs, Jan; Mikielewicz, Dariusz; Fornalik-Wajs, Elżbieta; Bajor, Michał

    2015-12-01

    A tendency to increase the importance of so-called dispersed generation, based on the local energy sources and the working systems utilizing both the fossil fuels and the renewable energy resources is observed nowadays. Generation of electricity on industrial or domestic scale together with production of heat can be obtained for example through employment of the ORC systems. It is mentioned in the EU directive 2012/27/EU for cogenerative production of heat and electricity. For such systems the crucial points are connected with the heat exchangers, which should be small in size but be able to transfer high heat fluxes. In presented paper the prototype microjet heat exchanger dedicated for heat recovery systems is introduced. Its novel construction is described together with the systematical experimental analysis of heat transfer and flow characteristics. Reported results showed high values of the overall heat transfer coefficient and slight increase in the pressure drop. The results of microjet heat exchanger were compared with the results of commercially available compact plate heat exchanger.

  12. Technological methods for the combined recovery of spent fuel elements from thermal neutron atomic reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevchenko, V B; Smelov, V S; Kozlov, A G; Smetanin, E Ya; Chubukov, V V; Anisimov, V I

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for using a two-cycle extraction process to recover the uranium from a water-moderated nuclear-plant fuel cell after it had cooled 14 months. The general schematic is as follows: dissolution of the fuel in nitric acid; simultaneous extraction of U, Pu, and Np with tributyl phosphate; reduction with hydrazine and re-extraction of Pu and Np and their selective elution; re-examination of U; the regeneration of the extractant and beginning of the second cycle. The purification coefficients of U from other ..gamma..-radiating products and from Pu were equal to 1.4 x 10/sup 7/ and 5.5 x 10/sup 5/. The losses of U, Pu, and Np with the washing solutions were 0.007, 0.024, and 3.4% respectively of the initial amount. An analogous extraction process is discussed for separating Sr, Am, Cm, and the rare earth elements. A recovery of 92 to 95% of each of the four is effected.

  13. Influence of brick air scrubber by-product on growth and development of corn and hybrid poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Carla N; Bauerle, William L; Owino, Tom O; Chastain, John P; Klaine, Stephen J

    2007-03-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effects of spent reagent from air pollution control scrubbers used at a brick manufacturing facility on emergence, growth, and physiological responses of corn and hybrid poplar plants. Scrubber by-product was obtained from General Shale Brick, Louisville, KY. Potting substrate was weighed and quantities of scrubber by-product were added to the substrate to obtain treatments of 0%, 6.25%, 12.5%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% scrubber by-product (w:w) for the corn study. Each treatment mix was potted into nine replicate polyethylene pots and four corn seeds were sown per pot. The pots were randomized in a greenhouse at Clemson University and the number of seedlings emerging from each treatment, dark-adapted leaf chlorophyll a fluorescence, and shoot heights were measured at the end of a 21-day growth period. Then, dry shoot biomass was determined for plants from each treatment and plant tissues were analyzed for selected constituents. For the poplar study, nine-inch cuttings of hybrid poplar clone 15-29 (Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides) and clone OP367 (P. deltoides x P. nigra) were planted in treatments of scrubber by-product-potting soil mixes of 0% , 5% , 10% , and 25% w:w. Leaf chlorophyll a fluorescence was measured over six weeks and cumulative leaf area, dry biomass, and nutrient content of tissues were determined upon harvest. Results of these studies indicate that percent seedling emergence for corn plants decreased with increasing scrubber by-product application rates. Application rates up to 12.5% scrubber by-product w:w had no adverse effect on corn seedling emergence. Shoot elongation, biomass production, and the status of the photosynthetic apparatus of the seedlings were also not severely impaired at applications below this level. A critical value of 58.2% w:w scrubber by-product was estimated to cause 25% inhibition of seedling emergence. Biomass production, cumulative leaf area, and chlorophyll a fluorescence of

  14. Review of technology for Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackinger, W. M.

    1980-06-06

    This volume contains appendices of the following: US Geological Survey Arctic operating orders, 1979; Det Noske Vertas', rules for the design, construction and inspection of offshore technology, 1977; Alaska Oil and Gas Association, industry research projects, March 1980; Arctic Petroleum Operator's Association, industry research projects, January 1980; selected additional Arctic offshore bibliography on sea ice, icebreakers, Arctic seafloor conditions, ice-structures, frost heave and structure icing.

  15. Cost (non)-recovery by platform technology facilities in the Bio21 Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Gerard; Clark, Stella; Quinn, Julieanne; Gleeson, Mary Joy

    2010-04-01

    Platform technologies (PT) are techniques or tools that enable a range of scientific investigations and are critical to today's advanced technology research environment. Once installed, they require specialized staff for their operations, who in turn, provide expertise to researchers in designing appropriate experiments. Through this pipeline, research outputs are raised to the benefit of the researcher and the host institution. Platform facilities provide access to instrumentation and expertise for a wide range of users beyond the host institution, including other academic and industry users. To maximize the return on these substantial public investments, this wider access needs to be supported. The question of support and the mechanisms through which this occurs need to be established based on a greater understanding of how PT facilities operate. This investigation was aimed at understanding if and how platform facilities across the Bio21 Cluster meet operating costs. Our investigation found: 74% of platforms surveyed do not recover 100% of direct operating costs and are heavily subsidized by their home institution, which has a vested interest in maintaining the technology platform; platform managers play a major role in establishing the costs and pricing of the facility, normally in a collaborative process with a management committee or institutional accountant; and most facilities have a three-tier pricing structure recognizing internal academic, external academic, and commercial clients.

  16. International perspective on energy recovery from landfill gas. A joint report of the IEA Bioenergy Programme and the IEA CADDET Renewable Energy Technologies Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    This report presents a review of the current status of energy recovery from landfill gas. Utilisation, collection and treatment technologies are examined, and ten case studies of landfill gas utilisation are given. Non-technical issues such as barrier to energy recovery from landfill gas, landfill gas generation, and landfill gas emissions are addressed, and recommendations are outlined. The potential market for landfill gas, and market opportunities are considered. Details of the objectives of the International Energy Agency (IEA), the IEA Bioenergy Programme, and the IEA CADDET Renewable Energy Technologies Programme are included in appendices. (UK)

  17. Converting SDAP into gypsum in a wet limestone scrubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogh, F [Faelleskemikerne, Elsamprojekt A/S, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    The ELSAM power pool has an installed electrical capacity of approx. 5 GW{sub e}, mainly firing import coal. The major base load units are equipped with desulphurization units and three different desulphurization technologies are used: the wet limestone gypsum process, the spray dry absorption process and a sulphuric acid process. Gypsum and sulphuric acid are commercialized, whereas it has been difficult to utilize the spray dry absorption product (SDAP). The main constituents of SDAP are calcium sulphide, calcium chloride, hydrated lime and impurities mainly originating from fly ash. Sulphide can be oxidized into sulphate in acidic solution - the reaction is utilized in the wet limestone gypsum process - and the possibility of using any spare capacity in the wet limestone gypsum units to oxidize the sulphide content of SDAP into sulphate and produce usable gypsum has been investigated in the laboratory and in a 400 MW{sub e} equivalent wet limestone unit. The limestone inhibition effect of the addition of SDAP is currently being studied in the laboratory in order to determine the effect of different SDAP types (plant/coal sources) on limestone reactivity before further long-term full-scale tests are performed and permanent use of the process planned. (EG)

  18. Wood Polymer Composites Technology Supporting the Recovery and Protection of Tropical Forests: The Amazonian Phoenix Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio D. Nobre

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Rain Forest has attracted worldwide attention due its large scale services to climate and also due to the green house gas emissions arising from deforestation. Contributing to the later and detrimental to the former, timber logging in the region has very low efficiency (only 16% in the production chain. Such timber extraction, often referred to as selective logging, has been claimed as a sustainable extractive industry, because the forest is said to restore itself through regenerative growth. But forest regeneration in the Amazon occurs naturally only in a very limited scale, resulting that large scale, low efficiency logging poses a big treat to the functional integrity of the biome, supplying to the market only a fraction of what it could if done differently. So, instead of extracting big centennial logs from the forests, the Amazonian Phoenix project proposes that large expanses of degraded lands be reforested using pioneer plants species from the forest itself. These plants have the capacity to heal gaps in the canopy, being able to grow and produce woody biomass in very extreme conditions. The idea is to mimic the regenerative dynamics of the natural ecosystem in short cycle agrosilvicultural production areas, utilizing a variety of technologies to transform raw fibers from these fast growth native plants into a variety of materials with high aggregated value. This communication presents the research on natural fibers by the Polymeric Composites Group within the Amazonian Phoenix Project. Sustainable technologies employing materials with good and responsible ecological footprints are important and necessary stimulus for a change in the destructive economical activities present in the Amazon frontiers. The relatively well established wood polymer composites technology, for example, is a good candidate solution. Two research and development fields are proposed: the first one considers production systems with simple and cheap

  19. Conventional recovery : new frac technologies plus better royalty rates revive oil-related activity in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, G.

    2010-11-15

    The revolutionary application of hydraulic fracturing to horizontal wellbores took several years to be deployed on a significant scale in Alberta, even though the technology was locally developed, because the province lacked the appropriate fiscal regime to interest investors. The Province put forward revised drilling incentives, which combined with the prospect of drawing more oil out of known conventional oilfields via multi-stage fracs on horizontal wells has spurred activity. The technology can be used for both oil and gas targets but must be adjusted for differences in permeability in the formations, which results in different fracturing properties. The reduced permeability of tight gas formations also requires a frac treatment an order of magnitude greater than for tight oil formations. Different chemicals and proppant are applied to oil and gas targets. Downhole motors developed for horizontal drilling are now being applied to drilling vertical wells because they create a straighter hole. Oil-based mud is used in drilling shales instead of water-based mud because shales often have clays that interact with water. The oil reduces the lifespan of the rubber liners, so rubber compounds that are less susceptible are under development. To complement the efficiencies gained from horizontal fracing, a downhole tool that generates a fluid pulse in the reservoir has been developed. The pulse momentarily expands the rock's pore structure, helping to move fluid through the formation and allowing oil that has never before moved to flow freely. The wave technology is also applicable to remediating wells. 3 figs.

  20. Recovery of the knowledge in science and technology of the millennial Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bokhimi, X. [Institute of Physics, National University of Mexico (UNAM), A.P. 20-364, 01000, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: bokhimi@fisica.unam.mx

    2006-07-01

    The development of Mexican Culture began many millennia ago, and it was always associated to the development of science and technology, as it happened in other ancient cultures. As it frequently occurs in human history, the information about the Millennial Mexican Culture suffered a tremendous lost when it became in contact with Europeans in the Sixteen Century, because almost all of the books containing this information were burned, and the Mexican priests and teachers that knew it were killed or conditioned to teaching. Only a few books survived this catastrophe, and some of the priests, teachers, or their students that coexisted with the new social situation served as information source of the Mexican Culture to generate documents in the Sixteen Century about it; which will be used as the technical basic primary information source to recover the knowledge about science and technology of the Millennial Mexico. This information help to find the raw materials used in different technological processes; for example, in painting or in dying. It will be also used to interpret the results about the observed materials in archaeological monuments paintings, and in documents, when they are analyzed with modern characterization techniques as X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. Another source of information of the Millennial Mexican Culture is the analysis of actual processes having an ancient Mexican origin. In this case, however, it is necessary to make compatible the ingredients used nowadays with those registered in the documents of the Sixteen Century to accept them as belonging to the Millennial Mexican Culture. In this work, we present details about the results obtained for the dyes nocheztli, xochipalli, matlalli, tlacehuilli, and k'axti. (Author)

  1. Recovery of the knowledge in science and technology of the millennial Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokhimi, X.

    2006-01-01

    The development of Mexican Culture began many millennia ago, and it was always associated to the development of science and technology, as it happened in other ancient cultures. As it frequently occurs in human history, the information about the Millennial Mexican Culture suffered a tremendous lost when it became in contact with Europeans in the Sixteen Century, because almost all of the books containing this information were burned, and the Mexican priests and teachers that knew it were killed or conditioned to teaching. Only a few books survived this catastrophe, and some of the priests, teachers, or their students that coexisted with the new social situation served as information source of the Mexican Culture to generate documents in the Sixteen Century about it; which will be used as the technical basic primary information source to recover the knowledge about science and technology of the Millennial Mexico. This information help to find the raw materials used in different technological processes; for example, in painting or in dying. It will be also used to interpret the results about the observed materials in archaeological monuments paintings, and in documents, when they are analyzed with modern characterization techniques as X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. Another source of information of the Millennial Mexican Culture is the analysis of actual processes having an ancient Mexican origin. In this case, however, it is necessary to make compatible the ingredients used nowadays with those registered in the documents of the Sixteen Century to accept them as belonging to the Millennial Mexican Culture. In this work, we present details about the results obtained for the dyes nocheztli, xochipalli, matlalli, tlacehuilli, and k'axti. (Author)

  2. Performance of iodide vapour absorption in the venturi scrubber working in self-priming mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yanmin; Sun, Zhongning; Gu, Haifeng; Miao, Zhuang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The absorption performance for iodide vapour was studied under different conditions. • A mathematical model was developed to describe the iodide absorption process. • The venturi scrubber can ensure absorption efficiiency and reduce pressure loss. - Abstract: The self-priming venturi scrubber is the key component of filtered containment venting systems for the removal of radioactive products during severe accidents in nuclear power plants. This paper is focused on the absorption performance of iodide vapour in the venturi scrubber, based on experiment and mathematical calculation. The results indicate that the absorption efficiency is closely related to solution flow rate, gas flow rate and temperature, but is not sensitive to iodide inlet concentration. When solution flow rate is low, the absorption efficiency increases rapidly with increasing the solution flow rate, and when the solution is excessive, the absorption efficiency remains around 99% stably; the influence of gas flow rate on absorption efficiency is mainly reflected in the variation of gas and liquid contacting time; when the solution flow rate is low, the increase of gas flow rate will led to an obvious decrease in absorption efficiency; temperature is not important when gas flow rate in constant but becomes effective for improving the absorption efficiency when gas velocity is constant. The proposed mathematical model can predict the iodide absorption process well in the range of experimental conditions. Especially, in the condition of lower gas flow rate and higher solution flow rate, the prediction accuracy is more satisfactory; however the accuracy of prediction will decrease at higher gas flow rates and lower solution flow rates because of neglecting the transverse exchange between gas and liquid phase.

  3. Technology Roadmap. Energy Loss Reduction and Recovery in Industrial Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2004-11-01

    To help guide R&D decision-making and gain industry insights on the top opportunities for improved energy systems, ITP sponsored the Energy Loss Reduction and Recoveryin Energy Systems Roadmapping Workshopin April 2004 in Baltimore, Maryland. This Technology Roadmapis based largely on the results of the workshop and additional industrial energy studies supported by ITP and EERE. It summarizes industry feedback on the top opportunities for R&D investments in energy systems, and the potential for national impacts on energy use and the environment.

  4. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; John DuPoint

    2011-03-31

    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: (1) An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing high-moisture, low rank coals. (2) Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. (3) Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. (4) Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. (5) Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. (6) Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. (7) Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. (8) Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  5. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, Edward; Bilirgen, Harun; DuPont, John

    2011-03-31

    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: • An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing highmoisture, low rank coals. • Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. • Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. • Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. • Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. • Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. • Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. • Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  6. On-line measurements of liquid carry-over from scrubbers using radioactive tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugan, A; Hassfjell, S [Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway); Finborud, A [Mator, Porsgrunn (Norway)

    2004-07-01

    A method to measure liquid carry-over from scrubbers using gamma-emitting tracers is described and results from field tests at two onshore installations are presented. One water/1,2-ethanediol (MEG) and two hydrocarbon liquid (condensate) tracers have been used in the tests. One of the condensate tracers deposited to some extent inside the process pipe, while the other had a too high vapor pressure. The water/MEG tracer showed no MEG carry-over while the carry-over of MEG was documented to be considerable. (author)

  7. On-line measurements of liquid carry-over from scrubbers using radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugan, A.; Hassfjell, S.; Finborud, A.

    2004-01-01

    A method to measure liquid carry-over from scrubbers using gamma-emitting tracers is described and results from field tests at two onshore installations are presented. One water/1,2-ethanediol (MEG) and two hydrocarbon liquid (condensate) tracers have been used in the tests. One of the condensate tracers deposited to some extent inside the process pipe, while the other had a too high vapor pressure. The water/MEG tracer showed no MEG carry-over while the carry-over of MEG was documented to be considerable. (author)

  8. IODINE REMOVAL EFFICIENCY IN NON-SUBMERGED AND SUBMERGED SELF-PRIMING VENTURI SCRUBBER

    OpenAIRE

    MAJID ALI; YAN CHANGQI; SUN ZHONGNING; GU HAIFENG; WANG JUNLONG; KHURRAM MEHBOOB

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this conducted research is to study the iodine removal efficiency in a self-priming venturi scrubber for submerged and non-submerged operating conditions experimentally and theoretically. The alkaline solution is used as an absorbent, which is prepared by dissolving sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3) in water to remove the gaseous iodine (I2) from the gas. Iodine removal efficiency is examined at various gas flow rates and inlet concentrations of iodine...

  9. Recovery of Cobalt as Cobalt Oxalate from Cobalt Tailings Using Moderately Thermophilic Bioleaching Technology and Selective Sequential Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guobao Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt is a very important metal which is widely applied in various critical areas, however, it is difficult to recover cobalt from minerals since there is a lack of independent cobalt deposits in nature. This work is to provide a complete process to recover cobalt from cobalt tailings using the moderately thermophilic bioleaching technology and selective sequential extraction. It is found that 96.51% Co and 26.32% Cu were extracted after bioleaching for four days at 10% pulp density. The mean compositions of the leach solutions contain 0.98 g·L−1 of Co, 6.52 g·L−1 of Cu, and 24.57 g·L−1 of Fe (III. The copper ion was then recovered by a solvent extraction process and the ferric ions were selectively removed by applying a goethite deironization process. The technological conditions of the above purification procedures were deliberately discussed. Over 98.6% of copper and 99.9% of ferric ions were eliminated from the leaching liquor. Cobalt was finally produced as cobalt oxalate and its overall recovery during the whole process was greater than 95%. The present bioleaching process of cobalt is worth using for reference to deal with low-grade cobalt ores.

  10. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 7, Appendix E -- Material recovery/material recycling technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    The enthusiasm for and commitment to recycling of municipal solid wastes is based on several intuitive benefits: Conservation of landfill capacity; Conservation of non-renewable natural resources and energy sources; Minimization of the perceived potential environmental impacts of MSW combustion and landfilling; Minimization of disposal costs, both directly and through material resale credits. In this discussion, ``recycling`` refers to materials recovered from the waste stream. It excludes scrap materials that are recovered and reused during industrial manufacturing processes and prompt industrial scrap. Materials recycling is an integral part of several solid waste management options. For example, in the preparation of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), ferrous metals are typically removed from the waste stream both before and after shredding. Similarly, composting facilities, often include processes for recovering inert recyclable materials such as ferrous and nonferrous metals, glass, Plastics, and paper. While these two technologies have as their primary objectives the production of RDF and compost, respectively, the demonstrated recovery of recyclables emphasizes the inherent compatibility of recycling with these MSW management strategies. This appendix discusses several technology options with regard to separating recyclables at the source of generation, the methods available for collecting and transporting these materials to a MRF, the market requirements for post-consumer recycled materials, and the process unit operations. Mixed waste MRFs associated with mass bum plants are also presented.

  11. Energy recovery from waste streams with microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng

    to the sediment. The proposed approach may broad the application of sediment MFC technology. A novel submersible microbial desalination cell was developed as an in situ and non-invasive approach for nitrate removal from groundwater. The system performance in terms of power generation and nitrate removal...... efficiency were investigated. The effects of hydraulic retention time, external resistance, other ionic species in the groundwater and external nitrification on the system performance were also elucidated. Over 90% of nitrate was removed from groundwater without energy input, water pressure, draw solution......-based bio-electrochemical systems. To reduce the energy cost in nitrogen removal and during the same process achieve phosphorus elimination, a sediment-type photomicrobial fuel cell was developed based on the cooperation between microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) and electrochemically active bacteria. The main...

  12. The potential of Saudi Arabian natural zeolites in energy recovery technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nizami, A.S.; Ouda, O.K.M.; Rehan, M.; El-Maghraby, A.M.O.; Gardy, J.; Hassanpour, A.; Kumar, S.; Ismail, I.M.I.

    2016-01-01

    Energy consumption in KSA (kingdom of Saudi Arabia) is growing rapidly due to economic development with raised levels of population, urbanization and living standards. Fossil fuels are currently solely used to meet the energy requirements. The KSA government have planned to double its energy generating capacity (upto 120 GW (gigawatts)) by 2032. About half of the electricity capacity of this targeted energy will come from renewable resources such as nuclear, wind, solar, WTE (waste-to-energy) etc. Natural zeolites are found abundantly in KSA at Jabal Shamah occurrence near Jeddah city, whose characteristics have never been investigated in energy related applications. This research aims to study the physical and chemical characteristics of natural zeolite in KSA and to review its potential utilization in selected WTE technologies and solar energy. The standard zeolite group of alumina–silicate minerals were found with the presence of other elements such as Na, Mg and K etc. A highly crystalline structure and thermal stability of natural zeolites together with unique ion exchange, adsorption properties, high surface area and porosity make them suitable in energy applications such as WTE and solar energy as an additive or catalyst. A simple solid–gas absorption system for storing solar energy in natural zeolites will be a cheap alternative method for KSA. In AD (anaerobic digestion), the dual characteristics of natural zeolite like Mordenite will increase the CH_4 production of OFMSW (organic fraction of municipal solid waste). Further investigations are recommended to study the technical, economical, and environmental feasibility of natural zeolite utilization in WTE technologies in KSA. - Highlights: • A highly crystalline structure is found in natural zeolites. • Natural zeolites will store solar energy in solid–gas absorption system. • The composites of natural zeolites will produce more liquid fuel like gasoline. • The natural zeolite will increase

  13. Recent technological advances in the application of nano-catalytic technology to the enhanced recovery and upgrading of bitumen and heavy oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Almao, P. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Schulich School of Engineering

    2013-11-01

    Advances in Nanotechnology, such as manufacturing of nano-catalysts allow the online (during processing) and on site production of nano-catalysts for heavy oils upgrading. These inventions have also facilitated the development of two lines of heavy oils upgrading processes that make use of nano-catalysts for producing upgraded oil: In Situ Upgrading and Field Upgrading. Producing chemical upgrading of heavy oils is achievable and economically viable at lower temperatures and lower pressures than used in most upgraders if the use of nano-catalysts were implemented. The spontaneity of thermal, steam and hydro processing reactions for converting the different chemical families of hydrocarbons present in the heaviest fractions of heavy oils and bitumen (HO-B) into lighter products was shown recently. Spontaneity was measured by the value of the change of free energy at low pressure. These undesirable paths are spontaneous and uncontrollable under thermal cracking conditions, and require providing years of residence time for intermolecular hydrogen redistribution to minimize olefins polymerization, if at all possible. Instead, hydroprocessing in the presence of hydrogen activating catalysts would create an abundance of hydrogen radicals impeding large molecules condensation and olefins proliferation. In Situ Upgrading: performs coupled Enhanced Oil Recovery with In Reservoir Upgrading via Hot Fluid Injection (HFI). The heat handling of this HFI process and the production of transportable oil with no need of diluent from the start of operation completes the originality of it. This technology uses heavy fractions separated from produced oil to reintroduce heat into the reservoir along with suspended nano-catalysts and hydrogen. These components react in the well bore and inside the reservoir to release more heat (hydroprocessing reactions are exothermic) producing light gases and volatile hydrocarbons that contribute to increase oil detachment from the rock resulting in

  14. The recovery plants of solid wastes: the technology for the environment; Plantas de recuperacion de residuos solidos: tecnologia al servicio del medio ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, E.

    1996-12-01

    The recovery plant built by FAES-AMADEO FARELL, S.A. in Tarragona has an area of 150.000 m``2 and it combines the best environmental-friendly technology in this field. Then main objective of this plant is to include in the production cycle all the wastes that can be recovered and avoid their dumping landfills. (Author)

  15. Characterizing toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant demonstrating the AFGD ICCT Project and a plant utilizing a dry scrubber/baghouse system: Bailly Station Units 7 and 8 and AFGD ICCT Project. Final report. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dismukes, E.B.

    1994-10-20

    This report describes results of assessment of the risk of emissions of hazardous air pollutants at one of the electric power stations, Bailly Station, which is also the site of a Clean Coal Technology project demonstrating the Pure Air Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization process (wet limestone). This station represents the configuration of no NO{sub x} reduction, particulate control with electrostatic precipitators, and SO{sub 2} control with a wet scrubber. The test was conducted September 3--6, 1993. Sixteen trace metals were determined along with 5 major metals. Other inorganic substances and organic compounds were also determined.

  16. Strategies for enhancing the co-removal of mercury in FGD-scrubbers of power plants. Operating parameters and additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuetze, Jan; Koeser, Heinz [Magdeburg Univ. (Germany). Chair of Environmental Technology; Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Centre of Engineering Services

    2012-07-01

    Co-combustion of waste fuels, coals with variable mercury content and lower regulatory emission limits are drivers for the optimisation of the co-removal of mercury in flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) scrubbers. The paper explains some new features of the system performance of FGD scrubbers for the co-removal of mercury in coal-fired power plants. Results on their efficiency under standardised laboratory conditions are presented. The effect of these measures on the quality of the FGD by-product gypsum will be covered as well. (orig.)

  17. Numerical simulation of self-priming phenomena in venturi scrubber by two-phase flow simulation code TPFIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, Naoki; Kanagawa, Tetsuya; Kaneko, Akiko; Abe, Yutaka; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    In the wake of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, reviews of the safety of nuclear facilities have been conducted in the world beginning with Japan. Countermeasures against severe accidents in nuclear power plants are an urgent need. In particular, from the viewpoint of protecting containment and suppressing diffusion of the radioactive materials, it is important to install filtered venting devices to release high pressure pollutant gas to the atmosphere with elimination radioactive materials in the gas. One of the devices for the filtered venting is a Multi venturi scrubber system (MVSS), which is used to realize filtered venting without any power supply in European reactors. The MVSS is composed of a “venturi Scrubbers” part, in which there are hundreds of the venturi scrubbers, and a “bubble column” part. In the MVSS, all of the venturi scrubbers is branched off from a vent line which connect between the containment and the MVSS. In an operation mode of the MVSS, the radioactive materials are eliminated through the gas-liquid interface from the pollutant gas to the liquid phase of a dispersed flow in the venturi scrubber and a bubbly flow in the bubble column part. The dispersed flow is formed from the liquid, which is suctioned from around the venturi scrubber through the hole for suction (called self-priming). In previous studies, an evaluation method for the scrubbing performance of the venturi scrubber was developed. However, actual hydraulic behavior in it is too complicated, the previous evaluation was not validated the hydraulic behavior and studied the effect of differences between the simulated hydraulic behavior and an actual one on the performance of the venturi scrubber. To develop a validated evaluation method for the scrubbing performance, it is important to develop detailed evaluation method for the hydraulic behavior in the venturi scrubber. To simulate the complicated hydraulic behavior, we consider to use analysis code TPFIT. Then, the

  18. Low Cost Advanced Thermoelectric (TE) Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, G. P.

    2014-03-01

    Low cost, fully integrated TE generators (TEGs) to recover waste heat from vehicle exhaust will reduce transportation sector energy consumption and emissions. TEGs will be the first application of high-temperature TE materials for high-volume use and establish new industrial sectors with scaled up production capability of TEG materials and components. We will create a potential supply chain for practical automotive TEGs and identify manufacturing and assembly processes for large scale production of TEG materials and components. Our work focusses on several innovative R&D paths: (1) enhanced TE material performance by doping and compositional tuning, (2) optimized TE material fabrication and processing to reduce thermal conductivity and improve fracture strength, (3) high volume production for successful skutterudite commercialization, (4) new material, nanostructure, and nanoscale approaches to reduce thermal interface and electrical contact resistances, (5) innovative heat exchangers for high efficiency heat flows and optimum temperature profiles despite highly variable exhaust gas operating conditions, (6) new modeling and simulation tools, and (7) inexpensive materials for thermal insulation and coatings for TE encapsulation. Recent results will be presented. Supported by the U.S. DOE Vehicle Technology Program.

  19. Heat Pipe-Assisted Thermoelectric Power Generation Technology for Waste Heat Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ju-Chan; Chi, Ri-Guang; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Lee, Kye-Bock; Hwang, Hyun-Chang; Lee, Ji-Su; Lee, Wook-Hyun

    2015-06-01

    Currently, large amounts of thermal energy dissipated from automobiles are emitted through hot exhaust pipes. This has resulted in the need for a new efficient recycling method to recover energy from waste hot exhaust gas. The present experimental study investigated how to improve the power output of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) system assisted by a wickless loop heat pipe (loop thermosyphon) under the limited space of the exhaust gas pipeline. The present study shows a novel loop-type heat pipe-assisted TEG concept to be applied to hybrid vehicles. The operating temperature of a TEG's hot side surface should be as high as possible to maximize the Seebeck effect. The present study shows a novel TEG concept of transferring heat from the source to the sink. This technology can transfer waste heat to any local place with a loop-type heat pipe. The present TEG system with a heat pipe can transfer heat and generate an electromotive force power of around 1.3 V in the case of 170°C hot exhaust gas. Two thermoelectric modules (TEMs) for a conductive block model and four Bi2Te3 TEMs with a heat pipe-assisted model were installed in the condenser section. Heat flows to the condenser section from the evaporator section connected to the exhaust pipe. This novel TEG system with a heat pipe can be placed in any location on an automobile.

  20. Oxidation of North Dakota scrubber sludge for soil amendment and production of gypsum. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassett, D.J.; Moe, T.A.

    1997-10-01

    Cooperative Power`s Coal Creek Station (CCS) the North Dakota Industrial Commission, and the US Department of Energy provided funds for a research project at the Energy and Environmental Research Center. The goals of the project were (1) to determine conditions for the conversion of scrubber sludge to gypsum simulating an ex situ process on the laboratory scale; (2) to determine the feasibility of scaleup of the process; (3) if warranted, to demonstrate the ex situ process for conversion on the pilot scale; and (4) to evaluate the quality and handling characteristics of the gypsum produced on the pilot scale. The process development and demonstration phases of this project were successfully completed focusing on ex situ oxidation using air at low pH. The potential to produce a high-purity gypsum on a commercial scale is excellent. The results of this project demonstrate the feasibility of converting CCS scrubber sludge to gypsum exhibiting characteristics appropriate for agricultural application as soil amendment as well as for use in gypsum wallboard production. Gypsum of a purity of over 98% containing acceptable levels of potentially problematic constituents was produced in the laboratory and in a pilot-scale demonstration.

  1. Atomization of liquids in a Pease-Anthony Venturi scrubber. Part II. Droplet dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, J A S; Costa, M A M; Aguiar, M L; Coury, J R

    2004-12-10

    Droplet distribution is of fundamental importance to the performance of a Venturi scrubber. Ensuring good liquid distribution can increase performance at minimal liquid usage. In this study, droplet dispersion in a rectangular Pease-Anthony Venturi scrubber, operating horizontally, was examined both theoretically and experimentally. The Venturi throat cross-section was 24 mm x 35 mm, and the throat length varied from 63 to 140 mm. Liquid was injected through a single orifice (1.0 mm diameter) on the throat wall. This arrangement allowed the study of the influence of jet penetration on droplet distribution. Gas velocity at the throat was 58.3 and 74.6 m/s, and the liquid flow rate was 286, 559 and 853 ml/min. A probe with a 2.7 mm internal diameter was used to isokinetically remove liquid from several positions inside the equipment. It was possible to study liquid distribution close to the injection point. A new model for droplet dispersion, which incorporates the new description of the jet atomization process developed by the present authors in the first article of this series, is proposed and evaluated. The model predicted well the experimental data.

  2. Development of a submerged gravel scrubber for containment venting applications: summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.; McCormack, J.D.; Postma, A.K.

    1981-01-01

    Although hypothetical core disruptive accidents (HCDAs) are not design basis accidents for breeder reactor plants, extensive assessments of HCDA consequences have been made and design features for providing margins beyond the design base have been considered for future fast reactor plants. One feature proposed for increasing the safety margin is a containment vent and/or purge system which would mitigate the challenge to containment integrity resulting from excessive temperature and pressure or excessive hydrogen. A cleanup system would be required for removal of vented aerosols and condensible vapors to mitigate radiological consequences to the environment. A study is in progress at HEDL to select and develop a suitable air cleaning system for use in potential breeder reactor containment venting applications. A concept was conceived whereby the passiveness and high loading capacity of a water pool scrubber was combined with the high efficiency of a sand and gravel bed. It was termed a Submerged Gravel Scrubber (SGS). A schematic drawing of the concept is shown. The SGS consists of a bed of gravel (or other packing) submerged in a pool of water

  3. Sustainable resource recovery and energy conversion processes using microbial electrochemical technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Matthew D.

    Microbial Electrochemical Technologies (METs) are emerging technological platforms for the conversion of waste into usable products. METs utilize naturally occurring bacteria, called exoelectrogens, capable of transferring electrons to insoluble terminal electron acceptors. Electron transfer processes in the exoelectrogen Geobacter sulfurreducens were exploited here to develop sustainable processes for synthesis of industrially and socially relevant end products. The first process examined was the removal of soluble metals from solution to form catalytic nanoparticles and nanoporous structures. The second process examined was the biocatalytic conversion of electrons into hydrogen gas using electrons supplied directly to an electrode. Nanoparticle formation is desirable because materials on the nanoscale possess different physical, optical, electronic, and mechanical properties compared to bulk materials. In the first process, soluble palladium was used to form catalytic palladium nanoparticles using extracellular electron transfer (EET) processes of G. sulfurreducens, typically the dominant member of mixedculture METs. Geobacter cells reduced the palladium extracellularly using naturally produced pili, which provided extracellular adsorption and reduction sites to help delay the diffusion of soluble metals into the cell. The extracellular reduction prevented cell inactivation due to formation of intracellular particles, and therefore the cells could be reused in multiple palladium reduction cycles. A G. sulfurreducens biofilm was next investigated as a biotemplate for the formation of a nanoporous catalytic palladium structure. G. sulfurreducens biofilms have a dense network of pili and extracellular cytochromes capable of high rates of electron transfer directly to an electrode surface. These pili and cytochromes provide a dense number of reduction sites for nanoparticle formation without the need for any synthetic components. The cells within the biofilm also can

  4. Game Changing Development Program - Next Generation Life Support Project: Oxygen Recovery From Carbon Dioxide Using Ion Exchange Membrane Electrolysis Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth A.; Jiao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the Phase I research and development work performed during the March 13, 2015 to July 13, 2016 period. The proposal for this work was submitted in response to NASA Research Announcement NNH14ZOA001N, "Space Technology Research, Development, Demonstration, and Infusion 2014 (SpaceTech-REDDI-2014)," Appendix 14GCD-C2 "Game Changing Development Program, Advanced Oxygen Recovery for Spacecraft Life Support Systems Appendix" The Task Agreement for this Phase I work is Document Control Number: GCDP-02-TA-15015. The objective of the Phase I project was to demonstrate in laboratories two Engineering Development Units (EDU) that perform critical functions of the low temperature carbon dioxide electrolysis and the catalytic conversion of carbon monoxide into carbon and carbon dioxide. The low temperature carbon dioxide electrolysis EDU was built by the University of Delaware with Dr. Feng Jiao as the principal investigator in charge of this EDU development (under NASA Contract NNC15CA04C). The carbon monoxide catalytic conversion EDU was built by the NASA Glenn Research Center with Kenneth Burke as the principal investigator and overall project leader for the development of both EDUs. Both EDUs were successfully developed and demonstrated the critical functions for each process. The carbon dioxide electrolysis EDU was delivered to the NASA Johnson Space Center and the carbon monoxide catalytic conversion EDU was delivered to the NASA Marshall Spaceflight Center.

  5. Battleground Energy Recovery Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullock, Daniel [USDOE Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center, Woodlands, TX (United States)

    2011-12-31

    In October 2009, the project partners began a 36-month effort to develop an innovative, commercial-scale demonstration project incorporating state-of-the-art waste heat recovery technology at Clean Harbors, Inc., a large hazardous waste incinerator site located in Deer Park, Texas. With financial support provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Battleground Energy Recovery Project was launched to advance waste heat recovery solutions into the hazardous waste incineration market, an area that has seen little adoption of heat recovery in the United States. The goal of the project was to accelerate the use of energy-efficient, waste heat recovery technology as an alternative means to produce steam for industrial processes. The project had three main engineering and business objectives: Prove Feasibility of Waste Heat Recovery Technology at a Hazardous Waste Incinerator Complex; Provide Low-cost Steam to a Major Polypropylene Plant Using Waste Heat; and Create a Showcase Waste Heat Recovery Demonstration Project.

  6. Monitoringsprogramma experimentele gecombineerde luchtwassers op veehouderijbedrijven = Measurement program on experimental multi-pollutant air scrubbers at animal houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.; Hol, J.M.G.; Mosquera Losada, J.; Nijeboer, G.M.; Huis in 'T Veld, J.W.H.; Hattum, van T.G.; Kwikkel, R.K.; Dousma, F.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    A measurement program was carried out in which the performance of 5 experimental scrubbers on animal farms was monitored for the removal of ammonia, odour and fine dust (PM10, PM2.5). This reports discusses and evaluates the realization of the program and its results.

  7. Elektronische monitoring van luchtwassers op veehouderijbedrijven = Automated process monitoring and data logging of air scrubbers at animal houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.; Franssen, J.C.T.J.

    2010-01-01

    At 6 animal houses air scrubbers equipped with an automated process monitoring and data logging system were tested. The measured values were successfully stored but the measured values, especially the pH and EC of the recirculation water, appeared not to be correct at all times.

  8. Performance estimation of a Venturi scrubber using a computational model for capturing dust particles with liquid spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, S.I. [National Fusion Research Center, 52 Eoeun-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: paksunil@dreamwiz.com; Chang, K.S. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: kschang@kaist.ac.kr

    2006-12-01

    A Venturi scrubber has dispersed three-phase flow of gas, dust, and liquid. Atomization of a liquid jet and interaction between the phases has a large effect on the performance of Venturi scrubbers. In this study, a computational model for the interactive three-phase flow in a Venturi scrubber has been developed to estimate pressure drop and collection efficiency. The Eulerian-Lagrangian method is used to solve the model numerically. Gas flow is solved using the Eulerian approach by using the Navier-Stokes equations, and the motion of dust and liquid droplets, described by the Basset-Boussinesq-Oseen (B-B-O) equation, is solved using the Lagrangian approach. This model includes interaction between gas and droplets, atomization of a liquid jet, droplet deformation, breakup and collision of droplets, and capture of dust by droplets. A circular Pease-Anthony Venturi scrubber was simulated numerically with this new model. The numerical results were compared with earlier experimental data for pressure drop and collection efficiency, and gave good agreements.

  9. Experimental investigation on the effect of liquid injection by multiple orifices in the formation of droplets in a Venturi scrubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, V.G.; Goncalves, J.A.S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Sao Carlos, Via Washington Luiz, Km. 235, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Coury, J.R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Sao Carlos, Via Washington Luiz, Km. 235, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: jcoury@ufscar.br

    2009-01-15

    Venturi scrubbers are widely utilized in gas cleaning. The cleansing elements in these scrubbers are droplets formed from the atomization of a liquid into a dust-laden gas. In industrial scrubbers, this liquid is injected through several orifices so that the cloud of droplets can be evenly distributed throughout the duct. The interaction between droplets when injected through many orifices, where opposite clouds of atomized liquid can reach each other, is to be expected. This work presents experimental measurements of droplet size measured in situ and the evidence of cloud interaction within a Venturi scrubber operating with multi-orifice jet injection. The influence of gas velocity, liquid flow rate and droplet size variation in the axial position after the point of the injection of the liquid were also evaluated for the different injection configurations. The experimental results showed that an increase in the liquid flow rate generated greater interaction between jets. The number of orifices had a significant influence on droplet size. In general, the increase in the velocity of the liquid jet and in the gas velocity favored the atomization process by reducing the size of the droplets.

  10. Experimental investigation on the effect of liquid injection by multiple orifices in the formation of droplets in a Venturi scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, V.G.; Goncalves, J.A.S.; Coury, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Venturi scrubbers are widely utilized in gas cleaning. The cleansing elements in these scrubbers are droplets formed from the atomization of a liquid into a dust-laden gas. In industrial scrubbers, this liquid is injected through several orifices so that the cloud of droplets can be evenly distributed throughout the duct. The interaction between droplets when injected through many orifices, where opposite clouds of atomized liquid can reach each other, is to be expected. This work presents experimental measurements of droplet size measured in situ and the evidence of cloud interaction within a Venturi scrubber operating with multi-orifice jet injection. The influence of gas velocity, liquid flow rate and droplet size variation in the axial position after the point of the injection of the liquid were also evaluated for the different injection configurations. The experimental results showed that an increase in the liquid flow rate generated greater interaction between jets. The number of orifices had a significant influence on droplet size. In general, the increase in the velocity of the liquid jet and in the gas velocity favored the atomization process by reducing the size of the droplets

  11. Introducing a new formula based on an artificial neural network for prediction of droplet size in venturi scrubbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sharifi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Droplet size is a fundamental parameter for Venturi scrubber performance. For many years, the correlations proposed by Nukiyama and Tanasawa (1938 and Boll et al. (1974 were used for calculating mean droplet size in Venturi scrubbers with limited operating parameters. This study proposes an alternative approach on the basis of artificial neural networks (ANNs to determine the mean droplet size in Venturi scrubbers, in a wide range of operating parameters. Experimental data were used to design the ANNs. A neural network was trained based on the liquid to gas ratio (L/G and throat gas velocity (Vgth, as input parameters, and the Sauter mean diameter (D32 as the desired parameter. The back-propagation learning algorithms were used in the network and the best approach was found. A new formula for the prediction of D32 using the weights of the network was then generated. This formula predicts mean droplet size in Venturi scrubbers more accurately than the correlations of Boll et al. (1974 and Nukiyama and Tanasawa (1938. The Average Absolute Percent Deviation (AAPD of our formula and the Boll et al. and Nukiyama and Tanasawa correlations for the full ranges of experimental data are 26.04%, 40.19% and 32.99%, respectively.

  12. Performance estimation of a Venturi scrubber using a computational model for capturing dust particles with liquid spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, S.I.; Chang, K.S.

    2006-01-01

    A Venturi scrubber has dispersed three-phase flow of gas, dust, and liquid. Atomization of a liquid jet and interaction between the phases has a large effect on the performance of Venturi scrubbers. In this study, a computational model for the interactive three-phase flow in a Venturi scrubber has been developed to estimate pressure drop and collection efficiency. The Eulerian-Lagrangian method is used to solve the model numerically. Gas flow is solved using the Eulerian approach by using the Navier-Stokes equations, and the motion of dust and liquid droplets, described by the Basset-Boussinesq-Oseen (B-B-O) equation, is solved using the Lagrangian approach. This model includes interaction between gas and droplets, atomization of a liquid jet, droplet deformation, breakup and collision of droplets, and capture of dust by droplets. A circular Pease-Anthony Venturi scrubber was simulated numerically with this new model. The numerical results were compared with earlier experimental data for pressure drop and collection efficiency, and gave good agreements

  13. Experimental investigation on the effect of liquid injection by multiple orifices in the formation of droplets in a Venturi scrubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, V G; Gonçalves, J A S; Coury, J R

    2009-01-15

    Venturi scrubbers are widely utilized in gas cleaning. The cleansing elements in these scrubbers are droplets formed from the atomization of a liquid into a dust-laden gas. In industrial scrubbers, this liquid is injected through several orifices so that the cloud of droplets can be evenly distributed throughout the duct. The interaction between droplets when injected through many orifices, where opposite clouds of atomized liquid can reach each other, is to be expected. This work presents experimental measurements of droplet size measured in situ and the evidence of cloud interaction within a Venturi scrubber operating with multi-orifice jet injection. The influence of gas velocity, liquid flow rate and droplet size variation in the axial position after the point of the injection of the liquid were also evaluated for the different injection configurations. The experimental results showed that an increase in the liquid flow rate generated greater interaction between jets. The number of orifices had a significant influence on droplet size. In general, the increase in the velocity of the liquid jet and in the gas velocity favored the atomization process by reducing the size of the droplets.

  14. THE FATE OF TRACE METALS IN A ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR WITH A VENTURI/PACKED COLUMN SCRUBBER - VOLUME II: APPENDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 5-week series of pilot-scale incineration tests, employing a synthetic waste feed, was performed at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the fate of trace metals fed to a rotary kiln incinerator equipped with a venturi scrubber/p...

  15. Performance estimation of a Venturi scrubber using a computational model for capturing dust particles with liquid spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, S I; Chang, K S

    2006-12-01

    A Venturi scrubber has dispersed three-phase flow of gas, dust, and liquid. Atomization of a liquid jet and interaction between the phases has a large effect on the performance of Venturi scrubbers. In this study, a computational model for the interactive three-phase flow in a Venturi scrubber has been developed to estimate pressure drop and collection efficiency. The Eulerian-Lagrangian method is used to solve the model numerically. Gas flow is solved using the Eulerian approach by using the Navier-Stokes equations, and the motion of dust and liquid droplets, described by the Basset-Boussinesq-Oseen (B-B-O) equation, is solved using the Lagrangian approach. This model includes interaction between gas and droplets, atomization of a liquid jet, droplet deformation, breakup and collision of droplets, and capture of dust by droplets. A circular Pease-Anthony Venturi scrubber was simulated numerically with this new model. The numerical results were compared with earlier experimental data for pressure drop and collection efficiency, and gave good agreements.

  16. Analysis of an integrated packed bed thermal energy storage system for heat recovery in compressed air energy storage technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega-Fernández, Iñigo; Zavattoni, Simone A.; Rodríguez-Aseguinolaza, Javier; D'Aguanno, Bruno; Barbato, Maurizio C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A packed bed TES system is proposed for heat recovery in CAES technology. •A CFD-based approach has been developed to evaluate the behaviour of the TES unit. •TES system enhancement and improvement alternatives are also demonstrated. •TES performance evaluated according to the first and second law of thermodynamics. -- Abstract: Compressed air energy storage (CAES) represents a very attracting option to grid electric energy storage. Although this technology is mature and well established, its overall electricity-to-electricity cycle efficiency is lower with respect to other alternatives such as pumped hydroelectric energy storage. A meager heat management strategy in the CAES technology is among the main reasons of this gap of efficiency. In current CAES plants, during the compression stage, a large amount of thermal energy is produced and wasted. On the other hand, during the electricity generation stage, an extensive heat supply is required, currently provided by burning natural gas. In this work, the coupling of both CAES stages through a thermal energy storage (TES) unit is introduced as an effective solution to achieve a noticeable increase of the overall CAES cycle efficiency. In this frame, the thermal energy produced in the compression stage is stored in a TES unit for its subsequent deployment during the expansion stage, realizing an Adiabatic-CAES plant. The present study addresses the conceptual design of a TES system based on a packed bed of gravel to be integrated in an Adiabatic-CAES plant. With this objective, a complete thermo-fluid dynamics model has been developed, including the implications derived from the TES operating under variable-pressure conditions. The formulation and treatment of the high pressure conditions were found being particularly relevant issues. Finally, the model provided a detailed performance and efficiency analysis of the TES system under charge/discharge cyclic conditions including a realistic operative

  17. Key Determinant Derivations for Information Technology Disaster Recovery Site Selection by the Multi-Criterion Decision Making Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Lee Yang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Disaster recovery sites are an important mechanism in continuous IT system operations. Such mechanisms can sustain IT availability and reduce business losses during natural or human-made disasters. Concerning the cost and risk aspects, the IT disaster-recovery site selection problems are multi-criterion decision making (MCDM problems in nature. For such problems, the decision aspects include the availability of the service, recovery time requirements, service performance, and more. The importance and complexities of IT disaster recovery sites increases with advances in IT and the categories of possible disasters. The modern IT disaster recovery site selection process requires further investigation. However, very few researchers tried to study related issues during past years based on the authors’ extremely limited knowledge. Thus, this paper aims to derive the aspects and criteria for evaluating and selecting a modern IT disaster recovery site. A hybrid MCDM framework consisting of the Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL and the Analytic Network Process (ANP will be proposed to construct the complex influence relations between aspects as well as criteria and further, derive weight associated with each aspect and criteria. The criteria with higher weight can be used for evaluating and selecting the most suitable IT disaster recovery sites. In the future, the proposed analytic framework can be used for evaluating and selecting a disaster recovery site for data centers by public institutes or private firms.

  18. Plume rise from stacks with scrubbers: a state-of-the-art review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatzmann, M.; Policastro, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    The state of the art of predicting plume rise from stacks with scrubbers is evaluated critically. The significant moisture content of the scrubbed plume upon exit leads to important thermodynamic effects during plume rise that are unaccounted for in the usual dry plume rise theories. For example, under conditionally unstable atmospheres, a wet scrubbed plume treated as completely dry acts as if the atmosphere were stable, whereas in reality the scrubbed plume behaves instead as if the atmosphere were unstable. Even the use of moist plume models developed for application to cooling tower plume rise is not valid since these models 1) employ the Boussinesq approximation, 2) use a number of additional simplifying approximations that require small exit temperature differences between tower exit and ambient temperatures, and 3) are not calibrated to stack data

  19. In situ recovery of oil from Utah tar sand: a summary of tar sand research at the Laramie Energy Technology Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchant, L.C.; Westhoff, J.D.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes work done by the United States Department of Energy's Laramie Energy Technology Center from 1971 through 1982 to develop technology for future recovery of oil from US tar sands. Work was concentrated on major US tar sand deposits that are found in Utah. Major objectives of the program were as follows: determine the feasibility of in situ recovery methods applied to tar sand deposits; and establish a system for classifying tar sand deposits relative to those characteristics that would affect the design and operation of various in situ recovery processes. Contents of this report include: (1) characterization of Utah tar sand; (2) laboratory extraction studies relative to Utah tar sand in situ methods; (3) geological site evaluation; (4) environmental assessments and water availability; (5) reverse combustion field experiment, TS-1C; (6) a reverse combustion followed by forward combustion field experiment, TS-2C; (7) tar sand permeability enhancement studies; (8) two-well steam injection experiment; (9) in situ steam-flood experiment, TS-1S; (10) design of a tar sand field experiment for air-stream co-injection, TS-4; (11) wastewater treatment and oil analyses; (12) economic evaluation of an in situ tar sand recovery process; and (13) appendix I (extraction studies involving Utah tar sands, surface methods). 70 figs., 68 tabs.

  20. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF GAS TREATMENT PLANT BASED ON AN EJECTOR SCRUBBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Iu. Panov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The article executed the feasibility study of various options for gas treatment. Rapid development of industry and transport worldwide in recent times raises the problem in the protection of habitat environment from harmful waste. In solving problems of flue gas treatment great attention is given to the economic characteristics and recycling techniques for capturing emissions and disposal must also meet the sanitary health requirements: flue gas treatment plants should not cause air or water pollution. The set objective is solved by developing a two-stage wet treatment system for pyrolysis gas based on ejector scrubbers. Their advantage - a central nozzle supply that allows the scrubber to operate on the principle of an ejector pump. Projected plant can be used in enterprises for processing of solid domestic and industrial waste, where there are steam and hot water boilers, whose operations result in contaminated gases emissions obtained with high temperatures. In particular, this installation can be applied at a cement plant in which a large amount of waste gases containing sulfur oxides is emitted. Assessment of market potential for the plant designed to treat waste gases in the cement factory is performed through a SWOT analysis. SWOT analysis results indicate the possibility of the treatment of exhaust gases without a high cost and with high gas treatment efficiency. Plant competitive analysis was done using an expert method in comparison with market competitors. Technical and economic indicators of the plant are presented. Return on investments is 46% and payback period of capital investments - 2.7 years.

  1. Numerical simulation of two-phase flow behavior in Venturi scrubber by interface tracking method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiguchi, Naoki, E-mail: s1430215@u.tsukuba.ac.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4, Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8577 (Japan); Yoshida, Hiroyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4, Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Abe, Yutaka [University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8577 (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Self-priming occur because of pressure balance between inside and outside of throat is confirmed. • VS has similar flow with a Venturi tube except of disturbance and burble flow is considered. • Some of atomization simulated are validated qualitatively by comparison with previous studies. - Abstract: From the viewpoint of protecting a containment vessel of light water reactor and suppressing the diffusion of radioactive materials from a light water reactor, it is important to develop the device which allows a filtered venting of contaminated high pressure gas. In the filtered venting system that used in European reactors, so called Multi Venturi scrubbers System is used to realize filtered venting without any power supply. This system is able to define to be composed of Venturi scrubbers (VS) and a bubble column. In the VS, scrubbing of contaminated gas is promoted by both gas releases through the submerged VS and gas-liquid contact with splay flow formed by liquid suctioned through a hole provided by the pressure difference between inner and outer regions of a throat part of the VS. However, the scrubbing mechanism of the self-priming VS including effects of gas mass flow rate and shape of the VS are understood insufficiently in the previous studies. Therefore, we started numerical and experimental study to understand the detailed two-phase flow behavior in the VS. In this paper, to understand the VS operation characteristics for the filtered venting, we performed numerical simulations of two-phase flow behavior in the VS. In the first step of this study, we perform numerical simulations of supersonic flow by the TPFIT to validate the applicability of the TPFIT for high velocity flow like flow in the VS. In the second step, numerical simulation of two-phase flow behavior in the VS including self-priming phenomena. As the results, dispersed flow in the VS was reproduced in the numerical simulation, as same as the visualization experiments.

  2. Relationship between self-priming and hydraulic behavior in Venturi Scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, Naoki; Kaneko, Akiko; Abe, Yutaka; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    As revealed by Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, countermeasures against severe accident in nuclear power plants are an urgent need. In particular, from the viewpoint of protecting a containment and suppressing the diffusion of radioactive materials, it is important to develop the device which allows a filtered venting of contaminated high pressure gas. In the filtered venting system that used in European reactors, so called Multi Venturi Scrubbers System is used to realize filtered venting without any power supply (Lindau, 1988) (Rust, et al., 1995). The system operates with any power supply and high pressure gas filled in the containment. This system is able to define to be composed of Venturi Scrubbers (VS) and a bubble column. In the VS, scrubbing of contaminated gas is promoted by both gas releases through a submerged VS and gas-liquid contact with splay flow formed by liquid suctioned through a hole provided by the pressure difference between inner and outer parts of a throat part of the VS. This type of the VS is called self-priming ones. However, the scrubbing mechanism of the self-priming VS including effects of gas mass flow rate and shape of the VS are understood insufficiently in the previous studies. In this study, to understand the VS operation characteristics for the filtered venting, we discussed the mechanisms of the self-priming phenomena and the hydraulic behavior in the VS. In this paper, we conducted a visualized observation of the hydraulic behavior in the VS and measured liquid flow rate of the self-priming. As a result, it is shown that there is the possibility that the VS decontamination performance falls low level with no self-priming. (author)

  3. Numerical simulation of two-phase flow behavior in Venturi scrubber by interface tracking method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, Naoki; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Abe, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Self-priming occur because of pressure balance between inside and outside of throat is confirmed. • VS has similar flow with a Venturi tube except of disturbance and burble flow is considered. • Some of atomization simulated are validated qualitatively by comparison with previous studies. - Abstract: From the viewpoint of protecting a containment vessel of light water reactor and suppressing the diffusion of radioactive materials from a light water reactor, it is important to develop the device which allows a filtered venting of contaminated high pressure gas. In the filtered venting system that used in European reactors, so called Multi Venturi scrubbers System is used to realize filtered venting without any power supply. This system is able to define to be composed of Venturi scrubbers (VS) and a bubble column. In the VS, scrubbing of contaminated gas is promoted by both gas releases through the submerged VS and gas-liquid contact with splay flow formed by liquid suctioned through a hole provided by the pressure difference between inner and outer regions of a throat part of the VS. However, the scrubbing mechanism of the self-priming VS including effects of gas mass flow rate and shape of the VS are understood insufficiently in the previous studies. Therefore, we started numerical and experimental study to understand the detailed two-phase flow behavior in the VS. In this paper, to understand the VS operation characteristics for the filtered venting, we performed numerical simulations of two-phase flow behavior in the VS. In the first step of this study, we perform numerical simulations of supersonic flow by the TPFIT to validate the applicability of the TPFIT for high velocity flow like flow in the VS. In the second step, numerical simulation of two-phase flow behavior in the VS including self-priming phenomena. As the results, dispersed flow in the VS was reproduced in the numerical simulation, as same as the visualization experiments.

  4. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj Kumar; Keith Brown; Hickman, T. Scott; Justice, James J.

    2000-01-01

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents

  5. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, T. Scott

    2003-01-01

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents

  6. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, T. Scott; Justice, James J.

    2001-01-01

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents

  7. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

    2001-06-16

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

  8. Development of natural cellulase inhibitor mediated intensified biological pretreatment technology using Pleurotus florida for maximum recovery of cellulose from paddy straw under solid state condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naresh Kumar, Manickam; Ravikumar, Rajarathinam; Thenmozhi, Senniyappan; Kirupa Sankar, Muthuvelu

    2017-11-01

    Inhibitor mediated intensified bio-pretreatment (IMBP) technology using natural cellulase inhibitor (NCI) for maximum cellulose recovery from paddy straw was studied. Pretreatment was carried out under solid state condition. Supplementation of 8% NCI in pretreatment medium improves cellulose recovery and delignification by 1.2 and 1.5-fold respectively, compared to conventional bio-pretreatment due to inhibition of 61% of cellulase activity in IMBP. Further increase in NCI concentration showed negative effect on Pleurotus florida growth and suppress the laccase productivity by 1.1-fold. Laccase activity in IMBP was found to be 2.0U/mL on 19 th day, which is higher than (1.5U/mL) conventional bio-pretreatment. Physico-chemical modifications in paddy straw before and after pretreatment were analysed by SEM, ATR-FTIR, XRD and TGA. According to these findings, the IMBP technology can be a viable eco-friendly technology for sustainable production of bioethanol with maximum cellulose recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cheesemaking in highland pastures: Milk technological properties, cream, cheese and ricotta yields, milk nutrients recovery, and products composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, M; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Stocco, G; Valorz, C; Bazzoli, I; Sturaro, E; Ramanzin, M; Bittante, G

    2016-12-01

    (before and after natural creaming), the whole morning milk, and the mixed vat milk had different chemical compositions, traditional coagulation properties, and curd-firming modeling parameters. These variations over the pasture season were similar to the residual variations with respect to chemical composition, and much lower with respect to coagulation and curd-firming traits. Much larger variations were noted in cream, cheese, and ricotta yields, as well as in nutrient recoveries in curd during the pasture season. The protein content of forage was correlated with some of the coagulation and curd-firming traits, the ether extract of forage was positively correlated with milk fat content and cheese yields, and fiber fractions of forage were unfavorably correlated with some of the chemical and technological traits. Traditional cheese- and ricotta-making procedures showed average cream, cheese, and ricotta yields of 6.3, 14.2, and 4.9%, respectively, and an overall recovery of almost 100% of milk fat, 88% of milk protein, and 60% of total milk solids. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Preparation of recovery fuel - assumptions, quality, technology and cost; Upparbetning av returbraenslen - foerutsaettningar, kvalite, teknik och kostnader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Njurell, Rolf; Gyllenhammar, Marianne [SEP Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2000-05-01

    New laws and restrictions, in Sweden and within the EU, will change the handling of waste within the next years. The combustible wastes going to landfill today, have to be dealt with in another way in the future. The knowledge about fuel preparation has been accentuated. Preparation of wastes - properly executed - will make it a useful fuel and increase energy recovery. S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB has by the assignment of the Thermal Engineering Research Institute made this survey of required conditions technology and quality costs related to fuel preparation of recovered waste like wood, paper and plastic. Only a few fuel preparation plants for recovered waste exist in Sweden today. Most of the municipalities do not have any waste treatment except for landfill. In the future regional preparation plants will most likely be built. In that way recovered wastes can be treated in a cost-effective way and be converted into useful fuel. Transportation will increase when landfills, presently in use, will close and the waste has to be transported to regional plants. Recovered fuel can be divided into two types depending on their content. Recovered Wood Fuel is what we call RWF in this report. Recovered Commercial waste Fuel containing plastic, paper, textiles etc, is called RCF in this report. To receive a suitable fuel for a special combustion plant, the nature, quality and content of the fuel must be known. The choice of preparation equipment is guided both by the type of waste and the quality of fuel needed for the combustion plant. Different contaminations in waste are presented in the report, together with technology to separate them from the fuel. The report also focuses on some type of equipment that are available for fuel preparation in different applications. In general the waste has to be shredded or crushed and the tramp iron has to be removed. If required the waste also has to be screened. The non waste incineration plants firing RWF today and intend

  11. Research and development of technologies for safe and environmentally optimal recovery and disposal of explosive wastes. Task 2, Preliminary impact assessment for environment, health and safety (EIA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duijm, N.J.; Markert, F. [Risoe (Denmark); Larsen, S.G. [DEMEX A/S (Denmark)

    1998-09-01

    As described in the project proposal `Research and Development of Technologies for Safe and Environmentally optimal recovery and Disposal of Explosive Wastes`, dated 31. May 1996, the objective of Task 2, Preliminary Impact Assessment for Environment, Health and Safety, is to: Analyse the environmental impact of noise and emissions to air, water and soil; Assess the risk of hazards to workers` health and safety and to the public. Task 2, Preliminary Impact Assessment for Environment, Health and Safety (EIA), has been performed from August 1997 to September 1998. First, a methodology has been established, based on Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), to select the `best` technology on the basis of clearly defined objectives, including minimal impacts on environment, health and safety. This included a review of different types of explosive waste with a focus on the environment implications, identifying the issues relevant to defining the criteria or objectives with respect to environment and safety in the framework of explosive waste, as well as the preliminary definition of objectives for the final impact assessment. Second, the previously identified recovery and disposal technologies (Task 1) have been qualitatively assessed on the basis of the relevant objectives. This qualitative assessment includes also economic considerations and an attempt to rank the technologies in an MCDA framework. (au)

  12. Targeted technology applications for infield reserve growth: A synopsis of the Secondary Natural Gas Recovery project, Gulf Coast Basin. Topical report, September 1988--April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levey, R.A.; Finley, R.J.; Hardage, B.A.

    1994-06-01

    The Secondary Natural Gas Recovery (SGR): Targeted Technology Applications for Infield Reserve Growth is a joint venture research project sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the State of Texas through the Bureau of Economic Geology at The University of Texas at Austin, with the cofunding and cooperation of the natural gas industry. The SGR project is a field-based program using an integrated multidisciplinary approach that integrates geology, geophysics, engineering, and petrophysics. A major objective of this research project is to develop, test, and verify those technologies and methodologies that have near- to mid-term potential for maximizing recovery of gas from conventional reservoirs in known fields. Natural gas reservoirs in the Gulf Coast Basin are targeted as data-rich, field-based models for evaluating infield development. The SGR research program focuses on sandstone-dominated reservoirs in fluvial-deltaic plays within the onshore Gulf Coast Basin of Texas. The primary project research objectives are: To establish how depositional and diagenetic heterogeneities cause, even in reservoirs of conventional permeability, reservoir compartmentalization and hence incomplete recovery of natural gas. To document examples of reserve growth occurrence and potential from fluvial and deltaic sandstones of the Texas Gulf Coast Basin as a natural laboratory for developing concepts and testing applications. To demonstrate how the integration of geology, reservoir engineering, geophysics, and well log analysis/petrophysics leads to strategic recompletion and well placement opportunities for reserve growth in mature fields.

  13. High capacity Venturi scrubber to separate aerosol-borne radioactivity from an air-gas-steam mixture. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayinger, F.; Glueckert, U.

    1993-01-01

    All German LWR are equipped with devices which in the case of a hypothetic accident permit a filtered depressurization of the containment precluding failure of the latter and minimizing the release of radioactive materials into the environment. To filter the aerosol charged air-steam mixture from the containment also a venturi scrubber is used. It has the great advantage that it can remove safely and over a certain period of time, even without active cooling systems, the after-heat released from the separated radioactive materials. Those separated radioactive materials are trapped in a scrubbing liquid which, in the event of a temporary failure of all active cooling systems, may partly evaporate and thus remove the heat in a completely passive way. The venturi scrubbers conceived earlier by the reactor manufacturer are of a very simple design and not optimized to achieve highest separation degrees. Therefore development work was started to optimize the separation behaviour of the venturi scrubber precisely with regard to submicron aerosols which are to be expected after a core meltdown accident. To achieve this, a special concept of scrubbing liquid addition developed by the contractor, the so-called multistage concept, was applied adapting it to the specific requirements. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Technologies for the management of MSW incineration ashes from gas cleaning: New perspectives on recovery of secondary raw materials and circular economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quina, Margarida J; Bontempi, Elza; Bogush, Anna; Schlumberger, Stefan; Weibel, Gisela; Braga, Roberto; Funari, Valerio; Hyks, Jiri; Rasmussen, Erik; Lederer, Jakob

    2018-09-01

    Environmental policies in the European Union focus on the prevention of hazardous waste and aim to mitigate its impact on human health and ecosystems. However, progress is promoting a shift in perspective from environmental impacts to resource recovery. Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) has been increasing in developed countries, thus the amount of air pollution control residues (APCr) and fly ashes (FA) have followed the same upward trend. APCr from MSWI is classified as hazardous waste in the List of Waste (LoW) and as an absolute entry (19 01 07*), but FA may be classified as a mirror entry (19 0 13*/19 01 14). These properties arise mainly from their content in soluble salts, potentially toxic metals, trace organic pollutants and high pH in contact with water. Since these residues have been mostly disposed of in underground and landfills, other possibilities must be investigated to recover secondary raw materials and products. According to the literature, four additional routes of recovery have been found: detoxification (e.g. washing), product manufacturing (e.g. ceramic products and cement), practical applications (e.g. CO 2 sequestration) and recovery of materials (e.g. Zn and salts). This work aims to identify the best available technologies for material recovery in order to avoid landfill solutions. Within this scope, six case studies are presented and discussed: recycling in lightweight aggregates, glass-ceramics, cement, recovery of zinc, rare metals and salts. Finally, future perspectives are provided to advance understanding of this anthropogenic waste as a source of resources, yet tied to safeguards for the environment. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Water recovery from brines and salt-saturated solutions: operability and thermodynamic efficiency considerations for desalination technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review provides an overview of desalination technologies and discusses the thermodynamic efficiencies and operational issues associated with the various technologies particularly with regard to high salinity streams. When water is recovered from a saline source, a brine conc...

  16. CO2 Capture and Crystallization of Ammonia Bicarbonate in a Lab-Scale Scrubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao Chi Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A lab-scale bubble-column scrubber is used to capture CO2 gas and produce ammonia bicarbonate (ABC using aqueous ammonia as an absorbent under a constant pH and temperature. The CO2 concentration is adjusted by mixing N2 and CO2 in the range of 15–60 vol % at 55 °C. The process variables are the pH of the solution, temperature, gas-flow rate and the concentration of gas. The effects of the process variables on the removal efficiency (E, absorption rate (RA and overall mass-transfer coefficient (KGa were explored. A multiple-tube mass balance model was used to determine RA and KGa, in which RA and KGa were in the range of 2.14 × 10−4–1.09 × 10−3 mol/(s·L and 0.0136–0.5669 1/s, respectively. Results found that, RA showed an obvious increase with the increase in pH, inlet gas concentration and gas temperature, while KGa decreased with an increase in inlet gas concentration. Using linear regression, an empirical expression for KGa/E was obtained. On the other hand, ammonia bicarbonate crystals could be produced at a pH of 9.5 when the gas concentration was higher than 30% and γ (=Fg/FA, the gas-liquid molar flow rate ratio ≥ 1.5.

  17. Evaluation of Decontamination Factor of Aerosol in Pool Scrubber according to Bubble Shape and Size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Hyun Joung; Ha, Kwang Soon; Jang, Dong Soon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The scrubbing pool could play an important role in the wet type FCVS because a large amount of aerosol is captured in the water pool. The pool scrubbing phenomena have been modelled and embedded in several computer codes, such as SPARC (Suppression Pool Aerosol Removal Code), BUSCA (BUbble Scrubbing Algorithm) and SUPRA (Suppression Pool Retention Analysis). These codes aim at simulating the pool scrubbing process and estimating the decontamination factors (DFs) of the radioactive aerosol and iodine gas in the water pool, which is defined as the ratio of initial mass of the specific radioactive material to final massy after passing through the water pool. The pool scrubbing models were reviewed and an aerosol scrubbing code has been prepared to calculate decontamination factor through the pool. The developed code has been verified using the experimental results and parametric studies the decontamination factor according to bubble shape and size. To evaluate the decontamination factor more accurate whole pool scrubber phenomena, the code was improved to consider the variety shape and size of bubbles. The decontamination factor were largely evaluated in ellipsoid bubble rather than in sphere bubble. The pool scrubbing models will be enhanced to apply more various model such as aerosol condensation of hygroscopic. And, it is need to experiment to measure to bubble shape and size distribution in pool to improve bubble model.

  18. Algal Turf Scrubbers: Cleaning Water while Capturing Solar Energy for Bio fuel Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey Bannon, J.; Adey, W.

    2010-01-01

    Algal Turfs are bio diverse communities of unicellular to filamentous algae of all major algal phyla. Algal Turf Scrubbers (ATS) are bioengineered ecosystems dominated by algal turfs. They clean water to very high quality, and remove CO 2 from the atmosphere by capturing solar energy at rates 10 times that of agriculture and 50 times that of forestry. Since they are controlled ecosystems, using local algae, ATS does not suffer the major disadvantages of agricultural crops, which for maximum efficiency require fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides. ATS removes CO 2 from water and the atmosphere, and can be configured to remove CO 2 from power plant stack gases. As a normal part of operations, ATS removes heavy metals, break down toxic hydrocarbons, and oxygenates treated waters. ATS systems are capable of removing nitrogen and phosphorous from surface waters in the mid latitude US at $0.60/kg and $10.60/kg respectively (10% of the cost certified by the Chesapeake Bay Commission), and independently producing an energy product at $0.85/gallon. Given a nutrient credit system for rewarding nutrient removal from rivers and lakes, this price can be driven down to below $.40/gallon. Conservatively ATS can produce the equivalent of US imported oil on less than 30 M acres of land along major rivers

  19. IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY FROM UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER CARBONATES THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AT WOMACK HILL OIL FIELD, CHOCTAW AND CLARKE COUNTIES, EASTERN GULF COASTAL PLAIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2003-05-20

    Pruet Production Co. and the Center for Sedimentary Basin Studies at the University of Alabama, in cooperation with Texas A&M University, Mississippi State University, University of Mississippi, and Wayne Stafford and Associates are undertaking a focused, comprehensive, integrated and multidisciplinary study of Upper Jurassic Smackover carbonates (Class II Reservoir), involving reservoir characterization and 3-D modeling and an integrated field demonstration project at Womack Hill Oil Field Unit, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain. The principal objectives of the project are: increasing the productivity and profitability of the Womack Hill Field Unit, thereby extending the economic life of this Class II Reservoir and transferring effectively and in a timely manner the knowledge gained and technology developed from this project to producers who are operating other domestic fields with Class II Reservoirs. The principal research efforts for Year 3 of the project have been recovery technology analysis and recovery technology evaluation. The research focus has primarily been on well test analysis, 3-D reservoir simulation, microbial core experiments, and the decision to acquire new seismic data for the Womack Hill Field area. Although Geoscientific Reservoir Characterization and 3-D Geologic Modeling have been completed and Petrophysical and Engineering Characterization and Microbial Characterization are essentially on schedule, a no-cost extension until September 30, 2003, has been granted by DOE so that new seismic data for the Womack Hill Field can be acquired and interpreted to assist in the determination as to whether Phase II of the project should be implemented.

  20. Energy positive domestic wastewater treatment: the roles of anaerobic and phototrophic technologies

    KAUST Repository

    Shoener, B. D.

    2014-01-01

    The negative energy balance of wastewater treatment could be reversed if anaerobic technologies were implemented for organic carbon oxidation and phototrophic technologies were utilized for nutrient recovery. To characterize the potential for energy positive wastewater treatment by anaerobic and phototrophic biotechnologies we performed a comprehensive literature review and analysis, focusing on energy production (as kJ per capita per day and as kJ m-3 of wastewater treated), energy consumption, and treatment efficacy. Anaerobic technologies included in this review were the anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR), anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR), anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFB), upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), microbial electrolysis cell (MEC), and microbial fuel cell (MFC). Phototrophic technologies included were the high rate algal pond (HRAP), photobioreactor (PBR), stirred tank reactor, waste stabilization pond (WSP), and algal turf scrubber (ATS). Average energy recovery efficiencies for anaerobic technologies ranged from 1.6% (MFC) to 47.5% (ABR). When including typical percent chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals by each technology, this range would equate to roughly 40-1200 kJ per capita per day or 110-3300 kJ m-3 of treated wastewater. The average bioenergy feedstock production by phototrophic technologies ranged from 1200-4700 kJ per capita per day or 3400-13000 kJ m-3 (exceeding anaerobic technologies and, at times, the energetic content of the influent organic carbon), with usable energy production dependent upon downstream conversion to fuels. Energy consumption analysis showed that energy positive anaerobic wastewater treatment by emerging technologies would require significant reductions of parasitic losses from mechanical mixing and gas sparging. Technology targets and critical barriers for energy-producing technologies are identified, and the role of integrated anaerobic and phototrophic

  1. Energy positive domestic wastewater treatment: the roles of anaerobic and phototrophic technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoener, B D; Bradley, I M; Cusick, R D; Guest, J S

    2014-05-01

    The negative energy balance of wastewater treatment could be reversed if anaerobic technologies were implemented for organic carbon oxidation and phototrophic technologies were utilized for nutrient recovery. To characterize the potential for energy positive wastewater treatment by anaerobic and phototrophic biotechnologies we performed a comprehensive literature review and analysis, focusing on energy production (as kJ per capita per day and as kJ m(-3) of wastewater treated), energy consumption, and treatment efficacy. Anaerobic technologies included in this review were the anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR), anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR), anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFB), upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), microbial electrolysis cell (MEC), and microbial fuel cell (MFC). Phototrophic technologies included were the high rate algal pond (HRAP), photobioreactor (PBR), stirred tank reactor, waste stabilization pond (WSP), and algal turf scrubber (ATS). Average energy recovery efficiencies for anaerobic technologies ranged from 1.6% (MFC) to 47.5% (ABR). When including typical percent chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals by each technology, this range would equate to roughly 40-1200 kJ per capita per day or 110-3300 kJ m(-3) of treated wastewater. The average bioenergy feedstock production by phototrophic technologies ranged from 1200-4700 kJ per capita per day or 3400-13 000 kJ m(-3) (exceeding anaerobic technologies and, at times, the energetic content of the influent organic carbon), with usable energy production dependent upon downstream conversion to fuels. Energy consumption analysis showed that energy positive anaerobic wastewater treatment by emerging technologies would require significant reductions of parasitic losses from mechanical mixing and gas sparging. Technology targets and critical barriers for energy-producing technologies are identified, and the role of integrated anaerobic and

  2. Anaerobic treatment as a core technology for energy, nutrients and water recovery from source-separated domestic waste(water).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeman, Grietje; Kujawa, Katarzyna; de Mes, Titia; Hernandez, Lucia; de Graaff, Marthe; Abu-Ghunmi, Lina; Mels, Adriaan; Meulman, Brendo; Temmink, Hardy; Buisman, Cees; van Lier, Jules; Lettinga, Gatze

    2008-01-01

    Based on results of pilot scale research with source-separated black water (BW) and grey water (GW), a new sanitation concept is proposed. BW and GW are both treated in a UASB (-septic tank) for recovery of CH4 gas. Kitchen waste is added to the anaerobic BW treatment for doubling the biogas production. Post-treatment of the effluent is providing recovery of phosphorus and removal of remaining COD and nitrogen. The total energy saving of the new sanitation concept amounts to 200 MJ/year in comparison with conventional sanitation, moreover 0.14 kg P/p/year and 90 litres of potential reusable water are produced. (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  3. Mechanisms of Vanadium Recovery from Stone Coal by Novel BaCO3/CaO Composite Additive Roasting and Acid Leaching Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenlei Cai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this report, the vanadium recovery mechanisms by novel BaCO3/CaO composite additive roasting and acid leaching technology, including the phase transformations and the vanadium leaching kinetics, were studied. The purpose of this manuscript is to realize and improve the vanadium recovery from stone coal using BaCO3/CaO as the composite additive. The results indicated that during the composite additive BaCO3/CaO roasting process, the monoclinic crystalline structure of muscovite (K(Al,V2[Si3AlO10](OH2 was converted into the hexagonal crystalline structure of BaSi4O9 and the tetragonal crystalline structure of Gehlenite (Ca2Al2SiO7, which could, therefore, facilitate the release and extraction of vanadium. Vanadium in leaching residue was probably in the form of vanadate or pyrovanadate of barium and calcium, which were hardly extracted during the sulfuric acid leaching process. The vanadium leaching kinetic analysis indicated that the leaching process was controlled by the diffusion through a product layer. The apparent activation energy could be achieved as 46.51 kJ/mol. The reaction order with respect to the sulfuric acid concentration was 1.1059. The kinetic model of vanadium recovery from stone coal using novel composite additive BaCO3/CaO could be finally established.

  4. SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES INCLUDING WATER RECOVERY FOR REUSE FROM TANNERY AND INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER – INDIAN AND ASIAN SCENARIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. S. RAJAMANI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available World leather sector generates 600million m3 of wastewater per annum. The Asian tanneries contributes more than 350 million m3 of wastewater from the process of 8 to 10 millions tons of hides and skins. Environmental challenges due to depletion of quality water resources and increase in salinity, it has become necessary to control Total Dissolved Solids (TDS in the treated effluent with water recovery wherever feasible. Adoption of special membrane system has been engineered in many individual and Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETPs in India, China and other leather producing countries. The sustainability of saline reject management is one of the major challenges. Conventional tannery wastewater treatment systems include physiochemical and biological treatment to reduce Chromium, BOD, COD and Suspended Solids. To tackle treated effluent with TDS in the rage of 10000 to 30000mg/l, multiple stage high pressure membrane units have been designed and implemented for recovery of water. To reduce the chemical usage and sludge generation in the tertiary treatment, Membrane Bio-Reactor (MBR has been adopted which replace secondary clarifier and sophisticated tertiary treatment units such as Reactive Clarifier, Ultra-filtration (UF, etc. Commercial scale high-tech membrane systems have been implemented in many locations for the capacities ranging from 500 to 10000m3/day. Recent applied R&D on the environmental protection techniques with focus on water-recovery for reuse, salt recovery, marine disposal of saline reject with proper bio-control system, etc. are dealt in this novel technical paper.

  5. Central sorting and recovery of MSW recyclable materials: A review of technological state-of-the-art, cases, practice and implications for materials recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Maul, Anja; Jansen, Michael; Pretz, Thomas; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-06-01

    Today's waste regulation in the EU comprises stringent material recovery targets and calls for comprehensive programs in order to achieve them. A similar movement is seen in the US where more and more states and communities commit to high diversion rates from landfills. The present paper reviews scientific literature, case studies and results from pilot projects, on the topic of central sorting of recyclable materials commonly found in waste from households. The study contributes, inter alia, with background understanding on the development of materials recovery, both in a historical and geographical perspective. Physical processing and sorting technology has reached a high level of maturity, and many quality issues linked to cross-contamination by commingling have been successfully addressed to date. New sorting plants tend to benefit from economies of scale, and innovations in automation and process control, which are targeted at curtailing process inefficiencies shown by operational practice. Technology developed for the sorting of commingled recyclables from separate collection is also being successfully used to upgrade residual MSW processing plants. The strongest motivation for central sorting of residual MSW is found for areas where source separation and separate collection is difficult, such as urban agglomerations, and can in such areas contribute to increasing recycling rates, either complementary to- or as a substitute for source separation of certain materials, such as plastics and metals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Study on engineering technologies in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory. FY 2014. Development of recovery and mitigation technology on excavation damage (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukaya, Masaaki; Hata, Koji; Akiyoshi, Kenji; Sato, Shin; Takeda, Nobufumi; Miura, Norihiko; Uyama, Masao; Kanata, Tsutomu; Ueda, Tadashi; Hara, Akira; Torisu, Seda; Ishida, Tomoko; Sato, Toshinori; Mikake, Shinichiro; Aoyagi, Yoshiaki

    2016-03-01

    The researches on engineering technology in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project consist of (1) development of design and construction planning technologies, (2) development of construction technology, (3) development of countermeasure technology, (4) development of technology for security and (5) development of technologies for restoration and/or reduction of the excavation damage. As a part of the second phase of the MIU project, research has been focused on the evaluation of engineering technologies including the initial design based on the data obtained during construction. In this research, examination of the plug applied to the future reflood test was conducted as a part of (5) development of technologies for restoration and/or reduction of the excavation damage relating to the engineering technology in the MIU (2014), specifically focused on (1) plug examination (e.g. functions, structure and material) and the quality control methods and (2) analytical evaluation of rock mass behavior around the plug through the reflood test. As a result, specifications of the plug were determined. These specifications should be able to meet requirements for the safety structure and surrounding rock mass against predicted maximum water pressure, temperature stress and seismic force, and for controlling the groundwater inflow, ensuring the access into the reflood gallery and the penetration performance of measurement cable. Also preliminary knowledge regarding the rock mass behavior around the plug after flooding the reflood gallery by installed plug was obtained. A CD-ROM is attached as an appendix. (J.P.N.)

  7. Toluene removal by oxidation reaction in spray wet scrubber: experimental, modeling and optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roumporn Nikom

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Toluene, an important volatile organic compound (VOC, is used in many kinds of industries, such as painting, printing, coating, and petrochemical industries. The emission of toluene causes serious air pollution, odor problem, flammability problem and affects human health. This paper proposes the removal of toluene from waste air using a spray wet scrubber combining the absorption and oxidation reaction. Aqueous sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl solution was used as the scrubbing liquid in the system. NaOCl, the strongest oxidative agent, presents an effective toluene removal. As the scrubbed toluene is reacted, recirculation of the scrubbing liquid could be operated with a constant removal efficiency throughout the operting time. The investigated variables affecting the removal efficiency were air flow rate, inlet toluene concentration, NaOCl concentration, scrubbing liquid flow rate and size of spray nozzle. Influence of the scrubbing parameters was experimentally studied to develop a mathematical model of the toluene removal efficiency. The removal model reveals that the increase of scrubbing liquid flow rate, toluene concentration, and NaOCl concentration together with the decrease of air flow rate and size of spray nozzle can increase the toluene removal efficiency. Optimization problem with an objective function and constraints was set to provide the maximum toluene removal efficiency and solved by Matlab optimization toolbox. The optimization constraints were formed from the mathematical model and process limitation. The solution of the optimization was an air flow rate of 100 m3/h, toluene concentration of 1500 ppm, NaOCl concentration of 0.02 mol/l, NaOCl solution feed rate of 0.8 m3/h, and spray nozzle size of 0.5 mm. Solution of the optimization gave the highest toluene removal efficiency of 91.7%.

  8. Fifth DOE symposium on enhanced oil and gas recovery and improved drilling technology. Volume 3. Gas and drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linville, B. [ed.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 3 contains papers from the sessions on natural gas supporting research, western gas sands project, drilling technology, and environmental effects. Individuals were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  9. Improving the technology of purification of gas emissions petrochemical industries

    OpenAIRE

    USMANOVA R.R.; ZAIKOV G.E.

    2014-01-01

    The technology of cleaning of gas emissions flares in the production of synthetic rubber. Developed dynamic scrubber for scrubbing gas emissions. Complex studies served as the basis for the design of an air purification system of industrial premises. Purification of gas emissions before combustion in flares has significantly reduced air pollution by toxic substances.

  10. Effects of pre-treatment technologies on quantity and quality of source-sorted municipal organic waste for biogas recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Jansen, J.l.C.; Davidsson, Å.

    2007-01-01

    , collection bag material (plastic or paper) and easily degradable organic matter. Furthermore, the particle size of the biomass was related to the pre-treatment technology. The content of plastic in the biomass depended both on the actual collection bag material used in the system and the pre......Source-sorted municipal organic waste collected from different dwelling types in five Danish cities and pre-treated at three different plants was sampled and characterized several times during one year to investigate the origin of any differences in composition of the pre-treated waste introduced...... by city, pre-treatment technology, dwelling type or annual season. The investigated pre-treatment technologies were screw press, disc screen and shredder + magnet. The average quantity of pre-treated organic waste (biomass) produced from the incoming waste varied between the investigated pre...

  11. Post-marathon wearing of Masai Barefoot Technology shoes facilitates recovery from race-induced fatigue: an evaluation utilizing a visual analog scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakagawa K

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kento Nakagawa, Takashi Obu, Kazuyuki KanosueFaculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Tokorozawa, Saitama, Japan Purpose: To investigate the potential benefit of post-race wearing of unstable shoes (Masai Barefoot Technology [MBT] on recovery from marathon race–induced fatigue.Patients and methods: Forty-five runners who participated in a full marathon race were divided into three groups: 1 MBT shoes, 2 trail running shoes, and 3 control (CON. Participants ran a full marathon with their own running shoes, and then put on the assigned shoes immediately after the race. They continued to wear the assigned shoes for the ensuing 3 days. The CON group wore their usual shoes. Estimates of post-race fatigue were made by the participants on questionnaires that utilized a visual analog scale. Estimates were made just after the race, as well as for the next 3 days.Results: The subjective fatigue of the MBT group was lower than that of the CON (P<0.05 or trail running shoe groups (P<0.05 on day 3.Conclusion: MBT shoe intervention can promote recovery from the fatigue induced by running a full marathon.Keywords: footwear, VAS, full marathon

  12. Characterisation of metals in the electronic waste of complex mixtures of end-of-life ICT products for development of cleaner recovery technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Z.H.I.; Xiao, Y.; Sietsma, J.; Agterhuis, H.; Visser, G.; Yang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • New characterisation methodology has been established to understand an industrially processed ICT waste. • Particle size distribution, composition, thermal–chemical behaviour and occurrence of metals were considered. • The characterisation provides direct guidelines for values recovery from the waste. - Abstract: Recycling of valuable metals from electronic waste, especially complex mixtures of end-of-life information and communication technology (ICT) products, is of great difficulty due to their complexity and heterogeneity. One of the important reasons is the lack of comprehensive characterisation on such materials, i.e. accurate compositions, physical/chemical properties. In the present research, we focus on developing methodologies for the characterisation of metals in an industrially processed ICT waste. The morphology, particle size distribution, compositional distribution, occurrence, liberation as well as the thermo-chemical properties of the ICT waste were investigated with various characterisation techniques, including X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersed spectroscopy (EDS). Due to the high heterogeneity of the material, special sample preparation procedures were introduced to minimise the discrepancies during compositional analyses. As a result, a clearer overview of the ICT waste has been reached. This research provides better understanding of the extractability of each metal and improves the awareness of potential obstacles for extraction. It will lead to smarter decisions during further development of a clean and effective recovery process

  13. Characterisation of metals in the electronic waste of complex mixtures of end-of-life ICT products for development of cleaner recovery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Z.H.I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, TU Delft, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Xiao, Y. [Ironmaking Department, R and D, Tata Steel, 1970 CA IJmuiden (Netherlands); Sietsma, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, TU Delft, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Agterhuis, H.; Visser, G. [Business Development, Van Gansewinkel Groep BV, 5657 DH Eindhoven (Netherlands); Yang, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, TU Delft, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • New characterisation methodology has been established to understand an industrially processed ICT waste. • Particle size distribution, composition, thermal–chemical behaviour and occurrence of metals were considered. • The characterisation provides direct guidelines for values recovery from the waste. - Abstract: Recycling of valuable metals from electronic waste, especially complex mixtures of end-of-life information and communication technology (ICT) products, is of great difficulty due to their complexity and heterogeneity. One of the important reasons is the lack of comprehensive characterisation on such materials, i.e. accurate compositions, physical/chemical properties. In the present research, we focus on developing methodologies for the characterisation of metals in an industrially processed ICT waste. The morphology, particle size distribution, compositional distribution, occurrence, liberation as well as the thermo-chemical properties of the ICT waste were investigated with various characterisation techniques, including X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersed spectroscopy (EDS). Due to the high heterogeneity of the material, special sample preparation procedures were introduced to minimise the discrepancies during compositional analyses. As a result, a clearer overview of the ICT waste has been reached. This research provides better understanding of the extractability of each metal and improves the awareness of potential obstacles for extraction. It will lead to smarter decisions during further development of a clean and effective recovery process.

  14. RECOVERY ACT - Methods for Decision under Technological Change Uncertainty and Risk Assessment for Integrated Assessment of Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, Mort D. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Energy and Mineral Engineering

    2015-11-30

    This report presents the final outcomes and products of the project as performed both at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and subsequently at Pennsylvania State University. The research project can be divided into three main components: methodology development for decision-making under uncertainty, improving the resolution of the electricity sector to improve integrated assessment, and application of these methods to integrated assessment.

  15. RECOVERY ACT - Methods for Decision under Technological Change Uncertainty and Risk Assessment for Integrated Assessment of Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, Mort David [MIT

    2015-03-10

    This report presents the final outcomes and products of the project as performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The research project consists of three main components: methodology development for decision-making under uncertainty, improving the resolution of the electricity sector to improve integrated assessment, and application of these methods to integrated assessment. Results in each area is described in the report.

  16. Scenario comparisons of gasification technology using energy life cycle assessment for bioenergy recovery from rice straw in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shie, J.L.; Lee, C.H.; Chen, C.S.; Lin, K.L.; Chang, C.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The energy balances of potential gasification technology and limitation boundary are evaluated. • The transportation and pre-treatment are the greatest parts of energy use. • Every technology process has positive energy benefits at all on-site pre-treatment cases. • The optimal ranges of transportation distance and treatment capacity are suggested. • The optimal technology from the tendency model is addressed. - Abstract: This study uses different scenarios to evaluate, by means of energy life-cycle assessments (ELCAs), the energy balance of potential gasification technology and limitation boundaries in Taiwan. Rice straw is chosen as the target material in this study because it is the most significant agriculture waste in Taiwan. Energy products include syngas (CO + H 2 ), methane, carbon dioxide and carbon black residue. The scenarios simulate capacities of 50,000–200,000 tons/year. The distances of collection and transportation are calculated by a circular area 50–100 km in diameter. Also, the on-site and off-site pretreatments of rice straw are evaluated. For this optimum scenario case, the average of the total input energy for the assessed systems is about 15.9% of the average output energy; the value of the net energy balance (NEB) is 0.841. Every technological process has positive energy benefits at all on-site scenario cases. As the capacity is increased, the energy consumption required for transportation increases and the values of the energy indicators decrease. According to the limitation boundaries from the tendency model at on-site cases, the suggested transportation distance and treatment capacity are below 114.72 km and 251,533 tons/year, respectively, while the energy return on investment (EROI) value is greater than 1

  17. Membrane System for the Recovery of Volatile Organic Compounds from Remediation Off-Gases. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Membrane Technology and Research, Inc.'s (MTR's) membrane-based off-gas treatment technology separates the organic components from the off-gas stream, producing a VOC-free air stream that can be discharged or recycled to the gas-generating process. The membrane system produces a constant, high-quality air discharge stream irrespective of the feed-air composition. The system also produces a concentrated liquid VOC stream for disposal. Any water vapor present in the off-gas is removed as condensed dischargeable water. Benefits: Applicable to a broad range of off-gas generating sources. Target streams are off-gas from soil remediation by in situ vacuum extraction or air and steam sparging, and soil vitrification Suitable for remote sites: systems require minimal site preparation, little operator attention once installed, electrical power but no other utilities, and no expendable chemicals Minimizes waste volume: dischargeable air and water are produced, and VOCs removed from the feed gas ar e concentrated into a condensed liquid. No other waste streams result Treats off-gases containing both flammable and nonflammable and chlorinated and nonchlorinated VOCs Cost competitive with other technologies in the VOC concentration range 100-1,000 ppm and offers significant cost reduction at higher VOC concentrations Systems are easily moved and transported to new sites with a minimum of refurbishing or modification Generates no air emissions, minimizing permitting issues and speeding up the start of a clean-up operation Technology: Removal of VOCs from air streams with membranes is a relatively new technology

  18. CSER 90-006, addendum 1: Criticality safety control for source term reduction project in the scrubber glovebox of Building 232-Z. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    This Criticality Safety Evaluation Report addendum extends the coverage of the original CSER (90-006) about dismantling the ductwork in 232-Z to include cleanout of the Scrubber Glovebox, with an estimated residual Pu holdup of less than 200 grams. For conservatism and containment considerations, the provisions about waste packaging and water exclusion from the original work are retained, even though it is not credible for the Scrubber Pu content to be made critical with water added (NDA gives about 1/3 a minimum critical mass)

  19. Research on Heat Recovery Technology for Reducing the Energy Consumption of Dedicated Ventilation Systems: An Application to the Operating Model of a Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the application of heat pipes in the air handler dedicated to decoupling dehumidification from cooling to reduce energy consumption was simulated and investigated by simulations and experimental studies. The cooling load profiles and heat pipes with effectiveness of 0.45 and 0.6, respectively, were evaluated in achieving the desired space conditions and calculated hour by hour. The results demonstrated that for all examined cases, a heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHX can be used to save over 80% of the energy during the hours of operation of air conditioning. The overall energy reduction rate was from 3.2% to 4.5% under air conditioning system conditions. It was found that the energy saving potential of a laboratory was higher than for other kinds of buildings. Therefore, the dedicated ventilation system combined with heat recovery technology can be efficiently applied to buildings, especially for laboratories in subtropical areas.

  20. Energy Recovery Using Micro-Hydropower Technology in Water Supply Systems: The Case Study of the City of Fribourg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Samora

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Water supply systems (WWSs are one of the main manmade water infrastructures presenting potential for micro-hydropower. Within urban networks, local decentralized micro-hydropower plants (MHPs may be inserted in the regional electricity grid or used for self-consumption at the local grid level. Nevertheless, such networks are complex and the quantification of the potential for micro-hydropower other than that achieved by replacing pressure reducing valves (PRVs is difficult. In this work, a methodology to quantify the potential for hydropower based on the excess energy in a network is proposed and applied to a real case. A constructive solution is presented based on the use of a novel micro-turbine for energy conversion, the five blade tubular propeller (5BTP. The location of the MHP within the network is defined with an optimization algorithm that maximizes the net present value after 20 years of operation. These concepts are tested for the WSS in the city of Fribourg, Switzerland. The proposed solution captures 10% of the city’s energy potential and represents an economic interest. The results confirm the location of PRVs as potential sites for energy recovery and stress the need for careful sensitivity analysis of the consumption. Finally, an expedited method is derived to estimate the costs and energy that one 5BTP can produce in a given network.

  1. Evaluation of integrated ammonia recovery technology and nutrient status with an in-vessel composting process for swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Kon; Lee, Dong Jun; Ravindran, Balsubramani; Jeong, Kwang-Hwa; Wong, Jonathan Woon-Chung; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Karthikeyan, Obuli P; Kwag, Jung-Hoon

    2017-12-01

    The study investigated the effect of different initial moisture (IM) content (55, 60, 65, and 70%) of composting mixtures (swine manure and sawdust) for the production of nutrient rich manure, and the recovery of ammonia through a condensation process using a vertical cylindrical in-vessel composter for 56days. The composting resulted in a significant reduction in C:N ratio and electrical conductivity (EC), with a slight increase in pH in all products. The NH 3 were emitted notably, and at the same time the NO 3 - -N concentration gradually increased with the reduction of NH 4 + -N in the composting mixtures. The overall results confirmed, the 65% IM showed the maximum nutritional yield, maturity and non-phytotoxic effects (Lycopersicon esculentum L.), with the results of ideal compost product in the following order of IM: 65%>60%>70%>55%. Finally, the recovered condensed ammonia contained considerable ammonium nitrogen concentrations and could be used as fertilizer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Venezuela-MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report XIII-1, Supporting Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Microbial EOR; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziritt, Jose Luis

    1999-01-01

    The results from Annex XIII of the Cooperative Agreement between the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ministry of Energy and Mines of the Republic of Venezuela (MEMV) have been documented and published with many researchers involved. Integrate comprehensive research programs in the area of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) ranged from feasibility laboratory studies to full-scale multi-well field pilots. The objective, to cooperate in a technical exchange of ideas and information was fully met throughout the life of the Annex. Information has been exchanged between the two countries through published reports and technical meetings between experts in both country's research communities. The meetings occurred every two years in locations coincident with the International MEOR conferences and workshops sponsored by DOE (June 1990, University of Oklahoma, September 1992, Brookhaven, September 1995, National Institute of Petroleum and Energy Research). Reports and publications produced during these years are listed in Appendix B. Several Annex managers have guided the exchange through the years. They included Luis Vierma, Jose Luis Zirritt, representing MEMV and E. B. Nuckols, Edith Allison, and Rhonda Lindsey, representing the U.S. DOE. Funding for this area of research remained steady for a few years but decreased in recent years. Because both countries have reduced research programs in this area, future exchanges on this topic will occur through ANNEX XV. Informal networks established between researchers through the years should continue to function between individuals in the two countries

  3. Venezuela-MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-11: Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery - EOR thermal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venezuela

    2000-04-06

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Tenth Amendment anti Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Energy Agreement. This report is presented in sections (for each of the six Tasks) and each section contains one or more reports that were prepared to describe the results of the effort under each of the Tasks. A statement of each Task, taken from the Agreement Between Project Managers, is presented on the first page of each section. The Tasks are numbered 68 through 73. The first through tenth report on research performed under Annex IV Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report Number IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5, IV-6, IV-7, IV-8, IV-9, IV-10 contain the results of the first 67 Tasks. These reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1987, November 1988, December 1989, October 1991, February 1993, March 1995, and December 1997, respectively.

  4. Venezuela-MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report XIII-1, Supporting Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Microbial EOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziritt, Jose Luis

    1999-11-03

    The results from Annex XIII of the Cooperative Agreement between the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ministry of Energy and Mines of the Republic of Venezuela (MEMV) have been documented and published with many researchers involved. Integrate comprehensive research programs in the area of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) ranged from feasibility laboratory studies to full-scale multi-well field pilots. The objective, to cooperate in a technical exchange of ideas and information was fully met throughout the life of the Annex. Information has been exchanged between the two countries through published reports and technical meetings between experts in both country's research communities. The meetings occurred every two years in locations coincident with the International MEOR conferences & workshops sponsored by DOE (June 1990, University of Oklahoma, September 1992, Brookhaven, September 1995, National Institute of Petroleum and Energy Research). Reports and publications produced during these years are listed in Appendix B. Several Annex managers have guided the exchange through the years. They included Luis Vierma, Jose Luis Zirritt, representing MEMV and E. B. Nuckols, Edith Allison, and Rhonda Lindsey, representing the U.S. DOE. Funding for this area of research remained steady for a few years but decreased in recent years. Because both countries have reduced research programs in this area, future exchanges on this topic will occur through ANNEX XV. Informal networks established between researchers through the years should continue to function between individuals in the two countries.

  5. What evidence exists for new strategies or technologies in the diagnosis of sports concussion and assessment of recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutcher, Jeffrey Scott; McCrory, Paul; Davis, Gavin; Ptito, Alain; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Broglio, Steven P

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this critical review is to summarise the evidence for the following technologies/strategies related to diagnosing or managing sports-related concussion: quantitative EEG, functional neuroimaging, head impact sensors, telemedicine and mobile devices. MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Controlled Trials Registers, SportDiscus, EMBASE, Web of Science and ProQuest databases. Primary search keywords were concussion, sports concussion and mild traumatic brain injury. The keywords used for secondary, topic specific searches were quantitative electroencephalography, qEEG, functionalMRI, magnetoencephalography, near-infrared spectroscopy, positron emission tomography, single photon emissionCT, accelerometer, impact sensor, telemetry, remote monitoring, robotic medicine, telemedicine, mobile device, mobile phone, smart phone and tablet computer. The primary search produced 8567 publications. The secondary searches produced nine publications that presented original data, included a comparison group in the study design and involved sports-related concussion. Four studies spoke to the potential of qEEG as a diagnostic or management tool, while five studies addressed the potential of fMRI to be used in the same capacity. Emerging technologies and novel approaches that aid in sports concussion diagnosis and management are being introduced at a rapid rate. While some technologies show promise, their clinical utility remains to be established.

  6. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Disaster Debris Recovery Database (DDRD) promotes the proper recovery, recycling, and disposal of disaster debris for emergency responders at the federal,...

  7. Application of FTA technology for sampling, recovery and molecular characterization of viral pathogens and virus-derived transgenes from plant tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndunguru, Joseph; Taylor, Nigel J; Yadav, Jitender; Aly, Haytham; Legg, James P; Aveling, Terry; Thompson, Graham; Fauquet, Claude M

    2005-01-01

    Background Plant viral diseases present major constraints to crop production. Effective sampling of the viruses infecting plants is required to facilitate their molecular study and is essential for the development of crop protection and improvement programs. Retaining integrity of viral pathogens within sampled plant tissues is often a limiting factor in this process, most especially when sample sizes are large and when operating in developing counties and regions remote from laboratory facilities. FTA is a paper-based system designed to fix and store nucleic acids directly from fresh tissues pressed into the treated paper. We report here the use of FTA as an effective technology for sampling and retrieval of DNA and RNA viruses from plant tissues and their subsequent molecular analysis. Results DNA and RNA viruses were successfully recovered from leaf tissues of maize, cassava, tomato and tobacco pressed into FTA® Classic Cards. Viral nucleic acids eluted from FTA cards were found to be suitable for diagnostic molecular analysis by PCR-based techniques and restriction analysis, and for cloning and nucleotide sequencing in a manner equivalent to that offered by tradition isolation methods. Efficacy of the technology was demonstrated both from sampled greenhouse-grown plants and from leaf presses taken from crop plants growing in farmer's fields in East Africa. In addition, FTA technology was shown to be suitable for recovery of viral-derived transgene sequences integrated into the plant genome. Conclusion Results demonstrate that FTA is a practical, economical and sensitive method for sampling, storage and retrieval of viral pathogens and plant genomic sequences, when working under controlled conditions and in the field. Application of this technology has the potential to significantly increase ability to bring modern analytical techniques to bear on the viral pathogens infecting crop plants. PMID:15904535

  8. Application of FTA technology for sampling, recovery and molecular characterization of viral pathogens and virus-derived transgenes from plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndunguru, Joseph; Taylor, Nigel J; Yadav, Jitender; Aly, Haytham; Legg, James P; Aveling, Terry; Thompson, Graham; Fauquet, Claude M

    2005-05-18

    Plant viral diseases present major constraints to crop production. Effective sampling of the viruses infecting plants is required to facilitate their molecular study and is essential for the development of crop protection and improvement programs. Retaining integrity of viral pathogens within sampled plant tissues is often a limiting factor in this process, most especially when sample sizes are large and when operating in developing counties and regions remote from laboratory facilities. FTA is a paper-based system designed to fix and store nucleic acids directly from fresh tissues pressed into the treated paper. We report here the use of FTA as an effective technology for sampling and retrieval of DNA and RNA viruses from plant tissues and their subsequent molecular analysis. DNA and RNA viruses were successfully recovered from leaf tissues of maize, cassava, tomato and tobacco pressed into FTA Classic Cards. Viral nucleic acids eluted from FTA cards were found to be suitable for diagnostic molecular analysis by PCR-based techniques and restriction analysis, and for cloning and nucleotide sequencing in a manner equivalent to that offered by tradition isolation methods. Efficacy of the technology was demonstrated both from sampled greenhouse-grown plants and from leaf presses taken from crop plants growing in farmer's fields in East Africa. In addition, FTA technology was shown to be suitable for recovery of viral-derived transgene sequences integrated into the plant genome. Results demonstrate that FTA is a practical, economical and sensitive method for sampling, storage and retrieval of viral pathogens and plant genomic sequences, when working under controlled conditions and in the field. Application of this technology has the potential to significantly increase ability to bring modern analytical techniques to bear on the viral pathogens infecting crop plants.

  9. Application of FTA technology for sampling, recovery and molecular characterization of viral pathogens and virus-derived transgenes from plant tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aveling Terry

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant viral diseases present major constraints to crop production. Effective sampling of the viruses infecting plants is required to facilitate their molecular study and is essential for the development of crop protection and improvement programs. Retaining integrity of viral pathogens within sampled plant tissues is often a limiting factor in this process, most especially when sample sizes are large and when operating in developing counties and regions remote from laboratory facilities. FTA is a paper-based system designed to fix and store nucleic acids directly from fresh tissues pressed into the treated paper. We report here the use of FTA as an effective technology for sampling and retrieval of DNA and RNA viruses from plant tissues and their subsequent molecular analysis. Results DNA and RNA viruses were successfully recovered from leaf tissues of maize, cassava, tomato and tobacco pressed into FTA® Classic Cards. Viral nucleic acids eluted from FTA cards were found to be suitable for diagnostic molecular analysis by PCR-based techniques and restriction analysis, and for cloning and nucleotide sequencing in a manner equivalent to that offered by tradition isolation methods. Efficacy of the technology was demonstrated both from sampled greenhouse-grown plants and from leaf presses taken from crop plants growing in farmer's fields in East Africa. In addition, FTA technology was shown to be suitable for recovery of viral-derived transgene sequences integrated into the plant genome. Conclusion Results demonstrate that FTA is a practical, economical and sensitive method for sampling, storage and retrieval of viral pathogens and plant genomic sequences, when working under controlled conditions and in the field. Application of this technology has the potential to significantly increase ability to bring modern analytical techniques to bear on the viral pathogens infecting crop plants.

  10. Demonstration of Air-Power-Assist Engine Technology for Clean Combustion and Direct Energy Recovery in Heavy Duty Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyungsuk Kang; Chun Tai

    2010-05-01

    The first phase of the project consists of four months of applied research, starting from September 1, 2005 and was completed by December 31, 2005. During this time, the project team heavily relied on highly detailed numerical modeling techniques to evaluate the feasibility of the APA technology. Specifically, (i) A GT-Power{sup TM}engine simulation model was constructed to predict engine efficiency at various operating conditions. Efficiency was defined based on the second-law thermodynamic availability. (ii) The engine efficiency map generated by the engine simulation was then fed into a simplified vehicle model, which was constructed in the Matlab/Simulink environment, to predict fuel consumption of a refuse truck on a simple collection cycle. (iii) Design and analysis work supporting the concept of retrofitting an existing Sturman Industries Hydraulic Valve Actuation (HVA) system with the modifications that are required to run the HVA system with Air Power Assist functionality. A Matlab/Simulink model was used to calculate the dynamic response of the HVA system. Computer aided design (CAD) was done in Solidworks for mechanical design and hydraulic layout. At the end of Phase I, 11% fuel economy improvement was predicted. During Phase II, the engine simulation group completed the engine mapping work. The air handling group made substantial progress in identifying suppliers and conducting 3D modelling design. Sturman Industries completed design modification of the HVA system, which was reviewed and accepted by Volvo Powertrain. In Phase II, the possibility of 15% fuel economy improvement was shown with new EGR cooler design by reducing EGR cooler outlet temperature with APA engine technology from Air Handling Group. In addition, Vehicle Simulation with APA technology estimated 4 -21% fuel economy improvement over a wide range of driving cycles. During Phase III, the engine experimental setup was initiated at VPTNA, Hagerstown, MD. Air Handling system and HVA

  11. Technological and life cycle assessment of organics processing odour control technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindra, Navin [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G2W1 (Canada); Dubey, Brajesh, E-mail: bkdubey@civil.iitkgp.ernet.in [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G2W1 (Canada); Environmental Engineering Division, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Dutta, Animesh [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G2W1 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    As more municipalities and communities across developed world look towards implementing organic waste management programmes or upgrading existing ones, composting facilities are emerging as a popular choice. However, odour from these facilities continues to be one of the most important concerns in terms of cost & effective mitigation. This paper provides a technological and life cycle assessment of some of the different odour control technologies and treatment methods that can be implemented in organics processing facilities. The technological assessment compared biofilters, packed tower wet scrubbers, fine mist wet scrubbers, activated carbon adsorption, thermal oxidization, oxidization chemicals and masking agents. The technologies/treatment methods were evaluated and compared based on a variety of operational, usage and cost parameters. Based on the technological assessment it was found that, biofilters and packed bed wet scrubbers are the most applicable odour control technologies for use in organics processing faculties. A life cycle assessment was then done to compare the environmental impacts of the packed-bed wet scrubber system, organic (wood-chip media) bio-filter and inorganic (synthetic media) bio-filter systems. Twelve impact categories were assessed; cumulative energy demand (CED), climate change, human toxicity, photochemical oxidant formation, metal depletion, fossil depletion, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, terrestrial eco-toxicity, freshwater eco-toxicity and marine eco-toxicity. The results showed that for all impact categories the synthetic media biofilter had the highest environmental impact, followed by the wood chip media bio-filter system. The packed-bed system had the lowest environmental impact for all categories. - Highlights: • Assessment of odour control technologies for organics processing facilities. • Comparative life cycle assessment of three odour control technologies was conducted

  12. Technology for the Recovery of Fuel and Adsorbent Carbons from Coal Burning Utility Ash Ponds and Landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.G. Groppo; T.L. Robl

    2005-09-30

    Several sampling techniques were evaluated to recover representative core samples from the ash ponds at Western Kentucky Energy's Coleman Station. The most successful was a combination of continuous-flight augers and specially designed soft-sediment sampling tubes driven by a Hammerhead drill mounted on an amphibious ARGO vehicle. A total of 51 core samples were recovered and analyzed in 3 ft sections and it was determined that there are 1,354,974 tons of ash in Pond C. Of the over 1.35M tons of ash present, 14% or 190K tons can be considered as coarse (+100 mesh). Pond C contains approximately 88K tons of carbon, nearly half of which is coarse and potentially recoverable with spiral concentration while the fine carbon (-100 mesh) is recoverable with froth flotation. There are 1.27M tons of carbon-free ash, 12% of which is coarse and potentially usable as block sand. Spiral concentration testing on bulk samples showed that product grade of 30 to 38% C (4200 to 5500 Btu/lb) was obtainable. When this product was cleaned again in an additional stage of spiral concentration, the product grade was improved to 7200 to 8200 Btu/lb with an accompanying 13 to 29% decrease in yield. Release analysis of hydraulically classified pond ash showed that froth flotation could provide froth products with as high a grade as 9000 Btu/lb with a yield of 5%. Increasing yield to 10% reduced froth grade to 7000 Btu/lb. Batch flotation provided froth grades as high as 6500 Btu/lb with yields of 7% with 1.5 lb/ton SPP and 1 lb/ton frother. Column flotation test results were similar to those achieved in batch flotation in terms of both grade and yield, however, carbon recoveries were lower (<70%). High airflow rate was required to achieve >50% carbon recovery and using wash water improved froth grade. Bottom ash samples were recovered from each of the units at Coleman Station. Characterization confirmed that sufficient quantity and quality of material is generated to produce a

  13. Improved Oil Recovery from Upper Jurassic Smackover Carbonates through the Application of Advanced Technologies at Womack Hill Oil Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2003-12-31

    Pruet Production Co. and the Center for Sedimentary Basin Studies at the University of Alabama, in cooperation with Texas A&M University, Mississippi State University, University of Mississippi, and Wayne Stafford and Associates proposed a three-phase, focused, comprehensive, integrated and multidisciplinary study of Upper Jurassic Smackover carbonates (Class II Reservoir), involving reservoir characterization and 3-D modeling (Phase I) and a field demonstration project (Phases II and III) at Womack Hill Field Unit, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama, eastern Gulf Coastal Plain. Phase I of the project has been completed. The principal objectives of the project are: increasing the productivity and profitability of the Womack Hill Field Unit, thereby extending the economic life of this Class II Reservoir and transferring effectively and in a timely manner the knowledge gained and technology developed from this project to producers who are operating other domestic fields with Class II Reservoirs. The major tasks of the project included reservoir characterization, recovery technology analysis, recovery technology evaluation, and the decision to implement a demonstration project. Reservoir characterization consisted of geoscientific reservoir characterization, petrophysical and engineering property characterization, microbial characterization, and integration of the characterization data. Recovery technology analysis included 3-D geologic modeling, reservoir simulation, and microbial core experiments. Recovery technology evaluation consisted of acquiring and evaluating new high quality 2-D seismic data, evaluating the existing pressure maintenance project in the Womack Hill Field Unit, and evaluating the concept of an immobilized enzyme technology project for the Womack Hill Field Unit. The decision to implement a demonstration project essentially resulted in the decision on whether to conduct an infill drilling project in Womack Hill Field. Reservoir performance

  14. Improved Oil Recovery from Upper Jurassic Smackover Carbonates through the Application of Advanced Technologies at Womack Hill Oil Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Eastern Gulf Costal Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-05-31

    Pruet Production Co. and the Center for Sedimentary Basin Studies at the University of Alabama, in cooperation with Texas A&M University, Mississippi State University, University of Mississippi, and Wayne Stafford and Associates proposed a three-phase, focused, comprehensive, integrated and multidisciplinary study of Upper Jurassic Smackover carbonates (Class II Reservoir), involving reservoir characterization and 3-D modeling (Phase I) and a field demonstration project (Phases II and III) at Womack Hill Field Unit, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama, eastern Gulf Coastal Plain. Phase I of the project has been completed. The principal objectives of the project are: increasing the productivity and profitability of the Womack Hill Field Unit, thereby extending the economic life of this Class II Reservoir and transferring effectively and in a timely manner the knowledge gained and technology developed from this project to producers who are operating other domestic fields with Class II Reservoirs. The major tasks of the project included reservoir characterization, recovery technology analysis, recovery technology evaluation, and the decision to implement a demonstration project. Reservoir characterization consisted of geoscientific reservoir characterization, petrophysical and engineering property characterization, microbial characterization, and integration of the characterization data. Recovery technology analysis included 3-D geologic modeling, reservoir simulation, and microbial core experiments. Recovery technology evaluation consisted of acquiring and evaluating new high quality 2-D seismic data, evaluating the existing pressure maintenance project in the Womack Hill Field Unit, and evaluating the concept of an immobilized enzyme technology project for the Womack Hill Field Unit. The decision to implement a demonstration project essentially resulted in the decision on whether to conduct an infill drilling project in Womack Hill Field. Reservoir performance

  15. Key technology for treating slack coal blockage in CBM recovery: A case study from multi-lateral horizontal wells in the Qinshui Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the nature of coal bed, slack coal production is inevitable in gas recovery sby water drainage. When coalbed methane (CBM wells are reentered after low energy exploitation and shut-in, the negative effect of slack coal production on productivity of CBM is irreversible. In this paper, the CBM occurrence characteristics and multi-lateral horizontal well trajectory in the Qinshui Basin, Shanxi Province, were analyzed. In the multi-lateral horizontal wells, the expected gas production rate could not be reached and the production rate after shut-in maintenance could not restore to the level before shut-in. The reason for these issues is that migration pathways in the reservoirs are blocked by slack coal deposits, while formation water and slack coal deposit accumulated at the troughs of horizontal sections enlarge the resistance for gas to flow into the bottom hole. Furthermore, three key technologies to deal with slack coal blockage were proposed. Firstly, CBM horizontal well trajectory should follow the principle of keeping the wellbores smooth and updip instead of being “wavy”, on the premise of guaranteeing CBM drilling rate. Secondly, the cavities of production wells, as an important part of multi-lateral horizontal wells, are capable of settling sand, and can be used for gas–liquid–solid separation. And thirdly, a tree-like horizontal well with its main hole set on stable seam top or floor, provides a stable well flushing passage for coal powder. This research provides a useful attempt in solving the problem of slack coal production in gas recovery by water drainage.

  16. Review of thermal recovery technologies for the Clearwater and lower Grand Rapids formations in the Cold Lake area in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Q.; Thornton, B.; Houston, J.R.; Spence, S. [OSUM Oil Sands Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper described a performance review conducted to assess steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) and cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) projects in the Cold Lake region. Commercial and pilot plant projects in the region were discussed. The aim of the study was to design a development plan for achieving bitumen production rates of 35,000 barrels per day in the Taiga region. While relatively high pressure drawdowns are created between the wellbore and formation during CSS production phases, the CSS process has limited applications in fine grain sands reservoirs, or in reservoirs with thick bottom water. SAGD processes require a minimum pressure drawdown to drive reservoir fluids to the wellbore, making them ideal for reservoirs with top gas, or in formations with fine grain sands and bottom water. Selection criteria for CSS and SAGD technologies were reviewed. Simulations were conducted to assess the impacts of well placement, reservoir heterogeneity, and operating parameters on SAGD and CSS performance. Well configurations for optimal SAGD performance were also presented. 19 refs., 3 tabs., 20 figs.

  17. Environmental quality assessment of reservoirs impacted by Hg from chlor-alkali technologies: case study of a recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Faucheur, Séverine; Vasiliu, Dan; Catianis, Irina; Zazu, Mariana; Dranguet, Perrine; Beauvais-Flück, Rebecca; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Cosio, Claudia; Ungureanu, Costin; Ungureanu, Viorel Gheorghe; Slaveykova, Vera I

    2016-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) pollution legacy of chlor-alkali plants will be an important issue in the next decades with the planned phase out of Hg-based electrodes by 2025 within the Minamata convention. In such a context, the present study aimed to examine the extent of Hg contamination in the reservoirs surrounding the Oltchim plant and to evaluate the possible improvement of the environmental quality since the closure of its chlor-alkali unit. This plant is the largest chlor-alkali plant in Romania, which partly switched to Hg-free technology in 1999 and definitely stopped the use of Hg electrolysis in May 2012. Total Hg (THg) and methylmercury (CH 3 Hg) concentrations were found to decrease in the surface waters and sediments of the reservoirs receiving the effluents of the chlor-alkali platform since the closure of Hg units. Hence, calculated risk quotients (RQ) indicated no adverse effect of Hg for aquatic organisms from the ambient water exposure. RQ of Hg in sediments were mostly all higher than 1, showing important risks for benthic organisms. However, ecotoxicity testing of water and sediments suggest possible impact of other contaminants and their mixtures. Hg hotspots were found in soils around the platform with RQ values much higher than 1. Finally, THg and CH 3 Hg concentrations in fish were below the food safety limit set by the WHO, which contrasts with previous measurements made in 2007 revealing that 92 % of the studied fish were of high risk of consumption. Discontinuing the use of Hg electrodes greatly improved the surrounding environment of chlor-alkali plants within the following years and led to the decrease environmental exposure to Hg through fish consumption. However, sediment and soil still remained highly contaminated and problematic for the river reservoir management. The results of this ecological risk assessment study have important implications for the evaluation of the benefits as well as limits of the Minamata Convention implementation.

  18. A Novel, Safe, and Environmentally Friendly Technology for Water Production Through Recovery of Rejected Thermal Energy From Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Yehia F.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we describe a novel design that utilizes seawater and a portion of rejected heat from a nuclear plant's steam cycle to operate a water desalination system using forward osmosis technology. Water produced from this process is of sufficient quality to be readily used to supply plant demands for continuous makeup water. The proposed process minimizes the environmental concerns associated with thermal pollution of public waters and the resulting adverse impact on marine ecology. To demonstrate the technical feasibility of this conceptual design of a water treatment process, we discuss a case study as an example to describe how the proposed design can be implemented in a nuclear power station with a once--through cooling system that discharges rejected heat to an open sound seawater as its ultimate heat sink. In this case study, the station uses a leased (vendor owned and operated) onsite water treatment system that demineralizes and polishes up to 500-gpm of city water (at 100 ppm TDS) to supply high-quality makeup water (< 0.01 ppm TDS) to the plant steam system. The objectives of implementing the new design are three fold: 1) forego current practice of using city water as the source of plant makeup water, thereby reducing the nuclear station's impact on the region's potable water supply by roughly 100 million gallons/year, 2) minimize the adverse impact of discharging rejected heat into the open sound seawater and, hence, protect the marine ecology, and 3) eliminate the reliance on external vendor that owns and operates the onsite water treatment system, thereby saving an annual fixed cost of $600 K plus 6 cents per 1,000 gallons of pure water. The design will also eliminate the need for using two double-path reverse osmosis (RO) units that consume 425 kW/h of electric power to operate two RO pumps (480 V, 281.6 HP, and 317.4 amps). (authors)

  19. Microbial Heat Recovery Cell (MHRC) System Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    This factsheet describes a project that aimed to develop a microbial heat recovery cell (MHRC) system that combines a microbial reverse electrodialysis technology with waste heat recovery to convert industrial effluents into electricity and hydrogen.

  20. LONG-TERM DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT ENHANCEMENT ADDITIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR MERCURY CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason D. Laumb; Dennis L. Laudal; Grant E. Dunham; John P. Kay; Christopher L. Martin; Jeffrey S. Thompson; Nicholas B. Lentz; Alexander Azenkeng; Kevin C. Galbreath; Lucinda L. Hamre

    2011-05-27

    Long-term demonstration tests of advanced sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) technologies have been completed at five coal-fired power plants. The targeted removal rate was 90% from baseline conditions at all five stations. The plants included Hawthorn Unit 5, Mill Creek Unit 4, San Miguel Unit 1, Centralia Unit 2, and Hoot Lake Unit 2. The materials tested included powdered activated carbon, treated carbon, scrubber additives, and SEAs. In only one case (San Miguel) was >90% removal not attainable. The reemission of mercury from the scrubber at this facility prevented >90% capture.

  1. Electric Power Research Institute Environmental Control Technology Center Report to the Steering Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1998-01-12

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month involved the Dry Sorbent Injection (DSI) test block with the Carbon Injection System. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot Wet Scrubber, and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. These units remain available for testing as future project work is identified.

  2. ASSESSING AND FORECASTING, BY PLAY, NATURAL GAS ULTIMATE RECOVERY GROWTH AND QUANTIFYING THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY ADVANCEMENTS IN THE TEXAS GULF COAST BASIN AND EAST TEXAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Fisher; Eugene M. Kim

    2000-12-01

    A detailed natural gas ultimate recovery growth (URG) analysis of the Texas Gulf Coast Basin and East Texas has been undertaken. The key to such analysis was determined to be the disaggregation of the resource base to the play level. A play is defined as a conceptual geologic unit having one or more reservoirs that can be genetically related on the basis of depositional origin of the reservoir, structural or trap style, source rocks and hydrocarbon generation, migration mechanism, seals for entrapment, and type of hydrocarbon produced. Plays are the geologically homogeneous subdivision of the universe of petroleum pools within a basin. Therefore, individual plays have unique geological features that can be used as a conceptual model that incorporates geologic processes and depositional environments to explain the distribution of petroleum. Play disaggregation revealed important URG trends for the major natural gas fields in the Texas Gulf Coast Basin and East Texas. Although significant growth and future potential were observed for the major fields, important URG trends were masked by total, aggregated analysis based on a broad geological province. When disaggregated by plays, significant growth and future potential were displayed for plays that were associated with relatively recently discovered fields, deeper reservoir depths, high structural complexities due to fault compartmentalization, reservoirs designated as tight gas/low-permeability, and high initial reservoir pressures. Continued technology applications and advancements are crucial in achieving URG potential in these plays.

  3. Characterisation of metals in the electronic waste of complex mixtures of end-of-life ICT products for development of cleaner recovery technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z H I; Xiao, Y; Sietsma, J; Agterhuis, H; Visser, G; Yang, Y

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of valuable metals from electronic waste, especially complex mixtures of end-of-life information and communication technology (ICT) products, is of great difficulty due to their complexity and heterogeneity. One of the important reasons is the lack of comprehensive characterisation on such materials, i.e. accurate compositions, physical/chemical properties. In the present research, we focus on developing methodologies for the characterisation of metals in an industrially processed ICT waste. The morphology, particle size distribution, compositional distribution, occurrence, liberation as well as the thermo-chemical properties of the ICT waste were investigated with various characterisation techniques, including X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersed spectroscopy (EDS). Due to the high heterogeneity of the material, special sample preparation procedures were introduced to minimise the discrepancies during compositional analyses. As a result, a clearer overview of the ICT waste has been reached. This research provides better understanding of the extractability of each metal and improves the awareness of potential obstacles for extraction. It will lead to smarter decisions during further development of a clean and effective recovery process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Theoretical and experimental fundamentals of designing promising technological equipment to improve efficiency and environmental safety of highly viscous oil recovery from deep oil reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseyev, V. A.; Nazarov, V. P.; Zhuravlev, V. Y.; Zhuykov, D. A.; Kubrikov, M. V.; Klokotov, Y. N.

    2016-12-01

    The development of new technological equipment for the implementation of highly effective methods of recovering highly viscous oil from deep reservoirs is an important scientific and technical challenge. Thermal recovery methods are promising approaches to solving the problem. It is necessary to carry out theoretical and experimental research aimed at developing oil-well tubing (OWT) with composite heatinsulating coatings on the basis of basalt and glass fibers. We used the method of finite element analysis in Nastran software, which implements complex scientific and engineering calculations, including the calculation of the stress-strain state of mechanical systems, the solution of problems of heat transfer, the study of nonlinear static, the dynamic transient analysis of frequency characteristics, etc. As a result, we obtained a mathematical model of thermal conductivity which describes the steady-state temperature and changes in the fibrous highly porous material with the heat loss by Stefan-Boltzmann's radiation. It has been performed for the first time using the method of computer modeling in Nastran software environments. The results give grounds for further implementation of the real design of the OWT when implementing thermal methods for increasing the rates of oil production and mitigating environmental impacts.

  5. EVALUACIÓN DE TECNOLOGÍAS PARA LA RECUPERACIÓN DE SUELOS DEGRADADOS POR SALINIDAD EVALUATION OF TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE RECOVERY OF SOILS DEGRADED BY SALINITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Zúñiga Escobar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de salinidad y sodio en los suelos interfiere en el crecimiento adecuado de la mayoría de los cultivos y por lo tanto constituye uno de los problemas más serios que enfrenta la agricultura sostenible. Se evaluaron una serie de tecnologías no convencionales utilizadas en recuperación de suelos afectados por salinidad según la respuesta agronómica de un cultivo de maíz. Se planteó la aplicación de 3 tratamientos alternativos: 1 Biofertilizantes, 2 Biopolimeros y 3 Electromagnetismo comparados frente a la propuesta: 4 Convencional con base en la teoría del USDA (United States Departament of Agriculture de enmiendas químicas (yeso - azufre. Además de un testigo absoluto (Sólo drenaje. Los tratamientos más efectivos en cuanto respuesta fisiológica y productividad fueron los biológicos con uso de microorganismos (biofertlizantes y electromagnetismo, se incluyó la estimulación electromagnética la cual acelera la actividad microbiana para disminuir el tiempo de recuperación de suelos afectados por salinidad del suelo.Salinity and sodium content in soils interferes with proper growth of most crops and therefore constitutes a serious problem facing sustainable agriculture. The objective of this research was to evaluate a series of unconventional technologies used in recovery of salt-affected soils according to the agronomic response of a maize crop. The application of three alternative treatments with Biofertilizers, Biopolymers and Electromagnetism were proposed to make a comparison with the USDA-based conventional theory approach (United States Department of Agriculture of chemical amendments (gypsum - sulfur. In addition to an absolute control (drainage only. The most effective treatments in terms of physiological response and productivity were the biological using microorganisms (biofertilizers and electromagnetism, clarifying that electromagnetic stimulation was included to accelerate microbial activity and lower soil

  6. A new technology for separation and recovery of materials from waste printed circuit boards by dissolving bromine epoxy resins using ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, P.; Chen, Y.; Wang, L.Y.; Qian, G.Y.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► WPCBs were heated in [EMIM + ][BF 4 − ] for recovering solider at 240 °C. ► The bromine epoxy resins in WPCBs were all dissolved in [EMIM + ][BF 4 − ] at 260 °C. ► Used [EMIM + ][BF 4 − ] is treated by water to obtain regeneration. - Abstract: Recovery of valuable materials from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) is quite difficult because WPCBs is a heterogeneous mixture of polymer materials, glass fibers, and metals. In this study, WPCBs was treated using ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methylimizadolium tetrafluoroborate [EMIM + ][BF 4 − ]). Experimental results showed that the separation of the solders went to completion, and electronic components (ECs) were removed in WPCBs when [EMIM + ][BF 4 − ] solution containing WPCBs was heated to 240 °C. Meanwhile, metallographic observations verified that the WPCBs had an initial delamination. When the temperature increased to 260 °C, the separation of the WPCBs went to completion, and coppers and glass fibers were obtained. The used [EMIM + ][BF 4 − ] was treated by water to generate a solid–liquid suspension, which was separated completely to obtain solid residues by filtration. Thermal analyses combined with infrared ray spectra (IR) observed that the solid residues were bromine epoxy resins. NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) showed that hydrogen bond played an important role for [EMIM + ][BF 4 − ] dissolving bromine epoxy resins. This clean and non-polluting technology offers a new way to recycle valuable materials from WPCBs and prevent environmental pollution from WPCBs effectively.

  7. Industrial monument and symbol of a new beginning. Coal scrubber on mine Zollverein; Industriedenkmal und Symbol eines Neubeginns. Die Kohlenwaesche auf Zeche Zollverein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seht, Bernd von; Schneider, Helmut; Ferrarini, Dario [Ingenieurbuero Wetzel und von Seht, Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    The former coal mine ''Zollverein'' has been accepted in the UNESCO World Heritage List, which proves its status as an outstanding monument of industrial culture in the Ruhr region. Currently, the buildings are being converted into a culture and design forum of international renown. The coal scrubber building of Schacht XII is presented as an example to show how the conflicting goals of conservation and transformation can be integrated in consideration of current standards for supporting structures. (orig.)

  8. Studi Experimental Penggunaan Venturi Scrubber Dan Cyclonic Separator Untuk Meningkatkan Kinerja Pada Sistem Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Dalam Menurunkan NOX Pada Motor Diesel

    OpenAIRE

    N, Samsu Dlukha; Ariana, I Made; Fathallah, Aguk Z. M

    2012-01-01

    Salah satu cara yang efektif untuk mengurangi NOX adalah dengan menggunakan metode Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). Dengan metode EGR, oksigen yang masuk ke ruang bakar akan berkurang sehingga NOX dapat diturunkan dengan signifikan, akan tetapi power dari mesin tersebut juga akan berkurang dan Particulate Matter (PM) akan naik secara signifikan. Dalam penelitian ini dibahas penggunaan EGR yang telah di optimalkan dengan penambahan venturi scrubber dan cyclonic separator, tujuannya mengurangi ...

  9. Ecological effects of scrubber water discharge on coastal plankton: Potential synergistic effects of contaminants reduce survival and feeding of the copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koski, Marja; Stedmon, Colin; Trapp, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    and hydrocarbons. We investigated 1) the threshold concentrations of scrubber discharge water for survival, feeding and reproduction of the copepod Acartia tonsa, 2) whether the effects depend on the exposure route and 3) whether exposure to discharge water can be detected in field-collected organisms. A direct...... constituents could have synergistic effects on plankton productivity and bioaccumulation of metals, although the effects will depend on their dilution in the marine environment....

  10. Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

  11. Ecological effects of scrubber water discharge on coastal plankton: Potential synergistic effects of contaminants reduce survival and feeding of the copepod Acartia tonsa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Marja; Stedmon, Colin; Trapp, Stefan

    2017-08-01

    To meet the oncoming requirements for lower sulphur emissions, shipping companies can install scrubbers where the exhaust is sprayed with seawater and subsequently discharged to the sea. The discharge water has a pH around 3 and contains elevated concentrations of vanadium, nickel, lead and hydrocarbons. We investigated 1) the threshold concentrations of scrubber discharge water for survival, feeding and reproduction of the copepod Acartia tonsa, 2) whether the effects depend on the exposure route and 3) whether exposure to discharge water can be detected in field-collected organisms. A direct exposure to discharge water increased adult copepod mortality and reduced feeding at metal concentrations which were orders of magnitude lower than the lethal concentrations in previous single-metal studies. In contrast, reproduction was not influenced by dietary uptake of contaminants. Scrubber water constituents could have synergistic effects on plankton productivity and bioaccumulation of metals, although the effects will depend on their dilution in the marine environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Performance evaluation of poly-urethane foam packed-bed chemical scrubber for the oxidative absorption of NH3 and H2S gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisola, Grace M; Valdehuesa, Kris Niño G; Anonas, Alex V; Ramos, Kristine Rose M; Lee, Won-Keun; Chung, Wook-Jin

    2018-01-02

    The feasibility of open-pore polyurethane (PU) foam as packing material for wet chemical scrubber was tested for NH 3 and H 2 S removals. The foam is inexpensive, light-weight, highly porous (low pressure drop) and provides large surface area per unit volume, which are desirable properties for enhanced gas/liquid mass transfer. Conventional HCl/HOCl (for NH 3 ) and NaOH/NaOCl (for H 2 S) scrubbing solutions were used to absorb and oxidize the gases. Assessment of the wet chemical scrubbers reveals that pH and ORP levels are important to maintain the gas removal efficiencies >95%. A higher re-circulation rate of scrubbing solutions also proved to enhance the performance of the NH 3 and H 2 S columns. Accumulation of salts was confirmed by the gradual increase in total dissolved solids and conductivity values of scrubbing solutions. The critical elimination capacities at >95% gas removals were found to be 5.24 g NH 3 -N/m 3 -h and 17.2 g H 2 S-S/m 3 -h at an empty bed gas residence time of 23.6 s. Negligible pressure drops (scrubbers for NH 3 and H 2 S removals from high-volume dilute emissions.

  13. Recovery Spirituality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Kurtz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in Alcoholics Anonymous (A.A. and other secular, spiritual, and religious frameworks of long-term addiction recovery. The present paper explores the varieties of spiritual experience within A.A., with particular reference to the growth of a wing of recovery spirituality promoted within A.A. It is suggested that the essence of secular spirituality is reflected in the experience of beyond (horizontal and vertical transcendence and between (connection and mutuality and in six facets of spirituality (Release, Gratitude, Humility, Tolerance, Forgiveness, and a Sense of Being-at-home shared across religious, spiritual, and secular pathways of addiction recovery. The growing varieties of A.A. spirituality (spanning the “Christianizers” and “Seculizers” reflect A.A.’s adaptation to the larger diversification of religious experience and the growing secularization of spirituality across the cultural contexts within which A.A. is nested.

  14. Combined biological treatment of sinter plant waste water, blast furnace gas scrubber water polluted groundwater and coke plant effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoine van Hoorn [Corus Staal, IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    Waste water from the Corus coke plant in IJmuiden had been handled by the activated sludge process since start-up in 1972 but in the eighties it was clear that although this removed most phenols, the rest of the COD and thiocyanate must also be removed before discharge. The paper describes the original water treatment process and the higher pressure gas scrubber system for removal of SO{sub 2}, heavy metals and other harmful components. It goes on to describe development of a combined biological treatment system, the heart of which is the so-called Bio 2000. The performance of this new plant is discussed. COD concentrations are very constant but Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) concentrations fluctuate. COD, TKN and heavy metals are in compliance but cyanide and suspended solids are not always so. A method of overcoming this is being sought. This paper was presented at a COMA meeting in March 2005 held in Scunthorpe, UK. 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Biogas upgrading - Review of commercial technologies; Biogasuppgradering - Granskning av kommersiella tekniker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Fredric; Hulteberg, Christian; Persson, Tobias; Tamm, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Biogas production is growing and there is an increasing demand for upgraded biogas, to be used as vehicle fuel or injected to the natural gas grid. To enable the efficient use of biogas in these applications the gas must be upgraded, i.e. the carbon dioxide, which constitutes a large part of the raw biogas from the digester, must be separated from the methane. This report aims to evaluate the biogas upgrading technologies that are commercially available and in operation today: amine scrubbers, water scrubbers, PSA units, organic scrubbers and membrane units. The technologies are described in detail by presenting the theory behind the separation mechanism, the upgrading process as a complete system, operational issues and how these are solved, and finally the most important financial data. Furthermore, the best developed cryogenic technologies, which today are being used to purify landfill gas and biogas from some specific components and to liquefy biogas, are presented. Cryogenic upgrading is an interesting possibility, but as this report shows, the technology still has some important operational issues to resolve. Technologies which are especially focused on small-scale applications are finally presented, however not in as much detail as the other, more common technologies. The report shows that for mid-scale applications, the most common options are all viable. The scrubbing technologies all perform well and have similar costs of investment and operation. The simplicity and reliability of the water scrubber has made this the preferred choice in many applications, but the high purity and very low methane slip from amine scrubbers are important characteristics. Regarding PSA and membrane units, the investment cost for these are about the same as for scrubbers. Furthermore, recent developments of the membrane units have also made it possible to reach low methane slips with this technology. Biogas production is increasing, in Sweden and globally, and the interest for

  16. Subtask 5.3 - Water and Energy Sustainability and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folkedahl, Bruce; Martin, Christopher; Dunham, David

    2010-01-01

    The overall goal of this Energy and Environmental Research Center project was to evaluate water capture technologies in a carbon capture and sequestration system and perform a complete systems analysis of the process to determine potential water minimization opportunities within the entire system. To achieve that goal, a pilot-scale liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) was fabricated and tested in conjunction with a coal-fired combustion test furnace outfitted with CO 2 mitigation technologies, including the options of oxy-fired operation and postcombustion CO 2 capture using an amine scrubber. The process gas stream for these tests was a coal-derived flue gas that had undergone conventional pollutant control (particulates, SO 2 ) and CO 2 capture with an amine-based scrubber. The water balance data from the pilot-scale tests show that the packed-bed absorber design was very effective at capturing moisture down to levels that approach equilibrium conditions.

  17. Enhanced NO{sub x} removal in wet scrubbers using metal chelates. Final report, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-01

    Successful pilot plant tests of simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in a wet lime flue gas desulfurization system were concluded in December. The test, at up to 1.5 MW(e) capacity, were conducted by the Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company and Dravo Lime Company for the US Department of Energy at a pilot plant facility at the Miami Fort station of CG&E near Cincinnati, Ohio. The pilot plant scrubbed a slipstream of flue gas from Unit 7 a 530 MW coal-fired electric generating unit. Tests were conducted in three phases between April and December. The technology tested was wet scrubbing with Thiosorbic{reg_sign} magnesium-enhanced lime for SO{sub 2} removal and simultaneous NO scrubbing with ferrous EDTA, a metal chelate. Magnesium-enhanced lime-based wet scrubbing is used at 20 full-scale high-sulfur coal-fired electric generating units with a combined capacity of 8500 MW. Ferrous EDTA reacts with nitric oxide, NO, which comprises about 96% of NO{sub x} from coal-fired boilers. In this report, although not precise, NO and NO{sub x} are used interchangeably. A major objective of the tests was to combine NO{sub x} removal using ferrous EDTA, a developing technology, with SO{sub 2} removal using wet lime FGD, already in wide commercial use. If successful, this could allow wide application of this NO{sub x} removal technology. Volume 2 covers: description and results of NO{sub x} removal tests; and description and results of waste characterization studies.

  18. Decision Point 3 of Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO) “Recovery Act: Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Integration with Advanced Industrial Systems”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Phillip

    2012-03-01

    Air Products is carrying out a scope of work under Phase 5 of the ITM Oxygen Cooperative Agreement to design, build, and operate a ceramic membrane fabrication facility (the -CerFabII) to enable production of membrane modules to supply a conceptual 2000 ton per day (TPD) ITM Oxygen facility (the -ITM Oxygen Development FacilityII), and to perform supporting development tasks in materials development and engineering development toward industrial, carbon capture and sequestration applications. Air Products is executing this project under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) with the objective to accelerate the adoption of ITM Oxygen technology to help meet the country’s goals for deploying clean power plants. The objective of this Topical Report is to address the requirements of Decision Point 3 (DP3), which pertains to the status of all Tasks within Phase 5 and most notably the project status of the CerFab (Task 30) prior to authorization of funds for equipment purchase and construction of the facility. The intent of the DP3 is to provide the opportunity for DOE-NETL to review the status of these tasks and to make recommendations on forward project direction, including a recommendation to pass into Budget Period 8. In the area of Materials Development, Air Products has specified a high pressure dilatometer system which will enable measurements of material expansion of ITM ceramic compounds at very high oxygen partial pressures consistent with CCS applications. Under Task 28.2, subcontractor Ceramatec has made significant progress since DP2 in materials selection and process development and improvement for advanced architecture module fabrication. Ceramatec has determined a materials specification, and has selected a process for making the material. Ceramatec has further developed and selected the process for applying the membrane to unsintered advanced architecture wafers with a Two Step process. Ceramatec has built submodules meeting leak rate

  19. Multi-pollutant control capabilities of double contact flow scrubber (DCFS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagayasu, Tatsuto; Nakashoji, Hiroshi [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Environmental Plant Process Engineering Group; Imai, Nobuo [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries EUROPE, Ltd., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-07-01

    The paper highlights the achievements of SO{sub 2} outlet concentration (< 50 mg/Nm{sup 3}-d), SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies ({>=} 99 %) on various sulphur coals without buffer additives, and particulate matter outlet concentration (< 5 mg/Nm{sup 3}-d) in recent operating experience. The Limestone Injection System (LIS) is a technology to inject pulverised limestone into the flue gas before GGH and neutralise SO{sub 3} mist. The mercury removal technology consists of SCR and FGD process control. Either HCl or NH{sub 4}Cl is injected upstream of SCR catalyst to oxidise elemental mercury and DCFS removes oxidised mercury. Re-emission of mercury from DCFS is minimised by Oxidation-Reduction Potential control. This paper presents results from the operation of 5 MW-scale Mercury Research Centre and mobile 2 MW-scale DCFS at generating plant, showing that this system can control Hg emissions (1 {mu}g/Nm{sup 3}-d) or removal rate (> 90 %). (orig.)

  20. The new ASTM Manual for scrubber linings the evolution of a consensus guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spires, G.V.; Cavallo, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Faced with spiraling fuel oil costs, power utilities turned to abundant and inexpensive domestic coal and lignite. Conversions and new units designed to burn solid fossil fuels were pursued at a near crisis pace to get out from under the economic penalties associated with the continued use of oil. Coal contains much more sulfur than oil; EPA limitations on SO 2 necessitated costly flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems when burning coal. Scrubbed gas presented a particularly corrosive environment in and downstream from the FGD system. Problems which often accompany a new technology were soon evident. Materials and linings initially selected were often seen to be inadequate. Severe and rapid degradation was commonplace. This paper traces the development of the recently published ASTM Manual of Protective Linings From Flue Gas Desulfurization System. The scope of the Manual is outlined and some of the more commonly used FGD lining systems are reviewed. Finally some views on the impact of foreseeable changes in regulations and FGD technology on the use and maintenance of FGD system linings are discussed

  1. Recovery Act: Innovative CO2 Sequestration from Flue Gas Using Industrial Sources and Innovative Concept for Beneficial CO2 Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dando, Neal [Alcoa Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Gershenzon, Mike [Alcoa Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Ghosh, Rajat [Alcoa Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-07-31

    The overall goal of this DOE Phase 2 project was to further develop and conduct pilot-scale and field testing of a biomimetic in-duct scrubbing system for the capture of gaseous CO2 coupled with sequestration of captured carbon by carbonation of alkaline industrial wastes. The Phase 2 project, reported on here, combined efforts in enzyme development, scrubber optimization, and sequestrant evaluations to perform an economic feasibility study of technology deployment. The optimization of carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzyme reactivity and stability are critical steps in deployment of this technology. A variety of CA enzyme variants were evaluated for reactivity and stability in both bench scale and in laboratory pilot scale testing to determine current limits in enzyme performance. Optimization of scrubber design allowed for improved process economics while maintaining desired capture efficiencies. A range of configurations, materials, and operating conditions were examined at the Alcoa Technical Center on a pilot scale scrubber. This work indicated that a cross current flow utilizing a specialized gas-liquid contactor offered the lowest system operating energy. Various industrial waste materials were evaluated as sources of alkalinity for the scrubber feed solution and as sources of calcium for precipitation of carbonate. Solids were mixed with a simulated sodium bicarbonate scrubber blowdown to comparatively examine reactivity. Supernatant solutions and post-test solids were analyzed to quantify and model the sequestration reactions. The best performing solids were found to sequester between 2.3 and 2.9 moles of CO2 per kg of dry solid in 1-4 hours of reaction time. These best performing solids were cement kiln dust, circulating dry scrubber ash, and spray dryer absorber ash. A techno-economic analysis was performed to evaluate the commercial viability of the proposed carbon capture and sequestration process in full-scale at an aluminum smelter and

  2. FY1998 research report on the R and D on high- temperature CO{sub 2} separation, recovery and recycling technologies; 1998 nendo nisanka tanso koon bunri kaishu sairiyo gijutsu kekyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This project aims to develop high-temperature (over 300 degrees C) CO{sub 2} separation, recovery and recycling technologies. For separation membranes, control technology of micro-pore structure using templates, and that of a permeation gas affinity by metal ion exchange and metallic element addition to separation membrane textures were developed. The result gave the guide to control, design and evaluation of permeation and separation properties. The prototype module was prepared, and improvement of joining technology and evaluation of material fatigue property were also carried out. As for optimization of the developed system and research on its marketability, study was mainly made on the ripple effect of inorganic membranes. The current state and trend of technologies were studied also for power plants. In the concept design of the module, further study was made on high-temperature sealing technology and inorganic membrane technology for H{sub 2} gas separation. Use of CO{sub 2} gas separation technology for steelmaking process was newly studied. The ripple effect was studied for future important fields. (NEDO)

  3. Biological opportunities for metal recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, D.S.; Debus, S.H.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of existing biological technologies for the recovery of copper and uranium. Engineering and biological challenges and opportunities in these areas are discussed. New opportunities for the bio oxidation of refractory goal ore are described. Techniques for the development of new strains of microorganisms for commercial metal recovery applications are discussed with special reference to the use of genetic manipulation for bacterial strain improvement. (author)

  4. Environmental Assessment: For the Testing and Evaluation of Directed Energy System Using Laser Technology, Edwards Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    from the Ground Pressure Recovery 18 Assembly (GPRA) during ground-based testing would pass through a scrubber to reduce 19 95 percent of exhaust...1997). 13 Table 3-9 14 Approximate Quantities of Hazardous Chemicals On-Board Mission Aircraft 15 Chemical Quantity (pounds) Ammonia 1,800 Basic...10 4 Hazardous Chemicals Used to Support the COIL 5 Chemical Compound Maximum Quantity Ammonia (anhydrous) 4,000 pounds Basic hydrogen peroxide

  5. Growth responses of selected freshwater algae to trace elements and scrubber ash slurry generated by coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vocke, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The development and implementation of standard toxicity tests is a necessity if consistent and reliable data are to be obtained for water quality criteria. The adapted EPA AAPBT is an ideal static algal toxicity test system. The algal test medium has a chemical composition similar to natural unpolluted waters of low ionic strength. It is appropriate to use MATC water quality criteria when assessing the potential impact of pollutants generated by coal-fired power stations because these energy-generated pollutants typically enter aquatic systems in small quantities over long periods. The MATC water quality criteria are estimates of trace element and SASE levels, based on the most sensitive alga investigated, that will not cause significant changes in naturally-functioning algal populations. These levels are 0.016f mg L/sup -1/ As(V), 0.001 mg L/sup -1/ Cd(II), 0.004 mg L/sup -1/ Hg(II), 0.006 mg L/sup -1/ Se(VI), and 0.344% SASE. To provide viable working water quality criteria, an extrapolation from the laboratory to the natural environment must be made. Therefore, those oxidation states of the trace elements were selected which are the dominant states occurring in natural, unpolluted, slightly alkaline freshwaters. It must be pointed out that these MATC values are based on algal responses to single toxicants and no allowance is made for synergistic, additive, or antagonistic relationships which could occur in natural aquatic systems. Additionally, natural chelation may influence toxicity. The highly toxic nature of potential pollutants from coal-fired generating plants emphasizes the need for minimizing stack effluent pollutants and retaining scrubber ash slurry for proper disposal in an effort to maintain trace elements in concentration ranges compatible with naturally-functioning ecosystems.

  6. Treatment of ferrous-NTA-based NO x scrubber solution by an up-flow anaerobic packed bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekhar, B; Sahu, Nidhi; Tabassum, Heena; Pai, Padmaraj; Morone, Amruta; Pandey, R A

    2015-06-01

    A bench scale system consisting of an up-flow packed bed bioreactor (UAPBR) made of polyurethane foam was used for the treatment and regeneration of aqueous solution of ferrous-NTA scrubbed with nitric oxide (NO). The biomass in the UAPBR was sequentially acclimatized under denitrifying and iron reducing conditions using ethanol as electron donor, after which nitric oxide (NO) gas was loaded continuously to the system by absorption. The system was investigated for different parameters viz. pH, removal efficiency of nitric oxide, biological reduction efficiency of Fe(II)NTA-NO and COD utilization. The Fe(II)NTA-NO reduction efficiency reached 87.8 % at a loading rate of 0.24 mmol L(-1) h(-1), while the scrubber efficiency reached more than 75 % with 250 ppm NO. Stover-Kincannon and a Plug-flow kinetic model based on Michaelis-Menten equation were used to describe the UAPBR performance with respect to Fe(II)NTA-NO and COD removal. The Stover-Kincannon model was found capable of describing the Fe(II)NTA-NO reduction (R m = 8.92 mM h(-1) and K NO = 11.46 mM h(-1)) while plug-flow model provided better fit to the COD utilization (U m = 66.62 mg L(-1) h(-1), K COD = 7.28 mg L(-1)). Analyses for pH, Fe(III)NTA, ammonium, nitrite concentration, and FTIR analysis of the medium samples indicated degradation of NTA, which leads to ammonium and nitrite accumulation in the medium, and affect the regeneration process.

  7. Heat recovery from UPS units - Analysis of a first unit and technology assessment; Waermerueckgewinnung in USV-Anlagen. Analyse einer Erstanlage und Potentialabschaetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, S.; Schlegel, A.

    2009-11-15

    UPS units (uninterruptible power supply) generate large heat losses, which have to be dissipated with cooling units. awtec has developed a unique UPS system with integrated heat recovery which was installed in 2001 (Building Gretag/SAP in Regensdorf) and which is still running error-free. With this system the waste heat can be recovered and electrical energy for the refrigeration system can be saved likewise. The measured data shows that during the heating season, the unit transfers virtually all heat loss (about 20 MWh/year) to the space heating system. The building's refrigeration system, however, has its own heat recovery system, so the actual annual energy savings can be estimated to be only about 4 MWh of electricity. The prototype shows that awtec built a robust unit which - given an appropriate cooling and heating system - has the potential for high energy savings (without central heat recovery system: 4 MWh electric + 20 MWh thermal) without increased investment. Based on the UPS heat recovery development, previous projects of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy and a market survey, scenarios for the cooling and heat recovery from UPS units were developed. Since the same concepts also apply to the cooling of servers and other IT components, they were also included in the analysis. The scenario analysis shows that a high potential for savings of electric energy and heat exists in this area. In particular, the direct cooling of the IT components with cooling water offers big benefits for heat recovery and free cooling (cooling without the use of the refrigeration system) compared to conventional air cooling. These direct cooling systems are currently mainly used for special applications or as a fallback in case of overheating problems. Passive cooling through geothermal probes, which are now mainly used for buildings with small heat pump systems, provides an interesting approach to the cooling of IT equipment in accordance with the temperature level. It

  8. Passamaquoddy Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program: Public design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The Passamaquoddy Technology Recovery Scrubber{trademark} was conceived and developed specifically to address two problems experienced by the Dragon cement plant; meeting increasingly stringent gas emission limits for sulfur dioxide, and disposing of kiln dust, containing alkali oxides, which had to be wasted in order to avoid kiln operating and product quality problems. The idea involved making the kiln dust into a slurry in order to leach out the species (primarily potassium and sulfur) which rendered it unacceptable for return to kiln feed. This slurry, the liquid part of which is an alkaline solution, acts as a scrubbing reagent for SO{sub 2} in the flue gas while CO{sub 2} in the gas serves to precipitate soluble calcium and release sulfate for combination with the potassium. The effect of the process is to scrub SO{sub 2} from kiln flue gas, extract the volatile species from the dust allowing it to be returned to the kiln, and yield a leachate comprising potassium sulfate which can be crystallized (using heat recovered from the flue gas) and sold as fertilizer. Apart from widespread application in the cement industry, it was evident that, if the process could be demonstrated, its potential would extend to any plant burning fossil fuel where an alkaline waste either occurs intrinsically or can be juxtaposed. Obvious candidates appeared to include the pulp and paper industry and waste incineration. The chemistry was proved in a 1/100th scale pilot plant using actual kiln dust and a slip stream of kiln gas. A full scale demonstration installation was commissioned in 1989 by CDN (USA), the owners of the Dragon plant with the financial support of the US Department of Energy under its innovative Clean Coal Technology Program.

  9. Integration of a nonmetallic electrostatic precipitator and a wet scrubber for improved removal of particles and corrosive gas cleaning in semiconductor manufacturing industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Joon; Han, Bangwoo; Kim, Yong-Jin; Yoa, Seok-Jun; Oda, Tetsuji

    2012-08-01

    To remove particles in corrosive gases generated by semiconductor industries, we have developed a novel non-metallic, two-stage electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Carbon brush electrodes and grounded carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) form the ionization stage, and polyvinyl chloride collection plates are used in the collection stage of the ESP The collection performance of the ESP downstream of a wet scrubber was evaluated with KC1, silica, and mist particles (0.01-10 pm), changing design and operation parameters such as the ESP length, voltage, and flow rate. A long-term and regeneration performance (12-hr) test was conducted at the maximum operation conditions of the scrubber and ESP and the performance was then demonstrated for 1 month with exhaust gases from wet scrubbers at the rooftop of a semiconductor manufacturing plant in Korea. The results showed that the electrical and collection performance of the ESP (16 channels, 400x400 mm2) was maintained with different grounded plate materials (stainless steel and CFRP) and different lengths of the ionization stage. The collection efficiency of the ESP at high air velocity was enhanced with increases in applied voltages and collection plate lengths. The ESP (16 channels with 100 mm length, 400x400 mm2x540 mm with a 10-mm gap) removed more than 90% of silica and mistparticles with 10 and 12 kV applied to the ESPat the air velocity of 2 m/s and liquid-to-gas ratio of 3.6 L/m3. Decreased performance after 13 hours ofcontinuous operation was recovered to the initial performance level by 5 min of water washing. Moreover during the 1-month operation at the demonstration site, the ESP showed average collection efficiencies of 97% based on particle number and 92% based on total particle mass, which were achieved with a much smaller specific corona power of 0.28 W/m3/hr compared with conventional ESPs.

  10. Studi Experimental Penggunaan Venturi Scrubber dan Cyclonic Separator Untuk Meningkatkan Kinerja pada Sistem Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR dalam Menurunkan NOX pada Motor Diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsu Dlukha N

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu cara yang efektif untuk mengurangi NOX adalah dengan menggunakan metode Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR. Dengan metode EGR, oksigen yang masuk ke ruang bakar akan berkurang sehingga NOX dapat diturunkan dengan signifikan, akan tetapi power dari mesin tersebut juga akan berkurang dan Particulate Matter (PM akan naik secara signifikan. Dalam penelitian ini dibahas penggunaan EGR yang telah di optimalkan dengan penambahan venturi scrubber dan cyclonic separator, tujuannya mengurangi NOX tanpa meningkatkan PM. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan NOX turun sebesar 48.89% dan PM turun dari 69,87%  menjadi 9.87%.

  11. Central sorting and recovery of MSW recyclable materials: A review of technological state-of-the-art, cases, practice and implications for materials recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Maul, Anja; Jansen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Today's waste regulation in the EU comprises stringent material recovery targets and calls for comprehensive programs in order to achieve them. A similar movement is seen in the US where more and more states and communities commit to high diversion rates from landfills. The present paper reviews...... scientific literature, case studies and results from pilot projects, on the topic of central sorting of recyclable materials commonly found in waste from households. The study contributes, inter alia, with background understanding on the development of materials recovery, both in a historical...... sorting of residual MSW is found for areas where source separation and separate collection is difficult, such as urban agglomerations, and can in such areas contribute to increasing recycling rates, either complementary to- or as a substitute for source separation of certain materials, such as plastics...

  12. Water extraction from high moisture lignite by means of efficient integration of waste heat and water recovery technologies with flue gas pre-drying system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Xiaoqu; Yan, Junjie; Karellas, Sotirios; Liu, Ming; Kakaras, Emmanuel; Xiao, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy-saving potential of FPLPS in different cold-ends and lignite types is evaluated. • Water-saving of FPLPS is realized through recovery of water extracted from lignite. • Integrations of low pressure economizer and spray tower with FPLPS are proposed. • Thermodynamic and economic performances of different schemes are investigated. - Abstract: The flue gas pre-dried lignite-fired power system (FPLPS) integrates the fan mill flue gas dryer with an open pulverizing system and yields an increase of the boiler efficiency. Particularly, the dryer exhaust gas contains a large amount of vapor removed from high moisture lignite, which exhibits great potential for waste heat and water recovery. Two available options are considered to realize the extraction of water from lignite: the low pressure economizer (LPE) for water-cooled units and the spray tower (SPT) integrated with heat pump for air-cooled units. This paper aims at evaluating the energy saving and water recovery potentials of the FPLPS integrated with both schemes. Results showed that the plant efficiency improvement of the FPLPS at base case varied from 1.14% to 1.47% depending on the moisture content of raw lignite. The water recovery ratio and plant efficiency improvement in the optimal LPE scheme were 39.4% and 0.20%, respectively. In contrast, 83.3% of water recover ratio and 110.6 MW_t_h heat supply were achieved in the SPT system. Both schemes were economically feasible with discounted payback periods of around 3 years. Moreover, parametric analysis was conducted to examine the economic viability of both schemes with different lignite types and market factors.

  13. Improved NGL recovery designs maximize operating flexibility and product recoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, J.D.; Hudson, H.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the historically cyclical nature in the market for ethane and propane has demonstrated the need for flexible natural gas liquids (NGL) recovery plants. NEwly developed and patented processes are now available which can provide ultra-high recovery of ethane (95%+) when demand for ethane is high and provide essentially complete ethane rejection without the normally concomitant reduction in propane recovery. This provides plant operators the flexibility to respond more readily to NGL market conditions, thus maximizing plant operating profits. The new process designs provide this flexibility without increasing utility requirements. In fact, utility consumption is often lower when compared to conventional designs. This same process technology can also be easily retrofit into existing plants with relatively quick payout of the modifications from both recovery and efficiency improvements

  14. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  15. Characterisation of the interaction between liquid film and flue gas flow at walls and internals in FGD scrubbers; Beschreibung der gegenseitigen Beeinflussung von Fluessigkeitsschicht und Rauchgasstroemung an Waenden und internen Einbauten in REA-Waeschern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Mario [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany). Lehrstuhl Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik; Fahlenkamp, Hans

    2012-07-01

    The VGB Research Project 'Characterisation of the interaction between liquid film and flue gas flow at walls and internals in FGD scrubbers' covers the droplet wall interaction in flue gas scrubbers. In the context of optimised FGD design, especially in fulfilling the increasing requirements on the conventional flue gas treatment by the CCS design, a better understanding of the flow behaviour near the wall is crucial. Within the framework of the research project an experimental setup is designed, built up and run. (orig.)

  16. Development of a Field Demonstration for Cost-Effective Low-Grade Heat Recovery and Use Technology Designed to Improve Efficiency and Reduce Water Usage Rates for a Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, Russell [Southern Company Services, Incorporated, Birmingham, AL (United States); Dombrowski, K. [AECOM Technical Services, Austin, TX (United States); Bernau, M. [AECOM Technical Services, Austin, TX (United States); Morett, D. [AECOM Technical Services, Austin, TX (United States); Maxson, A. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Hume, S. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2016-06-30

    Coal-based power generation systems provide reliable, low-cost power to the domestic energy sector. These systems consume large amounts of fuel and water to produce electricity and are the target of pending regulations that may require reductions in water use and improvements in thermal efficiency. While efficiency of coal-based generation has improved over time, coal power plants often do not utilize the low-grade heat contained in the flue gas and require large volumes of water for the steam cycle make-up, environmental controls, and for process cooling and heating. Low-grade heat recovery is particularly challenging for coal-fired applications, due in large part to the condensation of acid as the flue gas cools and the resulting potential corrosion of the heat recovery materials. Such systems have also not been of significant interest as recent investments on coal power plants have primarily been for environmental controls due to more stringent regulations. Also, in many regions, fuel cost is still a pass-through to the consumer, reducing the motivation for efficiency improvements. Therefore, a commercial system combining low-grade heat-recovery technologies and associated end uses to cost effectively improve efficiency and/or reduce water consumption has not yet been widely applied. However, pressures from potential new regulations and from water shortages may drive new interest, particularly in the U.S. In an effort to address this issue, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has sought to identify and promote technologies to achieve this goal.

  17. SUBMERGED GRAVEL SCRUBBER DEMONSTRATION AS A PASSIVE AIR CLEANER FOR CONTAINMENT VENTING AND PURGING WITH SODIUM AEROSOLS -- CSTF TESTS AC7 - AC10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HILLIARD, R K.; MCCORMACK, J D.; POSTMA, A K.

    1981-11-01

    Four large-scale air cleaning tests (AC7 - AC10) were performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility (CS'lF) to demonstrate the performance of a Submerged Gravel Scrubber for cleaning the effluent gas from a vented and purged breeder reactor containment vessel. The test article, comprised of a Submerged Gravel Scrubber (SGS) followed by a high efficiency fiber demister, had a design gas flow rate of 0.47 m{sup 3}/s (1000 ft{sup 3}/min) at a pressure drop of 9.0 kPa (36 in. H{sub 2}O). The test aerosol was sodium oxide, sodium hydroxide, or sodium carbonate generated in the 850-m{sup 3} CSTF vessel by continuously spraying sodium into the air-filled vessel while adding steam or carbon dioxide. Approximately 4500 kg (10,000 lb) of sodium was sprayed over a total period of 100 h during the tests. The SGS/Demister system was shown to be highly efficient (removing ~99.98% of the entering sodium aerosol mass), had a high mass loading capacity, and operated in a passive manner, with no electrical requirement. Models for predicting aerosol capture, gas cooling, and pressure drop are developed and compared with experimental results.

  18. Energy Conservation Alternatives Study (ECAS): Conceptual Design and Implementation Assessment of a Utility Steam Plant with Conventional Furnace and Wet Lime Stack Gas Scrubbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dale H.

    1976-01-01

    A study was performed to estimate the technical/economic characteristics of a steam power plant (3500 pounds per square inch gauge, 1000 degrees Fahrenheit / 1000 degrees Fahrenheit) with a coal-burning radiant furnace and a wet lime stack gas scrubber to control sulfur emissions. Particulate emissions were controlled by an electrostatic precipitator operating at 300 degrees Fahrenheit. The stack gas from the scrubber was reheated from 125 degrees Fahrenheit to 250 degrees Fahrenheit as a base case, and from 125 degrees Fahrenheit to 175 degrees Fahrenheit as an alternate case. The study was performed on a basis consistent with the General Electric ECAS Phase II evaluation of advanced energy conversion systems for electric utility baseload applications using coal or coal-derived fuels. A conceptual design of the power plant was developed, including the on-site calcination of limestone to lime and the provision of sludge ponds to store the products of flue gas scrubbing. From this design, estimates were derived for power plant efficiency, capital cost, environmental intrusion characteristics, natural resource requirements, and cost of electricity at an assumed capacity factor of 65 percent. An implementation assessment was performed where factors affecting applicability of the conceptual design power plant in electric utility generation systems were appraised. At 250 degrees Fahrenheit and 175 degrees Fahrenheit stack gas temperatures respectively, the plants showed a cost of electricity of 39.8 and 37.0 mills per kilowatt-hours and overall plant efficiencies of 32 percent and 34 percent.

  19. Non-calcium desulphurisation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Zhu [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    Flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) is traditionally based on limestone/lime sorbent. The majority of the installed FGD systems worldwide use limestone or lime as sorbent. However, technologies are rapidly evolving that allow desulphurisation in regions where there are limited resources of lime or limestone. These technologies provide alternatives to limestone/lime scrubbers for efficient and cost effective control of SO{sub 2} emissions from coal combustion. This report reviews the existing and emerging non-calcium based FGD processes as well as FGD technologies currently under development that apply new concepts and different approaches. It looks at the fundamentals and features of these processes, the recent technical advances and their applications in coal-fired power plants. The capital and operating costs of the processes are evaluated where information available. 66 refs., 15 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. Systems Analysis of Technologies for Energy Recovery from Waste. Part I. Gasification followed by Catalytic Combustion, PEM Fuel Cells and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Stationary Applications in Comparison with Incineration. Part - II. Catalytic combustion - Experimental part

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assefa, Getachew; Frostell, Bjoern [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Industrial Ecology; Jaeraas, Sven; Kusar, Henrik [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Chemical Technology

    2005-02-01

    This project is entitled 'Systems Analysis: Energy Recovery from waste, catalytic combustion in comparison with fuel cells and incineration'. Some of the technologies that are currently developed by researchers at the Royal Institute of Technology include catalytic combustion and fuel cells as downstream units in a gasification system. The aim of this project is to assess the energy turnover as well as the potential environmental impacts of biomass/waste-to-energy technologies. In second part of this project economic analyses of the technologies in general and catalytic combustion and fuel cell technologies in particular will be carried out. Four technology scenarios are studied: (1) Gasification followed by Low temperature fuel cells (Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells) (2) Gasification followed by high temperature fuel cells (Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) (3) Gasification followed by catalytic combustion and (4) Incineration with energy recovery. The waste used as feedstock is an industrial waste containing parts of household waste, paper waste, wood residues and poly ethene. In the study compensatory district heating is produced by combustion of biofuel. The power used for running the processes in the scenarios will be supplied by the waste-to-energy technologies themselves while compensatory power is assumed to be produced from natural gas. The emissions from the system studied are classified and characterised using methodology from Life Cycle Assessment in to the following environmental impact categories: Global Warming Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential and finally Formation of Photochemical Oxidants. Looking at the result of the four technology chains in terms of the four impact categories with impact per GWh electricity produced as a unit of comparison and from the perspective of the rank each scenario has in all the four impact categories, SOFC appears to be the winner technology followed by PEM and CC as second

  1. Systems Analysis of Technologies for Energy Recovery from Waste. Part I. Gasification followed by Catalytic Combustion, PEM Fuel Cells and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Stationary Applications in Comparison with Incineration. Part - II. Catalytic combustion - Experimental part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assefa, Getachew; Frostell, Bjoern; Jaeraas, Sven; Kusar, Henrik

    2005-02-01

    This project is entitled 'Systems Analysis: Energy Recovery from waste, catalytic combustion in comparison with fuel cells and incineration'. Some of the technologies that are currently developed by researchers at the Royal Institute of Technology include catalytic combustion and fuel cells as downstream units in a gasification system. The aim of this project is to assess the energy turnover as well as the potential environmental impacts of biomass/waste-to-energy technologies. In second part of this project economic analyses of the technologies in general and catalytic combustion and fuel cell technologies in particular will be carried out. Four technology scenarios are studied: (1) Gasification followed by Low temperature fuel cells (Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells) (2) Gasification followed by high temperature fuel cells (Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) (3) Gasification followed by catalytic combustion and (4) Incineration with energy recovery. The waste used as feedstock is an industrial waste containing parts of household waste, paper waste, wood residues and poly ethene. In the study compensatory district heating is produced by combustion of biofuel. The power used for running the processes in the scenarios will be supplied by the waste-to-energy technologies themselves while compensatory power is assumed to be produced from natural gas. The emissions from the system studied are classified and characterised using methodology from Life Cycle Assessment in to the following environmental impact categories: Global Warming Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential and finally Formation of Photochemical Oxidants. Looking at the result of the four technology chains in terms of the four impact categories with impact per GWh electricity produced as a unit of comparison and from the perspective of the rank each scenario has in all the four impact categories, SOFC appears to be the winner technology followed by PEM and CC as second and third

  2. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations, landfills and recycling facilities for construction and demolition materials, electronics, household hazardous waste, metals, tires, and vehicles in the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, West Virginia and Wisconsin.In this update, facilities in the 7 states that border the EPA Region 5 states were added to assist interstate disaster debris management. Also, the datasets for composters, construction and demolition recyclers, demolition contractors, and metals recyclers were verified and source information added for each record using these sources: AGC, Biocycle, BMRA, CDRA, ISRI, NDA, USCC, FEMA Debris Removal Contractor Registry, EPA Facility Registry System, and State and local listings.

  3. Technology development for recovery of individual rare earth elements at high purity from Dong-Pao rare earth concentrated ore of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang Nhuan; Le Ba Thuan; Luu Xuan Dinh; Tran Hoang Mai; Tran Thi Hong Thai; Yoshiuyki Aiba; Hiroaki Nishimura

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the research results on RE processing process at laboratory scale and pilot scale was reported and discussed. Experimental research on thermal decomposition and sulfate process of bastnaesite ore with sulfuric acid in electric furnace was carried out, the different roasting conditions, mass transfer rate, reactions and RE and/or non-RE behaviors during roasting and leaching were investigated. The roasting temperatures were 450"oC and 550"oC. With higher roasting temperature and longer roasting time, the RE recovery yield reduced. The RE recovery yield reached the highest (over 94%) at roasting temperature of 550"oC for 2 hrs. The different extracting conditions for separation of REEs were investigated in laboratory scale as well as pilot scale. At pilot scale, the separation of REEs was performed on 120-stage extraction system produced by Japan, using PC88A solvent dissolved in IP2028. The volume of each stage was 20 L. The results showed that REEs were separated from RE resource of Vietnam and individual RE elements such as La, Ce, Pr, and Nd were obtained at high purity. The parameters for each extraction stage were reported in this work. The results indicated that in order to obtain highly purified Nd (>99%), it needs to use an extraction system with higher stage number, about 200 stages. The extraction data at pilot scale of this investigation was used as basic data for calculating parameters for extraction system in industrial scale. (author)

  4. Integrated Resource Management and Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    , depends on the quality of these resources and technological abilities to extract resources from mixed materials, e.g. mobile phones, solar cells, or mixed domestic waste. The "effort" invested in recovery of secondary resources should not be more than the "benefit" associated with the secondary resources...

  5. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  6. An investigation into heat recovery from the surface of a cyclone dust collector attached to a downdraft biomass gasifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwokolo, Nwabunwanne; Mamphweli, Sampson; Makaka, Golden

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • At a temperature of 450 °C–500 °C, hot syngas is regarded as a good heat carrier. • A significant quantity of energy (665893.07 kcal) is lost via the surface of the cyclone. • The surface temperature 150 °C–220 °C was within the low waste heat recovery temperature. - Abstract: The gas leaving the reactor of a downdraft biomass gasifier contains large quantities of heat energy; this is due to the fact that the gas passes through a hot bed of charcoal before leaving the reactor. This heat is normally wasted in the gas scrubber/cooler that cools it from between 400 °C–500 °C to ambient temperature (around 25 °C). The waste heat stream under consideration is the raw syngas that emanates from a gasification process in a downdraft gasifier situated at Melani Village, Eastern Cape. This loss of heat is undesirable as it impacts on the thermal efficiency of the system. This study investigates the feasibility of heat recovery from the surface of the cyclone dust collector prior to entering the gas scrubber. It was shown that there was a downward decrease in temperature along the length of the cyclone. It is found that the total quantity of heat contained in the gas was 665893.07 kcal, which could indicate the viability of recovering heat from the cyclone.

  7. Viewing Reading Recovery as a Restructuring Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, James S.; Short, Paula Myrick

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated components of Reading Recovery that relate to a restructuring paradigm. Specifically, Reading Recovery was analyzed as a way to redesign teachers' work, empower teachers, and affect the core technology of teaching. Data were collected by a survey that consisted of open-ended questions and of categorical response items.…

  8. Alternatives to improve technological and environmentally the miner-metallurgic processes of recovery of gold in Vetas and California (Santander, Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedraza Rosas, Julio Elias; Yanez Traslavina, Jose Julian

    2004-01-01

    With the purpose of improving the recovery of gold, to eliminate the use of the mercury and to diminish the contamination with cyanide in the Mining District of Vetas and Californian, the concentration processes were studied in a machine knelson and the intensive cyanidation of the concentrate. As fundamental part of this work, it was carried out the characterization of the samples, determining and quantifying the most influential characteristics in the processes of gravimetric concentration and of cyanidation, as well as the necessary for the design of plants. Of the mineralogical characterization it concluded that the ore of the two municipalities present significant differences that bear to think of the necessity of using different extractive processes. In general, the ore of California, bigger tenors of gold contain and of silver and they are poly-sulphurated; while those of Vetas are of pyritic type, except for that of the Golden Mine that presents similarity with those of California. The minerals of California presented a high percentage of gold (40-60%), fine coming from the alteration of the mineral; a high lixiviability in bottle; especially the samples of the Sinues Mine, with dissolutions of gold of the order of 95%, while of the Vetas was of the order of 60%. The experimental results in the knelson equipment, allowed to check the applicability of this concentration type for the case of the minerals of Vetas, obtaining under controlled operative conditions, concentrated with high tenors of gold, 421.16 g/t; significant enrichment reasons, 29.5 (tenor of the concentrate / tenor of the mineral head), with recoveries of gold notables, bigger to 80%. On the contrary, with those of Californian ores, satisfactory results were not obtained, accountable for the presence of the high percentage of gold in the fines. The application of the intensive cyanidation to the obtained concentrates, it was evaluated in presence and absence of the catalytic Leachwell and Pb

  9. Minimal recovery time needed to return to social engagement following nasolabial fold correction with hyaluronic acid fillers produced with XpresHAn technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Arthur; von Grote, Erika; Jonas, Brandie; Nogueira, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    The appeal of hyaluronic acid fillers for facial soft tissue augmentation is attributable to both an immediate aesthetic effect and relatively short recovery time. Although recovery time is an important posttreatment variable, as it impacts comfort with appearance and perceived treatment benefit, it is not routinely evaluated. Natural-looking aesthetic outcomes are also a primary concern for many patients. A single-center, noncomparative study evaluated the time (in hours) until subjects return to social engagement (RtSE) following correction of moderate and severe nasolabial folds (NLFs) with R R (Restylane ® Refyne) ® and R D (Restylane Defyne), respectively. Twenty subjects (aged 35-57 years) who received bilateral NLF correction documented their RtSE and injection-related events posttreatment. Treatment efficacy was evaluated by improvements in Wrinkle Severity Rating Scale (WSRS) and subject satisfaction questionnaire at days 14 and 30, and by Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale (GAIS) at day 30. Safety was evaluated by injection-related events and treatment-emergent adverse events. Fifty percent of subjects reported RtSE within 2 hours posttreatment. WSRS for the R R group improved significantly from baseline at day 14 (-1.45±0.42) and day 30 (-1.68±0.46) ( P experienced 3 related treatment-emergent adverse events; 1 R R subject experienced severe bruising, and 1 R D subject experienced severe erythema and mild telangiectasia. Subject satisfaction was high regarding aesthetic outcomes and natural-looking results. Optimal correction of moderate NLFs with R R and severe NLFs with R D involved minimal time to RtSE for most subjects. Treatments that significantly improved WSRS and GAIS, were generally well-tolerated, and provided natural-looking aesthetic outcomes.

  10. Study On Beneficiation Technology Of Dong Pao Rare-Earth-Barite-Fluorite With Two Product Plans About Content And Recovery Of Rare-Earth Fine Ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong Van Su; Truong Thi Ai; Bui Ba Duy; Bui Thi Bay; Nguyen Hong Ha; Le Thi Hong Ha; Doan Thi Mo; Doan Dac Ban; Nguyen Hoang Son

    2014-01-01

    The ore sample used in the research was taken from the F3 ore bodies and the sample of the F7, F9 and F16 ore bodies which contain the average of 5.98% TR 2 O 3 ; they are multi-metals ore which is difficult to enrich, highly weather with very complex ingredients. The process of the experiment is the ore is crushed, ground, screened and classified reasonably to -0.1 mm and divided into 3 particle size with the following technique: (1) -0.020 mm is primary sludge and the rare-earth fine ore; (2) 0.075-1 mm is gotten through the sludge concentrating table with the output is the 2 parts: the heavy part which is dried magnetic separator with high magnetism to get the rare-earth fine ore and the light one; (3) Light minerals, non-magnetic and ferromagnetic minerals group are ground together to 85% of them get size within -0.075 mm then mix it with 0.020-0.075 mm group. Using flotation separator, get barite-rare earth mixture and fluorite. After that, we separate this mixture by secondary flotation and get refined rare earth, barite and fluorite mineral. The result of the theme: (1) product plan A-rare-earth fine ore has TR 2 O 3 content archive 42.07% with recovery is 69.70%; (2) product plan B-rare-earth fine ore has TR 2 O 3 content archive 29.64% with recovery is 80.01%. (author)

  11. Life Support Systems: Oxygen Generation and Recovery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems project Oxygen Generation and Recovery technology development area encompasses several sub-tasks in an...

  12. Design/installation and structural integrity assessment of Bethel Valley low-level waste collection and transfer system upgrade for Building 3092 (Central Off-Gas Scrubber Facility) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document describes and assesses planned modifications to be made to the Building 3092 Central Off-Gas Scrubber Facility of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The modifications are made in responsible to the requirements of 40CFR264 Subpart J, relating to environmental protection requirements for buried tank systems. The modifications include the provision of a new scrubber recirculation tank in a new, below ground, lines concrete vault, replacing and existing recirculation sump that does not provide double containment. A new buried, double contained pipeline is provided to permit discharge of spent scrubber recirculation fluid to the Central Waste Collection Header. The new vault, tank, and discharge line are provided with leak detection and provisions to remove accumulated liquid. New scrubber recirculation pumps, piping, and accessories are also provided. This assessment concludes that the planned modifications comply with applicable requirements of 40CFR264 Subpart J, as set forth in Appendix F to the Federal Facility Agreement, Docket No. 89-04-FF, covering the Oak Ridge Reservation

  13. Design/Installation and Structural Integrity Assessment of Bethel Valley Low-Level Waste collection and transfer system upgrade for Building 3092 (central off-gas scrubber facility) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This document describes and assesses planned modifications to be made to the Building 3092 Central Off-Gas Scrubber Facility of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The modifications are made in response to the requirements of 40CFR264 Subpart J, relating to environmental protection requirements for buried tank systems. The modifications include the provision of a new scrubber recirculation tank in a new, below ground, lined concrete vault, replacing an existing recirculation sump that does not provide double containment. A new buried, double contained pipeline is provided to permit discharge of spent scrubber recirculation fluid to the Central Waste Collection Header. The new vault, tank, and discharge line are provided with leak detection and provisions to remove accumulated liquid. Ne scrubber recirculation pumps, piping, and accessories are also provided. This assessment concludes that the planned modifications comply with applicable requirements of 40CFR264 Subpart J, as set forth in Appendix F to the Federal Facility Agreement, Docket No. 89-04-FF, covering the Oak Ridge Reservation. A formal design certification statement is included herein on Page 53, a certification covering the installation shall be executed prior to placing the modified facility into service

  14. Water-soluble metal-binding polymers with ultrafiltration: A technology for the removal, concentration, and recovery of metal ions from aqueous streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Jarvinen, G.D.

    1997-01-01

    The use of water-soluble metal-binding polymers coupled with ultrafiltration (UF) is a technology under development to selectively concentrate and recover valuable or regulated metal-ions from dilute process or waste waters. The polymers have a sufficiently large molecular size that they can be separated and concentrated using commercially available UF technology. The polymers can then be reused by changing the solution conditions to release the metal-ions, which are recovered in a concentrated form for recycle or disposal. Pilot-scale demonstrations have been completed for a variety of waste streams containing low concentrations of metal ions including electroplating wastes (zinc and nickel) and nuclear waste streams (plutonium and americium). Many other potential commercial applications exist including remediation of contaminated solids. An overview of both the pilot-scale demonstrated applications and small scale testing of this technology are presented

  15. Water-soluble metal-binding polymers with ultrafiltration: A technology for the removal, concentration, and recovery of metal ions from aqueous streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Jarvinen, G.D.

    1997-12-31

    The use of water-soluble metal-binding polymers coupled with ultrafiltration (UF) is a technology under development to selectively concentrate and recover valuable or regulated metal-ions from dilute process or waste waters. The polymers have a sufficiently large molecular size that they can be separated and concentrated using commercially available UF technology. The polymers can then be reused by changing the solution conditions to release the metal-ions, which are recovered in a concentrated form for recycle or disposal. Pilot-scale demonstrations have been completed for a variety of waste streams containing low concentrations of metal ions including electroplating wastes (zinc and nickel) and nuclear waste streams (plutonium and americium). Many other potential commercial applications exist including remediation of contaminated solids. An overview of both the pilot-scale demonstrated applications and small scale testing of this technology are presented.

  16. Simultaneous treatment of NO and SO{sub 2} with aqueous NaClO{sub 2} solution in a wet scrubber combined with a plasma electrostatic precipitator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun-Woo [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Regional Innovation Center for Environmental Technology of Thermal Plasma (RIC-ETTP), INHA University, 100 Inha-ro, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sooseok, E-mail: sooseok@jejunu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Energy Engineering, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehak-ro, Jeju-si, Jeju Special Self-Governing Province, 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Dong-Wha, E-mail: dwpark@inha.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Regional Innovation Center for Environmental Technology of Thermal Plasma (RIC-ETTP), INHA University, 100 Inha-ro, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • This study was conducted to investigate simultaneous removal of NO and SO{sub 2}. • Proposed process consists of wet chemical reactor and non-thermal plasma reactor. • In the wet chemical reactor, NO and SO{sub 2} were absorbed and oxidized by NaClO{sub 2}. • In the non-thermal plasma reactor, aerosol particles were collected on anode surface. • NO and SO{sub 2} were removed more efficiently by proposed process than other methods. - Abstract: NO and SO{sub 2} gases that are generally produced in thermal power plants and incinerators were simultaneously removed by using a wet scrubber combined with a plasma electrostatic precipitator. The wet scrubber was used for the absorption and oxidation of NO and SO{sub 2}, and non-thermal plasma was employed for the electrostatic precipitation of aerosol particles. NO and SO{sub 2} gases were absorbed and oxidized by aerosol particles of NaClO{sub 2} solution in the wet scrubber. NO and SO{sub 2} reacted with the generated NaClO{sub 2} aerosol particles, NO{sub 2} gas, and aqueous ions such as NO{sub 2}{sup −}, NO{sub 3}{sup −}, HSO{sub 3}{sup −}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}. The aerosol particles were negatively charged and collected on the surface of grounded anode in the plasma electrostatic precipitator. The NO and SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies of the proposed system were 94.4% and 100% for gas concentrations of 500 mg/m{sup 3} and a total gas flow rate of 60 Nm{sup 3}/h, when the molar flow rate of NaClO{sub 2} and the gas–liquid contact time were 50 mmol/min and 1.25 s, respectively. The total amount and number of aerosol particles in the exhaust gas were reduced to 7.553 μg/m{sup 3} and 210 /cm{sup 3} at the maximum plasma input power of 68.8 W, which are similar to the values for clean air.

  17. FY 2000 report on the survey of the freon recovery/treatment technology for construction use heat insulating materials; 2000 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kenchiku yo dannetsuzai furon kaishu shori gijutsu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    An investigational study was made of the quantity of the specified freon remaining in the construction use heat insulating material, the rational method for the recovery/treatment, etc. As to the standardization of the method to analyze the remaining freon quantity, the tube furnace - GC method and the MS method were proposed, and the basic items that can be developed to JIS (Japanese Industrial Standard) were standardized. In the estimation of the remaining freon quantity, the actual state of the use of heat insulating materials was surveyed from the statistics on the start of construction work, survey of the heat insulating area in actual buildings and listening to heat insulation workers/cold store construction companies, etc. Further, the remaining quantity was analyzed of samples collected from various buildings nationwide and by years of completion. As a result, it was found out that, even in samples before 1995, HCFC is used in about 10% and that, in case of limiting to the specified freon (CFC), the freon remaining quantity was more than 1-4 wt% even after a lapse of 30 years. The paper arranged subjects on the freon recovery/treatment in each stage of the life cycle and the required conditions for technology/equipment. (NEDO)

  18. High-recovery visual identification and single-cell retrieval of circulating tumor cells for genomic analysis using a dual-technology platform integrated with automated immunofluorescence staining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campton, Daniel E; Ramirez, Arturo B; Nordberg, Joshua J; Drovetto, Nick; Clein, Alisa C; Varshavskaya, Paulina; Friemel, Barry H; Quarre, Steve; Breman, Amy; Dorschner, Michael; Blau, Sibel; Blau, C Anthony; Sabath, Daniel E; Stilwell, Jackie L; Kaldjian, Eric P

    2015-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are malignant cells that have migrated from solid cancers into the blood, where they are typically present in rare numbers. There is great interest in using CTCs to monitor response to therapies, to identify clinically actionable biomarkers, and to provide a non-invasive window on the molecular state of a tumor. Here we characterize the performance of the AccuCyte® – CyteFinder® system, a comprehensive, reproducible and highly sensitive platform for collecting, identifying and retrieving individual CTCs from microscopic slides for molecular analysis after automated immunofluorescence staining for epithelial markers. All experiments employed a density-based cell separation apparatus (AccuCyte) to separate nucleated cells from the blood and transfer them to microscopic slides. After staining, the slides were imaged using a digital scanning microscope (CyteFinder). Precisely counted model CTCs (mCTCs) from four cancer cell lines were spiked into whole blood to determine recovery rates. Individual mCTCs were removed from slides using a single-cell retrieval device (CytePicker™) for whole genome amplification and subsequent analysis by PCR and Sanger sequencing, whole exome sequencing, or array-based comparative genomic hybridization. Clinical CTCs were evaluated in blood samples from patients with different cancers in comparison with the CellSearch® system. AccuCyte – CyteFinder presented high-resolution images that allowed identification of mCTCs by morphologic and phenotypic features. Spike-in mCTC recoveries were between 90 and 91%. More than 80% of single-digit spike-in mCTCs were identified and even a single cell in 7.5 mL could be found. Analysis of single SKBR3 mCTCs identified presence of a known TP53 mutation by both PCR and whole exome sequencing, and confirmed the reported karyotype of this cell line. Patient sample CTC counts matched or exceeded CellSearch CTC counts in a small feasibility cohort. The AccuCyte

  19. Technological advances in atmospheric pollution abatement. Avances tecnologicos en la descontaminacion atmosferica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero, F. (ABB Generacion, S.A.. (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    A review of current technologies used to control gaseous emissions produced by combustion processes is given. Fly ash and particulates are successfully removed (99,9%) by using electromagnetic filters and fabric filters. Desulfurization is achieved by adding limestone into the furnace or using scrubbers where gases are mixed with a water solution plus mentalizing agents. Denitrification is performed by three ways: better conditions of the burner, by injecting chemical products into the furnace and using catalysts.

  20. Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant U. S. Department Of Energy Office Of River Protection Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposition Project - Abstract no. 13460

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanochko, Ronald M; Corcoran, Connie

    2012-01-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling

  1. Inhibition of the Nitrification Process of Activated Sludge Micro-Organism by Scrubber Water from an Industrial Flue Gas Cleaning Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jens Peter

    2007-01-01

    the nitrogen removal. A major sewage cleaning plant in the southern part of Denmark is a recipient of industrial sewage from a major fish meal industry. Severe nitrification inhibition was observed in scrubber water from an incineration of process air, and the processes that lead to the production were stopped......The microbial transformation of ammonia to nitrate, the nitrification, is a central process in the nitrogen biogeochemical cycle. In a modern wastewater treatment plant, the nitrification process is a key process in the removal of nitrogen and inhibitory compounds in sewage can seriously affect....... In order to investigate the relation between incineration temperatures and the production of inhibitory compounds, the process air was burned at temperatures from 800°C to 1000°C. The termically affected condensate was collected and the nitrification inhibition effect of the condensate was tested using...

  2. Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant U. S. Department Of Energy Office Of River Protection Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposition Project - Abstract # 13460

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanochko, Ronald M [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Corcoran, Connie [AEM Consulting, LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-11-15

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling.

  3. Research and development of technologies for safe and environmentally optimal recovery and disposal of explosive wastes. Task 10, Impact assessment for environment, health and safety (EIA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duijm, N.J.; Markert, F. [Forskningscenter Risoe (Denmark)

    2000-03-01

    Modern technologies like high-pressure water washout and Fluidised Bed Combustion provide safe and environmentally acceptable solutions for demilitarisation. The environmental impact from the traditional techniques Open Burning and Open Detonation can be drastically reduced. High-pressure water washout in combination with Fluidised Bed Combustion and NO{sub x}-reduction using urea-injection is the best well-demonstrated technology considered in this study. This technology can be used for large/medium sized calibre munitions, but additional removal of NO{sub x} from the flue gases is required in order to comply with European emission standards. It has been made credible at existing Rotary Kilns used for hazardous waste in general can be used also for incineration of de-sensitised, down sized munitions (slurries), with a similar performance with respect to environmental and safety aspects as Fluidised Bed Combustion. Using a Closed Detonation chamber with flue-gas cleaning has important environmental advantages compared to Open Burning and Open Detonation, especially for small munitions (e.g. fuzes, antipersonnel mines, pyrotechnics). However, because Closed Detonation is labour-intensive and requires operation of complex, pressurised systems, it poses more risk on the personnel. For that reason, it is recommended to develop other systems to demilitarise small munitions. It appears that the air pollution emissions from transport of munitions to disposal facilities is significant compared to the process emissions of the 'cleanest' technologies. Similarly, risks related to transport (due to ordinary accidents involving trucks) are not dominating, but cannot be ignored compared to process risks. These considerations need to be included when comparing less sophisticated local or mobile facilities with central facilities having advanced flue gas cleaning. (au)

  4. Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act 2009 United States Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mohit [Seeo, Incorporated, Hayward, CA (United States); Grape, Ulrik [Seeo, Incorporated, Hayward, CA (United States)

    2014-07-29

    The purpose of this project was for Seeo to deliver the first ever large-scale or grid-scale prototype of a new class of advanced lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. The technology combines unprecedented energy density, lifetime, safety, and cost. The goal was to demonstrate Seeo’s entirely new class of lithium-based batteries based on Seeo’s proprietary nanostructured polymer electrolyte. This technology can enable the widespread deployment in Smart Grid applications and was demonstrated through the development and testing of a 10 kilowatt-hour (kWh) prototype battery system. This development effort, supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) enabled Seeo to pursue and validate the transformational performance advantages of its technology for use in grid-tied energy storage applications. The focus of this project and Seeo’s goal as demonstrated through the efforts made under this project is to address the utility market needs for energy storage systems applications, especially for residential and commercial customers tied to solar photovoltaic installations. In addition to grid energy storage opportunities Seeo’s technology has been tested with automotive drive cycles and is seen as equally applicable for battery packs for electric vehicles. The goals of the project were outlined and achieved through a series of specific tasks, which encompassed materials development, scaling up of cells, demonstrating the performance of the cells, designing, building and demonstrating a pack prototype, and providing an economic and environmental assessment. Nearly all of the tasks were achieved over the duration of the program, with only the full demonstration of the battery system and a complete economic and environmental analysis not able to be fully completed. A timeline over the duration of the program is shown in figure 1.

  5. Development of Carbon-14 Waste Destruction and Recovery System Using AC Plasma Torch Technology Final Report CRADA No. TC02108.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althouse, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McKannay, R. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-15

    This was a collaborative effort between Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC as manager and operator of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and ISOFLEX USA (ISOFLEX), to 1) develop and test a prototype waste destruction system ("System") using AC plasma torch technology to break down and drastically reduce the volume of Carbon-14 (C-14) contaminated medical laboratory wastes while satisfying all environmental regulations, and 2) develop and demonstrate methods for recovering 99%+ of the carbon including the C-14 allowing for possible re-use as a tagging and labeling tool in the biomedical industry.

  6. Laser Scanner Technology, Ground-Penetrating Radar and Augmented Reality for the Survey and Recovery of Artistic, Archaeological and Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrile, V.; Bilotta, G.; Meduri, G. M.; De Carlo, D.; Nunnari, A.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, using technologies such as laser scanner and GPR it was desired to see their potential in the cultural heritage. Also with regard to the processing part we are compared the results obtained by the various commercial software and algorithms developed and implemented in Matlab. Moreover, Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality allow integrating the real world with historical-artistic information, laser scanners and georadar (GPR) data and virtual objects, virtually enriching it with multimedia elements, graphic and textual information accessible through smartphones and tablets.

  7. Description of recovery method used for curdlan produced by Agrobacterium sp. IFO 13140 and its relation to the morphology and physicochemical and technological properties of the polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangolim, Camila Sampaio; Silva, Thamara Thaiane da; Fenelon, Vanderson Carvalho; Koga, Luciana Numata; Ferreira, Sabrina Barbosa de Souza; Bruschi, Marcos Luciano; Matioli, Graciette

    2017-01-01

    Curdlan is a linear polysaccharide considered a dietary fiber and with gelation properties. This study evaluated the structure, morphology and the physicochemical and technological properties of curdlan produced by Agrobacterium sp. IFO 13140 recovered by pre-gelation and precipitation methods. Commercial curdlan submitted or otherwise to the pre-gelation process was also evaluated. The data obtained from structural analysis revealed a similarity between the curdlan produced by Agrobacterium sp. IFO 13140 (recovered by both methods) and the commercial curdlans. The results showed that the curdlans evaluated differed significantly in terms of dispersibility and gelation, and only the pre-gelled ones had significant potential for food application, because this method influence on the size of the particles and in the presence of NaCl. In terms of technological properties, the curdlan produced by Agrobacterium sp. IFO 13140 (pre-gelation method) had a greater water and oil holding capacity (64% and 98% greater, respectively) and a greater thickening capacity than the pre-gelled commercial curdlan. The pre-gelled commercial curdlan displayed a greater gelling capacity at 95°C than the others. When applied to food, only the pre-gelled curdlans improved the texture parameters of yogurts and reduced syneresis. The curdlan gels, which are rigid and stable in structure, demonstrated potential for improving the texture of food products, with potential industrial use.

  8. Recovery from schizophrenia and the recovery model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Richard

    2009-07-01

    The recovery model refers to subjective experiences of optimism, empowerment and interpersonal support, and to a focus on collaborative treatment approaches, finding productive roles for user/consumers, peer support and reducing stigma. The model is influencing service development around the world. This review will assess whether optimism about outcome from serious mental illness and other tenets of the recovery model are borne out by recent research. Remission of symptoms has been precisely defined, but the definition of 'recovery' is a more diffuse concept that includes such factors as being productive and functioning independently. Recent research and a large, earlier body of data suggest that optimism about outcome from schizophrenia is justified. A substantial proportion of people with the illness will recover completely and many more will regain good social functioning. Outcome is better for people in the developing world. Mortality for people with schizophrenia is increasing but is lower in the developing world. Working appears to help people recover from schizophrenia, and recent advances in vocational rehabilitation have been shown to be effective in countries with differing economies and labor markets. A growing body of research supports the concept that empowerment is an important component of the recovery process. Key tenets of the recovery model - optimism about recovery from schizophrenia, the importance of access to employment and the value of empowerment of user/consumers in the recovery process - are supported by the scientific research. Attempts to reduce the internalized stigma of mental illness should enhance the recovery process.

  9. Application of plasma shield technology to the reduction, treatment, and disposal of hazardous organic and/or mixed wastes with actinide recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, B.T.; Vaughan, L.L.; Joyce, E.L. Jr.; Bieniewski, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    Los Alamos research activities are currently directed at the application of the shielded hydrogen plasma torch to the direct production of actinide metals from a UF 6 feedstock. Two broad classes of thermal plasma reactors are currently in widespread use: the direct current (dc) arc jet system and the radio frequency (rf) inductively coupled system. Los Alamos has improved upon the basic rf plasma tube design using the concept of a transformer. The unique feature of the Los Alamos tube is a segmented, cooled, internal radiation shield. The Los Alamos shielded plasma torch routinely achieves temperatures exceeding 10,000 K and electron densities of 10 16 /cm 3 when operated continuously at one atmosphere of argon. These highly energetic conditions are sufficient to dissociate most chemical compounds into their constituent atoms. Based upon these characteristics, Los Alamos is currently investigating the application of the shielded plasma torch technology to the destruction of organic and mixed hazardous wastes, as well as the direct production of actinide metals from the halides and oxides, without the cogeneration of contaminated wastes. 5 refs., 4 figs

  10. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Beebe

    2003-05-05

    The OXY-operated Class 2 Project at West Welch is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period 1 for the Project officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and simulation work continued during the Budget Period 2. During the seventh annual reporting period (8/3/00-8/2/01) covered by this report, work continued on interpretation of the interwell seismic data to create porosity and permeability profiles which were distributed into the reservoir geostatistically. The initial interwell seismic CO{sub 2} monitor survey was conducted and the acquired data processed and interpretation started. Only limited well work and facility construction were conducted in the project area. The CO{sub 2} injection initiated in October 1997 was continued, although the operator had to modify the operating plan in response to low injection rates, well performance and changes in CO{sub 2} supply. CO{sub 2} injection was focused in a smaller area to increase the reservoir processing rate. By the end of the reporting period three producers had shown sustained oil rate increases and six wells had experienced gas (CO{sub 2}) breakthrough.

  11. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recommendations to make a full recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions ... Support Network Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  12. EPA Recovery Mapper

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Recovery Mapper is an Internet interactive mapping application that allows users to discover information about every American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

  13. Belarus oil recovery. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The Belarus Oil Recovery study was sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency and funded by the Danish State Oestlandepulje. The technical work was carried out by COWIconsult, the Danish Geological Survey, and Odin Energi in cooperation with the Belarus State Oil Company, Belorusneft. Belarus, a republic of the former USSR, is a landlocked country with limited and declining oil production. Oil production was initially established in Belarus in 1964, and 56 oil fields have been discovered to date. Production reached a peak of approximately 60,000 barrels per day in the mid 70's, but current production is only about 15,000 bpd, well below the required amount for self sufficiency. The intent of this feasibility study was to determine ways of improving the production potential of the oil fields of Belarus with western technology in order to make Belarus less dependent on other energy resources and on outside supplies of hydrocarbons. All the oil fields in Belarus are located in the Pripyat Basin. The structural complexity of the fields under study coupled with the rather poor reservoir quality have resulted in low oil recoveries, and the aim of the study is to recommend technology which might improve the performance of these reservoirs. Improved well stimulation and water injection using modern western technology is likely to improve recovery from these reservoirs. If this technology proves successful in these fields, then it could be applied to the other larger oil fields in Belarus. It is anticipated that the documented results would enable financing full scale implementation of the technology utilised which could contribute toward the solution of Belarus' energy requirements. (EG)

  14. Recovery from mental illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Friis, Vivi Soegaard; Haxholm, Birthe Lodahl

    2015-01-01

    Mental health services strive to implement a recovery-oriented approach to rehabilitation. Little is known about service users' perception of the recovery approach. The aim is to explore the service user's perspectives on facilitators and barriers associated with recovery. Twelve residents living...

  15. Improving sample recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, R.J.

    1995-09-01

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) describes the tasks, i.e., tests, studies, external support and modifications planned to increase the recovery of the recovery of the waste tank contents using combinations of improved techniques, equipment, knowledge, experience and testing to better the recovery rates presently being experienced

  16. Enhanced oil recovery program review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    Canada accounts for 40% of the global resources in heavy oils and oil sands bitumen, however, more than 90% of these resources need new and innovative technologies if they are to be made available at a competitive price. CANMET's Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) program was created in the late 1970s in response to the drive for energy self-sufficiency. Funding of the project is highly leveraged; industry funding towards projects supported under the CANMET Energy Conversion Program averaged over 300% annually since the previous review in 1990. Multi-client EOR technology projects include horizontal well technology, development of the vapour extraction process, and field testing of oil sands extraction technology. Direction and priorities of the program are established in consultation with the Minister's Advisory Council to CANMET (MNACC), industry and other performers and sponsors of enhanced oil recovery R and D. This review, including client feedback from interviews with several industry spokespersons, concluded that the program was well managed, and of high priority. Various options capable of meeting future needs were examined. Continuation of the current program, incorporating a number of significant changes, was recommended

  17. Recovery of oil from underground drill sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streeter, W.S.; Hutchinson, T.S.; Ameri, S.; Wasson, J.A.; Aminian, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that a significant quantity of oil is left in reservoirs after conventional oil recovery techniques have been applied. In West Virginia and Pennsylvania alone, this oil has been estimated at over 4.5 billion barrels (0.72 billion m 3 ). Conventional recovery methods are already being used when applicable. But a new recovery method is needed for use in reservoirs that have been abandoned. One alternative method for recovery of the residual oil is known as oil recovery from underground drill sites. This recovery technology is a combination of proven methods and equipment from the petroleum, mining, and civil construction industries. Underground oil recovery can be an economically viable method of producing oil. This has been shown in producing fields, field tests, and feasibility, studies. Faced with decreasing domestic oil production, the petroleum industry should give serious consideration to the use of oil recovery from underground drill sites as a safe, practical, and environmentally sensitive alternative method of producing oil from many reservoirs

  18. Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant U. S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposition Project - 13460

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanochko, Ronald M. [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Corcoran, Connie [AEM Consulting, LLC, 1201 Jadwin Avenue, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix [1]. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility [2]. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling. This study [2] concluded that SBS direct disposal is a viable option to the WTP baseline. The results show: - Off-site transportation and disposal of the SBS condensate is achievable and cost effective. - Reduction of approximately 4,325 vitrified WTP Low Activity Waste canisters could be realized. - Positive WTP operational impacts; minimal WTP construction impacts are realized. - Reduction of mass flow from the LAW Facility to the Pretreatment Facility by 66%. - Improved Double Shell Tank (DST) space management is a benefit. (authors)

  19. FY 1999 survey report on the survey on the role and course of the development of technology such as CO2 recovery, fixation and effective use in the industrial policy; 1999 nendo CO{sub 2} kaishu koteika yuko riyo nado gijutsu kaihatsu no sangyo seisakujo no ichizuke oyobi hokosei ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper aims at arranging and assessing the role of themes of the technology development such as CO2 recovery, fixation and effective use in the industrial policy and the results of the development. It also aims at analyzing factors to hinder technology development in comparison with the developmental trend of technology and the role in the industrial policy in foreign countries and at considering the future role in the industrial policy and the course to be taken. Judging from the number of projects and a variety of fields of technology, it could be said that the development of the related technology in Japan is at a top level the same as that in the U.S. In the present conditions, however, most of the technologies are at the stage of the basic research. In many of the research fields except a part like EOR, it is difficult to promote the research only by economical principles, and the government as core needs to promote it. As viewed from an international point, the development/commercialization of technology such as CO2 recovery, fixation and effective use are extremely important from an aspect of not only the heightening of competitiveness in the domestic industry, but Japan's international contribution in the 21st century. (NEDO)

  20. Microbial enhanced oil recovery: Entering the log phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) technology has advanced internationally since 1980 from a laboratory-based evaluation of microbial processes to field applications. In order to adequately support the decline in oil production in certain areas, research on cost-effective technologies such as microbial enhanced oil recovery processes must focus on both near-term and long-term applications. Many marginal wells are desperately in need of an inexpensive improved oil recovery technology today that can assist producers in order to prevent their abandonment. Microbial enhanced waterflooding technology has also been shown to be an economically feasible technology in the United States. Complementary environmental research and development will also be required to address any potential environmental impacts of microbial processes. In 1995 at this conference, the goal is to further document and promote microbial processes for improved oil recovery and related technology for solving environmental problems.

  1. Method of flash evaporation and condensation – heat pump for deep cooling of coal-fired power plant flue gas: Latent heat and water recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuzhong; Yan, Min; Zhang, Liqiang; Chen, Guifang; Cui, Lin; Song, Zhanlong; Chang, Jingcai; Ma, Chunyuan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A method is developed for deep cooling of flue gas in coal-fired boilers. • The method can recover both latent heat and water from flue gas. • The method utilizes FGD scrubber as a deep cooling exchanger. • The method adopts the direct heat exchange mode to avoid the corrosion problem. - Abstract: Flue gas waste heat recovery and utilization is an efficient means to improve the energy efficiency of coal-fired power plants. At present, the surface corrosion and fouling problems of heat exchanger hinder the development of flue gas deep cooling. In this study, a novel flue gas deep cooling method that can reduce flue gas temperature below the dew point of vapor to recover latent heat and obtain clean water simultaneously is proposed to achieve improved energy efficiency. The heat transfer mode of this method is the direct contact mode, which takes the scrubber, e.g. the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber, as the deep cooling exchanger. The flash evaporation and condensation (FEC) device and heat pump (HP) are utilized to provide low-temperature medium, such as FGD slurry or water, for washing and deep cooling flue gas, to collect recovered water, and to absorb recovered waste heat. This method is called as the FEC–HP method. This paper elaborated on two optional models of the proposed method. The mechanism for recovering heat and water was also analyzed using the customized flue gas humidity chart, and the method to quantitate recovered heat and water, as well as the results of the case of a 300 MW coal-fired generator set were provided. Net present value calculations showed that this method is profitable in the scenario of burning high-water-content coals. Several potential advantages of this method and suggestions for practical application were also discussed.

  2. Advanced large-capacity commercial technology for multi-pollutant control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, R.E. [Wulff Deutschland GmbH, Rosbach (Germany); Seitz, A. [Teplama Strakonice, a.s. (Czech Republic); Xia Fan Gao [Guangzhou Hengyun Enterprises Holiday, Ltd. (China)

    2003-09-01

    The presentation describes the application in commercial installations in Europe and China of circulating fluid bed (CFB) scrubbers of advanced GRAF/WULFF technology design, retrofitted to coal-fired steam boilers. Details are presented of design and operating experience with installations of CFB scrubbers that efficiently remove diverse pollutants down to and below the required and permitted levels. The paper describes successful solutions to substantial operating problems encountered at a CFB scrubbing plant. The described flue gas scrubbing plants of this simple system design clean the flue gases from boilers comprising units of a capacity of 100 to 300 MW using a single-train scrubbing system arrangement. Specifically, the simultaneous high rates of removal of multipollutants are, e.g., SO{sub 2}>98%, SO{sub 3}>99%, HF > 99%, HCl > 98%, mercury > 95%, and particulate matter > 99.99%. These pollutants are removed in a single scrubber module in combination, downstream, with baghouse or electrostatic precipitator means of dedusting. Information is given on rates and design of a single-module, 660 MW system as would be applied to a coal-fired power plant facility. (orig.)

  3. Recovery and money management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Michael; Serowik, Kristin L; Ablondi, Karen; Wilber, Charles; Rosen, Marc I

    2013-06-01

    Social recovery and external money management are important approaches in contemporary mental health care, but little research has been done on the relationship between the two or on application of recovery principles to money management for people at risk of being assigned a representative payee or conservator. Out of 49 total qualitative interviews, 25 transcripts with persons receiving Social Security insurance or Social Security disability insurance who were at risk of being assigned a money manager were analyzed to assess the presence of recognized recovery themes. The recovery principles of self-direction and responsibility were strong themes in participant comments related to money management. Money management interventions should incorporate peoples' recovery-related motivations to acquire financial management skills as a means to direct and assume responsibility for one's finances. Staff involved in money management should receive training to support client's recovery-related goals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Secondary Waste Considerations for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center FY-2001 Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, A.K.; Kirkham, R.J.; Losinski, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) is considering vitrification to process liquid sodium-bearing waste. Preliminary studies were completed to evaluate the potential secondary wastes from the melter off-gas clean up systems. Projected secondary wastes comprise acidic and caustic scrubber solutions, HEPA filters, activated carbon, and ion exchange media. Possible treatment methods, waste forms, and disposal sites are evaluated from radiological and mercury contamination estimates

  5. Secondary Waste Considerations for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center FY-2001 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, A.K.; Kirkham, R.J.; Losinski, S.J.

    2002-09-26

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) is considering vitrification to process liquid sodium-bearing waste. Preliminary studies were completed to evaluate the potential secondary wastes from the melter off-gas clean up systems. Projected secondary wastes comprise acidic and caustic scrubber solutions, HEPA filters, activated carbon, and ion exchange media. Possible treatment methods, waste forms, and disposal sites are evaluated from radiological and mercury contamination estimates.

  6. Tenth oil recovery conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleeper, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Tertiary Oil Recovery Project is sponsored by the State of Kansas to introduce Kansas producers to the economic potential of enhanced recovery methods for Kansas fields. Specific objectives include estimation of the state-wide tertiary oil resource, identification and evaluation of the most applicable processes, dissemination of technical information to producers, occasional collaboration on recovery projects, laboratory studies on Kansas applicable processes, and training of students and operators in tertiary oil recovery methods. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  7. Combined wet electrostatic aerosol removal and energy recovery; Energigenvinding med samtidig fjernelse af sure komponenter og aerosoler fra roeggas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this project, entitled 'Combined Wet Electrostatic Aerosol Removal and Energy Recovery', was to develop and test a low-cost process for removal of fine and ultrafine particles as well as acid gases and other pollutants from flue gases. The process is based on a combination of electrostatic precipitation and wet scrubbing in a single unit. This has several potential advantages compared to traditional bag filtering such as lower operational costs, energy recovery by condensation, elimination of fire risk, as well as the possibility of reducing emissions of acid gases and organic compounds in the scrubber section. Moreover, the electrostatic section could be retrofitted on existing wet scrubbers, thus enhancing their particulate removal efficiency significantly. A pilot-plant (approx. 1:10 of full scale, operated at about 60 kV) was constructed at the 2.5 MW straw-fired district heating plant of Hals. During straw firing a large number of submicron particles are generated that are not removed by the existing wet scrubber at Hals. The particle removal efficiency of the process was monitored on-line using SMPS equipment (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizers). Special dilution probes were constructed due to a high moisture content of the gas and high particle number concentrations. Two complete SMPS equipments were operated simultaneously on the raw and clean gas side, respectively. The particle removal efficiency of the process relies on the presence of a strong electric field. The results obtained (up to 40% removal efficiency of particles below 0.8 {mu}m mobile diameter) indicate that the strength and stability of the field is insufficient. The reason for this is not exactly known, because loss of current may occur due to several factors such as particulate build-up on electrode and reactor surfaces, condensation of water on surfaces, variations in gas and particulate composition etc. The efforts were concentrated on the electrostatic section

  8. Process heat recovery: hot prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    By updating established technologies to recover heat at higher temperatures and under more corrosive conditions, British industry could recover six to eight million tons of coal equivalent that it currently wastes. Organic liquids in organic Rankine cycle (ORC) engines and simpler designs than steam turbines can increase efficiency. They also eliminate the need for vacuum pumps and permit the use of air cooling. Cooperative government-private industry research programs are exploring the use of ORC engines. Other heat-recovery projects include a Scottish paper mill, a metal decorating and printing plant, a falling-cloud heat exchanger, and heat-pipe development. 4 figures, 1 table. (DCK)

  9. Biotechnology in petroleum recovery. The microbial EOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Ramkrishna [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India)

    2008-12-15

    Biotechnology has played a significant role in enhancing crude oil recovery from the depleted oil reservoirs to solve stagnant petroleum production, after a three-stage recovery process employing mechanical, physical and chemical methods. Biotechnologically enhanced oil recovery processes, known as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR), involve stimulating indigenous reservoir microbes or injecting specially selected consortia of natural bacteria into the reservoir to produce specific metabolic events that lead to improved oil recovery. This also involves flooding with oil recovery agents produced ex situ by industrial or pilot scale fermentation. This paper essentially reviews the operating mechanisms and the progress made in enhanced oil recovery through the use of microbes and their metabolic products. Improvement in oil recovery by injecting solvents and gases or by energizing the reservoir microflora to produce them in situ for carbonate rock dissolution and reservoir re-pressurization has been enunciated. The role of biosurfactants in oil mobilization through emulsification and that of biopolymers for selective plugging of oil-depleted zones and for biofilm formation have been delineated. The spoil sport played by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in MEOR has also been briefly reviewed. The importance of mathematical models used in predicting the applicability of an MEOR strategy and the microbial growth and transport has been qualitatively discussed. The results of some laboratory studies and worldwide field trials applying ex situ and in situ MEOR technologies were compiled and interpreted. However, the potential of the MEOR technologies has not been fully realized due to poor yield of the useful microbial metabolic products, growth inhibition by accumulated toxic metabolites and longer time of incubation. A complete evaluation and assessment of MEOR from an engineering standpoint based on economics, applicability and performance is required to further

  10. A novel oxidative method for the absorption of Hg0 from flue gas of coal fired power plants using task specific ionic liquid scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnea, Zach; Sachs, Tatyana; Chidambaram, Mandan; Sasson, Yoel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ionic liquid used as absorption media due to negligible vapor pressure. ► Formation of a stable complex between the oxidation agent and the absorption liquid prevents its sublimation. ► Remarkable concentration factor of six orders of magnitude of mercury/IL unlike active carbon injection that absorb ppb of Hg from flue. ► Reduced metallic mercury swiftly precipitated from the solution and could be quantitatively separated and collected. -- Abstract: A simple continuous process is described for the removal of mercury from gas streams (such as flue gas of a coal fired power stations) using imidazolium based Task Specific Ionic Liquids [TSILs] with the general structure ([RMIM][XI 2 − ]) where X = Cl, Br or I. The latter are formed by blending dialkylimidazolium halide salts with iodine. When applied in a gas/liquid scrubber, these salts were shown to absorb >99% of elemental mercury originally present in a gas stream in concentration of 75–400 ppb. The mercury abatement is attained by oxidating the mercury to HgI 2 which is bound as a stable IL complex ([RMIM + ][XHgI 2 − ]. The novel absorption system exhibits a remarkable mercury concentration factor of seven orders of magnitude. The final solution obtained contains up to 50% (w/w) mercury in the IL. Upon exposure to sodium formate, directly added to the saturated IL at 45 °C, reduced metallic mercury swiftly precipitated from the solution and could be quantitatively separated and collected. The free IL could be fully recycled

  11. Isolation and recovery of microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The deleterious environmental impacts caused by plastic wastes have attracted worldwide concern. The biobased and biodegradable polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA appears to be one of the potential candidates to replace some conventional plastics. However, high production cost of PHAs has limited their market penetration. The major cost absorbing factors are the upstream fermentation processes and the downstream PHA recovery technologies. The latter significantly affects the overall process economics. Various recovery technologies have been proposed and studied in small scales in the laboratory as well as in industrial scales. These include solvent extraction, chemical digestion, enzymatic treatment and mechanical disruption, supercritical fluid disruption, flotation techniques, use of gamma irradiation and aqueous two-phase system. This paper reviews all the recovery methods known to date and compares their efficiency and the quality of the resulting PHA. Some of the large-scale production of PHA and the strategies employed to reduce the production cost are also discussed.

  12. Illness management and recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalum, Helle Stentoft; Waldemar, Anna Kristine; Korsbek, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Illness Management and Recovery (IMR) is a psychosocial intervention with a recovery-oriented approach. The program has been evaluated in different settings; however evidence for the effects of IMR is still deficient. The aim of this trial was to investigate the benefits and harms...

  13. Energy-neutral sustainable nutrient recovery incorporated with the wastewater purification process in an enlarged microbial nutrient recovery cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongya; Gao, Yifan; Hou, Dianxun; Zuo, Kuichang; Chen, Xi; Liang, Peng; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Ren, Zhiyong Jason; Huang, Xia

    2018-04-01

    Recovery of nutrient resources from the wastewater is now an inevitable strategy to maintain the supply of both nutrient and water for our huge population. While the intensive energy consumption in conventional nutrient recovery technologies still remained as the bottleneck towards the sustainable nutrient recycle. This study proposed an enlarged microbial nutrient recovery cell (EMNRC) which was powered by the energy contained in wastewater and achieved multi-cycle nutrient recovery incorporated with in situ wastewater treatment. With the optimal recovery solution of 3 g/L NaCl and the optimal volume ratio of wastewater to recovery solution of 10:1, >89% of phosphorus and >62% of ammonium nitrogen were recovered into struvite. An extremely low water input ratio of water. It was proved the EMNRC system was a promising technology which could utilize the chemical energy contained in wastewater itself and energy-neutrally recover nutrient during the continuous wastewater purification process.

  14. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low-Dip Slope and Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schamel, Steven; Deo, Milind; Deets, Mike

    2002-02-21

    The objective of the project is not just to commercially produce oil from the Pru Fee property, but rather to test which operational strategies best optimize total oil recovery at economically acceptable rates of production volumes and costs.

  15. Recovery of the secondary raw materials, recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, E.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter the recovery and recycling of secondary raw materials is explained. This chapter consists of the following parts: Paper and tetrapaks; Car wrecks; Scrap metal; Plastics; Used tires; Electrical and electronic equipment; Glass; Accumulators and batteries; Spent oil; Low-and non-waste technology.

  16. ESPRIT: Exercise Sensing and Pose Recovery Inference Tool, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop ESPRIT: an Exercise Sensing and Pose Recovery Inference Tool, in support of NASA's effort in developing crew exercise technologies for...

  17. Enhancement in the gain recovery of a semiconductor optical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-11-02

    Nov 2, 2016 ... Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, ... 2015; revised 15 January 2016; accepted 7 March 2016; published online ... investigation on the temperature dependence of gain recovery, of a semi-.

  18. Thermal recovery gaining importance, says expert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-12-21

    In a forecast presented to the Calgary section CIM- AIME at a recent monthly technical meeting, J.V. Howard, Core Labs. Inc., predicted that within the next 2 to 5 yr, California oil production will come from thermal recovery schemes to the extent of 200,000 bpd. One American major oil company is planning a fire flood in a heavy oil reservoir at 12,000 ft depth, where primary recovery is estimated as only 3% of original oil in place. It is estimated that the minimum oil saturation feasible for thermal recovery is 950 bbl per acre-ft. The larger number of variables that will determine the success or failure of thermal recovery makes it essential to have thorough and complete studies of all the thermal processes before one is selected for a given set of reservoir and economic conditions. The number of thermal recovery projects will increase rapidly and the success of any project will depend upon the proper application of experience and technology in thermal recovery.

  19. Energy recovery from wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Stefanis, P.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper are reported analysis of some energy recovery form wastes plants. In this work are considered materials and energy flows, environmental impacts and related treatment costs and financial resources [it

  20. Recovery Audit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Recovery Audit Programs mission is to identify and correct Medicare improper payments through the efficient detection and collection of overpayments made on...

  1. FEMA Disaster Recovery Centers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This is a search site for FEMA's Disaster Recovery Centers (DRC). A DRC is a readily accessible facility or mobile office set up by FEMA where applicants may go for...

  2. Spatially Dispersed Employee Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Kristian Anders; Torfadóttir, Embla

    2014-01-01

    Employee recovery addresses either employee well-being or management's practices in aiding employees in recovering themselves following a service failure. This paper surveys the cabin crew at a small, European, low-cost carrier and investigates employees' perceptions of management practices to aid...... personnel achieve service recovery. Employee recovery within service research often focuses on front-line employees that work in a fixed location, however a contribution to the field is made by investigating the recovery of spatially dispersed personnel, such as operational personnel in the transport sector......, who have a work place away from a fixed or central location and have minimal management contact. Results suggest that the support employees receive from management, such as recognition, information sharing, training, and strategic awareness are all important for spatially dispersed front...

  3. Recovery Action Mapping Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Recovery Action Mapping Tool is a web map that allows users to visually interact with and query actions that were developed to recover species listed under the...

  4. Fiscal 2000 information collection/analysis project on basic research for coal resource exploitation. Research on technology of low-concentration methane gas recovery from underground coal mine; 2000 nendo sekitan shigen kaihatsu kiso chosa joho shushu kaiseki jigyo. Konaikutsu tanko ni okeru teinodo methane kaishu gijutsu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Technical trends were surveyed concerning the recovery and the use as fuel of low-concentration methane gas or the like contained in the air ventilated out of coal mines. Methane gas recovery technologies include high-temperature incinerators and catalytic incinerators designed to collect heat, method of conversion of methane to CO2 using microbes named methanotrophs, and adsorption methods using activated charcoal, zeolite, or the like. Among technologies that have reached a practical level in the utilization of mine methane gas, there are the temperature regenerative flow-reversal reactor (TFRR) and the catalytic flow-reversal reactor (CFRR) utilizing high-temperature oxidation reaction. TFRR has been reported effective by MEGTEC System after a 6-month operational test of a 3.0m{sup 3}/s plant at a British coal mine. Test and research are over with CFRR, which is now ready for a commercial scale verification test. Recovery by adsorption, though worth further research efforts, is economically away from commercialization at the present stage, and wants more studies of adsorbents, etc. (NEDO)

  5. METHODOLOGICAL PROPOSAL FOR CONTAMINATED SOIL RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Fabelo Falcón

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of soils, by different substances and / or products is becoming more extensive throughout the world, its determination, minimization and treatment to reach the recovery of them is a necessity, even though it is not granted the level of importance required by the countries concerned. The objective of this work is to propose a methodology for the recovery of soils with a high degree of efficiency and effectiveness in the selection of procedures, regardless of the types of pollutants and land use once recovered. The methodological proposal involves the stages of diagnosis, characterization, selection of the technology and its technical and economic validation at the laboratory and pilot plant level. Subsequently, the technology of the treatment is designed, along with the elaboration of an objective study of each particular case and an essential economic and technical feasibility analysis for the different scales of the development of the technological process.

  6. Incineration with energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, T.G.

    1986-02-01

    Motherwell Bridge Tacol Ltd. operate a 'Licence Agreement' with Deutsche Babcock Anlagen of Krefeld, West Germany, for the construction of Municipal Refuse Incineration plant and Industrial Waste plant with or without the incorporation of waste heat recovery equipment. The construction in the UK of a number of large incineration plants incorporating the roller grate incinerator unit is discussed. The historical background, combustion process, capacity, grate details, refuse analysis and use as fuel, heat recovery and costs are outlined.

  7. Applications guide for waste heat recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, P. I.

    1983-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of commercially available organic Rankine cycle (ORC) hardware from a literature search and industry survey is assessed. Engineering criteria for applying ORC technology are established, and a set of nomograms to enable the rapid sizing of the equipment is presented. A comparison of an ORC system with conventional heat recovery techniques can be made with a nomogram developed for a recuperative heat exchanger. A graphical technique for evaluating the economic aspects of an ORC system and conventional heat recovery method is discussed: also included is a description of anticipated future trends in organic Rankine cycle R&D.

  8. Water Recovery from Brines to Further Close the Water Recovery Loop in Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W. Andrew; Barta, Daniel J.; Anderson, Molly S.; Lange, Kevin E.; Hanford, Anthony J.; Shull, Sarah A.; Carter, D. Layne

    2014-01-01

    Further closure of water recovery systems will be necessary for future long duration human exploration missions. NASA's Space Technology Roadmap for Human Health, Life Support and Habitation Systems specified a milestone to advance water management technologies during the 2015 to 2019 timeframe to achieve 98% H2O recovery from a mixed wastewater stream containing condensate, urine, hygiene, laundry, and water derived from waste. This goal can only be achieved by either reducing the amount of brines produced by a water recovery system or by recovering water from wastewater brines. NASA convened a Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) on the topic of Water Recovery from Brines (WRB) that was held on January14-15th, 2014 at Johnson Space Center. Objectives of the TIM were to review systems and architectures that are sources of brines and the composition of brines they produce, review the state of the art in NASA technology development and perspectives from other industries, capture the challenges and difficulties in developing brine processing hardware, identify key figures of merit and requirements to focus technology development and evaluate candidate technologies, and identify other critical issues including microgravity sensitivity, and concepts of operation, safety. This paper represents an initial summary of findings from the workshop.

  9. Wireless Hybrid Identification and Sensing Platform for Equipment Recovery (WHISPER), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Systems & Technologies proposed WHISPER (Wireless Hybrid Identification and Sensing Platform for Equipment Recovery) solution to NASA's need for...

  10. Wireless Hybrid Identification and Sensing Platform for Equipment Recovery (WHISPER), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Systems & Technologies proposed WHISPER (Wireless Hybrid Identification and Sensing Platform for Equipment Recovery) solution to NASA's need for...

  11. FY-2001 Accomplishments in Off-gas Treatment Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Douglas William

    2001-09-01

    This report summarizes the efforts funded by the Tank Focus Area to investigate nitrogen oxide (NOx) destruction (a.k.a. deNOx) technologies and off-gas scrubber system designs. The primary deNOx technologies that were considered are staged combustion (a.k.a. NOx reburning), selective catalytic reduction, selective non-catalytic reduction, and steam reformation. After engineering studies and a team evaluation were completed, selective catalytic reduction and staged combustion were considered the most likely candidate technologies to be deployed in a sodium-bearing waste vitrification facility. The outcome of the team evaluation factored heavily in the establishing a baseline configuration for off-gas and secondary waste treatment systems.

  12. Resource recovery from bio-based production processes: a future necessity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; S.B.A. Udugama, Isuru; Cignitti, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    The promise of transforming waste streams with small economic value into valuable products makes resource recovery technologies in bio-based production processes an attractive proposition. However, the use of resource recovery technologies in industrial applications is still minimal, despite its...... technologies to industrial bio-based production processes. The role and importance of economics, technology readiness and socio-environmental impacts of resource recovery in successfully implementing resource recovery technologies in industrial bio-based production processes is also discussed. Finally, based...... wide use in closely related processes such as dairy production. In this paper, a perspective on the role of resource recovery in bio-based production processes is provided through reviewing the past practice and identifying the benefits, opportunities and challenges of introducing resource recovery...

  13. Recovery of agricultural nutrients from biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Daniel E; Yang, Yu; McNamara, Patrick J; Mayer, Brooke K

    2016-09-01

    This review lays the foundation for why nutrient recovery must be a key consideration in design and operation of biorefineries and comprehensively reviews technologies that can be used to recover an array of nitrogen, phosphorus, and/or potassium-rich products of relevance to agricultural applications. Recovery of these products using combinations of physical, chemical, and biological operations will promote sustainability at biorefineries by converting low-value biomass (particularly waste material) into a portfolio of higher-value products. These products can include a natural partnering of traditional biorefinery outputs such as biofuels and chemicals together with nutrient-rich fertilizers. Nutrient recovery not only adds an additional marketable biorefinery product, but also avoids the negative consequences of eutrophication, and helps to close anthropogenic nutrient cycles, thereby providing an alternative to current unsustainable approaches to fertilizer production, which are energy-intensive and reliant on nonrenewable natural resource extraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ranking oil sands bitumen recovery techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, A.; Nobes, D.S.; Lipsett, M.G. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    The preference ranking organization method (PROMETHEE) was used to assess and rank 3 techniques for in situ bitumen recovery: (1) steam assisted gravity drainage; (2) vapour extraction (VAPEX); and (3) toe-to-heel air injection (THAI). The study used a business scenario where management-type indicators included potential production rates; estimated overall operating costs; energy consumption; facilities requirement; recovery efficiency; and energy loss. Amounts of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions were also considered, as well as the production depth, formation thickness, and API gravity of the produced bitumen. The study showed that THAI recovery methods had the most beneficial criteria weighting of the 3 processes, while SAGD was the least favourable choice. However, SAGD processes are the most widely used of the 3 processes, while THAI has only been demonstrated on a limited scale. It was concluded that the maturity of a technology should be weighted more heavily when using the PROMETHEE method. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Oil companies push in-situ recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, H.

    1977-01-01

    Possibly, a third Athabaska tar-sand plant using surface mining will be built in the 1980's, but future development beyond that point will probably depend on in-situ recovery. The discussion of in-situ recovery focusses on the effect it will have on the Canadian chemical industry, for example, the market for sodium hydroxide. To obtain the highest yields of oil from bitumen, an external source of hydrogen is necessary; for example Syncrude imports natural gas to make hydrogen for desulphurization. Gasification of coal is a possible source of hydrogen. Research on hydrocracking is progressing. Use of a prototype CANDU OCR reactor to raise the hot steam necessary for in-situ recovery has been suggested. Venezuela is interested in Canadian upgrading technology. (N.D.H.)

  16. Recovery of ammonia and production of high-grade phosphates from digester effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus from animal wastes and municipal effluents is important because of economic and environmental reasons. In this paper we present a novel technology for separation and recovery of ammonia and phosphorus from liquid swine manure. Phosphorus recovery ...

  17. Exergy destruction in ammonia scrubbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zisopoulos, Filippos K.; Goot, van der Atze Jan; Boom, Remko M.

    2018-01-01

    A theoretical ammonia scrubbing process by sulfuric acid solution is assessed with the concept of exergy. The exergy destruction of chemical neutralization is mainly (75–94%) due to changes in the chemical exergy of streams and thermal effects from the reaction while mixing effects have a limited

  18. CONTAMINATED PROCESS EQUIPMENT REMOVAL FOR THE DECOMMISSIONG AND DECONTAMINATION OF THE 232-Z CONTAMINATED WASTE RECOVERY PROCESS FACILITY AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOPKINS, A.M.; MINETTE, M.J.; KLOS, D.B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the unique challenges encountered and subsequent resolutions to accomplish the deactivation and decontamination of a plutonium ash contaminated building. The 232-Z Contaminated Waste Recovery Process Facility at the Plutonium Finishing Plant was used to recover plutonium from process wastes such as rags, gloves, containers and other items by incinerating the items and dissolving the resulting ash. The incineration process resulted in a light-weight plutonium ash residue that was highly mobile in air. This light-weight ash coated the incinerator's process equipment, which included gloveboxes, blowers, filters, furnaces, ducts, and filter boxes. Significant airborne contamination (over 1 million derived air concentration hours [DAC]) was found in the scrubber cell of the facility. Over 1300 grams of plutonium held up in the process equipment and attached to the walls had to be removed, packaged and disposed. This ash had to be removed before demolition of the building could take place

  19. Ecological recovery in ERA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Scientific Committee (Scientific Committee); Topping, Christopher John

    2016-01-01

    knowledge and data retrieved from the literature. Finally, the information presented in this opinion was reviewed by experts from the relevant EFSA Panels, European risk assessment bodies and through an open consultation requesting input from stakeholders. A conceptual framework was developed to address...... recognises the importance of more integrated ERAs considering both the local and landscape scales, as well as the possible co-occurrence of multiple potential stressors that fall under the remit of EFSA, which are important when addressing ecological recovery. In this scientific opinion, the Scientific...... Committee gathered scientific knowledge on the potential for the recovery of non-target organisms for the further development of ERA. Current EFSA guidance documents and opinions were reviewed on how ecological recovery is addressed in ERA schemes. In addition, this scientific opinion is based on expert...

  20. Recovery of personal neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosa, Marco; Guariglia, Cecilia; Matano, Alessandro; Paolucci, Stefano; Pizzamiglio, Luigi

    2016-12-01

    Extrapersonal unilateral spatial neglect after stroke is associated to a poor rehabilitation outcome. Minor attention has been paid to the recovery of personal neglect, to its relationship with the recovery of extrapersonal neglect and of independency in activities of daily living. The present study aims at evaluating whether there is an association between recovery of extrapersonal and personal neglect. The secondary aim was to investigate if personal neglect may affect the effectiveness of neurorehabilitation in patients with subacute stroke. Observational study. Neurorehabilitation Hospital in Rome, Italy, inpatients. A sample of 49 patients with unilateral spatial neglect resulting from right ischemic cerebral infarction was enrolled in this study, divided into three subgroups according to the presence and the degree of personal neglect, and evaluated pre and postneurorehabilitation. Personal neglect was evaluated using Zoccolotti and Judica's Scale, extrapersonal neglect using Letter Cancellation Test, Barrage Test, Sentence Reading Test and Wundt-Jastrow Area Illusion Test. Barthel Index (BI), Rivermead Mobility Index, and Canadian Neurological Scale were also administered. Results showed the following: 1) recovery of personal neglect was not significantly correlated with that of extrapersonal neglect, despite both the disorders were ameliorated after a "non-specific" rehabilitation treatment; 2) personal neglect per se was not an additional negative prognostic factor in the rehabilitation findings. Our results suggested that the recoveries of the two types of neglect are independent from each other, and that the presence of personal neglect does not imply significant additional problems to the functional outcomes. Our study highlighted the need of novel tools to assess the presence and to improve the recovery of personal neglect.