WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology public attitudes

  1. Overcoming negative tendencies concerning public attitude to potentially dangerous technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barinov, A.; Shmelev, S.

    1995-01-01

    The Moscow Scientific industrial Association RADON is an enterprise with potentially dangerous technology. RADON fulfils the collection, transportation, treatment and disposal of radioactive waste from Moscow region. The inhabitants of this region consider it, and that is true, to be essentially dangerous. We understood, that it is necessary to change the situation and give the public the true information about RADON's activity. For this purpose 4 years ago we developed a new Department, the Department or External Relations

  2. Public attitudes in relation to the risks presented by new technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cave, L.; Holmes, R.E.; Holmes, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    Studies on societal attitudes during the nineteenth century to risks introduced by new technologies indicate that the present day reluctance on the part of society to accept a level of risk, which on a national basis appears to be insignificant, in order to have the benefits of a new technology at a reasonable cost, may not be a new phenomenon. Conditions are postulated in which historical data on public attitudes to risk are valid, and the application of this approach is illustrated by a study of societal attitudes in the nineteenth century to the risks presented by the new technology of railway travel in the United Kingdom. It is concluded that the interpretation of relevant data from the abundant historical records available may provide a valuable insight into the reaction of society to present-day and future technological risks

  3. Attitudes and perceptions of Conacyt researchers towards public communication of science and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz Merino, Noemí; Tarhuni Navarro, Daniela H

    2018-06-01

    This study aims to explore the perceptions and attitudes toward Public Communication of Science and Technology of the researchers of the National Council of Science and Technology (Conacyt), in order to provide a diagnosis about the ways the Mexican scientists are involved in public communication and to contribute to the visibility of researchers' needs in being able to popularize science. The results show significant differences among the researchers' opinions with respect to their perceptions about science communication, the ways they participate in PUS activities and their identified needs. In general, the researchers of Conacyt perceived public communication as very important. However, lack of time and of academic recognition stood out as determining factors in their low contribution to science popularization. We conclude that, to achieve a culture of Public Engagement in public communication of science and technology among R&D institutions, the Mexican Administration should address the above-mentioned unfavorable professional circumstances.

  4. Attitudes in Korea toward Introducing Smart Policing Technologies: Differences between the General Public and Police Officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HyungBin Moon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes different attitudes toward introduction of smart policing technologies in cybercrime policing among the Korean public and police. Policing is essential for a sustainable community. Technological advances in policing have both positive and negative aspects, making it essential to investigate perceptions of both public and police when introducing smart policing technologies. A discrete choice experiment was undertaken to survey preferences of the public and police toward introduction of such technologies and conduct simulation analysis to compare changes in the acceptance of various scenarios. The study divides cybercrime policing into prevention and investigation. The sample included 500 members of the public and 161 police officers. The results show that the public thinks an increase in yearly taxes and invasion of privacy are the most important factors. Conversely, the police think factors enhancing the efficiency of policing are most important. Moreover, when smart policing technologies are introduced, the public and police perceive more utility in the prevention and investigation of cybercrime, respectively. Few studies in this field separate the prevention and investigation of crimes, or compare perceptions of the public and police toward the introduction of smart policing technologies. This study’s quantitative analysis provides insights lacking in previous literature.

  5. Eliciting Public Attitudes Regarding Bioremediation Cleanup Technologies: Lessons Learned from a Consensus Workshop in Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denise Lach, Principle Investigator; Stephanie Sanford, Co-P.I.

    2003-01-01

    During the summer of 2002, we developed and implemented a ''consensus workshop'' with Idaho citizens to elicit their concerns and issues regarding the use of bioremediation as a cleanup technology for radioactive nuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The consensus workshop is a derivation of a technology assessment method designed to ensure dialogue between experts and lay people. It has its origins in the United States in the form of ''consensus development conferences'' used by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to elicit professional knowledge and concerns about new medical treatments. Over the last 25 years, NIH has conducted over 100 consensus development conferences. (Jorgensen 1995). The consensus conference is grounded in the idea that technology assessment and policy needs to be socially negotiated among many different stakeholders and groups rather than narrowly defined by a group of experts. To successfully implement new technology, the public requires access to information that addresses a full complement of issues including understanding the organization proposing the technology. The consensus conference method creates an informed dialogue, making technology understandable to the general public and sets it within perspectives and priorities that may differ radically from those of the expert community. While specific outcomes differ depending on the overall context of a conference, one expected outcome is that citizen panel members develop greater knowledge of the technology during the conference process and, sometimes, the entire panel experiences a change in attitude toward the technology and/or the organization proposing its use (Kluver 1995). The purpose of this research project was to explore the efficacy of the consensus conference model as a way to elicit the input of the general public about bioremediation of radionuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy sites. Objectives of the research included: (1

  6. Eliciting Public Attitudes Regarding Bioremediation Cleanup Technologies: Lessons Learned from a Consensus Workshop in Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denise Lach, Principle Investigator; Stephanie Sanford, Co-P.I.

    2003-03-01

    During the summer of 2002, we developed and implemented a ''consensus workshop'' with Idaho citizens to elicit their concerns and issues regarding the use of bioremediation as a cleanup technology for radioactive nuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The consensus workshop is a derivation of a technology assessment method designed to ensure dialogue between experts and lay people. It has its origins in the United States in the form of ''consensus development conferences'' used by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to elicit professional knowledge and concerns about new medical treatments. Over the last 25 years, NIH has conducted over 100 consensus development conferences. (Jorgensen 1995). The consensus conference is grounded in the idea that technology assessment and policy needs to be socially negotiated among many different stakeholders and groups rather than narrowly defined by a group of experts. To successfully implement new technology, the public requires access to information that addresses a full complement of issues including understanding the organization proposing the technology. The consensus conference method creates an informed dialogue, making technology understandable to the general public and sets it within perspectives and priorities that may differ radically from those of the expert community. While specific outcomes differ depending on the overall context of a conference, one expected outcome is that citizen panel members develop greater knowledge of the technology during the conference process and, sometimes, the entire panel experiences a change in attitude toward the technology and/or the organization proposing its use (Kluver 1995). The purpose of this research project was to explore the efficacy of the consensus conference model as a way to elicit the input of the general public about bioremediation of radionuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy sites

  7. Public Attitudes about Health Information Technology, and Its Relationship to Health Care Quality, Costs, and Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylin, Daniel S; Moiduddin, Adil; Mohamoud, Shamis; Lundeen, Katie; Kelly, Jennifer A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand Americans' attitudes concerning health information technology's (IT's) potential to improve health care and differences in those attitudes based on demographics and technological affinity. Data Sources/Study Setting A random-digit-dial sample with known probability of selection for every household in the United States with a telephone, plus a supplemental sample of cell phone users. Telephone interviews were conducted from August 2009 through November 2009. Study Design Data were analyzed to present univariate estimates of Americans' opinions of health IT, as well as multivariate logistic regressions to assess hypotheses relating individuals' characteristics to their opinions. Characteristics used in our model include age, race, ethnicity, gender, income, and affinity to technology. Findings A large majority (78 percent) favor use of electronic medical records (EMRs); believe EMRs could improve care and reduce costs (78 percent and 59 percent, respectively); believe benefits of EMR use outweigh privacy risks (64 percent); and support health care information sharing among providers (72 percent). Regression analyses show more positive attitudes among those with higher incomes and greater comfort using electronic technologies. Conclusion The findings suggest that American's believe that health IT adoption is an effective means to improve the quality and safety of health care. PMID:21275986

  8. Public attitudes to nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Pligt, J; Eiser, J R; Spears, R

    1984-09-01

    The last decade has seen a marked increase in public concern about nuclear energy. As a consequence, it is now recognized that the future of nuclear energy will not only depend on technical and economic factors, but that public acceptability of this technology will play a crucial role in its long-term future. This paper summarizes trends in public reactions to nuclear power in various countries and discusses a number of studies on public beliefs and attitudes to nuclear power in general, and to the building of a nuclear power plant near to one's home. It is concluded that the qualitative aspects of the possible risks of nuclear energy play an important role in the public's perception of this technology. It is also clear, however, that differences in perception of the risks do not embrace all the relevant aspects of the public's assessment of nuclear energy. Public reaction is also related to more-general beliefs and values, such as emphasis on economic versus social priorities, attitudes to technology and environmental concern. 11 references.

  9. The role of scientific knowledge in shaping public attitudes to GM technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Henrik Ole; Sandøe, Peter; Lassen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Depending on the perceived balance of risk and benefit, and on the perceived unnaturalness, some applications of gene technology appear more acceptable to the public than others. This study asks whether a person’s knowledge of biology affects their assessment of these factors differently. A random...... sample of the Danish population (n = 2000) was presented with questionnaires. The respondent’s knowledge was measured by a number of textbook questions on biology. The results indicated that knowledge increases the likelihood that a person will have differentiated opinions on medical and agricultural...

  10. Public attitudes regarding nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.

    1978-01-01

    This paper traces the history of public attitudes regarding nuclear waste issues. A majority of the public has recently developed the attitude that nuclear wastes are a serious problem, and a small percentage of the public opposes nuclear power mainly because of nuclear waste issues. However, a majority of the public has confidence in the ability of technologists to solve the problems associated with nuclear waste disposal. Finally, the attitudes of nuclear technologists regarding waste disposal differed greatly from the attitudes of other groups, especially environmentalists

  11. Public Perception of CCS Technology. The Effects of Information on Attitude; Percepcion Publica de la Tecnologia de CAC. El Efecto de la Informacion en la Actitud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltra, C.; Marin, R.; Sala, R.

    2011-11-10

    This report examines the public perception of Carbon Capture and Storage technology and the impacts of information on perception. We analyze, from an electronic questionnaire with technical and contextual information, dimensions such as the initial reaction to the technology, the acceptance of CO{sub 2} storage, the perception of risk of storage and the degree of antagonism toward the organizations involved. The determinants of attitudes and reactions to CCS are also analyzed. A favorable initial reaction to CCS is found after some information and contextualization of CCS as well as significant risk perception. The type of information transmitted appears to influence the attitude of participants to the technology. The broader positive impact on attitude occurs when transmitting the idea of CO{sub 2} as a natural resource. (Author) 4 refs.

  12. Public attitudes about radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisconti, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    Public attitudes about radioactive waste are changeable. That is the author's conclusion from eight years of social science research which the author has directed on this topic. The fact that public attitudes about radioactive waste are changeable is well-known to the hands-on practitioners who have opportunities to talk with the public and respond to their concerns--practitioners like Ginger King who is sharing the podium with me today. The public's changeability and open-mindedness are frequently overlooked in studies that focus narrowly on fear and dread. Such studies give the impression that the outlook for waste disposal solutions s dismal. The author believes that impression is misleading, and in this paper shares research findings that give a broader perspective

  13. Public attitudes about radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisconti, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    Public attitudes about radioactive waste are changeable. That is my conclusion from eight years of social science research which I have directed on this topic. The fact that public attitudes about radioactive waste are changeable is well-known to the hands-on practitioners who have opportunities to talk with the public and respond to their concerns-practitioners like Ginger King, who is sharing the podium with me today. The public's changeability and open-mindedness are frequently overlooked in studies that focus narrowly on fear and dread. Such studies give the impression that the outlook for waste disposal solutions is dismal. I believe that impression is misleading, and I'd like to share research findings with you today that give a broader perspective

  14. An investigation into the attitudes of nursing students toward technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubaishat, Ahmad

    2014-06-01

    Attitudes toward technology may impact the levels of technology acceptance and training willingness among nursing students. Nurse acceptance and effective utilization of technology are critical to improving patient care and safety. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to measurethe attitude of nursing students toward technology and to determine if demographic characteristics affect their attitudinal measures. Furthermore, the amount of formal education provided on the use of technology applications is explored. A convenience sample of nursing students attending a public university in Jordan was recruited, and a technology attitude scale designed to measure the attitude of nursing students toward technology was used. Scales designed to gather data on participant demographics, self-reported technology skills, and level of formal technology education were also used. The results showed that participants held a positive attitude toward technology. Students who reported a high level of technology skill had the most positive attitude toward technology. The impact years of formal education on the use of technology applications were low, whereas academic level had a significant impact on technology attitudes. Senior student participants had the highest level of technology education, likely because of their exposure to relatively more educational opportunities, and the most positive attitude toward technology. Despite the positive attitude of nursing students toward technology, the problem of minimal technology education should be addressed in future nursing programs to further enhance positive attitudes toward technology.

  15. Public Attitudes Toward Nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims Bainbridge, William

    2002-01-01

    Data from 3909 respondents to an Internet survey questionnaire provide the first insights into public perceptions of nanotechnology. Quantitative analysis of statistics about agreement and disagreement with two statements, one positive and the other negative, reveals high levels of enthusiasm for the potential benefits of nanotechnology and little concern about possible dangers. The respondents mentally connect nanotechnology with the space program, nuclear power, and cloning research, but rate it more favorably. In contrast, they do not associate nanotechnology with pseudoscience, despite its imaginative exploitation by science fiction writers. Qualitative analysis of written comments from 598 respondents indicates that many ideas about the value of nanotechnology have entered popular culture, and it provides material for an additional 108 questionnaire items that can be used in future surveys on the topic. The findings of this exploratory study can serve as benchmarks against which to compare results of future research on the evolving status of nanotechnology in society

  16. Recent public attitudes to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.E.O.

    This paper reviews recent public attitudes to nuclear power in Canada and the state of empirical knowledge about these attitudes referring specifically to studies carried out in Ontario. It discusses interest groups as a factor in public attitudes and suggests some lines of investigation for social research. (author)

  17. Effect of demographic variables on public attitudes towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In conclusion, background variables do have a significant effect on some of the dimensions of Malaysians' attitudes towards modern biotechnology. The research findings will be useful for understanding the effect of background variables on public attitudes towards the application of gene technology in medicine.

  18. Public attitudes toward nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otway, H J [International Atomic Energy Agency, Joint IAEA/IIASA Research Project, Vienna (Austria)

    1976-07-01

    An earlier article (Bulletin Vol. 17, no. 4, August 1975) outlined the research programme of the Joint IAEA/IIASA Research Project on risk assessment and presented some preliminary results. This project is co-sponsored by the IAEA and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, located at Laxenburg, near Vienna. Additional support is received from IAEA Member States who have indicated their interest in this research by seconding scientists, at no cost to the Agency, to work with the group for periods of one year or more. Secondments have been completed by scientists from the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, United Kingdom, United States of America and Sweden. Additional secondments, or notice of intent, have now been received from France, Netherlands, Norway and South Africa. The research on risk assessment is oriented toward understanding how societies judge the acceptability of new technologies and how information on risks, and the expected responses to them, may be used in decision making. This article will briefly review one specific research area, that of attitude formation, and will illustrate how established models and techniques may be applied in order to gain insight into the relative importance of the specific technological, psychological and social factors which determine attitudes toward nuclear power.

  19. Public attitudes toward nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    An earlier article (Bulletin Vol. 17, no. 4, August 1975) outlined the research programme of the Joint IAEA/IIASA Research Project on risk assessment and presented some preliminary results. This project is co-sponsored by the IAEA and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, located at Laxenburg, near Vienna. Additional support is received from IAEA Member States who have indicated their interest in this research by seconding scientists, at no cost to the Agency, to work with the group for periods of one year or more. Secondments have been completed by scientists from the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, United Kingdom, United States of America and Sweden. Additional secondments, or notice of intent, have now been received from France, Netherlands, Norway and South Africa. The research on risk assessment is oriented toward understanding how societies judge the acceptability of new technologies and how information on risks, and the expected responses to them, may be used in decision making. This article will briefly review one specific research area, that of attitude formation, and will illustrate how established models and techniques may be applied in order to gain insight into the relative importance of the specific technological, psychological and social factors which determine attitudes toward nuclear power

  20. Public Attitudes toward Animal Research: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth H. Ormandy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of public attitudes toward animal research is important given recent developments in animal research (e.g., increasing creation and use of genetically modified animals, and plans for progress in areas such as personalized medicine, and the shifting relationship between science and society (i.e., a move toward the democratization of science. As such, public engagement on issues related to animal research, including exploration of public attitudes, provides a means of achieving socially acceptable scientific practice and oversight through an understanding of societal values and concerns. Numerous studies have been conducted to explore public attitudes toward animal use, and more specifically the use of animals in research. This paper reviews relevant literature using three categories of influential factors: personal and cultural characteristics, animal characteristics, and research characteristics. A critique is given of survey style methods used to collect data on public attitudes, and recommendations are given on how best to address current gaps in public attitudes literature.

  1. Public attitudes toward nuclear generating facilities: positive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krannich, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    Public opposition and intervention in the siting and development of nuclear power plants has become more of a limiting factor than technological issues. Attitude surveys indicate that, while the majority of Americans support nuclear power, the utilities would do well to respond to the concerns and opinions of local residents when projects are in the planning stages. Recent polls are analyzed to identify the demographic and perceptive factors of opposition. Demographic studies indicate that the greatest opposition comes from women, young people, urban residents, farmers, low-income groups, and the unemployed. Perceptual opposition is associated with anticipated negative impacts in the form of hazards and social disruption. Since there appears to be a correlation between access to pertinent information and level of support, utility planners could develop educational programs to provide this information on the advantages of nuclear power. 10 references

  2. Nuclear energy and the public: risk perception, attitudes and behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.

    1982-01-01

    A research group at the Nuclear Research Centre, Julich, has attempted to trace public attitudes to nuclear power and their roots. The structure of attitudes, types of reasoning and the processes involved in deciding about nuclear power were measured. Intuitive perceptions of technology and risk were studied. Attitudes to nuclear energy are found to be the result of intuitive processes and opposition is 'natural' on the basis of intuitive reasoning. Many people who believe nuclear power to be hazardous nevertheless will accept it as inevitable for the economic advantages it will bring in the future. (U.K.)

  3. Food irradiation: public attitudes at Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croci, Clara A.; Curzio, Osvaldo A.

    1999-01-01

    The paper show the research and development activities conducted in the South National University in relation to the consumer attitude about irradiated foodstuff in general, and irradiated onions in particular. Marketing trials were conducted in three opportunities in Bahia Blanca and Buenos Aires cities. Two surveys were carried out with handouts distributed to the public: the first was a general survey intended to find out how much supermarket customers know about food preservation by means of ionizing irradiation, and how much interest the public and in buying onions treated with ionizing radiation; the second survey was carried out with the members of the public who had bought the treated onions. The form asked for the reason for buying irradiated onions, the opinion about the product, and whether the product would be purchase again. The results encourage the transference of irradiation technology with an important economic benefit for the productive sector. Also, these studies may be used as a useful tool to start the introduction of irradiated food in MERCORSUR countries. (author)

  4. Ethics and policy: Dealing with public attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheehan, M.

    2008-01-01

    The current trend towards ethical scrutiny and oversight is very much a social trend. Many of the results of this trend are perfectly reasonable but some go harmfully too far. In this paper, caution is advocated about public attitudes and social trends. Although there is often a degree of truth in them, there is an inevitable simplification of the issues involved. The more specific danger for the professions is to think that public attitudes and social trends simply deliver 'the ethical'. In this context a more adequate account of ethics is considered - one that is relevant for professions like radiology confronting the demands of ethical scrutiny and oversight. The paper concludes with some suggestions about how to incorporate the important aspects of public attitudes and social trends without being subservient to them. (authors)

  5. Public attitudes to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, John.

    1981-06-01

    The public is influenced against nuclear power by fear of a large accident, fear of radiation, worry about nuclear waste, and by the fact that it is a symbol of the bureaucratic, impersonal aspects of industrialized society. The nuclear industry must do several things to overcome this public concern. It must be more articulate in speaking to the public in a language the public understands and not in nuclear jargon; it must be strictly accurate and truthful in all statements, and if it believes the case it is putting forward is sound, it should defend the proposal and not promise to do even more to buy off criticism. Acceptance of nuclear power will either have to wait until the energy situation is desperate, or until the industry puts enough effort into presenting and defending its case to convince all objective people

  6. Nuclear reactions: public attitudes and policies toward nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenburg, W.R.; Baxter, R.K.

    1985-01-01

    The declining public support for nuclear power has political costs. In the wake of the Three Mile Island accident, public trust in the nuclear industry has reached an all-time low. Recognition of this lack of trust sets up a counterweight to the industry pressures for relaxed regulation. The authors present the historical background behind the current debate, then summarize the available scientific survey data on the actual levels and trends in public attitudes. They find little reason for optimism. With the exception of gender, most demographic factors have only modest influence on nuclear power attitudes, which suggests that public uneasiness about the technology has become a fact of life. They conclude that a significant weakening of federal safety standards would not be consistent with public preferences. 49 references, 3 figures

  7. Technological Attitude and Academic Achievement of Physics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    This research study was aimed at investigating the effect of technological attitude of students on ... for the study of several courses in the universities, for examples engineering, medical and other applied science courses need physics. In view ...

  8. Public attitudes to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margerison, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    The British public is very poorly informed about nuclear power. 55 % express concern about it, but few can explain why. Some of the reasons given are extraordinary: 37 % of the public think nuclear power causes acid rain which pollutes lakes and kills trees; 47 % think coal is a safer fuel for making electricity than nuclear; a quarter think natural radiation is less harmful than that from nuclear stations. And a very large number of people have greatly exaggerated views of the amount of radiation released from power stations and the harm that it is doing people. Also, a quarter of everyone asked thought that nuclear power stations make bombs as well as electricity. Most of these concerns come from the media, and in particular from television which has broadcast many programmes which are strongly anti-nuclear, often inaccurate, and usually sensational. Fortunately, the effect of these stories is less damaging than one might think. At present about 42 % of the adult British population are not in favour of nuclear power, so there is still a majority who are not against. About 44 % are positively in favour, and the remainder are not sure or have no view

  9. Altruism and skepticism in public attitudes toward food nanotechnologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Fatehi, L.; Kuzma, J.

    2015-01-01

    To better explore and understand the public's perceptions of and attitudes toward emerging technologies and food products, we conducted a US-based focus group study centered on nanotechnology, nano-food, and nano-food labeling. Seven focus groups were conducted in seven locations in two different US metropolitan areas from September 2010 to January 2011. In addition to revealing context-specific data on already established risk and public perception factors, our goal was to inductively identify other nano-food perception factors of significance for consideration when analyzing why and how perceptions and attitudes are formed to nanotechnology in food. Two such factors that emerged—altruism and skepticism—are particularly interesting in that they may be situated between different theoretical frameworks that have been used for explaining perception and attitude. We argue that they may represent a convergence point among theories that each help explain different aspects of both how food nanotechnologies are perceived and why those perceptions are formed. In this paper, we first review theoretical frameworks for evaluating risk perception and attitudes toward emerging technologies, then review previous work on public perception of nanotechnology and nano-food, describe our qualitative content analysis results for public perception toward nano-food—focusing especially on altruism and skepticism, and discuss implications of these findings in terms of how public attitudes toward nano-food could be formed and understood. Finally, we propose that paying attention to these two factors may guide more responsible development of nano-food in the future

  10. Altruism and skepticism in public attitudes toward food nanotechnologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J. [University of Minnesota, Department of Educational Psychology, College of Education and Human Development (United States); Fatehi, L. [Humphrey School of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota (United States); Kuzma, J., E-mail: jkuzma@ncsu.edu [North Carolina State University, School of Public and International Affairs and Genetic Engineering and Society Center (United States)

    2015-03-15

    To better explore and understand the public's perceptions of and attitudes toward emerging technologies and food products, we conducted a US-based focus group study centered on nanotechnology, nano-food, and nano-food labeling. Seven focus groups were conducted in seven locations in two different US metropolitan areas from September 2010 to January 2011. In addition to revealing context-specific data on already established risk and public perception factors, our goal was to inductively identify other nano-food perception factors of significance for consideration when analyzing why and how perceptions and attitudes are formed to nanotechnology in food. Two such factors that emerged—altruism and skepticism—are particularly interesting in that they may be situated between different theoretical frameworks that have been used for explaining perception and attitude. We argue that they may represent a convergence point among theories that each help explain different aspects of both how food nanotechnologies are perceived and why those perceptions are formed. In this paper, we first review theoretical frameworks for evaluating risk perception and attitudes toward emerging technologies, then review previous work on public perception of nanotechnology and nano-food, describe our qualitative content analysis results for public perception toward nano-food—focusing especially on altruism and skepticism, and discuss implications of these findings in terms of how public attitudes toward nano-food could be formed and understood. Finally, we propose that paying attention to these two factors may guide more responsible development of nano-food in the future.

  11. Analyzing Preservice Teachers' Attitudes towards Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Ahmet Oguz; Izci, Kemal; Caliskan, Gurbuz; Sahin, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Rapid developments in technology in the present age have made it necessary for communities to follow technological developments and adapt themselves to these developments. One of the fields that are most rapidly affected by these developments is undoubtedly education. Determination of the attitudes of preservice teachers, who live in an age of…

  12. Effect of nuclear education on public attitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki

    1995-01-01

    A method is proposed to assess the effect of nuclear education. In this method, the nuclear education is treated as a part of the activities for public acceptance (PA), and a unit PA activity is assumed to give the same effect on the public, in essence, as a unit of nuclear information given by the newsmedia. Moreover, the change of attitude to nuclear energy is assumed to originate from enhanced understanding which, in turn, is brought by the stimulus given by the nuclear education. With the values of constants determined by using the data in Japan, example calculations were made for the educational time b 0 and the infiltration rate of education into minors B as parameters. It became clear from this calculation that the attitude to nuclear energy formed in the age of school children plays an essential role in shaping future public opinion since it is held in individuals without any notable modification for a long time after its formation, and that the effect of nuclear education to minors emerges depending on the variables b 0 and B in a highly non-linear manner. It was also found that there exists an optimum condition for nuclear education to attain the maximum amelioration of public opinion under a given condition of man-power for educational workers. (author)

  13. PRIMARY SCHOOL PRINCIPALS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY IN THE USE OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY IN SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNBAYI, İlhan; CANTÜRK, Gökhan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the usage of computer technology in school administration, primary school administrators’ attitudes towards computer technology, administrators’ and teachers’ computer literacy level. The study was modeled as a survey search. The population of the study consists primary school principals, assistant principals in public primary schools in the center of Antalya. The data were collected from 161 (%51) administrator questionnaires in 68 of 129 public primary s...

  14. Technological Attitude and Academic Achievement of Physics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research study was aimed at investigating the effect of technological attitude of students on academic achievement in Physics. Four co-education schools were randomly drawn from urban centers of Uyo and Abak Local Government Areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. This gave sample size of 110 senior secondary two ...

  15. Publications on maglev technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, J.L.; Coffey, H.T.; Rote, D.M.; Wang, Z.

    1991-12-01

    Magnetically levitated passenger-transportation vehicles, using attractive and repulsive magnetic forces, are currently in the development or prototype-revenue stages in Japan and Germany. The basic principles of these technologies have been understood for several decades, but their practical applications awaited advances in high-power electronic devices, modern controls, superconducting magnets, and improvements in our transportation infrastructures. A considerable amount of work was devoted to magnetic-levitation (maglev) transportation system in the late 1960s and the 1970s. Detailed development was sustained primarily in Germany and Japan. This listing of publications was begun as the initial phase of a design study for a maglev development facility sponsored by the State of Illinois. The listing has been continually updated under programs sponsored by the Federal Railroad Administration and the US Army Corps of Engineers. In 1991, the National Maglev Initiative issued 27 contracts for the study of technical issues related to maglev and four contracts for the definition of maglev systems. In December 1991, the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act was enacted, mandating the development of a US-designed maglev system in a six-year period. This listing is offered as an aid to those working on these projects, to help them locate technical papers on relevant technologies. The design and installation of a maglev transportation system will require the efforts of workers in many disciplines, from electronics to economics to safety. Accordingly, the references have been grouped in 14 different sections to expedite review of the listing. In many case, the references are annotated to indicate the general content of the papers. Abstracts are not available. A list of information services from which the listed documents might be obtained and an author index are provided.

  16. Public attitudes toward nuclear power generation. Focusing on measurement of attitude intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Yasuko; Hayashi, Chikio

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to 1) examine the differences of the perception between nuclear power generation (NPG) and electric power generation by nuclear fusion, 2) find the structural characteristics of the attitude toward NPG, 3) shed light on the characteristics of knowledge about NPG, and 4) develop a scale to measure the intensity in attitude toward NPG. Subjects (N = 1,582) were randomly assigned into 4 groups and were asked to answer a questionnaire including public attitudes toward NPG and related matters. The results were as follows: 1) the perception of electric power generation by nuclear fusion was less favorable than that of NPG; 2) Items which correlated with attitudes toward NPG were: 'sense of anxiety,' sensitivity to risk,' 'trust in science and technology,' 'evaluation of Japan's nuclear policy', 'evaluation of electric power companies,' and interest in life and environmental issues.' Moreover, people with a strong attitude tended to be rational and had a better knowledge of NPG; 3) The evaluation of the amount of subjective knowledge concerning nuclear power and electric power generation was reliable as a measure of objective knowledge; 4) The measurement method used in this study was characterized by the use of biased questions(ten positively and ten negatively biased questions) which were shown to the subjects using the split-half method. An attempt was made to measure the attitude and its intensity taking into consideration gender, positive or negative attitude toward NPG, level of knowledge about NPG, age, and occupation. As a result, differences in intensity between different attributes were found. (author)

  17. Attitudes of the public about nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.; Nealey, S.M.

    1978-01-01

    The disposal of nuclear wastes has become an important public issue in the past few years. In 1960, only a very small percentage of the American public questioned the safety of waste disposal methods, and no one opposed nuclear power for waste disposal reasons. By 1974, however, a slight majority of the public believed that the disposal of nuclear wastes was a serious problem associated with nuclear power, and from 1975 on, a small percentage of the public has opposed nuclear power for waste disposal reasons. More individuals believe that the technology is not available for acceptable waste management compared to the number of individuals who believe that the technology does exist. However, a majority of the public believe that modern technology can solve the waste disposal problem. Finally, nuclear technologists evaluate waste disposal problems differently from other groups. For instance, nuclear technologists believe that short-term safety is more important than long-term safety regarding waste disposal, while other groups, especially environmentalists, believe that long-term safety is more important than short-term safety. Nuclear technologists are willing to accept a higher level of waste management-related risk than other groups and evaluate waste disposal problems as being less severe than other societal problems

  18. Public attitudes to nuclear risk in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, Masae

    1991-01-01

    Public or social risk perception is composed of individual risk perceptions. But public or social risk perception should be understood as a product of social dynamism, not the sum of individual risk perceptions. After the Chernobyl accident Japanese antinuclear movements expanded nationwide. In particular, there was a strong upsurge of criticism of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Complex (NFCC) project in the siting area at Rokkasho-mura, and even in other places. The movement against the NFCC project peaked with the election of an anti-nuclear candidate in the 1989 election to the Upper House of the Japanese parliament. The result of this election, and others in the same area, reflected nuclear risk perceptions in the siting prefecture (local authority district) of Aomori. This paper examines the public attitudes to nuclear risk in Japan. The anti-NFCC movement now has a core of regional support. Given a triggering event, the anti-NFCC movement could revive rapidly and the movement could spread nationwide. (author)

  19. Public attitudes towards prevention of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Sikorski

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate obesity prevention support in the German general public and to assess determinants of general prevention support as well as support of specific prevention measures. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional analysis of a telephone based representative German study (3,003 subjects (52.8% women, mean age 51.9, s.d.  = 18.0, range 18-97 years. Likert scale-based questions on general prevention support and support of specific measures were used. Furthermore willingness to take part in preventive programs and willingness to pay were assessed. Stigmatizing attitudes were assessed with the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS. Causation of obesity was differentiated in three dimensions (internal, e.g. lack of exercise; external, e.g. social surroundings; and genetic factors. RESULTS: Obesity prevention was perceived as possible (98.2%, however, almost exclusively lifestyle changes were named. Participants with higher stigmatizing attitudes were less likely to believe obesity prevention is possible. The majority of participants would take part in preventive programs (59.6% and pay at least partially themselves (86.9%. Factor analysis revealed three dimensions of preventive measures: promoting healthy eating, restrictive and financial, governmental prevention efforts. In regard to these, promoting healthy eating was the most supported measure. Higher age, female gender and external causation were associated with higher support for all three dimensions of preventive measures. Only for governmental regulation, higher age was associated with lower support. CONCLUSION: Obesity prevention support in Germany is high. Structural prevention efforts are supported by the majority of the general public in Germany. The vast majority proclaims willingness to pay themselves for programs of weight gain prevention. This could be an indication of higher perceived self-responsibility in the German system but also for risen "fear of fat" in the population due

  20. Determinants of stakeholders' attitudes towards a new technology: nanotechnology applications for food, water, energy and medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van H.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Marvin, H.J.P.; Trijp, van H.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Stakeholder risk and benefit perceptions and attitudes towards a technology matter for the societal response to these technologies. This is especially the case for technological innovations where the public has no direct experience with the technology and its applications. In such cases, expert

  1. Making technology public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winthereik, Brit Ross; Johannsen, Nis; Strand, Dixi Louise

    2008-01-01

    the transformative potential of the portal presentation for reconfiguring relationships between citizens, health care systems, and information and communication technology (ICT). The analysis is guided by Haraway's notion of diffraction. Findings – The analysis demonstrates the particular way in which the user...... secure the future of the technology and organisation behind it. Research limitations/implications – The paper extends the script metaphor beyond a limited designer-technology-user configuration and argues that scripts in the paraphernalia of technologies also can and should be “de......Purpose – Through an analysis of a demonstration video presenting a new national e-health portal, this paper aims to explore the assumptions and limitations of the concept of “script” and suggests a different approach to analysing the moral order of technology design. Design...

  2. Public and Biobank Participant Attitudes toward Genetic Research Participation and Data Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Lemke, A.A.; Wolf, W.A.; Hebert-Beirne, J.; Smith, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Research assessing attitudes toward consent processes for high-throughput genomic-wide technologies and widespread sharing of data is limited. In order to develop a better understanding of stakeholder views toward these issues, this cross-sectional study assessed public and biorepository participant attitudes toward research participation and sharing of genetic research data. Forty-nine individuals participated in 6 focus groups; 28 in 3 public focus groups and 21 in 3 NUgene biorepository pa...

  3. Public knowledge and attitudes regarding public health inspections of restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Timothy F; Grimm, Karen

    2008-06-01

    Foodborne diseases cause 76 million illnesses in the U.S. each year, and almost half of all money spent on food is spent in restaurants. Restaurant inspections are a critical public health intervention for the prevention of foodborne disease. A telephone survey of randomly selected Tennessee residents aged > or =18 was performed. Data were collected on respondents' demographics, knowledge, attitudes, and expectations regarding restaurant inspections. Of 2000 respondents, 97% were aware that restaurants are inspected regularly by the health department. More than half of the respondents believed that inspections should be performed at least 12 times per year; only one third were aware that inspections currently occur only twice per year in Tennessee. More than one third of the respondents considered an inspection score of > or =90 acceptable for a restaurant at which they would eat; the mean score in Tennessee is 82. When presented with a variety of scenarios, an overwhelming number of respondents felt that public health responses to safety violations should be far more draconian than they actually are. Survey answers did not differ consistently based on respondents' race, gender, or history of having worked in a restaurant. This study identified a number of public misconceptions and unrealistically high expectations of the public health restaurant-inspection system. It is important to improve consumers' understanding of inspection scores and the limitations of regulatory inspections, as well as the role of such inspections in disease prevention.

  4. Public attitudes towards industrial, work-related and other risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott-Clarke, P.

    1982-01-01

    Two reports describing work sponsored by the Health and Safety Executive are presented. The first describes a study of public attitudes towards industrial, work related, nuclear industry related and other risks. The second report describes public attitudes towards the acceptability of risks. (U.K.)

  5. Big technologies in the public controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederichs, G.; Bechmann, G.; Gloede, F.

    1983-05-01

    The formation of new social movements which have rendered the criticism of technological development a societal and political issue, was the motive for empirically testing the societal dimensions of the conflict over technology and its linkage with processes of social change. A representative survey of 2000 people living in the Federal Republic of Germany and West Berlin showed characteristic opinion trends among groups of the population concerning the central topics energy policy, nuclear energy, and coal, and these are related to social-structural factors. Critique of industrialism proves to be - apart from a more ''populistic'' environmentalist attitude - a relevant factor for evaluating issues of technology policy. Three main critical trends emerge which structure the public debate about energy policy: a critique which is technology specific, a generalising criticism derived from critique of industrialism, and an increasingly radical critisicm guided by post-materialistic value orientations. (orig.) [de

  6. Public attitudes toward nuclear risks and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savellano, R.A.

    As the world progresses in technology, public awareness of risks and benefits have become more acute. This is more so towards nuclear risks and benefits. This comes about when people throughout the world, because of the energy crisis, have accepted the nuclear option. Hand in hand with the benefits that it brings are the risks of radiation and other calamities. ''The role of information, the methods of public participation, and the involvement of scientific expertise play an important part in risk assessment.'' Interest in nuclear power has gained momentum with the announcement of the construction of the first nuclear power plant. Different reactions, brought about by economic, social, moral and political factors were evident, but the economic benefits seem to prevail. Nuclear power accidents, citing particularly the recent TMI incident, have started the hornets nest of nuclear controversies and have widened the scope of concern on nuclear power. The newspapers and the media, public meetings and hearings have been used as arenas of these conflicts. These brought about varying opinions and growing disagreement among the public. Risk assessment is therefore dependent on effective communication not only with the public but between scientists and decision makers and also individuals. Risk assessment in nuclear power is a complex undertaking which is to consider a wide spectrum of factors to come up with reliable results. (author)

  7. The structure and strength of public attitudes towards wind farm development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, David Charles

    A growing social science literature seeks to understand why, despite broad public support for wind energy, proposals for specific projects are often met with strong local opposition. This gap between general and specific attitudes is viewed as a significant obstacle to the deployment of wind energy technologies. This dissertation applies theoretical perspectives and methodological tools from social psychology to provide insights on the structure and strength of attitudes towards the potential development of commercial wind farm in three coastal areas of Michigan. A survey of attitudes was completed by 375 residents in these communities and structural equation modeling was used to explore the relationship among variables. The analysis found that attitudes towards wind farm development are shaped by anticipated economic benefits to the community, but expectations of economic benefit are driven by personal values. Social psychology has long recognized that all attitudes are not created equal. Weak attitudes are fleeting and prone to change, while strong attitudes are stable over time and resistant to change. There are two fundamental paths to strong attitudes: repeated experience with an attitude object or the application of deeply held principles or values to that object. Structural equation models were also used to understand the strength of attitudes among the survey respondents. Both the anticipated effects of wind farm development and personal values were found to influence the strength of attitudes towards wind farms. However, while expectations that wind farm development will have positive effects on the economy bolster two measures of attitude strength (collective identity and importance), these expectations are associated with a decline in a third measure (confidence). A follow-up survey asking identical questions was completed by completed by 187 respondents to the initial survey. Linear regressions models were used to determine the effects of attitude

  8. Towards an understanding of British public attitudes concerning human cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Richard; Barnett, Julie; Cooper, Helen; Coyle, Adrian; Moran-Ellis, Jo; Senior, Victoria; Walton, Chris

    2007-07-01

    The ability of scientists to apply cloning technology to humans has provoked public discussion and media coverage. The present paper reports on a series of studies examining public attitudes to human cloning in the UK, bringing together a range of quantitative and qualitative methods to address this question. These included a nationally representative survey, an experimental vignette study, focus groups and analyses of media coverage. Overall the research presents a complex picture of attitude to and constructions of human cloning. In all of the analyses, therapeutic cloning was viewed more favourably than reproductive cloning. However, while participants in the focus groups were generally negative about both forms of cloning, and this was also reflected in the media analyses, quantitative results showed more positive responses. In the quantitative research, therapeutic cloning was generally accepted when the benefits of such procedures were clear, and although reproductive cloning was less accepted there was still substantial support. Participants in the focus groups only differentiated between therapeutic and reproductive cloning after the issue of therapeutic cloning was explicitly raised; initially they saw cloning as being reproductive cloning and saw no real benefits. Attitudes were shown to be associated with underlying values associated with scientific progress rather than with age, gender or education, and although there were a few differences in the quantitative data based on religious affiliation, these tended to be small effects. Likewise in the focus groups there was little direct appeal to religion, but the main themes were 'interfering with nature' and the 'status of the embryo', with the latter being used more effectively to try to close down further discussion. In general there was a close correspondence between the media analysis and focus group responses, possibly demonstrating the importance of media as a resource, or that the media reflect

  9. Attitudes of the Public toward Educational Mainstreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Joan D.

    1989-01-01

    A survey of 377 adults at a small city shopping mall showed positive attitudes toward mainstreaming of handicapped students with normal potential for learning, and less favorable attitudes toward students exhibiting disruptive behavior. Subjects showed attitudinal differences based on their race, age, and child in school, but not their gender.…

  10. Privacy Attitudes among Early Adopters of Emerging Health Technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Cheung

    Full Text Available Advances in health technology such as genome sequencing and wearable sensors now allow for the collection of highly granular personal health data from individuals. It is unclear how people think about privacy in the context of these emerging health technologies. An open question is whether early adopters of these advances conceptualize privacy in different ways than non-early adopters.This study sought to understand privacy attitudes of early adopters of emerging health technologies.Transcripts from in-depth, semi-structured interviews with early adopters of genome sequencing and health devices and apps were analyzed with a focus on participant attitudes and perceptions of privacy. Themes were extracted using inductive content analysis.Although interviewees were willing to share personal data to support scientific advancements, they still expressed concerns, as well as uncertainty about who has access to their data, and for what purpose. In short, they were not dismissive of privacy risks. Key privacy-related findings are organized into four themes as follows: first, personal data privacy; second, control over personal information; third, concerns about discrimination; and fourth, contributing personal data to science.Early adopters of emerging health technologies appear to have more complex and nuanced conceptions of privacy than might be expected based on their adoption of personal health technologies and participation in open science. Early adopters also voiced uncertainty about the privacy implications of their decisions to use new technologies and share their data for research. Though not representative of the general public, studies of early adopters can provide important insights into evolving attitudes toward privacy in the context of emerging health technologies and personal health data research.

  11. Privacy Attitudes among Early Adopters of Emerging Health Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Cynthia; Bietz, Matthew J; Patrick, Kevin; Bloss, Cinnamon S

    2016-01-01

    Advances in health technology such as genome sequencing and wearable sensors now allow for the collection of highly granular personal health data from individuals. It is unclear how people think about privacy in the context of these emerging health technologies. An open question is whether early adopters of these advances conceptualize privacy in different ways than non-early adopters. This study sought to understand privacy attitudes of early adopters of emerging health technologies. Transcripts from in-depth, semi-structured interviews with early adopters of genome sequencing and health devices and apps were analyzed with a focus on participant attitudes and perceptions of privacy. Themes were extracted using inductive content analysis. Although interviewees were willing to share personal data to support scientific advancements, they still expressed concerns, as well as uncertainty about who has access to their data, and for what purpose. In short, they were not dismissive of privacy risks. Key privacy-related findings are organized into four themes as follows: first, personal data privacy; second, control over personal information; third, concerns about discrimination; and fourth, contributing personal data to science. Early adopters of emerging health technologies appear to have more complex and nuanced conceptions of privacy than might be expected based on their adoption of personal health technologies and participation in open science. Early adopters also voiced uncertainty about the privacy implications of their decisions to use new technologies and share their data for research. Though not representative of the general public, studies of early adopters can provide important insights into evolving attitudes toward privacy in the context of emerging health technologies and personal health data research.

  12. Exercise, Weather, Safety, and Public Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Mullan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Levels of cycling for transport (CFT in Ireland are very low—about 2% nationally—and the government has set a target of 10% of all trips to work by bicycle by 2020. The purpose of this study was to explore the complexities of leisure/sport cyclists’ views about CFT. Sixteen leisure/sport cyclists (four women and 12 men; about half cycled for transport were interviewed about the factors that influenced their decision to cycle somewhere instead of driving and the role of the weather in that decision, whether they considered CFT to be real “exercise,” and the meaning of “safety.” The findings were that the decision to cycle for transport was dominated by practical concerns, and weather concerns added to this organizational burden. For city-dwellers, the key deciding factor was cycling’s efficiency and reliability. Safety concerns centered around negative interactions with drivers and there was a common belief that the general public had very negative attitudes to cycling and cyclists. Finally, most thought that CFT was not “proper” exercise as it would be of insufficient intensity or duration and would take from the time available to do this. These findings show that to promote CFT among leisure/sport cyclists, government and local authorities must improve and highlight the efficiency, safety, and legitimacy of cycling as a transport option. Without this, promotional activities that just focus on the exercise, health, and enjoyment potential of CFT will have little effect.

  13. Knowledge and Attitude of Public Secondary School Teachers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated knowledge and attitude of public secondary school teachers towards continuous assessment (CA) practices in Edo Central Senatorial District, Nigeria. The study was undertaken to determine the influence of gender, age, years of experience and area of educational specialization on teachers' attitude ...

  14. Public attitudes to organ donation in South Africa | Pike | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public attitudes to organ donation may be influenced by cultural beliefs as well as racial prejudices and superstitions. In South Africa we are able to examine these issues from both a Firstand a Third-World perspective. In this study the attitudes of 1 299 urban white, 625 rural black and 826 urban black South Africans were ...

  15. Public attitudes toward mental illness in Africa and North America

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    investigations of public attitudes, whether from cross-cultural ... toward mental illness internationally ... in the context of different attitudes toward other human .... the impression that the study was not only a study of mental ... translation, and has experience in translating and editing ...... University students' perceptions of.

  16. Do public attitudes affect conservation effort? Using a questionnaire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally, amphibians are among the least appreciated vertebrates and are often negatively perceived by the general public. Such attitudes are particularly prevalent in South Africa, where fear, superstitions and myths associated with frogs are pervasive in some cultures. These attitudes could have harmful consequences ...

  17. Process of public attitudes toward nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimooka, Hiroshi

    1993-01-01

    The Japanese public attitudes toward nuclear power generation had become negative year by year. After the Chernobyl accident, a percentage of the unfavorable respondent toward nuclear power generation has dramatically increased, and a new type of anti-nuclear movement has been observed. On the basis of our public opinion polls, the reason for this increase was found to be primarily decrease of sense of usefulness rather than increase of sense of nueasiness about nuclear safety. Particularly, social factors (change of life style, progress of civilian consciousness, credibility of the existing institutional system etc.) have influence on the attitude of either pro or anti-nuclear. Based on the above observation, we have inferred that process of the public attitudes has two flows arising from the above social factors, one is the usefulness and the other is the easiness about nuclear safety, and have formulated a model representing the process of public attitudes toward nuclear power. (author)

  18. Investigation on public knowledge, attitude and practices related to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study are to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices towards pet husbandry, ... pet-owning households, with concerted efforts by veterinary, human and public health profes- ... Those benefits include companionship, physical activity, pro-.

  19. Public attitudes to organ donation in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    influence of cultural beliefs, racial prejudices and super- stitions on public attimdes ... added, free of charge, to existing market research ques- tionnaires. ..... changing attitude. The Xhosa ... lack of knowledge about brain death, organ donation.

  20. The formation of public attitudes to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.

    1983-01-01

    The following aspects are discussed: public attitudes and the media; reluctance of affluent societies to accept changes; methods developed by objectors; role of universities; public perceptions of hazards compared with objective statistical ranking; effect of public concern on government decisions. (U.K.)

  1. Research on the attitude detection technology of the tetrahedron robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hao; Chen, Keshan; Ren, Wenqiang; Cai, Xin

    2017-10-01

    The traditional attitude detection technology can't tackle the problem of attitude detection of the polyhedral robot. Thus we propose a novel algorithm of multi-sensor data fusion which is based on Kalman filter. In the algorithm a tetrahedron robot is investigated. We devise an attitude detection system for the polyhedral robot and conduct the verification of data fusion algorithm. It turns out that the minimal attitude detection system we devise could capture attitudes of the tetrahedral robot in different working conditions. Thus the Kinematics model we establish for the tetrahedron robot is correct and the feasibility of the attitude detection system is proven.

  2. Nuclear attitudes and personality: informing our understanding of public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, E.R.; Donev, J. M.; Ellard, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    What distinguishes the supporter of nuclear power from the antagonist? The influence that public opinions may have on industry success necessitates a greater understanding of the reasons and factors behind public attitudes. The present study identified two psychometric traits, Emotionality and Need for Cognition, which were related to nuclear support even after accounting for gender differences. This paper discusses the implications of these findings for understanding nuclear attitudes and ends by proposing avenues for future research in this area. (author)

  3. Nuclear attitudes and personality: informing our understanding of public acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, E.R.; Donev, J. M.; Ellard, J.H., E-mail: erlloyd@ucalgary.ca, E-mail: jason.donev@ucalgary.ca [Univ. of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    What distinguishes the supporter of nuclear power from the antagonist? The influence that public opinions may have on industry success necessitates a greater understanding of the reasons and factors behind public attitudes. The present study identified two psychometric traits, Emotionality and Need for Cognition, which were related to nuclear support even after accounting for gender differences. This paper discusses the implications of these findings for understanding nuclear attitudes and ends by proposing avenues for future research in this area. (author)

  4. Public knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding antibiotic use in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Zajmi, Drita; Berisha, Merita; Begolli, Ilir; Hoxha, Rina; Mehmeti, Rukije; Mulliqi-Osmani, Gjyle; Kurti, Arsim; Loku, Afrim; Raka, Lul

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Antimicrobial resistance is becoming a major public health challenge worldwide, caused primarily by the misuse of antibiotics. Antibiotic use is closely related to the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of a population. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices about antibiotic use among the general public in Kosovo. Methods: A cross-sectional face-to-face survey was carried out with a sample of 811 randomly se...

  5. Basic Technology Competencies, Attitude towards Computer Assisted Education and Usage of Technologies in Turkish Lesson: A Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Serpil

    2017-01-01

    The present research was done to determine the basic technology competency of Turkish teachers, their attitude towards computer-assisted education, and their technology operation level in Turkish lessons, and to designate the relationship between them. 85 Turkish teachers studying in public schools in Bartin participated in the research. The…

  6. Technology in the public schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, D.

    1973-01-01

    An evaluation of the forces operating on the public schools which might influence their disposition toward the utilization of technology is presented. It is suggested that the wide-ranging technology and know-how generated by the Federally sponsored research and development programs can be adapted and applied to the solution of problems found in education. It is suggested that three major developments in society have great bearing on the utilization of technology in educational programs. The extent to which these factors are manifested and interrelated, and the potential significance of their combined impact are analyzed.

  7. Public attitudes towards genetically-modified food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miles, S.; Ueland, O.; Frewer, L.J.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose - This study aimed to investigate the impact of information about traceability and new detection methods for identifying genetically-modified organisms in food, on consumer attitudes towards genetically-modified food and consumer trust in regulators in Italy, Norway and England. It

  8. Physical Education Teacher's Attitudes towards Philosophy of Education and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkeli, Anil; Senel, Omer

    2016-01-01

    The current study was carried out to find out the attitudes of physical education teachers towards educational philosophy and technology, and to determine the relationship between the philosophy of education that they adopt and their attitudes toward technology. With this aim, the study was conducted on 22 female and 69 male physical education…

  9. Drivers of Public Attitudes towards Small Wind Turbines in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatchley, Cerian; Paton, Heather; Robertson, Emma; Minderman, Jeroen; Hanley, Nicholas; Park, Kirsty

    2016-01-01

    Small Wind Turbines (SWTs) are a growing micro-generation industry with over 870,000 installed units worldwide. No research has focussed on public attitudes towards SWTs, despite evidence the perception of such attitudes are key to planning outcomes and can be a barrier to installations. Here we present the results of a UK wide mail survey investigating public attitudes towards SWTs. Just over half of our respondents, who were predominantly older, white males, felt that SWTs were acceptable across a range of settings, with those on road signs being most accepted and least accepted in hedgerows and gardens. Concern about climate change positively influenced how respondents felt about SWTs. Respondent comments highlight visual impacts and perceptions of the efficiency of this technology are particularly important to this sector of the UK public. Taking this into careful consideration, alongside avoiding locating SWTs in contentious settings such as hedgerows and gardens where possible, may help to minimise public opposition to proposed installations.

  10. Formation of public attitudes to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, Z.J.; Innes, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear power has been plagued by public acceptance problems. Evidence suggests one of the key factors is poor communicaton between the scientific community and the general public. Although environmental enquiries provide a forum for the voicing of views, by adopting the adversary principle they have also resulted in polarizaton of public opinion, as experienced in Australia with the Ranger Environmental Enquiry. The problem of developing methods to enable a flow of objective informaton to and from the public requires urgent solution

  11. Formation of public attitudes to nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holy, Z J; Innes, R W

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear power has been plagued by public acceptance problems. Evidence suggests one of the key factors is poor communicaton between the scientific community and the general public. Although environmental enquiries provide a forum for the voicing of views, by adopting the adversary principle they have also resulted in polarizaton of public opinion, as experienced in Australia with the Ranger Environmental Enquiry. The problem of developing methods to enable a flow of objective informaton to and from the public requires urgent solution.

  12. Public Attitudes Towards Moral Enhancement. Evidence that Means Matter Morally

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Specker (Jona); M.H.N. Schermer (Maartje); P.B. Reiner (Peter)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractTo gain insight into the reasons that the public may have for endorsing or eschewing pharmacological moral enhancement for themselves or for others, we used empirical tools to explore public attitudes towards these issues. Participants (N = 293) from the United States were recruited via

  13. Public Attitudes toward Stuttering in Turkey: Probability versus Convenience Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, R. Sertan; St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Topbas, Seyhun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A Turkish translation of the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S") was used to compare probability versus convenience sampling to measure public attitudes toward stuttering. Method: A convenience sample of adults in Eskisehir, Turkey was compared with two replicates of a school-based,…

  14. Research and Development on a Public Attitude Instrument for Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes research associated with the development of the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S"), a survey instrument designed to provide a worldwide standard measure of public attitudes toward stuttering. Pilot studies with early experimental prototypes of the "POSHA-S" are summarized that relate to…

  15. Public attitudes to climate change and carbon mitigation—Implications for energy-associated behaviours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgstede, Chris von; Andersson, Maria; Johnsson, Filip

    2013-01-01

    This work explores public opinions regarding climate change and mitigation options and examines how psychological factors, such as attitudes, norms, and willingness to pay, determine self-reported energy-efficient behaviour. The aim is to create knowledge for the design and implementation of policy measures. The results of an opinion poll conducted in 2005 and 2010 are compared. The number of respondents favouring new technologies as a way to reduce emissions was substantially lower in 2010 than in 2005, whereas there was an increase in the number of people who acknowledged that lifestyle changes are necessary to counteract climate changes. This indicates an increased awareness among the public of the need for lifestyle changes, which could facilitate implementation of policies promoting environmental behaviour. Renewable energy and energy saving measures were ranked as the top two measures for mitigating climate change in both polls. In determining which energy behaviours of the public are determined by psychological factors, an analysis of the 2010 survey revealed that respondents with pro-environmental attitudes towards global warming favour significantly increased use of renewable energy technologies and greater engagement in energy-efficient behaviours. - Highlights: ► Public opinion place priority to environmental issues and beliefs to change current lifestyle. ► A decline in favoring new technologies as a way to reduce emissions in 2010 compare to 2005 poll. ► Environmental attitudes relate to favor of renewable energy technologies. ► Environmental attitudes relate to households energy efficient behaviour

  16. 'I reject your reality and substitute my own'. Why more knowledge about CO2 storage hardly improves public attitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsting, S.; De Best-Waldhober, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Terwel, B.W. [Leiden University, Department of Social and Organizational Psychology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-05-01

    Lack of societal acceptance of energy (transition) technologies is often attributed to a lack of knowledge among the public. The underlying assumption is that more knowledge improves attitudes about a technology. This assumption will be tested in this paper by examining the influence of the scores on a CCS Knowledge Test on attitudes towards CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Furthermore the paper will examine the influence of perceptions of CCS (ideas that cannot be deemed 'true' or 'false') on attitude towards CCS and will analyse how knowledge and perceptions jointly influence attitude as well as in interaction. Implications of the results for communication about CCS are discussed.

  17. Radioactive wastes: public attitudes toward disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, M.K.; Earle, T.C.; Hebert, J.A.; Perry, R.W.

    1978-10-01

    Seventeen geographically widespread, established groups were selected which were expected to vary in their attitudes from strongly pronuclear to strongly antinuclear. People who tend to be politically active were chosen. The highest level of consensus was found on the need for site monitoring, site control, and information transfer in a waste repository. Overall, the results indicate that pronuclear respondents believe that the hazards of nuclear waste are similar to other industrial risks, while antinuclear respondents are less optimistic about safe storage of nuclear wastes and believe that nuclear power is different

  18. Reconstructing the Pupils Attitude towards Technology-Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardies, Jan; De Maeyer, Sven; Gijbels, David

    2013-01-01

    In knowledge based economies technological literacy is gaining interest. Technological literacy correlates with attitude towards technology. When measuring technological literacy as an outcome of education, the attitudinal dimension has to be taken into account. This requires a valid, reliable instrument that should be as concise as possible, in…

  19. Analysis of public attitude to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trofimenko, A.P.; Pisanko, Zh.I.

    2001-01-01

    Psychological features of nuclear power public perception, reasons of anti-nuclear movement and social components of its participants are considered. The results of some public opinion polls on nuclear power are analyzed, and factors, which influence on opinion, are discussed. Arguments are presented which indicate that part population imagination about nuclear power hazard is strongly exaggerated

  20. Attitude Control Subsystem for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewston, Alan W.; Mitchell, Kent A.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the on-orbit operation of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). The three ACTS control axes are defined, including the means for sensing attitude and determining the pointing errors. The desired pointing requirements for various modes of control as well as the disturbance torques that oppose the control are identified. Finally, the hardware actuators and control loops utilized to reduce the attitude error are described.

  1. Public attitudes to genomic science: an experiment in information provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgis, Patrick; Brunton-Smith, Ian; Fife-Schaw, Chris

    2010-03-01

    We use an experimental panel study design to investigate the effect of providing "value-neutral" information about genomic science in the form of a short film to a random sample of the British public. We find little evidence of attitude change as a function of information provision. However, our results show that information provision significantly increased dropout from the study amongst less educated respondents. Our findings have implications both for our understanding of the knowledge-attitude relationship in public opinion toward genomic science and for science communication more generally.

  2. Enhancing public involvement in assistive technology design research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Tracey; Kenney, Laurence; Barker, Anthony T; Cooper, Glen; Good, Tim; Healey, Jamie; Heller, Ben; Howard, David; Matthews, Martin; Prenton, Sarah; Ryan, Julia; Smith, Christine

    2015-05-01

    To appraise the application of accepted good practice guidance on public involvement in assistive technology research and to identify its impact on the research team, the public, device and trial design. Critical reflection and within-project evaluation were undertaken in a case study of the development of a functional electrical stimulation device. Individual and group interviews were undertaken with lay members of a 10 strong study user advisory group and also research team members. Public involvement was seen positively by research team members, who reported a positive impact on device and study designs. The public identified positive impact on confidence, skills, self-esteem, enjoyment, contribution to improving the care of others and opportunities for further involvement in research. A negative impact concerned the challenge of engaging the public in dissemination after the study end. The public were able to impact significantly on the design of an assistive technology device which was made more fit for purpose. Research team attitudes to public involvement were more positive after having witnessed its potential first hand. Within-project evaluation underpins this case study which presents a much needed detailed account of public involvement in assistive technology design research to add to the existing weak evidence base. The evidence base for impact of public involvement in rehabilitation technology design is in need of development. Public involvement in co-design of rehabilitation devices can lead to technologies that are fit for purpose. Rehabilitation researchers need to consider the merits of active public involvement in research.

  3. Public attitudes toward mental illness in Africa and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, K O; Roberts, P M

    2013-03-01

    Public attitudes toward mental illness in two widely disparate cultures, Canada and Cameroon, were compared using an experimental version of a survey instrument, the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Mental Illness or POSHA-MI(e). 120 respondents rated POSHA-MI(e) items relating to mental illness on 1-9 equal appearing interval scales: 30 in English and 30 in French in both Cameroon and Canada. Additionally, 30 matched, monolingual English, American respondents were included as a comparison group. In Canada (and in the USA), attitudes were generally more positive and less socially stigmatizing toward mental illness than in Cameroon. Differences between countries were much larger than differences between language groups. Consistent with other research, beliefs and reactions of the public regarding mental illness reflect stigma, especially in Cameroon. Cultural influences on these public attitudes are more likely important than language influences. Results of this field test of the POSHA-MI(e), documenting differences in public attitudes toward mental illness in two divergent cultures, support its further development.

  4. Public attitudes towards nuclear power and alternative energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    Phase I of this study analyzed attitudes and beliefs of respondents drawn from Metro-Manila. The second phase utilized a sample drawn from residents near a geothermal power plant site in Southern Philippines. Four dimensions of beliefs (psychological/environmental risks, technological benefits/development, economic benefits/implications and socio-political implications/benefits) were identified through factor analysis of belief items on nuclear energy and refined empirically to determine perceptions of respondents about all energy systems. Identification of the relationships between dimensions provided insight into the shared perceptions about each energy system held by the various groups of respondents. The overall attitude of the respondents towards energy systems (nuclear, solar, hydro, geothermal and oil) was determined using three attitude measures: Fishbein model, Osgood's semantic differential technique, and direct response to unfavorability/favorability scale. The belief dimensions were correlated with the attitude measures to determine the degree of contribution of each dimension to attitude. A comparative analysis was made to differentiate attitudes and beliefs held by the PRO and CON nuclear groups, and by the subsamples: university students, science teachers and barangay leaders of the Metro-Manila sample. Attitudes and beliefs relating to the demographic variables were also examined for the two samples. (author)

  5. In-Service Science Teachers' Attitude towards Information Communication Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibirige, I.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the attitude of in-service science teachers towards information communication technology (ICT) in education. The study explores the relationship between in-service teachers and four independent variables: their attitudes toward computers; their cultural perception of computers; their perceived computer…

  6. Swedish Technology Teachers' Attitudes to Their Subject and Its Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlöf, Charlotta; Höst, Gunnar E.; Hallström, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Background: From previous research among science teachers it is known that teachers' attitudes to their subjects affect important aspects of their teaching, including their confidence and the amount of time they spend teaching the subject. In contrast, less is known about technology teachers' attitudes. Purpose: Therefore, the aim of this study is…

  7. Technological catastrophes and public reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmachkin, V.

    2000-01-01

    The mankind energy demands are expected to be in 2050 more than twice of present level. But a World Conference on Environment in Kyoto is expressed the concern about the releases of greenhouses gases which could cause the climate changes. Accordingly the contamination of the atmosphere by the greenhouse gases is becoming of an urgent problem of our civilisation. Obviously a nuclear energy is assumed to be a main aid of solving such energy problem. But everybody knows the society is in a conflict situation- there is a powerful movement of 'green' forces against the nuclear power. Some people are trying firmly to stop or even to ban the development of the nuclear power in some countries. An analysis of the ground causes of such social phenomenon as anti-nuclear movement can assist us in its management and future actions for development of nuclear power. It is possible to distinguish economical, social, scientific roots of nuclear opposition. Role of mass media in development of the public anti-nuclear mood is very important. Nobody doubts that a public acceptance is a key point for future nuclear energy. Recent anti-nuclear problems can be solved by calm confident interaction with public, by careful substitution of old troublesome image of the nuclear power on view of modem controllable technology with high level of safety and protection of environment. In such actions very important to convince of public that the such modem requirements of the nuclear safety as - no large radioactive release, no emergency evacuation, no permanent relocation of population, no restrictions on food consumption- are implemented in the correspondent design decisions based on defence-in-depth concept. And everybody have to know that in the case of any operational incident all consequences of disturbances will be mitigated and real risks will be scornful small. Problem of the plants decommissioning is a very serious. But it has to be solved on the base of optimisation of money expenses and

  8. Juvenile technologies in foreign publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpagina E.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the review of foreign publications, concerning the juvenile technologies used in France, Canada, Germany and Switzerland. The paper presents legal, social and psychotherapeutic aspects of juvenile judiciary in foreign countries. The authors paid special attention to the complexity of approaches to young children and teenagers who found themselves in complicated life circumstances or got into trouble with the law. The article gives examples of using the following techniques: cognitive-behavioral intervention, mediation, family therapy (including family background and family history, relations theory, narrative practices, utilization of «emotional intelligence» resources.

  9. Public fear of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nealey, S.M.; Radford, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    Excessive fear of nuclear technology (EFONT) is estimated to affect from 35-50 percent of the U.S. public, EFONT is defined as an unpleasant state of fear with components of stress and anxiety, threat to security, and anger. The cognitive aspect of EFONT involves perception of risks, benefits, and values which reinforce and perpetuate the fear. EFONT can be reduced through communications and outreach programs by providing basic information, encouraging participation, and targeting misinformation. Risks need to be put in perspective and benefits made explicit. Safety messages should be combined with other information. Understanding and patience are indispensable in dealing with those who are afraid

  10. Nuclear risk, psychological impact and public attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghita, Carmen

    1998-01-01

    Research shows that the images of potential nuclear disasters that have been formed in the mind of antinuclear on public are remarkable different from the assessments put forth by many technical experts. In communicating risk, it is important for authorities to add information about risk assessments approach and its inherent scientific uncertainties. Presenting the benefits as well as the risks also can help the audience balance the issues involved in making decisions about technical risk. The paper describes the public perceptions related to nuclear risk and the risk assessment techniques valuable as communication tools. (author)

  11. Public Attitudes toward Stuttering in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przepiorka, Aneta M.; Blachnio, Agata; St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Wozniak, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Background: People who stutter often experience negative judgments and reactions to their stuttering from the nonstuttering majority. Many are stigmatized because of their stuttering and threatened with social exclusion, placing them at risk for compromised quality of life. Aims: The purpose of this investigation was to measure public attitudes…

  12. Media Influence On Public Opinion Attitudes Toward The Migration Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Kosho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many studies or facts from the practical experience of many journalist politicians and professors show that the media impact on public opinion is enormous and essential. Many issues of everyday life human crisis or mainstream policies once covered and analyzed from the lenses of the media become the main concerns of the citizens and have a meaningful impact on the attitudes of the public opinion. The migration crisis that is challenging the European countries nowadays is a big concern not only for the host countries citizens but a life challenge for the immigrants themselves. This study will examine of the connection between media reports on immigration and public attitudes and actions and how migration issues presented in the mainstream media impact the public and political discourse on international migration.

  13. Nuclear waste management, reactor decommisioning, nuclear liability and public attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with several issues that are frequently raised by the public in any discussion of nuclear energy, and explores some aspects of public attitudes towards nuclear-related activities. The characteristics of the three types of waste associated with the nuclear fuel cycle, i.e. mine/mill tailings, reactor wastes and nuclear fuel wastes, are defined, and the methods currently being proposed for their safe handling and disposal are outlined. The activities associated with reactor decommissioning are also described, as well as the Canadian approach to nuclear liability. The costs associated with nuclear waste management, reactor decommissioning and nuclear liability are also discussed. Finally, the issue of public attitudes towards nuclear energy is addressed. It is concluded that a simple and comprehensive information program is needed to overcome many of the misconceptions that exist about nuclear energy and to provide the public with a more balanced information base on which to make decisions

  14. Public attitudes to financial incentive models for organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus; Schicktanz, Silke; Deleuran, Ida

    2013-01-01

    Waiting lists for organs have stimulated interest in the use of financial incentives for organ donation (FIs), but the literature does not contain an adequate overview of studies of public attitudes toward this mode of procurement. We conducted a literature review of international peer......-reviewed research published between 2002 and 2012 on how members of the public position themselves toward FIs. We identified and analyzed 23 studies using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts and cross-reference search. The search included whole organs, donation, quantitative and empirical qualitative social...... scientific studies on, public attitudes (excluding professionals and medical students). The review reveals a broad divergence of public opinions on financial incentives. However, quantitative studies showed a low overall level of acceptance of payment for organs in living donation (LD); only a slightly...

  15. Public attitudes toward nuclear power and the TMI accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanga, B.K.

    1983-01-01

    This paper which examines the Three Mile Island accident in the context of public reactions to the plant in the surrounding area emphasises that public attitudes to nuclear power should be discussed according to two time frames - short and long range. Public perception of safety, reliability and economy may be different in the future and the role of the nuclear industry is to operate plants safely and ensure that the public gains a clearer understanding of the essential part played by nuclear reactors in generating electricity. (NEA) [fr

  16. Public attitudes toward mental illness in Africa and North America ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result: In Canada (and in the USA), attitudes were generally more positive and less socially stigmatizing toward mental illness than in Cameroon. Differences between countries were much larger than differences between language groups. Conclusion: Consistent with other research, beliefs and reactions of the public ...

  17. Assessing the Attitudes and Practices of Public Health Professionals ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project, managed by the American University of Beirut, will survey public health academics and practitioners around the world about their attitudes and practices around funding from for-profit corporations, particularly those whose products are associated with non-communicable diseases. The project will also review ...

  18. Personality Traits and Foreign Policy Attitudes in German Public Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Harald

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the effects of personality traits on attitudes toward foreign policy issues among the German public. Building on previous research, it argues that personality characteristics shape an individual's motivation, goals, and values, thereby providing criteria to evaluate external stimuli and affecting foreign policy opinions. An…

  19. Effect of trainings on attitude formation towards nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asuncion, Alvie J.; Loterina, Roel A.; Cansino, Percedita T.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear energy's critical role in sustainable development has been highlighted in various reports and studies. This role, however, has been hampered by many influences; one of the most notable is public support which has been correlated with public attitudes. Public support drops rapidly in the midst of nuclear crises as in the case of the recent Fukushima accident, and unless interventions are made, this drop can become irreversible. Information dissemination and brief public communication may serve as short-term solutions, but these interventions appeal to opinions which are relatively more volatile than attitudes. Previous studies have shown that there are different pathways to attitude formation which include education and knowledge-building activities. In this study, the effect of training of the attitudes of participants towards nuclear science and technology was investigated. A questionnaire was designed and validated to measure attitudes towards Nuclear Science and Technology (NST) and was administered to participants of training courses conducted by the PNRI Nuclear Training Center. A total of 111 participants from five training courses were included as respondents which is 91% of the target population, of these, 30.6% are Educators, 44.1% are Medical Practitioners, and 25.2% are Licensees. Mean scores obtained from the questionnaire were analyzed and significant difference has been found at 0.05 confidence level, between participants' attitudes before and after attending a training course. There were slight differences observed from each group of respondents but over-all results show that knowledge-building activities like trainings can be utilized to improve public attitudes towards nuclear science and technology in the Philippine context. (author)

  20. Computer Science and Technology Publications. NBS Publications List 84.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC. Inst. for Computer Sciences and Technology.

    This bibliography lists publications of the Institute for Computer Sciences and Technology of the National Bureau of Standards. Publications are listed by subject in the areas of computer security, computer networking, and automation technology. Sections list publications of: (1) current Federal Information Processing Standards; (2) computer…

  1. Determinants of public attitudes to genetically modified salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifah Amin

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country.

  2. Public attitudes toward nuclear power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lough, W.T.

    1987-01-01

    A public workshop was conducted with a group of citizens to obtain the concerns and preferences of the group with respect to decommissioning. Seventeen concerns about decommissioning were identified and prioritized. The participants were most concerned about the potential health and safety effects from decommissioning. The potential impacts from the lost tax base and loss of employment were also rated highly. The estimated increase in electric utility rates was not a major concern. The participants were split fairly evenly on preferences about the methods of decommissioning. However, nine of the ten participants preferred power plant life extension over decommissioning by any method. Finally, the participants were given an evaluation questionnaire about the workshop. In general, they concluded that the process was effective, and they felt like they were a part of the Commission's planning process

  3. Fuzzy measure analysis of public attitude towards the use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Y.; Preyssl, C.; Onisawa, T.; Sen'ichi Mokuya

    1996-01-01

    It is important to identify the structure of public acceptance or rejection when new technologies are developed and implemented The structure of attitudes should have the essential attributes and their interrelation. In such a structural analysis the attitudes need to be decomposed into meaningful attributes by a suitable model However, the data obtained in this type of study may be more or less subjective and fuzzy, and the following problems may be pointed out: (1.) A man does net always have an additive measure such as probability to evaluate fuzzy objects, (2.) The attributes of an object in bis evaluation process are not always independent of each other. In either case a linear model may not be applicable. This paper is concerned with applying fuzzy measures and fuzzy integrals to analyze public attitude towards the use of nuclear energy. We applied the fuzzy measures and fuzzy integrals to analyze public attitude towards the use of nuclear energy by distributing questionnaires to about 100 students of Engineering Department of Kinki University, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka, Japan. Before and after the Chernobyl Accident we noticed a distinct difference in mental structure Before the accident, the students of pro-nuclear group were whole-heartedly in favour of the use of nuclear energy, based on fringe benefits, impacts on society and economic progress, but after the accident they showed a favourable attitude towards the use of nuclear energy based on economic progress, but with some reservation because of the potential threats. (author)

  4. A CRISPR New World: Attitudes in the Public toward Innovations in Human Genetic Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Steven M; Badgio, Daniel; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2017-01-01

    The potential to genetically modify human germlines has reached a critical tipping point with recent applications of CRISPR-Cas9. Even as researchers, clinicians, and ethicists weigh the scientific and ethical repercussions of these advances, we know virtually nothing about public attitudes on the topic. Understanding such attitudes will be critical to determining the degree of broad support there might be for any public policy or regulation developed for genetic modification research. To fill this gap, we gave an online survey to a large (2,493 subjects) and diverse sample of Americans. Respondents supported genetic modification research, although demographic variables influenced these attitudes-conservatives, women, African-Americans, and older respondents, while supportive, were more cautious than liberals, men, other ethnicities, and younger respondents. Support was also was slightly muted when the risks (unanticipated mutations and possibility of eugenics) were made explicit. The information about genetic modification was also presented as contrasting vignettes, using one of five frames: genetic editing, engineering, hacking, modification, or surgery. Despite the fact that the media and academic use of frames describing the technology varies, these frames did not influence people's attitudes. These data contribute a current snapshot of public attitudes to inform policy with regard to human genetic modification.

  5. Have public attitudes in Germany towards nuclear energy changed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gey, Angela

    2000-01-01

    The Federal Government developed its phase-out scenario in 1998, at a time in which the public debate about nuclear energy in Germany had waned and the anti-nuclear movement among the population had clearly lost much of its support. Since the beginning of the 90s, the proportion of Germans referring to themselves as 'opponents of nuclear power' has gone down from almost 19 to only just 12%. This decrease has been particularly strong among younger people. While in 1990 29 were still opposed to nuclear power, in 1999 this figure was only 17 %. Within the age group of 30-44 year-olds, 26 were against nuclear power in 1990; today, it is only 16 %. As for Germans aged 45+, the number of nuclear-power opponents decreased within this period by around 6 to a mere 8%. The issue of the 'use of nuclear power', which used to be ideologically charged and discussed with great passion in Germany for a long time, has cooled down. There exist quite different views about the further use of nuclear technology, and what the public wants especially in view of the planned phase-out is a prudent energy policy, based on a careful analysis of the consequences. One of the major points of the current opinion poll on the topic: 'Have public attitudes in Germany towards nuclear energy changed?', is being carried out by the Institut fur Demoskopie Alensbach on behalf of the Informationskreis Kernenergie. Apart from this first major point, this poll is to find out which general course an energy policy should ideally take according to public opinion, along which lines such an energy policy should orientate itself, what is the place value of the principle of having an energy mix, and how much importance is attributed to sustainability. Another focus lies on probing the knowledge of those polled in order to check to what extent the population assesses correctly the quantitative importance of nuclear power and alternative energies and how well it is informed about the potentials of different forms

  6. Perceived usefulness and culture as predictors of teachers attitudes towards educational technology in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Anne Hart

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of educational technology (ET worldwide is increasing rapidly, and South Africa is no exception. Grouped amongst the emerging economies of the world, South Africa's information and communication technology (ICT infrastructure is often mentioned as one of the key factors leading to the growth of the country. Integrating ICT into education has become a priority for the South African government. However, it is necessary to move beyond merely providing physical access to ICT's in order for integration to be successful. The integration of ET in schools is greatly influenced by teachers' attitudes towards the technology. The aim of this study was to investigate teachers' attitudes towards educational technology and the factors that are thought to influence teachers' attitudes, namely, perceived usefulness, perceived cultural relevance, perceived competence and access to ET. A convenience sample of 117 teachers in the Johannesburg area, from both public and private schools, across foundation, intermediate and senior phase, completed the Attitudes Towards Computer Scale. Teachers' attitudes were generally positive. The strongest predictor of teachers' attitudes was perceived usefulness followed by perceived cultural relevance. Thus, it is evident that when integrating ET into schools, attention must be paid to teachers perceptions of the utility of ET in order for integration to be successful. Having access to ET and the competence to use ET are not enough for the successful integration of ET in schools.

  7. Public attitudes towards electroconvulsive therapy in the Chuvash Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golenkov, Andrei; Ungvari, Gabor S; Gazdag, Gábor

    2012-05-01

    Public attitudes towards a given medical procedure can have a significant influence on the employment of that method. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a medical procedure that has received an exceptionally ambiguous public reception since its inception. To survey the level of information about and attitudes towards ECT in a general population sample of the Chuvash Republic of the Russian Federation. A randomly selected cohort of 5,373 people was contacted by telephone. The respondents were asked three closed and three open questions. The response rate was 74.7%. Only 35.2% of those interviewed said they knew anything about ECT. Health professionals and younger respondents were better informed. The two main sources of information about ECT were foreign films and the mass media. The main indication of ECT was thought to be schizophrenia. The majority (63.3%) of the respondents had negative opinions and emotions about ECT. Limited information about and generally negative attitudes towards ECT were found in the general population of the Chuvash Republic. Gender, age, education level, employment in the health industry, and information source were found to be the determining factors in the knowledge of and attitudes towards ECT.

  8. Using Games to Promote Girls' Positive Attitudes toward Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eck, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Studies show that women make up only 35% of the IT workforce, and the schism between boys' and girls' interests in math and science is well documented. Richard Van Eck suggests that providing girls with more positive experiences with technology may impact their overall attitudes toward technology and perhaps even toward math and science. Van Eck…

  9. Attitudes of the Elderly toward Information and Communications Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Antonio; Ramirez, M. Paz; Viadel, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Learning and using new technologies by the older people is seen as a demand for their integration in society and as a factor related to active aging. The goal of this article is to understand the attitudes of the elderly towards information and communication technologies in the context of a training course about the utilization of a digital…

  10. Why School? The 48th Annual PDK Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phi Delta Kappan, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Why school? The 48th Annual PDK Poll of the Public's Attitudes Toward the Public Schools included questions about the purpose of schooling, standards, homework, school funding, and parents' relationships with their schools. The 2016 poll, which was conducted by Langer Research Associates, was based on a telephone poll of 1,221 adults during April…

  11. Do natural science experiments influence public attitudes towards environmental problems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, A.; Hunziker, M.; Kienast, F.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the significance of risk assessment studies in the public discussion on CO 2 emissions. Politicians and representatives from the public were interviewed by using the social-science technique of qualitative in-depth interviews. Three different types of attitudes towards natural science were found among politicians. Depending on which attitude a politician holds, risk assessment studies can have an impact on his/her readiness to support environmental policy measures. Regarding lay people, key factors affecting the acceptance of environmental policy measures are knowledge of environmental problems, their impacts on ecosystems or human health as well as direct personal perception of those impacts. Since direct perception is not always possible in everyday life, natural science experiments might be a means for successfully mediating this lacking perception. (author)

  12. From motivation to acceptability: a survey of public attitudes towards organ donation in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordfalk, Francisca; Olejaz, Maria; Jensen, Anja M B; Skovgaard, Lea Larsen; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Over the past three decades, public attitudes to organ donation have been a subject of numerous studies focusing on donor motivation. Here, we present a fresh approach. We suggest focusing on public acceptability instead of motivation. The point is to understand public attitudes well enough to avoid risking public support for organ transplantation. We conducted the study in Denmark because there have been significant developments in public attitudes to organ donation in this country. In the 1990s, Denmark was a country with very low public support for organ donation and Denmark was the last country in Europe to introduce brain death as a legal criterion of death, whereas today Eurobarometer surveys rate Denmark as one of the European countries with the highest support for deceased organ donation from brain dead donors. We conducted a telephone survey in Denmark (N = 1195). A questionnaire was developed on the basis of preceding qualitative studies and pilot testing and included reuse of one item from earlier surveys to facilitate historical comparison. The analysis of the data was carried out using IBM SPSS Statistics 22 and focused on descriptive statistics. A clear majority of 91.9 % are positive or very positive towards organ donation; 85.8 % like the idea of their body being used after their death, 85.0 % is willing to donate their own organs, 82.1 % to donate their tissue and only 2.3 % find that too much has been done to promote organ donation. There is limited support for monetary incentives for organ donation (5.8 %) and presumed consent (30.4 %), while a majority (63.9 %) supports making it mandatory to register a personal decision. Religious self-identification has limited impact on attitudes. We can identify a shift over the past three decades from marked opposition to organ transplantation to strong support as well as a pattern in the contemporary public attitudes, which can help explain what is central to public acceptability: self

  13. Consumer Attitudes Regarding Information Technology Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durmus YORUK

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to formulate the hypotheses for the factors that influence individuals to adopt Information Technology as a mean to conduct the traditional services. The hypotheses are developed based on previous works utilizing the theories on technology acceptance and on related findings from empirical studies on information technologies,e-commerce and e-banking.

  14. Scale to Measure Attitudes toward Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Anu A.; Paul E. Brauchle; Kenton F. Machina

    2013-01-01

    The current post-secondary graduation rates in computing disciplines suggest American universities are only training enough students to fill one third of the projected 1.4 million technology and computing jobs available (National Center for Women and Information Technology, 2011). Pursuit of information technology (IT) majors depends, to a great…

  15. Attitudes to publicly funded obesity treatment and prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Bøker; Sandøe, Peter; Lassen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the Danish public’s support for publicly funded obesity treatment and prevention. It was also examined whether levels of support could be explained by dislike of obese people and / or the belief that those who are obese are personally responsible......, the perceived controllability of obesity, self-reported BMI, and additional attitudinal and sociodemographic characteristics. Public funding of some obesity treatments, such as weight-loss surgery, attracted only limited public support. A majority of the Danish public did support ‘softer’ treatment...... interventions and preventive initiatives. Attitudes to the treatment of obesity were clearly best predicted by the belief that individuals are personally responsible for their own obesity. Dislike of obese persons had no direct effect on the preference for collective treatment initiatives and only a small...

  16. Canadian public and leadership attitudes to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    Surveys of the Canadian public and leadership were carried out to determine levels of knowledge, perceptions and attitudes toward the use of nuclear power in Canada. The public sample included population over 18 years broken down by region, age, sex and education. The leadership study sampled businessmen, politicians, civil servants, academics and environmentalists. Only 56 % of the public indicated a knowledge of the use of nuclear power: 68 % were in favour, and of these, 39 % were unsure of its safety. Environmentalits were the most knowledgealbe of all the leadership groups, with academics second, and the remaining groups having low levels of information. Fear-producing aspects defined by the survey should be used as the basis for providing information. All leadership groups except environmentalists favoured nuclear power development. Leadership groups identified the same disadvantages as the public (radiation, waste management, pollution and explosions) but added cost. (J.T.A.)

  17. A CRISPR New World: Attitudes in the Public toward Innovations in Human Genetic Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Weisberg

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The potential to genetically modify human germlines has reached a critical tipping point with recent applications of CRISPR-Cas9. Even as researchers, clinicians, and ethicists weigh the scientific and ethical repercussions of these advances, we know virtually nothing about public attitudes on the topic. Understanding such attitudes will be critical to determining the degree of broad support there might be for any public policy or regulation developed for genetic modification research. To fill this gap, we gave an online survey to a large (2,493 subjects and diverse sample of Americans. Respondents supported genetic modification research, although demographic variables influenced these attitudes—conservatives, women, African-Americans, and older respondents, while supportive, were more cautious than liberals, men, other ethnicities, and younger respondents. Support was also was slightly muted when the risks (unanticipated mutations and possibility of eugenics were made explicit. The information about genetic modification was also presented as contrasting vignettes, using one of five frames: genetic editing, engineering, hacking, modification, or surgery. Despite the fact that the media and academic use of frames describing the technology varies, these frames did not influence people’s attitudes. These data contribute a current snapshot of public attitudes to inform policy with regard to human genetic modification.

  18. Understanding consumer attitudes toward food technologies in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Spencer; Annou, Mamane; Cranfield, John; Ryks, Joanne

    2008-12-01

    This article reports a study on consumer attitudes to 21 food and nonfood technologies in Canada. The study involves repertory grid interviews with 36 food consumers, the data from which are analyzed using generalized Procrustes analysis. Results highlight the role of perceived risk and perceived benefit in determining the acceptability of the technologies, with individual technologies lying along a continuum between the two. For technology as a whole and the 21 specific technologies, the perceived risk and perceived benefit constructs were the dominant determinants of consumer acceptability. While perceptions of perceived risk and perceived benefit differed between individual respondents, there were very limited consistent relations with a range of sociodemographic variables.

  19. Public knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding antibiotic use in Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajmi, Drita; Berisha, Merita; Begolli, Ilir; Hoxha, Rina; Mehmeti, Rukije; Mulliqi-Osmani, Gjyle; Kurti, Arsim; Loku, Afrim; Raka, Lul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Antimicrobial resistance is becoming a major public health challenge worldwide, caused primarily by the misuse of antibiotics. Antibiotic use is closely related to the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of a population. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices about antibiotic use among the general public in Kosovo. Methods: A cross-sectional face-to-face survey was carried out with a sample of 811 randomly selected Kosovo residents. The methodology used for this survey was based on the European Commission Eurobarometer survey on antimicrobial resistance. Results: More than half of respondents (58.7%) have used antibiotics during the past year. A quarter of respondents consumed antibiotics without a medical prescription. The most common reasons for usage were flu (23.8%), followed by sore throat (20.2%), cold (13%) and common cold (7.6%). 42.5% of respondents think that antibiotics are effective against viral infections. Almost half of respondents (46.7%) received information about the unnecessary use of antibiotics and 32.5% of them report having changed their views and behaviours after receiving this information. Health care workers were identified as the most trustworthy source of information on antibiotic use (67.2%). Conclusion: These results provide quantitative baseline data on Kosovar knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding the use of antibiotic. These findings have potential to empower educational campaigns to promote the prudent use of antibiotics in both community and health care settings. PMID:28503216

  20. Measuring attitudes towards nuclear and technological risks (computer programs in SPSS language)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonin, T.V. Jr.

    1981-04-01

    A number of methodologies have been developed for measuring public attitudes towards nuclear and other technological risks. The Fishbein model, as modified by the IAEA Risk Assessment group, and which was found to be applicable for Philippine public attitude measurements, is briefly explained together with two other models which are utilized for comparative correlations. A step by step guide on the procedures involved and the calculations required in measuring and analyzing attitude using these models is likewise described, with special emphasis on the computer processing aspect. The use of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) in the analysis is also described and a number of computer programs in SPSS for the various statistical calculations required in the analysis is presented. (author)

  1. Measuring Public Acceptance of Nuclear Technology with Big data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Seugkook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Surveys can be conducted only on people in specific region and time interval, and it may be misleading to generalize the results to represent the attitude of the public. For example, opinions of a person living in metropolitan area, far from the dangers of nuclear reactors and enjoying cheap electricity produced by the reactors, and a person living in proximity of nuclear power plants, subject to tremendous damage should nuclear meltdown occur, certainly differs for the topic of nuclear generation. To conclude, big data is a useful tool to measure the public acceptance of nuclear technology efficiently (i.e., saves cost, time, and effort of measurement and analysis) and this research was able to provide a case for using big data to analyze public acceptance of nuclear technology. Finally, the analysis identified opinion leaders, which allows target-marketing when policy is executed.

  2. Measuring Public Acceptance of Nuclear Technology with Big data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Seugkook

    2015-01-01

    Surveys can be conducted only on people in specific region and time interval, and it may be misleading to generalize the results to represent the attitude of the public. For example, opinions of a person living in metropolitan area, far from the dangers of nuclear reactors and enjoying cheap electricity produced by the reactors, and a person living in proximity of nuclear power plants, subject to tremendous damage should nuclear meltdown occur, certainly differs for the topic of nuclear generation. To conclude, big data is a useful tool to measure the public acceptance of nuclear technology efficiently (i.e., saves cost, time, and effort of measurement and analysis) and this research was able to provide a case for using big data to analyze public acceptance of nuclear technology. Finally, the analysis identified opinion leaders, which allows target-marketing when policy is executed

  3. Attitude Of Students Of Federal University Of Technology Owerri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper analyzed the attitude of students of federal university of technology Owerri towards a career in Agriculture with a view to understanding the effect on future manpower needs for Nigeria Agricultural Development. Fifty final year student were randomly selected from the five departments in the school of Agric and ...

  4. The Relationship Between Student and Faculty Attitudes Toward Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnell, Virginia

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine student and faculty attitudes toward computer technology in advanced arts classes at a southeastern university in the United States. This one semester study was focused on the traditional arts disciplines of art, dance, music, and theatre. This correlational analysis limited to faculty members and students…

  5. Texas Agricultural Science Teachers' Attitudes toward Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ryan; Williams, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The researchers sought to find the Agricultural Science teachers' attitude toward five innovations (Computer-Aided Design, Record Books, E-Mail Career Development Event Registration, and World Wide Web) of information technology. The population for this study consisted of all 333 secondary Agricultural science teachers from Texas FFA Areas V and…

  6. Drivers of Public Attitudes towards Small Wind Turbines in the UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerian Tatchley

    Full Text Available Small Wind Turbines (SWTs are a growing micro-generation industry with over 870,000 installed units worldwide. No research has focussed on public attitudes towards SWTs, despite evidence the perception of such attitudes are key to planning outcomes and can be a barrier to installations. Here we present the results of a UK wide mail survey investigating public attitudes towards SWTs. Just over half of our respondents, who were predominantly older, white males, felt that SWTs were acceptable across a range of settings, with those on road signs being most accepted and least accepted in hedgerows and gardens. Concern about climate change positively influenced how respondents felt about SWTs. Respondent comments highlight visual impacts and perceptions of the efficiency of this technology are particularly important to this sector of the UK public. Taking this into careful consideration, alongside avoiding locating SWTs in contentious settings such as hedgerows and gardens where possible, may help to minimise public opposition to proposed installations.

  7. Drivers of Public Attitudes towards Small Wind Turbines in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatchley, Cerian; Paton, Heather; Robertson, Emma; Minderman, Jeroen; Hanley, Nicholas; Park, Kirsty

    2016-01-01

    Small Wind Turbines (SWTs) are a growing micro-generation industry with over 870,000 installed units worldwide. No research has focussed on public attitudes towards SWTs, despite evidence the perception of such attitudes are key to planning outcomes and can be a barrier to installations. Here we present the results of a UK wide mail survey investigating public attitudes towards SWTs. Just over half of our respondents, who were predominantly older, white males, felt that SWTs were acceptable across a range of settings, with those on road signs being most accepted and least accepted in hedgerows and gardens. Concern about climate change positively influenced how respondents felt about SWTs. Respondent comments highlight visual impacts and perceptions of the efficiency of this technology are particularly important to this sector of the UK public. Taking this into careful consideration, alongside avoiding locating SWTs in contentious settings such as hedgerows and gardens where possible, may help to minimise public opposition to proposed installations. PMID:27011356

  8. Home-Based Assistive Technologies for Elderly: Attitudes and Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Demiris, George; Rantz, Marilyn J.; Skubic, Marjorie; Aud, Myra A.; Tyrer, Harry W.

    2005-01-01

    This study aim is to explore the perceptions of seniors in regard to “smart home” technology aiming to improve their quality of life and/or monitor their health status. A total of 15 older adults participated in three focus groups. Participants had a positive attitude towards these technologies and identified application areas such as emergency help, detection of falls, monitoring of physiological parameters. Concerns were expressed about privacy and the need for tailored ...

  9. 75 FR 4042 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Public Perceptions and Attitudes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Public Perceptions and Attitudes About Hawaiian Monk Seals AGENCY..., attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviors regarding the endangered Hawaiian monk seal. The information...

  10. A unique fingerprint? Factors influencing attitudes towards science and technology in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Guenther

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available From an international perspective, research in the field of public attitudes towards science and technology has been conducted since the 1970s. A frequently proposed and empirically supported theory is that strong interest in and knowledge about science in a society is associated with more favourable attitudes towards science. This positive attitude in turn affects support for public funding of science. However, this research field is not without controversy, and for the South African population many questions remain unanswered. Initial research has not explored the factors that shape attitudes towards science and technology in detail. We re-analysed data from the Human Sciences Research Council to explore the above theory. Interestingly, for the South African population, higher levels of scientific literacy and use of information sources are associated with more promises but also more reservations towards science and technology. This is especially true for relatively young and educated survey respondents. In international comparison, South Africa shows a unique fingerprint to some extent, but also shares characteristics with industrially developing countries of Europe (such as Greece or Portugal. To understand the correlations better, future research should aim to examine the overall picture when investigating the diverse South African population more extensively.

  11. Determination of nursing students' attitudes towards the use of technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terkes, Nurten; Celik, Ferya; Bektas, Hicran

    2018-03-11

    The use of technology is increasingly important in nursing education and practice. For this reason, it is necessary to determine the attitudes of nursing students towards technology. This study was conducted with 508 nursing students. A personal information form that was prepared by the researchers and the Attitudes Toward Technology Scale were used as the data collection tools. The mean score that was obtained by the nursing students from the Attitudes Toward Technology Scale was 61.53 ± 1.13. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was found to be 0.90. There was a statistically significant difference between the sexes, using a computer, tablet, or laptop, using technology to reach health-related information, and for professional development, using mobile applications related to drug information. There was also a statistical difference between using the Periscope and Scorpio accounts from social media and using Excel and PowerPoint from Microsoft programs. Nursing students are capable of technology-based teaching, which can be expanded as a result. © 2018 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  12. The Attitudes of the Aged to Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jeff

    1993-01-01

    Fifty-six older adults in Tasmania were interviewed about technology related to medical treatment, transportation, household appliances, banking, and computers. They were far less informed about computers; 34% overall and more than 50% of those over 60 were interested in learning more. (SK)

  13. The attitudes of health care staff to information technology: a comprehensive review of the research literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Rod; Stevens, Christine; Brentnall, Philip; Briddon, Jason

    2008-06-01

    What does the publicly available literature tell us about the attitudes of health care staff to the development of information technology in practice, including the factors which influence them and the factors which may be used to change these attitudes? Twelve databases were searched for literature published between 2000 and 2005 that identified research related to information technology (IT), health professionals and attitude. English language studies were included which described primary research relating to the attitudes of one or more health care staff groups towards IT. Letters, personal viewpoints, reflections and opinion pieces were not included. Complex factors contribute to the formation of attitudes towards IT. Many of the issues identified were around the flexibility of the systems and whether they were 'fit for purpose', along with the confidence and experience of the IT users. The literature suggests that attitudes of practitioners are a significant factor in the acceptance and efficiency of use of IT in practice. The literature also suggested that education and training was a factor for encouraging the use of IT systems. A range of key issues, such as the need for flexibility and usability, appropriate education and training and the need for the software to be 'fit for purpose', showed that organizations need to plan carefully when proposing the introduction of IT-based systems into work practices. The studies reviewed did suggest that attitudes of health care professionals can be a significant factor in the acceptance and efficiency of use of IT in practice. Further qualitative and quantitative research is needed into the approaches that have most effect on the attitudes of health care staff towards IT.

  14. Technology Teachers' Attitudes toward Nuclear Energy and Their Implications for Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Yang, Hsiu-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to explore high-school (grades 10-12) technology teachers' attitudes toward nuclear energy and their implications to technology education. A questionnaire was developed to solicit 323 high-school technology teachers' responses in June 2013 and 132 (or 41%) valid questionnaires returned. Consequently, the following…

  15. Photovoltaic technology: World Bank's attitude and activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitwally, E M

    1982-08-01

    Several major problems stand in the way of the implementation of solar cells in developing countries; these are discussed first and relate to the following: (I) technology; (II) national strategy; (III) required capital. Next, the possible role of the World Bank is discussed. Although there is a strong commitment to the development of renewable energy sources, it is pointed out that the World Bank rates the direct solar technologies far behind biomass conversion. This results from the relatively high cost of solar cells. Nevertheless, there are several Bank-financed projects which are being carried out to enable the Bank to decide for itself the true state of the art. In view of the results obtained, it is believed that this was an appropriate course of action. It is concluded that a combination of efforts from the manufacturers and from the funding organizations is necessary if the Third World market for photovoltaics is to expand to its potential size.

  16. Public and biobank participant attitudes toward genetic research participation and data sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, A A; Wolf, W A; Hebert-Beirne, J; Smith, M E

    2010-01-01

    Research assessing attitudes toward consent processes for high-throughput genomic-wide technologies and widespread sharing of data is limited. In order to develop a better understanding of stakeholder views toward these issues, this cross-sectional study assessed public and biorepository participant attitudes toward research participation and sharing of genetic research data. Forty-nine individuals participated in 6 focus groups; 28 in 3 public focus groups and 21 in 3 NUgene biorepository participant focus groups. In the public focus groups, 75% of participants were women, 75% had some college education or more, 46% were African-American and 29% were Hispanic. In the NUgene focus groups, 67% of participants were women, 95% had some college education or more, and the majority (76%) of participants was Caucasian. Five major themes were identified in the focus group data: (a) a wide spectrum of understanding of genetic research; (b) pros and cons of participation in genetic research; (c) influence of credibility and trust of the research institution; (d) concerns about sharing genetic research data and need for transparency in the Policy for Sharing of Data in National Institutes of Health-Supported or Conducted Genome-Wide Association Studies; (e) a need for more information and education about genetic research. In order to increase public understanding and address potential concerns about genetic research, future efforts should be aimed at involving the public in genetic research policy development and in identifying or developing appropriate educational strategies to meet the public's needs.

  17. Public knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy in Majmaah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqeel Munahi Almutairi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Epilepsy is very common in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, occurring in 6.54 out of every 1000 individuals. The current study was conducted to determine the level of public awareness of and attitudes toward epilepsy in the city of Majmaah, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia. The study population included respondents derived from preselected public places in the city. Stratified random sampling was used, and the sample size was made up of 706 individuals. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection from respondents after receiving their verbal consent. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 2.0. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of Majmaah University. Results: The results showed that 575 (81.4% of the respondents had heard or read about epilepsy. Almost 50% of the respondents knew someone who had epilepsy, and 393 (55.7% had witnessed what they believed to be a seizure. Results showed that 555 (78.6% respondents believed that epilepsy was neither a contagious disease nor a type of insanity. It was found that 335 (47.5% stated that epilepsy was a brain disease, and almost one-quarter of the respondents said that the manifestation of an epileptic episode is a convulsion. Regarding attitude, 49% and 47.3% of respondents stated that they would not allow their children to interact with individuals with epilepsy and would object to marrying an individual with epilepsy, respectively. Conclusion: Although knowledge about epilepsy is improving, it is still not adequate. The study showed that the attitude toward epilepsy is poor.

  18. Public and private regulation of reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, C

    1995-01-01

    Human reproduction is interrelated with privacy. However, in most countries where new reproductive technologies are used public regulations have been passed to provide a legal framework for such technologies. This interference in private life can be justified by the need to control medical intervention in the human reproductive process. But in order to find a balance between public regulations and other social regulations, this article analyses the impact private regulation may have on issues raised by reproductive technologies. It also addresses the issue of the influence of private bodies on the drafting of public regulations.

  19. New technologies in public relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Tworzydło

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article includes an analysis and presentation of selected examples of communication tools, which are used in companies to create and maintain relationships with internal and external environment. The problems related with definition of public relations were also discussed. The article presents the advantage and negative consequences of the use of modern tools of PR, as well.

  20. Mobile Technologies and Public Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-09-05

    In this podcast, Erin Edgerton, CDC, and Eric Holman, President of SmartReply, discuss why mobile technologies are an important communications tool for disseminating health messages.  Created: 9/5/2008 by National Center for Health Marketing (NCHM), Division of eHealth Marketing (DeHM).   Date Released: 1/12/2009.

  1. Business Students’ Attitudes Towards and Competency in Information Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Halil Seyrek

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of wide spread use of information technology (IT in businesses, the need for IT-competent workforce is escalating. This need is also becoming very important for business graduates who can work in many areas and in different positions. The purpose of this study is to determine the IT competency of undergraduate business students and find out their attitudes towards IT since attitude is an important factor for the acceptance of IT. For this purpose, the attitudes of business students towards and competence in IT have been studied using data gathered from 394 undergraduate business students. As a result of the study, it has been found that most of the students own computers and have a good level of access to IT resources but their perceived level of competency is low. Moreover, female students compared to male students, students who don’t own a computer compared to students owning a computer and students who have high levels of access to IT compared to those with lower access show higher anxiety about IT, feel they have less control when they face a problem related to IT and have lower perceived level of IT competence. Also, depending on which year they are in, students show different attitudes towards IT and their competence increases as they become more senior. Finally, it has been found that different dimensions of attitude have effects on IT competence

  2. Caring for our youngest: public attitudes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, K

    2001-01-01

    Families make choices about employment and care for their children in a context that is shaped by public policies and colored by public opinion. Debates over whether the government should increase funding for child care or do more to help parents stay home with their children reflect tensions among strongly held ideas about family life, work, and the role of government. This article summarizes the results of public opinion polls that probe attitudes about parent and government roles and responsibilities with respect to children's care. The polling findings yield three main lessons: The American public believes that parents should be the primary influence in their children's lives and that it is best if mothers can be home to care for the very young. The public also values family self-sufficiency and understands that low-income families may need child care assistance to balance child rearing and employment responsibilities. However, skepticism about the appropriateness of government involvement in family life limits public support for proposals that the government act directly to provide or improve child care. From these lessons, the author draws several conclusions for policymakers: Policies focused on caregiving should respect the rights of parents to raise their children by ensuring that an array of options is available. Public programs should help families who are struggling economically to balance their obligations to work and family. Rather than directly providing child care services, government should fund community-based child care programs, and provide flexible assistance to help families secure the services they need and want.

  3. Public awareness and attitudes towards epilepsy in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanean, Helia; Nojomi, Marzieh; Jacobsson, Lars

    2013-12-05

    Epilepsy is a prototypical, stigmatised disorder. Numerous studies have been conducted regarding the public perception of epilepsy, but they are primarily from high-income western countries; few studies have taken place in low- to middle-income countries with a traditional culture and a religious orientation. The public knowledge and attitudes towards epilepsy in Tehran, Iran, is studied. A survey of 800 subjects ranging from 18 to 85 years was randomly chosen from households in Tehran in 2009. The questionnaire used was based on the Caveness and Gallup's studies conducted in the United States in 1949 and it has been used in numerous similar studies all over the world. The mean age of the participants was 37.5 years and 46.7% were female. Pearson's Chi-squared test was used for subgroup analyses. The majority of subjects cited brain disorders as a cause of epilepsy, while 17% indicated the will of God as the cause. Most individuals were willing to work with a person with epilepsy, allow their children to play with a child with epilepsy, and allow people with epilepsy to use public transportation (78-82%). However, only 28% were willing to accept the marriage of a family member to someone with epilepsy. The knowledge and attitudes towards epilepsy are similar to those in Europe, with the exception of a much lower acceptance regarding marriage to a person with epilepsy. However, the low acceptance for marrying someone with epilepsy reveals the remaining misconceptions about the nature of epilepsy in Iran, despite the high educational level in the studied population. Therefore, informational efforts must be employed to change the perception of epilepsy.

  4. Understanding Public Responses to Emerging Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macnaghten, Philip; Davies, S.R.; Kearnes, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies aimed at understanding public responses to emerging technologies have given limited attention to the social and cultural processes through which public concerns emerge. When probed, these have tended to be explained either in cognitive social psychological terms, typically in the

  5. Integrated Power and Attitude Control System (IPACS) technology developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhaure, David B.; Bechtel, Robert; Hockney, Richard; Oglevie, Ron; Olszewski, Mitch

    1990-01-01

    Integrated Power and Attitude Control System (IPACS) studies performed over a decade ago established the feasibility of storing electrical energy in flywheels and utilizing the resulting angular momentum for spacecraft attitude control. Such a system has been shown to have numerous attractive features relative to more contemporary technology, and is appropriate to many applications (including high-performance slewing actuators). Technology advances over the last two decades in composite rotors, motor/generator/electronics, and magnetic bearings are found to support the use of IPACS for increasingly sophisticated applications. It is concluded that the concept offers potential performance advantages as well as savings in mass and life-cycle cost. Viewgraphs and discussion on IPACS are included.

  6. Public knowledge and attitudes towards Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Charlotte Devereaux; Gera, Aradhana; Shah, Meeraj; Sharma, Amit; Powell, Judy E; Wilson, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Background Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine has undergone successful trials and has recently been approved for use for the primary prevention of cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine knowledge and attitudes towards HPV vaccination. Methods Semi-structured interview and questionnaire delivered in a street survey. Standardised HPV-related statements used to measure HPV knowledge and attitudes to vaccination. The setting was three different areas of Birmingham, to target a mix of social class and ethnicity. The sample population was composed of 16–54 year olds. Results A total of 420 participants were recruited. Poor knowledge of HPV and its links with cervical cancer were observed. 81% had a knowledge score of zero. Knowledge about HPV was associated with different ethnic group and socio-economic group. The majority (88%) of participants were in favour of vaccination, with 83.6% indicating that they would allow a child under their care to be vaccinated. Conclusion Initial responses to the proposed HPV vaccination within the UK public are favourable. However, knowledge levels are poor and media and health professional promotion are required to raise awareness. PMID:18947430

  7. Participation of the public and technology policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschen, H.; Bechmann, G.; Gloede, F.

    1989-01-01

    Public participation is placed in the context of the government's technology policy whose legitimation can be questioned in view of the dispute in our society about technological development and its role in decision for shaping the future of the industrial society. This lack of legitimation has induced a search for instruments that might help to close the acceptance gap. Participation of the public is one of these instruments and is discussed in connection with technology assessment, early warning system, and environmental impact assessment. (HSCH) [de

  8. Public and political attitudes to nuclear power in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikdahl, C.-E.; Swedish Atomic Forum)

    1988-01-01

    The first important decisions about a large nuclear programme in Sweden were taken in the early 1960s without any political opposition at all. The first signs of an anti-nuclear movement were seen in 1972, and at the general election in 1976 nuclear power was for the first time the main political issue. It remained so until 1980, when Parliament, after a referendum, decided to phase out nuclear power not later than the year 2010. After that decision, political interest in nuclear power evaporated, but returned again after the Chernobyl accident in April 1986. Both the decision in Parliament in 1980 and the Government's bill of May 1987 put Sweden in an unique position. Public attitudes and the political situation in Sweden are examined. (author)

  9. Public Perceptions and Attitudes Toward Adolescent Marijuana Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella M. Resko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study is to examine patterns in public perceptions and attitudes toward marijuana use among adolescents. Computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI was used to collect data from a statewide sample of adults in Michigan identified through random-digit dialing (n = 560. CATI interviews were supplemented with web- and paper-based surveys for nonrespondents. We used latent class analysis to characterize patterns in public perception, using a vignette technique that assessed (a whether adults recognize adolescent marijuana use as a problem, (b how they view the efficacy of treatment, (c how they view help-seeking with mental health professionals, and (d whether they support prevention services for adolescents. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between class membership and demographics, substance use, and methodological factors. Three latent classes were identified: (a a discriminating group, (b a low-concern group, and (c a high-concern group. Age and substance use were among the strongest determinants for membership in the discriminating group. Results provide insight into how the general public perceives marijuana use and marijuana-related problems among adolescents.

  10. Public and media attitudes to nuclear power in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belelli, U.

    1988-01-01

    A study carried out by the Italian Electricity Board on the public acceptability of nuclear power, is reported. The question was examined in two ways. A sociological analysis was carried out with the aim of understanding the behaviour of public opinion. The results revealed that individual attitudes towards nuclear power are based on cost-benefit evaluations assessed in terms of social parameters by an instinctive rather than a rational process. Secondly press articles before and after the Chernobyl accident were analysed in terms of both the message being communicated and the quality of the technical content. Characteristics of the press coverage were more stress on nuclear safety after Chernobyl leading to greater opposition to nuclear power in general, a tendency for comment to dominate over factual information and no proper evaluation of the technical content. The major overall conclusions drawn are the need for international cooperation to address the social implications of the nuclear question, and for effective communication of information on power plant safety both to expert social and political bodies and, in a popular version, to the general public. (U.K.)

  11. A study on determinants of risk perception and attitude structures concerning nuclear power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Shoji; Kitada, Atsuko; Ato, Kazunori

    2000-01-01

    Many people claim that nuclear power technology should be subjected to stricter safety criteria than other mega-technologies, and some insist that every risk should be eliminated from the technology. For the future of nuclear technology it is one of the most important tasks to provide insight for the people seeking zero-risk safety from nuclear technology by understanding the mechanism of risk perception, especially the mechanism resulting in the zero-risk imperative. Specifically we describe the distribution of the people claiming zero-risk technology, risk perceptions and their factors, as well as the relationship between the risk perceptions and attitude structures. Our societies enjoy the benefits of mega-technologies, however at the same time we have some costs to put them to practical use, especially the costs on environments and on human health. And so, on decision-making processes of whether and how much we will practically use mega-technologies, public acceptance or consensus in societies are absolutely indispensable. Through the decision-making processes in societies, some people sometimes do not accept the 'risk evaluation' that scientists and technologists made. Some people believe that our lives should and could be perfectly safe (zero-risk perception), and they think or insist that we should not use the mega-technologies if we are not able to achieve perfect safety. In Japan, many people seem to have typical zero-risk perception toward nuclear power technology. While other people think that anywhere in our world we have no perfect safety, and that 'risk' should be evaluated by the ratio between costs and benefits (comparative-risk perception). On the other hand, in our democratic societies, we have political rules that the electorates, common people, ultimately decide whether mega-technologies are used or not, and how much costs are to be spent to reduce hazards. So, it is important to clarify the nature of the common people's risk perceptions and

  12. Public acceptance of residential solar photovoltaic technology in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Gaining independence from fossil fuels and combating climate change are the main factors to increase the generation of electricity from renewable fuels. Amongst the renewable technologies, solar photovoltaic (PV is believed to have the largest potential. However, the number of people adopting solar PV technologies is still relatively low. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to examine the household consumers’ acceptance of solar PV technology being installed on their premises. Design/methodology/approach – To examine the solar PV technology acceptance, this study uses technology acceptance model (TAM as a reference framework. A survey was conducted to gather data and to validate the research model. Out of 780 questionnaires distributed across Malaysia, 663 were returned and validated. Findings – The analysis revealed that perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and attitude to use significantly influenced behavioural intention to use solar PV technology. Research limitations/implications – This study contributes by extending the understanding of public inclination towards the adoption of solar PV technology. Also, this study contributes in identifying the areas which need to be examined further. However, collecting data from urban peninsular Malaysian respondents only limits the generalization of the results. Practical implications – On the policy front, this study reveals that governmental support is needed to trigger PV acceptance. Originality/value – This paper uses TAM to analyse the uptake of solar PV technology in Malaysian context.

  13. Mediated Effects of Technology Competencies and Experiences on Relations among Attitudes Towards Technology Use, Technology Ownership, and Self Efficacy about Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerdelen-Damar, Sevda; Boz, Yezdan; Aydın-Günbatar, Sevgi

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the relations of preservice science teachers' attitudes towards technology use, technology ownership, technology competencies, and experiences to their self-efficacy beliefs about technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). The present study also investigated interrelations among preservice teachers' attitudes towards technology use, technology ownership, technology competencies, and experiences. The participants of study were 665 elementary preservice science teachers (467 females, 198 males) from 7 colleges in Turkey. The proposed model based on educational technology literature was tested using structural equation modeling. The model testing results revealed that preservice teachers' technology competencies and experiences mediated the relation of technology ownership to their TPACK self efficacy beliefs. The direct relation of their possession of technology to their TPACK self efficacy beliefs was insignificant while the indirect relation through their technology competencies and experiences was significant. The results also indicated there were significant direct effects of preservice teachers' attitudes towards technology use, technology competencies, and experiences on their TPACK self efficacy beliefs.

  14. Consulting the community: public expectations and attitudes about genetics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchegary, Holly; Green, Jane; Dicks, Elizabeth; Pullman, Daryl; Street, Catherine; Parfrey, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Genomic discoveries and technologies promise numerous opportunities for improving health. Key to these potential health improvements, however, are health-care consumers' understanding and acceptance of these new developments. We identified community groups and invited them to a public information-consultation session in order to explore public awareness, perception and expectations about genetics and genomics research. One hundred and four members of seven community groups in Newfoundland, Canada took part in the community sessions. Content analysis of participant comments revealed they were largely hopeful about genetics research in its capacity to improve health; however, they did not accept such research uncritically. Complex issues arose during the community consultations, including the place of genetics in primary care, the value of genetics for personal health, and concerns about access to and uses of genetic information. Participants unequivocally endorsed the value of public engagement with these issues. The rapid pace of discoveries in genomics research offers exciting opportunities to improve population health. However, public support will be crucial to realize health improvements. Our findings suggest that regular, transparent dialog between researchers and the public could allow a greater understanding of the research process, as well as assist in the design of efficient and effective genetic health services, informed by the public that will use them. PMID:23591403

  15. Australian public attitudes towards uranium mining and export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirvington, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Australian nuclear debate is focused on Australia's role as a uranium supplier, on the risks that this uranium might be diverted to nuclear weapons and on the risks of nuclear weapons generally. The results of a survey which was designed to measure the importance of uranium as an issue and reveal underlying influences and information behind public perceptions are presented. The methods and questions asked are given as well as the results. The results show that Australians are fairly unconcerned about uranium. However, many fear the possible application of civil nuclear technology to nuclear weapons, a fear not recognised or expected by the nuclear industry. The public image of the industry could, and should, be improved by television, films and documentaries to inform the general public about the nuclear industry. (U.K.)

  16. Development and Validation of Information Technology Mentor Teacher Attitude Scale: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltan, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study development and validation of a teacher attitude scale toward Information Technology Mentor Teachers (ITMT). ITMTs give technological support to other teachers for integration of technology in their lessons. In the literature, many instruments have been developed to measure teachers' attitudes towards the technological tools…

  17. Exploration of public acceptance regarding CO2 underground sequestration technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, M.; Tokushige, K.; Mori, Y.; Furukawa, A.

    2005-01-01

    Mechanisms for gaining public acceptance of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) aquifer sequestration were investigated through the use of questionnaires and focus group interviews. The study was performed as part of a CO 2 sequestration technology promotion project in Japan. The questionnaire portion of the study was conducted to determine public opinions and the extent of public awareness of CO 2 sequestration technologies. Questionnaires were distributed to undergraduate students majoring in environmental sociology. Participants were provided with newspaper articles related to CO 2 sequestration. The focus group study was conducted to obtain qualitative results to complement findings from the questionnaire survey. Results of the survey suggested that many participants were not particularly concerned about global warming, and had almost no knowledge about CO 2 sequestration. The opinions of some students were influenced by an awareness of similar types of facilities located near their homes. Attitudes were also influenced by the newspaper articles provided during the focus group sessions. However, many older participants did not trust information presented to them in newspaper format. Results suggested that many people identified afforestation as an alternative technology to CO 2 sequestration, and tended to think of CO 2 in negative terms as it contributed to global warming. Some participants assumed that CO 2 was harmful. The majority of respondents agreed with the development of CO 2 sequestration technologies as part of a program of alternative emissions abatement technologies. The provision of detailed information concerning CO 2 sequestration did not completely remove anxieties concerning the technology's potential negative impacts. It was concluded that a confident communications strategy is needed to persuade Japanese residents of the need to implement CO 2 sequestration technologies. 11 refs., 2 figs

  18. Factors influencing the public intention to use renewable energy technologies in South Korea: Effects of the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Eunil; Ohm, Jay Y.

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima accident has influenced public attitudes toward energy sources and technologies, including not only nuclear energy, but also other energy sources. Therefore, it is worth investigating how the accident influenced public perceptions of renewable energy and its technologies, between the time before the accident and after the accident. This study aims to explore the effects of the Fukushima accident on the public perceptions of renewable energy technologies in South Korea, the closest nation to Japan. This study found that there were notable differences of public perceptions, including public attitudes, perceived benefits, trust, intention to use, knowledge and risks between before and after the earthquake. In addition, the perceived cost of renewable energy technologies was the primary determinant of the intention to use the technologies before the accident, whereas public attitudes toward the technologies became the main antecedents of the intention after the accident. After the accident, we found that there is a multi-dimensional matrix of perceived trust-benefits (with risks)-attitude-intention to use, in explaining the public acceptance of renewable energy technologies. Moreover, we found significant roles of the perceived trust, benefits and risks in the research model. Based on the empirical findings, both implications and suggestions are presented. - highlights: • The factors influence public intention to employ renewable energy technologies. • Fukushima accident made significant differences of public perceptions. • Perceived benefits and risks are employed as key determinants of public attitude. • Perceived cost and attitude are found as antecedents of the intention to use. • Perceived trust is a notable motivation of public perceptions

  19. Consumer attitudes and the benefits of smart grid technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablondi, B. [Parks Associates, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2010-11-15

    This article discussed consumer attitudes regarding the benefits of smart grid technology. Understanding the motivations of consumers and how much they are willing to pay for smart grid technologies allows utilities to tailor their offerings to ensure market success. Surveys revealed that more than 80 percent of consumers are very interested in learning about ways to cut energy expenditures. Most consumers are only willing to pay less than the cost of the special equipment to participate in programs that guarantee cost savings, requiring innovation on the part of both utilities and their vendors to develop viable business models. Remote monitoring systems are a potential residential energy management solution that would increase consumer awareness of energy consumption, but adoption will occur slowly and only after consumer awareness is increased. The segmentation of consumers is necessary for providers to target those with both an interest in and a willingness to pay for an energy monitoring system. Most consumers want to see information on a thermostat with an enhanced display, and there is limited interest in other formats at this time. Consumers are willing to pay a premium for smart appliances, but the premium only amounts to a fraction of the actual cost, leaving no incentive for appliance manufacturers in the absence of tax or utility incentives. It was concluded that consumer attitudes toward smart grid technology are still being formed and that the consumer must be engaged to realize the full benefit of the smart grid in the residential market. 4 figs.

  20. Public's Knowledge of Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pew Research Center, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The public's knowledge of science and technology varies widely across a range of questions on current topics and basic scientific concepts, according to a new quiz by the Pew Research Center and "Smithsonian" magazine. About eight-in-ten Americans (83%) identify ultraviolet as the type of radiation that sunscreen protects against. Nearly…

  1. Mapping public regulation measures for photovoltaic technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Karl; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Hvelplund, Frede

    2011-01-01

    There is a relatively large potential for the use of photovoltaic (PV) technologies in the Nordic countries, including Denmark. Optimally designed PV support policies are a main prerequisite for the utilisation of this potential. The paper provides an overview of the main (financial) public...

  2. Information communication technology policy and public primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study was to correlate Information Communication Technology with public primary schools' efficiency in Rwanda. The study employed the descriptive survey and descriptive co-relational design. One hundred and forty-four primary teachers participated in the study. The level of ICT was poor (M ...

  3. Predicting Public Acceptability in Controversial Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, Donald M.

    2003-01-01

    Technology and society have a synergic relationship. New technologies are a product of the values and aspirations of the culture in which they emerge. In turn, each new technology shapes and alters these values and aspirations, to a greater or lesser degree. The acceptance by society of any particular technology depends, however, on how far the values embodied in the technology reflect those of the wider society, or only those of some privileged sector - perhaps a ruling elite, a group of academic researchers, a commercial company, or even a special interest group. As public disquiet about controversial technologies has grown, their acceptance can no longer be taken for granted. It is now becoming more important to evaluate in advance the degree of likely mismatch between the aspirations of the technologists and the values of society. This paper explores one approach to making this evaluation, based on the notion of a conditional social contract between technology and society. A given society may be prepared to embrace a new technology to deliver certain benefits, and may accept a certain degree of risk and adaptation of life styles, provided certain basic conditions are fulfilled. These conditions include the upholding of basic values, familiarity, how it compares with similar technologies, the degree of control and choice, trust in those in control, the nature of any risks, the tangible benefits, and the media profile given to the new area. If several of these factors are not fulfilled, the technology is unlikely to be accepted. This was dramatically illustrated in the UK public reaction to food products derived from imported US GM soya and maize. These failed nearly all the conditions, so that public rejection should have been seen as a foregone conclusion. In the light of this, the likely public reaction to a number of future biotechnological innovations is assessed, based on the same conditions. Some examples taken from the energy sector are also compared. The

  4. The 39th Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Lowell C.; Gallup, Alec M.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors report the results of the 39th Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the public's attitudes toward the public schools. This year's report examined the public's assessment of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and its principal strategy, standardized testing. The authors include a summary of key findings and tables showing…

  5. Public attitudes towards and demand for hydrogen and fuel cell vehicles. A review of the evidence and methodological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yetano Roche, Maria; Mourato, Susana; Fischedick, Manfred; Pietzner, Katja; Viebahn, Peter

    2010-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that effective communication and demand-side policies for alternative energy require sound knowledge of preferences and determinants of demand of the public and consumers. To date, public attitudes towards new transport technologies have been studied under very different conceptual frameworks. This paper gives an overview of the various conceptual frameworks and methodologies used, where four main approaches can be distinguished: general attitudinal surveys, risk perception studies, non-market economic valuation studies, and other approaches such as those based on semiotic theory. We then review the findings of the recent literature on acceptance, attitudes and preferences for hydrogen and fuel cell end-use technologies, focusing on vehicles. These studies are then contrasted with related research into alternative fuel vehicles. The paper finally discusses the main trends in research and avenues for further work in this field. We recommend, among other things, the use of approaches that build knowledge and familiarity with the technology prior to the exploration of attitudes, and the set up of studies that take a whole-systems perspective of hydrogen technologies and that look at hydrogen in the context of other competing clean technologies. (author)

  6. Public attitudes towards and demand for hydrogen and fuel cell vehicles. A review of the evidence and methodological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yetano Roche, Maria [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Energy and Environment, PO BOX 100480, 42004 Wuppertal (Germany); Department of Geography and Environment, London School of Economics and Political Science (United Kingdom); Mourato, Susana [Department of Geography and Environment, London School of Economics and Political Science (United Kingdom); Fischedick, Manfred; Pietzner, Katja; Viebahn, Peter [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Energy and Environment, PO BOX 100480, 42004 Wuppertal (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    It is now widely recognized that effective communication and demand-side policies for alternative energy require sound knowledge of preferences and determinants of demand of the public and consumers. To date, public attitudes towards new transport technologies have been studied under very different conceptual frameworks. This paper gives an overview of the various conceptual frameworks and methodologies used, where four main approaches can be distinguished: general attitudinal surveys, risk perception studies, non-market economic valuation studies, and other approaches such as those based on semiotic theory. We then review the findings of the recent literature on acceptance, attitudes and preferences for hydrogen and fuel cell end-use technologies, focusing on vehicles. These studies are then contrasted with related research into alternative fuel vehicles. The paper finally discusses the main trends in research and avenues for further work in this field. We recommend, among other things, the use of approaches that build knowledge and familiarity with the technology prior to the exploration of attitudes, and the set up of studies that take a whole-systems perspective of hydrogen technologies and that look at hydrogen in the context of other competing clean technologies. (author)

  7. Public attitudes towards and demand for hydrogen and fuel cell vehicles: A review of the evidence and methodological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yetano Roche, Maria, E-mail: maria.yetano@wupperinst.or [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Energy and Environment, PO BOX 100480, 42004 Wuppertal (Germany) and Department of Geography and Environment; London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE (United Kingdom); Mourato, Susana [Department of Geography and Environment, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE (United Kingdom); Fischedick, Manfred; Pietzner, Katja; Viebahn, Peter [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Energy and Environment, PO BOX 100480, 42004 Wuppertal (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    It is now widely recognized that effective communication and demand-side policies for alternative energy require sound knowledge of preferences and determinants of demand of the public and consumers. To date, public attitudes towards new transport technologies have been studied under very different conceptual frameworks. This paper gives an overview of the various conceptual frameworks and methodologies used, where four main approaches can be distinguished: general attitudinal surveys, risk perception studies, non-market economic valuation studies, and other approaches such as those based on semiotic theory. We then review the findings of the recent literature on acceptance, attitudes and preferences for hydrogen and fuel cell end-use technologies, focusing on vehicles. These studies are then contrasted with related research into alternative fuel vehicles. The paper finally discusses the main trends in research and avenues for further work in this field. We recommend, among other things, the use of approaches that build knowledge and familiarity with the technology prior to the exploration of attitudes, and the set up of studies that take a whole-systems perspective of hydrogen technologies and that look at hydrogen in the context of other competing clean technologies.

  8. Public attitudes toward stuttering in Europe: Within-country and between-country comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, Kenneth O; Sønsterud, Hilda; Junuzović-Žunić, Lejla; Tomaiuoli, Donatella; Del Gado, Francesca; Caparelli, Emilia; Theiling, Mareen; Flobakk, Cecilie; Helmen, Lise Nesbakken; Heitmann, Ragnhild R; Kvenseth, Helene; Nilsson, Sofia; Wetterling, Tobias; Lundström, Cecilia; Daly, Ciara; Leahy, Margaret; Tyrrell, Laila; Ward, David; Węsierska, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological research methods have been shown to be useful in determining factors that might predict commonly reported negative public attitudes toward stuttering. Previous research has suggested that stuttering attitudes of respondents from North America and Europe (i.e., "The West"), though characterized by stereotypes and potential stigma, are more positive than those from several other regions of the world. This inference assumes that public attitudes within various regions characterized by "The West" are similar. This study aimed to determine the extent to which public stuttering attitudes are similar or different both within regions of three different European countries and between or among five different European countries or similar geographic areas. It also aimed to compare these European attitudes to attitudes from 135 samples around the world using a standard measure. Using convenience sampling, 1111 adult respondents from eight different investigations completed the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering (POSHA-S) in the dominant language of each country or area. In Study I, the authors compared attitudes within three different regions of Bosnia & Herzegovina, Italy, and Norway. In Study II, the authors compared attitudes between combined samples from Bosnia & Herzegovina, Italy, and Norway (with additional respondents from Sweden), and two other samples, one from Germany and the other from Ireland and England. Attitudes of adults from the three samples within Bosnia & Herzegovina, Italy, and Norway were remarkably similar. By contrast, attitudes between the five different countries or area were quite dramatically different. Demographic variables on the POSHA-S did not predict the rank order of these between-country/area differences. Compared to the POSHA-S worldwide database, European attitudes ranged from less positive than average (i.e., Italians) to more positive than average (i.e., Norwegians and Swedes). Factors related to

  9. Public attitudes toward nuclear power generation. Preliminary study focusing on characteristics of the attitudes of men and women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Naoko; Misumi, Jyuji; Yanagihara, Ryozo; Hayashi, Chikio.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to approach the public attitudes toward nuclear power generation and related matters by focusing on the viewpoint of differences between men and women. More specifically, it was attempted to determine what types of lifestyles and ways of thinking are associated with persons indicating the respective attitudes, what types of anxiety these people have with respect to nuclear power generation, as well as the nature of the inflexibility of those attitudes. As a result, well-defined characteristics were found to be associated with each attitude. In addition, the types of anxiety with respect to nuclear power generation were able to be broadly classified into emotional anxiety and logical anxiety. Regarding the inflexibility of these attitudes, although men tended to exhibit little change concerning positive attitudes, they tended to easily change in the negative direction as a result of negative information. In the case of women, conversely, although their attitudes tended to change easily toward the affirmative direction when presented with positive information, it was determined that women tend to change very little toward the negative direction. (author)

  10. In-service Teachers’ Attitudes Towards Technology Integration in the Bahraini Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Abdul Razzak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order for Bahrain to realize its 2030 Economic Vision, digital literacy is required on the part of its citizens. Digital literacy is the ability to make use of Information and Computer Technology (ICT in learning and work activities, and can be understood clearly by understanding the role of ICT in schools. Such a role is successfully implemented mainly when certain conditions are met, among them the adoption of a positive attitude towards the utilization and integration of ICT in instruction on the part of the teachers. This study examines to what extent teachers in the Bahraini public school system adopt such an attitude, while at the same time (1 focusing on the amount of support they receive in terms of ICT training and resources and (2 identifying shortcomings that need to be addressed for successful ICT integration in teaching and learning.

  11. Investigating consumer attitudes towards the new technology of urine separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl-Wostl, C; Schönborn, A; Willi, N; Muncke, J; Larsen, T A

    2003-01-01

    The technology of urine separation and the recycling of anthropogenic nutrients as fertilizer in agriculture are considered as major innovations to improve the sustainability of today's urban wastewater management. The acceptance of consumers will be key for the introduction of the new technology. Citizens will have to make important decisions in their role as tenants and owners of houses and as consumers buying products fertilized with urine. Consumer attitudes towards the new technology were explored in a number of citizen focus groups in Switzerland. Focus groups are deliberate, moderated group discussions with informed citizens on a certain topic. The information was provided by a computer based information system specifically designed for this purpose. The acceptance of individual citizens for the new technology proved to be quite high. The majority of the citizens expressed their willingness to move into an apartment with NoMix toilets and to buy food fertilized with urine. However, they were not willing to accept additional financial costs or efforts. Arguments related to long-term sustainability (closing nutrient cycles) were of less importance than arguments that relate directly to the effects of micropollutants on human and ecosystem health. For the introduction of the new technology on a wide scale it will thus be crucial to explore the fate and effects of micropollutants.

  12. Public libraries, information society and technology: communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Barber

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The research team focuses in the influence that Argentinian public libraries (popular and public have with library automation and public services oriented to the use of information technologies, and the acquisition of communitarian information skills within the information society. The methodology consists of a survey already successfully approved in previous investigations by the research team (UBACYT FI013 and TF06. The questionnaire focuses on related variables. On one hand, the variables were related to libraries automation processes (equipment, information systems,working modules, retrospective conversion, digitization, networks,and so on. And on the other hand, with given information technologies services (access to networks and documents in every media, Web navigation assistance, information technology local server, services to minorities, and so on. Data would be gathered with specific applications from the social sciences field. The final stage would be to study specific aspects of the automation processes of the libraries surveyed, in order to verify the reciprocal relationship between the automation level reached. And subsequently, to examine the likelihood of establishing new services that respond to the community information trends within the information technology and telecommunications development context.

  13. Income, egalitarianism and attitudes towards healthcare policy: a study on public attitudes in 29 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, A; Maldonado, L; Castillo, J C; Atria, J

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between income and egalitarian values and attitudes towards healthcare policy. Cross-sectional and cross-national study. Data for 29 countries from the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) 2011 were used. The dependent variables are a general attitude towards government involvement in healthcare provision and two attitudes regarding specific policies (taxes and public funding). Income and egalitarianism were also measured by using ISSP. Data were analysed using regression models that account for individual and country-level characteristics, and country-fixed effects. The effect of income is small and non-significant for attitudes towards government involvement and public funding. For willingness to pay (WTP) taxes to improve healthcare services, we find a positive association with income. Results for egalitarianism suggest a positive association with government involvement in healthcare provision and significant interactions with WTP taxes. The distinction of dimensions and mechanisms underlying policy attitudes appears as relevant. Citizens across socioeconomic groups are motivated to support state-funded healthcare, favouring the design of non-selfish policies. These findings suggest that there is space for policymakers who seek to increase healthcare spending encouraging either policies for specific groups or broader institutional changes. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Public attitudes toward people with intellectual disabilities after viewing Olympic or Paralympic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Kate; Burns, Jan; Mills, Hayley

    2015-01-01

    Despite some changes to the way that people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are viewed in society, negative attitudes prevail. One of the aspirations of the 2012 Paralympic games was to influence the public's attitudes toward people with disabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether stimuli depicting people with ID performing at Paralympic level of competition change attitudes toward ID. A mixed randomized comparison design was employed comparing 2 groups: those who viewed Paralympic-level ID sport footage and information and those who viewed Olympic footage and information. One hundred fourteen students, mean age 25 yr, were administered measures of implicit (subconscious) attitudes toward disability and explicit (belief-based) attitudes toward ID. Implicit attitudes significantly changed in a positive direction for both groups. The findings provide evidence that both Paralympic (ID) and Olympic media coverage may have at least a short-term effect on attitudes toward people with disabilities.

  15. Nuclear power, climate change and energy security: Exploring British public attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corner, Adam; Venables, Dan; Spence, Alexa; Poortinga, Wouter; Demski, Christina; Pidgeon, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Public attitudes towards nuclear power in the UK have historically been deeply divided, but as concern about climate change and energy security has exerted an increasing influence on British energy policy, nuclear power has been reframed as a low-carbon technology. Previous research has suggested that a significant proportion of people may 'reluctantly accept' nuclear power as a means of addressing the greater threat of climate change. Drawing on the results of a national British survey (n=1822), the current study found that attitudes towards nuclear remain divided, with only a minority expressing unconditional acceptance. In general, people who expressed greater concern about climate change and energy security and possessed higher environmental values were less likely to favour nuclear power. However, when nuclear power was given an explicit 'reluctant acceptance' framing - allowing people to express their dislike for nuclear power alongside their conditional support - concerns about climate change and energy security became positive predictors of support for nuclear power. These findings suggest that concern about climate change and energy security will only increase acceptance of nuclear power under limited circumstances-specifically once other (preferred) options have been exhausted. - Highlights: → We report data from 2005 to 2010 of British attitudes towards nuclear power and climate change. → Changes in attitudes over the time period were relatively modest. → British population remained relatively divided on nuclear power in 2010. → Concern about climate change was negatively related to evaluations of nuclear power. → Different framings of the issue alter the balance of support for nuclear power.

  16. Nuclear power, climate change and energy security: Exploring British public attitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corner, Adam; Venables, Dan [School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Tower Building, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom); Spence, Alexa [School of Psychology/Horizon Digital Economy Research, University of Nottingham (United Kingdom); Poortinga, Wouter [Welsh School of Architecture, Cardiff University (United Kingdom); School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Tower Building, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom); Demski, Christina [School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Tower Building, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom); Pidgeon, Nick, E-mail: pidgeonn@cardiff.ac.uk [School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Tower Building, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    Public attitudes towards nuclear power in the UK have historically been deeply divided, but as concern about climate change and energy security has exerted an increasing influence on British energy policy, nuclear power has been reframed as a low-carbon technology. Previous research has suggested that a significant proportion of people may 'reluctantly accept' nuclear power as a means of addressing the greater threat of climate change. Drawing on the results of a national British survey (n=1822), the current study found that attitudes towards nuclear remain divided, with only a minority expressing unconditional acceptance. In general, people who expressed greater concern about climate change and energy security and possessed higher environmental values were less likely to favour nuclear power. However, when nuclear power was given an explicit 'reluctant acceptance' framing - allowing people to express their dislike for nuclear power alongside their conditional support - concerns about climate change and energy security became positive predictors of support for nuclear power. These findings suggest that concern about climate change and energy security will only increase acceptance of nuclear power under limited circumstances-specifically once other (preferred) options have been exhausted. - Highlights: > We report data from 2005 to 2010 of British attitudes towards nuclear power and climate change. > Changes in attitudes over the time period were relatively modest. > British population remained relatively divided on nuclear power in 2010. > Concern about climate change was negatively related to evaluations of nuclear power. > Different framings of the issue alter the balance of support for nuclear power.

  17. National character and communication. Attitude toward nuclear power plant and its public relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Chikio; Morikawa, Shinichi.

    1994-01-01

    The attitude structure toward nuclear power plant is analyzed with the attitudes toward relevant matters, for example image for nuclear power, knowledge of nuclear power, attitudes toward energy and environment, anxiety about various matters, cognition of risk, social and political attitudes and Japanese national character. Six types are revealed, that is to say, indifference group (13%), strongly favorable group (11%), strongly unfavorable group (9%), fairly favorable group (12%), fairly unfavorable group (5%), and intermediate group (50%). Strongly favorable and unfavorable groups are similar in some points and different in other points, for they are both rational whereas the former is optimistic in the attitude toward science and technology and less interested in environmental problems, and the latter is pessimistic in the attitude toward science and technology and extremely sensitive to environmental problems. The intermediate group has so-called Japanese -like characteristics. It is shown that the emotional persuasion and that based on fact presentation are particularly desirable for this group. (author)

  18. National character and communication. Attitude toward nuclear power plant and its public relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Chikio [Institute of Statistical Mathematics, Tokyo (Japan); Morikawa, Shinichi

    1995-10-01

    The attitude structure toward nuclear power plant is analyzed with the attitudes toward relevant matters, for example image for nuclear power, knowledge of nuclear power, attitudes toward energy and environment, anxiety about various matters, cognition of risk, social and political attitudes and Japanese national character. Six types are revealed, that is to say, indifference group (13%), strongly favorable group (11%), strongly unfavorable group (9%), fairly favorable group (12%), fairly unfavorable group (5%), and intermediate group (50%). Strongly favorable and unfavorable groups are similar in some points and different in other points, for they are both rational whereas the former is optimistic in the attitude toward science and technology and less interested in environmental problems, and the latter is pessimistic in the attitude toward science and technology and extremely sensitive to environmental problems. The intermediate group has so-called Japanese-like characteristics. It is shown that the emotional persuasion and that based on fact presentation are particularly desirable for this group. (author)

  19. National character and communication. Attitude toward nuclear power plant and its public relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Chikio; Morikawa, Shinichi.

    1995-01-01

    The attitude structure toward nuclear power plant is analyzed with the attitudes toward relevant matters, for example image for nuclear power, knowledge of nuclear power, attitudes toward energy and environment, anxiety about various matters, cognition of risk, social and political attitudes and Japanese national character. Six types are revealed, that is to say, indifference group (13%), strongly favorable group (11%), strongly unfavorable group (9%), fairly favorable group (12%), fairly unfavorable group (5%), and intermediate group (50%). Strongly favorable and unfavorable groups are similar in some points and different in other points, for they are both rational whereas the former is optimistic in the attitude toward science and technology and less interested in environmental problems, and the latter is pessimistic in the attitude toward science and technology and extremely sensitive to environmental problems. The intermediate group has so-called Japanese-like characteristics. It is shown that the emotional persuasion and that based on fact presentation are particularly desirable for this group. (author)

  20. National character and communication. Attitude toward nuclear power plant and its public relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Chikio [Institute of Statistical Mathematics, Tokyo (Japan); Morikawa, Shinichi

    1994-05-01

    The attitude structure toward nuclear power plant is analyzed with the attitudes toward relevant matters, for example image for nuclear power, knowledge of nuclear power, attitudes toward energy and environment, anxiety about various matters, cognition of risk, social and political attitudes and Japanese national character. Six types are revealed, that is to say, indifference group (13%), strongly favorable group (11%), strongly unfavorable group (9%), fairly favorable group (12%), fairly unfavorable group (5%), and intermediate group (50%). Strongly favorable and unfavorable groups are similar in some points and different in other points, for they are both rational whereas the former is optimistic in the attitude toward science and technology and less interested in environmental problems, and the latter is pessimistic in the attitude toward science and technology and extremely sensitive to environmental problems. The intermediate group has so-called Japanese -like characteristics. It is shown that the emotional persuasion and that based on fact presentation are particularly desirable for this group. (author)

  1. The Public and Nanotechnology: How Citizens Make Sense of Emerging Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheufele, Dietram A. [University of Wisconsin, Madison School of Journalism and Mass Communication (United States)], E-mail: scheufele@wisc.edu; Lewenstein, Bruce V. [Cornell University, Department of Communication and Department of Science and Technology Studies (United States)

    2005-12-15

    We report findings from a national telephone survey on levels of knowledge about and attitudes toward nanotechnology that demonstrate how people make decisions about emerging technologies. Our findings confirm previous research that suggests that people form opinions and attitudes even in the absence of relevant scientific or policy-related information. In fact, our data show that cognitive shortcuts or heuristics - often provided by mass media - are currently a key factor in influencing how the public thinks about nanotechnology and about its risks and benefits, and in determining the level of support among the public for further funding for research in this area.

  2. The Public and Nanotechnology: How Citizens Make Sense of Emerging Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheufele, Dietram A.; Lewenstein, Bruce V.

    2005-01-01

    We report findings from a national telephone survey on levels of knowledge about and attitudes toward nanotechnology that demonstrate how people make decisions about emerging technologies. Our findings confirm previous research that suggests that people form opinions and attitudes even in the absence of relevant scientific or policy-related information. In fact, our data show that cognitive shortcuts or heuristics - often provided by mass media - are currently a key factor in influencing how the public thinks about nanotechnology and about its risks and benefits, and in determining the level of support among the public for further funding for research in this area

  3. A country-wide probability sample of public attitudes toward stuttering in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Ana Rita S; St Louis, Kenneth O; Leahy, Margaret; Hall, Andreia; Jesus, Luis M T

    2017-06-01

    Negative public attitudes toward stuttering have been widely reported, although differences among countries and regions exist. Clear reasons for these differences remain obscure. Published research is unavailable on public attitudes toward stuttering in Portugal as well as a representative sample that explores stuttering attitudes in an entire country. This study sought to (a) determine the feasibility of a country-wide probability sampling scheme to measure public stuttering attitudes in Portugal using a standard instrument (the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering [POSHA-S]) and (b) identify demographic variables that predict Portuguese attitudes. The POSHA-S was translated to European Portuguese through a five-step process. Thereafter, a local administrative office-based, three-stage, cluster, probability sampling scheme was carried out to obtain 311 adult respondents who filled out the questionnaire. The Portuguese population held stuttering attitudes that were generally within the average range of those observed from numerous previous POSHA-S samples. Demographic variables that predicted more versus less positive stuttering attitudes were respondents' age, region of the country, years of school completed, working situation, and number of languages spoken. Non-predicting variables were respondents' sex, marital status, and parental status. A local administrative office-based, probability sampling scheme generated a respondent profile similar to census data and indicated that Portuguese attitudes are generally typical. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental vulnerability in public perceptions and attitudes : The case of Israel's urban centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drori, Israel

    Objective. This article investigates how urban environmental vulnerability to hazards reflects in the perceptions and attitudes of the public in three major cities in Israel: Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, and Haifa. Our central argument is that the differences between the residents' perceptions and attitudes

  5. Effect of demographic variables on public attitudes towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-30

    Sep 30, 2011 ... 5Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM, Bangi, ..... race formulates a cultural/social network. .... Macer D, Chen Ng MA (2000). Changing Attitudes to Biotechnology in. Japan.

  6. Public Information on the Nuclear Energy and Advanced Technology Agency of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras Izquierdo, Marta Alicia

    2007-01-01

    The mission of the Nuclear Energy and Advanced Technology Agency of Cuba is the promoting and controlling of the peaceful use of nuclear energy and radiation application; additionally, they have to inform the general public about those technologies. The main of this work is to expose the methodology and results of the studies of the attitudes toward the nuclear applications of the users of the nuclear techniques

  7. Public attitudes to coal use in the context of global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohan Fernando [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    Though coal remains the main fuel for power generation worldwide, concerns regarding the contribution of coal-fired power generation to global warming have also increased considerably in recent years. These concerns have somewhat eclipsed the many advantages of the use of coal for power generation. The attitudes of the public towards power generation from a particular fuel is an important factor in shaping government policy. For example, such attitudes are crucial in determining whether new coal-fired projects can proceed. This report describes current public attitudes towards coal-fired power plant in several countries both in the developed and developing world. It compares these attitudes with those reported in an earlier report on this subject produced in 2006. Since then, the publication of the IPCC report in 2007 and the greater worldwide consensus on the reality of global warming following the change in administrations in the USA and Australia would be expected to affect public attitudes. However, events in late 2009 have increased the levels of public scepticism. The report principally collates opinion poll data available on the public's attitude towards energy, environment and the use of coal for power generation. Whereas before 2006, surveys of attitudes towards energy sources commonly included coal-fired plant, more recently coal plant are rarely included, presumably as it is assumed that the public would be overwhelmingly opposed. Hence the subject has been broadened to include attitudes to climate changeand CCS. It also reports what national and international organisations say about the use of coal. It investigates what the general public and concerned organisations say should be done to reduce the greenhouse effect. Countries and regions chosen for particular focus are the USA, the European Union, the UK, India, Thailand and Australia. 121 refs., 38 figs., 26 tabs.

  8. Attitudes and interest in technology-based treatment and the remote monitoring of smoking among adolescents and emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Erin; Baker, Nathaniel; Carpenter, Matthew J; Treiber, Frank A; Gray, Kevin

    2017-06-01

    Despite the public health relevance of smoking in adolescents and emerging adults, this group remains understudied and underserved. High technology utilization among this group may be harnessed as a tool for better understanding of smoking, yet little is known regarding the acceptability of mobile health (mHealth) integration. Participants (ages 14-21) enrolled in a smoking cessation clinical trial provided feedback on their technology utilization, perceptions, and attitudes; and interest in remote monitoring for smoking. Characteristics that predicted greater technology acceptability for smoking treatment were also explored. Participants (N=87) averaged 19 years old and were mostly male (67%). Technology utilization was high for smart phone ownership (93%), Internet use (98%), and social media use (94%). Despite this, only one-third of participants had ever searched the Internet for cessation tips or counseling (33%). Participants showed interest in mHealth-enabled treatment (48%) and felt that it could be somewhat helpful (83%). Heavier smokers had more favorable attitudes toward technology-based treatment, as did those with smartphones and unlimited data. Our results demonstrate high technology utilization, favorable attitudes towards technology, and minimal concerns. Technology integration among this population should be pursued, though in a tailored fashion, to accomplish the goal of providing maximally effective, just-in-time interventions.

  9. Energy policy options--from the perspective of public attitudes and risk perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viklund, Mattias

    2004-01-01

    In the present study a representative sample (N=797) of the Swedish population was surveyed, with regard to attitudes related to energy policy issues (e.g., environmental attitudes, risk perceptions, and attitudes towards different energy production systems), and self-reported electricity saving behavior. These factors were considered relevant in a Swedish energy policy context, due to the planned phase-out of nuclear power. Citizens' attitudes have traditionally been important factors in energy policy-making, especially nuclear policy. One of the conditions for a successful phase-out is decreased levels of electricity consumption among households and in industry, in order to compensate for the loss in energy production. Respondents reported positive attitudes to the environment in general and to electricity saving, while the attitudes to nuclear power as an energy production system in Sweden were relatively negative. Perceived risk was an important predictor of these attitudes and it was concluded that it is important to investigate factors behind this variable. The relationship between attitudes towards electricity saving and electricity saving behavior was weak. It is suggested that a contribution of psychological knowledge in energy conservation campaigns could be to elaborate on people's willingness to be public-spirited citizens in combination with their pro-environmental attitudes. Viklund (1999, Electricity saving: Attitudes and behavior of Swedish households. Center for Risk Research, Stockholm.) presented more data from the survey referred to here

  10. Public health implications of wireless technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Cindy; Carpenter, David O

    2009-08-01

    Global exposures to emerging wireless technologies from applications including mobile phones, cordless phones, DECT phones, WI-FI, WLAN, WiMAX, wireless internet, baby monitors, and others may present serious public health consequences. Evidence supporting a public health risk is documented in the BioInitiative Report. New, biologically based public exposure standards for chronic exposure to low-intensity exposures are warranted. Existing safety standards are obsolete because they are based solely on thermal effects from acute exposures. The rapidly expanding development of new wireless technologies and the long latency for the development of such serious diseases as brain cancers means that failure to take immediate action to reduce risks may result in an epidemic of potentially fatal diseases in the future. Regardless of whether or not the associations are causal, the strengths of the associations are sufficiently strong that in the opinion of the authors, taking action to reduce exposures is imperative, especially for the fetus and children. Such action is fully compatible with the precautionary principle, as enunciated by the Rio Declaration, the European Constitution Principle on Health (Section 3.1) and the European Union Treaties Article 174.

  11. Enhancing the Students' Positive Attitude in Learning Business English by Using Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustina, Lia

    2017-01-01

    Many research findings have stated that the use of technology in EFL classroom results invaluable achievements and develops positive attitudes. Technology may integrate sounds, pictures, motions, and colors that fi ure out a natural picture of real life. The aim of the study was to enhance the students' attitude toward learning English by using…

  12. A Survey of EFL Learners' Attitudes toward Information and Communication Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junhong

    2009-01-01

    In response to the widespread use of and ever-changing nature of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), various investigations were carried out regarding attitudes toward ICT. This paper attempted to investigate college non-English majors' attitudes toward the integration of Information and Communication Technologies into English…

  13. Technology Use in Rwandan Secondary Schools: An Assessment of Teachers' Attitudes towards Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Felicia O.

    2016-01-01

    Technology use is evident in all spheres of human endeavour. Focusing on technology use in education, this paper examines teachers' attitudes towards geographic information system (GIS). An assessment was made of GIS teachers in Rwandan secondary schools. Key areas covered include how GIS is implemented in schools, teachers' attitudes and…

  14. Attitude of senior citizens towards smart home technologies:a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Hamal Mishra, Binisha

    2015-01-01

    Smart home can be of significant importance for positive ageing allowing elderly to maintain independence, functionality, well-being and higher quality of life. Aim: The aim of this thesis is to study attitude of senior citizens towards smart home technologies. Understanding senior citizen's attitude towards current smart home technol-ogies is an important aspect in optimization of the existing technologies as well as in the design of new technologies. The review will aim to find the answe...

  15. The Public's Attitude Toward Public Library Services in Essex County, New Jersey; A Research Study Conducted for the Essex County Library Directors Group Public Relations Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Market Dynamics, Inc., Princeton, NJ.

    In order to structure an effective campaign aimed at increasing the usage of the public libraries in Essex County, New Jersey, this research project was undertaken to determine the consumer attitudes toward various aspects of public library services. These aspects include: extent of public library usage; awareness of library services offered,…

  16. Attitudes toward epilepsy among the primary and secondary school teachers in Malaysia, using the public attitudes toward epilepsy (PATE) scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kheng Seang; Hills, Michael D; Choo, Wan Yuen; Wong, Mee Hoo; Wu, Cathie; Tan, Chong Tin

    2013-10-01

    There is a lack of study comparing the attitudes toward epilepsy between the teachers and general population, teachers and students, using a similar quantitative scale. This study was performed in one primary and one secondary school in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, using the Public Attitudes Toward Epilepsy (PATE) scale. A total of 186 teachers aged 39.6±10.4 years completed the questionnaire. The mean scores in both personal and general domains of PATE scale were significantly better in the teachers, comparing to the scores in the secondary and college students reported in previous study (Lim et al., 2013; pjob, rather than tertiary education generally. Subanalysis showed that the attitudes of teachers were significantly better than the general population and the students related to employment and social life, but were equally negative on issues directly related to education, such as placing children with epilepsy in regular classes. Teachers had more positive attitudes toward epilepsy as compared with the general population with tertiary education. Attitude to epilepsy may differ specific to types of work. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Public Attitudes toward Human Genetic Manipulation: A Revitalization of Eugenics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veglia, Geremia; And Others

    The purpose of this investigation was to measure the attitudes of college students across the United States concerning the possible use of genetic manipulation, especially in terms of enhancing human physical and intellectual characteristics. The instrument used was divided into three general areas of inquiry: the first, designed to measure the…

  18. Public knowledge, attitude and perception of over the counter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... knowledge, attitude and perception of over the counter medicines:Case study in Dar es ... views on OTC in terms of safety and effectiveness and knowledge and ... it shows those pharmacists need to be more proactive in the management of ...

  19. Public attitudes toward-and identification of-cluttering and stuttering in Norway and Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, Kenneth O; Sønsterud, Hilda; Carlo, Edna J; Heitmann, Ragnhild R; Kvenseth, Helene

    2014-12-01

    The study sought to compare public attitudes toward cluttering versus stuttering in Norway and Puerto Rico and to compare respondents' identification of persons known with these fluency disorders. After reading lay definitions of cluttering and stuttering, three samples of adults from Norway and three from Puerto Rico rated their attitudes toward cluttering and/or stuttering on modified versions of the POSHA-Cl (for cluttering) and POSHA-S (for stuttering). They also identified children and adults whom they knew who either or both manifested cluttering or stuttering. Attitudes toward cluttering were essentially unaffected by rating either cluttering only or combined cluttering and stuttering on the same questionnaire in both countries. The same was also true of stuttering. Attitudes were very similar toward both disorders although slightly less positive for cluttering. Norwegian attitudes toward both disorders were generally more positive than Puerto Rican attitudes. The average respondent identified slightly more than one fluency disorder, a higher percentage for stuttering than cluttering and higher for adults than children. Cluttering-stuttering was rarely identified. Given a lay definition, this study confirmed that adults from diverse cultures hold attitudes toward cluttering that are similar to-but somewhat less positive than-their attitudes toward stuttering. It also confirmed that adults can identify cluttering among people they know, although less commonly than stuttering. Design controls in this study assured that consideration of stuttering did not affect either the attitudes or identification results for cluttering. The reader will be able to: (a) describe the effects-or lack thereof-of considerations of stuttering on attitudes toward cluttering; (b) describe differences in public identification of children and adults who either clutter or stutter; (c) describe differences between attitudes toward cluttering and stuttering in Norway and Puerto Rico

  20. Public attitude towards dentists and dental services in Bangalore city, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagashree Savanur Ravindranath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding public attitude towards dentists and dental services helps both dental service providers and planners. Hence, this study was conducted to assess public attitude toward dentists and dental services in Bangalore city, India. Methods: Two thousand residents of Bangalore city were selected through multistage cluster sampling method. A structured questionnaire containing statements pertaining to public attitude toward dentists and dental services in Bangalore city was administered to the subjects. Five point Likert scale was used to measure the attitude. Results: About 67.8% of the study subjects had visited a dentist in their lifetime. Negative attitudes were observed regarding waiting time, cleanliness of instruments and dentist advising patients to give up unhealthy practices such as smoking, drinking and pan chewing. Positive attitude was found regarding availability of dental services near place of residence or work, modern equipments being used for treatment and the nobleness of the dental professionals. About 67% of study subjects felt that dental services are expensive. Only 65% agree that regular check-ups prevent dental diseases and 33% of the study subjects agree that dental treatment can be delayed if there are other expenses. Conclusions: Subjects generally had positive attitude toward dentists and dental services. Certain factors like waiting time and cleanliness elicited negative response.

  1. Technology of forming a positive attitude to physical training students of special medical group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhamediarov N.N.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Defined effective technology stages of forming a positive attitude towards physical education of students in special medical groups, stimulate motivation, epistemologically, informative, content-procedural, analytical and adjustment. For each stage technology offered special tools: lectures, seminars, analysis articles, mini conference on improving technique, racing games, mini-competitions, diagnostic interviews, questionnaires, analysis of log data on attendance. Selected criteria forming positive attitudes towards physical education: theoretical and practical, formed groups for research: experimental and control, analyzed results introduction of technology, efficiency of the proposed technology and means forming a positive attitude towards physical education students in special medical groups.

  2. Public attitudes in Japan toward participation in whole genome sequencing studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Taketoshi; Ohashi, Noriko; Kabata, Daijiro; Shintani, Ayumi; Kato, Kazuto

    2018-04-13

    Recent innovations in gene analysis technology have allowed for rapid and inexpensive sequencing of entire genomes. Thus, both conducting a study using whole genome sequencing (WGS) in a large population and the clinical application of research findings from such studies are currently feasible. However, to promote WGS studies, understanding and voluntary participation by the general public is needed. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the general public's attitude toward and understanding of WGS studies. The primary goal of our research is to investigate these issues and to discover how they relate to research participation in WGS studies. A survey of awareness regarding WGS and studies using WGS was conducted with a sample of 2000 or more participants using a self-administered questionnaire posted on the Internet between February 20 and 21, 2015. Prior to the survey, we briefly explained WGS and WGS study-related issues to the respondents in order to provide them with the minimum knowledge required to answer the questionnaire. We then conducted an analysis, including cross-classification. For the question regarding interest in WGS, 46.6% of participants responded "Yes." 70.7% of all respondents said that they were interested in some kinds of findings that could be obtained from WGS studies. Regarding participation in WGS studies, 29.0% were interested in participating. The demographic factors significantly related to attitudes toward research participation were age, level of education, and employment status. The results also suggest that concerns about WGS have a positive effect on people's willingness to participate. Furthermore, it was shown that for people who were not interested in their gene-related information, concerns about WGS negatively impacted their willingness to participate. However, for people who were interested in their gene-related information, their concerns might not have impacted their willingness to participate. This research has shown

  3. Public Universities in Competition with Private Enterprise: The Attitudes and Behaviors of University Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, David Otto

    2010-01-01

    Public universities undertake business activities sometimes considered by private enterprise as unfairly competitive based on nonprofit advantages. This study was an inquiry into the attitudes and actions of chief business officers at public universities regarding these activities. The research population consisted of the 1862 Morrill Act Land…

  4. Gender, Self-Stigma, and Public Stigma in Predicting Attitudes toward Psychological Help-Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of university students (N = 362), the role of gender and both the self-stigma and public stigma associated with one's decision to seek psychological help in predicting attitudes toward psychological helpseeking were examined. Moreover, gender differences regarding both the self-stigma and the public stigma associated with…

  5. Validation and Exploration of Instruments for Assessing Public Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Fen; Lin, Huann-shyang; Wu, Yi-ying

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop instruments that assess public knowledge of nanotechnology (PKNT), public attitudes toward nanotechnology (PANT) and conduct a pilot study for exploring the relationship between PKNT and PANT. The PKNT test was composed of six scales involving major nanotechnology concepts, including size and scale,…

  6. National assessment of public perceptions and attitudes to nuclear power in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, J.K.

    The Canadian Nuclear Association has recognized the need for 1) hard data on public attitudes towards nuclear power, and 2) a comprehensive public education program on nuclear power. The development of a methodology and the utilization of the acquired data for point 1) are described. (E.C.B.)

  7. Public attitudes to nuclear energy: salience and anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a brief overview of trends and developments of public opinion about nuclear energy since the late 1970's. One possible reason for increased concern is the public's perception of risks. Research has shown a considerable divergence in public and expert assessment of the risks associated with

  8. Information Technology in a Developing Country: An Exploration of the Factors Associated with Attitudes of Decision Makers in Jordanian Government Institutions toward the Utilization of Computer-Based Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasawneh, Saleh

    2010-01-01

    In this era of rapidly advancing technologies, many governments around the globe are spending a great amount of money on these technologies, in order to increase their work performance. Therefore, the Jordanian government decided to implement IT in its public organizations. However, the picture is unclear about users' attitudes toward this…

  9. Reviewing the relations between teachers' knowledge and pupils' attitude in the field of primary technology education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruurd Taconis; dr. Ellen J. J Rohaan; Wim Jochems

    2010-01-01

    This literature review reports on the assumed relations between primary school teachers' knowledge of technology and pupils' attitude towards technology. In order to find relevant aspects of technology-specific teacher knowledge, scientific literature in the field of primary technology education was

  10. Female public Jordanian university undergraduate students' intentions and attitudes toward breastfeeding: application of self-objectification theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ali, Nahla; Hatamleh, Reem; Khader, Yousef

    2013-11-01

    Breastfeeding is the natural way of feeding infants and an important public health issue. Representation women as sexual objects by highlighting their bodies as mainly for the desire of men causes women to prioritise their physical appearance and internalise sexual objectification of their bodies. Such ideologies make women less comfortable to accept other functions of their bodies such as the reproductive functions, including breastfeeding and childbirth. To describe, in a sample of female undergraduate students, attitudes toward breastfeeding, level of self-objectification and to examine whether women's attitudes and the intention of breastfeeding is related to the level of self-objectification. An exploratory, cross-sectional design was used. All female undergraduate university students, attending a large university in the Northern part of Jordan were eligible to participate. A convenience sample of 600 female students from both health professional and non-health professional schools were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire designed to collect data on students' intentions and attitudes toward breastfeeding and self-objectification, with a response rate of 82.6% (n=496). Ethical approval was obtained from the Scientific Research Board of the Jordan University of Science and Technology prior to the start of the study. The majority of the students gave favourable responses towards the attitude statements and reported a commitment to breastfeeding Students' attitudes toward breastfeeding correlated significantly with self-objectification. Participants with negative attitudes towards breastfeeding were more likely to internalise and accept the socio-cultural attitudes towards appearance (r = -0.098, p = 0.029). Participants' intention to breastfeed correlated negatively with self-objectification and those who intended to breastfeed were more likely to reject the socio-cultural attitudes towards the "apearance" subscale (r = 0.097, p = 0.031). The

  11. Public attitudes to nuclear and coal power in site selection for a future energy centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baril, R.G.; Dobson, J.K.

    This paper discusses the results of a 1977 public attitude survey carried out as part of an Ontario Hydro generating site selection program along the North Channel of Lake Huron. The results of the survey are compared with those of two similar surveys conducted in 1974 and 1975. The main topics discussed include local citizen attitudes to a generating site in the area, nuclear power, attitude changes over three years, differences in attitudes to nuclear and to coal fired generation and the underlying reasons given for favouring or opposing nuclear power. The results of other surveys which have been conducted recently in Canada and internationally are discussed and compared with this survey. Most longitudinal studies point to a trend of declining public acceptance regarding nuclear power. If this trend continues, there are important implications for the nuclear power industry: they are discussed from a sociological and political perspective. (author)

  12. The Media and Technology Usage and Attitudes Scale: An empirical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, L.D.; Whaling, K.; Carrier, L.M.; Cheever, N.A.; Rokkum, J.

    2015-01-01

    Current approaches to measuring people’s everyday usage of technology-based media and other computer-related activities have proved to be problematic as they use varied outcome measures, fail to measure behavior in a broad range of technology-related domains and do not take into account recently developed types of technology including smartphones. In the present study, a wide variety of items, covering a range of up-to-date technology and media usage behaviors. Sixty-six items concerning technology and media usage, along with 18 additional items assessing attitudes toward technology, were administered to two independent samples of individuals, comprising 942 participants. Factor analyses were used to create 11 usage subscales representing smartphone usage, general social media usage, Internet searching, e-mailing, media sharing, text messaging, video gaming, online friendships, Facebook friendships, phone calling, and watching television in addition to four attitude-based subscales: positive attitudes, negative attitudes, technological anxiety/dependence, and attitudes toward task-switching. All subscales showed strong reliabilities and relationships between the subscales and pre-existing measures of daily media usage and Internet addiction were as predicted. Given the reliability and validity results, the new Media and Technology Usage and Attitudes Scale was suggested as a method of measuring media and technology involvement across a variety of types of research studies either as a single 60-item scale or any subset of the 15 subscales. PMID:25722534

  13. The Media and Technology Usage and Attitudes Scale: An empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, L D; Whaling, K; Carrier, L M; Cheever, N A; Rokkum, J

    2013-11-01

    Current approaches to measuring people's everyday usage of technology-based media and other computer-related activities have proved to be problematic as they use varied outcome measures, fail to measure behavior in a broad range of technology-related domains and do not take into account recently developed types of technology including smartphones. In the present study, a wide variety of items, covering a range of up-to-date technology and media usage behaviors. Sixty-six items concerning technology and media usage, along with 18 additional items assessing attitudes toward technology, were administered to two independent samples of individuals, comprising 942 participants. Factor analyses were used to create 11 usage subscales representing smartphone usage, general social media usage, Internet searching, e-mailing, media sharing, text messaging, video gaming, online friendships, Facebook friendships, phone calling, and watching television in addition to four attitude-based subscales: positive attitudes, negative attitudes, technological anxiety/dependence, and attitudes toward task-switching. All subscales showed strong reliabilities and relationships between the subscales and pre-existing measures of daily media usage and Internet addiction were as predicted. Given the reliability and validity results, the new Media and Technology Usage and Attitudes Scale was suggested as a method of measuring media and technology involvement across a variety of types of research studies either as a single 60-item scale or any subset of the 15 subscales.

  14. Digital competence of teachers in primary education: quantitative analysis of competence, use and attitudes towards new technologies in teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Janeth Romero Martínez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to analyze the degree of digital competence (DC of primary teachers and its relationship with the use of new technologies for teaching purposes. We also study the relationship between DC and attitude towards information and communications technnology (ICT for the teaching process. To achieve this aims, the DC of 58 teachers of public and concerted schools were analyzed and comparisons according to age, gender, experience and type of school were performed. Also, a correlation between DC, use of ICT and attitude was made. Results show significant differences in DC according to age, gender, experience and type of school, but no differences according to attitudes towards ICT.

  15. Older Adults and Emerging Digital Service Delivery: A Mixed Methods Study on Information and Communications Technology Use, Skills, and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siren, Anu; Knudsen, Sine Grønborg

    2017-01-01

    Based on data from a survey (n = 3291) and 14 qualitative interviews among Danish older adults, this study investigated the use of, and attitudes toward, information communications technology (ICT) and the digital delivery of public services. While age, gender, and socioeconomic status were associated with use of ICT, these determinants lost their explanatory power when we controlled for attitudes and experiences. We identified three segments that differed in their use of ICT and attitudes toward digital service delivery. As nonuse of ICT often results from the lack of willingness to use it rather than from material or cognitive deficiencies, policy measures for bridging the digital divide should focus on skills and confidence rather than on access or ability.

  16. Public attitudes to GM foods. The balancing of risks and gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, John; Caplanova, Anetta; Novak, Marcel

    2015-09-01

    In the paper we study the variables influencing attitudes to the use of two biotechnologies related to gene transfer within apples. Using Eurobarometer 73.1 survey data on biotechnology, science and technology, with 15,650 respondents, we study the extent these attitudes are determined by socio-economic and other variables. We found that attitudes to the risks and gains are determined by socio-economic variables and also by the individual's knowledge, scientific background, their parent's education in science and their religion. Perceptions of naturalness and of environmental impact combined with perceived risks and gains in determining overall approval, proxied by views on whether the technologies should be encouraged, for GMTs. However there are substantial differences in attitudes to transgenesis and cisgenesis. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Public attitudes to the promotion of genomic crop studies in Japan: correlations between genomic literacy, trust, and favourable attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, Izumi; Tanzawa, Tetsuro; Watanabe, Maiko; Maeda, Tadahiko; Muto, Kaori; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Nagai, Akiko; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2012-05-01

    This study aimed to assess public attitudes in Japan to the promotion of genomic selection in crop studies and to examine associated factors. We analysed data from a nationwide opinion survey. A total of 4,000 people were selected from the Japanese general population by a stratified two-phase sampling method, and 2,171 people participated by post; this survey asked about the pros and cons of crop-related genomic studies promotion, examined people's scientific literacy in genomics, and investigated factors thought to be related to genomic literacy and attitude. The relationships were examined using logistic regression models stratified by gender. Survey results showed that 50.0% of respondents approved of the promotion of crop-related genomic studies, while 6.7% disapproved. No correlation was found between literacy and attitude towards promotion. Trust in experts, belief in science, an interest in genomic studies and willingness to purchase new products correlated with a positive attitude towards crop-related genomic studies.

  18. Public attitudes toward geological disposal of carbon dioxide in Canada : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, J.

    2005-01-01

    A research project investigating the public's perceptions of the risks and benefits of the geologic disposal of carbon dioxide (GDC) technology was presented. Data for the project was collected in 2 phases. Focus groups were conducted in order to understand the likely range of attitudes and concerns about the technology. The information obtained from the focus groups was then used to design an Internet-based survey for administration to a sample of 1967 Canadians. The survey included questions about climate change and GDC as well as a discrete choice experiment. Linear multiple regression analysis was used to identify the determinants of the respondents' support for GDC. Results showed that while a strong majority of Canadians believed that climate change was occurring, climate change ranked very low in importance compared to other national issues, and was the lowest ranked environmental issue. Knowledge of GDC was low, and the vast majority of those who had heard of GDC could not identify what environmental problem it was meant to address. The most important benefits of GDC were seen to be its utility as a bridging technology while long-term climate change solutions are developed; the potential for its use in enhanced oil recovery; and its ability to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, the risks of GDC were rated as more important than the benefits, and included concerns about unknown future impacts; contamination of groundwater; the risk of a carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) leak; and risks to plants and animals. It was concluded that respondents were slightly supportive of GDC development in Canada, and perceived the technology as having a net positive impact on the environment. GDC was seen as less risky than normal oil and gas industry operations, nuclear power, or coal-burning power plants. It was concluded that GDC is less popular then energy efficiency and renewable energy alternatives, and should be used in combination with these technologies in order to

  19. Politics, proximity and the pipeline: Mapping public attitudes toward Keystone XL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravelle, Timothy B.; Lachapelle, Erick

    2015-01-01

    The politics of oil pipelines have become increasingly salient in American politics in recent years. In particular, debates about economic benefits, energy security and environmental impact have been provoked by the proposed Keystone XL pipeline expansion intended to take bitumen from northern Alberta in Canada to refineries on the Gulf Coast in Texas. Drawing on data from recent surveys conducted by the Pew Research Center, this article asks a series of questions. What levels of support for (and opposition to) the pipeline exist among the American public? What are the roles of political factors (such as party identification and ideology), economic attitudes, environmental attitudes and proximity to the proposed pipeline route in shaping attitudes toward the pipeline? And how do political factors and proximity to the pipeline interact? We find that partisanship and ideology drive attitudes toward the Keystone XL pipeline, and that the effect of ideology is attenuated by proximity to the proposed route. The policy implications of these findings for energy infrastructure siting controversies are discussed. -- Highlights: •Americans are divided on the Keystone XL energy pipeline. •Attitudes toward Keystone XL are driven by political party identification and ideology. •Attitudes toward the pipeline are also shaped by attitudes toward the economy and global warming. •The effect of proximity on attitudes toward Keystone XL is non-linear. •Spatial proximity to the pipeline attenuates the effect of ideology

  20. Surveying Public Attitudes of Security Sector Reforms in the Arab ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The notion that the security sector's primary responsibility is to protect and preserve autocratic Arab regimes is widely discredited today. ... of public opinion in security sector reform by providing evidence-based information on public perceptions, and in so doing, encouraging civilian oversight and transparency in the sector.

  1. Students' Attitudes towards Information Technology and the Relationship with Their Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Zhwan Dalshad; Bit Abu Ziden, Azidah; Binti Chi Aman, Rahimi; Mustafa, Khalid Ismail

    2015-01-01

    The present quantitative study aims to find out the underlying factors of attitudes towards information technology and the relationship with academic achievement among students, through a self-developed questionnaire. The attitudes of the respondents were assessed in terms of three dimensions; namely affection, behavior, and belief. The results…

  2. Racism and Attitude Change: The Role of Mass Media and Instructional Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert L.; Thomas, Richard

    The task confronting this nation is to use our communications technology in an effort to effectively eliminate racist and other undemocratic attitudes in American life. The media and those who control them must be willing to run the risk of losing profits to engage in facilitating positive attitudes towards emotional issues such as poverty and…

  3. Exploring changes in nursing students' attitudes towards the use of technology: A four-wave longitudinal panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubaishat, Ahmad; Aljezawi, Ma'en; Al-Rawajfah, Omar M; Habiballah, Laila; Akhu-Zaheya, Laila M

    2016-03-01

    It is essential for nursing students to be equipped with the necessary technology skills throughout and after their study period. Their acceptance of this technology depends largely on their attitudes towards technology. To explore the evolution in nursing students' attitudes towards technology, and to determine whether there was a change in participants' formal education in technology over their four years of study. A longitudinal panel study was conducted in a single school of nursing in Jordan. A total of 140 students were followed over their four years of undergraduate study. They completed the same tool (the Technology Attitude Scale) each year, to capture any changes in their attitudes towards technology across the years. In all four waves of data collection, students showed positive attitudes towards technology, with the highest attitude scores being in their final year (M=6.19, SD=0.72). As the students spent more time on their nursing education, they were found to have a more positive attitude. Thus, a strong positive relationship existed between this formal education in technology and attitudes: as the students' education in technology increased, their attitudes were more positive. A remarkable development in students' attitudes towards technology is reported in this study. The positive attitudes displayed by the students should be enhanced by providing technology-related subjects during their studies in nursing schools at a very early stage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of Public Attitude Changes toward Exceptional Children as a Result of Public Newspaper Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sterling; Ogley, Peter

    1981-01-01

    To assess whether newspaper advertising would affect attitudes toward handicapped children, a series of newspaper advertisements were run over a five-month period. It was concluded that the ads produced significant difference in attitudes of persons manifest by their response to the questionnaire. (SB)

  5. Fear of living dangerously: public attitudes toward nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inglehart, R.

    1984-01-01

    Public misconceptions about nuclear power and the inability to separate nuclear power plants from atomic bombs persists. The fear which is generated over plant accidents and the sensational reporting by the media have made the public fearful and opposed to nuclear power. A rational weighing of nuclear risks should include a consideration of the risks of not developing nuclear power as well as an assessment of the safety record of operating plants. The public needs to recognize that no energy system is absolutely safe and that nuclear plant accidents of the future will most likely be comparable to mining and other drilling accidents that are already considered acceptable. 1 reference, 2 tables

  6. What Do Librarians Think about Marketing? A Survey of Public Librarians' Attitudes toward the Marketing of Library Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shontz, Marilyn L.; Parker, Jon C.; Parker, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify attitudes of public librarians toward the marketing of library services and relate these attitudes to selected independent variables. A questionnaire was mailed to individual members of the New Jersey Library Association. Although most of the respondents had generally positive attitudes toward library…

  7. Public attitudes toward legally coerced biological treatments of criminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryessa, Colleen M; Chandler, Jennifer A; Reiner, Peter

    2016-12-01

    How does the public view the offer of a biological treatment in lieu of prison for criminal offenders? Using the contrastive vignette technique, we explored this issue, using mixed-methods analysis to measure concerns regarding changing the criminal's personality, the coercive nature of the offer, and the safety of the proposed treatment. Overall, we found that of the three variables, the safety of the pill had the strongest effect on public acceptance of a biological intervention. Indeed, it was notable that the public was relatively sanguine about coercive offers of biological agents, as well as changing the personality of criminals. While respondents did not fully endorse such coercive offers, neither were they outraged by the use of biological treatments of criminals in lieu of incarceration. These results are discussed in the context of the retributive and rehabilitative sentiments of the public, and legal jurisprudence in the arena of human rights law.

  8. International survey on attitudes toward ethics in health technology assessment: An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arellano, L.E.; Willett, J.M.; Borry, P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this exploratory study was to survey international health technology assessment (HTA) professionals to determine attitudes toward ethics in HTA. Methods: An exploratory, quantitative, cross-sectional study design was developed. The sample population (n = 636) was

  9. Public Perception of Climate Change and Mitigation Technologies; Percepcion Publica del Cambio Climatico y las Tecnologias de Mitigacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sola, R; Sala, R; Oltra, C

    2007-09-27

    Public perception and understanding of climate change and mitigation policies may have a significant influence on the development of political programs as well as on individual behavioral intentions to address climate change. The study of public attitudes and beliefs about climate change and energy policy may be useful in the design of suitable communication strategies and in the efficient implementation of climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. Based on a survey to the Spanish population, we analyze different issues such as the level of concern towards climate change, the existing knowledge about the contribution of different energy technologies to global warming, the attitudes toward energy technologies and the beliefs about potential adaptation strategies. Comparisons with other countries based on similar public opinion surveys are established to obtain a broader view of policy preferences and attitudes regarding climate change. (Author) 5 refs.

  10. Individualism, acceptance and differentiation as attitude traits in the public's response to vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velan, Baruch; Boyko, Valentina; Lerner-Geva, Liat; Ziv, Arnona; Yagar, Yaakov; Kaplan, Giora

    2012-09-01

    The attitude of the general public to vaccination was evaluated through a survey conducted on a representative sample of the Israeli population (n = 2,018), in which interviewees were requested to express their standpoints regarding five different vaccination programs. These included: pandemic influenza vaccination, seasonal influenza vaccination, travel vaccines, Human Papilloma Virus vaccine and childhood vaccinations. Analysis of the responses reveal three major attitude traits: a) acceptance, characterized by the opinion that targets should be vaccinated; b) individualism, characterized by the opinion that vaccination should be left to personal choice; and c) differentiation, characterized by the tendency to express different attitudes when addressing different vaccination programs. Interestingly, direct opposition to vaccination was found to be a minor attitude trait in this survey. Groups within the population could be defined according to their tendency to assume these different attitudes as Acceptors, Judicious-acceptors, Differentiators, Soft-individualists, and Hard-individualists. These groups expressed different standpoints on all five vaccination programs as well as on other health recommendations, such as screening for early detection of cancer. Attitude traits could be also correlated, to a certain extent, with actual compliance with vaccination programs. Interestingly, attitudes to vaccination were not correlated with social profiles related to income or education, although younger individuals exhibited higher degrees of individualism and differentiation. Taken together, all this is in accordance with the current social settings, underlining the individual's tendency for critical evaluation and self-stirring. This should be taken into consideration by health authorities involved in vaccination programs.

  11. Public and private language ideologies as reflected in language attitudes on the Island of Korcula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujoldzić, Anita; Simicić, Lucija

    2013-06-01

    Since languages are such powerful means of group identification, they may be considered as constitutive of communities. Attitudes expressed toward certain linguistic varieties may thus be perceived as attitudes held toward respective community-members. However, as attitudes are not always easily accessible, and are rarely one-dimensional but rather multi-layered, an insight into overt (publicly proclaimed) and covert (privately held) ideologies can enhance understanding of language attitudes and their meaning. This paper brings the analysis of these two types of attitudes held by adolescents in three most populated places on the island of Korcula, Croatia. The analysis is based on the results obtained by means of a questionnaire eliciting, among other things, overt attitudes toward six local, regional and supra-regional varieties, and covert attitudes toward judges' local speech and the Standard variety of Croatian. Although the results confirm some expected tendencies in the evaluation of different varieties, subsequently conducted analysis of speech recognition rates offers some valuable insights and interesting implications for further interpretation of the results.

  12. The Impact of an Online Collaborative Learning Program on Students' Attitude towards Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magen-Nagar, Noga; Shonfeld, Miri

    2018-01-01

    This quantitative research examined the contribution of an Online Collaborative Learning (OCL) program on attitudes towards technology in terms of technological anxiety, self-confidence and technology orientation among M.Ed. students. The advanced online collaborative program was implemented at two teacher training colleges in Israel for a period…

  13. Attitudes and Behavior of Ajman University of Science and Technology Students Towards the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Rasha Abdel Raman

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the attitudes and behavior of Ajman University of Science and Technology (AUST) students towards the environment according to their gender and college. The research was based on a descriptive approach. The sample consisted of (375) students (230 males and 145 females) from different colleges (Law, Information Technology, Mass Communication and Humanities, Engineering, Dentistry and Pharmacy). The Attitudes and Behavior Scale Towards the Environment (ABSTE) w...

  14. Engaging the public with low-carbon energy technologies: Results from a Scottish large group process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, Rhys; Shackley, Simon; Mabon, Leslie; Ashworth, Peta; Jeanneret, Talia

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a large group process conducted in Edinburgh, Scotland investigating public perceptions of climate change and low-carbon energy technologies, specifically carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS). The quantitative and qualitative results reported show that the participants were broadly supportive of efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and that there is an expressed preference for renewable energy technologies to be employed to achieve this. CCS was considered in detail during the research due to its climate mitigation potential; results show that the workshop participants were cautious about its deployment. The paper discusses a number of interrelated factors which appear to influence perceptions of CCS; factors such as the perceived costs and benefits of the technology, and people's personal values and trust in others all impacted upon participants’ attitudes towards the technology. The paper thus argues for the need to provide the public with broad-based, balanced and trustworthy information when discussing CCS, and to take seriously the full range of factors that influence public perceptions of low-carbon technologies. - Highlights: • We report the results of a Scottish large group workshop on energy technologies. • There is strong public support for renewable energy and mixed opinions towards CCS. • The workshop was successful in initiating discussion around climate change and energy technologies. • Issues of trust, uncertainty, costs, benefits, values and emotions all inform public perceptions. • Need to take seriously the full range of factors that inform perceptions

  15. Public Attitudes Toward Sexual Expression in Long-Term Care: Does Context Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelland, Erin; Hosier, Amy

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to (a) examine how age and sex of long-term care (LTC) residents influence public attitudes toward sexuality in LTC and (b) understand how, in the absence of cognitive decline, residing in LTC influences the perception of sexuality as a basic human right. Attitudes were examined using a factorial vignette with a probability sample of 325 respondents from a southern state. Results indicate that attitudes were not statistically affected by a vignette character's age or sex; but respondent education level, parenthood status, and religious affiliation did have direct bearing on attitudes. The notion of sexuality as a basic human right for residents of LTC was ultimately challenged as 19% of respondents said that LTC residents should not be permitted to have sexual relations with their spouse in the facility.

  16. Abuse of disabled parking: Reforming public's attitude through persuasive multimedia strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahaya, W A J W; Zain, M Z M

    2014-01-01

    Attitude is one of the factors that contribute to the abuse of disabled parking. The attitude's components are affective, cognitive and behavioral and may be formed in various ways including learning and persuasion. Using learning and persuasion approach, this study has produced a persuasive multimedia aiming to form a positive attitude toward disabled persons in order to minimize the rate of disabled parking abuse. The persuasive multimedia was developed using Principle of Social Learning draws from Persuasive Technology as learning strategy at macro persuasion level, and modality and redundancy principles draw from Multimedia Learning Principles as design strategy at micro persuasion level. In order to measure the effectiveness of the persuasive multimedia, 93 respondents were selected in a 2 × 2 quasi experimental research design for experiment. Attitude components of affective, cognitive and behavioral were measured using adapted instrument from the Multi Dimensional Attitudes Scale toward Persons With Disabilities (MAS). Result of the study shows that the persuasive multimedia which designed based on Social Learning Theory at macro persuasion level is capable of forming positive attitude toward disabled person. The cognitive component of the attitude found to be the most responsive component. In term of design strategy at the micro persuasion level, modality found to be the most significant strategy compare to redundancy. While males are more responsive to the persuasive multimedia compare to females

  17. Abuse of disabled parking: Reforming public's attitude through persuasive multimedia strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, W. A. J. W.; Zain, M. Z. M.

    2014-02-01

    Attitude is one of the factors that contribute to the abuse of disabled parking. The attitude's components are affective, cognitive and behavioral and may be formed in various ways including learning and persuasion. Using learning and persuasion approach, this study has produced a persuasive multimedia aiming to form a positive attitude toward disabled persons in order to minimize the rate of disabled parking abuse. The persuasive multimedia was developed using Principle of Social Learning draws from Persuasive Technology as learning strategy at macro persuasion level, and modality and redundancy principles draw from Multimedia Learning Principles as design strategy at micro persuasion level. In order to measure the effectiveness of the persuasive multimedia, 93 respondents were selected in a 2 × 2 quasi experimental research design for experiment. Attitude components of affective, cognitive and behavioral were measured using adapted instrument from the Multi Dimensional Attitudes Scale toward Persons With Disabilities (MAS). Result of the study shows that the persuasive multimedia which designed based on Social Learning Theory at macro persuasion level is capable of forming positive attitude toward disabled person. The cognitive component of the attitude found to be the most responsive component. In term of design strategy at the micro persuasion level, modality found to be the most significant strategy compare to redundancy. While males are more responsive to the persuasive multimedia compare to females.

  18. Public speaking attitudes: does curriculum make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Adrienne B; Stone, Matthew D; Brundage, Shelley B; Zeigler, Mark T

    2010-05-01

    In light of infamous levels of fear associated with public speaking, businesses are training staff in communication effectiveness and universities are requiring courses in public speaking. A variety of approaches to individual training are available, but few studies have assessed effectiveness of group instruction, as in academic curricula. The specific purpose of this study was to compare changes in scores on measures of self-perceived confidence, competence, and apprehension associated with public speaking after two types of courses: one focused on knowledge of the vocal mechanism and mastering vocal characteristics (pitch, volume, rate, quality), and one addressing general communication theory and public speaking. Seventy-one undergraduate students enrolled in "Voice and Diction" at George Washington University (GWU) and 68 enrolled in "Fundamental Speech" at Florida State University completed questionnaires before and after the courses. Scores on Self-Perceived Communication Competence Scale, Personal Report of Confidence as a Speaker, and Personal Report of Communication Apprehension-24, were compared within subjects (ie, prepost course) and between courses. Significant differences (ppublic speaking curriculum of how to design and deliver a speech and curriculum tailored to the voice and speech mechanism succeeded in reducing public speaking apprehension and increasing feelings of confidence and competency for these undergraduate students. (c) 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Public Attitudes and Feelings of Warmth Toward Women and Men Experiencing Depression During the Perinatal Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Jennifer N; Banchefsky, Sarah; Park, Bernadette; Dimidjian, Sona

    2017-08-01

    Depression is a major public health concern and often goes untreated. In response to a growing body of research documenting stigma as a barrier to depression care, this study focused on examining public stigma toward potentially vulnerable subpopulations. Participants (N=241) were recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk and randomly assigned to provide anonymous ratings on attitudes and feelings of warmth toward pregnant women and expectant fathers experiencing depression, mothers and fathers experiencing postpartum depression, or women and men experiencing depression during nonperinatal periods. Participants reported significantly more negative attitudes about depressed men than women, and male participants reported significantly more negative attitudes than female participants toward depressed individuals. Similarly, participants felt significantly less warmth toward depressed men than women, and male participants expressed significantly less warmth than female participants toward depressed individuals. Male participants felt equally warm toward men and women who experienced depression during nonperinatal periods, whereas female participants felt significantly warmer toward women who experienced depression during nonperinatal periods compared with men. Results indicate that the public views depressed men more negatively than depressed women and that males are more likely to hold stigmatizing attitudes toward depression, suggesting the importance of reducing stigma directed toward men with depression and stigma held by men toward persons with depression. Attitudes and feelings toward depressed individuals did not consistently vary by perinatal status. These findings are an initial step in improving depression treatment engagement strategies and in identifying those who would benefit most from stigma reduction programs.

  20. Knowledge of and attitudes toward electroconvulsive therapy among medical students, psychology students, and the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aki, Ozlem Erden; Ak, Sertac; Sonmez, Yunus Emre; Demir, Basaran

    2013-03-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is safe and effective for the treatment of various psychiatric disorders. Despite being a well-known treatment method among health care professionals, lay people generally have a negative opinion of ECT. The present study aimed to examine knowledge of and attitudes toward ECT among medical students, psychology students, and the general public. Psychology students were included because they are among the important groups in mental health care in Turkey. A Likert-type questionnaire was administered to fifth-year medical students (n = 28), master of science and doctor of philosophy clinical psychology students (n = 35), and a sample of the general public (n = 26). The questionnaire included questions about the general principles of and indications for ECT, and sources of knowledge of and attitudes toward ECT. The medical students were the most knowledgeable about ECT, as expected. The medical students also had a more positive attitude toward ECT than the other 2 groups. More psychology students had negative attitudes on some aspects than general public sample, despite being more knowledgeable. Medical school theoretical and practical training in ECT played an important role in increasing the level of knowledge of and decreasing the prevalence of negative attitudes toward ECT among the medical students; similar training for psychology students is required to achieve similar results.

  1. Nursing students' attitudes towards information and communication technology: an exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Jae; Clarke, Charlotte L

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically test a shortened version of the Information Technology Attitude Scales for Health, in the investigation of nursing students with clinical placement experiences. Nurses and nursing students need to develop high levels of competency in information and communication technology. However, they encounter statistically significant barriers in the use of the technology. Although some instruments have been developed to measure factors that influence nurses' attitudes towards technology, the validity is questionable and few studies have been developed to test the attitudes of nursing students, in particular. A cross-sectional survey design was performed. The Information Technology Attitude Scales for Health was used to collect data from October 2012-December 2012. A panel of experts reviewed the content of the instrument and a pilot study was conducted. Following this, a total of 508 nursing students, who were engaged in clinical placements, were recruited from six universities in South Korea. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed and reliability and construct validity were assessed. The resulting instrument consisted of 19 items across four factors. Reliability of the four factors was acceptable and the validity was supported. The instrument was shown to be both valid and reliable for measuring nursing students' attitudes towards technology, thus aiding in the current understandings of this aspect. Through these measurements and understandings, nursing educators and students are able to be more reflexive of their attitudes and can thus seek to develop them positively. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The relationship between perceived stress and computer technology attitude: an application on health sciences students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyurek, Pakize; Oztasan, Nuray; Kilic, Ibrahim

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is to define attitudes of students in health sciences towards perceived personal stress and computer technologies, and to present the relationship between stress and computer technology attitudes. In this scope, this study has a descriptive nature and thus a questionnaire has been applied on 764 students from Afyon Kocatepe University Health Sciences High School, Turkey for data gathering. Descriptive statistics, independent samples, t test, one way ANOVA, and regression analysis have been used for data analysis. In the study, it is seen that female (=3,78) have a more positive attitude towards computer technology than male students (=3,62). according to the results of regression analysis of the study, the regression model between computer technology attitude (CTA) and perceived stress (PS) has been found meaningful (F=16,291; ptechnology attitude and perceived stress (when computer technology altitude increases, perceived stress decreases), and an increase of one unit in computer attitude results in 0.275 decrease in perceived stress. it can be concluded that correct and proper use of computer technologies can be accepted as a component of overcoming stress methods.

  3. Stigma, public awareness about intellectual disability and attitudes to inclusion among different ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scior, K; Addai-Davis, J; Kenyon, M; Sheridan, J C

    2013-11-01

    Attitudes to the inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have been studied extensively, yet evidence on public awareness about ID and stigma is limited. The relationship between attitudes, knowledge and stigma associated with ID is poorly understood. The present study examined these factors and the relationships between them in the context of a multicultural society. UK residents of working age (n = 1002) were presented with a diagnostically unlabelled vignette of someone with a mild ID. They were asked to label the difficulties presented and to complete measures of social distance and attitudes to the inclusion of people with IDs. While attitudes to the inclusion of people with IDs were relatively positive overall, social contact was viewed with ambivalence. Inclusion attitudes and social distance were only moderately correlated. Across the whole sample 28% recognised typical symptoms of mild ID. Recognition of ID was associated with lower stigma and more positive attitudes than attribution of the difficulties presented to other causes. White Westerners showed increased knowledge, lower stigma and favoured inclusion more than participants from ethnic minorities. Among the latter group, Asians showed lower stigma and attitudes more in line with inclusion policies than participants of Black African/Caribbean backgrounds. Once a host of contextual factors were considered jointly, only contact was consistently associated with the variables measured. Stigma associated with ID is of concern across all ethnic groups, although it appears to be increased among the public from ethnic minorities. Given that contact and awareness are associated with reduced stigma, they should be considered as prime foci for efforts to tackle ID stigma. The current findings serve as baseline for attempts to increase public awareness and tackle stigma. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  4. Public perception of carbon dioxide storage. The role of trust and affect in attitude formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huijts, N.M.A.

    2003-12-01

    In this study a multidisciplinary description of, and investigation into carbon dioxide storage is given. Carbon dioxide storage is a CO2-emission reduction option that might be implemented to combat climate change. The threat of climate change has led to emission reduction goals for greenhouse gases in the Netherlands for the period 2008-2010 compared to the year 1990, and possibly more stringent goals for the longer term. The technology of carbon dioxide capture, transport and storage is shortly described, and it is expected that it is possible to perform the technology. Possible identified barriers are the costs, the risks and public perception. A wide range for the estimation of the costs has been found. Any price in the range however leads to a significant increase of the electricity price, when applying CO2 capture and storage to power plants. Risks are not quantified yet, but possible risks are described for man, environment, and buildings in literature. So far, little research had been performed on the public perception of carbon dioxide storage. Therefore a field study has been conducted for this study. From personal communication and literature, the current points of view of government, industry, and environmental NGOs (non-governmental organizations) are described for the Netherlands. Government and environmental NGOs believe that carbon dioxide storage can only be a temporary solution, because it is not considered a sustainable solution. Opposition from environmental NGOs might arise when the storage of carbon dioxide diverts effort from the development of sustainable energy sources. Industry that would perform storage expects that it can be done in a safe and acceptable way. The points of view of the actors involved can influence the perception of citizens and have therefore been summarised and added to the information for the participants in the study. From literature in the field of psychology, a conceptual model for the formation of an attitude

  5. Public perception of carbon dioxide storage. The role of trust and affect in attitude formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijts, N.M.A.

    2003-12-01

    In this study a multidisciplinary description of, and investigation into carbon dioxide storage is given. Carbon dioxide storage is a CO2-emission reduction option that might be implemented to combat climate change. The threat of climate change has led to emission reduction goals for greenhouse gases in the Netherlands for the period 2008-2010 compared to the year 1990, and possibly more stringent goals for the longer term. The technology of carbon dioxide capture, transport and storage is shortly described, and it is expected that it is possible to perform the technology. Possible identified barriers are the costs, the risks and public perception. A wide range for the estimation of the costs has been found. Any price in the range however leads to a significant increase of the electricity price, when applying CO2 capture and storage to power plants. Risks are not quantified yet, but possible risks are described for man, environment, and buildings in literature. So far, little research had been performed on the public perception of carbon dioxide storage. Therefore a field study has been conducted for this study. From personal communication and literature, the current points of view of government, industry, and environmental NGOs (non-governmental organizations) are described for the Netherlands. Government and environmental NGOs believe that carbon dioxide storage can only be a temporary solution, because it is not considered a sustainable solution. Opposition from environmental NGOs might arise when the storage of carbon dioxide diverts effort from the development of sustainable energy sources. Industry that would perform storage expects that it can be done in a safe and acceptable way. The points of view of the actors involved can influence the perception of citizens and have therefore been summarised and added to the information for the participants in the study. From literature in the field of psychology, a conceptual model for the formation of an attitude

  6. Georgian Public attitudes to a tobacco free environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Bakhturidze

    2017-05-01

    The study was funded in scope of Bloomberg Philanthropies Grant through Tobacco Free Kinds. Study was conducted by Georgian Institute of Social Studies and Analyses by cooperation with the FCTC Implementation and Monitoring Center in Georgia and Georgian Public Health Institute.

  7. Public Knowledge and Attitudes towards Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of bystander CPR is much lower in China than in developed countries. This survey was implemented to assess the current status of layperson CPR training, to analyze the willingness of bystanders to perform CPR, and to identify barriers to improving bystander CPR rates. The questionnaire included individual information, current status of bystander CPR training, and individual’s willingness and attitude towards performing CPR. There were 25.6% laypersons who took CPR training. The majority (98.6% of laypersons would perform CPR on their family members, but fewer laypersons (76.3% were willing to perform CPR on strangers. Most respondents (53.2% were worried about legal issues. If laws were implemented to protect bystanders who give aid, the number of laypersons who were not willing to perform CPR on strangers dropped from 23.7% to 2.4%. An increasing number of people in China know CPR compared with the situation in the past. CPR training in China is much less common than in many developed countries. The barriers are that laypersons are not well-trained and they fear being prosecuted for unsuccessful CPR. More accredited CPR training courses are needed in China. The laws should be passed to protect bystanders who provide assistance.

  8. Public attitudes toward health information exchange: perceived benefits and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitropoulos, Linda; Patel, Vaishali; Scheffler, Scott A; Posnack, Steve

    2011-12-01

    To characterize consumers' attitudes regarding the perceived benefits of electronic health information exchange (HIE), potential HIE privacy and security concerns, and to analyze the intersection of these concerns with perceived benefits. A cross-sectional study. A random-digit-dial telephone survey of English-speaking adults was conducted in 2010. Multivariate logistic regression models examined the association between consumer characteristics and concerns related to the security of electronic health records (EHRs) and HIE. A majority of the 1847 respondents reported they were either "very" or "somewhat" concerned about privacy of HIE (70%), security of HIE (75%), or security of EHRs (82%). Concerns were significantly higher (P security, and 60% would permit HIE for treatment purposes even if the physician might not be able to protect their privacy all of the time. Over half (52%) wanted to choose which providers access and share their data. Greater participation by consumers in determining how HIE takes place could engender a higher degree of trust among all demographic groups, regardless of their varying levels of privacy and security concerns. Addressing the specific privacy and security concerns of minorities, individuals 40 to 64 years old, and employed individuals will be critical to ensuring widespread consumer participation in HIE.

  9. Predictive Power of Prospective Physical Education Teachers' Attitudes towards Educational Technologies for Their Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, Yaprak Kalemoglu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the research is to determine the predictive power of prospective physical education teachers' attitudes towards educational technologies for their technological pedagogical content knowledge. In this study, a relational research model was used on a study group that consisted of 529 (M[subscript age]=21.49, SD=1.44) prospective physical…

  10. Changing public attitudes towards corporal punishment: the effects of statutory reform in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J V

    2000-08-01

    One justification for a statutory ban on physical punishment is that passage of such legislation changes public attitudes towards the use of this form of parental discipline. The experience in Sweden is often cited as an example of legislation which changed public opinion. The aim of this brief article is to review the public opinion findings in Sweden in order to evaluate in greater detail the impact of changing the law. A search was conducted to generate all published and publicly-available quantitative surveys of the public in Sweden and elsewhere. The results of time-series analysis of the data are clear. The 1979 legal reform in Sweden did not reduce the level of public support for parental use of corporal punishment as a means of disciplining children. Support for physical punishment began declining years before the reform was passed and the decline was in no way accelerated by the law reform. Changes in public opinion may have generated the legal reform, but the reverse is not true. Data from other jurisdictions also support the view that there is no relationship between the status of the law and the nature of public views with regard to corporal punishment. This result is consistent with analyses of the effects of legal reforms in other areas. The Swedish ban on corporal punishment did not affect public attitudes. Changing public views requires other initiatives.

  11. Nursing students' attitudes toward video games and related new media technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch-Sauer, Judith; Vandenbosch, Terry M; Kron, Frederick; Gjerde, Craig Livingston; Arato, Nora; Sen, Ananda; Fetters, Michael D

    2011-09-01

    Little is known about Millennial nursing students' attitudes toward computer games and new media in nursing education and whether these attitudes differ between undergraduates and graduates. This study elicited nursing students' experience with computer games and new media, their attitudes toward various instructional styles and methods, and the role of computer games and new media technologies in nursing education. We e-mailed all nursing students enrolled in two universities to invite their participation in an anonymous cross-sectional online survey. The survey collected demographic data and participants' experience with and attitudes toward video gaming and multi-player online health care simulations. We used descriptive statistics and logistic regression to compare the differences between undergraduates and graduates. Two hundred eighteen nursing students participated. Many of the nursing students support using new media technologies in nursing education. Nurse educators should identify areas suitable for new media integration and further evaluate the effectiveness of these technologies. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. The Role of Public and Self-Stigma in Predicting Attitudes toward Group Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, David L.; Shechtman, Zipora; Wade, Nathaniel G.

    2010-01-01

    Public and self-stigmas have been implicated as factors in the underutilization of individual counseling. However, group counseling is also underutilized, and yet scholars know very little about the role of different types of stigma on attitudes toward seeking group counseling. Therefore, the current study examined the relationships between public…

  13. Attitudes toward Euthanasia in Hong Kong--A Comparison between Physicians and the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Alice Ming-lin; Fok, Shiu-yeu

    2005-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a cross-sectional study that compared the attitudes of 618 respondents of a general household survey and a random sample of 1,197 physicians toward different types of euthanasia in Hong Kong. The general public was found to agree with active euthanasia and non-voluntary euthanasia and was neutral about passive…

  14. Public Attitudes to and Awareness of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, Tian P. S.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Assessed public attitude toward, and awareness of possible problems and risks associated with, the consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. Results indicated a high awareness of the problem, knowledge of the specific effects to the offspring, and of quantities and frequency of consumption of alcohol which would have teratogenic effects were…

  15. Public attitudes towards photovoltaic developments: Case study from Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsantopoulos, Georgios; Arabatzis, Garyfallos; Tampakis, Stilianos

    2014-01-01

    The present decade is considered to be vitally important both as regards addressing energy requirements and for environmental protection purposes. The decisions taken, both on an individual and a collective level, will have a decisive impact on the environment, and primarily on climate change, due to the increased energy demands and the need to reduce carbon use in energy generation. The present study was designed and carried out while an extensive debate was ongoing in Greece regarding changes to the legislative framework that would specifically disallow new applications for the installation of photovoltaic systems; its aim is to depict the attitude of Greek citizens, through the completion of 1068 questionnaires. The research results show that over half the respondents are informed about the use of photovoltaic systems for electricity generation. Furthermore, almost half are willing to invest in such systems, either at home or on a plot of land. The factors contributing to the installation of photovoltaic systems are mainly “environmental”, “financial” and “social”. Finally, the citizens who are most willing to invest in residential photovoltaic systems are mainly university or technical school graduates; they would rather take such a decision after being motivated by institutional bodies and would do so for reasons of recognition. - Highlights: • The circumstances for RES are favorable both in the EU and in Greece. • The growth of renewable energy sources, particularly photovoltaic systems, is provenly following an upward trend. • The photovoltaic electricity production is an environmentally-friendly, sustainable and socially acceptable answer to the future energy requirements of society. • The Greek citizens state that they are adequately informed and sufficiently willing to invest in photovoltaic systems either residentially or in a plot of land

  16. Community attitudes toward breastfeeding in public places among Western Australia Adults, 1995-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xingqiong; Daly, Alison; Pollard, Christina Mary; Binns, Colin William

    2013-05-01

    Community attitudes toward breastfeeding in public influence how comfortable women feel about continuing breastfeeding. Knowledge of the social context helps target breastfeeding-promoting interventions. To examine trends in Western Australian adult attitudes toward breastfeeding in public places. As part of 5 cross-sectional surveys from the Western Australian Nutrition Monitor Survey Series conducted between 1995 and 2009, 5496 adults aged 18 to 64 years were asked whether it was acceptable for mothers to breastfeed their babies in public places, including shopping centers, workplaces, and restaurants, and on public transport. Descriptive statistics and multinomial regressions were used to describe factors associated with attitudes toward publicly breastfeeding. There was no change in the acceptance of breastfeeding in shopping centers, restaurants, and workplaces and on public transport over time, but in 2009, significantly fewer people said that it was unacceptable to breastfeed in public compared with 1995. Women, people older than 44 years, those born outside Australia, and the less educated were those most likely to say that breastfeeding in public was unacceptable. In the years that the question was asked, more than 97% of respondents said that breastfeeding was acceptable if a separate room was provided. Making breastfeeding acceptable and pleasant for mothers in public spaces is a key policy recommendation. Women, people older than 44 years, and those born outside Australia were most likely to respond that breastfeeding in public was unacceptable unless a room was provided. Given that, on average, 70% of the population said that breastfeeding in public was acceptable, investigation into why some women do not think so is warranted.

  17. Saudi high school students' attitudes and barriers toward the use of computer technologies in learning English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabti, Ahmed Abdulateef; Chaichan, Rasha Sami

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the attitudes of Saudi Arabian high school students toward the use of computer technologies in learning English. The study also discusses the possible barriers that affect and limit the actual usage of computers. Quantitative approach is applied in this research, which involved 30 Saudi Arabia students of a high school in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The respondents comprised 15 males and 15 females with ages between 16 years and 18 years. Two instruments, namely, Scale of Attitude toward Computer Technologies (SACT) and Barriers affecting Students' Attitudes and Use (BSAU) were used to collect data. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) of Davis (1989) was utilized. The analysis of the study revealed gender differences in attitudes toward the use of computer technologies in learning English. Female students showed high and positive attitudes towards the use of computer technologies in learning English than males. Both male and female participants demonstrated high and positive perception of Usefulness and perceived Ease of Use of computer technologies in learning English. Three barriers that affected and limited the use of computer technologies in learning English were identified by the participants. These barriers are skill, equipment, and motivation. Among these barriers, skill had the highest effect, whereas motivation showed the least effect.

  18. Addiction Counseling Competencies: The Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes of Professional Practice. Technical Assistance Publication Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    This document presents knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are needed for achieving and practicing the competencies listed in Addiction Counseling Competencies, as written by the National Curriculum Committee of the Addiction Technology Transfer Center Program. The document is intended to provide guidance for the professional treatment of…

  19. Food Allergy Knowledge and Attitudes among School Nurses in an Urban Public School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twichell, Sarah; Wang, Kathleen; Robinson, Humaira; Acebal, Maria; Sharma, Hemant

    2015-01-01

    Since food allergy knowledge and perceptions may influence prevention and management of school-based reactions, we evaluated them among nurses in an urban school district. All District of Columbia public school nurses were asked to anonymously complete a food allergy knowledge and attitude questionnaire. Knowledge scores were calculated as percentage of correct responses. Attitude responses were tabulated across five-point Likert scales, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The knowledge questionnaire was completed by 87% of eligible nurses and the attitude questionnaire by 83%. The mean total knowledge score was 76 ± 13 with domain score highest for symptom recognition and lowest for treatment. Regarding attitudes, most (94%) felt food allergy is a serious health problem, for which schools should have guidelines (94%). Fewer believed that nut-free schools (82%) and allergen-free tables (44%) should be implemented. Negative perceptions of parents were identified as: parents of food-allergic children are overprotective (55%) and make unreasonable requests of schools (15%). Food allergy knowledge deficits and mixed attitudes exist among this sample of urban school nurses, particularly related to management of reactions and perceptions of parents. Food allergy education of school nurses should be targeted to improve their knowledge and attitudes. PMID:27417367

  20. Food Allergy Knowledge and Attitudes among School Nurses in an Urban Public School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twichell, Sarah; Wang, Kathleen; Robinson, Humaira; Acebal, Maria; Sharma, Hemant

    2015-07-21

    Since food allergy knowledge and perceptions may influence prevention and management of school-based reactions, we evaluated them among nurses in an urban school district. All District of Columbia public school nurses were asked to anonymously complete a food allergy knowledge and attitude questionnaire. Knowledge scores were calculated as percentage of correct responses. Attitude responses were tabulated across five-point Likert scales, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The knowledge questionnaire was completed by 87% of eligible nurses and the attitude questionnaire by 83%. The mean total knowledge score was 76 ± 13 with domain score highest for symptom recognition and lowest for treatment. Regarding attitudes, most (94%) felt food allergy is a serious health problem, for which schools should have guidelines (94%). Fewer believed that nut-free schools (82%) and allergen-free tables (44%) should be implemented. Negative perceptions of parents were identified as: parents of food-allergic children are overprotective (55%) and make unreasonable requests of schools (15%). Food allergy knowledge deficits and mixed attitudes exist among this sample of urban school nurses, particularly related to management of reactions and perceptions of parents. Food allergy education of school nurses should be targeted to improve their knowledge and attitudes.

  1. Food Allergy Knowledge and Attitudes among School Nurses in an Urban Public School District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Twichell

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since food allergy knowledge and perceptions may influence prevention and management of school-based reactions, we evaluated them among nurses in an urban school district. All District of Columbia public school nurses were asked to anonymously complete a food allergy knowledge and attitude questionnaire. Knowledge scores were calculated as percentage of correct responses. Attitude responses were tabulated across five-point Likert scales, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The knowledge questionnaire was completed by 87% of eligible nurses and the attitude questionnaire by 83%. The mean total knowledge score was 76 ± 13 with domain score highest for symptom recognition and lowest for treatment. Regarding attitudes, most (94% felt food allergy is a serious health problem, for which schools should have guidelines (94%. Fewer believed that nut-free schools (82% and allergen-free tables (44% should be implemented. Negative perceptions of parents were identified as: parents of food-allergic children are overprotective (55% and make unreasonable requests of schools (15%. Food allergy knowledge deficits and mixed attitudes exist among this sample of urban school nurses, particularly related to management of reactions and perceptions of parents. Food allergy education of school nurses should be targeted to improve their knowledge and attitudes.

  2. The role of values in public beliefs and attitudes towards commercial wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidwell, David

    2013-01-01

    Mandates for renewable energy lead to siting disputes, because meeting the mandates requires the development of renewable energy production facilities. Proposals for one common form of renewable energy, commercial wind farms, are frequently met with forceful local opposition. Dissatisfied with simplistic explanations for this opposition (i.e., NIMBY), social scientists have urged a more nuanced understanding of public attitudes towards wind energy and other renewables. Based on a survey of residents of coastal Michigan, this article explores the role of general values and beliefs in shaping attitudes towards the potential development of commercial wind energy projects in or near respondents’ communities. Structural equation modeling reveals that support of commercial wind energy depends largely on a belief that wind farms will provide economic benefits to the community. Underlying values have substantial and important indirect effects on beliefs regarding the likely economic outcomes of wind farm development. Altruistic values buoy wind energy attitudes, while values of traditionalism diminish wind energy support. The pivotal role of values in attitudes towards renewables lends support for more participatory development processes. - Highlights: ► Predictors of attitudes towards commercial wind energy development are examined. ► Support is influenced by beliefs in community economic benefit. ► Underlying values have substantial and important indirect effects on beliefs. ► Altruistic values buoy attitudes towards wind energy. ► Values associated with traditionalism diminish wind energy support

  3. Development of technology and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Shun-ichi

    1984-01-01

    The author, as a professor, has many years' experience in the design, construction and operation of a research reactor and a critical assembly. The author has also ample experience in the conversation and discussion on the safety of nuclear facilities with concerned public. The effective ways of gaining public acceptance are discussed based on many examples. These examples show that understanding and confidence are the keys to gaining public acceptance. Showing the facilities and experimental works to the public or the fact that the residence of the personnel and their family are located very near the reactor are much more effective than any argument for improving public understanding and confidence. (Aoki, K.)

  4. Physician attitudes regarding pregnancy, fertility care, and assisted reproductive technologies for HIV-infected individuals and couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudin, Mark H; Money, Deborah M; Cheung, Matthew C; Loutfy, Mona R

    2012-01-01

    Family and pregnancy planning are important for HIV-infected individuals and couples. There is a paucity of data regarding physician attitudes with respect to reproduction in this population, but some evidence suggests that attitudes can influence the information, advice, and services they will provide. To determine physician attitudes toward pregnancy, fertility care, and access to assisted reproductive technologies for HIV-infected individuals, and to determine whether attitudes differed based on specific physician characteristics. A survey was sent electronically to obstetrician/gynecologists and infectious disease specialists in Canada. Items were grouped into 5 key domains: physician demographics, physician attitudes toward pregnancy and adoption, physician attitudes toward fertility care, physician attitudes toward assisted reproductive technology, and challenges for an HIV-infected population. Attitudes were determined based on answers to individual questions and also for each domain. Univariate and logistic regression analyses were used to determine the influence of specific physician characteristics on attitudes. Completed surveys were received from 165 physicians. Most had positive attitudes regarding pregnancy or adoption (89%), fertility care (72%), and assisted reproductive technology (79%). In multivariate analyses, having cared for HIV-infected patients was significantly associated with having a positive attitude toward fertility care or assisted reproductive technology. In this national survey of Canadian physicians, most had positive attitudes toward pregnancy, adoption, fertility care, and use of assisted reproductive technology among HIV-infected persons. Physicians who had cared for HIV-infected individuals in the past were more likely to have positive attitudes than those who had not.

  5. Public Education and Outreach Through Full-Dome Video Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, John

    2009-03-01

    My long-term goal is to enhance public understanding of complex systems that can be best demonstrated through richly detailed computer graphic animation displayed with full-dome video technology. My current focus is on health science advances that focus on regenerative medicine, which helps the body heal itself. Such topics facilitate science learning and health literacy. My team develops multi-media presentations that bring the scientific and medical advances to the public through immersive high-definition video animation. Implicit in treating the topics of regenerative medicine will be the need to address stem cell biology. The topics are clarified and presented from a platform of facts and balanced ethical consideration. The production process includes communicating scientific information about the excitement and importance of stem cell research. Principles of function are emphasized over specific facts or terminology by focusing on a limited, but fundamental set of concepts. To achieve this, visually rich, biologically accurate 3D computer graphic environments are created to illustrate the cells, tissues and organs of interest. A suite of films are produced, and evaluated in pre- post-surveys assessing attitudes, knowledge and learning. Each film uses engaging interactive demonstrations to illustrate biological functions, the things that go wrong due to disease and disability, and the remedy provided by regenerative medicine. While the images are rich and detailed, the language is accessible and appropriate to the audience. The digital, high-definition video is also re-edited for presentation in other ``flat screen'' formats, increasing our distribution potential. Show content is also presented in an interactive web space (www.sepa.duq.edu) with complementing teacher resource guides and student workbooks and companion video games.

  6. Validation of the Chinese version of public attitudes toward epilepsy scale in Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zongwei; Ma, Chanthia; Lim, Kheng-Seang; Xiao, Bo; Wu, Qian; Shu, Yi; Yue, Zhiping; Wang, Yelan; Feng, Li

    2017-07-01

    Epilepsy is a significant yet seriously underappreciated public health issue in Mainland China. The stigma and discrimination toward people with epilepsy (PWE) and their families are especially severe in China based on cultural misconceptions which cause tremendous psychological, economic and social burdens. It is imperative to formulate a targeted public intervention to eliminate knowledge gaps and correct these misconceptions of epilepsy. However, to date, the essential tools that may drive such an intervention by measuring the public perspective on PWEs is lacking in China. The goal of this study is to test the reliability and validity of a Simplified Chinese version of the "Public Attitude Toward Epilepsy" scale (PATE) in Mainland China which can be used to understand the content and identify the possible sources of stigma to better inform the design and focus of future stigma reduction interventions. The standard procedure of cross-cultural adaptation was used in the translation process. Subjects from different economic and social backgrounds were enrolled by convenience sampling in central China. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were used to check the underlying factor structure of the items. Furthermore, Cronbach's alpha was utilized to assess internal consistency. 199 respondents were included in the final analysis. Content validity of this Chinese PATE was assessed to be adequate for assessing public attitudes toward epilepsy among the mainland Chinese. Two factors were extracted from the data by exploratory factor analysis; confirmatory factor analysis further confirmed good consistency of theoretical constructs between the original Public Attitudes Toward Epilepsy scale and our Chinese PATE. Our Chinese PATE presented excellent internal consistency (α=0.853-0.909). This version of the Chinese PATE showed acceptable psychometric properties, indicating that it can be implemented in surveying public attitudes toward epilepsy in

  7. Attitude toward Public Health Dentistry as a career among dental students in Odisha: A Cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nupur; Jain, Kittu; Kabasi, Soumik

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of dental students' expectations of their profession as well as their attitudes to study a particular specialty of dentistry is of great importance. These attitudes and expectations make studying dentistry meaningful to dental students and society and understanding these factors facilitate workforce planning in the dental sector The aim of the study was to assess the attitude of dental students towards considering Public Health Dentistry as their future career. A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted, which included the 3 rd year, 4 th fourth year and dental interns studying in the State of Odisha. It consisted of 27 questions that were graded on 5-point Likert scale. The responses for the attitude questions toward selecting Public Health Dentistry for postgraduation were categorized into three factors, which are a negative attitude (includes score 0-21), neutral attitude (score 22-44), and positive attitude (score 45-64). Differences between groups were examined using Chi-square test for proportions. The level of statistical significance was set at P attitude toward selecting public health dentistry as their future career, and nearly two-third of them (58.23%) had neutral attitude, with very few students having a negative attitude (8.23%) toward the specialty for pursuing postgraduation. Respondents had a considerable amount of interest in pursuing postgraduation in this specialty. Efforts should be intensified, both by the dental council and by the dental colleges, to develop this specialty, keeping in mind the increasing attitude of dental undergraduates toward it.

  8. The public role in promoting child health information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Patrick H; White, P Jonathan; Clancy, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The public sector plays an important role in promoting child health information technology. Public sector support is essential in 5 main aspects of child health information technology, namely, data standards, pediatric functions in health information systems, privacy policies, research and implementation funding, and incentives for technology adoption. Some innovations in health information technology for adult populations can be transferred to or adapted for children, but there also are unique needs in the pediatric population. Development of health information technology that addresses children's needs and effective adoption of that technology are critical for US children to receive care of the highest possible quality in the future.

  9. Attitudes and values expected of public health nursing students at graduation: A delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, Mika; Takizawa, Hiroko

    2018-06-01

    The skills and knowledge of the competencies expected of public health nursing (PHN) students at graduation have been clarified; however, the attitudes and values have not yet been studied in Japan. The objective of this study was to identify and reach a consensus among experts on the attitudes and values expected of PHN students at graduation. This survey was conducted as a two-stage Delphi study. We selected the following experts: 248 teachers in the faculty of public health nursing at a university as academic experts, and 250 public health nurses who were also experienced clinical instructors as clinical experts. The round 1 mailed survey was conducted using a questionnaire about the necessity and importance of attitudes and values, and 211 experts responded (42.4%, clinical; n = 124, academic; n = 87). In the Round 2 survey, the experts consisted of 60.2% of the round 1 participants (clinical; n = 73, academic; n = 54). Descriptive statistics were used for multiple imputation. We identified a total of 13 attitudes and values expected of PHN students, and reached ≥90% consensus for most items (except for one). Regarding the expected achievement level at graduation, there was no difference between clinical and academic experts except for one item. Consensus was clearly achieved for 13 attitudes and values expected of PHN students, as well as importance and expected achievement level at graduation. In the future, it is important to examine strategies that can effectively develop these attitudes and values through basic and continuous education. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. What is a mental illness? Public views and their effects on attitudes and disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Thornicroft, Graham

    2012-07-01

    'Mental illness' is a common label. However, the general public may or may not consider various conditions, ranging from major psychiatric disorders to stress, as mental illnesses. It is unclear how such public views affect attitudes towards people with mental illness and reactions to one's own potential mental illness, e.g. in terms of help-seeking or disclosure. In representative English population surveys the classification of six conditions (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, drug addiction, stress, grief) as a mental illness was assessed as well as attitudes towards, and contact with, people with mental illness, intentions to disclose a mental illness and to seek treatment. A factor analysis of how strongly respondents perceived the six conditions as a mental illness yielded two factors: (i) major psychiatric disorders and (ii) stress- and behaviour-related conditions including drug addiction. In regression analyses, higher scores on the first, but not the second, factor predicted less perceived responsibility of people with mental illness for their actions, and more support for a neurobiological illness model and help-seeking. Classifying stress-related/behaviour-related conditions as mental illnesses, as well as not referring to major psychiatric disorders as mental illnesses, was associated with more negative attitudes and increased social distance, but also with stronger intentions to disclose a mental illness to an employer. Negative attitudes and social distance were also related to ethnic minority status and lower social grade. Referring to major psychiatric disorders as mental illnesses may reflect higher mental health literacy, better attitudes towards people with mental illness and help-seeking. A broader concept of mental illness could, although increasing negative attitudes, facilitate disclosure in the workplace. Public views on what is a mental illness may have context-dependent effects and should be taken into account in anti

  11. The Publication of Research Data: Researcher Attitudes and Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Griffiths

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 There is now widespread recognition that data are a valuable long-term resource and that making them publicly available is a way to realise their potential value - both as part of the scholarly record or for re-use by others. The Research Information Network (RIN report, To share or not to share: Publication and quality assurance of research data outputs (June 2008, investigates whether or not researchers make their research data available to others and the issues they encounter when doing so. Importantly, it seeks to do this by seeking the perspectives of researchers themselves. This paper reflects on how this relates to the more top-down literature on the subject. The discussion of the significance of the RIN's main findings is correlated to the four themes of the RIN report. Firstly, it discusses some distinctions in the types of data that should be shared and preserved and what needs to done to do so effectively. Secondly, it reflects on the motivations for and constraints on researchers publishing their data, and how funders and publishers can address them. Thirdly, it reviews some issues around how data are discovered, accessed and re-used. Finally, it discusses the scholarly and technical quality of published data.

  12. Public Attitudes to Housing Systems for Pregnant Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, E B; Fraser, D; Weary, D M

    2015-01-01

    Understanding concerns about the welfare of farm animals is important for the development of socially sustainable production practices. This study used an online survey to test how views on group versus stall housing for pregnant sows varied when Canadian and US participants were provided information about these systems, including access to scientific papers, YouTube videos, Google images, and a frequently-asked-questions page (S1 Appendix). Initial responses and changes in responses after accessing the information were analyzed from Likert scores of 242 participants and from their written comments. Participants were less willing to accept the use of gestation stalls after viewing information on sow housing. For example, initially 30.4% of respondents indicated that they supported the use of gestation stalls; this declined to 17.8% after participants were provided additional information. Qualitative analysis of comments showed that supporters of gestation stalls expressed concern about the spread of disease and aggression between animals in less confined systems, whereas supporters of group housing placed more emphasis on the sow's ability to interact socially and perform natural behaviors. These results point to public opposition to the use of gestation stalls, and indicate that the more that the public learns about gestation stalls the less willing they will be to accept their use.

  13. Navigating a sea of values: Understanding public attitudes toward the ocean and ocean energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Jonathan Charles

    In examining ocean values and beliefs, this study investigates the moral and ethical aspects of the relationships that exist between humans and the marine environment. In short, this dissertation explores what the American public thinks of the ocean. The study places a specific focus upon attitudes to ocean energy development. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, this research: elicits mental models that exist in society regarding the ocean; unearths what philosophies underpin people's attitudes toward the ocean and offshore energy development; assesses whether these views have any bearing on pro-environmental behavior; and gauges support for offshore drilling and offshore wind development. Despite the fact that the ocean is frequently ranked as a second-tier environmental issue, Americans are concerned about the state of the marine environment. Additionally, the data show that lack of knowledge, rather than apathy, prevents people from undertaking pro-environmental action. With regard to philosophical beliefs, Americans hold slightly more nonanthropocentric than anthropocentric views toward the environment. Neither anthropocentrism nor nonanthropocentrism has any real impact on pro-environmental behavior, although nonanthropocentric attitudes reduce support for offshore wind. This research also uncovers two gaps between scientific and public perceptions of offshore wind power with respect to: 1) overall environmental effects; and 2) the size of the resource. Providing better information to the public in the first area may lead to a shift toward offshore wind support among opponents with nonanthropocentric attitudes, and in both areas, is likely to increase offshore wind support.

  14. Access, attitudes and training in information technologies and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Medical Education Partnership Initiative, has helped to mitigate the digital divide in Africa. The aim of the study was to assess the level of access, attitude, and training concerning meaningful use of electronic resources and EBM among medical students at an African medical school. Methods: The study ...

  15. Teachers' Attitudes toward Technology Integration in a Kazakhstani Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafina, Aliya

    2016-01-01

    The government of the Republic of Kazakhstan from 1997 started operating a systematic state policy for education. Many scholarly papers show that the success of the educational reform efforts depend not only on the ability of the government to supply all schools with ICT, but also on the ability to make teachers possess positive attitudes toward…

  16. The roles of users personal characteristics and organisational support in the attitude towards using ERP systems in a Spanish public hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Rodriguez, Tomas; Bartual-Sopena, Lourdes

    Enterprise resources planning (ERP) systems enable central and integrative control over all processes throughout an organisation by ensuring one data entry point and the use of a common database. T his paper analyses the attitude of healthcare personnel towards the use of an ERP system in a Spanish public hospital, identifying influencing factors. This research is based on a regression analysis of latent variables using the optimisation technique of partial least squares. We propose a research model including possible relationships among different constructs using the technology acceptance model. Our results show that the personal characteristics of potential users are key factors in explaining attitude towards using ERP systems.

  17. Development of the public attitude model toward nuclear power in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Sung Choi; Sun, Ho Lee; Nam, Zin Cho; Byong, Whi Lee

    1998-01-01

    This paper deals with the structure of public attitude towards nuclear power plants in Korea. Special emphasis is given to the issues of public acceptance in relation to perceived benefits, perceived risk, judged safety, and safety satisfaction. The national survey data of 1995 by the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety is analyzed with a latent class model and logistic regression. The latent class model is used to construct benefit and risk factors. With these factors and safety-related variables, a public attitude model is developed by logistic regression which enables the relationships between national or local acceptance of nuclear power and explanatory variables to be quantified. The results show that the attitude structure is somewhat different by gender. Subjectively perceived risk is found to be the most influential factor for local acceptance. The odds of local acceptance with the best risk perception is about 16 times the odds with the worst perception for males and about 7.7 times for females. From the results of this analysis, it is clear that subjective satisfaction with nuclear safety is a more important factor for explaining public acceptance rather than judgment of it. These important findings should be reflected in the public acceptance improvement strategy for the nuclear power program

  18. Parties heed (with caution): Public knowledge of and attitudes towards party finance in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanHeerde-Hudson, Jennifer; Fisher, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Despite comprehensive reform ( Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act ) and recent review (Phillips Review in 2007) of party finance in Britain, public opinion of party finance remains plagued by perceptions of corruption, undue influence from wealthy donors, carefree and wasteful spending and, more generally, from the perception that there is just 'too much money' in politics. In this article we argue that knowledge of and attitudes to party finance matter, not least because advocates of reform have cited public opinion as evidence for reform. However, because attitudes to party finance are part of a broader attitudinal structure, opinion-led reforms are unlikely to succeed in increasing public confidence. Using data generated from YouGov's online panel (N=2,008), we demonstrate that the public know little of the key provisions regulating party finance and attitudes to party finance can be explained along two underlying dimensions - Anti-Party Finance and Reformers . As such, we consider whether parties and politicians should be freed from the constraints of public opinion in reforming party finance.

  19. Synthetic Vision System Commercial Aircraft Flight Deck Display Technologies for Unusual Attitude Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Ellis, Kyle E.; Arthur, Jarvis J.; Nicholas, Stephanie N.; Kiggins, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    A Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) study of 18 worldwide loss-of-control accidents and incidents determined that the lack of external visual references was associated with a flight crew's loss of attitude awareness or energy state awareness in 17 of these events. Therefore, CAST recommended development and implementation of virtual day-Visual Meteorological Condition (VMC) display systems, such as synthetic vision systems, which can promote flight crew attitude awareness similar to a day-VMC environment. This paper describes the results of a high-fidelity, large transport aircraft simulation experiment that evaluated virtual day-VMC displays and a "background attitude indicator" concept as an aid to pilots in recovery from unusual attitudes. Twelve commercial airline pilots performed multiple unusual attitude recoveries and both quantitative and qualitative dependent measures were collected. Experimental results and future research directions under this CAST initiative and the NASA "Technologies for Airplane State Awareness" research project are described.

  20. The Impact of Information Technology on Library Anxiety: The Role of Computer Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun G. Jiao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, computer-based technologies have become dominant forces to shape and reshape the products and services the academic library has to offer. The applicationo of library technologies has had a profound impact on the way library resources are being used. Although many students continue to experience high levels of library anxiety, it is likely that the new technologies in the library have led to them experiencing other forms of negative affective states that may be, in part, a function of their attitude towards computers. This study investigates whether students' computer attitudes predict levels of library anxiety.

  1. Classroom Technology in Business Schools: A Survey of Installations and Attitudes toward Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Betty; Burnie, David

    2009-01-01

    A survey of administrators and faculty of AACSB-accredited business schools provided insights into current classroom technology infrastructure, attitudes towards technology and learning, and the use of web course tools in business school classrooms. The results of the survey provided four major findings: business schools are utilizing high levels…

  2. Attitudes and Behavior of Ajman University of Science and Technology Students towards the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Rasha Abdel

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the attitudes and behavior of Ajman University of Science and Technology (AUST) students towards the environment according to their gender and college. The research was based on a descriptive approach. The sample consisted of (375) students (230 males and 145 females) from different colleges (Law, Information Technology, Mass…

  3. The Impact of Project-Based Learning on Pre-Service Teachers' Technology Attitudes and Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Curby; Knezek, Gerald; Christensen, Rhonda; Tyler-Wood, Tandra; Bull, Glen

    2014-01-01

    Researchers in this study looked at the effect of content-specific, technology-rich project-based learning activities on EC-8 pre-service teachers' competencies and skills, as well as pre-service teacher's attitudes toward science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Researchers employed a quantitative design involving participants in…

  4. Pre-Service Teachers' Attitude towards Information and Communication Technology Usage: A Ghanaian Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyamfi, Stephen Adu

    2017-01-01

    This study employed the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to empirically investigate factors that influence Ghanaian pre-service teachers' attitudes towards Information and Communication Technology (ICT) usage. To achieve this aim, the study extended the TAM framework by adding leadership support and job relevance as exogenous variables. Data were…

  5. The Attitudes of Physical Education and Sport Students towards Information and Communication Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goktas, Zekeriya

    2012-01-01

    Studies that examine the attitudes toward information and communication technologies (ICT) among physical education and sport students, pre-service teachers and teachers are fairly limited, even though the investments in information and communication technologies at schools and universities have reached an efficient level. This study investigates…

  6. Investigation of Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers' Attitudes Towards Computer Technologies (Case of Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Suleyman

    2015-01-01

    Elicitation of pre-service physical education teachers' attitudes towards computer technologies seems to be of great importance to satisfy the conditions to be met for the conscious and effective use of the technologies required by the age to be used in educational settings. In this respect, the purpose of the present study is to investigate…

  7. Examining the Relationship among High-School Teachers' Technology Self-Efficacy, Attitudes towards Technology Integration, and Quality of Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Stacey

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study explored the relationships among high-school teachers' (n = 74) technology self-efficacy, teachers' attitudes towards technology integration, and quality of teachers' technology integration into instruction. This study offered the unique perspectives of in-service high-school teachers as they have first-hand experience…

  8. Attitudes towards technical progress. Acceptance of technology in national and international comparison. Einstellungen zum technischen Fortschritt. Technikakzeptanz im nationalen und internationalen Vergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaufmann, D.; Kistler, E. (Internationales Inst. fuer Empirische Sozialoekonomie (INIFES), Gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leitershofen (Germany)) (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    Engineering, new technologies, science and attitudes of the public are important determinants for influencing the development and the state of a country. Problems concerning the acceptance of technical projects and developments also can be the scapegoat for other, deeper conflicts in society - they are important, and increasingly a social and political challenge. The book supplies empirically fundamental and interdisciplinary prerequisites for future debates. The contributions were presented at a public seminar in January 1989. (orig./HSCH).

  9. Next Generation Public Safety and Emergency Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Camilla; Tadayoni, Reza; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2014-01-01

    The paper researches the existing European standards for Public Safety and Emergency (PSE) services (also called Public Protection Disaster Relief “PPDR”), and identifies based on user studies in Denmark conflicts between the current deployments of the standards and the user requirements. The aim...

  10. Public attitudes toward euthanasia and suicide for terminally ill persons: 1977 and 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCesare, M A

    2000-01-01

    This study replicates Singh's (1979) "classic" examination of correlates of euthanasia and suicide attitudes. The purposes of the current study were to assess (1) changes in public attitudes toward these voluntary termination of life practices, and (2) changes in the effects on attitudes of selected independent variables. I found Americans' approval of both euthanasia and suicide in 1996 to be higher than that in 1977. The increase in the approval of suicide, however, far outstripped that of euthanasia. Results of OLS regressions indicated that race, religious commitment, religious attendance, political identification, and suicide approval were statistically significant predictors of euthanasia approval. Only religious attendance and euthanasia approval were statistically significant predictors of suicide approval in both 1977 and 1996. The findings regarding euthanasia approval support those of Singh (1979); those regarding suicide approval do not. Triangulation of methods in future research is necessary to illuminate other aspects of these multifaceted issues.

  11. Public attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control policy in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danishevski, K; Gilmore, A; McKee, M

    2008-08-01

    Since the political transition in 1991, Russia has been targeted intensively by the transnational tobacco industry. Already high smoking rates among men have increased further; traditionally low rates among women have more than doubled. The tobacco companies have so far faced little opposition as they shape the discourse on smoking in Russia. This paper asks what ordinary Russians really think about possible actions to reduce smoking. A representative sample of the Russian population (1600 respondents) was interviewed face to face in November 2007. Only 14% of respondents considered tobacco control in Russia adequate, while 37% thought that nothing was being done at all. There was support for prices keeping pace with or even exceeding inflation. Over 70% of all respondents favoured a ban on sales from street kiosks, while 56% believed that existing health warnings (currently 4% of front and back of packs) were inadequate. The current policy of designating a few tables in bars and restaurants as non-smoking was supported by less than 10% of respondents, while almost a third supported a total ban, with 44% supporting provision of equal space for smokers and non-smokers. Older age, non-smoking status and living in a smaller town all emerged as significantly associated with the propensity to support antismoking measures. The tobacco companies were generally viewed as behaving like most other companies in Russia, with three-quarters of respondents believing that these companies definitely or maybe bribe politicians. Knowledge of impact of smoking on health was limited with significant underestimation of dangers and addictive qualities of tobacco. A third believed that light cigarettes are safer than normal cigarettes. The majority of the Russian population would support considerable strengthening of tobacco control policies but there is also a need for effective public education campaigns.

  12. Public attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control policy in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danishevski, Kirill; Gilmore, Anna; McKee, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the political transition in 1991, Russia has been targeted intensively by the transnational tobacco industry. Already high smoking rates among men have increased further; traditionally low rates among women have more than doubled. The tobacco companies have so far faced little opposition as they shape the discourse on smoking in Russia. This paper asks what ordinary Russians really think about possible actions to reduce smoking. Methods A representative sample of the Russian population (1600 respondents) was interviewed face-to-face in November 2007. Results Only 14% of respondents considered tobacco control in Russia adequate, while 37% felt that nothing was being done at all. There was support for prices keeping pace with or even exceeding inflation. Over 70% of all respondents favoured a ban on sales from street kiosks, while 56% believed that existing health warnings (currently 4% of front and back of packs) were inadequate. The current policy of designating a few tables in bars and restaurants as non-smoking was supported by less than 10% of respondents, while almost a third supported a total ban, with 44% supporting provision of equal space for smokers and non-smokers. Older age, non-smoking status and living a smaller town all emerged as significantly associated with the propensity to support of antismoking measures. The tobacco companies were generally viewed as behaving like most other companies in Russia, with three-quarters believing that they definitely or maybe bribe politicians. Knowledge of impact of smoking on health was limited with significant underestimation of dangers and addictive qualities of tobacco. A third believed that light cigarettes are safer than normal. Conclusion The majority of the Russian population would support considerable strengthening of tobacco control policies but there is also a need for effective public education campaigns. PMID:18653793

  13. A Comparison of Swiss and Turkish Pre-Service Science Teachers' Attitudes, Anxiety and Self-Efficacy Regarding Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efe, Hülya Aslan; Efe, Rifat; Yücel, Sait

    2016-01-01

    In this study, pre-service science teachers' anxiety, self-efficacy and attitudes regarding educational technology were investigated. Given the increased emphasis on educational technology in the classroom, teachers' attitudes, anxiety and self-efficacy regarding educational technology are important. The study was conducted with a total of 726…

  14. Technology from the Perspective of Society and Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chanwoon

    2017-01-01

    The ultimate goals of this study were to determine ways to reconcile technology with public interest and to understand the relationship between what we know and how we feel about technology. To achieve the goals, related literatures were reviewed; the mechanism of technology development was described with empirical data; and human perception of…

  15. 77 FR 14734 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade... proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC). DATES: The... innovation in the environmental technology sector. Background: The ETTAC is mandated by Public Law 103-392...

  16. Determinants of attitude to volunteering in psychiatry: results of a public opinion survey in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauber, Christoph; Nordt, Carlos; Falcato, Luis; Rössler, Wulf

    2002-09-01

    The United Nations proclaimed 2001 the "International Year of Volunteers". Little is known about factors influencing the attitude to volunteering in psychiatry. However, knowledge about these factors is important as target groups to be addressed by an awareness and promotion campaign could be identified. To determine the influence of demographic, psychological and sociological factors on the attitude to volunteering in psychiatry. Multiple logistic regression analysis of the results of an opinion survey conducted on a representative population sample in Switzerland (n = 1737). Public attitude is mostly positive. It depends, however, on the form of volunteering. Two explanatory models for volunteering in psychiatry were found: first, the "antipathetic person" having social distance to and negative stereotypes towards the mentally ill. Second, the "people with social responsibility and commitment" who have former experience in volunteering, a positive attitude to community psychiatry, interest in mass media, a social profession and perceive discrimination of mentally ill persons. Age and gender are significant predictors. An awareness and promotion campaign to use the vast potential of people willing to volunteer in psychiatry can be primarily focused on those with a basic interest in social issues. Volunteering must be limited in time and responsibility. Contacting people with a positive attitude by mass media is a promising way.

  17. Public attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities: a qualitative comparison of white British & South Asian people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Sarah; Scior, Katrina

    2012-03-01

    National and international polices promote the acceptance, integration and inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities into mainstream society. However, there is little systematic research into general population attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities, and even less research, which considers the impact of culture on attitudes. The aim of this study was to explore how young people from White British and South Asian backgrounds differ in their attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities and above all, how they arrive at their beliefs. A qualitative design utilizing focus groups and individual interviews with White British and South Asian adolescents aged 16-19 years (N = 61) was employed. Questionnaire data were collected to compare this sample to findings from a larger study run concurrently (Attitudes to people with intellectual disabilities: a cross cultural study. Thesis, University College London). Interview and focus group data were analysed using thematic analysis. Thematic analysis yielded five themes and pointed to widespread confusion about the concept of 'intellectual disability', not helped by the continuing invisibility of people with intellectual disabilities in the media. Participants expressed many positive beliefs, yet closer analysis revealed that underlying these may be more ambivalent or even hostile attitudes. Key differences between the two cultural groups are discussed. The findings highlight the need for raising public awareness and the importance of culturally sensitive support. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Exploring Students’ Attitudes and Beliefs Towards E-Portfolios and Technology in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma TUR

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on student teachers’ attitude towards technology in education and e-portfolio processes. Attitude is closely related to teachers’ beliefs and the later have been defined as second-order barriers. While an important effort has been made to overcome first-order barrier such as resources, training and support, it cannot be observed that technology has been successfully introduced in education. Therefore, second-order barriers such as attitudes and beliefs are being considered nowadays in order to address the lack of innovative use of technology by teachers. It has been argued that the introduction of technology has to be directed towards the empowerment of cognitive and high-level thinking skills and has to be used based on student-centred approaches. Building e-portfolios and helping students which grow and curate their own Personal Learning Environments (PLE are two approaches to go beyond technology-centered models. E-Portfolios are viewed as part of students’ PLE so social media are used to enhance both e-portfolio processes and students’ PLEs. The research is based on a survey in four groups of students at the local branch in Ibiza of the University of the Balearic Islands. The participants have previously built their e-portfolios with Web 2.0 tools during one semester. Students are asked to document their learning weekly and reflect on the change experienced in the way they think about educational issues. Students are also asked to use new tools and social media services to give evidence of their own learning. The survey is based on a Likert scale so as to be able to analyse the students’ attitude and beliefs towards their e-portfolio and technology in education. The results show that a generally positive attitude is developed by students. Conclusions highlight the slight difference in student teachers’ attitude between technology and specific e-portfolio processes.

  19. Knowledge and Attitude about Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis among Healthcare Workers in Public Health Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bony Wiem Lestari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB is a significant public health problem and poses a threat to global tuberculosis (TB control. In 2015, at least 504 new MDR-TB cases were identified in Indonesia. Treating MDR-TB patients is very challenging. It may take more than two years for MDR-TB treatment. Therefore, it is crucial healthcare workers (HCWs are knowledgeable about MDR-TB. The aim of this study was to measure level of knowledge and attitude regarding MDR-TB among HCWs in public health centres. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at 73 Public Health Centres in Bandung the capital of West Java Province from August until November 2015. The samples were 73 TB nurses and 32 laboratory staff. A self-administered questionnaire was given comprising 27 knowledge questions and 29 attitude questions. Correlation between knowledge and attitude scores was calculated by Pearson correlation test. Results: The majority of study participants were women (82.9%, married (92.4%, nursing staff (65.7% with history of TB training (98.1%. Most of the participants were 40-59 years old (69.5% with working experience in TB programme < 10 years (69.5%. Less than half (38.1% of study participants had good knowledge. In terms of attitude, more than half (53.3% of study participants had a positive attitude towards MDR-TB. Conclusions: The level of knowledge among HCWs about MDR-TB is still at an unacceptable level. Certain educational interventions aim to ensure prompt diagnosis, implement infection control and accurate treatment should be established among those HCWs.

  20. Public beliefs about and attitudes towards bipolar disorder: testing theory based models of stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Nell; Mason, Oliver; Scior, Katrina

    2015-04-01

    Given the vast literature into public beliefs and attitudes towards schizophrenia and depression, there is paucity of research on attitudes towards bipolar disorder despite its similar prevalence to schizophrenia. This study explored public beliefs and attitudes towards bipolar disorder and examined the relationship between these different components of stigma. Using an online questionnaire distributed via email, social networking sites and public institutions, 753 members of the UK population were presented with a vignette depicting someone who met DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder. Causal beliefs, beliefs about prognosis, emotional reactions, stereotypes, and social distance were assessed in response to the vignette. Preacher and Hayes procedure for estimating direct and indirect effects of multiple mediators was used to examine the relationship between these components of stigma. Bipolar disorder was primarily associated with positive beliefs and attitudes and elicited a relatively low desire for social distance. Fear partially mediated the relationship between stereotypes and social distance. Biomedical causal beliefs reduced desire for social distance by increasing compassion, whereas fate causal beliefs increased it through eliciting fear. Psychosocial causal beliefs had mixed effects. The measurement of stigma using vignettes and self-report questionnaires has implications for ecological validity and participants may have been reluctant to reveal the true extent of their negative attitudes. Dissemination of these findings to people with bipolar disorder has implications for the reduction of internalised stigma in this population. Anti-stigma campaigns should attend to causal beliefs, stereotypes and emotional reactions as these all play a vital role in discriminatory behaviour towards people with bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Technology in the Public Library: Results from the 1992 PLDS Survey of Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Linda M.; Johnson, Debra Wilcox

    1994-01-01

    Discusses and compares the incorporation of technology by larger public libraries in Canada and the United States. Technology mentioned includes online public access catalogs; remote and local online database searching; microcomputers and software for public use; and fax, voice mail, and Telecommunication Devices for the Deaf and Teletype writer…

  2. Teachers' Attitudes and Technology Use in Indonesian EFL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyani, Hilda; Cahyono, Bambang Y.

    2012-01-01

    The use of technology in education deals with two major aspects: mode and content. Nowadays, second-language teachers have the options to use technology, either web-based or non web-based, to help learners learn the target language (content) successfully. This paper aims at reporting research findings on the types of technology that the teachers…

  3. Teaching and technology: the traits and attitudes of highly rated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The emergence of Information and Communications Technology in education, which includes online learning, leads to a 'technological imperative' for institutions of higher learning. A barrier to the successful adoption of online learning is the willingness of lecturers to utilise such technology for learning. In this article we ...

  4. Vascularized Composite Allograft Donation and Transplantation: A Survey of Public Attitudes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, J R; Tomich, D; Fleishman, A; Glazier, A K

    2017-10-01

    Vascularized composite allograft (VCA) transplantation has emerged as a groundbreaking surgical intervention to return identity and function following traumatic injury, congenital deformity, or disfigurement. While public attitudes toward traditional organ/tissue donation are favorable, little is known about attitudes toward VCA donation and transplantation. A survey was conducted of 1485 U.S. residents in August 2016 to assess VCA donation attitudes. Participants also completed the Revised Health Care System Distrust Scale. Most respondents were willing to donate hands/forearms (67.4%) and legs (66.8%), and almost half (48.0%) were willing to donate the face. Three-quarters (74.4%) of women were willing to donate the uterus; 54.4% of men were willing to donate the penis. VCA donation willingness was more likely among whites and Hispanics (p donation expressed concerns about psychological discomfort, mutilation, identity loss, and the reaction of others to seeing familiar body parts on a stranger. Attitudes toward VCA donation are favorable overall, despite limited exposure to VCA messaging and confusion about how VCA donation occurs. These findings may help guide the development and implementation of VCA public education campaigns. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  5. Suicide Prevention Public Service Announcements Impact Help-Seeking Attitudes: The Message Makes a Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Wright, Nathan; Klingbeil, David A

    2016-01-01

    Suicide continues to be one of the most serious public health challenges. Public service announcements (PSAs) are frequently used to address this challenge, but are rarely sufficiently evaluated to determine if they meet the intended goals, or are associated with potential iatrogenic effects. Although it is challenging to assess the relative impact of different PSA modalities, our group previously noted that one billboard message failed to show the same benefits as one TV ad [e.g., Klimes-Dougan and Lee (1)]. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings to test critical aspects of suicide prevention billboard messaging. Although both simulated billboard messages presented had identical supporting messages, we predicted that the more personal billboard message, focused on saving one's life, would cause more favorable help-seeking attitudes than the message focused on suicide. Young adult university students (N = 785) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions; one of two billboard simulations or a TV ad simulation. Help-seeking attitudes, maladaptive coping, and reports of concern and distress were evaluated. The results of this study suggest some relative benefits in endorsement of favorable help-seeking attitudes for one of the billboard conditions - stop depression from taking another life. Although further research is needed to determine what methods will alter the risk for suicide in the population, the results of this study provide a useful first step showing that some billboard messaging may favorably influence help-seeking attitudes.

  6. Survey II of public and leadership attitudes toward nuclear power development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    In August 1975, Ebasco Services Incorporated released results of a survey conducted by Louis Harris and Associates, Inc. to determine attitudes of the American public and its leaders toward nuclear power development in the U.S. Results showed, among other things, that the public favored building nuclear power plants; that they believed we have an energy shortage that will not go away soon; that they were not willing to make environmental sacrifices; and that, while favoring nuclear power development, they also had concerns about some aspects of nuclear power. Except for the environmental group, the leadership group felt the same way the public does. A follow-up survey was made in July 1976 to measure any shifts in attitudes. Survey II showed that one of the real worries that remains with the American public is the shortage of energy; additionally, the public and the leaders are concerned about the U.S. dependence on imported oil. With exception of the environmentalists, the public and its leaders support a host of measures to build energy sources, including: solar and oil shale development; speeding up the Alaskan pipeline; speeding up off-shore drilling; and building nuclear power plants. The public continues to be unwilling to sacrifice the environment. There is less conviction on the part of the public that electric power will be in short supply over the next decade. The public believes the days of heavy dependence on oil or hydroelectric power are coming to an end. By a margin of 3 to 1, the public favors building more nuclear power plants in the U.S., but some concerns about the risks have not dissipated. Even though the public is worried about radioactivity escaping into the atmosphere, they consider nuclear power generation more safe than unsafe

  7. Community/public health nursing faculty's knowledge, skills and attitudes of the Quad Council Competencies for Public Health Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Barbara L; Harmon, Monica; Johnson, Regina Gina H; Hicks, Vicki; Brown-Schott, Nancy; Pilling, Lucille; Brownrigg, Vicki

    2018-05-02

    A multisite collaborative team of community/public health nursing (C/PHN) faculty surveyed baccalaureate nursing faculty to explore their knowledge, skills, attitudes, and application of the Quad Council Competencies for Public Health Nurses (QCC-PHN). (1) Evaluate the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of the 2011 QCC-PHN by academic C/PHN faculty; (2) Evaluate the application of 2011 QCC-PHN by C/PHN faculty in the clinical practicum for undergraduate baccalaureate C/PHN students; and (3) Determine if a significant difference existed in the knowledge for each domain. A mixed methods descriptive research design was used to answer three specific hypotheses related to the study objectives. A convenience sample of 143 faculty teaching C/PHN in baccalaureate schools of nursing completed an online survey. ANOVA was used to determine the difference between knowledge, skills, attitudes, and application of nursing faculty regarding the QCC-PHN based on years of nursing experience, C/PHN experience, and nursing specialty preparation. Participants' qualitative comments for each domain were analyzed for themes. C/PHN nursing faculty are described and differences in knowledge, skills, and attitudes delineated. A statistically significant difference was found in skills based on years of experience in C/PHN and in the application of the competencies based on nursing specialty preparation. Variations in knowledge of the QCC-PHN are identified. Ten recommendations are proposed for key skill sets and necessary preparation for faculty to effectively teach C/PHN in baccalaureate schools of nursing. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The Attitudes of Social Programs Students in Vocational High Schools Towards the Use of Information Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel BAHAR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation and internalization of innovations in science and technology, business processes and education system in an easy way depend on the attitudes of individuals. In the study, it is intended to determine whether there is a relationship between the arguments such as the subject, college, department, gender, computer usage, internet access facilities of the students' enrolled in social programs of vocational high school and their attitudes towards information technology, or not. The data were obtained by applying questionnaires to 884 students studying in business administration, logistics, marketing, tourism, accounting, Office management and executive assistance programs at Çukurova, Mersin, Kırıkkale and Abant İzzet Baysal Universities. As a result of the research, statistically significant relationships were determined between the attitudes of the students of social sciences toward information technology and their subject, college, department and gender.

  9. New surveillance technologies and their publics: A case of biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Aaron K; Donovan, Kevin P

    2015-10-01

    Before a newly-elected government abandoned the project in 2010, for at least eight years the British state actively sought to introduce a mandatory national identification scheme for which the science and technology of biometrics was central. Throughout the effort, government representatives attempted to portray biometrics as a technology that was easily understandable and readily accepted by the public. However, neither task was straightforward. Instead, particular publics emerged that showed biometric technology was rarely well understood and often disagreeable. In contrast to some traditional conceptualizations of the relationship between public understanding and science, it was often those entities that best understood the technology that found it least acceptable, rather than those populations that lacked knowledge. This paper analyzes the discourses that pervaded the case in order to untangle how various publics are formed and exhibit differing, conflicting understandings of a novel technology. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. The role of scientific knowledge in the public's perceptions of energy technology risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoutenborough, James W.; Vedlitz, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    It is important for policy makers to have an accurate understanding of public attitudes toward pressing issues to help inform their decision making. Researchers consistently find that the public’s receipt of and correct processing of scientific information and knowledge are essential for its problem solving. Different levels of understanding of specific energy technologies may produce different risk assessments across technologies within this issue domain. How this differential risk assessment occurs and the role that scientific information may play in it is not yet well known. This project seeks to determine the role that perceived and objective scientific knowledge may play in the public’s risk assessments of different energy technologies. Our findings suggest that scientific knowledge does temper public risk evaluations of different energy technologies, therefore linking more clearly the connection between science knowledge, scientific trust, and issue problem identification. - Highlights: •We examine influence of assessed and perceived knowledge on public risk perceptions. •We model effect of knowledge type on publics’ perceptions of three energy risks. •All models show those with higher assessed knowledge see risks more like experts do. •Perceived knowledge is less reliable predictor of public rating risk like experts. •Greater scientific grasp of issues by public needed for accurate risk assessment.

  11. Controversies in hybrid banking: attitudes of Swiss public umbilical cord blood donors toward private and public banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manegold, Gwendolin; Meyer-Monard, Sandrine; Tichelli, André; Granado, Christina; Hösli, Irene; Troeger, Carolyn

    2011-07-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) stored in public inventories has become an alternative stem cell source for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The potential use of autologous UCB from private banks is a matter of debate. In the face of the limited resources of public inventories, a discussion on "hybrid" public and private UCB banking has evolved. We aimed to explore the attitudes of the donating parents toward public and private UCB banking. A standardized, anonymous questionnaire was sent to the most recent 621 public UCB donors including items regarding satisfaction with recruitment process, the need for a second consent before release of the UCB unit for stem cell transplantation, and the donors' views on public and private UCB banking. Furthermore, we asked about their views on UCB research. Of the questionnaires, 48% were returned, and 16% were lost due to mail contact. Of our donors, 95% would donate to the public bank again. As much as 35% of them were convinced that public banking was useful. Whereas 27% had never heard about private UCB banking, 34% discussed both options. Nearly 70% of donors opted for public banking due to altruism and the high costs of private banking. Of our public UCB donors, 81% stated that they did not need a re-consent before UCB release for stem cell transplantation. In case of sample rejection, 53.5% wanted to know details about the particular research project. A total of 9% would not consent. Almost all donors would choose public banking again due to altruism and the high costs of private banking. Shortly after donation, mail contact with former UCB donors was difficult. This might be a relevant issue in any sequential hybrid banking.

  12. Applications of aerospace technology in the public sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuskiewicz, T.; Johnston, J.; Zimmerman, R. R.

    1971-01-01

    Current activities of the program to accelerate specific applications of space related technology in major public sector problem areas are summarized for the period 1 June 1971 through 30 November 1971. An overview of NASA technology, technology applications, and supporting activities are presented. Specific technology applications in biomedicine are reported including cancer detection, treatment and research; cardiovascular diseases, diagnosis, and treatment; medical instrumentation; kidney function disorders, treatment, and research; and rehabilitation medicine.

  13. Public stigma and self-stigma: differential association with attitudes toward formal and informal help seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattyn, Elise; Verhaeghe, Mieke; Sercu, Charlotte; Bracke, Piet

    2014-02-01

    Individuals in need of psychiatric treatment often avoid seeking help because of stigma. This study examined the impact of two stigma dimensions on help-seeking attitudes. Perceived public stigma refers to discrimination and devaluation by others, and anticipated self-stigma refers to internalization of negative stereotypes about people who seek help. Data were from the 2009 Stigma in a Global Context-Belgian Mental Health Study, in which face-to-face interviews were conducted with a representative sample of the general Belgian population. The study reported here included 728 respondents who received a vignette depicting major depression or schizophrenia. Perceived public stigma and anticipated self-stigma were measured with validated instruments. Respondents' attitudes toward help seeking were measured by the importance they assigned to care from formal and informal providers: general practitioners, psychiatrists, psychologists, family members, or friends. Multiple linear regression models were estimated. Respondents with higher levels of anticipated self-stigma attached less importance to care provided by general practitioners or psychiatrists, and those with higher levels of perceived public stigma rated informal help seeking as less important. The gender and the ethnicity of the person and respondents' sociodemographic characteristics had relatively little effect on help-seeking attitudes. Anticipated self-stigma and perceived public stigma appeared to have a differential impact on attitudes toward formal and informal help seeking. Internalization of negative stereotypes was negatively associated with the perceived importance of care from medical providers (general practitioners and psychiatrists). Awareness of stereotypes held by others deterred respondents from acknowledging the importance of informal care.

  14. Public Attitudes to the Use of Wildlife by Aboriginal Australians: Marketing of Wildlife and its Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.; Swarna Nantha, Hemanath

    2005-01-01

    Attitudes of a sample of the Australian public towards the subsistence use of wildlife by indigenous Australians and whether or not indigenous Australians should be allowed to sell wildlife and wildlife products is examined. It has been suggested that allowing such possibilities would provide economic incentives for nature conservation among local people. We explore whether those sampled believe that indigenous Australians should do more than other groups and institutions to conserve Australi...

  15. Money Ethic, Moral Conduct and Work Related Attitudes: Field Study From the Public Sector in Swaziland

    OpenAIRE

    Gbadamosi, Gbolahan; Joubert, P.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose \\ud This study investigates perception of ethical and moral conduct in the public sector in Swaziland, specifically, the relationship among: money ethic, attitude towards business ethics, corruption perception, turnover intention, job performance, job satisfaction, and the demographic profile of respondents.\\ud Methodology/Approach\\ud The study was a survey using self-administered questionnaires. Using stratified sampling technique in selected organisations, usable data was collected ...

  16. Transferring technology to the public sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, M. E.

    1972-01-01

    Approximately four years ago the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, under NASA sponsorship, began to devote some of its resources to examining ways to transfer space technology to the civil sector. As experience accumulated under this program, certain principles basic to success in technology transfer became apparent. An adequate definition of each problem must be developed before any substantial effort is expended on a solution. In most instances, a source of funds other than the potential user is required to support the problem definition phase of the work. Sensitivity to the user's concerns and effective interpersonal communications between the user and technical personnel are essential to success.

  17. The Traditional Model Does Not Explain Attitudes Toward Euthanasia: A Web-Based Survey of the General Public in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terkamo-Moisio, Anja; Kvist, Tarja; Laitila, Teuvo; Kangasniemi, Mari; Ryynänen, Olli-Pekka; Pietilä, Anna-Maija

    2017-08-01

    The debate about euthanasia is ongoing in several countries including Finland. However, there is a lack of information on current attitudes toward euthanasia among general Finnish public. The traditional model for predicting individuals' attitudes to euthanasia is based on their age, gender, educational level, and religiosity. However, a new evaluation of religiosity is needed due to the limited operationalization of this factor in previous studies. This study explores the connections between the factors of the traditional model and the attitudes toward euthanasia among the general public in the Finnish context. The Finnish public's attitudes toward euthanasia have become remarkably more positive over the last decade. Further research is needed on the factors that predict euthanasia attitudes. We suggest two different explanatory models for consideration: one that emphasizes the value of individual autonomy and another that approaches euthanasia from the perspective of fears of death or the process of dying.

  18. Public and Healthcare Professionals’ Knowledge and Attitudes toward Binge Eating Disorder: A Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reas, Deborah Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent binge eating and marked distress in the absence of inappropriate compensatory behaviors for weight control. BED is prevalent in men and women, is associated with elevated psychosocial and functional impairment, and is associated strongly with obesity and related medical comorbidities. The aim is to provide a brief, state-of-the-art review of the major and recent findings to inform educational and awareness campaigns, stigma reduction interventions, as well as current clinical practice and future research. A narrative approach was used to synthesize emerging literature on the public and healthcare professionals’ knowledge and attitudes toward individuals with BED in comparison to other eating disorders (EDs) or mental illness. A total of 13 articles were reviewed. Nine studies investigated community samples and four studies investigated healthcare professionals. The reviewed literature suggested that BED is perceived by the public as less impairing, less severe, and “easier-to-treat” than other EDs. Attitudes and beliefs reflecting perceived blameworthiness and lack of self-discipline were ascribed to vignettes with BED. Community studies indicated a low level of public awareness that BED constitutes a discreet eating disorder. The literature on healthcare professionals’ knowledge and attitudes toward BED remains very limited. The few existing studies suggest encouraging trends in recognition and diagnostic accuracy, yet there remains a need for increased clinical awareness of BED-associated medical complications and knowledge of full BED diagnostic criteria. PMID:29160843

  19. Public and private attitudes towards 'green' electricity: the case of Swedish wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ek, Kristina

    2005-01-01

    There exists a political goal in Sweden and elsewhere to increase the use of renewable energy and wind power seems to be a favourable choice from an environmental perspective. However, although the public generally expresses a positive attitude towards wind power, the experience often shows that specific wind power projects face resistance from the local population. This paper analyses the attitudes towards wind power among the electricity consumers as well as the foundations of these attitudes. Results are based on a postal survey that was sent out to 1000 Swedish house owners. According to the results, the public is generally positive towards wind power. The probability of finding an average individual in support of wind power decreases with age and income. People with an interest in environmental issues are, however, more likely to be positive towards wind power than the average respondent and the results do not support the NIMBY-hypothesis. In addition, people that are more inclined to express public preferences are also more likely to be positive towards wind electricity than people who are less inclined to do so. These results imply, for instance, that the potential of markets for 'green' electricity may be limited, other support schemes is thus required if the politically stated goal to increase wind power capacity is to be fulfilled

  20. Public Understanding and Attitudes towards Meat Chicken Production and Relations to Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erian, Ihab; Phillips, Clive J C

    2017-03-09

    Little is known about public knowledge of meat chicken production and how it influences attitudes to birds' welfare and consumer behaviour. We interviewed 506 members of the public in SE Queensland; Australia; to determine how knowledge of meat chicken production and slaughter links to attitudes and consumption. Knowledge was assessed from 15 questions and low scores were supported by respondents' self-assessed report of low knowledge levels and agreement that their knowledge was insufficient to form an opinion about which chicken products to purchase. Older respondents and single people without children were most knowledgeable. There was uncertainty about whether chicken welfare was adequate, particularly in those with little knowledge. There was also evidence that a lack of empathy towards chickens related to lack of knowledge, since those that thought it acceptable that some birds are inadequately stunned at slaughter had low knowledge scores. More knowledgeable respondents ate chicken more frequently and were less likely to buy products with accredited labelling. Approximately half of the respondents thought the welfare of the chicken was more important than the cost. It is concluded that the public's knowledge has an important connection to their attitudes and consumption of chicken.

  1. Public and Healthcare Professionals’ Knowledge and Attitudes toward Binge Eating Disorder: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Lynn Reas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Binge eating disorder (BED is characterized by recurrent binge eating and marked distress in the absence of inappropriate compensatory behaviors for weight control. BED is prevalent in men and women, is associated with elevated psychosocial and functional impairment, and is associated strongly with obesity and related medical comorbidities. The aim is to provide a brief, state-of-the-art review of the major and recent findings to inform educational and awareness campaigns, stigma reduction interventions, as well as current clinical practice and future research. A narrative approach was used to synthesize emerging literature on the public and healthcare professionals’ knowledge and attitudes toward individuals with BED in comparison to other eating disorders (EDs or mental illness. A total of 13 articles were reviewed. Nine studies investigated community samples and four studies investigated healthcare professionals. The reviewed literature suggested that BED is perceived by the public as less impairing, less severe, and “easier-to-treat” than other EDs. Attitudes and beliefs reflecting perceived blameworthiness and lack of self-discipline were ascribed to vignettes with BED. Community studies indicated a low level of public awareness that BED constitutes a discreet eating disorder. The literature on healthcare professionals’ knowledge and attitudes toward BED remains very limited. The few existing studies suggest encouraging trends in recognition and diagnostic accuracy, yet there remains a need for increased clinical awareness of BED-associated medical complications and knowledge of full BED diagnostic criteria.

  2. Do Online Comments Influence the Public's Attitudes Toward an Organization? Effects of Online Comments Based on Individuals' Prior Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Kang Hoon; Lee, Moon J

    2015-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of reading different types of online comments about a company on people's attitude change based on individual's prior attitude toward the company. Based on Social Judgment Theory, several hypotheses were tested. The results showed that the effects of online comments interact with individuals' prior attitudes toward a corporation. People with a strong negative attitude toward a corporation were less influenced by other's online comments than people with a neutral attitude in general. However, people with a prior negative attitude were more affected by refutational two-sided comments than one-sided comments. The results suggest that the effects of user generated content should be studied in a holistic manner, not only by investigating the effects of online content itself, but also by examining how others' responses to the content shape or change individuals' attitudes based on their prior attitudes.

  3. Public perceptions about HIV/AIDS and discriminatory attitudes toward people living with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudnia, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Negative and discriminatory attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are one of the biggest experienced challenges by people suffering from HIV, and these attitudes have been regarded as a serious threat to the fundamental rights of all infected people who are affected or associated with this disease in Iran. This study aimed to determine the relationship between public perception about HIV/AIDS and discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA . The present study was conducted using a descriptive and survey design. Data were collected from 450 patients (236 male and 214 female) in Tehran and Yazd cities. The research instruments were modified HIV-related knowledge/attitude and perception questions about PLWHA, and discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA. The results showed that prevalence of discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA in the studied population was 60.0%. There was a significant negative correlation between citizens' awareness about HIV/AIDS, HIV-related attitudes, negative perception toward people with HIV/AIDS symptoms and their discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA (p AIDS explained for 23.7% of the variance of discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA. Negative public perceptions about HIV/AIDS in Iran associated with discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA and cultural beliefs in Iran tend to stigmatize and discriminate against the LWHA.

  4. Attitude of public opinion to nuclear power, and reasons of prejudiced position towards it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishnevs'kij, Yi.M.; Trofimenko, A.P.

    1998-01-01

    A review of events which have led to the public opposition to nuclear power is given. Arguments of 'Greens' and social structure of this movement are exposed. INIS Database was used for finding the main directions of works in nuclear power in the World and for their comparison with such directions in thermal power field. The results obtained demonstrate that the 'Greens' strongly exaggerate the nuclear hazards and do not pay due attention to environmental pollution from fossil-fuel power plants. Attitude of the population in Ukraine to nuclear power after Chernobyl accident is analysed and actions for public opinion balancing are proposed

  5. Nuclear power and the Canadian public. A national and regional assessment of public attitudes and perceptions of the use of nuclear power for the production of electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greer-Wootten, B; Mitson, L [York Univ., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1976-06-01

    Over 2,100 persons from the Canadian public aged 18 years and over were interviewed to ascertain the opinions and attitudes of Canadians toward the use of nuclear power for generating electricity. The results of this survey are presented.

  6. Public Attitudes towards Socio-Cultural Aspects of Water Supply and Sanitation Services: Palestine as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Marwan

    2005-01-01

    Identifying and considering public attitudes towards various aspects of water supply and sanitation services by planners and decision makers represent an important developmental element relating to the quality, efficiency, and performance of those services. A sample of 1000 Palestinian adults completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes towards…

  7. A Study of Faculty Attitudes toward Internet-Based Distance Education: A Survey of Two Jordanian Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasaymeh, Al-Mothana M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes toward internet-based distance education by the faculty members of two Jordanian public universities, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University and Yarmouk University, as well as to explore the relationship between their attitudes toward internet-based distance education and their perceptions of their…

  8. The Recreational Fee Demonstration Program on the national forests: and updated analysis of public attitudes and beliefs, 1996-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; David P. Fan

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes trends in favorable and unfavorable attitudes toward the Recreational Fee Demonstration Program (RFDP) in the national forests, updating an earlier study using computer content analysis of the public debate. About 65 percent of the attitudes toward the RFDP were favorable, comparable to the findings of survey research.

  9. Preservice Teachers' Beliefs, Attitudes, and Motivation about Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Theresa A.; Greene, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior was used as a framework, along with Self-Determination Theory, to examine preservice teachers' motivation to include technology in their future teaching. We modified instruments to measure theoretical constructs to be applied to plans for the use of technology. Measured were: perceived behavioral control, attitudes…

  10. Students' Attitudes towards Craft and Technology in Iceland and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Gísli; Ólafsson, Brynjar; Autio, Ossi

    2012-01-01

    Craft education in both Finland and Iceland originated over 140 years ago and was influenced by the Scandinavian Sloyd pedagogy. Since then, the subject has moved away from craft and towards technology, with the aim being to increase students' technological abilities. In the beginning, the subject largely focused on the students copying artefacts,…

  11. Examination of Science and Technology Teachers’ Attitude and Opinions Related Giftedness and Gifted Education in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kürşat KUNT

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to examine the Science and Technology teachers’ attitude and views related giftedness and gifted education. This research used both qualitative and quantitative research designs, is a mixed pattern research. The study group of the research consists of 111 Science and Technology teachers in the academic year 2011- 2012 in the province of A. These participants were applied Teacher Attitude Scale towards Gifted Education (TASGE as collection of quantitative data. For obtaining qualitative data, semi-structured interview was used with four science and technology teachers. For the analysis of quantitative data, percentage, frequency, t-test and analysis of variance were used. The data obtained from the interview were subjected to content analysis. As a result, science and technology teachers' attitudes towards gifted education were found to be slightly above the undecided attitude. In addition, science and technology teachers stated that supportive education for gifted children in Science and Art Centers (SACs was insufficient and they adequately could not cooperated with this institution.

  12. Rural Public Transportation Technologies: User Needs and Applications. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The Rural Public Transportation Technologies: User Needs and Applications Study was conducted as part of the U.S. DOT's overall Rural Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Program. The study examined the opportunities and challenges of planning and...

  13. Rural public transportation technologies : user needs and applications : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The Rural Public Transportation Technologies: User Needs and Applications study was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Transportations (DOT) overall Rural Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Program. The study examined the opportuniti...

  14. Rural Public Transportation Technologies: User Needs and Applications. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The Rural Public Transportation Technologies: User Needs and Applications study was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Transportation's (DOT) overall Rural Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Program. The study examined the opportunities...

  15. Teachers' attitudes and perceptions about preparation of public schools to assist students with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carral San Laureano, Florentino; Gutiérrez Manzanedo, José Vicente; Moreno Vides, Pablo; de Castro Maqueda, Guillermo; Fernández Santos, Jorge R; Ponce González, Jesús Gustavo; Ayala Ortega, María Del Carmen

    2018-04-01

    To assess teachers' attitudes and perceptions about preparation of public primary and secondary education schools in the Puerto Real University Hospital (Cádiz, Spain) area to care for students with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) METHODS: A descriptive observational study where answers to an attitude and perception questionnaire on the preparation of schools to care for pupils with T1DM were analyzed. A total of 765 teachers (mean age, 44.3±8.8 years; 61.7% women) from 44 public schools in the area of the Puerto Real University Hospital were selected by random sampling. Overall, 43.2% of teachers surveyed had or had previously had students with T1DM, but only 0.8% had received specific training on diabetes. 18.9% of teachers reported that one of their students with T1DM had experienced at least one episode of hypoglycemia at school, and half of them felt that their school was not prepared to deal with diabetic emergencies. 6.4% stated that their school had glucagon in its first aid kit, and 46.9% would be willing to administer it personally. Women, physical education teachers, and headmasters had a more positive perception of the school than their colleagues. Teachers with a positive perception of school preparation and with a positive attitude to administer glucagon were significantly younger than those with no positive perception and attitude. The study results suggest that teachers of public schools in our health area have not been specifically trained in the care of patients with T1DM and perceive that their educational centers are not qualified to address diabetic emergencies. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Can Slovakia to survive without nuclear energy? State and perspectives of nuclear energetics. Attitudes of public to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchomel, J.; Murinova, S.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation authors deals with the review of the state of nuclear energetics in the Slovak Republic. Perspectives of nuclear energy and renewable sources of energy as well as attitudes of public to nuclear energy are discussed

  17. Access, attitudes and training in information technologies and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and EBM among medical students at an African medical school. ... Keywords: Information technologies, evidence-based medicine, medical students, University of Zimbabwe, College .... United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Re-.

  18. A Survey of Key Technology of Network Public Opinion Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Su Ying

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The internet has become an important base for internet users to make comments because of its interactivity and fast dissemination. The outbreak of internet public opinion has become a major risk for network information security. Domestic and foreign researchers had carried out extensive and in-depth study on public opinion. Fruitful results have achieved in the basic theory research and emergency handling and other aspects of public opinion. But research on the public opinion in China is still in the initial stage, the key technology of the public opinion analysis is still as a starting point for in-depth study and discussion.

  19. The Inertial Stellar Compass (ISC): A Multifunction, Low Power, Attitude Determination Technology Breakthrough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor); Dennehy, Neil; Gambino, Joel; Maynard, Andrew; Brady, T.; Buckley, S.; Zinchuk, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Inertial Stellar Compass (ISC) is a miniature, low power, stellar inertial attitude determination system with an accuracy of better than 0.1 degree (1 sigma) in three axes. The ISC consumes only 3.5 Watts of power and is contained in a 2.5 kg package. With its embedded on-board processor, the ISC provides attitude quaternion information and has Lost-in-Space (LIS) initialization capability. The attitude accuracy and LIS capability are provided by combining a wide field of view Active Pixel Sensor (APS) star camera and Micro- ElectroMechanical System (MEMS) inertial sensor information in an integrated sensor system. The performance and small form factor make the ISC a useful sensor for a wide range of missions. In particular, the ISC represents an enabling, fully integrated, micro-satellite attitude determination system. Other applications include using the ISC as a single sensor solution for attitude determination on medium performance spacecraft and as a bolt on independent safe-hold sensor or coarse acquisition sensor for many other spacecraft. NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) has selected the ISC technology for a Space Technology 6 (ST6) flight validation experiment scheduled for 2004. NMP missions, such a s ST6, are intended to validate advanced technologies that have not flown in space in order to reduce the risk associated with their infusion into future NASA missions. This paper describes the design, operation, and performance of the ISC and outlines the technology validation plan. A number of mission applications for the ISC technology are highlighted, both for the baseline ST6 ISC configuration and more ambitious applications where ISC hardware and software modifications would be required. These applications demonstrate the wide range of Space and Earth Science missions that would benefit from infusion of the ISC technology.

  20. A Study on Attitude and Opinion towards Using Computer Technology in Teaching among B.Ed. Trainees in Tiruchirappalli District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, C. Ashok

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the study was to find out whether there was a significant difference in the attitude and opinion towards using Computer Technology in teaching among B.Ed., trainees in terms of select independent variables. Normative survey was the technique employed. Opinion towards Computer Usage and Attitude towards Computer Technology inventory…

  1. The Effects of ICT Environment on Teachers' Attitudes and Technology Integration in Japan and the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Kodai; Frederiksen, Sarah; Jones, LeAnne; Kobayashi, Michiko; Mukoyama, Yui; Yamagishi, Taku; Sadaki, Kengo; Ishizuka, Hiroki

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyzes the effects of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) environment on teachers' attitude toward technology integration in Japanese and U.S. elementary schools. Teacher's attitude plays an important role in influencing the effectiveness of ICT education from a variety of perspectives. A number of studies have been…

  2. Information Technology and Value Creation in the Public Sector Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Min-Seok

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation, I study the performance impact of information technology (IT) investments in the public sector. IT has been one of the key assets in public administration since the early MIS era. Even though the information systems (IS) discipline has witnessed a considerable amount of research efforts on the subject of IT business value for…

  3. Attitudes of the general public and electric power company employees toward nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiyama, Hisashi

    1997-01-01

    We conducted an awareness survey targeted at members of the general public residing in urban areas and in areas scheduled for construction of nuclear power plants as well as employees of electric power company in order to determine the awareness and attitude structures of people residing near scheduled construction sites of nuclear power plants with respect to nuclear power generation, and to examine ways of making improvements in terms of promoting nuclear power plant construction sites. Analysis of those results revealed that there are no significant differences in the awareness and attitudes of people residing in urban areas and in areas near scheduled construction sites. On the contrary, a general sense of apprehension regarding the construction of nuclear power plants was observed common to both groups. In addition, significant differences in awareness and attitudes with respect to various factors were determined to exist between members of the general public residing in urban areas and scheduled construction sites and employees of electric power company. (author)

  4. Economics of Sustainable Technologies : Private and Public Costs and Benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram; Abraham, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This article is focused on the economics of sustainable technologies from the mainstream and heterodox perspectives. The aim is to present major concepts, methodologies, and debates for public use. The paper is focused on decision making aiming at the development and use of sustainable technologies.

  5. Health Professionals' Attitudes and Educational Needs regarding New Food Processing Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Gutierrez, C.; Bruhn, C. M.

    2008-01-01

    This project evaluates the attitudes of food and health professionals to 3 new food processing technologies that have been developed to respond to consumer demands such as superior taste, longer shelf life, higher nutritional content, health benefits, and environment-friendly processing. Educational brochures for high pressure (HP), pulsed…

  6. Effect of Middle School Students' Motivation to Learn Technology on Their Attitudes toward Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuksoo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of motivation to learn technology, as perceived by South Korean middle school students, on their attitudes toward engineering. Using the instruments of Glynn et al. (2011) and Lee (2008), the study focused on eighth and ninth grade students in four middle schools located in South Korea's…

  7. Business Students' Perceptions, Attitudes, and Satisfaction with Interactive Technology: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Jacqueline Kilsheimer; Iyer, Rajesh; Eastman, Kevin L.

    2011-01-01

    The authors modeled the relationships between students' perceptions of interactive technology in terms of whether it helps them pay more attention and be better prepared in a Consumer Behavior course and their attitude toward and satisfaction with it. The results suggest that students who feel they pay more attention due to the use of Interactive…

  8. The Status of Information Technology in Iranian Hospital Libraries: A Comparative Study of Managers' Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isfandyari-Moghaddam, Alireza; Sedehi, Maryam; Dehghani, Mozhdeh; Nemati-Anaraki, Leila; Hasanzadeh-Dizaji, Elaheh

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the attitude of the managers of libraries located at Iran, Tehran and Shahid Beheshti Medical Sciences Universities' training hospitals, on the status of information technology (IT) in the mentioned libraries. Design/methodology/approach: This study employed a researcher-made questionnaire. The…

  9. Teachers' Attitude and Competence in the Use of Assistive Technologies in Special Needs Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onivehu, Adams Ogirima; Ohawuiro, Onyiyeche Emilia; Oyeniran, Bunmi Juliana

    2017-01-01

    This study examined teachers' attitude and competence in the use of assistive technologies in special needs schools. The descriptive survey method was employed for the study among 100 teachers who were drawn using purposive sampling technique from special needs schools in Osun State, Nigeria. Six research questions were generated while four…

  10. The influence of national culture on cooperative attitudes in high-technology start-ups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulijn, J.M.; Frankort, J.T.W.; Uhlaner, L.M.; Ulijn, J.M.; Drillon, D; Lasch, F

    2007-01-01

    The main focus of this chapter is the concept of cooperation by hightechnology start-ups or HTSUs and in particular, the influence that culture may have upon attitudes that may predict cooperative behaviour. HTSUs are defined in this chapter as young companies whose aim is to produce technologically

  11. Attitude of Indian dental professionals toward scientific publications: A questionnaire based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pradhuman; Sachdeva, Suresh K; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Khosa, Rameen; Basavraju, Suman; Dutta, Sanjay

    2015-08-01

    Due to competitiveness and academic benefits, most dental professionals feel an urgent need to increase their publications. Hence, we explored the attitude of students and faculty members toward scientific publications through a questionnaire. A questionnaire consisting of 13 questions was sent by e-mails and posting the printed copies to dental postgraduate (PG) students (second and third year) and faculty members (n = 500 each). The returned completed questionnaires were analyzed. About 37% of dental PG faculty and 35.6% PG students responded to the questionnaire, with overall response of 72.6%. Among the PG faculty, professors (P) had more scientific publications, followed by senior lecturers (SL) and readers (R). The publications as first or corresponding author were less among both faculty and PG students while co-authorship was more among PG students compared to faculty members. Awareness about the term "plagiarism" was overall high and relatively highest among R, followed by SL, P and PG students. The percentage of publications in fee charging journals was more among PG students than faculty members and self-funding for publication was observed in 86.4% of PG students and 94-100% among faculty members. About 72.6% of dental professionals were involved in publishing of their research work and the number of publications increased steadily with an increase in their academic experience. All the dental professionals concurred publications as the criteria for academic excellence.

  12. Public Attitudes to Nuclear Power - It's Not (just) About Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimston, M.

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear industry frequently accuses the public of having an 'irrational' fear of radiation, and sees it as a mission to 'educate' the public in order to improve their attitudes towards atomic energy. In fact there is little evidence that facts per se affect attitudes: in forming opinions people apply a 'common sense' rationality based on a range of factors, of which information is only one. 'Public information' campaigns may actually contribute to fears of radiation in the nuclear power context. Better communication - e.g. not banging on so much about safety - would undoubtedly help to put nuclear power into a proper perspective. But while the industry and its regulators continue to do silly things and treat nuclear power and radiation as if they are vastly more dangerous than they actually are - in the bizarre hope that this will put people's minds at rest rather than inevitably doing precisely the opposite - then only truly irrational members of the public will be convinced. Krsko may be a test case - can the waste debate be brought back onto a 'rational' footing. (author).

  13. Food allergy knowledge, attitudes and beliefs: Focus groups of parents, physicians and the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnathan Julia A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food allergy prevalence is increasing in US children. Presently, the primary means of preventing potentially fatal reactions are avoidance of allergens, prompt recognition of food allergy reactions, and knowledge about food allergy reaction treatments. Focus groups were held as a preliminary step in the development of validated survey instruments to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public. Methods Eight focus groups were conducted between January and July of 2006 in the Chicago area with parents of children with food allergy (3 groups, physicians (3 groups, and the general public (2 groups. A constant comparative method was used to identify the emerging themes which were then grouped into key domains of food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Results Parents of children with food allergy had solid fundamental knowledge but had concerns about primary care physicians' knowledge of food allergy, diagnostic approaches, and treatment practices. The considerable impact of children's food allergies on familial quality of life was articulated. Physicians had good basic knowledge of food allergy but differed in their approach to diagnosis and advice about starting solids and breastfeeding. The general public had wide variation in knowledge about food allergy with many misconceptions of key concepts related to prevalence, definition, and triggers of food allergy. Conclusion Appreciable food allergy knowledge gaps exist, especially among physicians and the general public. The quality of life for children with food allergy and their families is significantly affected.

  14. The SCK-CEN Barometer 2011 - Perception and attitudes towards nuclear technologies in the Belgian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcanu, C.; Perko, T.; Schroeder, J.

    2011-01-01

    The fourth edition of the SCK-CEN Barometer was established in May-June 2011. It continued the historical follow-up of topics such as risk perception and confidence in authorities, and addressed a number of issues in detail, among which: attitude towards nuclear technologies, confidence in the management of nuclear technologies, stakeholder participation, the accident at Fukushima and the management of high level radioactive waste. This report presents a general overview of the results.

  15. Public attitudes towards pricing policies to change health-related behaviours: a UK focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Claire; Marteau, Theresa M; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Cohn, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Evidence supports the use of pricing interventions in achieving healthier behaviour at population level. The public acceptability of this strategy continues to be debated throughout Europe, Australasia and USA. We examined public attitudes towards, and beliefs about the acceptability of pricing policies to change health-related behaviours in the UK. The study explores what underlies ideas of acceptability, and in particular those values and beliefs that potentially compete with the evidence presented by policy-makers. Twelve focus group discussions were held in the London area using a common protocol with visual and textual stimuli. Over 300,000 words of verbatim transcript were inductively coded and analyzed, and themes extracted using a constant comparative method. Attitudes towards pricing policies to change three behaviours (smoking, and excessive consumption of alcohol and food) to improve health outcomes, were unfavourable and acceptability was low. Three sets of beliefs appeared to underpin these attitudes: (i) pricing makes no difference to behaviour; (ii) government raises prices to generate income, not to achieve healthier behaviour and (iii) government is not trustworthy. These beliefs were evident in discussions of all types of health-related behaviour. The low acceptability of pricing interventions to achieve healthier behaviours in populations was linked among these responders to a set of beliefs indicating low trust in government. Acceptability might be increased if evidence regarding effectiveness came from trusted sources seen as independent of government and was supported by public involvement and hypothecated taxation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  16. FACOTRS TO DETERMINE RISK PERCEPTION OF CLIMATE CHANGE, AND ATTITUDE TOWARD ADAPTATION POLICY OF THE PUBLIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Kenshi; Sugimoto, Takuya; Kubota, Hiromi; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Tanaka, Mitsuru

    This study clarifies the factors to determine risk perception of climate change and attitudes toward adaptation policy by analyzing the data collecting from Internet survey to the general public. The results indicate the followings: 1) more than 70% people perceive some sort of risk of climate change, and most people are awaken to wind and flood damage. 2) most people recognize that mitigation policy is much more important than adaptation policy, whereas most people assume to accept adaptation policy as self-reponsibility, 3) the significant factors to determinane risk perception of climate chage and attitude towerd adaptation policy are cognition of benefits on the policy and procedural justice in the policy process in addion to demographics such as gender, experience of disaster, intension of inhabitant.

  17. The role of nuclear research and large-scale experiments in shaping public attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rometsch, R.

    1991-01-01

    Public attitudes are of complex origin. Only a minor part is derived from natural science. The thinking of a majority of humans about nuclear energy e.g. employs imagery that can be traced back to a time long before the discovery of radioactivity, even back to archaic symbols and myths. Experiments help mainly to shape the attitude of the scientifically trained minority. Well planned to answer the essential questions and performed by people of internationally recognised qualification they tend to strengthen the self-confidence of the scientific community. Based on its own self-confidence the scientific community might be able to exert some influence on the silent majority and inspire to any human society or nation that amount of self-confidence which is a prerequisite to master complex problems of technical as well as socio-psychological nature

  18. Effects of attitudes and demography on public support for endangered species conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liordos, Vasilios; Kontsiotis, Vasileios J; Anastasiadou, Magdalini; Karavasias, Efstathios

    2017-10-01

    It is critical for managers to understand how attitudes and demography affect public's preferences for species protection for designing successful conservation projects. 1080 adults in Greece were asked to rate pictures of 12 endangered species on aesthetic and negativistic attitudes, and intention to support their conservation. Factor analysis identified a group of animals for which respondents indicated high levels of support for their conservation (red deer, loggerhead sea turtle, brown bear, common pheasant, European ground squirrel, glossy ibis) and a group of animals for which respondents indicated low levels of support (black vulture, great white shark, fire-bellied toad, western barbastelle, Cretan tube web spider, Milos viper). The species that received the highest support were also rated as the most attractive and safest, excluding the fearsome brown bear. Structural models revealed that aesthetic, moralistic and negativistic attitudes were the stronger predictors of support. Aesthetic and moralistic attitudes were positively, and negativistic attitudes negatively, correlated with support for conservation in both groups. Consumptive users scored lower in aesthetics and were less supportive of protection in the high support group, while nonconsumptive users showed the opposite trend. Respondents residing in urban areas deemed animals of high support more attractive and less fearsome and were more supportive of conservation than rural residents in both groups. Females of higher education viewed animals of low support as fearsome, however they supported their conservation. Our study identified popular species that can be used as flagship species to facilitate the implementation of conservation projects. The results of this study could also be used to design a communication and outreach campaign to raise awareness about the ecosystem value of less attractive species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Technology, risk and participation: The attitude of society towards insecurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynne, B.

    1983-01-01

    The way society deals with risks in connection with society's judgement and decision on technological developments is discussed. If technology is a social phenomenon one must attribute more importance to unknown changes of social values resulting from these decisions and to unforeseen physical effects. One should therefore shift from fact analysis as a basis of decisions to a critical analysis of the creditworthyness, responsibility and degree to which the views of the decision-making institutions and elites are understood by society. (DG) [de

  20. Public acceptance of HTGR technology - HTR2008-58218

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannink, R.; Kuhr, R.; Morris, T.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear energy projects continue to evoke strong emotional responses from the general public throughout the world. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) technology offers improved safety and performance characteristics that should enhance public acceptance but is burdened with demonstrating a different set of safety principles. This paper summarizes key issues impacting public acceptance and discusses the importance of openly engaging the public in the early stages of new HTGR projects. The public gets information about new technologies through schools and universities, news and entertainment media, the internet, and other forms of information exchange. Development of open public forums, access to information in understandable formats, participation of universities in preparing and distributing educational materials, and other measures will be needed to support widespread public confidence in the improved safety and performance characteristics of HTGR technology. This confidence will become more important as real projects evolve and participants from outside the nuclear industry begin to evaluate the real and perceived risks, including potential impacts on public relations, branding, and shareholder value when projects are announced. Public acceptance and support will rely on an informed understanding of the issues and benefits associated with HTGR technology. Major issues of public concern include nuclear safety, avoidance of greenhouse gas emissions, depletion of natural gas resources, energy security, nuclear waste management, local employment and economic development, energy prices, and nuclear proliferation. Universities, the media, private industry, government entities, and other organizations will all have roles that impact public acceptance, which will likely play a critical role in the future markets, siting, and permitting of HTGR projects. (authors)

  1. Nuclear Malaysia Strategic Approach Towards Public Acceptance on Nuclear Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasfazilah Hassan; Redzuan Mohamad; Abdul Halim Jumat; Sabariah Kader Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Full text: This paper describes the strategic approach taken by Malaysian Nuclear Agency in carrying out public information and public acceptance on nuclear technology activities. The main objective of this study is to ensure that public and stake holders are continuously getting correct information from credible sources. Through the feedback received, comprehensive and holistic approach provides the desired impact. Obtaining the correct information from credible sources culture should always be inculcate to ensure that the benefits of nuclear technologies can be practiced and accepted by civil society without prejudice. Through strategic approach and activities implemented, monitoring and review, and measurement of the effectiveness of ongoing programs are expected to increase public awareness of the importance and contribution of nuclear technology in Malaysia. (author)

  2. Application of SharePoint Portal Technologies in Public Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Đokić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, systematic reforms are realized acrossmany countries. One of the characteristics of these reforms is necessity for rationalization of expenses in governmental and public enterprises. Rationalization of expenses can be achieved by more extensive application of information and communication technologies based on internet technologies and cloud computing. These systems include huge number of services, applications, resources, users and roles. At the same time, concepts of scalability, availability, ubiquity and pervasiveness need to be applied. This paper deals with application of portal technologies for enhanced content management, document management, and collaboration within public enterprises. The goal is to achieve efficient exchange of information on all hierarchical levels, as well as mechanisms of reporting and performance measurements, such as business intelligence and key performance indicators. The model is based on SharePoint portal technologies. A case study of application within the public enterprise Post of Serbia is described.

  3. Access, attitudes and training in information technologies and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This impact can be boosted by developing a curriculum with skills necessary in using EBM. Keywords: Information technologies, evidence-based medicine, medical students, University of Zimbabwe, College of Health Sciences. Due to errors in the previous PDF especially in the 'Cite as' authors names, the PDF fulltext has ...

  4. Explicit and implicit attitude toward an emerging food technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, Gerben A.; Fischer, Arnout R.H.; Tobi, Hilde; Trijp, van Hans C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Cultured meat is an unfamiliar emerging food technology that could provide a near endless supply of high quality protein with a relatively small ecological footprint. To understand consumer acceptance of cultured meat, this study investigated the influence of information provision on the explicit

  5. Attitude of farmers towards improved agricultural technologies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... environmental changing situations and technologies should be cost effective and flexible for result oriented ... spectrum pesticides, which actually reduce the number of ... eventually considered fit for Ondo State for logistic reasons. This ... disagreed, for positive statements but reversed for negatively.

  6. Public perceptions of industrial risks: the context of public attitudes toward radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, T.C.

    1981-06-01

    A survey was made to determine the public risk perception of several industrial hazards. A free response approach was used in order for respondents to generate their own alternatives. The general class of hazard investigated here included all hazardous industrial facilities. The free response survey was used to study public perception of: (a) the closeness of the nearest hazardous industrial facility (as estimated by the respondent); (b) the sort of facility it is; (c) the sorts of risk associated with it; and (d) the persons placed at risk by it. Respondents also identified the risks of, and the persons placed at risk by, both a toxic chemical disposal facility and a nuclear waste disposal facility. Results of this study thus can inform us of the unprompted concerns of the public regarding a wide variety of industrial facilities

  7. Changes in Attitudes Towards Bariatric Surgery After 5 Years in the German General Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Franziska Ulrike Christine Else; Dietrich, A; Stroh, C; Riedel-Heller, S G; Luck-Sikorski, C

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in attitudes of the general public towards bariatric surgery and other interventions that can be part of obesity management, during the last 5 years. 1007 participants were randomly selected and interviewed. Apart from socio-demographic data, interviews also included causal reasons for obesity as well as questions regarding treatment methods and their believed effectiveness. Results were compared with data published 5 years ago. Surgery is seen as a rather ineffective method to reduce weight in obesity and is recommended less often by the general public compared to the assessment 5 years ago. Public health-implications should inform about obesity and benefits of surgery as an intervention to improve individual health conditions.

  8. Public attitudes towards marine aquaculture: A comparative analysis of Germany and Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, Shirra; Vigoda-Gadot, Eran; Sterr, Horst; Schultz, Michael; Korchenkov, Irina; Krost, Peter; Angel, Dror

    2012-01-01

    We report on bi-national (Germany–Israel) research on relationships between public attitudes, behaviours and preferences related to marine aquaculture. Aquaculture's world-wide market share accounts for over half of all aquatic products. In many places, the sector's explosive growth has outstripped scientific knowledge and governance provisions. Small producers such as Israel and Germany seeking to expand domestic production must address environmental challenges posed by fish farming, stakeholder competition in crowded coastal zones and public/consumer receptiveness. Based on survey data obtained from both the countries, correlation analysis (Pearson's r-statistic) was used to test four hypotheses. Of these, one (positive relationship between coastal tourism and aquaculture attitudes) was supported in both countries. The hypothesis of positive relationships between lifestyle (environment/health) behaviours and aquaculture attitudes was supported only in Germany and the hypothesis of negative relationships between concern for the environment and aquaculture attitudes was supported only in Israel. These results are significant for policy, business, NGO and other stakeholders. Moreover, they point to the importance of this type of comparative research in improving our understanding of local factors influencing attitude-formation and inter-relationships. First, the tourism–aquaculture relationship found indicates potential synergies between two sectors reliant on the coastal zone that should be taken into account by planning authorities. The divergent environment–aquaculture results were especially interesting since in both countries, the primary concern regarding aquaculture expansion was environmental impacts. Closer inspection of the survey results revealed that this relationship may have been influenced by the orientation of environmental concerns in each population. Germans focus on depletion of wildstocks and Israelis on cage effluent and marine pollution

  9. Public knowledge awareness and attitudes toward epilepsy in Al-Kharj Governorate Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled K Al-Dossari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epilepsy is one of the most stigmatizing disorders. Stigmas and negative attitudes associating epilepsy are due to poor public awareness and knowledge. This study evaluated Saudi public Knowledge, awareness, and attitude towards epilepsy. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted during the period from September 16, 2014 to January 1st 2015. A 20-item questionnaire adapted from the literature was validated and distributed to 422 adults living in Al-Kharj governorate, and 22 participants were excluded as they have never heard or read about epilepsy. Results: About 94.79% of participants have heard or read about epilepsy, 63% of them knew someone with epilepsy, and 49.75% have witnessed a seizure attack. Seventy per cent of subjects thought that epilepsy is a neurological disease and 59% believed it is a brain disease. Almost 46.5% selected possession by demons or evil spirits and 51.25% cited envy or evil eye. More than half of subjects selected the medical treatment and follow-up as the most effective treatment of epilepsy. Rather, 41% believed in the faith healing. Most of respondents (81.5% believed that epileptic children could be successful in normal classes. The vast majority agreed with that epileptic woman can get married and have children. Moreover, 65.25% would allow their offspring to play with epileptic persons and surprisingly, 59% would let their offspring marrying a person with epilepsy. As much as 82.75% agreed to work with epileptic persons and 85.5% would easily become a close friend of them. The equal job opportunity for epileptic and normal persons should be practiced to about 53.75% of subjects. The predictors of good knowledge, limited misconception, and positive attitudes were female gender, being a relative of an epileptic person, and having high educational level. Conclusion: The public knowledge, awareness of and attitudes toward epilepsy were acceptable with regard to this study. However

  10. Public and private schoolteachers' differences in terms of job attitudes in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buka, Migena; Bilgiç, Reyhan

    2010-06-01

    In the present study, the attitudinal differences between public and private schoolteachers in Albania were investigated. Since the type of the organization varies, one would expect different climates for the emergence of job attitudes--mainly job satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment, the most frequently studied job attitudes in the industrial and organizational psychology literature. It was hypothesized that the private schoolteachers would be more satisfied than public schoolteachers, especially due to high levels of payment and other desirable conditions. However, the public schoolteachers will be more involved than the private schoolteachers since they have to justify their continued work under the undesirable conditions. The commitment level of the private schoolteachers will be higher than the public schoolteachers since there is usually high correlation between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Data were gathered from a total of 429 teachers working in public (n = 254) and private (n = 175) schools in Albania, in high and middle schools. The data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of covariance with age as a covariate. The results indicated that the private schoolteachers were more satisfied, as expected, revealed a weaker job involvement and were more committed to their school than their colleagues in the public sector. The results were found to be in line with previous studies conducted in the west. However, this study is believed to have a potential contribution to the literature in general, and to the Albanian local literature in particular. To the knowledge of the authors, there has been no similar study in Albania. Discussion is provided along with the limitations of the study and suggestions for future research.

  11. Awareness and attitude of the public toward personalized medicine in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Iyn-Hyang; Kang, Hye-Young; Suh, Hae Sun; Lee, Sukhyang; Oh, Eun Sil

    2018-01-01

    Objectives As personalized medicine (PM) is expected to greatly improve health outcomes, efforts have recently been made for its clinical implementation in Korea. We aimed to evaluate public awareness and attitude regarding PM. Methods We performed a self-administered questionnaire survey to 703 adults, who participated in the survey on a voluntary basis. The primary outcome measures included public knowledge, attitude, and acceptance of PM. We conducted multinomial multivariate logistic analysis for outcome variables with three response categories and performed multivariate logistic regression analyses for dichotomous outcome variables. Results Only 28% of participants had knowledge that genetic factors can contribute to inter-individual variations in drug response and the definition of PM (199 out of 702). Higher family income was correlated with greater knowledge concerning PM (OR = 3.76, p = 0.034). A majority of respondents preferred integrated pharmacogenomic testing over drug-specific testing and agreed to inclusion of pharmacogenomic testing in the national health examination (64% and 77%, respectively), but only 51% were willing to pay for it. Discussion Our results identify the urgent need for public education as well as the potential health disparities in access to PM. This study helps to frame policies for implementing PM in clinical practice. PMID:29451916

  12. Strategies for changing negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People's Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumin X

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Xie Shumin,1 Stephanie Mu-Lian Woo,2 Zhang Lei3 1Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, People's Republic of China; 2Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA; 3Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China Abstract: In recent decades, the demand for organ transplantation has risen rapidly worldwide, due to an increased incidence of vital organ failure. However, the scarcity of organs appropriate for transplantation has led to an organ shortage crisis. This article retrospectively reviews strategies to change negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People's Republic of China. We strongly believe that efforts to publicize knowledge of organ donation, promote family discussions, train medical staff and students, establish incentive systems, and implement regulatory oversight may combat unfavorable Chinese public opinion toward organ donation and transplantation, thus potentially increasing the organ donation rate in the People's Republic of China. Keywords: influencing factors, attitudes, organ transplantation, organ failure

  13. Regional media coverage influences the public's negative attitudes to policy implementation success in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Mio; Tiainen, Anne; Hanning, Marianne

    2015-12-01

    One central aspect of health literacy is knowledge of patients' rights. Being an important source of information about health and health care, the media may influence health literacy and act as a policy implementer. To investigate whether regional news media coverage in Sweden is linked to (i) the public's awareness and knowledge of a patient's rights policy, the waiting-time guarantee and (ii) the public's attitudes to how the guarantee's time limits are met, that is, implementation success. Three types of data are used. First, a national telephone survey of the public's awareness, knowledge and attitudes; second, media coverage information from digital media monitoring; and third, official waiting-time statistics. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses are performed with the 21 Swedish county councils/regions as a base. In the county councils/regions, non-awareness ranged from 1 to 15% and knowledge from 47 to 67%. There are relatively large differences between population groups. The amount of regional media coverage shows no significant correlation to the level of awareness and knowledge. There is, however, a significant correlation to both positive and negative attitudes; the latter remains after controlling for actual waiting times. At the national level, the media function as a policy implementer, being the primary source of information. At the regional level, the media are part of the political communication, reporting more extensively in county councils/regions where the population holds negative views towards the achievement in implementing the guarantee. We conclude that Swedish authorities should develop its communication strategies to bridge health literacy inequalities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Consumers in New Millennium: Attitudes towards Adoption of New Technologies in Purchasing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopaničová Janka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of new technologies has brought many changes into consumer behaviour, especially into purchasing process. The aim of the article is to uncover the attitudes of different generations towards usage of new technologies in purchasing process and determine if the diffusion of innovative purchasing process is significantly different among different generations. The article presents the results of authors´ research of usage of new technologies in purchasing process, as well as attitudes towards it, among different age groups - Generation X, Y, Z and seniors. Results of hybrid research carried out by semi-structured interviews with 551 respondents show, that there are significant generational differences in all three components of attitude towards online purchase, which can be - due to its characteristics- considered the most complex use of new technologies in purchasing process. Results prove that the diffusion of innovation in the purchasing process is significantly influenced by the age group. With age the number of Innovators significantly drops and the percentage of Laggards rises. The ratio of those adopting “early” and “late” significantly changes according to age group as well. Majority of younger respondents are accepting the new technologies into purchasing process early (Innovators, Early Adopters, Early Majority. Middle-aged consumers accept the innovations proportionally - copying the Roger´s curve. Among seniors, the majority is “late” (Late Majority and Laggards.

  15. Measuring risk/benefit perceptions of emerging technologies and their potential impact on communication of public opinion toward science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Andrew R; Cacciatore, Michael A; Scheufele, Dietram A; Shaw, Bret R; Corley, Elizabeth A

    2012-10-01

    This study presents a systematic comparison of two alternative measures of citizens' perceptions of risks and benefits of emerging technologies. By focusing on two specific issues (nanotechnology and biofuels), we derive several insights for the measurement of public views of science. Most importantly, our analyses reveal that relying on global, single-item measures may lead to invalid inferences regarding external influences on public perceptions, particularly those related to cognitive schema and media use. Beyond these methodological implications, this analysis suggests several reasons why researchers in the area of public attitudes toward science must revisit notions of measurement in order to accurately inform the general public, policymakers, scientists, and journalists about trends in public opinion toward emerging technologies.

  16. Swedish district nurses' attitudes to implement information and communication technology in home nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Carina; Skär, Lisa; Söderberg, Siv

    2008-01-01

    The use of information and communication technology has increased in the society, and can be useful in nursing care. The aim of this study was to describe district nurses' attitudes regarding the implementation of information and communication technology in home nursing. The first and third authors performed five focus group discussions with 19 district nurses' from five primary healthcare centres in northern Sweden. During the focus group discussions, the following topics were discussed: the current and future use of information and communication technology in home nursing; expectations, advantages, disadvantages and hindrances in the use of information and communication technology in home nursing; and the use of information and communication technology from an ethical perspective. The transcribed focus group discussions were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The results showed that district nurses' attitudes were positive regarding the use of information and communication technology in their work. They also asked for possibilities to influence the design and its introduction. However, the use of information and communication technology in home nursing can be described as a complement to communication that could not replace human physical encounters. Improvements and risks, as well as the importance of physical presence in home nursing were considered vital. The results revealed that the use of information and communication technology requires changes in the district nurses' work situation.

  17. Technology Education in Elementary School: Boys’ and Girls’ Interests and Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Björkholm

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an initial study investigating gender differences in interests and attitudes by pupils, aged 8-12 years, to school technology teaching in Sweden. The types of learning activities and content topics in technology teaching preferred by girls and boys were studied, as well as the differences regarding self-confidence in technology. The pupils’ attitudes to technological professions were also investigated. The study was conducted in ten schools. A total of 256 pupils completed a questionnaire that was administrated during their school technology sessions. The analysis of the answers showed that a vast majority of both boys and girls experienced school technology as very positive. No gender differences in preferences for different types of content and activities were detected. The pupils’ judgement of their own capability in the field of technology showed that both boys and girls considered themselves to be very competent. The boys felt, however, somewhat more certain about their competence compared with the girls. Gender differences were found in views of possible future occupations, but the pupils’ views of future occupations in technology showed no significant gender differences.

  18. The Attitudes toward Prostitutes and Prostitution Scale: A New Tool for Measuring Public Attitudes toward Prostitutes and Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Lia; Peled, Einat

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary developments in social attitudes toward prostitution and prostitutes influence both social policies and the social work profession. Understanding individuals' attitudes toward these issues is necessary for the development of social interventions and policies aimed at reducing stigmata attached to them. This article describes a new…

  19. Public information attitudes towards nuclear energy and the IAEA role in public information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Hans-Friedrich

    1998-01-01

    It includes information on the relation that exists between the Division of Public Information of the International Atomic Energy Agency, and different journalists, in answering questions on nuclear energy and nuclear applications. Also, questions whenever there was a rumor or a report of a receives a growing number of E-mail letters from all over the world, on the same subjects. Increasingly, international organizations are contacted by journalists and the public, for information on incidents and accidents, in the nuclear or the radiation field. This article states that the interest on nuclear energy, isotopes and radiation is focusing in the public media on following points: the fear for an accident; the fear for radiation escaping; the belief that nuclear power plants are too expensive; the belief that electricity could be saved; the belief that nuclear wastes cannot be properly disposed; the fear for unsafe transport; the fears that the neighbors operate their plants carelessly; and fears that radiation treatment makes food or agricultural products radioactive or poisonous. (S. Grainger)

  20. Effects of Anti-Smoking Public Service Announcements on the Attitudes of Korean College Students toward Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyoung Won; Lee, Jakyoung; Ryu, Ji-Hye; Kim, Soo Jeong

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to identify the effects of anti-smoking public service announcements on the attitudes of Korean college students toward smoking. This study involved students via convenience sampling from seven universities who were randomly assigned to four groups. All groups completed a preliminary questionnaire, before being shown a public service announcement twice, and then completed a post viewing questionnaire. For announcements with positive messages, the proportion of changes in beliefs and attitudes were 39.1% and 19.8%, respectively, whereas those with negative messages showed a greater proportion of changes in the beliefs (59.7%) and attitudes (40.3%). After adjusting for sex and change in belief, the message types and smoking status were identified as factors affecting the change in the participants attitudes. A negative message resulted in a greater change in attitudes (odds ratio [OR], 3.047; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.847-5.053). Ever-smokers including current smokers showed a greater positive change in attitude than never-smokers (OR, 6.965; 95% CI, 4.107-11.812). This study found that positive anti-smoking public service announcements were more effective on attitude change than negative messages. Additionally these announcements were more effective among viewers who were current smokers or had a prior smoking experience.

  1. An Investigation of the Attitudes of the National Teams’ Coaches Towards the Role and Importance of Information Technology in Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Salehi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the attitude of elite coaches of the team and individual sports towards the role and importance of information technology in sport, 132 coaches were chosen as a sample and answered to the questionnaire of the role of information technology in sport organised by Liebermann and Katz that consisted of 3 different sections: A General attitude of the coaches towards computer and technology; B The importance of science and technology in achieving coaching experience; C Understanding science and technology in sport. Descriptive and inferential statistics (CFA and independent t - test were used in order to analyse the data. The findings demonstrated that elite coaches selected two aims as their chief ones: 1 - Winning medals in competitions; 2- Having a good relationship with the athletes. There was not any significant relationship between the attitudes of the men and women and the coaches of the individual and team sports on science and technology. It seems that elite coaches are aware on the general importance of sport sciences and have a positive attitude towards the use of sport technologies. But they do not practically transfer this positive attitude to competitive sport environments even when they use information technology for other purposes. Eventually it can be stated that the attitude of the coaches towards technology is very positive and consequently it is a must to find strategies in order to encourage them to use current technology and science practically.

  2. Try It Again, Uncle Sam: The 46th Annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools. [Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushaw, William J.; Calderon, Valerie J.

    2014-01-01

    The 46th Annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools reveals that Americans say they know a lot more this year about the Common Core State Standards than they indicated a year ago, and they like it a lot less. Americans also say local school boards should have the greatest influence in deciding what is taught in the…

  3. Knowledge and attitude towards organ donation of medicine students of a Northwestern Mexico public university

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián-Ruiz, María José; Guerra-Sáenz, Elda Karina; Vargas-Yamanaka, Anna Karen; Barboza-Quintana, Oralia; Ríos-Zambudio, Antonio; García-Cabello, Ricardo; Palacios-Saucedo, Gerardo Del Carmen

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the knowledge and attitude towards organ donation of medicine students of a Northwestern Mexico public university. A prolective, descriptive, observational, and cross-sectional study. A 34 items cross-sectional survey evaluating knowledge and attitude towards organ donation in 3,056 medicine students during 2013-2015. Descriptive statistics were used as absolute frequencies, percentages, mean and standard deviation, as well as the Chi-square test. A p donate their own organs, mainly due to reciprocity (41%). 26% of students would not donate, 48% of them because of fear that their organs could be taken before death. 86% would donate organs from a relative. 64% have spoken about organ donation and transplantation with their family and 67% with friends. 50% said they had received no information about it. 68% understand the concept of brain death. Students received little information about organ donation during college. Despite that, most of them showed a positive attitude and are willing to donate. Copyright: © 2017 SecretarÍa de Salud

  4. Teaching science in a technology rich environment: Probeware's effect on student attitude and achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelmanowicz, Marc

    Purpose The use of technology in the science classroom has been a major part of the initiative toward increasing student attitude and achievement in Science, Technology, Education and Math [STEM] education in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the use of probeware in a high school science living environment classroom impacts student attitude towards science and/or student achievement on standards-based assessments. This study sought to answer the following quantitative questions with a qualitative component: To what extent does the use of probeware in a high school level living environment course influence student attitudes toward science compared to students who are not using probeware? What is the impact, if any, on student achievement in a living environment course, as measured by New York State Living Environment Regents [NYSLER] exam grades, between students who use probeware and students who do not? Is there a significant difference between the two groups with regard to achieving mastery on the NYSLER exam? Sample The participants in the study were Living Environment students of a suburban high school outside of New York City. Methods The quasiexperimental study examined the effects of the replacement of traditional scientific equipment with probeware on student attitude and achievement in a living environment classroom. Student attitude was measured by the modified Attitude Toward Science Inventory [mATSI] and student achievement was measured by the New York State Living Environment Regents [NSLER] Exam. Descriptive statistics, ANCOVA and hierarchical regression analysis were conducted to answer the research questions in this study. A qualitative component was included to enhance the understanding of the quantitative analysis. Major Findings Through this study, results demonstrated a statistically significant impact of probeware on student attitude, but did not show a statistically significant impact of

  5. Fall-Prone Older People's Attitudes towards the Use of Virtual Reality Technology for Fall Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockx, Kim; Alcock, Lisa; Bekkers, Esther; Ginis, Pieter; Reelick, Miriam; Pelosin, Elisa; Lagravinese, Giovanna; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Mirelman, Anat; Rochester, Lynn; Nieuwboer, Alice

    2017-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) technology is a relatively new rehabilitation tool that can deliver a combination of cognitive and motor training for fall prevention. The attitudes of older people to such training are currently unclear. This study aimed to investigate: (1) the attitudes of fall-prone older people towards fall prevention exercise with and without VR; (2) attitudinal changes after intervention with and without VR; and (3) user satisfaction following fall prevention exercise with and without VR. A total of 281 fall-prone older people were randomly assigned to an experimental group receiving treadmill training augmented by VR (TT+VR, n = 144) or a control group receiving treadmill training alone (TT, n = 137). Two questionnaires were used to measure (1) attitudes towards fall prevention exercise with and without VR (AQ); and (2) user satisfaction (USQ). AQ was evaluated at baseline and after intervention. USQ was measured after intervention only. The AQ revealed that most participants had positive attitudes towards fall prevention exercise at baseline (82.2%) and after intervention (80.6%; p = 0.144). In contrast, only 53.6% were enthusiastic about fall prevention exercise with VR at baseline. These attitudes positively changed after intervention (83.1%; p < 0.001), and 99.2% indicated that they enjoyed TT+VR. Correlation analyses showed that postintervention attitudes were strongly related to user satisfaction (USQ: r = 0.503; p < 0.001). Older people's attitudes towards fall prevention exercise with VR were positively influenced by their experience. From the perspective of the user, VR is an attractive training mode, and thus improving service provision for older people is important. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Explicit and implicit attitude toward an emerging food technology: The case of cultured meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Gerben A; Fischer, Arnout R H; Tobi, Hilde; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2017-01-01

    Cultured meat is an unfamiliar emerging food technology that could provide a near endless supply of high quality protein with a relatively small ecological footprint. To understand consumer acceptance of cultured meat, this study investigated the influence of information provision on the explicit and implicit attitude toward cultured meat. Three experiments were conducted using a Solomon four-group design to rule out pretest sensitization effects. The first experiment (N = 190) showed that positive or negative information about cultured meat changed the explicit attitude in the direction of the information. This effect was smaller for participants who were more familiar with cultured meat. In the second experiment (N = 194) positive information was provided about solar panels, an attitude object belonging to the same sustainable product category as sustainable food products such as cultured meat. Positive information about solar panels was found to change the explicit attitude in the direction of the information. Using mood induction, the third experiment (N = 192) ruled out the alternative explanation that explicit attitude change in experiment 1 and 2 was caused by content free affect rather than category based inferences. The implicit attitude appeared insensitive to both information or mood state in all three experiments. These findings show that the explicit attitude toward cultured meat can be influenced by information about the sustainability of cultured meat and information about a positively perceived sustainable product. This effect was shown to be content based rather than merely affect based. Content based information in a relevant context could therefore contribute to the commercial success of cultured meat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Team climate and attitudes toward information and communication technology among nurses on acute psychiatric wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivunen, Marita; Anttila, Minna; Kuosmanen, Lauri; Katajisto, Jouko; Välimäki, Maritta

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the association of team climate with attitudes toward information and communication technology among nursing staff working on acute psychiatric wards. Background: Implementation of ICT applications in nursing practice brings new operating models to work environments, which may affect experienced team climate on hospital wards. Method: Descriptive survey was used as a study design. Team climate was measured by the Finnish modification of the Team Climate Inventory, and attitudes toward ICT by Burkes' questionnaire. The nursing staff (N = 181, n = 146) on nine acute psychiatric wards participated in the study. Results: It is not self-evident that experienced team climate associates with attitudes toward ICT, but there are some positive relationships between perceived team climate and ICT attitudes. The study showed that nurses' motivation to use ICT had statistically significant connections with experienced team climate, participative safety (p = 0.021), support for innovation (p = 0.042) and task orientation (p = 0.042). Conclusion: The results suggest that asserting team climate and supporting innovative operations may lead to more positive attitudes toward ICT. It is, in particular, possible to influence nurses' motivation to use ICT. More attention should be paid to psychosocial factors such as group education and co-operation at work when ICT applications are implemented in nursing.

  8. Propellantless Attitude Control of Solar Sail Technology Utilizing Reflective Control Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Solar sails offer an opportunity for a CubeSatscale, propellant-free spacecraft technology that enables long-term and long-distance missions not possible with traditional methods. Solar sails operate using the transfer of linear momentum from photons of sunlight reflected from the surface of the sail. To propel the spacecraft, no mechanically moving parts, thrusters, or propellant are needed. However, attitude control, or orientation, is still performed using traditional methods involving reaction wheels and propellant ejection, which severely limit mission lifetime. For example, the current state of the art solutions employed by upcoming missions couple solar sails with a state of the art propellant ejection gas system. Here, the use of the gas thruster has limited the lifetime of the mission. To solve the limited mission lifetime problem, the Propellantless Attitude Control of Solar Sail Technology Utilizing Reflective Control Devices project team is working on propellantless attitude control using thin layers of material, an optical film, electrically switchable from transparent to reflective. The technology is based on a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC), which allows this switch upon application of a voltage. This technology removes the need for propellant, which reduces weight and cost while improving performance and lifetime.

  9. Public participation in the evaluation of innovative environmental cleanup technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.; McCabe, G.; Serie, P.; Niesen, K.

    1994-08-01

    Technologies for remediation of contamination are urgently needed to clean up US Department of Energy (DOE) sites across the country. DOE is managing a national program to develop, demonstrate, and deploy new technologies with promise to expedite this cleanup. The Integrated Demonstration for Cleanup of Volatile Organic Compounds at Arid Sites (VOC-Arid ID) is one such effort. Time and resources, however, are too limited to be invested in methods of remediation that will never be deployed because they have not been rigorously evaluated or because they face the withering opposition of stakeholders. Therefore the VOC-Arid ID is assessing technology both in terms of its technical effectiveness and its stakeholder acceptability. Only if a technology performs as required and is acceptable to regulators, users of technology, and the public will the VOC-Arid ID recommend its use. What distinguishes public involvement in the VOC-Arid ID is the direct influence stakeholders have on the design of technology demonstrations by working directly with technology developers. Stakeholders participated in defining the criteria with which innovative environmental cleanup technology is being evaluated. The integrated demonstration is committed to providing stakeholders with the information they've indicated they need to reach reasoned judgments about the use of specific cleanup technologies. A guiding principle of the VOC-Arid ID is that stakeholder participation improves the technologies being developed, enhances the acceptance of the technologies, and will lead to the broad and timely deployment of appropriate and effective methods of environmental remediation. The VOC-Arid ID has involved stakeholders from the host demonstration site, Hanford, Washington, and from other and sites where the ID technologies may be deployed

  10. Managing radioactive waste safely. Awareness and attitudes of the Scottish public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodger, N.

    2002-01-01

    Between January and April 2002, the Scottish Executive Environment and Rural Affairs department inducted a consultation exercise in conjunction with DEFRA on 'Managing Radioactive Waste Safely', and commissioned several pieces of supplementary research to gauge levels of awareness of the issues around radioactive waste among the Scottish public. This research was conducted as part of this process. Its main aims were to measure awareness and assess attitudes towards radioactive waste, its sources, its perceived risks and its management. Reflecting a key objective of the main consultation, this research also sought to assess how the public rate a variety of possible actions that could be taken to involve them in this debate and decision-making process. A representative sample of 1,000 Scottish adults (age 18+) was interviewed by telephone using 'Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing' during February 2002

  11. Public attitude in the city of Belgrade towards invasive alien plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomićević Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasions are seen as a major threat to biodiversity at a global level, while the number of new invasions is increasing at an alarming rate. Raising the awareness of the public, academic world and policy makers about the dangers caused by invasive species, is essential for the creation of the support needed to implement and coordinate the policies necessary to address this problem. The aim of this study is to determine the level of local public awareness of the existence of these plant species, examine the public attitude towards alien invasive plant species and willingness to get involved in the prevention of their spreading. The survey was conducted in four nurseries on the territory of the City of Belgrade and the investigation dealt only with alien invasive woody plant species. Thirty customers were questioned in each of the four nurseries. The results show that local public is uninformed on the issue of invasive plant species. It is necessary to constantly and intensively raise their awareness of this issue, as well as the awareness of harmful consequences that may occur due to the uncontrolled spreading of alien invasive species. This refers not only to the population that visits the nurseries and buys the plants there and to those employed in plant production and selling, but also to the whole local public and decision makers.

  12. Change in public attitudes towards a Cornish wind farm: Implications for planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltham, Douglas C.; Harrison, Gareth P.; Allen, Simon J.

    2008-01-01

    While independently conducted polls suggest significant public support for wind energy, there are often objections to particular wind farm developments from the local population which can result in planning permission being declined and a restriction in the ability to meet renewable energy and greenhouse gas reduction targets. The aim of the study was to determine whether the pre-construction opinions held by communities local to a wind farm change after an extended period following commissioning. Residents of St. Newlyn East, Cornwall, England, were asked to recall their opinions of Carland Cross wind farm in 1991 and 2006. Statistically significant changes in opinion were observed for attitudes regarding the wind farm's visual attractiveness and the importance of the energy security it provides. This study continues by exploring potential reasons for this in the context of recent literature on public attitudes towards renewable energy. The findings of this study support the proposals in the 2007 UK White Paper, Planning for a Sustainable Future, for community engagement early in the project process and for the requirement of infrastructure to be debated at the national level

  13. Public perceptions and attitudes toward thalassaemia: Influencing factors in a multi-racial population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; George, Elizabeth; Tan, Jin-Ai Mary Anne

    2011-03-30

    Thalassaemia is a common public health problem in Malaysia and about 4.5 to 6% of the Malays and Chinese are carriers of this genetic disorder. The major forms of thalassaemia result in death in utero of affected foetuses (α-thalassaemia) or life-long blood transfusions for survival in β-thalassaemia. This study, the first nationwide population based survey of thalassaemia in Malaysia, aimed to determine differences in public awareness, perceptions and attitudes toward thalassaemia in the multi-racial population in Malaysia. A cross-sectional computer-assisted telephone interview survey of a representative sample of multi-racial Malaysians aged 18 years and above was conducted between July and December 2009. Of a total of 3723 responding households, 2846 (76.4%) have heard of thalassaemia. Mean knowledge score was 11.85 (SD ± 4.03), out of a maximum of 21, with higher scores indicating better knowledge. Statistically significant differences (P culturally acceptable in the reduction of pregnancies with thalassaemia major. The findings provide insights into culturally congruent educational interventions to reach out diverse socio-demographic and ethnic communities to increase knowledge and cultivate positive attitudes toward prevention of thalassaemia.

  14. Can Environmental Education Actions Change Public Attitudes? An Example Using the Pond Habitat and Associated Biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Eunice; Quintino, Victor; Palhas, Jael; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Teixeira, José

    2016-01-01

    Ponds provide vital ecological services. They are biodiversity hotspots and important breading sites for rare and endangered species, including amphibians and dragonflies. Nevertheless, their number is decreasing due to habitat degradation caused by human activities. The "Ponds with Life" environmental education project was developed to raise public awareness and engagement in the study of ponds by promoting the direct contact between the public and nature, researchers and pedagogical hands-on exploration activities. A pre-post- project survey was set-up to assess the effects of the project on the environmental consciousness, knowledge and attitude changes towards ponds and the associated biodiversity of school students aged 15 to 18. The survey questions were based on Likert scales and their pre-post project comparisons used an innovative multivariate hypothesis testing approach. The results showed that the project improved the students' knowledge and attitudes towards ponds and associated biodiversity, especially the amphibians. Ponds can be found or constructed in urban areas and despite small sized, they proved to be interesting model habitats and living laboratories to foster environmental education, by encompassing a high number of species and a fast ecological succession.

  15. Public knowledge and attitudes towards the 60Co incident in Qixian County, Henan Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Cuiping; Cheng Xiaojun; Zhang Qinfu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate radiation risk perception and nuclear acceptance after the 60 Co stuck source incident in June 2009 in Qixian County, Henan Province. Methods: From March to April 2010, 23 hamlets and 2 schools from 5 towns in Qixian County were selected, while 3 hamlets and 2 schools from 3 towns were used as control in Huixian County, 135 km away where no any impact of the incident was found. Face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted among three groups including mass public, elite public (representatives of public opinion, such as physicians, teachers, governmental officials, administrative personnel, private entrepreneurs), and middle school students (the third grade students in junior middle schools and the first grade students in senior middle schools). Results: A total of 1 340 valid questionnaires were collected. The public knowledge levels about radiation and nuclear power were low among all groups in two areas and public knowledge levels in Qixian County were higher than those in Huixian County. In both areas.the knowledge levels of the students were higher than those among the elite public, and that among the general public were the lowest. The knowledge levels of males and those with higher educational levels were higher than those of females and those with lower educational levels. More than 40.0% of the respondents supported the idea to build nuclear power plants in China, but only a small part of them supported to build nuclear power plants in their own areas. The percentages of opponents against local nuclear power plant construction were especially higher among the students and those with higher educational levels. More than 60% of the mass public and elite public believed the explanation of the government. More than 80% of the respondents held negative attitudes towards the performance of the Qixian County Government in dealing with this incident. The student gave the lowest evaluation of the credibility and the specific performance

  16. Attitude toward Public Health Dentistry as a career among dental students in Odisha: A Cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nupur; Jain, Kittu; Kabasi, Soumik

    2016-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of dental students' expectations of their profession as well as their attitudes to study a particular specialty of dentistry is of great importance. These attitudes and expectations make studying dentistry meaningful to dental students and society and understanding these factors facilitate workforce planning in the dental sector The aim of the study was to assess the attitude of dental students towards considering Public Health Dentistry as their future career. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted, which included the 3rd year, 4th fourth year and dental interns studying in the State of Odisha. It consisted of 27 questions that were graded on 5-point Likert scale. The responses for the attitude questions toward selecting Public Health Dentistry for postgraduation were categorized into three factors, which are a negative attitude (includes score 0–21), neutral attitude (score 22–44), and positive attitude (score 45–64). Differences between groups were examined using Chi-square test for proportions. The level of statistical significance was set at P dentistry as their future career, and nearly two-third of them (58.23%) had neutral attitude, with very few students having a negative attitude (8.23%) toward the specialty for pursuing postgraduation. Conclusion: Respondents had a considerable amount of interest in pursuing postgraduation in this specialty. Efforts should be intensified, both by the dental council and by the dental colleges, to develop this specialty, keeping in mind the increasing attitude of dental undergraduates toward it. PMID:28182073

  17. Polarisation and consensus: Public acceptance of new technologies in the Federal Republic of Germany. Final version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petermann, T; Thurn, G; Williams, R; Mills, S [eds.

    1985-01-01

    The report starts out with characterizing the 'climate of acceptance'. After a discussion of the results of surveys on public opinion and attitude, programmes and strategies of some actors in the field of technology policy are introduced; the role of the education system and the influence of the mass media are examined briefly in this context. Further, the paper deals with the development of the problem of acceptance in the course of the past two decades. The debates on nuclear energy and the introduction of new information technologies are analysed with an eye to structural differences. Finally the report turns to some considerations on the role of the acceptance issue in the context of structural problems in society. In an annex it is attempted both to obtain an overview of the various meanings of the term 'acceptance' and to summarise tendencies of social science research on acceptance. (orig./HSCH).

  18. Polarisation and consensus: Public acceptance of new technologies in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petermann, T.; Thurn, G.

    1985-01-01

    The report starts out with characterizing the 'climate of acceptance'. After a discussion of the results of surveys on public opinion and attitude, programmes and strategies of some actors in the field of technology policy are introduced; the role of the education system and the influence of the mass media are examined briefly in this context. Further, the paper deals with the development of the problem of acceptance in the course of the past two decades. The debates on nuclear energy and the introduction of new information technologies are analysed with an eye to structural differences. Finally the report turns to some considerations on the role of the acceptance issue in the context of structural problems in society. In an annex it is attempted both to obtain an overview of the various meanings of the term 'acceptance' and to summarise tendencies of social science research on acceptance. (orig./HSCH) [de

  19. Understanding attitudes toward information and communication technology in home-care: Information and communication technology as a market good within Norwegian welfare services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øyen, Karianne Røssummoen; Sunde, Olivia Sissil; Solheim, Marit; Moricz, Sara; Ytrehus, Siri

    2018-09-01

    The aim of this study was to better understand nurses' and other staff members' attitudes toward the usefulness of information and communication technology in home-care settings. Research has found that beliefs about the expected benefits of information and communication technology impact the use of technology. Furthermore, inexperience with using information and communication technology may cause negative attitudes. This article is based on a questionnaire to 155 nurses and other staff members in home-care in Sogn og Fjordane county in Norway. The results revealed minimal use of information and communication technology at work; however, participants had positive attitudes regarding the potential benefits of information and communication technology use in home-care. Individuals' extensive use of and familiarity with different solutions in private lives could be an important context for explaining employees' attitudes. Given that information and communication technology is both a welfare service and a market good, this may explain individuals' positive attitudes toward information and communication technology despite their lack of experience with it at work. Experiences with information and communication technology as a market good and the way new technologies can affect work routines will affect the implementation of information and communication technology in home-care.

  20. Development of food irradiation technology and consumer attitude toward irradiated food in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Byun, Myung-Woo; Cho, Han-Ok

    1992-01-01

    In Korea, the well-integrated research of biological effects of radiation has been launched from the late 1960s. As research activities, the following food items have been dealt with: sprouting foods, fruits, mushrooms, grains, spices or mixed condiments, fish or fishery products, meat or meat products, and fermented foods. The usage of gamma radiation from 60 Co source is now authorized for food irradiation of the following items: potato, onion, garlic, chestnut, mushroom, dried mushroom, dried spices (including red pepper, garlic, black pepper, onion, ginger, and green onion), dried meat, powdered fish and shellfish, soybean paste powder, hot pepper paste powder, soybean sauce powder, and starch. Since the authorization of food irradiation in 1985, consumers' acceptance has been considered the most important. The survey evaluating the basic perception and attitule toward food irradiation revealed the following results. Consumers' awareness of food irradiation was 82%, with significantly higher in radiation workers than the general public (p<0.0001). Seventy-five percent distinguished the contaminated food by radionuclides from irradiated food. In purchasing irradiated foods, 50.9% required more information. The contribution of irradiated foods to wholesomeness was suspicious in 51%, acceptable in 33%, and uncertain in 16%. If information about the benefits of irradiation is provided to consumers, positive response was increased to 60%. The most critical impediment in the commercial application of food irradiation was found to have resulted from the general consumers' slow acceptance; however, consumers' attitude to irradiated food became positive if they understood the safety and advantages of this technology. The most important task is to overcome consumers' psychological resistance and transporting matters of the products to be irradiated. (N.K.)

  1. Information and Communication Technologies in Learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL): Attitudes of EFL Learners in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Hong T. P.

    2017-01-01

    Given breakthroughs in information and communication technologies (ICTs), language learners are increasingly presented with opportunities to advance their proficiency in a target language (herein English as a foreign language or EFL). The attitudes of learners toward the use of ICTs (ICT attitudes) can be predictive of their adoption of ICTs for…

  2. Attitude in English and Competence of Students at Integrated Refinery Petro-Chemical Complex (IRPCT) Technological College, Rayong, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Chinebeth

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted at IRPC Technological College, Thailand. The objectives of this study were to investigate (1) The attitude of students towards English; (2) The attitude of students towards teaching English; (3) The competence level of their English. The participants were asked to answer and complete the survey questionnaires that would…

  3. Control of technology as a public and private task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchhof, P.

    1988-01-01

    In the opinion of the author the control of technology is as well a public as a private task. But due to the constitutional order first of all it is incumbent on the state to control technical installations. This state supervisory function cannot be replaced by private self-control. (WG) [de

  4. Attitudes Toward Integration as Perceived by Preservice Teachers Enrolled in an Integrated Mathematics, Science, and Technology Teacher Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Donna F.; White, Arthur L.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the purpose of the Master of Education (M. Ed.) Program in Integrated Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education (MSAT Program) at The Ohio State University and discusses preservice teachers' attitudes and perceptions toward integrated curriculum. (Contains 35 references.) (YDS)

  5. Publications in academic medical centers: technology-facilitated culture clash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Eta S

    2014-05-01

    Academic culture has a set of norms, expectations, and values that are sometimes tacit and sometimes very explicit. In medical school and other health professions educational settings, probably the most common norm includes placing a high value on peer-reviewed research publications, which are seen as the major evidence of scholarly productivity. Other features of academic culture include encouraging junior faculty and graduate students to share their research results at professional conferences and lecturing with slides as a major way to convey information. Major values that faculty share with journal editors include responsible conduct of research and proper attribution of others' words and ideas. Medical school faculty also value technology and are often quick to embrace technological advances that can assist them in their teaching and research. This article addresses the effects of technology on three aspects of academic culture: education, presentations at professional meetings, and research publications.The technologies discussed include online instruction, dissemination of conference proceedings on the Internet, plagiarism-detection software, and new technologies deployed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information, the home of PubMed. The author describes how the ease of deploying new technologies without faculty changing their norms and behavior in the areas of teaching and research can lead to conflicts of values among key stakeholders in the academic medical community, including faculty, journal editors, and professional associations. The implications of these conflicts and strategies for managing them are discussed.

  6. Public attitudes toward practice by medical students: a nationwide survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kyoko; Sakuma, Mio; Seki, Susumu; Morimoto, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    It is essential for medical students to interact directly with patients. However, patients may be reluctant to be seen by medical students in settings in which they may also be seen by senior staff. To understand patients' attitudes toward practice by medical students and consider the factors involved in obtaining patients' cooperation, we conducted a nationwide cross-sectional survey. We randomly selected 2,400 adult participants from all over Japan. Trained research assistants inquired about participants' experiences and attitudes toward practice by medical students using a questionnaire. We compared differences in attitudes between participants who were accepting of practice by medical students and those who were not, as well as differences between participants who had experienced practice by a medical student versus those who had not. A total of 1,109 (46%) participants were included in the study. Eleven percent (117/1109) of the participants had experienced practice by a medical student. One fourth of participants were accepting of practice by medical students, and experienced participants were significantly more likely to be accepting of practice by medical students than inexperienced participants (45% vs. 24%, ppractice by medical students among accepting participants with previous experiences included "polite," "kind," and "hard-working." Fifty-nine percent (637/1088) of participants indicated that they would request a senior staff member's supervision when being seen by a medical student. The present nationwide survey suggests that education emphasizing bedside manner may be effective in promoting patients' cooperation of medical students. In addition, providing information to patients about medical students and efforts to increase supervision during clinical clerkship should be emphasized to foster the public's cooperation.

  7. A survey of the Canadian publics attitudes towards the energy situation. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, G.; McDougall, G.H.G.

    1981-06-01

    Based on a 1981 survey of 1,600 male and female heads-of-households a report was prepared on the Canadian public's attitudes towards the energy situation. This report presents additional analysis of the 1981 data and draws some comparisons with the six previous annual surveys conducted in this area. The major objective of this report is to provide an understanding of the relationship between Canadians' knowledge, attitudes, behavior, and program support with respect to the energy situation. The following conclusions were reached. There has been a decrease in the number of Canadians who regard energy as a matter of concern. The possibility of an energy shortage continues to decline as a matter of importance. The major reason for concern is the cost of energy. Fewer people are engaging in energy conserving behaviors. Groups identified in previous years on the basis of attitudes and behavior were not identified in 1981. There was a lack of consistency in the results in 1981 which led to some surprising and counter intuitive implications. For example, those perceived as being hostile to energy conservation measures tended to support energy price/tax increases, and these perceived to be knowledgeable about conservation programs. Why this has occurred is not clear, but it may be that with the declining interest in energy, the issue is taking on a superficial nature for many people. The two most encouraging findings for those concerned with conservation are: 93% of the respondents agreed that spending money on insulation was a good investment, and 30% favored increasing gasoline prices to world levels within the next two years. 35 tabs.

  8. A survey of public attitudes towards barking dogs in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, E L; Minot, E O; Perry, P E; Stafford, K J

    2014-11-01

    To investigate public attitudes towards barking dogs in New Zealand in order to quantify the extent to which people perceive barking dogs to be a problem, to compare tolerance of barking with that of other common suburban noises, to assess the level of public understanding about the function of barking, to determine risk factors for intolerance of barking and to assess knowledge of possible strategies for the investigation and management of problem barking. A 12-page questionnaire was sent to 2,000 people throughout New Zealand randomly selected from the electoral roll. Risk factors for being bothered by barking were examined using logistic regression analysis. A total of 1,750 questionnaires were successfully delivered; of these, 727 (42%) were returned. Among respondents, 356/727 (49.0%) indicated that frequent barking during the day would bother them while 545/727 (75.0%) would be bothered by barking at night. Barking and howling were ranked above other suburban noises as a cause of annoyance. Risk factors for being bothered by daytime barking were not being home during the day, not owning a dog, and considering a dog bite to be a serious health risk. Risk factors for being bothered by night-time barking were not being home during the day, marital status, considering dog bites to pose a serious health risk, and having been frightened by a dog. Overall, 510/699 (73%) respondents understood that barking was a form of communication. Action likely to be taken by 666 respondents hearing frequent barking included notifying and offering to help the owner (119; 17.8%), complaining to the owner (127; 19.1%) or the authorities (121; 18.2%), or doing nothing (299; 48%). Possible responses by 211 dog owners if they had a barking dog included seeking help from dog trainers (59; 28%) or behaviourists (54; 26%), buying an anti-barking device (33; 15%) or getting rid of the dog (20; 10%). Barking was considered to be potentially disturbing by respondents to this survey

  9. [Development of an attitude-measurement questionnaire using the semantic differential technique: defining the attitudes of radiological technology students toward X-ray examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Naomi; Terashita, Takayoshi; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko

    2014-03-01

    In general, it is difficult to objectively evaluate the results of an educational program. The semantic differential (SeD) technique, a methodology used to measure the connotative meaning of objects, words, and concepts, can, however, be applied to the evaluation of students' attitudes. In this study, we aimed to achieve an objective evaluation of the effects of radiological technology education. We therefore investigated the attitude of radiological students using the SeD technique. We focused on X-ray examinations in the field of radiological technology science. Bipolar adjective scales were used for the SeD questionnaire. To create the questionnaire, appropriate adjectives were selected from past reports of X-ray examination practice. The participants were 32 senior students at Hokkaido University at the Division of Radiological Technology at the School of Medicine's Department of Health Sciences. All the participants completed the questionnaire. The study was conducted in early June 2012. Attitudes toward X-ray examination were identified using a factor analysis of 11 adjectives. The factor analysis revealed the following three attitudes: feelings of expectation, responsibility, and resistance. Knowledge regarding the attitudes that students have toward X-ray examination will prove useful for evaluating the effects of educational intervention. In this study, a sampling bias may have occurred due to the small sample size; however, no other biases were observed.

  10. The Impact of Nursing Students' Cultural Diversity on the Intention and Attitudes Toward the Use of Information Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Ayala; Sharon, Dganit; Lev-Ari, Lilac; Strauss, Ester; Segev, Ronen

    2016-05-01

    This research highlights the evidences that: The greater the threat, the lower the attitude toward information technology is, and the greater the sense of challenge, the greater self-efficacy is. Innovativeness was found to be a behavioral intention predictor in two groups, secular Jews and Arabs. This study provides nurses and nurse educators with some valuable insights about how culture, religion, and education may influence nursing students' attitudes toward information technology. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Using Digital Technology to Engage and Communicate with Patients: A Survey of Patient Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenssen, Brian P; Mitra, Nandita; Shah, Anand; Wan, Fei; Grande, David

    2016-01-01

    As primary care moves toward a system of population health management, providers will need to engage patients outside traditional office-based interactions. We assessed patient attitudes regarding technology use to communicate with their primary care team or to engage with other patients outside typical office settings. Design/Participants/Main Measures We conducted a national survey using GfK KnowledgePanel(®) to examine attitudes on the use of digital technology (email, text messaging, and social media such as Facebook and Twitter) to communicate with primary care teams about health behavior goals and test results. We also assessed attitudes toward the use of digital technologies to engage with other patients in activities such as peer coaching. Of the 5119 panel members invited to participate, 3336 completed the survey (response rate, 65.2 %). Among respondents, more than half (58 %) reported using Facebook, and nearly two-thirds (64.1 %) used text messaging. Overall, few participants were willing to communicate about health goals via social media (3.1 %) or text messaging (13.3 %), compared to email (48.8 %) or phone (75.5 %) (results were similar for communication about test results). Among those that used text messaging, race/ethnicity was the only factor independently associated with greater support for text messaging [African American (OR 1.44; 95 % CI, 1.01-2.06) and Hispanic (OR 1.8; 95 % CI, 1.25-2.59)] in multivariate models. Participants interested in engaging in peer coaching through Facebook (11.7 %) were more likely to be younger (p digital technology such as text messaging and social media, few participants supported using these tools for communicating with their physicians' practice. Participants were most supportive of using email for communication. Contrary to previous studies, among users of technology, low socioeconomic status and racial/ethnic minorities were equally or more likely to support use.

  12. Risks perception and the public acceptance of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Walter Mendes; Gavazza, Sergio; Estrada, Julio J.S.

    2000-01-01

    This work establishes a methodology to evaluate the public acceptance of nuclear technology taking into consideration several risk concepts. Basic concepts of the nuclear science were transmitted, in form of lectures and courses, to the 13,439 Goiania residents, after the closing of the decontamination works, caused by the violation of the source of 137 Cs, of a teletherapy machine, in 1987. The results of the indicators shown that public's individuals perceive radiation risks and develop behaviors according to a constructive outline. The public does not know technical terms, being quite influenced by media, from where gets information of interest. The public orders the risks, relating them to accidents according to subjective criteria and models them as unknown, new and not observed at short period, establishing destruction, environmental catastrophe and diseases images. (author)

  13. Application of GIS technology in public health: successes and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher-Lartey, Stephanie M; Caprarelli, Graziella

    2016-04-01

    The uptake and acceptance of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology has increased since the early 1990s and public health applications are rapidly expanding. In this paper, we summarize the common uses of GIS technology in the public health sector, emphasizing applications related to mapping and understanding of parasitic diseases. We also present some of the success stories, and discuss the challenges that still prevent a full scope application of GIS technology in the public health context. Geographical analysis has allowed researchers to interlink health, population and environmental data, thus enabling them to evaluate and quantify relationships between health-related variables and environmental risk factors at different geographical scales. The ability to access, share and utilize satellite and remote-sensing data has made possible even wider understanding of disease processes and of their links to the environment, an important consideration in the study of parasitic diseases. For example, disease prevention and control strategies resulting from investigations conducted in a GIS environment have been applied in many areas, particularly in Africa. However, there remain several challenges to a more widespread use of GIS technology, such as: limited access to GIS infrastructure, inadequate technical and analytical skills, and uneven data availability. Opportunities exist for international collaboration to address these limitations through knowledge sharing and governance.

  14. Bioremediation, regulatory agencies and public acceptance of this technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westlake, D. W. S.

    1997-01-01

    The technology of bioremediation, i.e. the utilization of microorganisms to degrade environmental pollutants, the dangers and consequences inherent in the large-scale use of microbial organisms in such processes, and the role of regulatory agencies in the utilization and exploitation of bioremediation technologies, were discussed. Factors influencing public acceptance of bioremediation as a satisfactory tool for cleaning up the environment vis-a-vis other existing and potential rehabilitation techniques were also reviewed. The ambiguity of regulatory agencies in the matter of bioremediation was noted. For example, there are many regulatory hurdles relative to the testing, use and approval of transgenic microorganisms for use in bioremediation. On the other hand, the use and release of engineered plants is considered merely another form of hybrid and their endorsement is proceeding rapidly. With regard to public acceptance, the author considered bioremediation technology as too recent, with not enough successful applications to attract public attention. Although the evidence suggests that bioremediation is environmentally safe, the efficacy, reliability and predictability of the various technologies have yet to be demonstrated. 25 refs

  15. Underpinning the STEM Agenda through Technological Textiles? An Exploration of Design Technology Teachers' Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Chris; Bell, Dawne

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses ongoing research into the role of design and technology education in emerging post industrial economies. Previous work (Hughes et al., 2010) focused on the changing characteristics of textiles technology in modern times and discussed how this could inform a design and technology curriculum related to the needs of a modern…

  16. Public Attitudes towards Monetary Integration in Seven New Member States of the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szőcs Csongor-Ernő

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Existing work on euro support has provided insights into the dynamics of preferences, but most of these studies focus on older member states that already form an integral part of the Eurozone. This article inquires into public attitudes towards monetary integration in new member states of the EU: Poland, the Czech Republic, Romania, Hungary, Croatia, Bulgaria and Lithuania. Focusing on the cross-sectional variation of preferences, it applies multilevel logit regression to test three perspectives – economic, conceptual and political – using individual-level survey data and NUTS-2 regional statistical data from seven countries for 2013. One of its novel findings is that beliefs such as the one that European Monetary Union (EMU adherence will cause a spiral in economic inflation are powerful disincentives to euro support in these countries.

  17. The impact of eLearning on health professional educators’ attitudes to information and communication technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Victoria; Lam, Mary; Gordon, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of information and communication technology (ICT) in health professional education is increasing rapidly. Health professional educators need to be responsive to health professionals’ information and communication technological needs; however, there is a paucity of information about educators’ attitudes to, and capabilities with, ICT. Methods Fifty-two health professional educators, enrolled in health professional education postgraduate studies, participated in an online subject with specific eLearning components requiring the use of ICT. They completed a pre- and postquestionnaire pertaining to ICT attitudes, confidence, and usage. Results Participants reported significant increases in overall ICT confidence during the subject despite it being high at baseline (mean: 7.0 out of 10; P=0.02). Even with increased ICT confidence, there were decreases in the participants’ sense of ICT control when related to health professional education (P=0.002); whereas, the amount of time participants engaged with ICT devices was negatively correlated with the sense of ICT control (P=0.002). The effect of age and health discipline on ICT attitudes and confidence was not significant (P>0.05). Conclusion This study reports that health professional educators have perceptual deficits toward ICT. The impact of eLearning increased confidence in ICT but caused a reduction in participants’ sense of control of ICT. Health professional educators require more ICT training and support to facilitate better ICT integration in health professional education settings. PMID:25678796

  18. The impact of eLearning on health professional educators' attitudes to information and communication technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Victoria; Lam, Mary; Gordon, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    The use of information and communication technology (ICT) in health professional education is increasing rapidly. Health professional educators need to be responsive to health professionals' information and communication technological needs; however, there is a paucity of information about educators' attitudes to, and capabilities with, ICT. Fifty-two health professional educators, enrolled in health professional education postgraduate studies, participated in an online subject with specific eLearning components requiring the use of ICT. They completed a pre- and postquestionnaire pertaining to ICT attitudes, confidence, and usage. Participants reported significant increases in overall ICT confidence during the subject despite it being high at baseline (mean: 7.0 out of 10; P=0.02). Even with increased ICT confidence, there were decreases in the participants' sense of ICT control when related to health professional education (P=0.002); whereas, the amount of time participants engaged with ICT devices was negatively correlated with the sense of ICT control (P=0.002). The effect of age and health discipline on ICT attitudes and confidence was not significant (P>0.05). This study reports that health professional educators have perceptual deficits toward ICT. The impact of eLearning increased confidence in ICT but caused a reduction in participants' sense of control of ICT. Health professional educators require more ICT training and support to facilitate better ICT integration in health professional education settings.

  19. Knowledge, attitudes, and smoking behaviours among physicians specializing in public health: a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, Giuseppe; Saulle, Rosella; Unim, Brigid; Angelillo, Italo Francesco; Baldo, Vincenzo; Bergomi, Margherita; Cacciari, Paolo; Castaldi, Silvana; Del Corno, Giuseppe; Di Stanislao, Francesco; Panà, Augusto; Gregorio, Pasquale; Grillo, Orazio Claudio; Grossi, Paolo; La Rosa, Francesco; Nante, Nicola; Pavia, Maria; Pelissero, Gabriele; Quarto, Michele; Ricciardi, Walter; Romano, Gabriele; Schioppa, Francesco Saverio; Fallico, Roberto; Siliquini, Roberta; Triassi, Maria; Vitale, Francesco; Boccia, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare professionals have an important role to play both as advisers-influencing smoking cessation-and as role models. However, many of them continue to smoke. The aims of this study were to examine smoking prevalence, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours among four cohorts physicians specializing in public health, according to the Global Health Profession Students Survey (GHPSS) approach. A multicentre cross-sectional study was carried out in 24 Italian schools of public health. The survey was conducted between January and April 2012 and it was carried out a census of students in the selected schools for each years of course (from first to fourth year of attendance), therefore among four cohorts of physicians specializing in Public Health (for a total of n. 459 medical doctors). The GHPSS questionnaires were self-administered via a special website which is created ad hoc for the survey. Logistic regression model was used to identify possible associations with tobacco smoking status. Hosmer-Lemeshow test was performed. The level of significance was P ≤ 0.05. A total of 388 answered the questionnaire on the website (85%), of which 81 (20.9%) declared to be smokers, 309 (79.6%) considered health professionals as behavioural models for patients, and 375 (96.6%) affirmed that health professionals have a role in giving advice or information about smoking cessation. Although 388 (89.7%) heard about smoking related issues during undergraduate courses, only 17% received specific smoking cessation training during specialization. The present study highlights the importance of focusing attention on smoking cessation training, given the high prevalence of smokers among physicians specializing in public health, their key role both as advisers and behavioural models, and the limited tobacco training offered in public health schools.

  20. Public perception and attitude towards chemical industry park in Dalian, Bohai Rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guizhen; Chen, Chunci; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Yonglong

    2018-04-01

    Recent decade has witnessed accelerating expansion of chemical industry and increasing conflicts between the local citizens, governmental authorities and project developers, especially in some coastal and port cities in China. Development and transformation of chemical industrial parks has been adopted as a national initiative recently. However, there is a paucity of research examining public perspectives on chemical industrial parks and their risks. Aiming to understand public perception, attitude, and response and the factors underlying the support/acceptance of chemical industry park, this paper investigated 418 residents neighboring to two chemical industrial parks, Dalian in Bohai Rim through face-to-face questionnaire survey. The results showed the knowledge of the respondents on the chemical industrial parks development was very limited. The respondents had complex perceptions on the environmental impacts, risks control, social-economic benefits, and problem awareness. The current levels of information disclosure and public participation were very low. The central governmental official (44.3%) was the most trustworthy group by the respondents. Only 5.5% and 23.2% of the respondents supported the construction of a new CIP nearby and far away their homes, whilst 13% thought new CIP project as acceptable. The spearman correlation analysis results showed a strong NIMBY effect (Not In My Backyard). Factor analysis results demonstrated five latent factors: knowledge, benefit, information, trust, and participation. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated how socio-demographic differences and five latent factors might impact on the support/acceptance of the chemical industrial parks. Education level, trust, information, and participation were significant predictors of public support/acceptance level. This study contributes to our limited knowledge and understanding of public sentiments to the chemical industry parks in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  1. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Smoking Behaviours among Physicians Specializing in Public Health: A Multicentre Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe La Torre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Healthcare professionals have an important role to play both as advisers—influencing smoking cessation—and as role models. However, many of them continue to smoke. The aims of this study were to examine smoking prevalence, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours among four cohorts physicians specializing in public health, according to the Global Health Profession Students Survey (GHPSS approach. Materials and Methods. A multicentre cross-sectional study was carried out in 24 Italian schools of public health. The survey was conducted between January and April 2012 and it was carried out a census of students in the selected schools for each years of course (from first to fourth year of attendance, therefore among four cohorts of physicians specializing in Public Health (for a total of n. 459 medical doctors. The GHPSS questionnaires were self-administered via a special website which is created ad hoc for the survey. Logistic regression model was used to identify possible associations with tobacco smoking status. Hosmer-Lemeshow test was performed. The level of significance was P≤0.05. Results. A total of 388 answered the questionnaire on the website (85%, of which 81 (20.9% declared to be smokers, 309 (79.6% considered health professionals as behavioural models for patients, and 375 (96.6% affirmed that health professionals have a role in giving advice or information about smoking cessation. Although 388 (89.7% heard about smoking related issues during undergraduate courses, only 17% received specific smoking cessation training during specialization. Conclusions. The present study highlights the importance of focusing attention on smoking cessation training, given the high prevalence of smokers among physicians specializing in public health, their key role both as advisers and behavioural models, and the limited tobacco training offered in public health schools.

  2. Medical student attitudes toward video games and related new media technologies in medical education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies in K-12 and college students show that their learning preferences have been strongly shaped by new media technologies like video games, virtual reality environments, the Internet, and social networks. However, there is no known research on medical students' game experiences or attitudes towards new media technologies in medical education. This investigation seeks to elucidate medical student experiences and attitudes, to see whether they warrant the development of new media teaching methods in medicine. Methods Medical students from two American universities participated. An anonymous, 30-item, cross-sectional survey addressed demographics, game play experience and attitudes on using new media technologies in medical education. Statistical analysis identified: 1) demographic characteristics; 2) differences between the two universities; 3) how video game play differs across gender, age, degree program and familiarity with computers; and 4) characteristics of students who play most frequently. Results 217 medical students participated. About half were female (53%). Respondents liked the idea of using technology to enhance healthcare education (98%), felt that education should make better use of new media technologies (96%), and believed that video games can have educational value (80%). A majority (77%) would use a multiplayer online healthcare simulation on their own time, provided that it helped them to accomplish an important goal. Men and women agreed that they were most inclined to use multiplayer simulations if they were fun (97%), and if they helped to develop skill in patient interactions (90%). However, there was significant gender dissonance over types of favorite games, the educational value of video games, and the desire to participate in games that realistically replicated the experience of clinical practice. Conclusions Overall, medical student respondents, including many who do not play video games, held highly favorable views about

  3. Medical student attitudes toward video games and related new media technologies in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kron Frederick W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in K-12 and college students show that their learning preferences have been strongly shaped by new media technologies like video games, virtual reality environments, the Internet, and social networks. However, there is no known research on medical students' game experiences or attitudes towards new media technologies in medical education. This investigation seeks to elucidate medical student experiences and attitudes, to see whether they warrant the development of new media teaching methods in medicine. Methods Medical students from two American universities participated. An anonymous, 30-item, cross-sectional survey addressed demographics, game play experience and attitudes on using new media technologies in medical education. Statistical analysis identified: 1 demographic characteristics; 2 differences between the two universities; 3 how video game play differs across gender, age, degree program and familiarity with computers; and 4 characteristics of students who play most frequently. Results 217 medical students participated. About half were female (53%. Respondents liked the idea of using technology to enhance healthcare education (98%, felt that education should make better use of new media technologies (96%, and believed that video games can have educational value (80%. A majority (77% would use a multiplayer online healthcare simulation on their own time, provided that it helped them to accomplish an important goal. Men and women agreed that they were most inclined to use multiplayer simulations if they were fun (97%, and if they helped to develop skill in patient interactions (90%. However, there was significant gender dissonance over types of favorite games, the educational value of video games, and the desire to participate in games that realistically replicated the experience of clinical practice. Conclusions Overall, medical student respondents, including many who do not play video games, held highly

  4. Medical student attitudes toward video games and related new media technologies in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kron, Frederick W; Gjerde, Craig L; Sen, Ananda; Fetters, Michael D

    2010-06-24

    Studies in K-12 and college students show that their learning preferences have been strongly shaped by new media technologies like video games, virtual reality environments, the Internet, and social networks. However, there is no known research on medical students' game experiences or attitudes towards new media technologies in medical education. This investigation seeks to elucidate medical student experiences and attitudes, to see whether they warrant the development of new media teaching methods in medicine. Medical students from two American universities participated. An anonymous, 30-item, cross-sectional survey addressed demographics, game play experience and attitudes on using new media technologies in medical education. Statistical analysis identified: 1) demographic characteristics; 2) differences between the two universities; 3) how video game play differs across gender, age, degree program and familiarity with computers; and 4) characteristics of students who play most frequently. 217 medical students participated. About half were female (53%). Respondents liked the idea of using technology to enhance healthcare education (98%), felt that education should make better use of new media technologies (96%), and believed that video games can have educational value (80%). A majority (77%) would use a multiplayer online healthcare simulation on their own time, provided that it helped them to accomplish an important goal. Men and women agreed that they were most inclined to use multiplayer simulations if they were fun (97%), and if they helped to develop skill in patient interactions (90%). However, there was significant gender dissonance over types of favorite games, the educational value of video games, and the desire to participate in games that realistically replicated the experience of clinical practice. Overall, medical student respondents, including many who do not play video games, held highly favorable views about the use of video games and related new

  5. The Managerial Reduction in the Management Technologies Transposition Process to Public Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Trescastro Bergue

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the phenomenon of the implementation of technologies designed in the management business, with emphasis on relations with public organizations. It proposes a reflection on the concept of sociological reduction by Guerreiro Ramos, recovering its roots in Husserl and Heidegger and their relationship with the concepts of creative adaptation and the translation of managerial issues. Contextualized in the paradigm of new public management and the list of values and assumptions on which this movement is based, the analysis of the reproduction of practices known in private organizations by public ones seeking their legitimacy has revealed the formality and ceremonial aspect of this contemporary phenomenon. The importance of bringing knowledge from the organizational field that subsidizes management as well as the coherence of these cultural objects in terms of concepts and assumptions of organization are highlighted here. The process of transpositions, contrasting with reproducible traits of Brazilian managerial culture that are historically constructed but consistent with the notion of sociological reduction, requires a critical, conscious and engaged attitude on the part of members of the organization not only regarding the relevance of the imported content but also giving new meaning to the concepts underlying the management technologies.

  6. Track leading to decision of 'framework for nuclear energy policy'. Reading the public attitude with public opinions (the second). Framework for nuclear energy policy (as of July 2005)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimooka, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    The Government decides to respect the 'Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy', which was decided by the Atomic Energy Commission on October 11th, 2005, as a basic principle for the nuclear energy policy and promote research, development and utilization of nuclear science and engineering. The Atomic Energy Commission asked the public to comment on the draft and held Public Hearings at five different venues. The Planning Council finalized the draft, taking the 1717 opinions from 701 citizens thus gathered into the consideration. Reading the public attitude with public opinions had been conducted by the author, which showed a large percentage of the consent to the policy and, at the same time, the necessity for the nation to make more efforts to communicate with the public in simple and more concise terms or listen to the public, and also to gain the public trust through education and public relations. The pros and cons both commented that the mass media was not fair. (T. Tanaka)

  7. Agents unleashed a public domain look at agent technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wayner, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Agents Unleashed: A Public Domain Look at Agent Technology covers details of building a secure agent realm. The book discusses the technology for creating seamlessly integrated networks that allow programs to move from machine to machine without leaving a trail of havoc; as well as the technical details of how an agent will move through the network, prove its identity, and execute its code without endangering the host. The text also describes the organization of the host's work processing an agent; error messages, bad agent expulsion, and errors in XLISP-agents; and the simulators of errors, f

  8. Public perception of low-level waste technologies: Demands on research and public education programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witzig, W.F.; Bord, R.J.; Vincenti, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The complexities of our political and legal systems, along with both insufficient information and misinformation, has resulted in significant problems in the disposal of radioactive waste. Distrust of the industry and regulators by the public, along with insufficient understanding of public fear by those responsible for waste disposal, has created a delay which shows few signs of early resolution. In light of these problems, this paper will specifically cover low-level radioactive waste disposal and management issues in the Appalachian Compact state of Pennsylvania. It will focus on the public's perception of waste technologies, and related policy issues, and the necessity of research and public education to create a bridge of understanding between those responsible for disposing of this material, those who benefit (the general public) from the creation of the waste, and those who are asked to live near disposal sites

  9. Public Action and Innovationsupport Institutions in New Technological Agglomerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana; Bacaria, Jordi; Fernandez-Ribas, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    In all industrial and technological agglomerations several types of public and semi-public actors coexist. The same happens with the levels of government. Consequently, the daily reality of agglomerations is characterized by a wide diversity of innovation-support institutions more or less actively...... on the major efforts of different public actors in the territory since the 1980s, mainly through the establishment and enhancement of innovation-support institutions, and analyses succinctly their effects through selected successful and failed cases. Two normative statements are suggested from the analysis....... The first is that policy strategies should not try to be hegemonic. Instead, they should be elaborated seeking complementarity and coexistence. A second normative conclusion is the necessity of fostering the learning processes within and across institutions, by mobilizing collectively the assets of the area...

  10. Communicating with the public: space of nuclear technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maffei, Patricia Martinez; Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues; Gordon, Ana Maria Pinho Leite; Oliveira, Rosana Lagua de; Padua, Rafael Vicente de; Vieira, Martha Marques Ferreira; Vicente, Roberto, E-mail: pmaffei@ipen.br, E-mail: araquino@usp.br, E-mail: amgordon@ipen.br, E-mail: rloliveira@ipen.br, E-mail: rpadua@ipen.br, E-mail: mmvieira@ipen.br, E-mail: rvicente@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    For two decades the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN) has been developing activities for popularization of its R and D activities in the nuclear field. Some of the initiatives already undertaken by IPEN are lectures at schools, guided visits to IPEN facilities, printed informative material, FAQ page in the Web, and displays in annual meetings and technology fairs highlighting its achievements. In order to consolidate these initiatives, IPEN is planning to have a permanent Space of Nuclear Technology (SNT), aiming at introducing students, teachers and the general public to the current applications of nuclear technology in medicine, industry, research, electric power generation, etc. It is intended as an open room to the public and will have a permanent exhibit with historical, scientific, technical and cultural developments of nuclear technology and will also feature temporary exhibitions about specific themes. The space will display scientific material in different forms to allow conducting experiments to demonstrate some of the concepts associated with the properties of nuclear energy, hands-on programs and activities that can be customized to the students' grade level and curriculum. (author)

  11. Communicating with the public: space of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maffei, Patricia Martinez; Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues; Gordon, Ana Maria Pinho Leite; Oliveira, Rosana Lagua de; Padua, Rafael Vicente de; Vieira, Martha Marques Ferreira; Vicente, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    For two decades the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN) has been developing activities for popularization of its R and D activities in the nuclear field. Some of the initiatives already undertaken by IPEN are lectures at schools, guided visits to IPEN facilities, printed informative material, FAQ page in the Web, and displays in annual meetings and technology fairs highlighting its achievements. In order to consolidate these initiatives, IPEN is planning to have a permanent Space of Nuclear Technology (SNT), aiming at introducing students, teachers and the general public to the current applications of nuclear technology in medicine, industry, research, electric power generation, etc. It is intended as an open room to the public and will have a permanent exhibit with historical, scientific, technical and cultural developments of nuclear technology and will also feature temporary exhibitions about specific themes. The space will display scientific material in different forms to allow conducting experiments to demonstrate some of the concepts associated with the properties of nuclear energy, hands-on programs and activities that can be customized to the students' grade level and curriculum. (author)

  12. The private-public cooperation in innovation trough technology centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callejon, M.; Barge-Gil, A.; Lopez, A.

    2007-01-01

    The Technology Centres (TCS) are important suppliers of technology for Spanish firms. The objective of this paper is to improve the knowledge about Spanish TCS. Firstly, we present the main characteristics and the evolution of the Spanish TCS. The second question examined refers to the great heterogeneity of this kind of agents. In this sense, we present a cluster analysis using two basic characteristics of the TCS: services to firms and technological strength. Thirdly, we analyze the adjustment of the TCS to the National Innovation System and their foreseeable evolution as basic agents of this system. Finally, we summarize the programs of public support for TCS started up by the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade. (Author) 11 refs

  13. Academic Attitudes and Achievement in Students of Urban Public Single-Sex and Mixed-Sex High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else-Quest, Nicole M.; Peterca, Oana

    2015-01-01

    Publicly funded single-sex schooling (SSS) has proliferated in recent years and is touted as a remedy to gaps in academic attitudes and achievement, particularly for low-income students of color. Research on SSS is rife with limitations, stemming from selective admissions processes, selection effects related to socioeconomic status, a lack of…

  14. Public attitudes towards preventive genomics and personal interest in genetic testing to prevent disease: a survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, E.; Henneman, L.; van El, C.G.; Cornel, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Genetic testing and family history assessment can be used as an aid in the prevention of common chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to determine public attitudes and interests towards offering genetic testing and family history-based risk assessment for common chronic disease

  15. Faculty Members' Attitudes towards the Performance Appraisal Process in the Public Universities in Light of Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ashqar, Wafaa Mohammed Ali

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to detect the level of faculty members' attitudes at public universities towards the performance appraisal process and its relationship with some variables (gender, college, scientific rank, university, teaching experience, and age). The study sample consisted of (320) faculty members of both sexes in three public…

  16. Perceived Public Stigma and the Willingness to Seek Counseling: The Mediating Roles of Self-Stigma and Attitudes toward Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, David L.; Wade, Nathaniel G.; Hackler, Ashley H.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the mediating effects of the self-stigma associated with seeking counseling and attitudes toward seeking counseling on the link between perceived public stigma and willingness to seek counseling for psychological and interpersonal concerns. Structural equation modeling of data from 676 undergraduates indicated that the link…

  17. Women’s working hours: The interplay between gender role attitudes, motherhood, and public childcare support in 23 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andringa, Wouter; Nieuwenhuis, Rense; van Gerven-Haanpää, Minna Marja-Leena

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show how the interplay between individual women’s gender role attitudes, having young children at home, as well as the country-context characterized by gender egalitarianism and public childcare support, relates to women’s working hours in 23 European

  18. Teachers' Demographic Factors on Attitude towards Guidance and Counselling Services in Public Primary Schools of Kimilili Subcounty, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasilumbi, Wesonga Joanne; Jenniffer, Munyau K.; Prisca, Tarus

    2016-01-01

    The government of Kenya through the Ministry of education banned corporal punishment in schools. This necessitated strengthening of guidance and counseling (G&C) services in schools. This study aimed to: determine the teachers' attitude towards guidance and counseling services in public primary schools in Kimilili Sub-County and determine the…

  19. Actitud Hacia las Matematicas: Revision Bibliografica (Attitudes Toward Mathematics: Revised Bibliography). Publication No. 39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Feijoo, Nelida

    Investigations about attitudes toward mathematics carried out in the past decade were revised. The instruments used to measure attitudes toward mathematics were analysed as well as the attitudes toward different aspects of mathematics, their relation with other school subjects and their stability through time. Opinions about the influence of…

  20. Self-reported oral health behavior and attitudes of dental and technology students in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacauskiene, Ingrida M; Smailiene, Dalia; Siudikienė, Jolanta; Savanevskyte, Julija; Nedzelskiene, Irena

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess self-reported oral health habits, attitudes, lifestyle between the sample groups of preclinical and clinical dental and technology students in Lithuania using the Hiroshima University Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI), and to evaluate the impact of education on their behavior and self-reported oral health. A sample of 183 dental and 75 technology students at the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Medical Academy, Faculty of Odontology, and Kaunas University of Technology completed the Lithuanian version the HU-DBI questionnaire with 11 additional items. The data were analyzed using the "SPSS 19.0 for Windows" software package. The mean HU-DBI score of clinical final-year dentistry students was significantly higher (p=0.001) than the score of the preclinical group (6.81 (1.2) and 5.96 (1.5), respectively). The mean scores of both groups of dental students were significantly (ptechnology group (5.37 (1.8)). Oral health behaviors and knowledge were superior in dental students. Dental education had a significant positive impact on the oral health and behavior improvement. The attitudes of the Lithuanian dental students should be further improved by initiating a comprehensive program that would emphasize the importance of oral hygiene before the clinical program starts.

  1. Emotion in obesity discourse: understanding public attitudes towards regulations for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Lucy C; Warin, Megan J; Moore, Vivienne M; Street, Jackie M

    2016-05-01

    Intense concern about obesity in the public imagination and in political, academic and media discourses has catalysed advocacy efforts to implement regulatory measures to reduce the occurrence of obesity in Australia and elsewhere. This article explores public attitudes towards the possible implementation of regulations to address obesity by analysing emotions within popular discourses. Drawing on reader comments attached to obesity-relevant news articles published on Australian news and current affairs websites, we examine how popular anxieties about the 'obesity crisis' and vitriol directed at obese individuals circulate alongside understandings of the appropriate role of government to legitimise regulatory reform to address obesity. Employing Ahmed's theorisation of 'affective economies' and broader literature on emotional cultures, we argue that obesity regulations achieve popular support within affective economies oriented to neoliberal and individualist constructions of obesity. These economies preclude constructions of obesity as a structural problem in popular discourse; instead positioning anti-obesity regulations as a government-endorsed vehicle for discrimination directed at obese people. Findings implicate a new set of ethical challenges for those championing regulatory reform for obesity prevention. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  2. Public reactions to large-scale energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midden, C J; Daamen, D D; Verplanken, B

    1986-02-01

    In the first part of this article we discuss certain factors which are of influence upon the perception of risks connected to energy technologies. Several studies show that the catastrophic potential and the degree to which people consider negative consequences to be controllable are the main factors which influence this perception. In the next part differences between experts and lay people are discussed. Lay people are found to be bad at making numerical estimates of annual fatality frequencies of different causes of death. High frequencies appear to be underestimated and low frequencies overestimated. We conclude that differences between experts and lay people may be partly explained by the use of different concepts in talking about risks. In the third part attitudes on the use of nuclear energy and coal for the generation of electricity are discussed. Attitudes are determined by the observed probability of negative consequences rather than the expected probability of positive effects. It appears that the differences between the two groups are mostly not based on ideology but rather determined by a fairly rational trade-off of expected risks and advantages. The last part is concerned with the siting of nuclear power plants. The fact that people living near nuclear plants give a lower estimate of the risks than people living further away can be explained in a number of ways. Finally we discuss the problem of compensation for local residents and representatives in the choice of a site for a new plant. Our conclusion is that the usefulness of such strategies depends on the fact whether the perception of risks on a local level is based on feelings of insecurity or on an expert-like risk assessment. 4 figs., 35 refs.

  3. Knowledge Attitude and Behavior of Medical Technology Vocational Training School Students About Genetically Modified Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak Taner Gursoy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To determine The Medical Technology Vocational Training School (MTVTS students’ the knowledge about the effects of GMO on human health and environment and to evaluate their attitude and behavior has been aimed. METHODS: All of the second class students of the year 2006-2007 of MTVTS were included (N=161 in the study, response rate was 92%. The survey questionare included questions on knowledge, the risk perception and attitute about GMOs. The legal framework in Turkey about GMOs, the rationale for GMO production, the labeling for GMO and the students’ perception of their knowledge was evaluated through 14 items with Likert scale. After the questionaire, the students received an informative brochure on GMOs. RESULTS: The open-ended question asking to define GMOs was answered by 59,2% of the students among which 35,6% defined as “additive”, 34,5% as “food with hormones”. The risk perceived for GMOs was the forth following cigarette smoking, stres, and environmental pollution in the ranking according to the risk score means. Sex has been the only determinant effecting this scoring for GMOs where girls perceived the risk greater. If family was one of the information sources about GMOs, the perceived risk was increased (p=0,000. Among the students 81,6% thought that GMO should not be grown in Turkey, 77,7% think that GMO was sold however. The leading topic of ambivalence is the state of self knowledge on GMO. The low income group are less concerned about consuming GMO for themselves or for their children (respectively p==0.003 ve p=0,012. CONCLUSION: Health workers are assigned with an important role to inform the public for healthy eating. However although the the risk perception of the study group for GMOs is high, their knowledge is low. Training activities to supply this deficiency should be implemented. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(6.000: 503-508

  4. Off to the Courts? Or the Agency? Public Attitudes on Bureaucratic and Legal Approaches to Policy Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn Mulroy

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A key curiosity in the operation of the American regulatory state lies with its hybrid structure, defined by centralized, bureaucratic approaches but also more decentralized actions such as lawsuits brought by private citizens in the courts. While current research on these two pathways focuses at the elite level—exploring how and why political actors and institutions opt for legal or administrative strategies for implementing different public policies—there is little research that examines public attitudes toward how policy is enforced in the U.S. Given that the public is a key partner in this process, this paper integrates public attitudes into the discussion, tapping into conceptions of “big government,” privatization, and the tort reform movement. Using original data from a series of vignette-based experiments included in the 2014 Cooperative Congressional Election Survey, we examine public preferences about how policy is regulated—by private citizens in the courts or by government officials in agencies—across a broad number of policy areas. We offer one of the first studies that adjudicates the boundaries of public attitudes on litigation and bureaucratic regulation in the U.S., offering implications for how elites might approach the design of policy implementation for different issue areas.

  5. Characteristics and attitudes of parents of children born with the use of assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, A M; Boxer, A S; Corson, S L; Coutifaris, C; Hendrix, A

    1998-11-01

    To explore the medical issues, attitudes, concerns, and choices that parents have about their children born with the use of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Retrospective and prospective survey. An academic medical center and a private practice. Participants who conceived and were delivered of infants in two ART programs. A total of 373 patients were mailed an anonymous survey, a consent form, and the Parent Child Relationship Inventory. The rate of response was approximately 49% for clinic A and 33% for clinic B. Pregnancy outcomes and attitudes about parenting. Respondents' major concerns during pregnancy revolved around miscarriage and the infant's health; complications occurred in 38.9% of first pregnancies. Parents believed that their children were more appreciated, that their children were not emotionally different, that ART did not create ongoing medical or emotional problems, and they were not overprotective as parents. Gender differences were statistically significant on attitudinal variables. Parents had concerns about pregnancy. Overall, men and women felt positive about ART and their parenting. The ART experience is associated with complex choices, attitudes, and emotions.

  6. Agenda-setting effects of sun-related news coverage on public attitudes and beliefs about tanning and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Helen; Warne, Charles; Scully, Maree; Dobbinson, Suzanne; Wakefield, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    The topics and framing of news stories relevant to skin cancer prevention have shifted over time. This study examined agenda-setting effects of such news stories on public attitudes and beliefs about tanning and skin cancer. Content analysis data on 516 articles published in two major daily newspapers in Melbourne, Australia, from 1994 to 2007 were combined with circulation data to generate indices of potential news exposure. Associations between these indices and cross-sectional telephone survey data from the same period on 6,244 adults' tanning attitudes and perceived susceptibility to skin cancer were examined using logistic regression models, accounting for the temporal precedence of news content. Pro-sun protection stories on attitudes and behavior were associated with older adults not thinking a tan looks healthy. Pro-sun protection stories on solaria were associated with less preference for a deep tan among young adults who like to suntan. Stories on vitamin D that were unsupportive of or ambiguous about sun protection were associated with a number of pro-tan attitudes among younger adults. Results indicate news coverage during 1994-2007 served an important agenda-setting role in explaining the public's attitudes and beliefs about tanning and skin cancer. Vitamin D stories appeared most influential, particularly among young adults.

  7. Public 'in'tolerance of technological hazards and risk policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, P.; Walker, G.; Irwin, A.; Wynne, B.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: it has been recognised that the notion that there is an 'acceptable' level of risk to the public from technological hazards is in many cases inappropriate. UK government policy on major industrial hazards is informed by the principle of 'tolerability' of risk (TOR). In the paper we examine this principle and how it relates to the views of people who live day-to-day with such hazards. The analysis of public views is based on the results of a Q-method study carried out in the course of recent research funded by the UK Health and Safety Executive. The Q-method study distinguishes between different bases of public toleration - and lack of toleration - of risk. The study found lack a toleration to be based on a single cluster of factors, whereas the bases for public toleration of risk were far more differentiated. The results are outlined in the paper. In the concluding section of the paper we examine the implications of these results for policy, in particular for the application of the TOR principle when setting risk criteria. (authors)

  8. The swine flu vaccine, public attitudes, and researcher interpretations: a systematic review of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Benedicte; Glenton, Claire

    2016-06-24

    During pandemics, health authorities may be uncertain about the spread and severity of the disease and the effectiveness and safety of available interventions. This was the case during the swine flu (H1N1) pandemic of 2009-2010, and governments were forced to make decisions despite these uncertainties. While many countries chose to implement wide scale vaccination programmes, few accomplished their vaccination goals. Many research studies aiming to explore barriers and facilitators to vaccine uptake have been conducted in the aftermath of the pandemic, including several qualitative studies. 1. To explore public attitudes to the swine flu vaccine in different countries through a review of qualitative primary studies. 2. To describe and discuss the implications drawn by the primary study authors. Systematic review of qualitative research studies, using a broadly comparative cross case-study approach. Study quality was appraised using an adaptation of the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) quality assessment tool. The review indicates that the public had varying opinions about disease risk and prevalence and had concerns about vaccine safety. Most primary study authors concluded that participants were uninformed, and that more information about the disease and the vaccine would have led to an increase in vaccine uptake. We find these conclusions problematic. We suggest instead that people's questions and concerns were legitimate given the uncertainties of the situation at the time and the fact that the authorities did not have the necessary information to convince the public. Our quality assessment of the included studies points to a lack of reflexivity and a lack of information about study context. We suggest that these study weaknesses are tied to primary study authors' lack of acknowledgement of the uncertainties surrounding the disease and the vaccine. While primary study authors suggest that authorities could increase vaccine uptake through increased

  9. Predictors of public attitude toward living organ donation in Kano, northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubairu Iliyasu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ shortage is a major public health challenge for transplant programs globally. The sustenance of such programs as an effective therapy for end-stage organ failure (ESOF requires an exploration of public awareness and willingness to donate organs. This is imperative, especially in developing countries where ESOF is highly prevalent. We studied the awareness and predictors of public attitude toward organ donation in Kano city in northern Nigeria. Using interviewer-administered questionnaires, we assessed the awareness and willingness to donate solid organs among 400 adults in the Kano metropolis. Three hundred and five of the 383 respondents (79.6% reported that they had heard about organ donation. There was a significant variation of awareness by education and ethnicity (P <0.05. Most respondents, 303 (79.1%, were willing to donate an organ. Gender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 2.13; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.40-4.95], educational attainment (AOR = 2.55; 95% CI: 1.35-5.88, marital status (AOR = 4.5; 95% CI: 2.97-9.1, religion (AOR = 3.40; 95% CI: 1.43-8.10 and ethnicity (AOR = 2.36; 95% CI 1.04-5.35 were significant predictors of willingness to donate an organ. Preferred organ recipients were parents (48.9%, children (21.3%, spouses (14.6% and other relatives (13.4%. Reasons for willingness to donate organs included religion (51.2%, moral obligation (21.4% and compassion (11.9%, among others. However, there was widespread ignorance of religious precepts concerning organ donation. The high level of awareness and willingness to donate organs in this society could be further enhanced by intensive information, education and communication strategies providing clear messages on societal benefits, religious aspects and bioethical guidance regarding organ donation.

  10. Public Opinion on Organ Donation After Death and Its Influence on Attitudes Toward Organ Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijing, Luo; Wenzhao, Xie; Wei, Wei; Qiquan, Wan; Xuantong, Deng

    2016-08-18

    BACKGROUND China officially launched a pilot program of organ donation after cardiac death to overcome the shortage of available organs since 2011. Voluntary organ donation by deceased citizens became the only source of transplant organs beginning January 1, 2015. To investigate public opinions on organ donation by deceased donors, and discuss the effect of these opinions on the willingness and attitude of the public regarding voluntary organ donation. MATERIAL AND METHODS We designed a questionnaire. The survey was conducted from December 2014 to January 2015 in Changsha City, and 417 valid questionnaires were recovered. RESULTS A total of 162 respondents explicitly expressed a willingness to donate organs, and 269 believed that the organ donors' relatives should be compensated. A total of 255 respondents thought it acceptable to complete the donation-consent form when receiving a driver's license. Among the respondents, 65.3% did not agree with the statement "My body is bestowed by my parents, and to donate my body parts would not display filial respect"; 88.9% agreed that "It is necessary to consider the willingness of my family"; 74.4% agreed that "Donated organs have not been fairly and appropriately used; the wealthy and celebrities have been favored"; and 61.4% agreed that "Organ donation laws and regulations are not well developed, and organ donations will result in unnecessary difficulties." More than 80% believed that organ donation and transplantation extend life. CONCLUSIONS Public opinions on organ donation after death are associated with various factors, including traditional values, religious beliefs, compensation mechanisms, donor registration, institutional credibility, and ideals.

  11. Physical Science Teachers' Attitudes to and Factors Affecting Their Integration of Technology Education in Science Teaching in Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelani, Raphael R.; Gado, Issaou

    2018-01-01

    Following the calls of international conferences related to the teaching of science and technology, technology education (TE) was integrated as a component of physical sciences programmes in Benin, West Africa. This study investigates physical science teachers' attitudes towards the integration of TE topics in secondary school science curricula in…

  12. Adaptation of the Mathematics and Technology Attitudes Scale (MTAS) into Turkish: Validity and Reliability Studies for Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuk, Mesut

    2018-01-01

    The paper aims to present the adaptation study of "The Mathematics and Technology Attitudes Scale (MTAS)" into Turkish. The original form MTAS was developed by Pierce, Stacey and Barkatsas (2007) in order to investigate the effect of five different variables in learning mathematics with technology. The original form of the attitudes…

  13. Integration of Digital Technologies into Play-Based Pedagogy in Kuwaiti Early Childhood Education: Teachers' Views, Attitudes and Aptitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldhafeeri, Fayiz; Palaiologou, Ioanna; Folorunsho, Aderonke

    2016-01-01

    Scholars in the field of early childhood education are still debating the inclusion of digital technologies in play-based pedagogy and our understanding of digital play in early childhood education is still developing. This research paper examines early childhood education teachers' views, aptitudes and attitudes towards digital technologies in…

  14. Development of public health assurance technology by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Ho; Lim, Sang Yong; Yang, Jae Seung

    2007-07-01

    This project was performed to develop the radiation sterilization process of public health products and RT/BT fusion technology and to secure a detection and quarantine system of irradiated food. To establish the radiation sterilization of public health goods, current status of radiation sterilization of disposable medical equipment was investigated and the manufacturing process of disposable media for microbial cultivation were developed using a gamma sterilization. In addition, microbial contamination of disposable kitchen utensils was surveyed and pathogen-free organic compost was developed by radiation sterilization. The radiation responses of bacteria including Salmonella, Vibrio, E. coli, and D. radiodurans were analyzed by DNA chip and 2-D electrophoresis. To validate the safety of surviving bacteria after irradiation, the expressions of virulence genes of pathogenic bacteria were monitored using real-time PCR, and the growth of mycotoxin-producing funguses was studied after irradiation. And also, quantitative detection methods of irradiated and inactivated Salmonella using a real-time PCR and a immuno assay. To establish the quarantine and quality assurance of irradiated food and public health products, radiation technology was applied to the fermented foods, minimally processed food and dried vegetables. Radiation effects on insects was examined and the corresponding data base was constructed. We also collaborated on the preliminary test of international trade of sea food with USA or India. To establish the official detection method of irradiated food, physical, chemical and biological detection methods for irradiated food were verified. Finally, multiple range test of irradiated food was performed

  15. Interim monitoring of cost dynamics for publicly supported energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemet, Gregory F. [La Follette School of Public Affairs, University of Wisconsin, 1225 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)]|[Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53726 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    The combination of substantial public funding of nascent energy technologies and recent increases in the costs of those that have been most heavily supported has raised questions about whether policy makers should sustain, alter, enhance, or terminate such programs. This paper uses experience curves for photovoltaics (PV) and wind to (1) estimate ranges of costs for these public programs and (2) introduce new ways of evaluating recent cost dynamics. For both technology cases, the estimated costs of the subsidies required to reach targets are sensitive to the choice of time period on which cost projections are based. The variation in the discounted social cost of subsidies exceeds an order of magnitude. Vigilance is required to avoid the very expensive outcomes contained within these distributions of social costs. Two measures of the significance of recent deviations are introduced. Both indicate that wind costs are within the expected range of prior forecasts but that PV costs are not. The magnitude of the public funds involved in these programs heightens the need for better analytical tools with which to monitor and evaluate cost dynamics. (author)

  16. Development of public health assurance technology by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Ho; Lim, Sang Yong; Yang, Jae Seung (and others)

    2007-07-15

    This project was performed to develop the radiation sterilization process of public health products and RT/BT fusion technology and to secure a detection and quarantine system of irradiated food. To establish the radiation sterilization of public health goods, current status of radiation sterilization of disposable medical equipment was investigated and the manufacturing process of disposable media for microbial cultivation were developed using a gamma sterilization. In addition, microbial contamination of disposable kitchen utensils was surveyed and pathogen-free organic compost was developed by radiation sterilization. The radiation responses of bacteria including Salmonella, Vibrio, E. coli, and D. radiodurans were analyzed by DNA chip and 2-D electrophoresis. To validate the safety of surviving bacteria after irradiation, the expressions of virulence genes of pathogenic bacteria were monitored using real-time PCR, and the growth of mycotoxin-producing funguses was studied after irradiation. And also, quantitative detection methods of irradiated and inactivated Salmonella using a real-time PCR and a immuno assay. To establish the quarantine and quality assurance of irradiated food and public health products, radiation technology was applied to the fermented foods, minimally processed food and dried vegetables. Radiation effects on insects was examined and the corresponding data base was constructed. We also collaborated on the preliminary test of international trade of sea food with USA or India. To establish the official detection method of irradiated food, physical, chemical and biological detection methods for irradiated food were verified. Finally, multiple range test of irradiated food was performed.

  17. Exploring Instructors' Technology Readiness, Attitudes and Behavioral Intentions towards E-Learning Technologies in Egypt and United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Alfy, Shahira; Gómez, Jorge Marx; Ivanov, Danail

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the association between technology readiness, (a meta-construct consisting of optimism, innovativeness, discomfort, and insecurity), attitude, and behavioral intention towards e-learning technologies adoption within an education institution context. The empirical study data is collected at two private universities located in…

  18. The stigmatizing effect of visual media portrayals of obese persons on public attitudes: does race or gender matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Luedicke, Joerg; Heuer, Chelsea A

    2013-01-01

    Overweight and obese persons are frequently stigmatized in news media. The present study is the first to systematically compare public reactions to positive and negative images of obese persons accompanying news reports on obesity (while manipulating gender and race of the target)and their effects on generalized attitudes and social distance toward obese persons. The authors conducted 3 randomized experimental studies using online surveys to assess public perceptions of positive versus stereotypical images of obese adults (who varied by gender and race) accompanying a neutral news report about obesity. The sample included 1,251 adults, who were recruited through a national survey panel during May of 2010. Participants who viewed negative, stereotypical images of obese targets increased social distance, antifat attitudes, and ratings of laziness and dislike toward obese persons, whereas positive, nonstereotypical images induced more positive attitudes. These findings remained consistent when accounting for sociodemographic variables. African American female obese targets portrayed in images evoked higher ratings of dislike and social distance compared with Caucasian targets, but ratings were similar for male and female targets. This study provides evidence that images of obese person accompanying written media influence public attitudes toward obese people, and may reinforce weight stigmatization if images contain stereotypical portrayals of obese persons. Implications for efforts to report about obesity in the news media are discussed.

  19. Exploring public attitudes towards approaches to discussing costs in the clinical encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danis, Marion; Sommers, Roseanna; Logan, Jean; Weidmer, Beverly; Chen, Shirley; Goold, Susan; Pearson, Steven; Donley, Greer; McGlynn, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Patients' willingness to discuss costs of treatment alternatives with their physicians is uncertain. To explore public attitudes toward doctor-patient discussions of insurer and out-of-pocket costs and to examine whether several possible communication strategies might enhance patient receptivity to discussing costs with their physicians. Focus group discussions and pre-discussion and post-discussion questionnaires. Two hundred and eleven insured individuals with mean age of 48 years, 51 % female, 34 % African American, 27 % Latino, and 50 % with incomes below 300 % of the federal poverty threshold, participated in 22 focus groups in Santa Monica, CA and in the Washington, DC metro area. Attitudes toward discussing out-of-pocket and insurer costs with physicians, and towards physicians' role in controlling costs; receptivity toward recommended communication strategies regarding costs. Participants expressed more willingness to talk to doctors about personal costs than insurer costs. Older participants and sicker participants were more willing to talk to the doctor about all costs than younger and healthier participants (OR = 1.8, p = 0.004; OR = 1.6, p = 0.027 respectively). Participants who face cost-related barriers to accessing health care were in greater agreement than others that doctors should play a role in reducing out-of-pocket costs (OR = 2.4, p = 0.011). Participants did not endorse recommended communication strategies for discussing costs in the clinical encounter. In contrast, participants stated that trust in one's physician would enhance their willingness to discuss costs. Perceived impediments to discussing costs included rushed, impersonal visits, and clinicians who are insufficiently informed about costs. This study suggests that trusting relationships may be more conducive than any particular discussion strategy to facilitating doctor-patient discussions of health care costs. Better public understanding of how medical

  20. Polish society attitudes towards nuclear power, ionizing radiation applications and radioactive waste management (Report on public opinion polls)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latek, Stanislaw

    1999-01-01

    In Poland, during parliamentary debate on Foundations for the 'Polish energy policies up to 2010', the importance of public attitudes toward nuclear power has been recalled repeatedly in the context of the future development of nuclear power in Poland. In the governmental document, accepted by Polish Parliament on 1 January 1996, it has been stated that nuclear power plant construction is not foreseen up to the year 2010; nevertheless it has been assumed that the appraisals of the economic feasibility and of the public acceptance level for such investments will be conducted. Thus, the need for such assessments of public opinions and attitudes toward nuclear power has been recognized and accepted by the highest legislative power organ in Poland

  1. Effects of the layered curriculum on student’s success, permanence and attitudes in Science and Technology Course

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Nuri Gömleksiz; Serav Biçer

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to determine the effects of the layered curriculum on students’ achievement, permanence and attitudes towards Science and Technology course.  The research was conducted with two classes including an experimental and a control class at 6th grade of Elazig İstiklal Primary School in 2009-2010 academic year. Mixed research model that utilize both quantitative and qualitative research methods together was preferred in this research. To that end, achievement test and attitude scale...

  2. The impact of eLearning on health professional educators' attitudes to information and communication technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neville V

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Victoria Neville,1 Mary Lam,2 Christopher J Gordon3 1Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health, The University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia; 2Faculty of Health Science, 3Sydney Nursing School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Background: The use of information and communication technology (ICT in health professional education is increasing rapidly. Health professional educators need to be responsive to health professionals' information and communication technological needs; however, there is a paucity of information about educators' attitudes to, and capabilities with, ICT. Methods: Fifty-two health professional educators, enrolled in health professional education postgraduate studies, participated in an online subject with specific eLearning components requiring the use of ICT. They completed a pre- and postquestionnaire pertaining to ICT attitudes, confidence, and usage. Results: Participants reported significant increases in overall ICT confidence during the subject despite it being high at baseline (mean: 7.0 out of 10; P=0.02. Even with increased ICT confidence, there were decreases in the participants' sense of ICT control when related to health professional education (P=0.002; whereas, the amount of time participants engaged with ICT devices was negatively correlated with the sense of ICT control (P=0.002. The effect of age and health discipline on ICT attitudes and confidence was not significant (P>0.05. Conclusion: This study reports that health professional educators have perceptual deficits toward ICT. The impact of eLearning increased confidence in ICT but caused a reduction in participants' sense of control of ICT. Health professional educators require more ICT training and support to facilitate better ICT integration in health professional education settings. Keywords: confidence, sense of control 

  3. We Can, We Know How. But Do We Want To? Teaching Attitudes towards ICT Based on the Level of Technology Integration in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sanmamed, Mercedes; Sangrà, Albert; Muñoz-Carril, Pablo-César

    2017-01-01

    Teachers' attitudes towards technology are crucial to foster its use in schools and to improve its educational affordances and this is still a topic for research. This article relates the attitudes school teachers have towards information and communication technologies (ICT) with the different levels of technology integration in schools. A…

  4. Environmental value considerations in public attitudes about alternative energy development in Oregon and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Brent S; Pierce, John C; Warner, Rebecca L; Lovrich, Nicholas P

    2015-03-01

    The 2013 Pacific Coast Action Plan on Climate and Energy signed by the Governors of California, Oregon, and Washington and the Premier of British Columbia launched a broadly announced public commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through multiple strategies. Those strategies include the development and increased use of renewable energy sources. The initiative recognized that citizens are both a central component in abating greenhouse gas emissions with regard to their energy use behaviors, and are important participants in the public policymaking process at both state and local levels of government. The study reported here examines whether either support or opposition to state government leadership in the development of alternative energy technologies can be explained by environmental values as measured by the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP). The research results are based on mail surveys of randomly selected households conducted throughout Oregon and Washington in late 2009 and early 2010. Findings suggest that younger and more highly educated respondents are significantly more likely than older and less educated respondents to either support or strongly support government policies to promote bioenergy, wind, geothermal, and solar energy. Those respondents with higher NEP scores are also more supportive of government promotion of wind, geothermal, and solar technologies than are those with lower NEP scores. Support for wave energy does not show a statistical correlation with environmental values, maybe a reflection of this technology's nascent level of development. The paper concludes with a consideration of the implications of these findings for environmental management.

  5. Effect of assistive technology in a public school setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Anne H; Ito, Max; Smith, Roger O; Andersen, Lori T

    2010-01-01

    The Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA) requires assistive technology (AT) be considered at the yearly individualized education program (IEP) meeting of every student in special education. IDEA also directs that AT be implemented on the basis of peer-reviewed literature despite a paucity of research on AT's effectiveness in the public schools. This repeated-measures quasi-experimental study explored AT's effect in a public school special education setting. Participants (N=13) were a heterogeneous group of students in 1 school system who had newly provided AT to address academic and communication goals in one school year. Results suggest that relative to other interventions, AT provided by a multidisciplinary team may have a significant effect on IEP goal improvement (t[12] = 5.54, p= .00) for students in special education (F[2] = 9.35, p= .00), which may support AT's use in special education by occupational therapists as directed by IDEA.

  6. Residential energy-efficient technology adoption, energy conservation, knowledge, and attitudes: An analysis of European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Bradford; Schleich, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Relationships between measures of household energy use behavior and household characteristics are estimated using a unique dataset of approximately 5000 households in 10 EU countries and Norway. Family age-composition patterns are found to have a distinct impact on household energy use behavior. Households with young children are more likely to adopt energy-efficient technologies and energy conservation practices and place primary importance on energy savings for environmental reasons. By contrast, households with a high share of elderly members place more importance on financial savings, and have lower levels of technology adoption, energy conservation practice use, and knowledge about household energy use. Education levels also matter, with higher levels associated with energy-efficient technology adoption and energy conservation practice use. Similarly, university education increases the stated importance of energy savings for greenhouse gas reductions and decreases the stated importance for financial reasons. Education impacts also vary greatly across survey countries and there is some evidence of an Eastern–Western European divide with respect to attitudes towards energy savings. These cross-country differences highlight the need to balance a common EU energy-efficiency policy framework with flexibility for country specific policies to address unique constraints to energy-efficient technology and conservation practice adoption. - Highlights: ► Household energy use behavior is explored with data from 11 European countries. ► Household age structure and education influence household energy use behavior and attitudes. ► Significant country differences in household energy use behavior exist. ► The EU needs to balance a common energy-efficiency policy framework with country specific policies.

  7. Strategies for changing negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People’s Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumin, Xie; Woo, Stephanie Mu-Lian; Lei, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the demand for organ transplantation has risen rapidly worldwide, due to an increased incidence of vital organ failure. However, the scarcity of organs appropriate for transplantation has led to an organ shortage crisis. This article retrospectively reviews strategies to change negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People’s Republic of China. We strongly believe that efforts to publicize knowledge of organ donation, promote family discussions, train medical staff and students, establish incentive systems, and implement regulatory oversight may combat unfavorable Chinese public opinion toward organ donation and transplantation, thus potentially increasing the organ donation rate in the People’s Republic of China. PMID:24368880

  8. Data on impact of technological change on employees' cognitive attitude and organizational performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinyerem Adeniji

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Change is unavoidable for organizations just as it is in every sphere of life. Whatever the reasons are, organizations need to change, keeping in mind the end goal to survive and to be successful. Organizations operate in an environment where globalisation is the common expression of the phenomenon that is driving a great dynamism in the business environment across the world and no business is immune from the effects of this “globalisation”. Competition, policymaking and advancement in technology exist on a day-to-day basis (Hatch, 2009 as well as opportunities are no longer localised within a nation, region or continent, every business is now competing with competitors all over the world. These forces are in constant change and affect a large number of organizations, which involves creating new strategies and policies in order for the organizations to survive and compete within the global business world and also to improve organizational performance but, there are also many challenges as well as the intensification of competition. The usage of technology decides the quality and number of products and services to be delivered. Organizational and national restrictive execution and improvement are controlled by the state and types of technology. Technology likewise impacts the living states of individual and groups in organizations and countries and the relationship between them. Technology is inclined to change, and the condition of technology have direct connection to the relationship between the business and worker. Technology, labour and capital are interconnected. The data presented in this article is very salient in this regard Keywords: Technological change, Employee cognitive attitude, Employee performance, Manufacturing companies, Nigeria

  9. Test - retest reliability of two instruments for measuring public attitudes towards persons with mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leufstadius Christel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has identified stigmatization as a major threat to successful treatment of individuals with mental illness. As a consequence several anti-stigma campaigns have been carried out. The results have been discouraging and the field suffers from lack of evidence about interventions that work. There are few reports on psychometric data for instruments used to assess stigma, which thus complicates research efforts. The aim of the present study was to investigate test-retest reliability of the Swedish versions of the questionnaires: FABI and "Changing Minds" and to examine the internal consistency of the two instruments. Method Two instruments, fear and behavioural intentions (FABI and "Changing Minds", used in earlier studies on public attitudes towards persons with mental illness were translated into Swedish and completed by 51 nursing students on two occasions, with an interval of three weeks. Test-retest reliability was calculated by using weighted kappa coefficient and internal consistency using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Results Both instruments attain at best moderate test-retest reliability. For the Changing Minds questionnaire almost one fifth (17.9% of the items present poor test-retest reliability and the alpha coefficient for the subscales ranges between 0.19 - 0.46. All of the items in the FABI reach a fair or a moderate agreement between the test and retest, and the questionnaire displays a high internal consistency, alpha 0.80. Conclusions There is a need for development of psychometrically tested instruments within this field of research.

  10. Understanding key influencers' attitudes and beliefs about healthy public policy change for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Kim D; Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Vu-Nguyen, Karen; Nieuwendyk, Laura M; VanSpronsen, Eric; Reed, Shandy; Wild, T Cameron

    2014-11-01

    As overweight and obesity is a risk factor for chronic diseases, the development of environmental and healthy public policy interventions across multiple sectors has been identified as a key strategy to address this issue. In 2009, a survey was developed to assess the attitudes and beliefs regarding health promotion principles, and the priority and acceptability of policy actions to prevent obesity and chronic diseases, among key policy influencers in Alberta and Manitoba, Canada. Surveys were mailed to 1,765 key influencers from five settings: provincial government, municipal government, school boards, print media companies, and workplaces with greater than 500 employees. A total of 236 surveys were completed with a response rate of 15.0%. Findings indicate nearly unanimous influencer support for individual-focused policy approaches and high support for some environmental policies. Restrictive environmental and economic policies received weakest support. Obesity was comparable to smoking with respect to perceptions as a societal responsibility versus a personal responsibility, boding well for the potential of environmental policy interventions for obesity prevention. This level of influencer support provides a platform for more evidence to be brokered to policy influencers about the effectiveness of environmental policy approaches to obesity prevention. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  11. Public Knowledge and Attitude toward Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Tokat Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Yilmaz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The World health Organization (WHO declares Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fe­ver (CCHF endemic in Turkey. Despite the magnitude of problem, no documented evi­dence exists in Turkey, which reveals the aware­ness and practices of the country's adult popula­tion regarding CCHF, its spread, symptoms, treatment, and preven­tion. This study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding CCHF in people visit­ing terti­ary care hospital in Tokat, Turkey."nMethods: This questionnaire based cross-sectional survey was conducted among patients' rela­tives or guardians who ad­mitted pediatric outpatient clinics during May-July 2008. The question­naire was composed of 25 questions."nResults: A total of 1034 respondents participated in the survey. Sufficient knowledge about CCHF was not found in 28.9% of the sample. Literate individuals were relatively better informed about CCHF as compared to the illiterate peo­ple. Television and radio were con­sidered as the most important and useful source of information on the disease."nConclusion: We have found insufficient knowledge on CCHF in our population. It is thought to have no chance of suc­cess against a fatal disease such as CCHF, which has serious consequences, without the contribution of commu­nity. It is clear that there are important tasks for health, agri­culture, and media sectors to improve public knowledge and awareness about CCHF. "n Keywords: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, Public knowledge, Survey, Turkey

  12. A web-based survey of attitudes toward epilepsy in secondary and tertiary students in Malaysia, using the Public Attitudes Toward Epilepsy (PATE) scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kheng Seang; Hills, Michael D; Choo, Wan Yuen; Wong, Mee Hoo; Wu, Cathie; Tan, Chong Tin

    2013-02-01

    Students' attitudes toward epilepsy have been studied in several countries, but none of the studies used a quantitative scale. We aimed to determine the validity and reliability of the Public Attitudes Toward Epilepsy (PATE) scale in a homogenous population consisting of secondary and tertiary students in Malaysia and to quantify their attitudes toward epilepsy, using a web-based survey. A total of 227 respondents with a mean age of 19.6±2.07 years, predominantly Chinese (85%), female (62%), and in a pre-university education level (71%) completed the web-based survey. Psychometric testing showed that the PATE is a valid and reliable scale to be applied in a homogenous population. The mean score in the personal domain was significantly higher than that in the general domain (2.73±0.61 vs. 2.12±0.60, respectively, ppopulation (Lim et al., 2012 [10]), the mean score in the general domain was significantly lower (pstudents are more positive than those of the general population in the general domain but not in the personal domain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Attitudes and relationship between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry in a public general hospital in Lima, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo De Ferrari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The interaction between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry influences physicians' attitudes and prescribing behavior. Although largely studied in the US, this topic has not been well studied in resource-poor settings, where a close relationship between physicians and industry still exists. OBJECTIVE: To describe physician interactions with and attitudes towards the pharmaceutical industry in a public general hospital in Lima, Peru. DESIGN: Descriptive, cross-sectional study through an anonymous, self-filled questionnaire distributed among faculty and trainee physicians of five different clinical departments working in a Peruvian public general hospital. A transcultural validation of an existing Spanish questionnaire was performed. Exposure to marketing activities, motivations to contact pharmaceutical representatives and attitudes towards industry were studied. Collected data was analyzed by degree of training, clinical department, gender and teaching status. Attitudes were measured on a four-point LIKERT scale. RESULTS: 155 physicians completed the survey, of which 148 were included in the study sample. 94.5% of attending physicians reported ongoing encounters with pharmaceutical representatives. The most common industry-related activities were receiving medical samples (91.2%, promotional material (87.8% and attending meetings in restaurants (81.8%. Respondents considered medical samples and continuing medical education the most ethically acceptable benefits. We found significant differences between attendings and residents, and teaching and non-teaching attendings. An association between the amount of encounters with pharmaceutical representatives, and attitudes towards industry and acceptance of medical samples was found. CONCLUSIONS: A close physician-industry relationship exists in the population under study. The contact is established mainly through pharmaceutical representatives. Medical samples are the most received

  14. Patients’ attitudes to the use of modern technologies in the treatment of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerna L

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lucie Cerna, Petra Maresova Department of Economics, Faculty of Informatics and Management, University of Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic Background: The incidence of diabetes is rising across the world. This global problem significantly affects the economic and social development in the 21st century. If the disease is diagnosed in time, the number of complications as well as the costs of therapy will be lower. Modern technologies permeate all spheres of medicine, and diabetes treatment is no exception. Therefore, the aim of this article is to analyze patients’ attitudes to the use of modern technologies in the treatment of diabetes (type 1 diabetes mellitus [T1DM] and type 2 diabetes mellitus [T2DM].Methods: A total of 313 respondents from the Czech Republic in the period from June 24, 2015, to July 24, 2015, participated in a questionnaire survey. The target group was diabetics regardless of the type of illness. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods, Z-test, and test of independence (Pearson’s chi-squared test.Results: Although in other areas mobile applications are used to monitor patients’ health condition in ~30% of cases, in the case of diabetes they are used by only 4% of respondents. Approximately 8% of participants use an application, but they do not like it. The rest of the respondents have never used any mobile application. These low figures are due to a lack of knowledge about the availability and possibilities of mobile applications. A positive correlation was proven between technical skills and methods of entering data. Gender and age show only a weak dependency of the method of writing data on their own health condition. Furthermore, the monitored parameters show that patients with T1DM control and know more about their health condition than patients with T2DM, which is reflected, for example, by more frequent blood glucose measurements or larger track of their physical activity

  15. The effect of science-technology-society issue instruction on the attitudes of female middle school students toward science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullinnix, Debra Lynn

    An assessment of the science education programs of the last thirty years reveals traditional science courses are producing student who have negative attitudes toward science, do not compete successfully in international science and mathematics competitions, are not scientifically literate, and are not interested in pursuing higher-level science courses. When the number of intellectually-capable females that fall into this group is considered, the picture is very disturbing. Berryman (1983) and Kahle (1985) have suggested the importance of attitude both, in terms of achievement in science and intention to pursue high-level science courses. Studies of attitudes toward science reveal that the decline in attitudes during grades four through eight was much more dramatic for females than for males. There exists a need, therefore, to explore alternative methods of teaching science, particularly in the middle school, that would increase scientific literacy, improve attitudes toward science, and encourage participation in higher-level science courses of female students. Yager (1996) has suggested that science-technology-society (STS) issue instruction does make significant changes in students' attitudes toward science, stimulates growth in science process skills, and increases concept mastery. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect STS issue instruction had on the attitudes of female middle school students toward science in comparison to female middle school students who experience traditional science instruction. Another purpose was to examine the effect science-technology-society issue instruction had on the attitudes of female middle school students in comparison to male middle school students. The pretests and the posttests were analyzed to examine differences in ten domains: enjoyment of science class; usefulness of information learned in science class; usefulness of science skills; feelings about science class in general; attitudes about what took place

  16. Biometrics Technology : Attitudes & influencing factors when trying to adopt this technology in Blekinge healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Irfan; Qadir, Bilal

    2012-01-01

    Context. Biometric technology is a secure and convenient identification method and it does not need to remember complex passwords, nor smart cards, keys, and the like. Biometrics is the measurable characteristics of individuals based on their behavioral patterns or physiological features that can be used to verify or recognize their identity. Physical characteristics include fingerprints, palm or hand geometry, iris, retina, and facial characteristics. Behavioral characteristics include signat...

  17. Possible Biases of Researchers' Attitudes Toward Video Games: Publication Trends Analysis of the Medical Literature (1980-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Aviv; Rovner, Mitchell; Appel, David Ian; Abrams, Aaron W; Rotem, Michal; Bloch, Yuval

    2016-07-18

    The study of video games is expanding, and so is the debate regarding their possible positive and deleterious effects. As controversies continue, several researchers have expressed their concerns about substantial biases existing in the field, which might lead to the creation of a skewed picture, both in the professional and in the lay literature. However, no study has tried to examine this issue quantitatively. The objective of our study was to examine possible systematic biases in the literature, by analyzing the publication trends of the medical and life sciences literature regarding video games. We performed a complete and systematic PubMed search up to December 31, 2013. We assessed all 1927 articles deemed relevant for their attitude toward video games according to the focus, hypothesis, and authors' interpretation of the study results, using a 3-category outcome (positive, negative, and neutral). We assessed the prevalence of different attitudes for possible association with year of publication, location of researchers, academic discipline, methodological research, and centrality of the publishing journals. The attitude toward video games presented in publications varied by year of publication, location, academic discipline, and methodological research applied (Pimpact factor (Pvideo games. Readers, both lay and professional, should weigh these contextual variables when interpreting studies' results, in light of the possible bias they carry. The results also support a need for a more balanced, open-minded approach toward video games, as it is likely that this complex phenomenon carries novel opportunities as well as new hazards.

  18. Possible Biases of Researchers’ Attitudes Toward Video Games: Publication Trends Analysis of the Medical Literature (1980–2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovner, Mitchell; Appel, David Ian; Abrams, Aaron W; Rotem, Michal; Bloch, Yuval

    2016-01-01

    Background The study of video games is expanding, and so is the debate regarding their possible positive and deleterious effects. As controversies continue, several researchers have expressed their concerns about substantial biases existing in the field, which might lead to the creation of a skewed picture, both in the professional and in the lay literature. However, no study has tried to examine this issue quantitatively. Objective The objective of our study was to examine possible systematic biases in the literature, by analyzing the publication trends of the medical and life sciences literature regarding video games. Methods We performed a complete and systematic PubMed search up to December 31, 2013. We assessed all 1927 articles deemed relevant for their attitude toward video games according to the focus, hypothesis, and authors’ interpretation of the study results, using a 3-category outcome (positive, negative, and neutral). We assessed the prevalence of different attitudes for possible association with year of publication, location of researchers, academic discipline, methodological research, and centrality of the publishing journals. Results The attitude toward video games presented in publications varied by year of publication, location, academic discipline, and methodological research applied (Pvideo games. Readers, both lay and professional, should weigh these contextual variables when interpreting studies’ results, in light of the possible bias they carry. The results also support a need for a more balanced, open-minded approach toward video games, as it is likely that this complex phenomenon carries novel opportunities as well as new hazards. PMID:27430187

  19. Iodine nutrition status and knowledge, attitude, and behavior in Tehranian women following 2 decades without public education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Nazeri, Pantea; Amiri, Parisa; Mehran, Ladan; Shakeri, Nezhat; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the association of iodine nutrition status and knowledge, attitude, and behavior in Tehranian women after 2 decades without updating public education. Cross-sectional study. Eight health care centers from 4 district areas of Tehran. A total of 383 women aged ≥ 19 years, randomly selected. Iodine concentration of 24-hour urine samples, iodine content of household salts, and knowledge, attitude, and practice scores regarding iodine nutrition and iodized salt. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify the association of knowledge, attitude, and practice scores with urinary iodine concentration (UIC) women with high knowledge, attitude, and practice scores were 26%, 26%, and 14%, respectively. Practice score was significantly different between females with UIC 100 μg/L (P = .001). Risk of UIC women of childbearing age (19-45 years) after adjustment of education level, region of residence, and iodine content of salt was significantly associated with intermediate practice score (odds ratio = 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-13.2). Marginally suboptimal iodine status in women of childbearing age can be attributed to inappropriate practices, but not to knowledge and attitude. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Consumers' attitudes toward consumption of cloned beef. The impact of exposure to technological information about animal cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizaki, Hideo; Sawada, Manabu; Sato, Kazuo

    2011-10-01

    Novel food technologies, such as cloning, have been introduced into the meat production sector; however, their use is not widely supported by many consumers. This study was designed to assess whether Japanese consumers' attitudes toward consumption of cloned beef (specifically, beef derived from bovine embryo and somatic cell-cloned cattle) would change after they were provided with technological information on animal cloning through a web-based survey. The results revealed that most respondents did not discriminate between their attitudes toward the consumption of the two types of cloned beef, and that most respondents did not change their attitudes toward cloned beef after receiving the technological information. The respondents' individual characteristics, including their knowledge about the food safety of cloned beef and their basic knowledge about animal cloning, influenced the likelihood of a change in their attitudes after they received the information. In conclusion, some consumers might become less uncomfortable about the consumption of cloned beef by the straightforward provision of technological information about animal cloning; however, most consumers are likely to maintain their attitudes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Causality between public policies and exports of renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Bongsuk; Song, Woo-Yong

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the causal relationship between public policies and exports of renewable energy technologies using panel data from 18 countries for the period 1991–2007. A number of panel unit root and cointegration tests are applied. Time series data on public policies and exports are integrated and cointegrated. The dynamic OLS results indicate that in the long run, a 1% increase in government R and D expenditures (RAD) increases exports (EX) by 0.819%. EX and RAD variables respond to deviations from the long-run equilibrium in the previous period. Additionally, the Blundell–Bond system generalized methods of moments (GMM) is employed to conduct a panel causality test in a vector error-correction mechanism (VECM) setting. Evidence of a bidirectional and short-run, and strong causal relationship between EX and the contribution of renewable energy to the total energy supply (CRES) is uncovered. CRES has a negative effect on EX, whereas EX has a positive effect on CRES. We suggest some policy implications based on the results of this study. - Highlights: ► We model VECM to test the Granger causality between the policies and the export. ► Technology-push policy has a positive impact on export in the long-run. ► There are the short-run causal relationships between market-pull policy and export

  2. The Impact of Suicide Prevention Public Service Announcements on Help-Seeking Attitudes: The Message Makes a Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Klimes-Dougan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Suicide continues to be one of the most serious public health challenges. Public service announcements are frequently used to address this challenge, but are rarely sufficiently evaluated to determine if they meet the intended goals, or are associated with potential iatrogenic effects. Although it is challenging to assess the relative impact of different PSA modalities, our group previously noted that one billboard message failed to show the same benefits as one TV ad (e.g., Klimes-Dougan & Lee, 2010. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings to test critical aspects of suicide prevention billboard messaging. Although both simulated billboard messages presented had identical supporting messages, we predicted that the more personal billboard message, focused on saving one’s life, would cause more favorable help-seeking attitudes than the message focused on suicide. Young adult university students (N = 785 were randomly assigned to one of three conditions; one of two billboard simulations or a TV ad simulation. Help-seeking attitudes, maladaptive coping and reports of concern and distress were evaluated. The results of this study suggest some relative benefits in endorsement of favorable help-seeking attitudes for one of the billboard conditions - Stop depression from taking another life. Although further research is needed to determine what methods will alter the risk for suicide in the population, the results of this study provide a useful first step showing that some billboard messaging may favorably influence help-seeking attitudes.

  3. International attitudes of early adopters to current and future robotic technologies in pediatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundy, Thomas P; Marcus, Hani J; Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Najmaldin, Azad S; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara

    2014-10-01

    Perceptions toward surgical innovations are critical to the social processes that drive technology adoption. This study aims to capture attitudes of early adopter pediatric surgeons toward robotic technologies in order to clarify 1) specific features that are driving appeal, 2) limiting factors that are acting as diffusion barriers, and 3) future needs. Electronic surveys were distributed to pediatric surgeons with personal experience or exposure in robotic surgery. Participants were classified as experts or nonexperts for subgroup analysis. Coded Likert scale responses were analyzed using the Friedman or Mann-Whitney test. A total of 48 responses were received (22 experts, 26 nonexperts), with 14 countries represented. The most highly rated benefits of robot assistance were wristed instruments, stereoscopic vision, and magnified view. The most highly rated limitations were capital outlay expense, instrument size, and consumables/maintenance expenses. Future technologies of greatest interest were microbots, image guidance, and flexible snake robots. Putative benefits and limitations of robotic surgery are perceived with widely varied weightings. Insight provided by these responses will inform relevant clinical, engineering, and industry groups such that unambiguous goals and priorities may be assigned for the future. Pediatric surgeons seem most receptive toward technology that is smaller, less expensive, more intelligent and flexible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Implementation of laser technology and treatment at county level in the Swedish Public Dental Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergholm, Åsa; Östberg, Anna-Lena; Gabre, Pia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain an understanding of the factors that affected the way new technology and methods were used in dentistry after a training program. A qualitative research method was used to collect data. Nine dentists working in the Public Dental Service (PDS) in Uppsala County in Sweden agreed to be interviewed in the study. They worked in five different clinics, all with laser equipment, and had received training in the use of lasers. The interviews were tape recorded and transcribed, and were analysed using manifest and latent qualitative content analysis. The categories in this study were identified as "Prerequisites and obstacles to imple- mentation", "Attitudes to laser technology and treatments" and "Laser technology in the future'". The dentists described working with lasers as complicated and problematic. They had concerns about the method relating to the working environment, evidence of efficacy of treatment, costs, and benefits for patients and dentists. The main finding was that the decision to adopt the technology seemed to be based on individual perceptions of the value of lasers compared to other ways of achieving the same goal. They provided uniform proposals regarding how an organization should implement new methods, including an emphasis on the importance of preparation and having opportunities to be able to test and evaluate the technology. Another important factor was support from surrounding staff, colleagues and management. Despite all the barriers, the respondents were positive about working with lasers in the future, mainly due to their belief that patients would demand laser treatment. In conclusion both individual and organizational factors affected the extent to which the respondents used the laser. The main finding was the individual perception of the value of lasers compared to other methods which could achieve the same goal.

  5. Public attitudes toward biofuels. Effects of knowledge, political partisanship, and media use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Michael A; Binder, Andrew R; Scheufele, Dietram A; Shaw, Bret R

    2012-01-01

    Despite large-scale investments and government mandates to expand biofuels development and infrastructure in the United States, little is known about how the public conceives of this alternative fuel technology. This study examines public opinion of biofuels by focusing on citizen knowledge and the motivated processing of media information. Specifically, we explore the direct effects of biofuels knowledge and the moderating effect of partisanship on the relationship between media use and benefit vs. risk perceptions in the following four domains: environmental impacts, economic consequences, ethical/social implications, and political ramifications. Our results suggest that more knowledgeable respondents see fewer benefits of biofuels relative to risks, and that Democrats and Republicans are affected differently by media use when forming opinions about biofuels. Among Democrats, greater attention to political media content leads to a more favorable outlook toward the technology across several domains of interest, while among Republicans, an increase in attention to political content has the opposite effect. Possible reasons for these results, as well as implications of the findings at the intersection of politics and the life sciences, are discussed.

  6. Age influence on attitudes of office workers faced with new computerized technologies: a questionnaire analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquié, J C; Thon, B; Baracat, B

    1994-06-01

    The study of Bue and Gollac (1988) provided evidence that a significantly lower proportion of workers aged 45 years and over make use of computer technology compared with younger ones. The aim of the present survey was to explain this fact by a more intensive analysis of the older workers' attitude with respect to the computerization of work situations in relation to other individual and organizational factors. Six hundred and twenty office workers from 18 to 70 years old, either users or non-users of computerized devices, were asked to complete a questionnaire. The questions allowed the assessment of various aspects of the workers' current situation, such as the computer training they had received, the degree of consultation they were subjected to during the computerization process, their representation of the effects of these new technologies on working conditions and employment, the rate of use of new technologies outside the work context, and the perceived usefulness of computers for their own work. The analysis of the questionnaire revealed that as long as the step towards using computer tools, even minimally, has not been taken, then attitudes with respect to computerization are on the whole not very positive and are a source of anxiety for many workers. Age, and even more, seniority in the department, increase such negative representations. The effects of age and seniority were also found among users, as well as the effects of other factors such as qualification, education level, type and rate of computer use, and size of the firm. For the older workers, the expectation of less positive consequences for their career, or even the fear that computerization might be accompanied by threats to their own employment and the less clear knowledge of how computers operate, appeared to account for a significant part of the observed age and seniority differences in attitudes. Although the difference in the amount of computer training between age groups was smaller than

  7. Internet Use and Technology-Related Attitudes of Veterans and Informal Caregivers of Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan-Porter, Wei; Van Houtven, Courtney H; Mahanna, Elizabeth P; Chapman, Jennifer G; Stechuchak, Karen M; Coffman, Cynthia J; Hastings, Susan Nicole

    2017-12-18

    Healthcare systems are interested in technology-enhanced interventions to improve patient access and outcomes. However, there is uncertainty about feasibility and acceptability for groups who may benefit but are at risk for disparities in technology use. Thus, we sought to describe characteristics of Internet use and technology-related attitudes for two such groups: (1) Veterans with multi-morbidity and high acute care utilization and (2) informal caregivers of Veterans with substantial care needs at home. We used survey data from two ongoing trials, for 423 Veteran and 169 caregiver participants, respectively. Questions examined Internet use in the past year, willingness to communicate via videoconferencing, and comfort with new technology devices. Most participants used Internet in the past year (81% of Veterans, 82% of caregivers); the majority of users (83% of Veterans, 92% of caregivers) accessed Internet at least a few times a week, and used a private laptop or computer (81% of Veterans, 89% of caregivers). Most were willing to use videoconferencing via private devices (77-83%). A majority of participants were comfortable attempting to use new devices with in-person assistance (80% of Veterans, 85% of caregivers), whereas lower proportions were comfortable "on your own" (58-59% for Veterans and caregivers). Internet use was associated with comfort with new technology devices (odds ratio 2.76, 95% confidence interval 1.70-4.53). Findings suggest that technology-enhanced healthcare interventions are feasible and acceptable for Veterans with multi-morbidity and high healthcare utilization, and informal caregivers of Veterans. In-person assistance may be important for those with no recent Internet use.

  8. The good, the bad, and the ambivalent: A qualitative study of public perceptions towards energy technologies and portfolios in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheer, Dirk; Konrad, Wilfried; Wassermann, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates informed public preferences about electricity technologies and portfolios in Germany, qualitatively analyzing opinions, reasoning patterns and judgments of perceived risks and benefits among lay people. The authors developed and applied a ‘mixed-method’ focus group approach involving 130 participants in 15 focus groups throughout Germany. This research aimed to specify participants’ attitudes and preferences regarding electricity technologies and portfolios (evaluation categories); comparatively assess these preferences (technology/portfolio acceptance profiles); and identify participants’ decision-making strategies and processes (decision rule typology). The evaluation basis of people's preferences comprises nine evaluation categories including, among others, trust, national and household economics, and environmental and health impacts. When assessing preferences regarding electricity technologies and portfolios, two overriding results need to be emphasized: first, that selective evaluation patterns produce unique acceptance profiles, and second, that a shift occurs from heterogeneous towards homogeneous evaluation patterns. In relation to decision rules guiding people's preference-making, the research reveals multiple mechanisms are at work when people express preferences about electricity portfolios. Five decision rules were identified regarding how participants dealt with complex portfolio information processing and preference building. - Highlights: • The evaluation basis of people's preferences comprises nine evaluation categories. • Evaluation patterns produce unique technology and portfolio acceptance profiles. • Five generic decision rules guide people's preference-making. • People make decisions in multiple ways using a variety of evaluation strategies. • No ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach for creating insights into the public's approval or rejection of technologies.

  9. Educational technology integration and distance learning in respiratory care: practices and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Keith B; Johns, Carol L

    2007-11-01

    Educational technologies have had an important role in respiratory care. Distance learning via postal correspondence has been used extensively in respiratory care, and Internet-based distance learning is now used in the training of respiratory therapists (RTs), clinical continuing education, and in baccalaureate degree and higher programs for RTs and educators. To describe the current scope of respiratory care educational technology integration, including distance learning. To investigate online research potential in respiratory care. A probabilistic online survey of United States respiratory care program directors was conducted on educational technology practices and attitudes, including distance learning. A parallel exploratory study of United States respiratory care managers was conducted. One-hundred seventy-seven (53%) program directors participated. One-hundred twenty-eight respiratory care managers participated. For instructional purposes, the respiratory care programs heavily use office-productivity software, the Internet, e-mail, and commercial respiratory care content-based computer-based instruction. The programs use, or would use, online resources provided by text publishers, but there is a paucity. Many program directors reported that their faculty use personal digital assistants (PDAs), often in instructional roles. 74.6% of the programs offer no fully online courses, but 61.0% reported at least one course delivered partially online. The managers considered continuing education via online technologies appropriate, but one third reported that they have not/will not hire RTs trained via distance learning. Neither group considered fully online courses a good match for RT training, nor did they consider training via distance learning of comparable quality to on-campus programs. Both groups rated baccalaureate and higher degrees via distance learning higher if the program included face-to-face instruction. Online distance-learning participatory experience

  10. Track leading to decision of 'framework for nuclear energy policy'. Reading the public attitude with public opinions (the first). Contents of a new plan (as of June 2005)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimooka, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    The Government decides to respect the 'Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy', which was decided by the Atomic Energy Commission on October 11th, 2005, as a basic principle for the nuclear energy policy and promote research, development and utilization of nuclear science and engineering. The Planning Council asked public opinion and received 758 opinions from 393 citizens. The Council continued the deliberation taking these opinions and compiled a preliminary draft of the 'Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy'. Reading the public attitude with public opinions had been conducted by the author, which showed the necessity for the nation to communicate crucial issues such as the nation's role of nuclear program's implementation, reasons for further promotion of nuclear program and its impacts on environments as well as more preferable introduction of new energy or energy conservation in stead of nuclear power, more to the public. (T. Tanaka)

  11. Users' attitude towards science and technology database system : INIS user needs survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukazawa, Takeyasu; Takahashi, Satoko; Yonezawa, Minoru; Kajiro, Tadashi; Mineo, Yukinobu; Habara, Takako; Komatsubara, Yasutoshi; Hiramatsu, Nobuaki; Habara, Tadashi.

    1995-01-01

    The International Nuclear Information System (INIS) is the world's leading information system on the peaceful use of nuclear energy which is being operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in collaboration with its member-states and other international organizations. After more than 20 years of the operation of INIS, a user needs survey was conducted with the aim of assisting the INIS Secretariat to decide which way INIS should go. This report describes users' attitude towards that system on the basis of the conclusions drawn from the questionnaires sent out to the users by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the INIS national center in Japan, in close collaboration with the Japan Information Center of Science and Technology. (author)

  12. Public Knowledge and Attitude toward Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Tokat Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Yilmaz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The World health Organization (WHO declares Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fe­ver (CCHF endemic in Turkey. Despite the magnitude of problem, no documented evi­dence exists in Turkey, which reveals the aware­ness and practices of the country's adult popula­tion regarding CCHF, its spread, symptoms, treatment, and preven­tion. This study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding CCHF in people visit­ing terti­ary care hospital in Tokat, Turkey.Methods: This questionnaire based cross-sectional survey was conducted among patients' rela­tives or guardians who ad­mitted pediatric outpatient clinics during May-July 2008. The question­naire was composed of 25 questions.Results: A total of 1034 respondents participated in the survey. Sufficient knowledge about CCHF was not found in 28.9% of the sample. Literate individuals were relatively better informed about CCHF as compared to the illiterate peo­ple. Television and radio were con­sidered as the most important and useful source of information on the disease.Conclusion: We have found insufficient knowledge on CCHF in our population. It is thought to have no chance of suc­cess against a fatal disease such as CCHF, which has serious consequences, without the contribution of commu­nity. It is clear that there are important tasks for health, agri­culture, and media sectors to improve public knowledge and awareness about CCHF.

  13. Contingent Faculty Perceptions of Organizational Support, Workplace Attitudes, and Teaching Evaluations at a Public Research University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Young Cha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research examines contingent faculty’s perception of organizational support, workplace attitudes, and Student Ratings of Teaching (SRT in a large public research university to investigate their employee-organization relationship. According to t-tests and regression analyses for samples of 2,229 faculty and instructional staff who answered the survey and had SRT data (tenured and tenure-track faculty: 1,708, 76.6% of total; contingent faculty: 521, 23.4% of total, employment relationship of contingent faculty in this institution was closer to a combined economic and social exchange model than to a pure economic exchange model or underinvestment model. Contingent faculty’s satisfaction with work, satisfaction with coworkers, perception of being supported at work, and affective organizational commitment were higher than tenured and tenure-track faculty at a statistically significant level. In addition, contingent faculty had higher SRT mean results in all areas of SRT items in medium-size (10-30 classes and in ‘class presentation,’ ‘feedback,’ ‘deeper understanding,’ and ‘interest stimulated’ in large-size (30-50 classes than Tenured and Tenure-track Faculty. These results not only refute the misconception that contingent faculty have too little time to provide students with feedback but also support that they provide students with good teaching, at least in medium-size and large-size classes. Whereas these results might be partially attributable to the relatively stable status of contingent faculty in this study (who work for more than 50 percent FTE, they indicate that, as a collective, contingent faculty also represent a significant contributor to the university, who are satisfied with their work, enjoy the community they are in, and are committed to their institution.

  14. Public involvement in pharmacogenomics research: a national survey on public attitudes towards pharmacogenomics research and the willingness to donate DNA samples to a DNA bank in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Eriko; Satoh, Nobunori

    2009-11-01

    To assess the attitudes of the Japanese general public towards pharmacogenomics research and a DNA bank for identifying genomic markers associated with ADRs and their willingness to donate DNA samples, we conducted a national survey for 1,103 Japanese adults from the general public, not a patient population. The response rate was 36.8%. The majority of the respondents showed a positive attitude towards pharmacogenomics research (81.0%) and a DNA bank (70.4%). Considering fictitious clinical situations such as taking medications and experiencing ADRs, the willingness to donate DNA samples when experiencing ADRs (61.7%) was higher than when taking medications (45.3%). Older generations were significantly associated with a decreased willingness to donate (OR = 0.45, CI 0.28-0.72 in 50s. OR = 0.49, CI: 0.31-0.77 in 60s). Positive attitudes towards pharmacogenomics research, a DNA bank, blood/bone marrow/organ donation were significantly associated with an increased willingness. However, the respondents had the following concerns regarding a DNA bank: the confidentiality of their personal information, the manner by which research results were utilized and simply the use of their own DNA for research. In order to attain public understanding to overcome these concerns, a process of public awareness should be put into place to emphasize the beneficial aspects of identifying genomic markers associated with ADRs and to address these concerns raised in our study. Further study is needed to assess the willingness of actual patients taking medications in real situations, since the respondents in our study were from the general public, not a patient population, and their willingness was assessed on the condition of assuming that they were patients taking medications.

  15. An empirical analysis of the public's attitudes toward advertising hospital services: a comparative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, H Ronald; Freeman, Gordon L

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates current opinions about hospital advertising and compares them to the attitudes expressed 25 years ago. It replicates a survey done in 1985, using the same questionnaire and population to compare responses longitudinally. The study indicates some changes in the public's opinions of hospital advertising. Although the image of hospitals remains positive, most of the 2010 respondents' opinions were rather mixed regarding whether it is proper for hospitals to advertise. The study also confirmed that the quality of service and reputation of hospitals remain more important to the public than price.

  16. Impact of the TEPCO incident on the public's attitude to nuclear power generation. Periodic survey No.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitada, Atsuko

    2003-01-01

    The impact of the TEPCO incident, was examined, using the data collected by public opinion polls on power generation, which have been conducted persistently since 1993. The survey revealed that there were no negative changes in the public's attitude overall (including their concerns about nuclear power accidents, their sense of danger of such accidents, the image of organizations involved in nuclear power generation, their confidence in such organizations, and their opinion on the use of nuclear power generation), and that the TEPCO incident had no impact on the public's attitude to nuclear power generation. In contrast with the JCO accident, which did affect the public's attitude to nuclear power generation, the TEPCO incident left a strong impression on few people, and public awareness was limited. Such low public awareness is deemed to relate to its lack of impact on the public's attitude to nuclear power generation. In the case of the JCO accident, even individuals who had limited exposure to the mass media were highly of it, whereas in the case of the TEPCO incident, individuals who were relatively unexposed to the mass media were substantially less aware of the incident than their more mass-media-exposed counterparts. This is deemed to have been due to the difference in mass media reports. A comparison of newspaper articles covering the TEPCO and the JCO accident substantiated the quantitative difference in mass media reports: articles on the former numbered less than half of the latter. Correlation analysis with respect to the awareness of the TEPCO incident was conducted, in order to identify the impact of the incident on individuals with a high level of awareness. Such individuals were highly confident that safe operation is being regarded as the top-priority objective by staff at the nuclear power plants, indicating that their confidence was not undermined by the TEPCO incident. However, there was a high level of distrust, that the truth about safety is

  17. Handbook of public communication of science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Trench, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Comprehensive yet accessible, this key handbook provides an up-to-date overview of the fast growing and increasingly important area of 'public communication of science and technology', from both research and practical perspectives. As well as introducing the main issues, arenas and professional perspectives involved, it presents the findings of earlier research and the conclusions previously drawn. Unlike most existing books on this topic, this unique volume couples an overview of the practical problems faced by practitioners with a thorough review of relevant literature and research. The practical handbook format ensures it is a student-friendly resource, but its breadth of scope and impressive contributors means that it is also ideal for practitioners and professionals working in the field. Combining the contributions of different disciplines (media and journalism studies, sociology and history of science), the perspectives of different geographical and cultural contexts, and by selecting key contributions ...

  18. Predicting Public Bicycle Adoption Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin T. Hazen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bicycle sharing programs provide a sustainable mode of urban transportation. Although cities across the globe have developed these systems for their citizens and visitors, usage rates are not as high as anticipated. This research uses the technology acceptance model as the basis to understand one’s intention to adopt bicycle sharing programs. Using survey data derived from 421 participants in Beijing, China, the proposed covariance-based structural equation model consisting of perceived quality, perceived convenience, and perceived value is found to predict 50.5% of the variance in adoption intention. The findings of this research contribute to theory and practice in the burgeoning literature on public bicycle systems and sustainable urban transportation by offering a theoretical lens through which to consider system adoption, and providing information to practitioners as to what factors might contribute most to adoption.

  19. Public funding - a solution for technological SMEs and entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilia, Calefariu; Traian Alexandru, Buda

    2016-11-01

    Technological SMEs are in a constant struggle for growth or sometimes maintaining the production capacity, increase market share, supporting tax burden, ensuring employees' salaries, profit growth. They constantly consider short-term survival of the company, with trying to maintain a long-term uptrend for the business. Entrepreneurs are again in a position to access public financing under quite favorable conditions. The paper aims to analyze the opportunity of accessing these external financing options, which have both advantages and a series of long-term constraints which should not be excluded before the final decision to access this funding. New research is required, thus sustainable development can be maintained for the business environment in order to increase efficiency, competitiveness, sustainable development strategies that generate job security, regional growth and rewarding the risk-taking of the entrepreneur.

  20. Experiments in engagement: Designing public engagement with science and technology for capacity building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selin, Cynthia; Rawlings, Kelly Campbell; de Ridder-Vignone, Kathryn; Sadowski, Jathan; Altamirano Allende, Carlo; Gano, Gretchen; Davies, Sarah R; Guston, David H

    2017-08-01

    Public engagement with science and technology is now widely used in science policy and communication. Touted as a means of enhancing democratic discussion of science and technology, analysis of public engagement with science and technology has shown that it is often weakly tied to scientific governance. In this article, we suggest that the notion of capacity building might be a way of reframing the democratic potential of public engagement with science and technology activities. Drawing on literatures from public policy and administration, we outline how public engagement with science and technology might build citizen capacity, before using the notion of capacity building to develop five principles for the design of public engagement with science and technology. We demonstrate the use of these principles through a discussion of the development and realization of the pilot for a large-scale public engagement with science and technology activity, the Futurescape City Tours, which was carried out in Arizona in 2012.