WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology policy regulations

  1. Morals or markets? Regulating assisted reproductive technologies as morality or economic policies in the states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidt-Forsythe, Erin

    2017-01-01

    The availability of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) in the medical marketplace complicates our understanding of reproductive public policy in the United States. Political debates over ARTs often are based on fundamental moral principles of life, reproduction, and kinship, similar to other reproductive policies in the United States. However, ARTs are an important moneymaking private enterprise for the U.S. biotechnology industry. This project investigates how the U.S. states regulate these unique and challenging technologies as either moral policies or economic policies. This study employs ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to estimate the significance of morality and economic policy variables on ART policies at the state level, noting associations between state-level political, economic, and gender variables on restrictive and permissive state-level ART policies. Economic variables (reflecting the biotechnology industry) and advocacy for access to ART on behalf of infertility patients increase the chances of states passing policies that enable consumer use of ARTs. Additionally, individual ART policies are distinct from one another in the ways that morality variables increase the chances of ART regulations. Surprisingly, the role of religious adherence among state residents varied in positive and negative relationships with individual policy passage. In general, these results support the hypothesis that ART laws are associated with economic as well as moral concerns of the states-ARTs lie at the intersection of issues of life and reproduction and of scientific innovation and health. What is most striking about these results is that they do not follow patterns seen in the legislation of abortion, contraception, and sexuality in general-those reproductive policies that are considered "morality policy." Similarly, economic variables are not consistently significant in the expected direction.

  2. Regulative environmental policy. Regulative Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerlitz, A; Voigt, R [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Neubiberg (Germany, F.R.). Fakultaet fuer Sozialwissenschaften; eds.

    1991-01-01

    Regulative policy means those governmental attempts to steer the course of things which can fall back on a certain repertoire of instruments for actions in order to warrant the causal and temporal connection between the making available and the employment of means. The fact that environmental protection needs regulative policy is substantiated by the thesis that the market has failed; consequently only government can manage the public goods 'environment' in a suitable way, and it is a matter of fact that environmental protection at present is operated preferably via regulative policy. The problems of regulative enviromental policy are manifold. Its implementation often miscarries because of limited administrative resources on the one hand - making sufficient control impossible for instance -, and because of poor quality regulative instruments on the other hand. One way out would be to increase the efficiency of regulative policy by sophisticating judicial techniques. Other ways out point to the executing level and aim at improving implementation strategies or are concerned with post-regulative law. The latter refers to a new legal quality which demonstrates itself already in corporatistical crisis regulation or in induction programs such as pollution limits. A final way out favours deregulation strategies which includes the introduction of environmental levies or the allocation of environmental licences. An interdisciplinary discourse is to find out what would happen if these ways were taken. Pointers to solutions from varying scientific disciplines resulting from this discourse are to be found in this volume. (orig./HSCH).

  3. Environmental policy and technological change: The effects of economic incentives and direct regulation on energy-saving innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Richard G., Jr.

    Over the long run, the impacts of environmental policies will be greatly affected by the influence these policies have on the rate and direction of technological change. In particular, the roles played by energy prices and product regulation in energy-saving technology innovation are exceptionally important considerations in modeling climate change and evaluating alternative policy options. We analyze the effects of energy prices and energy-efficiency regulations on the menu of air conditioner and water heater models available on the market over a period of more than three decades, measuring their innovation in terms of improvements in the products' underlying characteristics. Through estimation of a series of "characteristics transformation surfaces," we find that during less than four decades, substantial innovation in these products reduced the total capital and operating costs of air conditioning by one-half and water heating by more than one-fifth. Although the overall rate of innovation in these products appears to be independent of energy prices and regulations, the evidence suggests that the direction of innovation may be responsive to energy price changes. This would imply that energy price increases induced innovation in a direction that lowered the capital cost tradeoffs inherent in producing more energy-efficient products. The evidence supporting "regulation-induced" changes in these tradeoffs is much weaker. Our estimates indicate that about one- to two-fifths of the energy-efficiency improvements in these products from 1973 to 1993 were associated with historical changes in energy prices. We also find that this responsiveness to price changes increased substantially after product labeling requirements came into effect, and that minimum efficiency standards had a significant positive effect on average efficiency levels. Nonetheless, a sizeable portion of historical efficiency improvements in these technologies is associated with the products' overall

  4. Science and Technology Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baark, Erik

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the status of science and technology in Mongolia, and discusses the policy issues which have emerged with the transition to market economy in recent years.......This paper examines the status of science and technology in Mongolia, and discusses the policy issues which have emerged with the transition to market economy in recent years....

  5. Development of National Technology Audit Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Subiyanto Subiyanto

    2017-01-01

    The Laws have mandated implementation of technology audit, nevertheless such implementation needs an additional policy that is more technical. The concept of national audit technology policy shall make technology audit as a tool to ensure the benefit of technology application for society and technology advance for nation independency. This article discusses on technology audit policy concept especially infrastructure requirement, with emphasis on regulation, implementation tools, and related ...

  6. Development of National Technology Audit Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subiyanto Subiyanto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Laws have mandated implementation of technology audit, nevertheless such implementation needs an additional policy that is more technical. The concept of national audit technology policy shall make technology audit as a tool to ensure the benefit of technology application for society and technology advance for nation independency. This article discusses on technology audit policy concept especially infrastructure requirement, with emphasis on regulation, implementation tools, and related institution. The development of technology audit policy for national interest requires provision of mandatory audit implementation, accompanied by tools for developing technology auditor’s competence and technology audit institutional’s mechanism. To guide technology auditor’s competence, concept of national audit technology policy shall classify object of technology audit into product technology, production technology, and management of technology, accompanied by related parameters of technology performance evaluation.

  7. Proceedings of the 8. Brazilian congress on energy: energy policy, regulation and sustainable development. v. 3: technological innovation, renewable sources and rural energization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    These proceedings cover the papers presented in the 8. Brazilian congress on energy held at Rio de Janeiro from November, 30 to December, 02, 1999, focusing energy policy, regulation and sustainable development, specifically the contribution of energy to a satisfactory quality of life for everyone. Within such a context, the congress technical programme has been structured around six different divisions: energy, environment and development; energy sector regulation; energy policy and planning; technology innovation; energy conservation; renewable energy sources and rural areas energy supply

  8. Science and technology policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Who is responsible for environmental and technological policy in Denmark? And how are those "policy-makers" made accountable to the public for their decisions?   This report attempts to answer these important questions by presenting the Danish contribution to the EU-funded project, Analysing Public...

  9. Technology Policy and Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bruce

    1983-01-01

    Current social and economic problems in the United Kingdom are placed in the context of long-term trends in labor economics and the impact of new technology. The relationship of technological change and economic recovery is analyzed. Policy implications and the university's role are discussed. (MSE)

  10. Policies and regulations in Mexico with regard to genetic technology and food security

    OpenAIRE

    Colmenarez Ortiz, Claudia; Ortiz Garcia, Sol

    2016-01-01

    In 1988 the first application for field trials of a GMO was formally received in Mexico. Since then a Biosafety law, few bylaws and national official standards were enacted in order to regulate the safe use of GMOs and to evaluate, control and avoid adverse effects to human health and the environment. The Law on Biosafety of Genetically Modified Organisms was enacted in 2005 in order to comply with international obligations derived from the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety signed by Mexico in ...

  11. Regulating technological change - The strategic reactions of utility companies towards subsidy policies in the German, Spanish and UK electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenzel, Till; Frenzel, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on how incumbent electric utilities strategically react to subsidy schemes supporting renewable energy technologies in the UK, Germany, and Spain. Firms coordinate the development of their technological capabilities and their political activities to shape their regulatory environment. Analysing the diffusion of wind power in these countries, we show that the different ways, in which firms coordinate their technological and political strategies, lead to very different market outcomes, both for the firms' market share and the size of the overall market. Although incumbents are usually seen as being resistant to change in energy systems, we show that Spanish utilities proactively drive the diffusion of wind power. We speculate about the relation between the ownership structure of the energy system and its inertia with respect to the integration of new technologies. We derive novel policy implications that explicitly take into account the strategic actions of incumbent firms shaping the technological and regulatory system

  12. Technology and international climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Leon; Calvin, Kate; Edmonds, James A.; Kyle, Page; Wise, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Both the nature of international climate policy architectures and the development and diffusion of new energy technologies could dramatically influence future costs of reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper explores the implications of interactions between technology availability and performance and international policy architectures for technology choice and the social cost of limiting atmospheric CO2 concentrations to 500 ppm by the year 2095. Key issues explored in the paper include the role of bioenergy production with CO2 capture and storage (CCS), overshoot concentration pathways, and the sensitivity of mitigation costs to policy and technology.

  13. Technology and international climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Leon; Calvin, Kate; Edmonds, James A.; Kyle, Page; Wise, Marshall

    2009-05-01

    Both the nature of international climate policy architectures and the development and diffusion of new energy technologies could dramatically influence future costs of reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper explores the implications of interactions between technology availability and performance and international policy architectures for technology choice and the social cost of limiting atmospheric CO2 concentrations to 500 ppm by the year 2095. Key issues explored in the paper include the role of bioenergy production with CO2 capture and storage (CCS), overshoot concentration pathways, and the sensitivity of mitigation costs to policy and technology.

  14. Emerging environmental technologies and environmental technology policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Leon Edward

    This dissertation explores the role and design of environmental technology policy when environmental innovation is embodied in emerging environmental technologies such as photovoltaic cells or fuel cells. The dissertation consists of three individual studies, all of which use a simplified, general model industry between an emerging environmental technology and an entrenched, more-polluting technology. It clarifies the situations in which environmental technology policy can achieve high welfare and those in which it cannot; and it separates the possible situations an emerging environmental technology might face into four scenarios, each with its own technology policy recommendations. The second study attempts to clarify which of two factors is having a larger limiting effect on private investment in photovoltaics: the failure to internalize the environmental costs of fossil fuel electricity generation or a broad set of innovation market failures that apply to innovation irrespective of environmental concerns. The study indicates that innovation market failures are probably having a significantly larger impact than incomplete internalization. The third study explores the effectiveness of adoption subsidies at encouraging private-sector innovation. The conclusion is that adoption subsidies probably have only a limited effect on long-term, private-sector research. Two important general conclusions of the dissertation are (1) that optimal technology policy should begin with technology-push measures and end with demand-pull measures; and (2) that the technological response to internalization instruments, such as emissions taxes, may be highly nonlinear.

  15. Educational Technology Policy in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slakmon, Benzi

    2017-01-01

    The study examines Israel's educational technology policy in light of the coming-of-age of ICT. The study shows the ways it has been developing, and identifies two major shifts which have occurred in recent years: the introduction of the national educational cloud, and the enabling of the "bring your own device" (BYOD) policy. The way…

  16. Environmental Policy and Technological Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, Adam B.; Newell, Richard G.; Stavins, Robert N.

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between technological change and environmental policy has received increasing attention from scholars and policy makers alike over the past ten years. This is partly because the environmental impacts of social activity are significantly affected by technological change, and partly because environmental policy interventions themselves create new constraints and incentives that affect the process of technological developments. Our central purpose in this article is to provide environmental economists with a useful guide to research on technological change and the analytical tools that can be used to explore further the interaction between technology and the environment. In Part 1 of the article, we provide an overview of analytical frameworks for investigating the economics of technological change, highlighting key issues for the researcher. In Part 2, we turn our attention to theoretical analysis of the effects of environmental policy on technological change, and in Part 3, we focus on issues related to the empirical analysis of technology innovation and diffusion. Finally, we conclude in Part 4 with some additional suggestions for research

  17. Environmental regulation and technological innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, A.E. [Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center, Pittsburg, PA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Government policies are a major factor in the determination of structural conditions of competition. The innovative activity comprises the following: invention, adoption, and diffusion. Invention involves research and development activities such as patenting, research and development budgets. The adoption phase is concerned with deployment. As for the diffusion phase, it involves commercialization, and scale-economies. The process of introducing new technologies that are adopted by small numbers of customers in a niche market was explained. Once costs are lowered through experience gained in designing, manufacturing and servicing the new technology, mew applications generally lead to larger markets. Environmental technologies have no early adopters, implying that governments have an important role to play. However, commercial processes are not normally as well known to government as it is to the private sector. The electoral cycle also interferes with long term research and development efforts for technological clusters. A look at sulphur dioxide control at United States power plants illustrated the problem. The author then explained the reasons behind low allowance prices. Low-sulphur western coal was rendered economic in large areas of the United States by rail deregulation. Electricity restructuring was also a factor. The author indicated that binding government regulation must come before adoption and diffusion of emission controls. A summary of recent research was provided, in which the author stated that no single policy instrument was likely to properly stimulate innovative activity. In those cases where both supply and demand are stimulated by government, the technological innovation is greatest. Stringent regulations induce innovation, as do greater flexibility and greater regulatory certainty. Knowledge transfer within the industry is vital. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Science, Technology, and Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke; Borrás, Susana

    2005-01-01

    This chapter is about what governments have done and could do to promote the production, diffusion, and use of scientific and technical knowledge in order to realize national objectives. We begin the chapter with "story-telling" based on sketchy historical facts. The aim of  the two stories...... is to illustrate that innovation policy covers a wide set of issues that have been on the agenda far back in history while still remaining important today. We move on to sketch the history of innovation policy, splitting it up into the three ideal types: science, technology, and innovation policy. We use OECD...

  19. Heterogeneous Policies, Heterogeneous Technologies: The Case of Renewable Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolli, Francesco; Vona, Francesco

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigates empirically the effect of market regulation and renewable energy policies on innovation activity in different renewable energy technologies. For the EU countries and the years 1980 to 2007, we built a unique dataset containing information on patent production in eight different technologies, proxies of market regulation and technology-specific renewable energy policies. Our main findings show that lowering entry barriers is a more significant driver of renewable energy innovation than privatisation and un-bundling, but its effect varies across technologies, being stronger in technologies characterised by the potential entry of small, independent power producers. Additionally, the inducement effect of renewable energy policies is heterogeneous and more pronounced for wind, which is the only technology that is mature and has high technological potential. Finally, the ratification of the Kyoto protocol - determining a more stable and less uncertain policy framework - amplifies the inducement effect of both energy policy and market liberalisation. (authors)

  20. Review of automated vehicle technology : policy and implementation implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-14

    The goals of this project were to undergo a systematic review of automated vehicle technologies with a focus on policy : implications, methods of implementation, regulation by states, and developments occurring on legal fronts, ultimately creating a ...

  1. Energy management under policy and technology uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylock, Steven M.; Seager, Thomas P.; Snell, Jeff; Bennett, Erin R.; Sweet, Don

    2012-01-01

    Energy managers in public agencies are subject to multiple and sometimes conflicting policy objectives regarding cost, environmental, and security concerns associated with alternative energy technologies. Making infrastructure investment decisions requires balancing different distributions of risks and benefits that are far from clear. For example, managers at permanent Army installations must incorporate Congressional legislative objectives, executive orders, Department of Defense directives, state laws and regulations, local restrictions, and multiple stakeholder concerns when undertaking new energy initiatives. Moreover, uncertainty with regard to alternative energy technologies is typically much greater than that associated with traditional technologies, both because the technologies themselves are continuously evolving and because the intermittent nature of many renewable technologies makes a certain level of uncertainty irreducible. This paper describes a novel stochastic multi-attribute analytic approach that allows users to explore different priorities or weighting schemes in combination with uncertainties related to technology performance. To illustrate the utility of this approach for understanding conflicting policy or stakeholder perspectives, prioritizing the need for more information, and making investment decisions, we apply this approach to an energy technology decision problem representative of a permanent military base. Highlights: ► Incorporate disparate criteria with uncertain performance. ► Analyze decisions with contrasting stakeholder positions. ► Interactively compare alternatives based on uncertain weighting. ► User friendly multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) tool.

  2. Regulation of Communication Policy of Modern Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketova Natalia, P.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the need for effective communication commercial banks, revealed the possibility of interaction with customers through advertising, sponsorship, philanthropy, sales promotion, lobbying of interests of banking institutions. The principles for the regulation of communications to ensure consistency of communication complex, which cause a complex effect on the external environment, the creation of adaptive system of marketing communications. It is proved that the possibilities of implementing an active communication policy of modern banks in recent years is constantly increasing. This contributes to the extension of Internet technologies, the creation of remote service channels, the emergence of new tools and technologies to attract and retain customers. On the example of JSC "Sberbank of Russia" presented the technology of using the traditional tools of ATL and BTL communications, the formation of the system CSR – corporate social responsibility, building contact with customers, enhancing their loyalty to the Bank. Reveals the areas of regulation of the savings Bank of its activities on the creation of the daily value of services based on the principles of involvement and co-operation of the system "Client - Bank", "Bank - Company", "Bank – Employees".

  3. Heterogeneous policies, heterogeneous technologies: The case of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolli, Francesco; Vona, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates empirically the effect of market regulation and renewable energy policies on innovation activity in different renewable energy technologies. For the EU countries and the years 1980 to 2007, we built a unique dataset containing information on patent production in eight different technologies, proxies of market regulation and technology-specific renewable energy policies. Our main finding is that, compared to privatisation and unbundling, reducing entry barriers is a more significant driver of renewable energy innovation, but that its effect varies across technologies and is stronger in technologies characterised by potential entry of small, independent power producers. In addition, the inducement effect of renewable energy policies is heterogeneous and more pronounced for wind, which is the only technology that is mature and has high technological potential. Finally, ratification of the Kyoto protocol, which determined a more stable and less uncertain policy framework, amplifies the inducement effect of both energy policy and market liberalisation. - Highlights: • We study the effect of market regulation and energy policy on renewable technologies. • Reducing entry barriers is a significant driver of renewable energy innovation. • The Kyoto protocol amplifies the effect of both energy policy and liberalisation. • These effects are heterogeneous across technologies and stronger for wind.

  4. Basic orientation of current enterprise technological policy

    OpenAIRE

    Lapteva, V.

    2008-01-01

    The article reviews the factors stimulating industrials to intensification of technological policy; quick analysis of possible sources for investment of technological policy; problems of transition to active technological policy; outline of basic forms of fixed capital stock reproduction. The article indicates necessity of keeping of optimum relationship between all forms of fixed capital stock reproduction.

  5. Utility regulation and competition policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Colin

    2002-03-01

    Contents: 1. The New Electricity Trading Arrangements in England and Wales: A Review - David Currie, 2. A Critique of Rail Regulation - Dieter Helm, 3. Moving to a Competitive Market in Water - Colin Robinson, 4. The New Gas Trading Arrangements - George Yarrow, 5. A Review of Privatization and Regulation Experience in Britain - Irwin M. Stelzer, 6. Converging Communications: Implications for Regulation - Mark Armstrong, 7. Opening European Electricity and Gas Markets - Graham Shuttleworth, 8. Concurrency or Convergence? Competition and Regulation Under the Competition Act 1998 - Tom Sharpe QC, 9. Ten Years of European Merger Control - Paul Seabright. (Author)

  6. Biofuels: policies, standards and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Skyrocketing prices of crude oil in the middle of the first decade of the 21st century accompanied by rising prices for food focused political and public attention on the role of biofuels. On the one hand, biofuels were considered as a potential automotive fuel with a bright future, on the other hand, biofuels were accused of competing with food production for land. The truth must lie somewhere in-between and is strongly dependent on the individual circumstance in different countries and regions. As food and energy are closely interconnected and often compete with each other for other resources, such as water, the World Energy Council - following numerous requests of its Member Committees - decided to undertake an independent assessment of biofuels policies, technologies and standards.

  7. Space weapon technology and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchens, Theresa

    2017-11-01

    The military use of space, including in support of nuclear weapons infrastructure, has greatly increased over the past 30 years. In the current era, rising geopolitical tensions between the United States and Russia and China have led to assumptions in all three major space powers that warfighting in space now is inevitable, and possible because of rapid technological advancements. New capabilities for disrupting and destroying satellites include radio-frequency jamming, the use of lasers, maneuverable space objects and more capable direct-ascent anti-satellite weapons. This situation, however, threatens international security and stability among nuclear powers. There is a continuing and necessary role for diplomacy, especially the establishment of normative rules of behavior, to reduce risks of misperceptions and crisis escalation, including up to the use of nuclear weapons. U.S. policy and strategy should seek a balance between traditional military approaches to protecting its space assets and diplomatic tools to create a more secure space environment.

  8. A Study on the Nuclear Technology Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, T. J.; Yun, S. W.; Jeong, I.; Lee, J. H.

    2007-02-01

    The objective of the study was to make policy-proposals for enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of national nuclear technology R and D programs. To do this, environmental changes of international nuclear energy policy and trends of nuclear technology development were surveyed and analyzed. This Study analyzed trends of nuclear technology policies and developed the nuclear energy R and D innovation strategy in a viewpoint of analyzing the changes in the global policy environment associated with nuclear technology development and development of national nuclear R and D strategy

  9. Review of Policy Documents for Nuclear Safety and Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woong Sik; Choi, Kwang Sik; Choi, Young Sung; Kim, Hho Jung; Kim, Ho Ki

    2006-01-01

    The goal of regulation is to protect public health and safety as well as environment from radiological hazards that may occur as a result of the use of atomic energy. In September 1994, the Korean government issued the Nuclear Safety Policy Statement (NSPS) to establish policy goals of maintaining and achieving high-level of nuclear safety and also help the public understand the national policy and a strong will of the government toward nuclear safety. It declares the importance of establishing safety culture in nuclear community and also specifies five nuclear regulatory principles (Independence, Openness, Clarity, Efficiency and Reliability) and provides the eleven regulatory policy directions. In 2001, the Nuclear Safety Charter was declared to make the highest goal of safety in driving nuclear business clearer; to encourage atomic energy- related institutions and workers to keep in mind the mission and responsibility for assuring safety; to guarantee public confidence in related organizations. The Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) also issues Yearly Regulatory Policy Directions at the beginning of every year. Recently, the third Atomic Energy Promotion Plan (2007-2011) has been established. It becomes necessary for the relevant organizations to prepare the detailed plans on such areas as nuclear development, safety management, regulation, etc. This paper introduces a multi-level structure of nuclear safety and regulation policy documents in Korea and presents some improvements necessary for better application of the policies

  10. Review of Policy Documents for Nuclear Safety and Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woong Sik; Choi, Kwang Sik; Choi, Young Sung; Kim, Hho Jung; Kim, Ho Ki [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    The goal of regulation is to protect public health and safety as well as environment from radiological hazards that may occur as a result of the use of atomic energy. In September 1994, the Korean government issued the Nuclear Safety Policy Statement (NSPS) to establish policy goals of maintaining and achieving high-level of nuclear safety and also help the public understand the national policy and a strong will of the government toward nuclear safety. It declares the importance of establishing safety culture in nuclear community and also specifies five nuclear regulatory principles (Independence, Openness, Clarity, Efficiency and Reliability) and provides the eleven regulatory policy directions. In 2001, the Nuclear Safety Charter was declared to make the highest goal of safety in driving nuclear business clearer; to encourage atomic energy- related institutions and workers to keep in mind the mission and responsibility for assuring safety; to guarantee public confidence in related organizations. The Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) also issues Yearly Regulatory Policy Directions at the beginning of every year. Recently, the third Atomic Energy Promotion Plan (2007-2011) has been established. It becomes necessary for the relevant organizations to prepare the detailed plans on such areas as nuclear development, safety management, regulation, etc. This paper introduces a multi-level structure of nuclear safety and regulation policy documents in Korea and presents some improvements necessary for better application of the policies.

  11. A Study on the Nuclear Technology Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, C. Y.; Lee, K. S.; Jeong, I.; Lee, J. H.

    2009-04-01

    The objective of the study was to make policy-proposes for enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of national nuclear technology development programs. To do this, recent changes of international nuclear energy policy and trends of nuclear technology R and D was surveyed and analyzed. In the viewpoint of analysis of the changes in the global policy surrounding nuclear technology development and development of national nuclear R and D strategy, this study (1) analyzed the trends of nuclear technology policies and (2) discussed the mid and long term strategy of nuclear energy R and D. To put it in more detail, each subject was further explored as follows; (1) analyzed the trends of nuclear technology policies - Trend and prospects of the international and domestic nuclear policies - Investigation of development of small and medium sized policies - International collaboration for advanced nuclear technologies (2) discussed the mid and long term strategy of nuclear energy R and D - The long term development plan for future nuclear energy system - The facilitation of technology commercialization

  12. New technologies to meet regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, C.; Harmon, L.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management has set the ambitious goal of having all of its facilities cleaned up and in compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations by the year 2019. This goal is ambitious both because of the magnitude of the effort required and because, in many cases, the means for attaining the goal do not now exist. The DOE's strategy for reaching its goal is based on applied research and development, education, and cooperation with regulators. The Office of Technology Development (OTD) within the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management has instituted a program to assess the magnitude of the cleanup effort and to evaluate the potential technologies to be used. The OTD has program responsibility for providing new and more effective technologies for meeting DOE's goal for compliance and cleanup. Included are research and development of new technologies; demonstration, testing, and evaluation of technologies developed elsewhere; transportation; and educational programs to produce the scientists and engineers needed to maintain the momentum of research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation (RDDT and E) until the job is complete

  13. Early Learning and Educational Technology Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the growth of technology use in early learning settings, the U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services collaborated in the development of the "Early Learning and Educational Technology Policy Brief" to promote developmentally appropriate use of technology in homes and early learning…

  14. Public utility regulation and national energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, P.

    1980-09-01

    The linkage between Public Utility Commission (PUC) regulation, the deteriorating financial health of the electric utility industry, and implementation of national energy policy, particularly the reduction of foreign petroleum consumption in the utility sector is examined. The role of the Nation's utilities in the pursuit of national energy policy goals and postulates a linkage between PUC regulation, the poor financial health of the utility industry, and the current and prospective failure to displace foreign petroleum in the utility sector is discussed. A brief history of PUC regulation is provided. The concept of regulatory climate and how the financial community has developed a system of ranking regulatory climate in the various State jurisdictions are explained. The existing evidence on the hypothesis that the cost of capital to a utility increases and its availability is reduced as regulatory climate grows more unfavorable from an investor's point of view is analyzed. The implications of this cost of capital effect on the electric utilities and collaterally on national energy policy and electric ratepayers are explained. Finally various State, regional and Federal regulatory responses to problems associated with PUC regulation are examined.

  15. Automated Vehicle Policy and Regulation: A State Perspective Workshop: Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Stanley E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Levine, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    A workshop held on May 18, 2016, at the University of Maryland focused on key principles that should govern state policy decisions intended to ensure the safe operation of autonomous vehicles (AVs). The patchwork approach taken by early state adopters had primarily addressed only testing of these vehicles. As uncertainties in technology and business models play out, and in the absence of more suitable policies and regulations, states are relying on laws created for conventional vehicles to govern AV operations. The workshop addressed these challenges with three panel discussions that examined the underpinnings of policy development, factors affecting policy decisions, and the ultimate impact of AVs in a number of areas, including economic competitiveness; quality of mobility, particularly for disabled community; and energy use and emissions.

  16. Technological policy and wage inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Cozzi, Guido; Impullitti, Giammario

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we argue that government procurement policy played a role in stimulating the wave of innovation that hit the US economy in the 1980's, as well as the simultaneous increase in inequality and in education attainment. Since the early 1980's U.S. policy makers began targeting commercial innovations more directly and explicitly. We focus on the shift in the composition of public demand towards high-tech goods which, by increasing the market-size of innovative �rms, fun...

  17. Translating Scientific Judgment, Technological Insight and Economic Theory Into Practical Policy Lessons: The Case of Climate Regulation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignone, B. K.

    2008-12-01

    Effective solutions to the climate change problem will require unprecedented cooperation across space, continuity across time and coordination between disciplines. One well-known methodology for synthesizing the lessons of physical science, energy engineering and economics is integrated assessment. Typically, integrated assessment models use scientific and technological relationships as physical constraints in a larger macroeconomic optimization that is designed to either balance the costs and benefits of climate change mitigation or find the least-cost path to an exogenously prescribed endpoint (e.g. atmospheric CO2 stabilization). The usefulness of these models depends to a large extent on the quality of the assumptions and the relevance of the outcome metrics chosen by the user. In this study, I show how a scientifically-based emissions reduction scenario can be combined with engineering-based assumptions about the energy system (e.g. estimates of the marginal cost premium of carbon-free technology) to yield insights about the price path of CO2 under a future regulatory regime. I then show how this outcome metric (carbon price) relates to key decisions about the design of a future cap-and-trade system and the way in which future carbon markets may be regulated.

  18. A Study on the Nuclear Technology Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. J.; Lim, C. Y.; Yang, M. H. (and others)

    2008-03-15

    The objective of the study was to make policy-proposes for enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of national nuclear technology development programs. To do this, changes of international nuclear energy policy environment and trends of nuclear technology development was surveyed and analyzed. In the viewpoint of analysis of the changes in the global policy environment surrounding nuclear technology development and development of national nuclear R and D strategy, this study (1) analyzed trends of nuclear technology policies and (2) developed the nuclear energy R and D innovation strategies. To put it in more detail, each subject was further explored as follows; (1) themes to analyze trends of nuclear policies: nuclear Renaissance and forecast for nuclear power plant, International collaboration for advanced nuclear technologies in GIF, INPRO and I-NERI, The present situation and outlook for world uranium market (2) themes to develop of nuclear energy R and D innovation strategies: The mid-term strategy plan of the KAERI, The technological innovation case of the KAERI.

  19. A Study on the Nuclear Technology Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. J.; Lim, C. Y.; Yang, M. H.

    2008-03-01

    The objective of the study was to make policy-proposes for enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of national nuclear technology development programs. To do this, changes of international nuclear energy policy environment and trends of nuclear technology development was surveyed and analyzed. In the viewpoint of analysis of the changes in the global policy environment surrounding nuclear technology development and development of national nuclear R and D strategy, this study (1) analyzed trends of nuclear technology policies and (2) developed the nuclear energy R and D innovation strategies. To put it in more detail, each subject was further explored as follows; (1) themes to analyze trends of nuclear policies: nuclear Renaissance and forecast for nuclear power plant, International collaboration for advanced nuclear technologies in GIF, INPRO and I-NERI, The present situation and outlook for world uranium market (2) themes to develop of nuclear energy R and D innovation strategies: The mid-term strategy plan of the KAERI, The technological innovation case of the KAERI

  20. Proceedings of the 8. Brazilian congress on energy: energy policy, regulation and sustainable development. v. 3: technological innovation, renewable sources and rural energization; Anais do 8. Congresso brasileiro de energia: politica energetica, regulamentacao e desenvolvimento sustentavel. v. 3: inovacao tecnologica, fontes renovaveis e energizacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    These proceedings cover the papers presented in the 8. Brazilian congress on energy held at Rio de Janeiro from November, 30 to December, 02, 1999, focusing energy policy, regulation and sustainable development, specifically the contribution of energy to a satisfactory quality of life for everyone. Within such a context, the congress technical programme has been structured around six different divisions: energy, environment and development; energy sector regulation; energy policy and planning; technology innovation; energy conservation; renewable energy sources and rural areas energy supply.

  1. 78 FR 7784 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Nomination Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Nomination Letters.... SUMMARY: The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy Committee (Health IT Policy Committee) and gave the Comptroller General responsibility for...

  2. Innovation, Diffusion, and Regulation in Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetter, Theodore Robert

    The innovation and diffusion of new technologies is one of the central concerns of economics. New inventions or technological combinations do not spring fully formed into the world; as firms encounter and learn about new technologies they experiment, refine, and learn about them, improving productivity (and sometimes earning economic rents). Understanding the processes by which firms learn, and how these processes interact with regulations, is fundamental to understanding the emergence of new technologies, their contribution to growth, and the interaction of innovation and regulation. This dissertation addresses how firms learn and respond to regulations in the context of emerging technologies. Within this framework, I address several questions. When production inputs are socially controversial, do firms respond to disclosure laws by voluntarily constraining their inputs? Do these public disclosure laws facilitate knowledge transmission across firms, and if so, what are the implications for public welfare - for instance, do the gains from trade outweigh any effects of reduced incentives for innovation? I study these questions in the context of hydraulic fracturing, though the results offer insight for more general settings. Panning out to a much broader view, I also explore how energy-related technologies - in both generation and consumption - diffuse across national boundaries over time, and whether innovation and diffusion of energy-efficient technologies has led to more or less energy-efficient economic growth. In my first paper, I contribute to improved understanding of the conditions in which information-based regulations, which are increasingly common in multiple policy domains, decrease externalities such as environmental pollution. Specifically, I test whether information disclosure regulations applied to hydraulic fracturing chemicals caused firms to decrease their use of toxic inputs. Prior to these mandatory disclosure laws, some operators voluntarily

  3. Useful models for simulating policies to induce technological change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivers, Nic; Jaccard, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Conventional top-down and bottom-up energy-economy models have limitations that affect their usefulness to policy-makers. Efforts to develop hybrid models, that incorporate valuable aspects of these two frameworks, may be more useful by representing technologies in the energy-economy explicitly while also representing more realistically the way in which businesses and consumers choose between those technologies. This representation allows for the realistic simulation of a wide range of technology-specific regulations and fiscal incentives alongside economy-wide fiscal incentives and disincentives. These policies can be assessed based on the costs required to reach a goal in the medium term, as well as on the degree to which they induce technological change that affects costs over long time periods

  4. A Study on Nuclear Technology Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, K. B.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, T. J.; Yun, S. W.; Jeong, Ik; Lee, J. H.

    2006-02-01

    This study was conducted as a part of institutional activities of KAERI, and the objective of the study is to survey and analyze the change of international environment in nuclear use and research and development environment, and to propose systematic alternatives on technology policy for efficiency and effectiveness of research and development through national R and D program while timely responding to the environmental change in local and global sense. In the investigation and analysis of international environmental and technological change 1. Viability of Nuclear Renaissance 2. Recent of Nuclear Technology Policy in Japan 3. Collaboration for Advanced Nuclear Technologies in GIF, INPRO and INERI 4. Nuclear Energy Utilization and Development in Europe. In the evaluation of nuclear technology and sustainable development from the point of views of environmental change 5. External Cost of Environmental Impact in Electric Power Sector 6. Nuclear Technology Development Direction Considering Changes of the Science and Technology Policy Environment 7. Nuclear Energy Development Strategy for a Sustainable National Energy Supply

  5. A Study on Nuclear Technology Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K B; Chung, W S; Lee, T J; Yun, S W; Jeong, Ik; Lee, J H

    2006-02-15

    This study was conducted as a part of institutional activities of KAERI, and the objective of the study is to survey and analyze the change of international environment in nuclear use and research and development environment, and to propose systematic alternatives on technology policy for efficiency and effectiveness of research and development through national R and D program while timely responding to the environmental change in local and global sense. In the investigation and analysis of international environmental and technological change 1. Viability of Nuclear Renaissance 2. Recent of Nuclear Technology Policy in Japan 3. Collaboration for Advanced Nuclear Technologies in GIF, INPRO and INERI 4. Nuclear Energy Utilization and Development in Europe. In the evaluation of nuclear technology and sustainable development from the point of views of environmental change 5. External Cost of Environmental Impact in Electric Power Sector 6. Nuclear Technology Development Direction Considering Changes of the Science and Technology Policy Environment 7. Nuclear Energy Development Strategy for a Sustainable National Energy Supply.

  6. REGULATION AND ENFORCEMENT OF COMPETITION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviana Andreea Niminet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Competition policy starts by shaping a legislative framework. This is aimed to establish boundaries for conducting competition and also sets limits of licit and illicit demarcation, for competitive and anticompetitive practices. The Romanian Competition Law has a divalent approach and it aims to provide specific behavioral conditions in order to stimulate and protect free-market competition, with the ultimate goal of developing a balanced, efficient and competitive economy. Our country’s Competition policy is based on punishing the behavior. There are three such types of anti-competitive behavior, namely: agreements between undertakings, abuse of dominant position and mergers and other concentrations between undertakings. Recent Practice proved that this “enforcement-conduct-punishment” structure is not necessary the best way to address competition and it is high time for authorities to switch both regulation and enforcement of competition from the “classical perspective” towards concepts like “competition advocacy” and “soft power” and give competition policy a new, reshaped face.

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY - THE ELECTROPLATING INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 44-page Technology Transfer Environmental Regulations and Technology publication is an update of a 1980 EPA publication that has been revised to reflect changes in the EPA regulations, as well as in the pollution control technologies that affect the electroplating industry. ...

  8. 78 FR 24749 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Appointment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Appointment AGENCY... Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy Committee to make recommendations on the implementation of a nationwide health information technology...

  9. Essays on Energy Technology Innovation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Gabriel Angelo Sherak

    Motivated by global climate change, enhancing innovation systems for energy technologies is seen as one of the largest public policy challenges of the near future. The role of policy in enhancing energy innovation systems takes several forms: public provision of research and develop funding, facilitating the private sector's capability to develop new technologies, and creating incentives for private actors to adopt innovative and appropriate technologies. This dissertation explores research questions that span this range of policies to develop insights in how energy technology innovation policy can be reformed in the face of climate change. The first chapter of this dissertation explores how decision making to allocate public research and development funding could be improved through the integration of expert technology forecasts. I present a framework to evaluate and optimize the U.S. Department of Energy's research and development portfolio of applied energy projects, accounting for spillovers from technical complimentary and competition for the same market share. This project integrates one of the largest and most comprehensive sets of expert elicitations on energy technologies (Anadon et al., 2014b) in a benefit evaluation framework. This work entailed developing a new method for probability distribution sampling that accommodates the information that can be provided by expert elicitations. The results of this project show that public research and development in energy storage and solar photovoltaic technologies has the greatest marginal returns to economic surplus, but the methodology developed in this chapter is broadly applicable to other public and private R&D-sponsoring organizations. The second chapter of this dissertation explores how policies to transfer technologies from federally funded research laboratories to commercialization partners, largely private firms, create knowledge spillovers that lead to further innovation. In this chapter, I study the U

  10. Soutien institutionnel à African Technology Policy Studies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Au départ la division tanzanienne du Réseau d'études sur la politique technologique en Afrique (African Technology Policy Studies Network), et ce, depuis 1984, ATPS-Tanzania est devenu autonome à titre d'organisation non gouvernementale en 2001. Lorsque ATPS-Tanzania recevait un financement stable du siège de ...

  11. Institutional Support : African Technology Policy Studies - Tanzania ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    African Technology Policy Studies - Tanzania (ATPS-Tanzania) was registered as a national nongovernmental organization in 2001. ... While resource flows to ATPS-Tanzania from ATPS headquarters in Nairobi were reliable, the organization produced a larger volume of research outputs than most other ATPS national ...

  12. Participation of the public and technology policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschen, H.; Bechmann, G.; Gloede, F.

    1989-01-01

    Public participation is placed in the context of the government's technology policy whose legitimation can be questioned in view of the dispute in our society about technological development and its role in decision for shaping the future of the industrial society. This lack of legitimation has induced a search for instruments that might help to close the acceptance gap. Participation of the public is one of these instruments and is discussed in connection with technology assessment, early warning system, and environmental impact assessment. (HSCH) [de

  13. A study on the nuclear technology policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. J.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, T. J.; Yun, S. W.; Jeong, Ik

    2002-01-01

    This study was carried out as a part of institutional activities of KAERI. This study suggested the effective and systematic alternatives for the development of domestic industry through nuclear long-term R and D program while timely responding to the environmental change in local and global sense. First of all, this study investigated the current status and prospect of nuclear power supply, the global technological change of nuclear fuel cycle, the nuclear policy changes of major countries and the role of nuclear energy in East Asian countries. Second, some policy alternatives are suggested in association with the role of national R and D in enhancing industrial competitiveness, the effective management of nuclear long-term R and D program to facilitate technological innovation and the way to enlarge the utilization of nuclear R and D results and radiation technology

  14. Public and private regulation of reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, C

    1995-01-01

    Human reproduction is interrelated with privacy. However, in most countries where new reproductive technologies are used public regulations have been passed to provide a legal framework for such technologies. This interference in private life can be justified by the need to control medical intervention in the human reproductive process. But in order to find a balance between public regulations and other social regulations, this article analyses the impact private regulation may have on issues raised by reproductive technologies. It also addresses the issue of the influence of private bodies on the drafting of public regulations.

  15. A study on the nuclear technology policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. J.; Oh, K. B.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, T. J.; Yun, S. W.; Jeong, Ik

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted as a part of institutional activities of KAERI, and the objective of the study is to survey and analyze the change of international environment in nuclear use and research and development environment, and to propose systematic alternatives on technology policy for efficiency and effectiveness of research and development through national R and D program while timely responding to the environmental change in local and global sense. Acknowledging the importance of the relationship between the external environment and the national nuclear R and D strategic planning for changing of environment of surrounding nuclear technology and development in the world, this study focused on the three major subjects: (1) investigation and analysis of international nuclear environmental and technological change; (2) developing nuclear R and D strategy based on the analysis of national and global environment surrounding nuclear technology development and diffusion; (3) the evaluation of role of nuclear technology and environment from the point of views of environmental effects. In order to enhance the role of national nuclear R and D program and to cope with the environmental and technological change surrounding nuclear energy, it is recommended that active participation should be done in ongoing international collaboration on future innovative nuclear technology for absorption of advanced technologies and strategic R and D planning should be centered on core technology field based on long-term vision and suggested NuTRM considering future energy-environmental surroundings for maximized use of domestic technology capabilities and resources

  16. Sustainable city policy. Economic, environmental, technological

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camagni, R.; Capello, R.

    1995-01-01

    While the reasons for advocating intensified environmental concerns at the urban level are more and more accepted and clear, the question how to overcome such concerns is still fraught with many difficulties. The aim of the present paper is to formulate some policy guidelines, based on economic principles, for a 'sustainable city'; it is an ambitious aim, since a unique and operationally defined 'recipe' is difficult to envisage. An urban policy for a sustainable city needs to take different (and contrasting) aspects and many conflicting interests into consideration, while many political, social and economic frictions need to be overcome. A description of various aspects and concepts concerning sustainability issues at the urban level is given in Section 2. Section 3 then provides some considerations on possible technological, economic and environmental urban policies, by creating a typo logy of policy tools associated with different causes of urban decline. Section 4 provides some new, and partly provocative, suggestions for specific urban sustainability policies; in particular it deals with the problem of urban sustainability indicators, measures, and critical threshold levels at which urban sustainability policies should be implemented. Some reflective remarks will conclude the paper. 3 figs., 4 tabs., 25 refs

  17. Sustainable city policy. Economic, environmental, technological

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camagni, R.; Capello, R. [Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy). Economics Dept.; Nijkamp, P. [Dept. of Spatial Economics. Fac. of Economics and Econometrics. Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    While the reasons for advocating intensified environmental concerns at the urban level are more and more accepted and clear, the question how to overcome such concerns is still fraught with many difficulties. The aim of the present paper is to formulate some policy guidelines, based on economic principles, for a `sustainable city`; it is an ambitious aim, since a unique and operationally defined `recipe` is difficult to envisage. An urban policy for a sustainable city needs to take different (and contrasting) aspects and many conflicting interests into consideration, while many political, social and economic frictions need to be overcome. A description of various aspects and concepts concerning sustainability issues at the urban level is given in Section 2. Section 3 then provides some considerations on possible technological, economic and environmental urban policies, by creating a typo logy of policy tools associated with different causes of urban decline. Section 4 provides some new, and partly provocative, suggestions for specific urban sustainability policies; in particular it deals with the problem of urban sustainability indicators, measures, and critical threshold levels at which urban sustainability policies should be implemented. Some reflective remarks will conclude the paper. 3 figs., 4 tabs., 25 refs.

  18. 從科技匯流到管制匯流 ― 論NCC成立後的通訊傳播監理政策 From the Convergence of Technologies to the Convergence of Regulations: Reviews of NCC Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    簡維克 Wei-Ke Chien

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available 原先電信產業與廣電產業分立的管制模式在因應數位匯流後也必須配合產業為一定之調整,以避免管制機關間之決策不一致。隨著國家通訊傳播委員會(NCC)於2006 年2 月22 日的成立,我國通訊傳播法制正嘗試性地走出傳統電信法、廣電法二元管制的窠臼,在市場匯流、服務匯流的指引下,進而希望達成管制匯流的終極目標。本文將簡述NCC 成立一年半以來,重大的通訊傳播政策以及對於其近日公布的「通訊傳播管理法」草案提出一些摘要性的評析。 In the past, DGT (the Directorate General of Telecommunications and GIO (Government Information Office, the two regulatory agencies, had governed telecommunications and mass electronic media policies in Taiwan respectively. However, with the development of IP technology and the convergence of communications services from time to time, there is a strong need from relevant industries to establish a new regulatory agency to cope with all the disputing issues in telecommunications and mass electronic media fields, in order to reduce the inconsistencies of regulation philosophy between DGT and GIO. In this case, the new national regulatory agency, National Communications Commission (NCC had been established in February 22, 2007. Not surprisingly, the Commission has to deal with many complicated and disputing issues of communications field from the very beginning, likes announcing the copper pair lines of last mile being bottleneck facility, or transforming the MOD service provided by CHT originally defined as a cable TV service to one kind of telecommunications service. In these policy-making processes, NCC not only utilizes the relevant laws and regulations at present, it also integrates the idea of future digital convergence trends in to these policies. Nevertheless, due to lack of professional financial knowledge in NCC, it seems that some policies on the price

  19. Maintenance and replacement policies under technological obsolescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavareau, Julien; Labeau, Pierre-Etienne

    2009-01-01

    The technological obsolescence of a unit is characterized by the existence of challenger units displaying identical functionalities, but with higher performances. This paper aims to define and model in a realistic way, possible maintenance policies of a system including replacement strategies when one type of challenger unit is available. The comparison of these possible strategies is performed based on a Monte Carlo estimation of the costs they incur

  20. Climate Change Science,Technology & Policy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Climate Change Science,Technology & Policy · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Millions at Risk from Parry et al., 2001 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Climate Change · Is the global warming in the 20th century due to the increase in radiation emitted by the sun? Frohlich C, Lean J. 1998; ...

  1. Maintenance and replacement policies under technological obsolescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clavareau, Julien [Service de Metrologie Nucleaire, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Av. Franklin Roosevelt 50, CP165/84 Bruxelles B-1050 (Belgium)], E-mail: jclavare@ulb.ac.be; Labeau, Pierre-Etienne [Service de Metrologie Nucleaire, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Av. Franklin Roosevelt 50, CP165/84 Bruxelles B-1050 (Belgium)], E-mail: pelabeau@ulb.ac.be

    2009-02-15

    The technological obsolescence of a unit is characterized by the existence of challenger units displaying identical functionalities, but with higher performances. This paper aims to define and model in a realistic way, possible maintenance policies of a system including replacement strategies when one type of challenger unit is available. The comparison of these possible strategies is performed based on a Monte Carlo estimation of the costs they incur.

  2. Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Research Organization

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce financement contribuera à renforcer le rôle de la Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Research Organization (STIPRO) en tant qu'organisme crédible de recherche sur les politiques publiques en Tanzanie, en améliorant sa capacité à fournir des recherches de qualité supérieure, influentes et utiles en matière de ...

  3. Policy implications of technologies for cognitive enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarewitz, Daniel R. (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ); Karas, Thomas H.

    2007-02-01

    The Advanced Concepts Group at Sandia National Laboratory and the Consortium for Science, Policy and Outcomes at Arizona State University convened a workshop in May 2006 to explore the potential policy implications of technologies that might enhance human cognitive abilities. The group's deliberations sought to identify core values and concerns raised by the prospect of cognitive enhancement. The workshop focused on the policy implications of various prospective cognitive enhancements and on the technologies/nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science--that enable them. The prospect of rapidly emerging technological capabilities to enhance human cognition makes urgent a daunting array of questions, tensions, ambitions, and concerns. The workshop elicited dilemmas and concerns in ten overlapping areas: science and democracy; equity and justice; freedom and control; intergenerational issues; ethics and competition; individual and community rights; speed and deliberations; ethical uncertainty; humanness; and sociocultural risk. We identified four different perspectives to encompass the diverse issues related to emergence of cognitive enhancement technologies: (1) Laissez-faire--emphasizes freedom of individuals to seek and employ enhancement technologies based on their own judgment; (2) Managed technological optimism--believes that while these technologies promise great benefits, such benefits cannot emerge without an active government role; (3) Managed technological skepticism--views that the quality of life arises more out of society's institutions than its technologies; and (4) Human Essentialism--starts with the notion of a human essence (whether God-given or evolutionary in origin) that should not be modified. While the perspectives differ significantly about both human nature and the role of government, each encompasses a belief in the value of transparency and reliable information that can allow public discussion and

  4. How Does Environmental Regulation Affect Industrial Transformation? A Study Based on the Methodology of Policy Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference of factor input structure determines different response to environmental regulation. This paper constructs a theoretical model including environmental regulation, factor input structure, and industrial transformation and conducts a policy simulation based on the difference of influencing mechanism of environmental regulation considering industrial heterogeneity. The findings show that the impact of environmental regulation on industrial transformation presents comparison of distortion effect of resource allocation and technology effect. Environmental regulation will promote industrial transformation when technology effect of environmental regulation is stronger than distortion effect of resource allocation. Particularly, command-control environmental regulation has a significant incentive effect and spillover effect of technological innovation on cleaning industries, but these effects do not exist in pollution-intensive industries. Command-control environmental regulation promotes industrial transformation. The result of simulation showed that environmental regulation of market incentives is similar to that of command-control.

  5. 78 FR 42945 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Vacancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Vacancy AGENCY... American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy... its 20 members. ARRA requires that one member have expertise in health information privacy and...

  6. Cognitive radio policy and regulation techno-economic studies to facilitate dynamic spectrum access

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a timely reflection on how the proliferation of advanced wireless communications technologies, particularly cognitive radio (CR) can be enabled by thoroughly-considered policy and appropriate regulation. It looks at the prospects of CR from the divergent standpoints of technological development and economic market reality. The book provides a broad survey of various techno-economic and policy aspects of CR development, and provides the reader with an understanding of the complexities involved as well as a toolbox of possible solutions to enable the evolutionary leap towards successful implementation of disruptive CR technology or indeed any other novel wireless technologies. Cognitive Radio Policy and Regulation showcases the original ideas and concepts introduced into the field of CR and dynamic spectrum access policy over nearly four years of work within COST Action IC0905 TERRA, a think-tank with participants from more than 20 countries. The book’s subject matter includes: • deploymen...

  7. Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology: Editorial Policies ... Science and Technology (EJST) publishes high quality original research articles, reviews, short communications, ... Professor Afework Bekele, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.

  8. Public policy and clean technology promotion. The synergy between environmental economics and evolutionary economics of technological change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio Gonzalez, Pablo del [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Toledo (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Juridicas y Sociales de Toledo

    2004-07-01

    Obstacles to clean technology development, innovation and diffusion are not only related to the lack of internalisation of environmental externalities in production costs, as defended by traditional environmental economics. Empirical studies show that many other obstacles prevent these technologies from penetrating the market. The relevance of these obstacles differs between sectors, firms and technologies. Consequently, a more focused approach is proposed. By taking a look at the specific, real-world barriers to clean technologies, a policy framework as well as some specific measures that target those barriers are suggested. These instruments are useful and complementary in a policy framework that, in addition to specific instruments, takes into account the influence of the style of regulation and the configuration of actors in the environmental technological change process. This paper proposes a coherent framework integrating environmental policy and technology policy instruments. This is deemed necessary in the technological transition to sustainable development. (author)

  9. Emerging energy technologies impacts and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubb, M.

    1992-01-01

    Technical change is a key factor in the energy world. Failure to recognize the potential for technical change, and the pace at which it may occur, has limited the accuracy and usefulness of past energy projections. conversely, programs to develop and deploy advanced energy technologies have often proved disappointing in the face of technical and commercial obstacles. This book examines important new and emerging energy technologies, and the mechanisms by which they may develop and enter the market. The project concentrates on the potential and probable role of selected energy technologies-which are in existence and likely to be of rapidly growing importance over the next decade-and the way in which market conditions and policy environment may affect their implementation

  10. 7 CFR 982.40 - Marketing policy and volume regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the declared policy of the act, it shall compute and announce an inshell trade demand for that year... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy and volume regulation. 982.40 Section 982.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING...

  11. The regulations of the Nuclear Technology Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzer, W.

    1984-01-01

    The work of the Nuclear Technology Committee (NTC) is characterised by the key words 'safety related regulations' and 'nuclear technology'. The rationalisation effect desired from regulations and the not unlimited number of experts qualified for working out regulations, make it necessary to establish priorities. The NTC has almost exclusively worked out regulations for nuclear powerstations and mainly for light water reactors. The program defined at present seems to cover the most important areas. Future developments can be foreseen in the execution of the part of the program not yet concluded, the maintenance of the regulations and, depending on the development of nuclear technology, the greater inclusion of the HTR and possibly the expansion of the regulations to fast breeder reactors and plant of the fuel circuit. (orig./HSCH) [de

  12. Mining technology and policy issues 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents conference papers on advances in mineral processing, coal mining, communications for mining executives, environmental laws and regulations, exploration philosophy, exploration technology, government controls and the environment, management, mine finance, minerals availability, mine safety, occupational health, open pit mining, the precious metals outlook, public lands, system improvements in processing ores, and underground mining. Topics considered include coal pipelines and saline water, an incentive program for coal mines, sandwich belt high-angle conveyors, the development of a mining company, regulations for radionuclides, contracts for western coal production for Pacific Rim exports, and the control of radon daughters in underground mines

  13. Technology and Policy: Looking to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Kory

    2009-05-01

    As the proper scope and nature of arms control continues to be debated, it is certain that technical capabilities and advice will play a significant role. While national priorities and strategic objectives and broader perspectives of international security and foreign policy will ultimately dictate, technical expertise and assessment is critical to the identification, development and evaluation of alternatives. Strategic linkages between arms control, nonproliferation, and homeland security have perhaps never been so intertwined. Incomplete information and strongly held but disparate views about the potential of science and technology to amplify threats as readily as they mitigate them creates a highly dynamic environment for policymakers. To contribute meaningfully scientists and engineers will have to remain engaged with national security debates and think about the strategic and policy environment in which technical questions are posed to them, and how to identify and frame the important questions that aren't.

  14. Environmental regulation and the export dynamics of energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantini, Valeria; Crespi, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    The pollution haven hypothesis affirms that an open market regime will encourage the flow of low-technology polluting industries towards developing countries because of potential comparative advantages related to low environmental standards. In contrast, the hypothesis suggested by Porter and van der Linde claims that innovating firms operate in a dynamic competitive situation which allows global diffusion of environmental-friendly technologies. Environmental regulation may represent a relevant mechanism through which technological change is induced. In this way, countries that are subject to more stringent environmental regulations may become net exporters of environmental technologies. This paper provides new evidence on the evolution of export flows of environmental technologies across different countries for the energy sector. Advanced economies, particularly the European Union, have increasingly focused on the role of energy policies as tools for sustaining the development path. The Kyoto Protocol commitments, together with growing import dependence on energy products, have brought attention to the analysis of innovation processes in this specific sector. The analysis uses a gravity model in order to test the determinants and the transmission channels through which environmental technologies for renewable energies and energy efficiency are exported to advanced and developing countries. Our results are consistent with the Porter and van der Linde hypothesis where environmental regulation represents a significant source of comparative advantages. What strongly emerges is that the stringency of environmental regulation supplemented by the strength of the National Innovation System is a crucial driver of export performance in the field of energy technologies. (author)

  15. A study on nuclear technology policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. J.; Oh, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, T. J.; Yun, S. W.; Jeong, I.

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted as a part of institutional activities of KAERI, and the objective of the study is to survey and analyze the change of international environment in nuclear use and research and development environment, and to propose systematic alternatives on technology policy for efficiency and effectiveness of research and development through national R and D program while timely responding to the environmental change in local and global sense. Acknowledging the importance of the relationship between the external environment and the national nuclear R and D strategic planning, this study focused on the two major subjects: (1) the international environmental and technological change attached to the development of nuclear power; (2) the direction and strategy of nuclear R and D to improve effectiveness through national R and D programs as role of electricity in the future society, strategic environment of nuclear use and R and D in the future society, energy environment and nuclear technology development scenario in the future, strategic study on future vision of KAERI and technological road-mapping of national nuclear R and D for enhancing competitiveness

  16. Analysis of Brazilian SHP policy and its regulation scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiago Filho, Geraldo Lucio; Rocha Galhardo, Camila; Cassia Barbosa, Adriana de; Mambeli Barros, Regina; Gracas Braga da Silva, Fernando das

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the main regulatory changes that occurred in the Brazilian power sector in 2009, along with the impacts these changes caused on the market, especially related to small hydropower (<30 MW). This study addresses regulatory issues based on inventory studies and records of basic projects, changes related to the compensation of the assured energy of SHPs in the Brazilian energy reallocation market, the socio-economic impact resulting from the construction of SHPs, SHPs in alternative resource auctions and finally the general outlook for the growth scenario for SHPs in Brazil according to the ten-year plan (2010-2019). The overall conclusions of this investigation were that the 2008/2009 biennium was a period of great changes in the regulation of small hydropower plants in Brazil, and the SHP market has shown maturity. Additionally, despite SHP being a type of technology that is completely dominated by domestic industry, in recent years, they have experienced policy disincentives caused by changes to rules that inhibit their growth. - Highlights: → Main regulatory changes in Brazilian Power Sector that have occurred in 2009. → The impact of these changes caused on market, especially about SHPs (<30 MW). → The Brazilian growth scenario for SHPs according to the ten-year plan (2010-2019). → 2008/2009 biennium was a period of changes in the Brazilian regulation of SHPs. → SHP is a type of technology that is completely dominated by domestic industry.

  17. Mapping public regulation measures for photovoltaic technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Karl; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Hvelplund, Frede

    2011-01-01

    There is a relatively large potential for the use of photovoltaic (PV) technologies in the Nordic countries, including Denmark. Optimally designed PV support policies are a main prerequisite for the utilisation of this potential. The paper provides an overview of the main (financial) public...

  18. Environmental policy on the fixed-fee licensing of eco-technology under foreign penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seung-Leul; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates environmental policy on the fixed-fee licensing strategy of clean eco-technology by an innovator having foreign ownership. We show that near-zero emission taxes accompanied by non-exclusive licensing regulation can improve social welfare when the cost gap is small or foreign penetration is high. However, when foreign ownership is not high, exclusive licensing regulations with an appropriate emission tax policy may improve social welfare.

  19. A study on nuclear technology policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. J.; Chung, W. S.; Yun, S. W.; Kim, H. S.

    2001-01-01

    This study was carried out as a part of institutional activities of KAERI. Major research area are as follows; Future directions and effects for national nuclear R and D to be resulted from restructuring of electricity industry are studied. Comparative study was carried out between nuclear energy and other energy sources from the point of views of environmental effects by introducing life cycle assessment(LCA) method. Japanese trends of reestablishment of nuclear policy such as restructuring of nuclear administration system and long-term plan of development and use of nuclear energy are also investigated, and Russian nuclear development program and Germany trends for phase-out of nuclear electricity generation are also investigated. And trends of the demand and supply of energy in eastern asian countries in from the point of view of energy security and tension in the south china sea are analyzed and investigation of policy trends of Vietnam and Egypt for the development and use of nuclear energy for the promotion of nuclear cooperation with these countries are also carried out. Due to the lack of energy resources and high dependence of imported energy, higher priority should be placed on the use of localized energy supply technology such as nuclear power. In this connection, technological development should be strengthened positively in order to improve economy and safety of nuclear energy and proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycle and wide ranged use of radiation and radioisotopes and should be reflected in re-establishment of national comprehensive promotion plan of nuclear energy in progress

  20. A study on nuclear technology policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, M H; Kim, H J; Chung, W S; Yun, S W; Kim, H S

    2001-01-01

    This study was carried out as a part of institutional activities of KAERI. Major research area are as follows; Future directions and effects for national nuclear R and D to be resulted from restructuring of electricity industry are studied. Comparative study was carried out between nuclear energy and other energy sources from the point of views of environmental effects by introducing life cycle assessment(LCA) method. Japanese trends of reestablishment of nuclear policy such as restructuring of nuclear administration system and long-term plan of development and use of nuclear energy are also investigated, and Russian nuclear development program and Germany trends for phase-out of nuclear electricity generation are also investigated. And trends of the demand and supply of energy in eastern asian countries in from the point of view of energy security and tension in the south china sea are analyzed and investigation of policy trends of Vietnam and Egypt for the development and use of nuclear energy for the promotion of nuclear cooperation with these countries are also carried out. Due to the lack of energy resources and high dependence of imported energy, higher priority should be placed on the use of localized energy supply technology such as nuclear power. In this connection, technological development should be strengthened positively in order to improve economy and safety of nuclear energy and proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycle and wide ranged use of radiation and radioisotopes and should be reflected in re-establishment of national comprehensive promotion plan of nuclear energy in progress.

  1. 42 CFR 403.201 - State regulation of insurance policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State regulation of insurance policies. 403.201 Section 403.201 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Medicare Supplemental Policies General Provisions...

  2. A New Regulation Policy for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. H.; Kim, M. S.; Ahn, S. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Nuclear Safety and Security Commission(NSSC) has amended two public notices about the regulation of nuclear material accounting and control(NMAC). Those notices were declared in November 2014 and entry into force since 2015. According to this legislation, a new type of NMAC inspection system was introduced and facility rules for NMAC approved by the government should be revised subsequently. These changes were one of the preemptive actions to cope with the emergence of new international safeguards policy and increasing demand on advanced nuclear technology. Generally, the regulation policy affects the nuclear business including research and development. Therefore, understanding of the new policy and its making process may help stakeholders to minimize unnecessary financial and operational burden. This study describes background, features, and institutionalization of the new regulation policy for NMAC. The new regulation policy for NMAC was established and institutionalized to preemptively cope with the internal and external demand on 'better' national system of accounting and control of nuclear material. This new policy and regulation system may call not only the regulator but also nuclear business operators for new works to make their system more effective and efficient.

  3. A New Regulation Policy for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. H.; Kim, M. S.; Ahn, S. H.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Safety and Security Commission(NSSC) has amended two public notices about the regulation of nuclear material accounting and control(NMAC). Those notices were declared in November 2014 and entry into force since 2015. According to this legislation, a new type of NMAC inspection system was introduced and facility rules for NMAC approved by the government should be revised subsequently. These changes were one of the preemptive actions to cope with the emergence of new international safeguards policy and increasing demand on advanced nuclear technology. Generally, the regulation policy affects the nuclear business including research and development. Therefore, understanding of the new policy and its making process may help stakeholders to minimize unnecessary financial and operational burden. This study describes background, features, and institutionalization of the new regulation policy for NMAC. The new regulation policy for NMAC was established and institutionalized to preemptively cope with the internal and external demand on 'better' national system of accounting and control of nuclear material. This new policy and regulation system may call not only the regulator but also nuclear business operators for new works to make their system more effective and efficient

  4. Environmental policy and environment-saving technologies. Economic aspects of policy making under uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossokina, I.

    2003-07-01

    It is generally known that natural environment is profoundly influenced by technological change. The direction and the size of this influence are, however, surrounded by uncertainties, which substantially complicate environmental policy making. This dissertation uses game-theoretical models to study policy making under uncertainty about (a) the costs of technological advances in pollution control, (b) the preferences of the policy maker and the voters, and (c) the consequences of policy measures. From a positive point of view the analysis provides explanations for environmental policies in modern democracies. From a normative point of view it gives a number of recommendations to improve environmental policies.

  5. E-commerce and Regulation Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Dragos Vasile

    2007-01-01

    E-commerce is a relatively new business field with a high potential of growth, thanks primarily to advantages provided to companies and consumers. At the same time, e-commerce raises technical and economic issues and problems to be solved, which are a concern for businesses, states and international organizations. The growth is accompanied by a need of regulation, including the observance of competition rules. The analysis of the practice in states with developed e-commerce markets highlights...

  6. 77 FR 27774 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Vacancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Vacancy AGENCY... American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy.... ADDRESSES: GAO: [email protected] . GAO: 441 G Street NW., Washington, DC 20548. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  7. Educational Policy and Technological Development in Africa: An X ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technological development is a basic artery through which nations strive to attain true independence. However, the level of technological development is dependent on the system, policy and philosophy of education that is dominant or prevalent in such a country. Any nation that lacks a sound system or policy of education ...

  8. Development and utilization of the NRC policy statement on the regulation of advanced nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.M.; King, T.L.

    1988-06-01

    On March 26, 1985, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued for public comment a ''Proposed Policy for Regulation of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants'' (50 FR 11884). This report presents and discusses the Commission's final version of that policy as titled and published on July 8, 1986 ''Regulation of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants, Statement of Policy'' (51 FR 24643). It provides an overview of comments received from the public, of the significant changes from the proposed Policy Statement to the final Policy Statement, and of the Commission's response to six questions contained in the proposed Policy Statement. The report also discusses the definition for advanced reactors, the establishment of an Advanced Reactors Group, the staff review approach and information needs, and the utilization of the Policy Statement in relation to other NRC programs, including the policies for safety goals, severe accidents and standardization. In addition, guidance for advanced reactors with respect to operating experience, technology development, foreign information and data, and prototype testing is provided. Finally, a discussion on the use of less prescriptive and nonprescriptive design criteria for advanced reactors, which the Policy Statement encourages, is presented

  9. Energizing Government Decision-Makers with the Facts on Solar Technology, Policy, and Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The Solar Technical Assistance Team (STAT) is a network of solar technology and implementation experts who provide timely, unbiased expertise to assist policymakers and regulators in making informed decisions about solar programs and policies. Government officials can submit requests directly to the STAT for technical assistance. STAT then partners with experts in solar policy, regulation, finance, technology, and other areas to deliver accurate, up-to-date information to state and local decision makers. The STAT responds to requests on a wide range of issues -- including, but not limited to, feed-in tariffs, renewable portfolio standards, rate design, program design, workforce and economic impacts of solar on jurisdictions, and project financing.

  10. Do as the Swedes do? Internet policy and regulation in Sweden – a snapshot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlin Münch

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to information technology Sweden is considered to be at the forefront both in terms of technological innovation, as well as in progressive policy-making, regulation and internet freedom. This article investigates the state-of-affairs in a number of fields of Swedish internet policy, such as copyright, net neutrality and censorship, in order to find out if and why the 'Swedish way' has been particularly efficient. In the course of this article it will become apparent that Swedens approach to internet policy and regulation has often been controversial, as the examples of the contested National Defence Radio Establishment law (known as the 'FRA-law', as well as the rigorous implementation of the Directive on the enforcement of intellectual property rights have shown. Also, when it comes to matters of transparency, the Swedish government has some catching up to do.

  11. NPL deletion policy for RCRA-regulated TSD facilities finalized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Under a new policy published by EPA on March 20, 1995, certain sites may be deleted from the National Priorities List (NPL) and deferred to RCRA corrective action. To be deleted from the NPL, a site must (1) be regulated under RCRA as a treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facility and (2) meet the four criteria specified by EPA. The new NPL deletion policy, which does not pertain to federal TSD facilities, became effective on April 19, 1995. 1 tab

  12. Access to Orphan Drugs: A Comprehensive Review of Legislations, Regulations and Policies in 35 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammie, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review existing regulations and policies utilised by countries to enable patient access to orphan drugs. Methods A review of the literature (1998 to 2014) was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles. Using content analysis, we synthesised regulations and policies for access to orphan drugs by type and by country. Results Fifty seven articles and 35 countries were included in this review. Six broad categories of regulation and policy instruments were identified: national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, incentives, marketing exclusivity, and pricing and reimbursement. The availability of orphan drugs depends on individual country’s legislation and regulations including national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, marketing exclusivity and incentives such as tax credits to ensure research, development and marketing. The majority of countries (27/35) had in place orphan drug legislation. Access to orphan drugs depends on individual country’s pricing and reimbursement policies, which varied widely between countries. High prices and insufficient evidence often limit orphan drugs from meeting the traditional health technology assessment criteria, especially cost-effectiveness, which may influence access. Conclusions Overall many countries have implemented a combination of legislations, regulations and policies for orphan drugs in the last two decades. While these may enable the availability and access to orphan drugs, there are critical differences between countries in terms of range and types of legislations, regulations and policies implemented. Importantly, China and India, two of the largest countries by population size, both lack national legislation for orphan medicines and rare diseases, which could have substantial negative impacts on their patient populations with rare diseases. PMID:26451948

  13. Access to Orphan Drugs: A Comprehensive Review of Legislations, Regulations and Policies in 35 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammie, Todd; Lu, Christine Y; Babar, Zaheer Ud-Din

    2015-01-01

    To review existing regulations and policies utilised by countries to enable patient access to orphan drugs. A review of the literature (1998 to 2014) was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles. Using content analysis, we synthesised regulations and policies for access to orphan drugs by type and by country. Fifty seven articles and 35 countries were included in this review. Six broad categories of regulation and policy instruments were identified: national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, incentives, marketing exclusivity, and pricing and reimbursement. The availability of orphan drugs depends on individual country's legislation and regulations including national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, marketing exclusivity and incentives such as tax credits to ensure research, development and marketing. The majority of countries (27/35) had in place orphan drug legislation. Access to orphan drugs depends on individual country's pricing and reimbursement policies, which varied widely between countries. High prices and insufficient evidence often limit orphan drugs from meeting the traditional health technology assessment criteria, especially cost-effectiveness, which may influence access. Overall many countries have implemented a combination of legislations, regulations and policies for orphan drugs in the last two decades. While these may enable the availability and access to orphan drugs, there are critical differences between countries in terms of range and types of legislations, regulations and policies implemented. Importantly, China and India, two of the largest countries by population size, both lack national legislation for orphan medicines and rare diseases, which could have substantial negative impacts on their patient populations with rare diseases.

  14. Access to Orphan Drugs: A Comprehensive Review of Legislations, Regulations and Policies in 35 Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Gammie

    Full Text Available To review existing regulations and policies utilised by countries to enable patient access to orphan drugs.A review of the literature (1998 to 2014 was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles. Using content analysis, we synthesised regulations and policies for access to orphan drugs by type and by country.Fifty seven articles and 35 countries were included in this review. Six broad categories of regulation and policy instruments were identified: national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, incentives, marketing exclusivity, and pricing and reimbursement. The availability of orphan drugs depends on individual country's legislation and regulations including national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, marketing exclusivity and incentives such as tax credits to ensure research, development and marketing. The majority of countries (27/35 had in place orphan drug legislation. Access to orphan drugs depends on individual country's pricing and reimbursement policies, which varied widely between countries. High prices and insufficient evidence often limit orphan drugs from meeting the traditional health technology assessment criteria, especially cost-effectiveness, which may influence access.Overall many countries have implemented a combination of legislations, regulations and policies for orphan drugs in the last two decades. While these may enable the availability and access to orphan drugs, there are critical differences between countries in terms of range and types of legislations, regulations and policies implemented. Importantly, China and India, two of the largest countries by population size, both lack national legislation for orphan medicines and rare diseases, which could have substantial negative impacts on their patient populations with rare diseases.

  15. A study on the nuclear technology policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Ham, C. H.; Kim, H. J.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, T. J.; Lee, B. O.; Yun, S. W.; Choi, Y. M.; Eom, T. Y

    1998-01-01

    This study analyzed the major issues as the research activities for the support of establishment and implementation of national policy. The analyses were focused on the recommendations of the responsive direction of national policy in positive and effective manners in accordance with the changes of international nuclear affairs. This study also analyzed the creation of environmental foundation for effective implementation of the national policy and national R and D investment such as securing national consensus and openings of policy information to the public. The major results of the role and position of nuclear policy, trends of nuclear policy and nuclear R and D activities of USA, France, Japan, Asian developing countries etc. and international trends of small- and medium-sized reactor as well as spin-offs of nuclear R and D activities, were analyzed. (author). 66 refs., 27 tabs., 15 figs

  16. Sectoral Systems and Innovation and Technology Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Malerba

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo usa o conceito de sistema setorial de inovações que permite a utilização de uma visão multidimensional integrada e dinâmica da inovação em seus setores. Sistemas setoriais apresentam três dimensões que afetam tanto a geração e adoção de novas tecnologias quanto a organização da inovação e produção nos seguintes níveis setoriais: conhecimento, atores e redes e instituições. O artigo discute o escopo conceitual dos sistemas setoriais, apresenta cinco análises de setores principais e examina suas tendências principais, seus desafios e suas transformações. O artigo também oferece uma análise sobre implicações políticas públicas e sugestões do ponto de vista do sistema setorial de inovações.This paper uses the concept of sectoral system of innovation which aims to provide a multidimensional, integrated and dynamic view of innovation in sectors. Sectoral systems have three dimensions that affect the generation and adoption of new technologies and the organization of innovation and production at the sectoral level: knowledge (and the related boundaries, actors and networks, and institutions. The paper discusses the conceptual framework of sectoral systems, presents five main sectoral systems and examines their major trends, challenges and transformation. The paper then examines which are the main policy implications and indications in a sectoral system perspective.

  17. Space assets, technology and services in support of energy policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasko, C. A.; Adriaensen, M.; Bretel, A.; Duvaux-Bechon, I.; Giannopapa, C. G.

    2017-09-01

    Space can be used as a tool by decision and policy makers in developing, implementing and monitoring various policy areas including resource management, environment, transport, security and energy. This paper focuses on the role of space for the energy policy. Firstly, the paper summarizes the European Union's (EU) main objectives in energy policy enclosed in the Energy Strategy 2020-2030-2050 and demonstrates how space assets can contribute to achieving those objectives. Secondly, the paper addresses how the European Space Agency (ESA) has established multiple initiatives and programs that directly finance the development of space assets, technology and applications that deliver services in support of the EU energy policy and sector. These efforts should be continued and strengthened in order to overcome identified technological challenges. The use of space assets, technology and applications, can help achieve the energy policy objectives for the next decades.

  18. Liquidity regulation and the implementation of monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Morten L. Bech; Todd Keister

    2013-01-01

    In addition to revamping existing rules for bank capital, Basel III introduces a new global framework for liquidity regulation. One part of this framework is the liquidity coverage ratio (LCR), which requires banks to hold sufficient high-quality liquid assets to survive a 30-day period of market stress. As monetary policy typically involves targeting the interest rate on loans of one of these assets — central bank reserves — it is important to understand how this regulation may impact the ef...

  19. Technology policy for climate change mitigation: a transatlantic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This workshop was the second climate policy conference jointly organized by RFF and IFRI in Paris. (The first one, ''How to Make Progress Post-Kyoto?'', was held on March 19, 2003). This Summary Paper is divided into two parts: The first part presents short summaries of all the presentations at the workshop (rationale and past experience in technology policies, the challenges and policy responses of the climate friendly technologies). The second part, which is an edited version of the closing remarks by Pierre Noel (Ifri), highlights some of the policy lessons that emerged from the workshop. (A.L.B.)

  20. Technology policy for climate change mitigation: a transatlantic perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This workshop was the second climate policy conference jointly organized by RFF and IFRI in Paris. (The first one, ''How to Make Progress Post-Kyoto?'', was held on March 19, 2003). This Summary Paper is divided into two parts: The first part presents short summaries of all the presentations at the workshop (rationale and past experience in technology policies, the challenges and policy responses of the climate friendly technologies). The second part, which is an edited version of the closing remarks by Pierre Noel (Ifri), highlights some of the policy lessons that emerged from the workshop. (A.L.B.)

  1. Emergent information technologies and enabling policies for counter-terrorism

    CERN Document Server

    Popp, R

    2006-01-01

    Explores both counter-terrorism and enabling policy dimensions of emerging information technologies in national security After the September 11th attacks, "connecting the dots" has become the watchword for using information and intelligence to protect the United States from future terrorist attacks. Advanced and emerging information technologies offer key assets in confronting a secretive, asymmetric, and networked enemy. Yet, in a free and open society, policies must ensure that these powerful technologies are used responsibly, and that privacy and civil liberties remain protected. Emergent Information Technologies and Enabling Policies for Counter-Terrorism provides a unique, integrated treatment of cutting-edge counter-terrorism technologies and their corresponding policy options. Featuring contributions from nationally recognized authorities and experts, this book brings together a diverse knowledge base for those charged with protecting our nation from terrorist attacks while preserving our civil liberti...

  2. Investments in technology subject to uncertainty. Analysis and policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard

    1997-01-01

    Investments in technology are today of such a magnitude that it matters. In the paper there are three important questions. First on the question in which sense technological uncertainty can be said to be a problem. Second on strategies for diminishing technological uncertainties. Three on policy...

  3. Expanding Access to Insurance by the Poor : Policy, Regulation and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Expanding Access to Insurance by the Poor : Policy, Regulation and Supervision of Micro Insurance. This project aims to facilitate poor people's access to insurance products and services as a means of addressing their vulnerability to risk. It will do so by carrying out case studies in five countries. Potential candidates ...

  4. Climate regulation enhances the value of second generation biofuel technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, T. W.; Steinbuks, J.; Tyner, W.

    2014-12-01

    Commercial scale implementation of second generation (2G) biofuels has long been 'just over the horizon - perhaps a decade away'. However, with recent innovations, and higher oil prices, we appear to be on the verge of finally seeing commercial scale implementations of cellulosic to liquid fuel conversion technologies. Interest in this technology derives from many quarters. Environmentalists see this as a way of reducing our carbon footprint, however, absent a global market for carbon emissions, private firms will not factor this into their investment decisions. Those interested in poverty and nutrition see this as a channel for lessening the biofuels' impact on food prices. But what is 2G technology worth to society? How valuable are prospective improvements in this technology? And how are these valuations affected by future uncertainties, including climate regulation, climate change impacts, and energy prices? This paper addresses all of these questions. We employ FABLE, a dynamic optimization model for the world's land resources which characterizes the optimal long run path for protected natural lands, managed forests, crop and livestock land use, energy extraction and biofuels over the period 2005-2105. By running this model twice for each future state of the world - once with 2G biofuels technology available and once without - we measure the contribution of the technology to global welfare. Given the uncertainty in how these technologies are likely to evolve, we consider a range cost estimates - from optimistic to pessimistic. In addition to technological uncertainty, there is great uncertainty in the conditions characterizing our baseline for the 21st century. For each of the 2G technology scenarios, we therefore also consider a range of outcomes for key drivers of global land use, including: population, income, oil prices, climate change impacts and climate regulation. We find that the social valuation of 2G technologies depends critically on climate change

  5. Environmental Policies, Product Market Regulation and Innovation in Renewable Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesta, Lionel; Vona, Francesco; Nicolli, Francesco

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the effectiveness of policies in favor of innovation in renew- able energy under different levels of competition. Using information regarding renewable energy policies, product market regulation and high-quality green patents for OECD countries since the late 1970's, we develop a pre-sample mean count-data econometric specification that also accounts for the endogeneity of policies. We find that renewable energy policies are significantly more effective in fostering green innovation in countries with deregulated energy markets. We also find that public support for renewable energy is crucial only in the generation of high-quality green patents, whereas competition enhances the generation of green patents irrespective of their quality. (authors)

  6. Policy issues inherent in advanced technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, P.D.

    1994-12-31

    In the development of advanced technologies, there are several forces which are involved in the success of the development of those technologies. In the overall development of new technologies, a sufficient number of these forces must be present and working in order to have a successful opportunity at developing, introducing and integrating into the marketplace a new technology. This paper discusses some of these forces and how they enter into the equation for success in advanced technology research, development, demonstration, commercialization and deployment. This paper limits itself to programs which are generally governmental funded, which in essence represent most of the technology development efforts that provide defense, energy and environmental technological products. Along with the identification of these forces are some suggestions as to how changes may be brought about to better ensure success in a long term to attempt to minimize time and financial losses.

  7. Policy issues inherent in advanced technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    In the development of advanced technologies, there are several forces which are involved in the success of the development of those technologies. In the overall development of new technologies, a sufficient number of these forces must be present and working in order to have a successful opportunity at developing, introducing and integrating into the marketplace a new technology. This paper discusses some of these forces and how they enter into the equation for success in advanced technology research, development, demonstration, commercialization and deployment. This paper limits itself to programs which are generally governmental funded, which in essence represent most of the technology development efforts that provide defense, energy and environmental technological products. Along with the identification of these forces are some suggestions as to how changes may be brought about to better ensure success in a long term to attempt to minimize time and financial losses

  8. Technology policy in the face of the environment catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupp, H.

    1990-01-01

    Some 70 experts from science, industry and politics discussed in December 1989 in a seminar of the WE Heraeus Foundation the 'Options and priorities of future research and technology policy'. In the face of looming global climate changes and other environmental problems, the main subject was an ecologically oriented research and technology policy which safeguards the future on a long-term basis. This policy has to fulfil the following criteria: - wide time horizon (100 years), - world solidarity (North/South countries), - if possible small risks for the population, - welfare instead of economic growth. The proceedings contain lectures and discussions, giving a representative survey of the international state of research and technology policy and, illustrated by concrete examples, drawing up future demands on this policy. (orig./HSCH) With 28 figs [de

  9. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Policy for Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Policy for Rural Community ... It is against this background that the Nigerian Government has formulated ... The desire is there, the awareness has been created but the will power to budget ...

  10. Data Mining: Technology and Policy. 2008 Report to Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teufel, III, Hugo

    2008-01-01

    ...: Technology and Policy. The Privacy Office has prepared this report to the Congress pursuant to the Department's obligations under Section 804 of the Implementing the Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007...

  11. Healthy China 2020 : Policy and Technology Evaluation | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Healthy China 2020 : Policy and Technology Evaluation ... aimed at providing a blueprint for universal basic healthcare coverage for all by 2020. ... Implementing clinical pathway management and reforming compensation mechanism in rural ...

  12. Technology Policy and Practice in Africa | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Osita M. Ogbu has a doctorate in economics from Howard University and was a ... Unit, University of Sussex, and also has a background in chemical engineering. ... on technology policy and industrial development in sub-Saharan Africa.

  13. 247 Educational Policy and Technological Development in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Our modern world is sharply divided along two socio- economic poles of ... This article therefore, will look at how Nigeria's educational policy affects her level of .... the scientific and technological culture” (Umoren, 1996). vii. Lack of appropriate ...

  14. 77 FR 46855 - Small Business Technology Transfer Program Policy Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Chapter I RIN 3245-AF45 Small Business Technology Transfer Program Policy Directive AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Final policy directive with request for comments. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is amending its Small Business...

  15. Art and technology: A comparative study of policy legitimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.M. Wijnberg (Nachoem)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe legitimation of technology policy is discussed from the point of view of the neoclassical and of the dynamic, Schumpeterian, approach. The results are presented, using the traditional categories of policy legitimation in welfare theory: public goods, externalities, and merit goods.

  16. 78 FR 74129 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... for Environmental Policy and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice... Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management issues. NACEPT members represent academia...

  17. 75 FR 25240 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology... for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management issues. NACEPT is a committee of...

  18. Policy and innovation: Nanoenergy technology in the USA and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Na; Guan, JianCheng

    2016-01-01

    The USA is a leading country while China is an up-and-coming one in nanotechnology. We carried out a cross-country comparative study on policy and innovation of the two countries in subset nanoenergy field. They both created favorable policy environments for nanotechnology involving applications of nanotechnology in the energy sector. However, Chinese policy deployments for nanotechnology lack coordinated arrangements and effective assessment mechanisms. China performs better than the USA in technological quantity, but weaker in technological influence. The USA expresses an industry-oriented model in nanoenergy technological research and development, but China exhibits a university-and-institute-oriented model. Interorganizational collaboration relationships in the two countries are both still very rare and have huge development space. They both have a long way to go in converting their technological achievements into commercial products, especially China. Finally, we provide the policy implications of this study. In particular, the Chinese government should strengthen its efforts in policies by changing the national S&T evaluation system to set up the basic idea that quality is better than quantity in order to raise the original innovation motivations of innovators. - Highlights: •We compare development status of nanoenergy technologies between China and the USA. •We mainly focus on their policies, innovation performance and pattern in nanoenergy. •Differences are observed in nanoenergy technologies developed in these two countries. •We propose their endeavor directions in nanoenergy based on this study.

  19. ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The journal of environmental technology is devoted to the publication of papers which advance knowledge of practical and theoretical issues of the environmental technology. Selection of papers for publication is based on their relevance, clarity, topicality and individuality; the extent to which they advance ...

  20. Health care technology as a policy issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banta, H.D.

    1994-01-01

    Health care technology has become an increasingly visible issue in many countries, primarily because of the rising costs of health care. In addition, many questions concerning quality of care are being raised. Health care technology assessment has been seen as an aid in addressing questions

  1. Transport Technologies and Policy Scenarios to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-10-15

    As part of the major WEC study on Scenarios to 2050, a specific investigation was undertaken on measures required in the transport sector to secure sustainable energy and sustainable mobility in the future. This report outlines the results conducted by a study group of international WEC transport experts and gives concrete policy recommendations to develop sustainable transport systems.

  2. Accumulative pollution, "clean technology," and policy design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toman, M.A.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the optimal long-term management of an accumulative but assimilable pollutant through economic incentive policies that restrict more damaging production processes and induce more benign alternatives. Using a simple general equilibrium approach, we consider the possibility that

  3. Renewable electricity in Sweden: an analysis of policy and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yan

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to analyse the developments in renewable energy policy making in Sweden. It assesses the energy policy context, changes in the choice of policy instruments, and provides explanations behind policy successes and failures. Swedish renewable energy policy has been developing in a context of uncertainty around nuclear issues. While there has been made a political decision to replace nuclear power with renewable s, there is a lack of consensus about the pace of phasing out nuclear power due to perceived negative impacts on industrial competitiveness. Such uncertainty had an effect in the formulation of renewable energy policy. Biomass and wind power are the main options for renewable electricity production. Throughout 1990s, the combined effect of different policy instruments has stimulated the growth of these two renewable sources. Yet, both biomass and wind power are still a minor contributor in the total electricity generation. Lack of strong government commitment due to uncertainty around nuclear issues is a crucial factor. Short-term subsidies have been preferred rather than open-ended subsidy mechanisms, causing intervals without subsidies and interruption to development. Other factors are such as lack of incentives from the major electricity companies and administrative obstacles. The taxation system has been successful in fostering an expansion of biomass for heating but hindered a similar development in the electricity sector. The quota system adopted in 2003 is expected to create high demand on biomass but does not favour wind power. The renewable energy aims are unlikely to be changed. Yet, the future development of renewable energy policies especially for high-cost technologies will again depend strongly on nuclear policies, which are still unstable and might affect the pace of renewable energy development

  4. Determinants of Renewable Energy Innovation: Environmental Policies vs. Market Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vona, Francesco; Nesta, Lionel; Nicolli, Francesco

    2012-02-01

    This paper carries out a comprehensive analysis of renewable energy innovations considering four mechanisms suggested by innovation models: 1. policy-inducement; 2. market structure; 3. demand and social cohesion- mainly proxied by income inequality; 4. characteristics of country knowledge base. For OECD countries and years 1970-2005, we build a unique dataset containing time-varying information on quality-adjusted patent production in renewable energy, the latter being a function of environmental policies, green R and D, entry barriers, knowledge stock, knowledge diversity and income inequality. We develop count data models using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) to account for endogeneity of policy support. Our synthetic policy index positively affects innovations especially in countries with deregulated energy markets and low entry barriers. The effect of entry barriers and inequality is negative and of similar magnitude as that of policy. Product market liberalization positively affects green patent generation, especially so when ambitious policies are adopted, when the initial level of public R and D expenditures and when the initial share of distributed energy generation is high. Our results are robust to alternative specifications, to the inclusion of technology-specific effects and to the use of quality-adjusted patents as dependent variables. In the latter case, the estimated effect of lowering entry barriers and of knowledge diversity almost double on citation count relatively to patent count. (authors)

  5. Tobacco regulations and policies in the Eurasian Economic Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Konstantinovich Demin

    2017-05-01

    Differences between tobacco regulations and policies in the EAEU, EU and other supranational organizations should be further researched in order to promote exchange of best practices in WHO FCTC comprehensive compliance. Implementation of WHO FCTC Article 5.3. and involvement of civil society are among priorities. The practical prospects for the supranational EAEU to become a party to the WHO FCTC should be considered in detail.

  6. Science and Technology Policy in Colombia: A Comparative Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correa-Restrepo, Juan Santiago; Tejada-Gomez, Maria Alejandra; Cayon-Fallon, Edgardo; Ordonez Matamoros, Hector Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to assess the current situation of the science and technology system in Colombia from a comparative perspective of quality indicators in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). We analyze the development of the science and technology policy in Colombia form a

  7. Science and technology policy for the 1980s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Four reports analyze the problems of innovation policy. They discuss interactions between scientific and technological development and economic and social progress. They also discuss international cooperation. They see scientific and technological resources as vital to meeting present economic challenges. 112 references, 3 figures, 10 tables.

  8. Policies to Encourage the Development of Water Sanitation Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euverink, G.J.W.; Temmink, B.G.; Rozendal, R.A.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines innovations in water technology, policies to develop technologies that will contribute to a sustainalbe economy, and the introduction of the new concepts to society. We discuss our views on how wastewater treatment may be performed in the future in such a way that the WFD

  9. Institutional Educational Technology Policy and Strategy Documents: An Inequality Gaze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniewicz, Laura; Rother, Kyle

    2018-01-01

    Issues of inequality in higher education have received considerable attention in recent decades, but the intersection of inequality and educational technology at an institutional level has received little attention. This study aims to provide a perspective on institutional educational technology policy informed by current understandings of…

  10. Are clean technology and environmental quality conflicting policy goals?

    OpenAIRE

    Brechet, Thierry; Meunier, Guy; Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique UR 1303 Alimentation et Sciences Sociales

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the effects of an environmental policy on the diffusion of a clean technology in an economy where firms compete on the output market. We show that the share of adopting firms is non-monotonic with the stringency of the environmental policy, and that the adoption of the clean technology may well increase the pollution level. We also compare the effects of an emission tax and tradable pollution permits on welfare, technology adoption, and pollution level. We show that, ...

  11. Are Clean Technology and Environmental Quality Conflicting Policy Goals?

    OpenAIRE

    Thierry Brechet; Guy Meunier

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the effects of an environmental policy on the diffusion of a clean technology in an economy where firms compete on the output market. We show that the share of adopting firms is non-monotonic with the stringency of the environmental policy, and that the adoption of the clean technology may well increase the pollution level. We also compare the effects of an emission tax and tradable pollution permits on welfare, technology adoption, and pollution level. We show that, ...

  12. Nigerian Journal of Technology: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Journal of Technology is based at the Faculty of Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka and has been in ... The paper should cover any aspects of engineering education, planning, analysis ... Chemical, Industrial, Materials, Mechanical, Metallurgical, Petroleum ... Engr. Dr. C.A. Mgbemene Business Editor.

  13. Technology Policy and Practice in Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The continued insistence that Africa should do what it does best, that is, produce ..... specific technological capabilities that provide for learning commonalities and make ...... Continuity of service was the first consideration, so the design had to ...... Most SSE owners were influenced by customer expectations and tastes, ...

  14. Information communication technology policy and public primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study was to correlate Information Communication Technology with public primary schools' efficiency in Rwanda. The study employed the descriptive survey and descriptive co-relational design. One hundred and forty-four primary teachers participated in the study. The level of ICT was poor (M ...

  15. Technology, market and policy aspects of geothermal energy in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, Ruth; Uihlein, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan) is the technology pillar of the EU's energy and climate policy. The goal of the SET-Plan is to achieve EU worldwide leadership in the production of energy technological solutions capable of delivering EU 2020 and 2050 targets for a low carbon economy. The Joint Research Centre (JRC) runs and manages the SET-Plan Information System (SETIS) to support the SET-Plan. Under SETIS, the JRC publishes a number of regularly updated key references on the state of low carbon technology, research and innovation in Europe. Within the framework of the SET-Plan, the geothermal sector is placed into context with other power and heat generation technologies. The talk will give an introduction to some of JRC's geothermal research activities. Amongst others, the JRC Geothermal status report will be presented. This report aims to contribute to the general knowledge about the geothermal sector, its technology, economics and policies, with a focus on innovation, research, development and deployment activities as well as policy support schemes within the European Union. The speech will present the main findings of the report, providing an overview of the activities and progress made by the geothermal energy sector, the status of its sub-technologies and current developments. In addition, the speech will discuss the economic, market and policy aspects of geothermal energy for power production, direct use and ground source heat pumps in Europe and beyond.

  16. Router Agent Technology for Policy-Based Network Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward T.; Sudhir, Gurusham; Chang, Hsin-Ping; James, Mark; Liu, Yih-Chiao J.; Chiang, Winston

    2011-01-01

    This innovation can be run as a standalone network application on any computer in a networked environment. This design can be configured to control one or more routers (one instance per router), and can also be configured to listen to a policy server over the network to receive new policies based on the policy- based network management technology. The Router Agent Technology transforms the received policies into suitable Access Control List syntax for the routers it is configured to control. It commits the newly generated access control lists to the routers and provides feedback regarding any errors that were faced. The innovation also automatically generates a time-stamped log file regarding all updates to the router it is configured to control. This technology, once installed on a local network computer and started, is autonomous because it has the capability to keep listening to new policies from the policy server, transforming those policies to router-compliant access lists, and committing those access lists to a specified interface on the specified router on the network with any error feedback regarding commitment process. The stand-alone application is named RouterAgent and is currently realized as a fully functional (version 1) implementation for the Windows operating system and for CISCO routers.

  17. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Science & Technology Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-18

    urgent and vital problems that faced the United States of America at that time. This discussion was of a completely free nature, and, although at...imeni M.O. Auezov, and the Sociology Center attached to the Institute of Eco- nomics, which took part in sociolinguistic studies of the language...development of advanced technologies. In the United States of America , for example, a special fund of these technologies was estab- lished. An

  18. National policies and regulations for decommissioning nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    This report, though produced as a follow-up to Safety Series No. 105, The Regulatory Process for the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities, is not primarily intended as guidance. Rather, its objective is to provide an overview of national decommissioning policies and regulatory practices as part of the background knowledge which is an essential precondition for good decision making. It discusses the reasons for the similarities and differences in national approach using specific examples but without giving preference to any particular scheme; it aims rather to provide factual, general information on the choices that have been or are being made, and why. As many Member States are in a transient situation between the case-by-case approach to decommissioning and the establishment of national policies, strategies and regulations, this seems the right moment to assess existing national practices worldwide and that is the purpose for which the document is issued at this time. The information gathered in this report is based on submissions by Member States which have developed or are in the process of developing decommissioning oriented policies and regulations. 29 refs

  19. Tensions between Scottish National Policies for onshore wind energy and local dissatisfaction - insights from regulation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhill, Karen [School of Psychology, Tower Building, Cardiff University, Cardiff, (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-15

    Although best described as a meta theory addressing the endurance of capitalism, regulation theory can successfully be used to explore not only the economic dimensions, but also the political, socio-cultural and environmental dimensions of particular developmental strategies. Thus, it offers a framework for embedding abstract debates about social attitudes to new technologies within debates about real regulation - the economic, social and cultural relationships operating through particular places. This paper uses regulation theory and qualitative, interview-based data to analyse Scotland's drive for onshore wind energy. This approach teases out how responses to wind farms are bound up with wider debates about how rural spaces are, and should be, regulated; the tensions within and between national political objectives, local political objectives and local communities' dissatisfaction; and the connections between local actors and more formal dimensions of renewable energy policy. (Author)

  20. Chemical regulation on fire: rapid policy advances on flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordner, Alissa; Mulcahy, Margaret; Brown, Phil

    2013-07-02

    Chemicals that are widely used in consumer products offer challenges to product manufacturers, risk managers, environmental regulators, environmental scientists, and the interested public. However, the factors that cause specific chemicals to rise to the level of regulatory, scientific, and social movement concern and scrutiny are not well documented, and scientists are frequently unclear about exactly how their research impacts policy. Through a case study of advocacy around flame retardant chemicals, this paper traces the pathways through which scientific evidence and concern is marshaled by both advocacy groups and media sources to affect policy change. We focus our analysis around a broad coalition of environmental and public health advocacy organizations and an investigative journalism series published in 2012 in the Chicago Tribune. We demonstrate that the Tribune series both brought the issue to a wider public audience and precipitated government action, including state policy revisions and federal Senate hearings. We also show how a broad and successful flame retardant coalition developed, leveraged a media event, and influenced policy at multiple institutional levels. The analysis draws on over 110 in-depth interviews, literature and Web site reviews, and observations at a flame retardant manufacturing company, government offices, and scientific and advocacy conferences.

  1. Proceedings of the 8. Brazilian congress on energy: energy policy, regulation and sustainable development. v. 2: energy planning and policy, energy conservation and rational use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The theme energy policy, regulation and sustainable development chosen for the 8. Brazilian congress on energy to be held in Rio de Janeiro from 30 November of 1999 to 02 December of 1999, specifically means the contribution of energy to a satisfactory quality of life for everyone. Within such a context, the congress technical programme theme has been structured around six different divisions: energy, environment and development; energy sector regulation; energy policy and planning; technology innovation; energy conservation; and renewable energy sources and rural areas energy supply

  2. Illicit drugs policy through the lens of regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Alison

    2010-07-01

    The application of regulatory theory to the problem of illicit drugs has generally been thought about only in terms of 'command and control'. The international treaties governing global illicit drug control and the use of law enforcement to dissuade and punish offenders have been primary strategies. In this paper I explore the application of other aspects of regulatory theory to illicit drugs-primarily self-regulation and market regulation. There has been an overreliance on strategies from the top of the regulatory pyramid. Two other regulatory strategies--self-regulation and market regulation--can be applied to illicit drugs. Self-regulation, driven by the proactive support of consumer groups may reduce drug-related harms. Market strategies such as pill-testing can change consumer preferences and encourage alternate seller behaviour. Regulatory theory is also concerned with partnerships between the state and third parties: strategies in these areas include partnerships between police and pharmacies regarding sale of potential precursor chemicals. Regulatory theory and practice is a rich and well-developed field in the social sciences. I argue that governments should consider the full array of regulatory strategies. Using regulatory theory provides a rationale and justification to strategies that are currently at the whim of politics, such as funding for user groups. The greater application of regulatory approaches may produce more flexible and structured illicit drug policies. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [An overview of the definition and implementation of the Brazilian National Policy on Health Data and Information Technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Ricardo Bezerra; Kerr-Pinheiro, Marta Macedo; Guimarães, Eliete Albano de Azevedo; Miranda, Richardson Machado

    2015-05-01

    The This qualitative study aimed to analyze the development and implementation of the Brazilian National Policy on Health Data and Information Technology (NPIIH). We analyzed documents and applied an online questionnaire to the experts involved in developing the policy. The data were submitted to content analysis using the categorical thematic modality. The PNIIS is the target of debate and proposals at various levels. Provisions have appeared in parallel to regulate measures on health data and information technology. Community participation in developing this policy and the convergence of laws, standards, resolutions, and policy-making levels in a common and broadly acknowledged and enforced policy are challenges, in addition to linking the public and private sectors. The study concludes that the National Policy on Health Data and Information Technology is making gradual progress, predominantly in theoretical debates, revisions, and updates. There are numerous challenges for its implementation and a prevailing need for legitimation.

  4. Plans & Policies for Technology in Education: A Compendium. A Technology Leadership Network Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National School Boards Association, Alexandria, VA. Inst. for the Transfer of Technology to Education.

    This document shows how education leaders nationwide--many of them part of the National School Boards Association's 345-district Technology Leadership Network--have addressed technology-related policy issues such as copyright, purchasing, network/Internet use, and ethics as well as technology planning topics including staff development, classroom…

  5. Technology assessment and technology policy in Europe : New concepts, new goals, new infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, R.; Leyten, J.; Hertog, P. den

    1995-01-01

    Starting from the observation that the technological potentials are underutilized in economic and in social tems, this article raises the question of what role technology assessment (TA) can play in technology policy to address this problem. The causes of the problem of underutilization are analyzed

  6. Oil price volatility, financial regulation and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    In October of 2009, the French Ministry of Economy asked the author to chair a work group on oil price volatility. The report resulting from that work was submitted to the minister on February 9, 2010. Based on the report, this article focuses on three major elements: (i) the operation of the oil market, with interacting physical basics and financial basics (ii) financial market regulation, more specifically commodities-derived product markets and current work in that area and (iii) the lessons one can draw from that exercise in terms of energy policy. Significant projects have been initiated on global, European and national levels. (author)

  7. Evaluating business models for microgrids: Interactions of technology and policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, Ryan; Ghonima, Mohamed; Kleissl, Jan; Tynan, George; Victor, David G.

    2017-01-01

    Policy makers are increasingly focused on strategies to decentralize the electricity grid. We analyze the business model for one mode of decentralization—microgrids—and quantify the economics for self-supply of electricity and thermal energy and explicitly resolve technological as well as policy variables. We offer a tool, based on the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) modeling framework, that determines the cost-minimal capacity and operation of distributed energy resources in a microgrid, and apply it in southern California to three “iconic” microgrid types which represent typical commercial adopters: a large commercial building, critical infrastructure, and campus. We find that optimal investment leads to some deployment of renewables but that natural gas technologies underpin the most robust business cases—due in part to relatively cheap gas and high electricity rates. This finding contrasts sharply with most policy advocacy, which has focused on the potentials for decentralization of the grid to encourage deployment of renewables. Decentralization could radically reduce customer energy costs, but without the right policy framework it could create large numbers of small decentralized sources of gas-based carbon emissions that will be difficult to control if policy makers want to achieve deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions. - Highlights: • We offer a modeling tool to study technology and policy variables for microgrids. • We construct comprehensive load profiles for three likely adopters of microgrids. • Investment in natural gas generators is key to enabling business models. • Solar PV and storage are optimal but as supplements to gas generation. • Business models are highly robust to sensitivity in technology and policy variables.

  8. Future Regulations – A Catalyst for Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of current mobile source regulations and EPA mobile source regulatory authority with an emphasis on how EPA regulations are a driver for the development and introduction of automotive technology.

  9. Brazilian new patterns of an industrial, technological and foreign trade policy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Matias Pereira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to deepen the discussion about the unavoidable way Brazil has to go through in order to construct a modern industrial and technological policy, based on knowledge and technological innovation, which will work as a stimulator of economic development. The different theories about this subject (SCHUMPETER, 1985; PAVITT, 1998; FREEMAN, 1995; KRUGMAN, 1995; COUTINHO & FERRAZ, 1994; MATIAS-PEREIRA & KRUGLIANSKAS, 2005, so as the principles set by the Brazilian Development Ministry (“Diretrizes de Política Industrial, Tecnológica e de Comércio Exterior”, give support in the search for defining a new model of industrial, technological policy and foreign trade for the country. The strategic role of industrial policy seems to be very evident, if it takes on its co-ordination work involving the productive agents, which are responsible for crucial decisions, such as those related to investments and/or innovation, in a context of great incertitude about the consequences of their decisions in the future. Finally, the conclusion arising from this discussion demonstrates that it is crucial for the country to define a modern industrial policy, which could be able to integrate the incentive to innovation as well as to exports, in order to serve as a tool to foster development. The paper also argues that the feasibility to this policy depends on Government’s ability in supplying agents with a favorable context towards adequate regulation, purchasing policy, availability on financing facilities and fiscal incentives.

  10. Self-regulated and technology-enhanced learning: a European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton; Steffens, Karl; Andrade, Maureen Snow

    2014-01-01

    Self-regulation of learning, learning to learn, and their potential stimulation by specific Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), are main topics in European policy. This issue of the ‘European Educational Research Journal’ (EERJ) focuses on research to develop, integrate, and evaluate

  11. Self-regulated and technology-enhanced learning: a European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton; Steffens, Karl; Andrade, Maureen Snow

    2015-01-01

    Self-regulation of learning, learning to learn, and their potential stimulation by specific Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), are main topics in European policy. This issue of the ‘European Educational Research Journal’ (EERJ) focuses on research to develop, integrate, and evaluate

  12. E-cigarette regulation and policy: UK vapers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrimond, Hannah

    2016-06-01

    The rapid increase in use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has created an international policy dilemma concerning how to use these products. This study assesses the types of beliefs that e-cigarette users in the United Kingdom may hold concerning regulation. Qualitative thematic analysis of written answers to open-ended questions. United Kingdom, questionnaire conducted by post, 44% recruited from online forums and 56% non-online. Fifty-five UK vapers, 55% male, mean age 46 years, 84% sole users of e-cigarettes, 95% vaping daily. Open-ended questions on regulatory and policy options. 'Protecting youth' was seen as a fundamental regulatory requirement which should be achieved through childproofing, age limits, no advertising aimed at children and health warnings about addictiveness of nicotine, but not the restriction of flavours. There was little support for regulating e-cigarettes as medicines or limiting the strength of nicotine liquids. In terms of public use, participants argued against a blanket ban on public vaping given perceptions of a lack of scientific evidence of harm. However, they supported the principle of autonomy, that individuals and organizations have the right to restrict vaping. Some participants suggested banning vaping in places such as schools, hospitals or around food, in line with current smoking norms. Vapers' regulatory positions were accompanied by political concerns about the use (and misuse) of scientific evidence. With regard to regulation of e-cigarettes, issues that are salient to UK vapers may include the need for youth protection, regulation as medicines, strength of e-liquids, bans on public vaping and concerns about the misuse of scientific evidence. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. Causality between public policies and exports of renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Bongsuk; Song, Woo-Yong

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the causal relationship between public policies and exports of renewable energy technologies using panel data from 18 countries for the period 1991–2007. A number of panel unit root and cointegration tests are applied. Time series data on public policies and exports are integrated and cointegrated. The dynamic OLS results indicate that in the long run, a 1% increase in government R and D expenditures (RAD) increases exports (EX) by 0.819%. EX and RAD variables respond to deviations from the long-run equilibrium in the previous period. Additionally, the Blundell–Bond system generalized methods of moments (GMM) is employed to conduct a panel causality test in a vector error-correction mechanism (VECM) setting. Evidence of a bidirectional and short-run, and strong causal relationship between EX and the contribution of renewable energy to the total energy supply (CRES) is uncovered. CRES has a negative effect on EX, whereas EX has a positive effect on CRES. We suggest some policy implications based on the results of this study. - Highlights: ► We model VECM to test the Granger causality between the policies and the export. ► Technology-push policy has a positive impact on export in the long-run. ► There are the short-run causal relationships between market-pull policy and export

  14. 76 FR 1431 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY... National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management issues. NACEPT...

  15. 75 FR 52941 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management issues. NACEPT...

  16. 76 FR 24481 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management issues. NACEPT...

  17. 76 FR 68183 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management issues. NACEPT...

  18. 75 FR 38810 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management...

  19. 76 FR 37112 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management...

  20. Proceedings of the 8. Brazilian congress on energy: energy policy, regulation and sustainable development. v. 1: energy, environment and energy sector regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The theme energy policy, regulation and sustainable development chosen for the 8. Brazilian congress on energy to be held in Rio de Janeiro from 30 November of 1999 to 02 December of 1999, specifically means the contribution of energy to a satisfactory quality of life for everyone. Within such a context, the congress technical programme theme has been structured around six different divisions: energy, environment and development; energy sector regulation; energy policy and planning; technology innovation; energy conservation; and renewable energy sources and rural areas energy supply

  1. Strategic technology policy as a supplement to renewable energy standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Carolyn; Greaker, Mads; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2018-01-01

    In many regions, renewable energy targets are a primary decarbonization policy. Most of the same jurisdictions also subsidize the manufacturing and/or deployment of renewable energy technologies, some being sufficiently aggressive as to engender WTO disputes. We consider a downstream energy-using

  2. Japanese policy on science and technology for the global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, M.

    1994-01-01

    The current state of Japanese science and technology policy is discussed within the framework of overall global environmental policy. Principles of Japanese environmental policy include participation in international schemes for conservation of the global environment, promotion of Japanese research on the global environment, development and diffusion of technologies contributing to conservation of the global environment, contribution to conservation of the environment in developing countries, and maintenance of economic and social activities in Japan at an environmentally beneficial level. The Japanese environmental budget includes expenditures for earth observation and monitoring by satellite, energy-related research and development, and control of greenhouse gas emissions. The proportion of overall Japanese research and development (R ampersand D) expenditures which were spent on the global environment was about 2% in 1991. Of governmental research expenditures, ca 22% involve the global environment; however, some part of the expenditures on energy R ampersand D and on earth observation satellite R ampersand D are also environment-related. 5 figs

  3. Analysis of Global CCS Technology, Regulations and Its Potential for Emission Reduction with Focus on China

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Ying; Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Xiaobing

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the development of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology, the progress in CCS demonstration projects, and regulations and policies related to CCS. Barriers and limitations for the large-scale deployment of CCS are discussed. CCS and different technological solutions for emission reduction (e.g., energy conservation and renewable energy) are compared. The analysis shows that China should carefully evaluate the negative impacts of CCS deployment and needs to enhance ...

  4. Environmental policy and technological development in the Dutch economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollebergh, H.; Van Groenendaal, W.; Hofkes, M.; Kemp, R.

    2004-01-01

    An analysis is given of recent insights into technological development and the environment. In particular, attention is paid to the question whether it is possible or not to combine continuous economic development with a release of the environmental burden. In several chapters the authors provide insight and discuss theories with regard to innovation and adoption of new technologies, the concept of transition management and the importance of uncertainty with respect to the decision to invest in environment-friendly techniques or not. Also, much attention is paid to characteristics of the Dutch economy and their consequences for technology and environmental policy and related interactions [nl

  5. Adding Entrepreneurship to India’s Science, Technology & Innovation Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragini Chaurasia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Science, Technology & Innovation Policy (STIP is an important policy instrument particularly in the developing countries. India also has recognized the role of science, technology and innovation in development as early as 1958 but still trails behind its peer Brazil, China and the Asian tiger Singapore. Considering strong correlation between research and development investment and growth based on existing studies, this paper brings forth the present situation of India in investment and its influence on the performance of the economy vis-à-vis the three countries. This paper studies the STIP 2013 in detail and reports the contribution of the Department of Science and Technology in India. The main conclusion of this paper is the recommendation for incorporation of “entrepreneurship” in STIP based on global best practices, which can be achieved by government’s involvement as a venture capitalist to seed and support innovations, increasing transparency and incorporating entrepreneurial curriculum.

  6. Technological change, depletion and environmental policy in the offshore oil and gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managi, Shunsuke

    Technological change is central to maintaining standards of living in modern economies with finite resources and increasingly stringent environmental goals. Successful environmental policies can contribute to efficiency by encouraging, rather than inhibiting, technological innovation. However, little research to date has focused on the design and implementation of environmental regulations that encourage technological progress, or in insuring productivity improvements in the face of depletion of natural resources and increasing stringency of environmental regulations. This study models and measures productivity change, with an application to offshore oil and gas production in the Gulf of Mexico using Data Envelopment Analysis. This is an important application because energy resources are central to sustaining our economy. The net effects of technological progress and depletion on productivity of offshore oil and gas production are measured using a unique field-level set of data of production from all wells in the Gulf of Mexico over the time period from 1946--1998. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that technological progress has mitigated depletion effects over the study period, but the pattern differs from the conventional wisdom for nonrenewable resource industries. The Porter Hypothesis was recast, and revised version was tested. The Porter Hypothesis states that well designed environmental regulations can potentially contribute to productive efficiency in the long run by encouraging innovation. The Porter Hypothesis was recast to include market and nonmarket outputs. Our results support the recast version of Porter hypothesis, which examine productivity of joint production of market and environmental outputs. But we find no evidence for the standard formulation of the Porter hypothesis, that increased stringency of environmental regulation lead to increased productivity of market outputs and therefore increased industry profits. The model is used to

  7. Energy and the environment: Technology assessment and policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, M.P.W.

    1990-01-01

    While the energy crisis of the 1970s stimulated technological innovation in developed countries, it often had the opposite effect in the third world. However, developing countries can be considered to have two types of energy systems: ''connected'' and ''disconnected''. The connected system is affected by changes in the price of commercial energy, but the disconnected system is usually rural and remote. Commercial forms of energy may be needed in the disconnected system, but they are largely unavailable. In some of the developing countries, new energy technologies have therefore been developed which adapt traditional technologies still existing in the disconnected sector. In this article some of the work of the United National Centre for Science and Technology for Development is described. Through its ATAS (Advance Technology Alert System) programme, international and regional workshops are held to discuss policy questions arising in regard to new technologies and developments. Workshops have been held in Moscow on new energy technologies in the industry subsystem (connected), in Guatemala City on new energy technologies and the disconnected system, and in Ottawa on new energy technologies, transportation and development. Initial assessments made by or through these workshops are outlined here. A fourth workshop will be held in June 1990 in Saarbrucken on energy technologies and climate change. (author). 3 figs

  8. Energy Policy is Technology Politics The Hydrogen Energy Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl-Jochen Winter

    2006-01-01

    Germany's energy supply status shows both an accumulation of unsatisfactory sustainabilities putting the nation's energy security at risk, and a hopeful sign: The nation's supply dependency on foreign sources and the accordingly unavoidable price dictate the nation suffers under is almost life risking; the technological skill, however, of the nation's researchers, engineers, and industry materializes in a good percentage of the indigenous and the world's energy conversion technology market. Exemplified with the up and coming hydrogen energy economy this paper tries to advocate the 21. century energy credo: energy policy is energy technology politics! Energy source thinking and acting is 19. and 20. century, energy efficient conversion technology thinking and acting is 21. century. Hydrogen energy is on the verge of becoming the centre-field of world energy interest. Hydrogen energy is key for the de-carbonization and, thus, sustainabilization of fossil fuels, and as a storage and transport means for the introduction of so far un-operational huge renewable sources into the world energy market. - What is most important is hydrogen's thermodynamic ability to exergize the energy scheme: hydrogen makes more technical work (exergy) out of less primary energy! Hydrogen adds value. Hydrogen energy and, in particular, hydrogen energy technologies, are to become part of Germany's national energy identity; accordingly, national energy policy as energy technology politics needs to grow in the nation's awareness as common sense! Otherwise Germany seems ill-equipped energetically, and its well-being hangs in the balance. (author)

  9. World energy, technology and climate policy outlook 2030. WETO 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Starting from a set of clear key assumptions on economic activity, population and hydrocarbon resources, WETO describes in detail scenarios for the evolution of World and European energy systems, power generation technologies and impacts of climate change policy in the main world regions or countries.It presents a coherent framework to analyse the energy, technology and environment trends and issues over the period to 2030, focusing on Europe in a world context. Three of the key results of this work are: (1) in a Reference scenario, i.e.if no strong specific policy initiatives and measures are taken, world CO2 emissions are expected to double in 2030 and, with a share of 90%, fossil fuels will continue to dominate the energy system; (2) the great majority of the increase in oil production will come from OPEC countries and the EU will rely predominantly on natural gas imported from the CIS; and (3) as the largest growing energy demand and CO2 emissions originate from developing countries (mainly China and India), Europe will have to intensify its co-operation, particularly in terms of transfer of technologies. The analysis of long-term scenarios and a particular attention to the energy world context, is an important element for efficient energy, technology and environment policies towards a sustainable world

  10. Legitimation problems of participatory processes in technology assessment and technology policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saretzki, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Since James Carroll (1971) made a strong case for "participatory technology", scientists, engineers, policy-makers and the public at large have seen quite a number of different approaches to design and implement participatory processes in technology assessment and technology policy. As these participatory experiments and practices spread over the last two decades, one could easily get the impression that participation turned from a theoretical normative claim to a working practice that goes without saying. Looking beyond the well-known forerunners and considering the ambivalent experiences that have been made under different conditions in various places, however, the "if" and "how" of participation are still contested issues when questions of technology are on the agenda. Legitimation problems indicate that attempts to justify participation in a given case have not been entirely successful in the eyes of relevant groups among the sponsors, participants, organizers or observers. Legitimation problems of participatory processes in technology assessment and technology policy vary considerably, and they do so not only with the two domains and the ways of their interrelation or the specific features of the participatory processes. If we ask whether or not participation is seen as problematic in technology assessment and technology policy-making and in what sense it is being evaluated as problematic, then we find that the answer depends also on the approaches and criteria that have been used to legitimize or delegitimize the call for a specific design of participation.

  11. Teacher Verbal Aggressiveness and Credibility Mediate the Relationship between Teacher Technology Policies and Perceived Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Amber N.; Ledbetter, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we extend previous work on teacher technology policies by refining the teacher technology policies instrument to account for the technology purpose (social, academic) and type (cell phone, laptop/tablet), and examine a model of teacher technology policies and perceived learning. We found that students are more sensitive to policies…

  12. Science, Technology and Natural Resources Policy: Overcoming Congressional Gridlock

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    The current status of Science, Technology and Natural Resources (STNR) policy in the United States provides an ideal context to examine the influence of committee seniority within the public policy process. Exemplars of the Policy Entrepreneur have been individuals in leadership positions, whether executive or legislative. The role of junior committee members in shaping policy innovation is less well understood, and is frequently masked either in cross-sectional research designs or in case studies. The House Natural Resources committee seniority patterns are compared to the House of Representatives Chamber data from 1975 to 2015. This expanse of congressional time captures both the policy innovation of the Class of 1974 who helped transform the public lands by pursuing a preservation agenda, along with the contemporaneous gridlock caused by disagreements about reducing the size of the federal government, a policy agenda championed and sustained by the Class of 1994. Several types of political actors have served as policy entrepreneurs, President Kennedy and Secretary of Interior Udall shepherding the Wilderness Act of 1964 from the Executive branch, or in the 111th Congress Committee chairmen Senator Christopher Dodd and Representative Barney Frank, having announced their retirements, spent their final Congress shaping the consensus that produced the Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010. A less studied policy phenomenon relies on "packing the committee" to outvote the leadership. This tactic can be used by the party leadership to overcome recalcitrant senior committee members, as was the case for Democrats in the House Interior and Insular Affairs Committee shift to preservation in the 1970s, or the tactic can be employed from the grassroots, as may be happening in the case of the House Natural Resources Committee in the 114th Congress. A policy making process analog to rivers is more appropriate than a mechanistic model. As there are multiple

  13. Control of mercury emissions: policies, technologies, and future trends

    OpenAIRE

    Rhee, Seung-Whee

    2015-01-01

    Seung-Whee Rhee Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyonggi University, Suwon, Republic of Korea Abstract: Owing to the Minamata Convention on Mercury and the Global Mercury Partnership, policies and regulations on mercury management in advanced countries were intensified by a mercury phaseout program in the mercury control strategy. In developing countries, the legislative or regulatory frameworks on mercury emissions are not established specifically, but mercury management is designed...

  14. Self-regulation of recombinant DNA technology in Japan in the 1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Hiroyuki; Nukaga, Yoshio; Saeki, Koji; Akabayashi, Akira

    2009-07-01

    Recombinant DNA technology was developed in the United States in the early 1970s. Leading scientists held an international Asilomar Conference in 1975 to examine the self regulation of recombinant DNA technology, followed by the U.S. National Institutes of Health drafting the Recombinant DNA Research Guidelines in 1976. The result of this conference significantly affected many nations, including Japan. However, there have been few historical studies on the self-regulation of recombinant technologies conducted by scientists and government officials in Japan. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how the Science Council of Japan, the Ministry of Education, Science adn Culture, and the Science and Technology Agency developed self-regulation policies for recombinant DNA technology in Japan in the 1970s. Groups of molecular biologist and geneticists played a key role in establishing guidelines in cooperation with government officials. Our findings suggest that self-regulation policies on recombinant DNA technology have influenced safety management for the life sciences and establishment of institutions for review in Japan.

  15. Green technological change. Renewable energies, policy mix and innovation. Results of the GRETCHEN project on the impact of policy mixes on the technological and structural change in renewable energy electricity production technologies in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogge, Karoline S.; Breitschopf, Barbara; Mattes, Katharina; Cantner, Uwe; Graf, Holger; Herrmann, Johannes; Kalthaus, Martin; Lutz, Christian; Wiebe, Kirsten

    2015-09-01

    The report on the GRETCHEN project that was concerned with the impact of policy mixes on the technological and structural change in renewable energy electricity production technologies in Germany covers the following issues: market and technology development of renewable energy electricity production technologies; the policy mix for renewable electricity production technologies, innovative impact of the policy mix; subordinate conclusions for politics and research.

  16. Explaining environmental Kuznets curves. How pollution induces policy and new technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smulders, S.; Bretschger, L.

    2000-01-01

    Production often causes pollution as a by-product. Once pollution problems become too severe, regulation is introduced by political authorities which forces the economy to make a transition to cleaner production processes. We model this transition as a change in 'general purpose technology' (GPT) and investigate how it interferes with economic growth driven by quality-improvements. The model gives an explanation for the inverted U-shaped relationship found in empirical research for many pollutants, often referred to as the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC). We provide an analytical foundation for the claim that the rise and decline of pollution can be explained by policy-induced technology shifts. 19 refs

  17. The Ethics of Virtual Reality Technology: Social Hazards and Public Policy Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, James S

    2017-09-23

    This article explores four major areas of moral concern regarding virtual reality (VR) technologies. First, VR poses potential mental health risks, including Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder. Second, VR technology raises serious concerns related to personal neglect of users' own actual bodies and real physical environments. Third, VR technologies may be used to record personal data which could be deployed in ways that threaten personal privacy and present a danger related to manipulation of users' beliefs, emotions, and behaviors. Finally, there are other moral and social risks associated with the way VR blurs the distinction between the real and illusory. These concerns regarding VR naturally raise questions about public policy. The article makes several recommendations for legal regulations of VR that together address each of the above concerns. It is argued that these regulations would not seriously threaten personal liberty but rather would protect and enhance the autonomy of VR consumers.

  18. Technology-Critical Elements: Economic and Policy Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    Critical elements are those that provide essential functionality to modern engineered materials, have few ready substitutes and are subject to supply-chain risks or concerns about long-run availability. This paper provides economic and public-policy perspectives on critical elements. It suggests: that which elements are critical is situational and changes over time; that we are not running out of mineral-derived raw materials in a geologic sense but rather, for some elements, face scarcities that are technological, environmental, political or economic in nature; and that public policy's most important role over the longer term is fostering scientific and technological innovation, especially early stage research, that has the potential to overcome these scarcities.

  19. Forging the links: a technology policy for Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The Canadian economy is faced with a serious crisis which is manifest in high unemployment, persistent trade imbalances, and a falling currency. These immediate problems reflect a deeper crisis in the structure of Canadian industry, and in particular, manufacturing, which precedes the recent recession in the Western economies. High levels of technological and managerial truncation, and relative technological backwardness have placed Canadian industry at a particular disadvantage in light of the substantial changes taking place in world economies. The advanced industrial nations are moving into more technologically advanced forms of production - the new industrial revolution. This trend threatens to outpace the innovative capacity of Canadian industry to such an extent that its manufactured products will no longer be competitive with those of principal trading partners. Further, a number of developing countries with lower labour costs are moving into many of the conventional areas of industrial activity (e.g., assembly manufacturing operations), thus threatening to displace a significant number of Canada's traditional manufacturing activities through increased price competition. A rebuilding of Canada's industrial structure as well as improving its technological capability is required. Implementation of such an industrial strategy would require four initial policy objectives: 1) increase the demand for Canadian technology within the industrial system; 2) expand Canadian industry's potential to develop technology; 3) strengthen the capacity for the absorption of technology at the level of the firm; 4) increase the ability of Canadian firms to import technology under conditions favourable to Canada.

  20. Timing of adoption of clean technologies by regulated monopolies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Slim Ben

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a monopoly firm producing a good and, at the same time, polluting and using fossil energy. By incurring an investment cost, this firm can adopt a lower production cost clean technology using renewable energy. We determine the optimal adoption date for the firm in the case where it is not regulated at all and in the case where it is regulated at each period. Interestingly, the regulated firm adopts the clean technology earlier than what is socially optimal, as opposed to the nonregulated firm. The regulator can induce the firm to adopt the clean technology at the socially optimal date by a postpone adoption subsidy. Nevertheless, the regulator may be interested in the earlier adoption of the firm to encourage the diffusion of the use of clean technologies in other industries.

  1. Future carbon regulations and current investments in alternative coal-fired power plant technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekar, Ram C.; Parsons, John E.; Herzog, Howard J.; Jacoby, Henry D.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze how uncertain future US carbon regulations shape the current choice of the type of power plant to build. Our focus is on two coal-fired technologies, pulverized coal (PC) and integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology (IGCC). The PC technology is cheapest-assuming there is no need to control carbon emissions. The IGCC technology may be cheaper if carbon must be captured. Since power plants last many years and future regulations are uncertain, a US electric utility faces a standard decision under uncertainty. A company will confront the range of possible outcomes, assigning its best estimate of the probability of each scenario, averaging the results and determining the power plant technology with the lowest possible cost inclusive of expected future carbon related costs, whether those costs be in the form of emissions charges paid or capital expenditures for retrofitting to capture carbon. If the company assigns high probability to no regulation or to less stringent regulation of carbon, then it makes sense for it to build the PC plant. But if it assigns sufficient probability to scenarios with more stringent regulation, then the IGCC technology is warranted. We provide some useful benchmarks for possible future regulation and show how these relate back to the relative costs of the two technologies and the optimal technology choice. Few of the policy proposals widely referenced in the public discussion warrant the choice of the IGCC technology. Instead, the PC technology remains the least costly. However, recent carbon prices in the European Emissions Trading System are higher than these benchmarks. If it is any guide to possible future penalties for emissions in the US, then current investment in the IGCC technology is warranted. Of course, other factors need to be factored into the decision as well

  2. Power Generation Technology Choice in the Presence of Climate Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    The overall purpose of this thesis is to analyze power generation technology choices in the presence of climate policy. Special attention is paid to the diffusion of renewable power technologies following a carbon pricing policy, and this topic is analyzed in two self-contained papers. The overall objective of paper 1 is to analyze how future investments in the Swedish power sector can be affected by carbon pricing policies following the Kyoto Protocol. In the first part we focus on the price of carbon following the Kyoto commitments and to what extent this policy will affect the relative competitiveness of the available investment alternatives. The second part pays attention to the possible impacts of technology learning - and the resulting cost decreases - on the economics of power generation in the presence of climate policy. The first part considers the majority of power generation technologies available in Sweden, while the second part focuses solely on the competition between combined cycle natural gas plants and the cheapest renewable power alternative, wind power. Methodologically, we approach the above issues from the perspective of a power generator who considers investing in new generation capacity. This implies that we first of all assess the lifetime engineering costs of different power generation technologies in Sweden, and analyze the impact of carbon pricing on the competitive cost position of these technologies under varying rate-of-return requirements. Overall the results indicate that in general it is not certain that compliance with the Kyoto commitments implies substantial increases in renewable power sources. If, therefore, renewable power sources are favored for reasons beyond climate policy additional policy instruments will be needed. The purpose of paper 2 is to analyze the costs for reducing CO 2 emissions in the power-generating sectors in Croatia, the European part of Russia, Macedonia, Serbia and the Ukraine in 2020 by using a linear

  3. University students’ self-regulated learning using digital technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Yot-Domínguez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Analysing the process by which students—whether at university or not—manage and facilitate their own learning has been a recurrent educational research problem. Recently, the question arises about how the development of strategies taking place during the aforementioned process could be made easier by using technologies. In an effort to know whether university students really use digital technologies to plan, organize and facilitate their own learning, we have proposed three research questions. Which technologies do university students use to self-regulate their learning? What self-regulated learning strategies do they develop using technologies? What profiles could be identified among students based on their use of self-regulation strategies with technology? To answer these questions, the “Survey of Self-regulated Learning with Technology at the University” was designed. Information from a sample group with 711 students from various universities located in the region of Andalusia (Spain was collected with this survey. The results indicate that university students, even when they are frequent users of digital technology, they tend not to use these technologies to regulate their own learning process. Of all technologies analysed, Internet information search and instant communication tools are used continually. In turn, the most generalised self-regulation learning strategies are those relative to social support. Nevertheless, students differ from each other regarding their use and frequency. There are groups of students who make use of self-regulation strategies when learning with technologies. In this regard, two distinctive groups of students have been identified, who show differentiated self-regulated levels.

  4. [Health technology assessment and its impact on pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Laborde, Carla; Silva-Illanes, Nicolás

    2014-01-01

    The article conceptualizes the pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policies related to financial coverage in the context of health systems. It introduces the pharmaceutical market as an imperfect one, in which appropriate regulation is required. Moreover, the basis that guide the pricing and reimbursement processes are defined and described in order to generate a categorization based on whether they are intended to assess the 'added value' and if the evaluation is based on cost-effectiveness criteria. This framework is used to review different types of these policies applied in the international context, discussing the role of the Health Technology Assessment in these processes. Finally, it briefly discusses the potential role of these types of policies in the Chilean context.

  5. Citizenship, Collaborative Technologies and Regulation | Page 8 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The recent rise of a wide range of collaborative information technologies ... and sanitation utilities using web 2.0 applications and/or cellphones (mobile phones). ... Organization for Women in Science for the Developing World (OWSD), IDRC ...

  6. 75 FR 29533 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology Notice of Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... and Technology Notice of Charter Renewal AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice....2, the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT) is a necessary...

  7. Towards a European Energy Technology Policy - The European Strategic Energy Technology Plan (Set-Plan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, A.; Petric, H.; Peteves, E.

    2008-01-01

    The transition to a low carbon economy will take decades and affect the entire economy. There is a timely opportunity for investment in energy infrastructure. However, decisions to invest in technologies that are fully aligned with policy and society priorities do not necessarily come naturally, although it will profoundly affect the level of sustainability of the European energy system for decades to come. Technology development needs to be accelerated and prioritized at the highest level of the European policy agenda. This is the essence of the European Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan). The SET-Plan makes concrete proposals for action to establish an energy technology policy for Europe, with a new mind-set for planning and working together and to foster science for transforming energy technologies to achieve EU energy and climate change goals for 2020, and to contribute to the worldwide transition to a low carbon economy by 2050. This paper gives an overview of the SET-Plan initiative and highlights its latest developments. It emphasises the importance of information in support of decision-making for investing in the development of low carbon technologies and shows the first results of the technology mapping undertaken by the newly established Information System of the SET-Plan (SETIS).(author)

  8. Green technological change. Renewable energies, policy mix and innovation. Results of the GRETCHEN project on the impact of policy mixes on the technological and structural change in renewable energy electricity production technologies in Germany; Gruener Wandel. Erneuerbare Energien, Policy Mix und Innovation. Ergebnisse des GRETCHEN-Projektes zum Einfluss des Policy Mixes auf technologischen und strukturellen Wandel bei erneuerbaren Stromerzeugungstechnologien in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogge, Karoline S.; Breitschopf, Barbara; Mattes, Katharina [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Cantner, Uwe; Graf, Holger; Herrmann, Johannes; Kalthaus, Martin [Jena Univ. (Germany); Lutz, Christian; Wiebe, Kirsten [Gesellschaft fuer Wirtschaftliche Strukturforschung mbH (GWS), Osnabrueck (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    The report on the GRETCHEN project that was concerned with the impact of policy mixes on the technological and structural change in renewable energy electricity production technologies in Germany covers the following issues: market and technology development of renewable energy electricity production technologies; the policy mix for renewable electricity production technologies, innovative impact of the policy mix; subordinate conclusions for politics and research.

  9. [Overview of the US policies for health information technology and lessons learned for Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaz, Maxim; Ash, Nachman

    2013-05-01

    The heaLthcare system in the United States (U.S.) faces a number of significant changes aimed at improving the quality and availability of medical services and reducing costs. Implementation of health information technologies, especiaLly ELectronic Health Records (EHR), is central to achieving these goals. Several recent Legislative efforts in the U.S. aim at defining standards and promoting wide scale "Meaningful Use" of the novel technologies. In Israel, the majority of heaLthcare providers adopted EHR throughout the Last decade. Unlike the U.S., the process of EHR adoption occurred spontaneously, without governmental control or the definition of standards. In this article, we review the U.S. health information technology policies and standards and suggest potential lessons Learned for Israel. First, we present the three-staged Meaningful Use regulations that require eligible healthcare practitioners to use EHR in their practice. We also describe the standards for EHR certification and national efforts to create interoperable health information technology networks. Finally, we provide a brief overview of the IsraeLi regulation in the field of EHR. Although the adoption of health information technology is wider in Israel, the Lack of technology standards and governmental control has Led to Large technology gaps between providers. The example of the U.S. Legislation urges the adoption of several critical steps to further enhance the quality and efficiency of the Israeli healthcare system, in particular: strengthening health information technology regulation; developing Licensure criteria for health information technology; bridging the digital gap between healthcare organizations; defining quality measures; and improving the accessibility of health information for patients.

  10. European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network Representatives' Conceptions of the Role of Information and Communication Technologies Related to National Guidance Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettunen, Jaana; Vuorinen, Raimo; Ruusuvirta, Outi

    2016-01-01

    This article reports findings from a phenomenographic investigation into European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network representatives' conceptions of the role of information and communication technologies (ICT) related to national lifelong guidance policies. The role of ICT in relation to national lifelong guidance policies was conceived as (1)…

  11. Averting catastrophe: Strategies for regulating risky technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morone, J.G.; Woodhouse, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    This nonpartisan study of the imperfect but steadily developing system for containing the risks of such technologies as chemicals, nuclear power, and genetic engineering views regulatory efforts over a period of decades, noting the surprisingly low number of disasters, and finds an ad hoc but intelligent social process at work

  12. World energy, technology and climate policy outlook 2030 - WETO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    WETO describes in detail scenarios for the evolution of World and European energy systems, power generation technologies and impacts of climate change policy in the main world regions or countries. It presents a coherent framework to analyse the energy, technology and environment trends and issues over the period to 2030, focusing on Europe in a world context. The document highlights three key topics. First, in a Reference scenario, i.e. if no strong specific policy initiatives and measures are taken, world CO 2 emissions are expected to double in 2030 and, with a share of 90%, fossil fuels will continue to dominate the energy system. Secondly, the great majority of the increase in oil production will come from OPEC countries and the EU will rely predominantly on natural gas imported from the CIS. Lastly, as the largest growing energy demand and CO 2 emissions originate from developing countries (mainly China and India), Europe will have to intensify its co-operation, particularly in terms of transfer of technologies. (A.L.B.)

  13. Transport Technologies and Policy Scenarios to 2050 (Executive Summary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    World Energy Council

    2007-01-01

    Transport is one of the major global consumers of energy, currently representing between 20 and 25 percent of aggregate energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. Strong growth in energy consumption to 2050 in all sectors, with the transport proportion projected to remain stable up to 2050. Transport therefore has an important role to lay in contributing to the primary objective of the World Energy Council: sustainable energy for all. Passenger vehicle technology is expected to remain dependent on petroleum fuels and internal combustion engines (ICE) for the foreseeable future, since these elements remain the most convenient and affordable for mass personal mobility. Enhancement of ICEs through clean diesels, hybrids and new combustion techniques will ensure increased efficiency, continuing the consistent historical annual improvement in vehicle efficiency. Policy makers must first agree on the overall objective, whether it be a reduction in energy consumption or greenhouse gas emissions. Technological development must be complemented by rational policy that will encourage and enable the technologies to emerge

  14. Efficient climate policies under technology and climate uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, Hermann; Kriegler, Elmar; Lessmann, Kai; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2009-01-01

    This article explores efficient climate policies in terms of investment streams into fossil and renewable energy technologies. The investment decisions maximise social welfare while observing a probabilistic guardrail for global mean temperature rise under uncertain technology and climate parameters. Such a guardrail constitutes a chance constraint, and the resulting optimisation problem is an instance of chance constrained programming, not stochastic programming as often employed. Our analysis of a model of economic growth and endogenous technological change, MIND, suggests that stringent mitigation strategies cannot guarantee a very high probability of limiting warming to 2 o C since preindustrial time under current uncertainty about climate sensitivity and climate response time scale. Achieving the 2 o C temperature target with a probability P* of 75% requires drastic carbon dioxide emission cuts. This holds true even though we have assumed an aggressive mitigation policy on other greenhouse gases from, e.g., the agricultural sector. The emission cuts are deeper than estimated from a deterministic calculation with climate sensitivity fixed at the P* quantile of its marginal probability distribution (3.6 o C). We show that earlier and cumulatively larger investments into the renewable sector are triggered by including uncertainty in the technology and climate response time scale parameters. This comes at an additional GWP loss of 0.3%, resulting in a total loss of 0.8% GWP for observing the chance constraint. We obtained those results with a new numerical scheme to implement constrained welfare optimisation under uncertainty as a chance constrained programming problem in standard optimisation software such as GAMS. The scheme is able to incorporate multivariate non-factorial probability measures such as given by the joint distribution of climate sensitivity and response time. We demonstrate the scheme for the case of a four-dimensional parameter space capturing

  15. National Policies and strategies on science and technology for development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayob, A

    1979-01-01

    Malaysia's economy continues to be dependent upon the primary producing sectors, based on the exploitation or use of her natural resources. At this Malaysia is the world's largest exporter of natural rubber, tin, tropical hardwoods and palm oil. There is still wide scope for developing new application of science and technology in the rubber industry, and the scope remains even wider in other agricultural sectors. In order to accelerate development in the traditional agricultural sector, that is, those related to food production, the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) was established in 1970 to undertake research in the development of crops other than rubber. Progress has been relatively slow in the development of agriculture. In forestry much work needs to be done in the application of science and technology to forest management, logging, timber utilization, silviculture and the related field of forest regeneration, tree breeding, forest protection and soil conservation. Further development of the mining sector calls for the application of new technology both in prospecting for new sources of minerals and in exploitation. Development of off-shore technology will become increasingly important. Although a major sector in resources development is energy, there is, as yet, no energy policy. Structural diversification is recognized as a basic need for the economic development of Malaysia. Malaysia will have a great demand for trained scientific and technological personnel.

  16. Evolution of the policy of legal regulation on public procurement in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrazevičienė, Rima

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to present in overview of the evolution of the policy of legal regulations on public procurement in Lithuania in 1990-2004. The public procurement policy in this article is understood as the concept, principles and main aims of legal regulation on this sphere. According to some scientific researchers there are two major paradigm shifts of public procurement policy in the world - a shift from internal processes to value adding benefits and a shift to opening up of public purc...

  17. US public policy and emerging technologies: the case of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahm, Dianne

    1993-01-01

    Public policy is generally believed to have an effect on the emergence and rate of diffusion of technology. Solar energy technologies are no exception. This article explores the relationship between a variety of United States (US) public policies and the emergence and diffusion of solar energy technologies using data gathered as part of the National Solar Energy Policy Study. The article presents findings regarding the status and policy position of US renewable energy research and development (R and D) and manufacturing organizations. Specific policy options which could be adopted to speed emergence and diffusion of solar energy technology products are discussed. (Author)

  18. The Interdependence of Competition Policy, Consumer Policy and Regulation in Introducing and Safeguarding Effective Competition in the EU Telecommunications Market

    OpenAIRE

    Bartels, Andreas; Pleșea, Doru Alexandru; Studeny, Michael; Just, Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the European Union finds itself in troubled waters. It has to prove that its benefits outweigh the costs of its endeavour. In this respect, an EU competition policy that focuses on consumer welfare is one way to gain support by the citizens of its member states. The Roaming Regulation that has reduced the mobile communications costs while travelling abroad serves as a good example for this approach. The EU Commission views consumer policy as another important factor to protect and ...

  19. Stimulating R and D of industrial energy-efficient technology. Policy lessons--impulse technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luiten, Esther; Blok, Kornelis

    2004-01-01

    Stimulating research and development (R and D) of innovative energy-efficient technologies for industry is an attractive option for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Impulse technology, an innovative papermaking technology, is always included in studies assessing the long-term potential of industrial energy efficiency. Aim of this article is to analyse the R and D trajectory of impulse technology in order to explore how government can stimulate the development of industrial energy-efficient technology. The concept of 'momentum' is used to characterise the network of actors and to understand the effect of government R and D support in this particular case study. The network analysis convincingly shows that although marketed as an energy-efficient technology, other benefits were in fact driving forces. Researchers at various national pulp and paper research institutes were successful in attracting government R and D support by claiming an improved energy efficiency. The momentum of the technology network was modest between 1980 and 1990. Therefore, government R and D support accelerated the development of impulse technology in this period. However, when the perspectives of the technology deteriorated--momentum decreased--researchers at national research institutes continued to attract government R and D support successfully. But 25 years of R and D--and over 15 years government R and D support--have not yet resulted in a proven technology. The case study illustrates the risk of continuing R and D support too long without taking into account actors' drivers to invest in R and D. Once momentum decreased, government should have been more circumspect in evaluating the (energy efficiency) promise of impulse technology. The major policy lesson is that government has to look beyond claimed energy efficiencies; government has to value (qualitative) information on (changing) technology networks in deciding upon starting, continuing or pulling out financial R and D support to

  20. Challenges to Science and Technology Development Policy in the European Integration Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Novytsky

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on presentday aspects of Ukraine’s science and technology development policy in light of international phenomena and integration reali ties observed across the European continent. The author examines unique traits and practical challenges charac terizing an expansion of Ukraine — EU scientific and technological cooperation with the aim of improving the efficiency of Ukraine’s national economy and optimizing its international dimension. Special attention is paid to problems of adapting Ukraine’s technological policy to European standards, and relevant specific proposals are formulated. The article maintains that today’s advances in informa tion technology and the openness of national economies as a systemdeterminant factor of models of international cooperation broaden the scope of information technolo gies. Since telecommunications and other hitech sectors are vibrantly evolving not only in highly industrialized states but also in East European and other emerging mar ket economies, a key challenge for Ukraine appears to be lending better efficiency and productivity to its na tional policy of introducing information technologies into its socioeconomic sphere. The article provides insight into the international ex perience of the creation of technoparks and demonstrates the necessity of applying such innovation techniques of economic development to Ukraine.

  1. 75 FR 3906 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... Technology; HIT Policy Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Office of the National... only. Name of Committees: HIT Policy Committee's Workgroups: Meaningful Use, Privacy & Security Policy... specifications, and certification criteria are needed. Date and Time: The HIT Policy Committee Workgroups will...

  2. Strategies to facilitate stakeholder and regulator support for technology deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burford, T.D.

    1997-01-01

    Implementation and deployment of new and innovative environmental technologies is impossible without regulator, enduser and stakeholder support. Technologies being developed for different needs require different strategies to facilitate this endorsement. Areas addressed will include technologies developed to meet site specific cleanup needs and those developed for multiple site applications. A third area deals with using site specific technologies at previously unidentified locations. In order to expand the application of these technologies to other sites a plan to include potential site regulators and stakeholders early in the development process should be considered. The Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area has developed a Stakeholder Communication Plan. This plan, in addition to lessons learned from current technology development projects that have successfully obtained this type of support, will provide the basis for the information provided in this paper. The object of this paper is to suggest strategies that could facilitate the implementation and deployment of technologies at environmental sites by involving regulators and stakeholders at the proper time for various applications

  3. Sustainable recycling of automotive products in China: Technology and regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming

    2006-08-01

    The Chinese economy is growing rapidly, but accompanyingsuch growth are issues of environmental protection and social inequity which must be addressed. With the Automobile Industry Development Policy and the Motor Vehicle Product Recovery Technology Policy, an automobile products recoverability target has been established and will be incorporated into an automobile products authentication management system in China. By 2010, for all end-of-life automobile products, reuse and recovery shall be increased to a minimum of 85% by average weight per vehicle, and the use of lead, mercury, cadmium, and hexavalent chromium is prohibited. This paper will address the sustainable recycling of Chinese automobile products within the period of 2006 2010.

  4. Project Mechanisms and Technology Diffusion in Climate Policy - Kyoto project mechanisms and technology diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glachant, M.; Meniere, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the diffusion of GHG mitigation technologies in developing countries. We develop a model where an abatement technology is progressively adopted by firms and we use it to compare the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) with a standard Cap and Trade scheme (C and T). In the presence of learning spillovers, we show that the CDM yields a higher social welfare than C and T if the first adopter receives CDM credits whereas the followers do not. This result lends support to the policy proposal of relaxing the CDM additionality constraint for projects which generate significant learning externalities. (authors)

  5. Policy for introduction of risk-informed regulation for nuclear facilities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akihide Hidaka; Shoichiro Sakaguchi; Toshihiro Bannai; Kunihiro Matsui

    2005-01-01

    The nuclear safety regulations in Japan place a basis on the deterministic approach with the defence-in-depth philosophy and engineering judgments. However, as the development of PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) technologies in recent years, the Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC) began to consider that the utilization of risk information in addition to the traditional deterministic approach could be very effective for the safety regulations to improve rationality, consistency, transparency and efficiency by appropriate allocation of limited resources for the regulatory activities. In order to show the basic strategy, the NSC published the policy for introduction of Risk-Informed Regulation (RIR) in November 2003. The safety goals that play an important role in RIR were tentatively established in December 2003 while the performance goals are under development as of May, 2005. It is expected that RIR be gradually introduced from the applicable area. The NSC is now examining what the RIR system in Japan should be by making each role and incentive of the competent organizations clear. In the future, when the experiences on application of the safety goals are accumulated, RIR will be consistently applied from design to operational area. This paper describes the recent activities of the NSC for introduction of RIR in Japan and development of the safety goals including the performance goals. (authors)

  6. Scenarios of technology and innovation policies in Europe : Investigating future governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlmann, Stefan; Edler, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    In Europe, public research, technology and innovation policies are no longer exclusively in the hands of national authorities: increasingly, national initiatives are supplemented by, or even competing with, regional innovation policies or transnational programmes, in particular the activities of the

  7. New technologies and defense policy for the European theater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsipis, K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that in what should be a reassuring phenomenon for America's European allies, US military planners think of applications of new technologies in new conventional weapons systems almost exclusively in the context of defending Western Europe. Given the global interests of the United States and the nature and location of emerging threats (as the Gulf war has so dramatically emphasized) this is a rather narrow base for US conventional weapons modernization planning. As recent events in Eastern Europe make clear, the cogency of America's defense policy may be dramatically undermined by the reduction of the Soviet threat. As yet, it is unclear to what extent the development of future conventional forces will be conducted with reference to America's participation in NATO

  8. Technologies and policies for "hard to scrub" emissions sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, J.

    2016-12-01

    The science of climate change yields harsh math regarding atmospheric accumulations of GHGs. The world is far from target trajectories for 2C or 1.5C, and the global carbon budget is severe. To achieve those targets requires two things. First, we must field technologies that reduce emissions from the "hard to scrub" parts of the US and global economies, such as heavy industry (cement and steel), aviation, ocean shipping, and household cooking and heating. Second, we will likely need negative emissions pathways for those sources that prove extremely difficult to remove or reduce - the climate equivalent of adding revenue to one's budget. Such pathways may well need to convert GHG emissions (especially CO2 and methane) into useful products with minimal infrastructure builds. Dramatic advances in advanced manufacturing, 3D printing, simulation, modeling, and data analytics have made possible solutions which were previously unthinkable or impossible. This include "bespoke reactors", which can simultaneously perform separations and conversions; low-cost modular chemical systems of any scale; biologically inspired or biologically mediated energy services; direct air carbon-capture systems; and electrochemical pathways for emissions reduction and conversion. However, these approaches are unlikely to be fielded without policy actions or reforms that support such systems in competitive global energy markets. Such policy measures do NOT require a carbon price. Rather, they could include individual or combined measures such as emission or performance standards, financial incentives (like tax credits or low-cost access to capital), border adjustable tariffs, creation of CO2 utilities, ands public good surcharges. Innovation in both technical and policy arenas are needed to achieve the goals of the Paris agreement signatories, and these innovations can be simultaneously configured to deliver substantive greenhouse gas mitigation.

  9. Public 'in'tolerance of technological hazards and risk policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, P.; Walker, G.; Irwin, A.; Wynne, B.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: it has been recognised that the notion that there is an 'acceptable' level of risk to the public from technological hazards is in many cases inappropriate. UK government policy on major industrial hazards is informed by the principle of 'tolerability' of risk (TOR). In the paper we examine this principle and how it relates to the views of people who live day-to-day with such hazards. The analysis of public views is based on the results of a Q-method study carried out in the course of recent research funded by the UK Health and Safety Executive. The Q-method study distinguishes between different bases of public toleration - and lack of toleration - of risk. The study found lack a toleration to be based on a single cluster of factors, whereas the bases for public toleration of risk were far more differentiated. The results are outlined in the paper. In the concluding section of the paper we examine the implications of these results for policy, in particular for the application of the TOR principle when setting risk criteria. (authors)

  10. 2006 annual nuclear technology conference on energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerwelle, G.

    2006-01-01

    Liberals have clear ideas about the relations between the economy and the environment. Good ecology is also long-term economy, and there is no contradiction between the economy and the environment. New technologies, more investments into research, cooperation with industry and the public are required to bring about a new environmental policy in Germany. Energy policy needs a new beginning free from ideology. This is elaborated in 7 theses: - The key to successful economic development, more growth and employment is to be found in sustainable energy supply. - The 3 guiding principles of sustainable energy supply are (1) economic soundness, (2) continuity of supply, (3) environmental compatibility. - The supply situation is the more secure, the richer the energy mix, and the more sources from all over the world are used. - Taxes, levies, and costs due to shifting are a burden on energy prices and endanger the economic viability of energy supply. - We need a sensible energy mix composed of fossil energy resources, nuclear power, and renewable energies. - A rich energy mix combined with a powerful expansion of renewables, more measures to improve efficiency and save energy make Germany less dependent on international raw material purchases. - Climate change is a reality. Enhancing research and development efforts is our response. (orig.)

  11. The 1992 World Administrative Radio Conference: Technology and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    As the 20th century draws to a close, new radio technologies and services are poised to change the ways we communicate. Radio waves already make possible a wide range of services considered commonplace--AM and FM radio broadcasting, television, cellular telephones, remote garage-door openers, and baby monitors. Advances in radio technology are giving birth to even more new products and services, including pocket-sized telephones that may allow people to make and receive calls anywhere in the world, high-definition televisions (HDTV) with superior quality pictures and sound, and static-free digital radios. The 1992 World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC-92) authorized frequencies for many of these new radio communication services, and granted additional frequencies for many existing services, including international broadcasting, satellite-based mobile communications, and communications in space. The effects of these changes will be felt well into the 21st century as countries around the world develop and deploy new communications systems to serve the needs of consumers, businesses, and governments. For the United States, the decisions made at the conference will critically affect how we develop new radio technologies and applications, how competitive this country will be in radio communications equipment and services, and how effectively the United States can exercise its role as a leader in world radio communication policymaking. This study of the outcomes and implications of WARC-92 was requested by the House Committee on Energy and Commerce and the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. OTA was asked to evaluate the success of U.S. proposals at the conference, discuss the implications of the decisions made for U.S. technology and policy development, and identify options for improving U.S. participation in future world radio communication conferences.

  12. Clean Coal Technologies - Accelerating Commerical and Policy Drivers for Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal is and will remain the world's most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel. Burning coal, however, can pollute and it produces carbon dioxide. Clean coal technologies address this problem. The widespread deployment of pollution-control equipment to reduce sulphur dioxide, Nox and dust emissions from industry is just one example which has brought cleaner air to many countries. Since the 1970s, various policy and regulatory measures have created a growing commercial market for these clean coal technologies, with the result that costs have fallen and performance has improved. More recently, the need to tackle rising CO2 emissions to address climate change means that clean coal technologies now extend to include those for CO2 capture and storage (CCS). This short report from the IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board (CIAB) presents industry's considered recommendations on how to accelerate the development and deployment of this important group of new technologies and to grasp their very signifi cant potential to reduce emissions from coal use. It identifies an urgent need to make progress with demonstration projects and prove the potential of CCS through government-industry partnerships. Its commercialisation depends upon a clear legal and regulatory framework,public acceptance and market-based financial incentives. For the latter, the CIAB favours cap-and-trade systems, price supports and mandatory feed-in tariffs, as well as inclusion of CCS in the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism to create demand in developing economies where coal use is growing most rapidly. This report offers a unique insight into the thinking of an industry that recognises both the threats and growing opportunities for coal in a carbon constrained world.

  13. Clean Coal Technologies - Accelerating Commerical and Policy Drivers for Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal is and will remain the world's most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel. Burning coal, however, can pollute and it produces carbon dioxide. Clean coal technologies address this problem. The widespread deployment of pollution-control equipment to reduce sulphur dioxide, Nox and dust emissions from industry is just one example which has brought cleaner air to many countries. Since the 1970s, various policy and regulatory measures have created a growing commercial market for these clean coal technologies, with the result that costs have fallen and performance has improved. More recently, the need to tackle rising CO2 emissions to address climate change means that clean coal technologies now extend to include those for CO2 capture and storage (CCS). This short report from the IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board (CIAB) presents industry's considered recommendations on how to accelerate the development and deployment of this important group of new technologies and to grasp their very signifi cant potential to reduce emissions from coal use. It identifies an urgent need to make progress with demonstration projects and prove the potential of CCS through government-industry partnerships. Its commercialisation depends upon a clear legal and regulatory framework,public acceptance and market-based financial incentives. For the latter, the CIAB favours cap-and-trade systems, price supports and mandatory feed-in tariffs, as well as inclusion of CCS in the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism to create demand in developing economies where coal use is growing most rapidly. This report offers a unique insight into the thinking of an industry that recognises both the threats and growing opportunities for coal in a carbon constrained world.

  14. 75 FR 70923 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... Technology; HIT Policy Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Policy Committee...

  15. 76 FR 73632 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Request for Nominations to the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). SUMMARY: The U.S. Environmental... appointment to the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). Vacancies are...

  16. 77 FR 8859 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Cancellation and Rescheduling of National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT) Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: EPA... Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT) Meeting to be held at the EPA Potomac Yard Conference Center, One...

  17. 77 FR 39705 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Advisory Committee... meeting of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management...

  18. 77 FR 1931 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ... and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Advisory Committee... meeting of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management...

  19. 77 FR 2719 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... and Technology; Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Advisory... a public meeting of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology...

  20. 77 FR 39705 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... and Technology; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. Notice... Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT) is a necessary committee which is in the... environmental policy, technology and management issues. Inquiries may be directed to Mark Joyce, U.S. EPA, (Mail...

  1. 77 FR 3475 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of advisory committee... teleconference of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management...

  2. 78 FR 47316 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Request for nominations to the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). SUMMARY: The U.S. Environmental... Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). Vacancies are anticipated to be filled by February, 2014. Sources...

  3. 75 FR 8953 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology HIT Policy Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Policy Committee... a policy framework for the development and adoption of a nationwide health information technology...

  4. SUSTAINING CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION—POLICY, TECHNOLOGY, AND SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Rechkemmer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In a world that is becoming more and more exposed and vulnerable to the effects of global climate change, combining integrated risk assessment tools with effective strategies for both mitigation and adaptation is a key prerogative for policy-making. With the focus of both researchers and decision-makers gradually shifting from observing and assessing the bio-physical aspects of climate change to a more human and society centered understanding of the nature of the problem, the social, behavioral, economic and technological aspects have entered center stage of the public discourse. Responses to the climate change challenge have to establish an optimal interplay between mitigation, adaptation and socio-economic instruments. Yet, given the band-width and scale of the climate problematique and its projected impacts, very ambitious mitigation measures have to be undertaken without delays, a fact that is particularly true for emerging economies with their very rapid and unprecedented growth rates, both in GDP and GHG emissions terms. The challenge for the next years is to harmonize poverty eradication and attaining the Millenium Development Goals through stable economic growth with mitigating the effects of climate change. Therefore, “inclusive green growth” has become the motto of the day. But how can this goal be achieved? Obviously, quite fundamental changes have to be introduced that affect both the production and the consumption sectors and allow for real innovation in technologies and energy, in urban mobility, infrastructure and transportation grids. This paper illustrates the deep social and societal nature of climate change response strategies, especially in the area of mitigation, and shows that transitions to green and low-carbon economies will have to embed policies, incentive schemes and economic instruments in a larger societal context of social learning and behavioral change.

  5. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 37 - What Is the Civil-Military Integration Policy That Is the Basis for Technology Investment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What Is the Civil-Military Integration Policy That Is the Basis for Technology Investment Agreements? A Appendix A to Part 37 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY...

  6. Egypt's policy concerning food irradiation research and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.M.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews current research in Egypt in the field of radiation preservation of food to accumulate the necessary data for drafting Egypts' policy towards prospects for application. Research activities in Egypt have been oriented to solving problems of local economic importance, e.g. inhibition of sprouting in potatoes, onions and garlic, extension of shelf-life of vegetables and fruits, disinfestation of stored grains and grain products, preservation of meat, meat products, fish, fats and oils, and elimination of parasites and microorganisms from animal feed. Extensive studies have been performed to determine the lowest radiation level required for short-term storage, changes in organoleptic, physical, chemical and microbiological values of irradiated food and wholesomeness studies to give evidence of the safety of irradiated food for human consumption. The paper summarizes Egypt's national planning for the transfer of such new technology, the establishment of the National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology to build up the national infrastructure for food irradiation research and application, and the formation of a Supreme Committee for Radiation Preservation of Food. Finally, the paper also surveys the locally available irradiators and correlates the design, capacity and capital cost against the actual needs of Egypt and the experience acquired. (author)

  7. The rank of nuclear technology in terms of economic policy and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, U.

    1984-01-01

    Once the nuclear power plants presently under construction are completed, the exisiting basic load deficit will be done with, except for regional peculiarities. The need for redeployment of the power plant pool caused by the 1973/74 energy crisis is then virtually exhausted in terms of basic load. Taking into consideration the special role of black coal in power production, further nuclear power plants will be necessary in the Federal Republic of Germany mainly if the power demand increases and/or to replace decommissioned plants. The role of nuclear technology is not restricted to the domestic demand; particularly in threshold countries the market can provide some compensation. Nuclear technology is a factor of economic policy; the Federal Government points this out in its negotiations with foreign countries. However, it is noteworthy that the third biggest political party in the Federal Republic of Germany want to stop all presently existing nuclear power plants. The best rebuttal of such political debate is properly operating nuclear plants and the steadily growing percentage of electricity they produce as well as lower electricity price in those Lander of the Federal Republic of Germany who did not put on ideological blinkers in face of nuclear technology. (orig./HSCH) [de

  8. Human Dignity and the Ethics and Regulation of Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duwell, M.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter investigates how human dignity might be understood as a normative concept for the regulation of technologies. First, various distinctions that are relevant for the way human dignity can be understood are discussed. It is argued that it is particularly important that we should see human

  9. Regulation of alcohol advertising: Policy options for Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra C. Jones

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A systematic search of academic databases was conducted to identify all refereed papers published between 1990 and 2012 on the regulation of alcohol advertising in Australia and three comparison countries (New Zealand, Canada and the UK. This paper reviews the codes that apply to alcohol advertising in each of the four countries, research into the effectiveness of these codes, and the small body of research into consumer attitudes towards alcohol advertising regulation. This review adduces considerable evidence that alcohol advertising influences drinking behaviours, and that current regulatory systems based on co-regulation and voluntary regulation (as is the case in Australia are ineffective. Recommendations are provided regarding the three pillars of regulation: volume restrictions, content restrictions, and infrastructure to support the regulatory environment.

  10. Technology policy and sustainable development: the case of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemuth, N.

    2000-01-01

    Policies to address long-term energy concerns include a wide range of initiatives. Taxes can internalise costs; financial mechanisms, including subsidies, can target particularly favourable but otherwise non-competitive investments; regulation can apply standards to raise performance of appliances; information programmes can improve decision making; and R and D can make available new options. The 1987 report of the World Commission on Environment and development, found that 'energy efficiency can only buy for the world to develop 'low-energy-paths' based on renewable sources...'. Although many renewable energy systems are in a relatively early stage of development, they offer the world 'a potentially huge primary energy source, sustainable in perpetuity and available in various forms to every nation on Earth.' It suggested that an R and D programme of renewable energy is required to attain the same level of primary energy that is now obtained from a mix of fossil, nuclear, and renewable energy resources. Since renewable energy contributes to all dimensions of sustainable development, one policy challenge is to ensure that renewable energy has a fair opportunity to complete with other resources required for the provision of energy services, especially on 'liberalised' energy markets. This paper gives an overview of rationales for government intervention in energy-related R and D, and international energy R and D trends. it concludes that the liberalisation of energy markets has an overall negative impact on private sector investments in energy R and D and that without a sustained and diverse programme of energy R and D and implementation, we are crippling our ability to make the necessary improvements in the global energy system, especially in light of sustainable development requirements. (author)

  11. Environmental Regulation, Foreign Direct Investment and Green Technological Progress—Evidence from Chinese Manufacturing Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiangfeng; Wang, Zhao; Lian, Yuehan; Huang, Qinghua

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the spillover effects of foreign direct investment (FDI) on green technology progress rate (as measured by the green total factor productivity). The analysis utilizes two measures of FDI, labor-based FDI and capital-based FDI, and separately investigates four sets of industry classifications—high/low discharge regulation and high/low emission standard regulation. The results indicate that in the low discharge regulation and low emission standard regulation industry, labor-based FDI has a significant negative spillover effect, and capital-based FDI has a significant positive spillover effect. However, in the high-intensity environmental regulation industry, the negative influence of labor-based FDI is completely restrained, and capital-based FDI continues to play a significant positive green technological spillover effects. These findings have clear policy implications: the government should be gradually reducing the labor-based FDI inflow or increasing stringency of environmental regulation in order to reduce or eliminate the negative spillover effect of the labor-based FDI. PMID:29382112

  12. Environmental Regulation, Foreign Direct Investment and Green Technological Progress—Evidence from Chinese Manufacturing Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Hu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the spillover effects of foreign direct investment (FDI on green technology progress rate (as measured by the green total factor productivity. The analysis utilizes two measures of FDI, labor-based FDI and capital-based FDI, and separately investigates four sets of industry classifications—high/low discharge regulation and high/low emission standard regulation. The results indicate that in the low discharge regulation and low emission standard regulation industry, labor-based FDI has a significant negative spillover effect, and capital-based FDI has a significant positive spillover effect. However, in the high-intensity environmental regulation industry, the negative influence of labor-based FDI is completely restrained, and capital-based FDI continues to play a significant positive green technological spillover effects. These findings have clear policy implications: the government should be gradually reducing the labor-based FDI inflow or increasing stringency of environmental regulation in order to reduce or eliminate the negative spillover effect of the labor-based FDI.

  13. Environmental Regulation, Foreign Direct Investment and Green Technological Progress-Evidence from Chinese Manufacturing Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiangfeng; Wang, Zhao; Lian, Yuehan; Huang, Qinghua

    2018-01-29

    This study examines the spillover effects of foreign direct investment (FDI) on green technology progress rate (as measured by the green total factor productivity). The analysis utilizes two measures of FDI, labor-based FDI and capital-based FDI, and separately investigates four sets of industry classifications-high/low discharge regulation and high/low emission standard regulation. The results indicate that in the low discharge regulation and low emission standard regulation industry, labor-based FDI has a significant negative spillover effect, and capital-based FDI has a significant positive spillover effect. However, in the high-intensity environmental regulation industry, the negative influence of labor-based FDI is completely restrained, and capital-based FDI continues to play a significant positive green technological spillover effects. These findings have clear policy implications: the government should be gradually reducing the labor-based FDI inflow or increasing stringency of environmental regulation in order to reduce or eliminate the negative spillover effect of the labor-based FDI.

  14. The Regulation of Food Science and Technology Professions in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Costa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of a profession is justified when it improves consumer protection and public health. Higher education food science and technology (FST degrees, widely offered in many universities in Europe open to a wide range of jobs in the food sectors where the employees could cover different positions, roles and carry out diverse activities dealing with the food production and the quality and safety of the food products. This work reviews the state of the art of the FST regulated professions requiring higher education qualifications in the European countries. The research was carried out by collecting specific information on regulated professions by contacting unions, professional associations, public servant categories/professions, and by visiting national and EU websites.  The data collected for each regulated profession were: country, training/education required, date of implementation of regulation, professional training (if required, capability test (if required and acts required by law to be signed by a regulated professional. Only professions that required a higher education diploma were included in this search. Few countries were found to have a regulated profession in FST, in particular: Food Engineering (Turkey, Food Technologist (Greece, Iceland, Italy and Slovenia, and Oenologist (Italy, Portugal and Spain. FST regulated professions in Europe are thus scarce and have a rather limited history. The Food Technologist in Italy and the Food Engineer in Turkey were found to be the only completely regulated professions found in Europe. Food and professional regulation have been evolved over the years and raised the debate on the regulation of FST professions. Academia as well as other policymakers has to further contribute to this discussion to keep high the standards for quality of education and training of the qualified workforce and professionals in the food sector.

  15. South African law and policy regulating learner absenteeism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Packard Bell

    Department of Psychology of Education, College of Education, University of ... Keywords: ecosystemic theory; learner absenteeism; management approach; South African law and policy ..... learners, but can also be cultural and systemic ..... tesis. Pretoria, Suid-Afrika: Universiteit van Suid-. Afrika. Beskikbaar te .... Phd thesis.

  16. South African law and policy regulating learner absenteeism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Packard Bell

    Learner absenteeism often occurs involuntarily due to learners' social and economic circumstances. ..... still a child; e.g. under 18 years of age, and ... schools to take the age and maturity of the ... 5). The Policy on Learner Attendance (DBE, RSA,. 2010, para. 13(i)) allows the ..... Emotional literacy and the ecology of.

  17. Towards EU Cybersecurity Law: Regulating a New Policy Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Ramses A.; Tsagourias, Nicholas; Buchan, Russell

    2015-01-01

    EU cybersecurity forms a prime example of an area in which both internal and external (global as well as bilateral) policies are connected and in which the different legal competences of the Union need to be combined. Over the past decade the European Union started to take its first careful steps in

  18. The cofiring problem of a power plant under policy regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kangas, Hanna-Liisa; Lintunen, Jussi; Uusivuori, Jussi

    2009-01-01

    Cofiring of fossil and renewable fuels can contribute to reaching tightening climate and renewable energy goals. The increase in biomass share in cofiring decreases the use of fossil fuel and increases renewable energy production. We study how energy and climate policies promote that increase. First, we present and solve an electricity producer's profit-maximization problem with detailed technical description of cofiring. We then study the effectiveness of policy instruments (e.g. feed-in laws and emission trading) on biomass utilization in cofiring. The study offers a novel approach to explore the cofiring problem, because of the endogenous fuel choice combined with the policy analysis. We study two different power plants that are located in two different European electricity market areas. Our analysis shows that both feed-in tariff and feed-in premium can have unexpected weaknesses, when they are introduced together with emission trading. Therefore decision-makers should be well informed and cautious when introducing these policies. (author)

  19. Radiopharmaceutical regulation and Food and Drug Administration policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotman, M; Laven, D; Levine, G

    1996-04-01

    The regulatory policy of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on radiopharmaceuticals flows from a rigid, traditional, drug-like interpretation of the FDC Act on the licensing of radiopharmaceuticals. This contributes to significant delays in the drug-approval process for radiopharmaceuticals, which are very costly to the nuclear medicine community and the American public. It seems that radiopharmaceuticals would be better characterized as molecular devices. Good generic rule-making principles include: use of a risk/benefit/cost analysis; intent based on sound science; performance standards prepared by outside experts; a definite need shown by the regulatory agency; to live with the consequences of any erroneous cost estimates; and design individual credential requirements so that additional training results in enhanced professional responsibility. When these common elements are applied to current FDA policy, it seems that the agency is out of sync with the stated goals for revitalizing federal regulatory policies as deemed necessary by the Clinton administration. Recent FDA rulings on positron-emission tomography, Patient Package inserts, and on medical device service accentuate the degree of such asynchronization. Radiopharmaceutical review and licensing flexibility could be dramatically improved by excluding radiopharmaceuticals from the drug category and reviewing them as separate entities. This new category would take into account their excellent record of safety and their lack of pharmacological action. Additionally, their evaluation of efficacy should be based on their ability to provide useful scintiphotos, data, or responses of the physiological system it portends to image, quantitate, or describe. To accomplish the goal of transforming the FDA's rigid, prescriptive policy into a streamlined flexible performance-based policy, the Council on Radionuclides and Radiopharmaceuticals proposal has been presented. In addition, it is suggested that the United

  20. Policy and network regulation for the integration of distribution generation and renewables for electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten Donkelaar, M.; Van Oostvoorn, F.

    2005-08-01

    This study has analysed the existing policy and regulation aimed at the integration of an increased share of Distributed Generation (DG) in electricity supply systems in the European Union. It illustrates the state of the art and progress in the development of support mechanisms and network regulation for large-scale integration of DG. Through a benchmark study a systematic comparison has been made of different DG support schemes and distribution network regulation in EU Member States to a predefined standard, the level playing field. This level playing field has been defined as the situation where energy markets, policy and regulation provide neutral incentives to central versus distributed generation, which results in an economically more efficient electricity supply to the consumer. In current regulation and policy a certain discrepancy can be noticed between the actual regulation and policy support systems in a number of countries, the medium to long term targets and the ideal situation described according to the level playing field objective. Policies towards DG and RES are now mainly aimed at removing short-term barriers, increasing the production share of DG/RES, but often ignoring the more complex barriers of integrating DG/RES that is created by the economic network regulation in current electricity markets

  1. Moderation of Policy-Making? : Science and Technology Policy Evaluation Beyond Impact Measurement—the Case of Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlmann, Stefan

    1998-01-01

    In the field of science and technology policies, for the most part, evaluation procedures are utilized as a way of measuring the scientific and technological quality or the socio-economic impacts of publicly funded research. Beyond this practice, could evaluation procedures be used as a medium for

  2. RETHINKING STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY ACCESS IN HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT: REACTIONS TO POLICY FORUM DISCUSSIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampietro-Colom, Laura; Thomas, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The need to progress and innovate in health technology assessment (HTA) is a must in a continuously changing environment. The HTAi Policy Forum reflected on two specific areas for development where it was thought there was need for careful consideration and deliberation during the main annual meeting in February 2016. The study by Husereau et al. (1) in this journal presents the discussions resulting from this Forum. To further share the deliberations of the Forum and with a view to opening this debate to the wider HTA community, a panel session during the HTAi Annual Meeting in Tokyo was organized. Presentations at the panel included a summary of the HTAi Policy Forum discussions and perspectives from a patient, a representative of healthcare system provider, and a representative from an HTA organization and industry. This letter presents the issues raised in the panel session.

  3. Technology versus demand regulation - strategic modelling of transport, land use and energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaffenbichler, Paul C.; Shepherd, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Scarcity of oil supply is seen as one of the biggest future threats to our society. The recently finished EU-funded research project STEPs (Scenarios for the Transport System and Energy Supply and their Potential Effects) had the objective to develop, compare and assess possible scenarios for the transport system and the energy supply of the future taking into account the effects on the environment as well as economic and social viability. Two energy supply scenarios, one with and one without scarcity of oil supply, form the basis of STEPs. Furthermore two different policies are suggested to tackle the problem of scarcity of oil: a technology driven strategy and a demand regulation based strategy. This paper presents the application of these scenarios and strategies to the strategic Systems Dynamics model MARS (Metropolitan Activity Relocation Simulator) covering the metropolitan area of Edinburgh. Scenario indicators like car ownership, fleet composition and fuel resource costs were provided by the European model ASTRA and the world energy market model POLES. The first part of the paper summarises the scenarios and strategies in detail. The second part describes briefly some basics of Systems Dynamics as well as the main mechanisms underlying the model MARS. Finally the results of the scenario simulations are presented. The main outcome is that a demand regulation policy is more effective in reducing the consumption of non-renewable energy resources than a technology driven policy

  4. The effects of regulation, legislation and policy on consumption of edible insects in the global world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilderspin, Dana Elisabeth; Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz

    2018-01-01

    With an expanding edible insect industry, regulators, legislators, and policy-makers face increasingly difficult decisions regarding trade, production, harvesting, and consumption. It is becoming clearer that no panacea or one-size-fits-all solutions exist for regulating the industry, and that so...

  5. User satisfaction as a political technology in school policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle

    The paper discusses user satisfaction surveys as a policy instrument in education with a focus on local school policy, including the reasons for and the consequences of introducing user surveys in educational policy will be discussed. Empirical examples are drawn mainly from Danish municipalities....

  6. Energy policy study. Volume 10. Nuclear power regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodem, Z.D.; Reynolds, A.W.; Clark, R.G.

    1980-05-01

    This report examines the programs for regulating the safety, design, and operation of domestic nuclear power plants. The first part of the study describes the Federal and State regulatory procedures. It describes the legal foundations for the Federal licensing process and the associated State regulatory activities. It then analyzes the aspects of these procedures that affect the cost and supply of nuclear-generated electricity. The second part of this study examines the effects of nuclear safety regulations on the planning and construction lead time for nuclear power stations, the cost of nuclear power, and, ultimately, the decision to invest in nuclear power

  7. MODERN APPROACHES TO THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MONETARY POLICY AND THE REGULATION OF FINANCIAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu CUHAL

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determines the modern approaches to the implementation of monetary policy and regulation of financial systems. Set of measures to prevent and overcome the financial crisis is grounded taking into consideration different areas of research and the IMF. New tasks of monetary policy in central banks are specified and they are intended to ensure the financial stability of the state (within the common fiscal policy. The main directions of elaboration and implementation of new monetary policy mechanism, which is intended to ensure the effective solution of problems in macro prudential supervision and financial stability, are examined.

  8. Modern approaches to the implementation of monetary policy and the regulation of financial systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basistîi Nicolae

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determines the modern approaches to the implementation of monetary policy and regulation of financial systems. Set of measures to prevent and overcome the financial crisis is grounded taking into consideration different areas of research and the IMF.New tasks of monetary policy in central banks are specified and they are intended to ensure the financial stability of the state (within the common fiscal policy.The main directions of elaboration and implementation of new monetary policy mechanism, which is intended to ensure the effective solution of problems in macro prudential supervision and financial stability, are examined.

  9. 76 FR 4352 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Technology; HIT Policy Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Office of the National... only. Name of Committees: HIT Policy Committee's Workgroups: Meaningful Use, Privacy & Security Tiger..., implementation specifications, and certification criteria are needed. Date and Time: The HIT Policy Committee...

  10. Reducing OR Traffic Using Education, Policy Development, and Communication Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Jennifer; Shrinski, Keonemana; Cady, Rhonda; Belew, John

    2016-01-01

    A bundled approach to surgical site infection (SSI) prevention strategies includes reducing OR traffic. A nurse-led quality improvement (QI) team sought to reduce OR traffic through education and a process change that included wireless communication technology and policy development. The team measured OR traffic by counting the frequency of door openings per hour in seven surgical suites during 305 surgical procedures conducted during similar 22-week periods before and after the QI project intervention. Door openings decreased significantly (P < 0.05) from an average of 37.8 per hour to 32.8 per hour after the QI project intervention. This suggests that our multifaceted approach reduces OR traffic. The next steps of this project include analyzing automatically captured video to understand OR traffic patterns and expanding education to departments and external personnel frequently present in our surgical suites. Future research evaluating the effectiveness of this OR traffic initiative on SSI incidence is recommended. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Limits of self-regulation in international phytosanitary policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rau, M.L.; Bremmers, H.J.; Szajkowska, A.; Bakker, de E.; Bremmer, J.

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with international agreements, phytosanitary regulations from standard setting to conformity assessment and monitoring have been assigned a public task which is carried out by government authorities. The private sector needs to comply with these phytosanitary requirements, and it is

  12. Spatial Regulation, Politics of Access and Informal economic Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to draw attention to the political contestation over space. The city was 'invaded' and 'conquered' by traders who were formerly excluded (Nesvag, 2000, 2001; Tsoeu, 2003). At the same time, attention is drawn to the current attempts by city managers to control and regulate this contested space in an environment of flux.

  13. CUSTOMS POLICY, CUSTOMS BUSINESS, CUSTOMS REGULATION: TO PROBLEM OF CONCEPTION CORRELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Molokovich; K. N. Shabeka

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical and methodological comprehension of customs regulation place and role in provision of trade and transport activity under conditions of world integration processes is considered in the paper.The essence of such economic categories as «customs policy», «customs regulation», «customs and tariff regulation», «customs business» is ascertained with the help of justified argumentation, clear conception approaches.

  14. Analyzing interdependencies between policy mixes and technological innovation systems : The case of offshore wind in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichardt, Kristin; Negro, Simona O.; Rogge, Karoline S.; Hekkert, Marko P.

    2016-01-01

    One key approach for studying emerging technologies in the field of sustainability transitions is that of technological innovation systems (TIS). While most TIS studies aim at deriving policy recommendations - typically by identifying system barriers - the actual role of these proposed policies in

  15. An assessment of exploiting renewable energy sources with concerns of policy and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yung-Chi; Lin, Grace T.R.; Li, Kuang-Pin; Yuan, Benjamin J.C.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the Taiwanese government has vigorously promoted the development of renewable energy to engage the challenges of gradual depletion of fossil fuels and oil, as well as the intensification of the greenhouse effect. Since the Sustainable Energy Policy Principles were announced in 2008, Taiwanese government has declared that the development of renewable energy should take into account goals that pertain to energy, the environment, and the economy (3E goals). This study aims to assess the 3E goals and renewable energy sources regulated by the Renewable Energy Development Bill that passed in 2009. The fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) is used to resolve the multi-goal problem for achieving our research purposes. That is, this research attempts to reveal the suitable renewable energy sources for the purposes of meeting the 3E policy goals. The results first show that environmental goal is the most important to the development of various renewable energy technologies in Taiwan, followed by the economic and energy goals. Additionally, hydropower, solar energy, and wind energy would be the renewable energy sources utilized in meeting the 3E policy goals. (author)

  16. 78 FR 22771 - Statement of Policy on the Development and Review of Regulations and Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... the basic principles that guide the FDIC in its promulgation and review of regulations and written... basic principles which guide the FDIC's promulgation and review of regulations and written statements of... Housing Finance Agency) has become more common. Some rulemakings also require consultation with the...

  17. Environmental policies and regulations on the electricity market in EC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, J.

    1990-01-01

    The use of natural resources like ground and water, the emissions of noxious gases and particles, the thermal rejections, the production of waste and the noise are the main environmental impacts associated with the production of electricity. Emission regulations and standards have been selected so far by the European Community (EC) and the different Member States to deal with the abatement problem. They simply consist in defining some ceilings or regulations for the different types of noxious gases and particles which are emitted by power plants and forcing the power generation companies to comply with these norms within some pre-determined time period. They can also take the form of a general constraint on the sulfur content of the fuel, for example. Tables of emission limits for various gases from existing and new plants are presented. 3 figs., 8 tabs

  18. Nitrates in ground and drinking water: analysis of policies and regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, J

    1986-05-01

    On the societal level, risks are the result of collective processes of definition. Accepted risks are mainly the output and secondarily the (scientific) input of these processes. As a consequence, in this paper the question of risk management of the nitrate burden to ground and drinking water is analysed within the framework of comparative policy analysis. Various actors pursue their respective interests in different policy arenas within the given rules of the policy game. The impacts of the policy outputs on the policy addressees, namely farmers and water companies, (substantially) determine the level of actual risk. Different national regulatory styles and traditions towards nitrate regulation shape the policy outputs. Consequently, the assumption or normative postulate of a rational (scientific) risk assessment and risk management appears to be utterly heroic and, in the end, misleading.

  19. Policies for the Energy Technology Innovation System (ETIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubler, A.; Aguayo, F.; Gallagher, K.; Hekkert, M.P.; Jiang, K.; Mytelka, L.; Neij, L.; Nemet, G.; Wilson, C.

    2012-01-01

    Innovation and technological change are integral to the energy system transformations described in the Global Energy Assessment (GEA) pathways. Energy technology innovations range from incremental improvements to radical breakthroughs and from technologies and infrastructure to social institutions

  20. Nuclear regulation in the United States : Policy directions and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, Ann Jackson

    1996-01-01

    Just before leaving the United States to come to Korea, I addressed the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) annual regulatory information conference, with which some of you might be familiar. The overall theme this year focused on enhancing and promoting a better understanding of future trends for improving nuclear safety. Specific sessions addressed an array of nuclear safety topics including: dry cask storage of spent fuel; performance-based changes in the inspection program; core performance and reactor fuel issues; the revised decommissioning rule; utility restructuring and NRC licensing activities; steam generators; implementation of the maintenance rule; an update on license renewal; the shutdown rule; and spent fuel pool issues. The number and range of topics addressed tells US that the nuclear field is by no means static. On the contrary. there are numerous areas in which regulatory policy is evolving in response to technological, governmental, and other developments. while not all nations with nuclear programs face the same issues at the same time, there is enough overlap from one nation to another that it may be useful to describe the challenges facing the NRC today. the nuclear regulatory policy is moving. The challenges that we are dealing with at the NRC today may well be those which other nations will be confronting shortly? of they are not doing so already. In addressing the question of my vision for the NRC, I am sometimes asked whether it is possible to have a vision for the agency, given that no new nuclear plants are being built in the U. S. and none are on the immediate horizon. The answer, of course, is that the original licensing of nuclear power plants is only a part of the job of the NRC? an important part, to be sure, be but because safety must be built into nuclear plants from the beginning -- but nevertheless just one part. The task of the nuclear regulator is to ensure not only that plants are designed and constructed safely, but

  1. Health technology assessment and health policy today a multifaceted view of their unstable crossroads

    CERN Document Server

    del Llano-Señarís, Juan E

    2015-01-01

    This book disentangles the issues in connection with the advancement of Health Technology Assessment (HTA) and its interface with health policy. It highlights the factors that should shape its progress in the near future. Interdisciplinary and critical views from a number of professionals are put together in a prescient order to cast some light and make recommendations as to the next steps HTA should take to be fit for purpose. A wealth of documents dealing with HTA have been published over the last three decades. HTA allegedly is one of the bedrocks of regulation and medical decision making. However, counter vailing visions contend that geographical variations in the role that HTA is actually playing within countries pinpoints specific room for improvement. Given our social preferences, cherry-picking HTA's features and successes over the last decades moves it away from its possibility frontier. Some of the most noteworthy hindrances that HTA faces, in several countries, to making headway towards its consoli...

  2. The domestic supply outlook, how the producing industry is reacting, and the challenge to regulators and policy makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses three main topics which include an overview of the nation's natural gas reserves; a discussion of the challenges the natural gas industry faces in extracting these reserves in the realm of regulations and cost-effective extraction; and a discussion on how the industry, regulators, and policy makers can work together to extract these reserves in an economic manner while effectively operating within existing regulations. The paper also promotes methods to update and change regulations when necessary as a result of technological change or advancement. The results of the reserve study have shown that there are over 2,000 trillion cubic feet of natural gas still available in the US and Canada, not including undiscovered or additional extraction brought about by new technology. The paper goes on to discuss the historical wellhead pricing of natural gas and what these new reserve figures mean to future natural gas costs. The paper then discusses the adequacy of current distribution systems to meet an increasing demand for natural gas. Finally the paper discusses the need for more deregulation of the gas industry to make it more competitive and keep the development of these resources alive in this country. The author presents information on the decline of exploration and development in this country as a result of increased regulation

  3. CBA and Precaution: Policy-Making about Emerging Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaebnick, Gregory E; Gusmano, Michael K

    2018-01-01

    In the technology assessment literature, the leading alternative to CBA-like methods is usually held to be precaution, which is understood in various ways but is always about making decisions under conditions of uncertainty. Under such conditions, proponents of precaution commonly hold, a straightforward tallying of potential outcomes does not seem possible. Since CBA aims to tally up outcomes to determine which outcome would produce the greatest public benefit, precaution begins to look like, not just an alternative to CBA, but an incompatible alternative. Nonetheless, some of the better-known formulations of a precautionary principle expressly call for combining precaution with assessment of costs and benefits. This essay examines the possible intersection of precaution and CBA. It argues that a moderate kind of CBA is a necessary part of a moderate kind of precaution. The existing proposals for integrating CBA and precaution start with an assumption that the integrative task consists in combining decision tools that generate (contrasting) substantive guidance. An alternative approach, explored here, starts with the idea that precaution is not a decision-generating tool. Rather, it is a way of organizing the thinking that leads eventually to substantive conclusions. The appropriate policy response is reached not by applying a principle but by studying the situation-the proposed action and the problem it is meant to address-and developing recommendations tailored to it. What makes the thinking precautionary is that it emphasizes certain questions-about risk, uncertainty, and values-that CBA tends to suppress. So understood, precaution may well slow the science but is not intrinsically opposed to science or innovation. It can be understood, in fact, as continuous with the science because the contextual understanding of the science and the problems it is meant to address would emerge-in part-from a close engagement with the science. © 2018 The Hastings Center.

  4. Impact, regulation and health policy implications of physician migration in OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoens Steven

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the face of rising demand for medical services due to ageing populations, physician migration flows are increasingly affecting the supply of physicians in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and development (OECD countries. This paper offers an integrated perspective on the impact of physician migration on home and host countries and discusses international regulation and policy approaches governing physician migration. Methods Information about migration flows, international regulation and policies governing physician migration were derived from two questionnaires sent to OECD countries, a secondary analysis of EUROSTAT Labour Force Surveys, a literature review and official policy documents of OECD countries. Results OECD countries increasingly perceive immigration of foreign physicians as a way of sustaining their physician workforce. As a result, countries have entered into international agreements regulating physician migration, although their success has been limited due to the imposition of licensing requirements and the protection of vested interests by domestic physicians. OECD countries have therefore adopted specific policies designed to stimulate the immigration of foreign physicians, whilst minimising its negative impact on the home country. Measures promoting immigration have included international recruitment campaigns, less strict immigration requirements and arrangements that foster shared learning between health care systems. Policies restricting the societal costs of physician emigration from developing countries such as good practice guidelines and taxes on host countries have not yet produced their expected effect or in some cases have not been established at all. Conclusions Although OECD countries generally favour long-term policies of national self-sufficiency to sustain their physician workforce, such policies usually co-exist with short-term or medium-term policies to attract foreign physicians

  5. Near-term technology policies for long-term climate targets--economy wide versus technology specific approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanden, B.A.; Azar, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to offer suggestions when it comes to near-term technology policies for long-term climate targets based on some insights into the nature of technical change. We make a distinction between economy wide and technology specific policy instruments and put forward two key hypotheses: (i) Near-term carbon targets such as the Kyoto protocol can be met by economy wide price instruments (carbon taxes, or a cap-and-trade system) changing the technologies we pick from the shelf (higher energy efficiency in cars, buildings and industry, wind, biomass for heat and electricity, natural gas instead of coal, solar thermal, etc.). (ii) Technology specific policies are needed to bring new technologies to the shelf. Without these new technologies, stricter emission reduction targets may be considered impossible to meet by the government, industry and the general public, and therefore not adopted. The policies required to bring these more advanced technologies to the shelf are more complex and include increased public research and development, demonstration, niche market creation, support for networks within the new industries, standard settings and infrastructure policies (e.g., when it comes to hydrogen distribution). There is a risk that the society in its quest for cost-efficiency in meeting near-term emissions targets, becomes blindfolded when it comes to the more difficult, but equally important issue of bringing more advanced technologies to the shelf. The paper presents mechanisms that cause technology look in, how these very mechanisms can be used to get out of the current 'carbon lock-in' and the risk with premature lock-ins into new technologies that do not deliver what they currently promise. We then review certain climate policy proposals with regards to their expected technology impact, and finally we present a let-a-hundred-flowers-bloom strategy for the next couple of decades

  6. White paper on science and technology, 1999. New development in science and technology policy: responding to national and societal needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This white paper presents various considerations on present important issues on Japanese science and technology by focusing on what is demanded of Japan's science and technology policy in responding to these national and social needs. This papers concern policy measures intended to promote science and technology, and has been submitted to the hundred forty-second session of the Diet, pursuant to Article 8 of the Science and Technology Basic Law (Law No. 130), enacted in 1995. Part 1 and Part 2 of this report discuss the trends in a wide range of scientific and technical activities to help understanding the policy measures implemented to promote science and technology, which are then discussed in Part 3. The title of Part 1 is new development in science and technology policy: responding to national and societal needs. In this part, what sort of efforts is needed in the world of today, where science and technology are engines for social and economic revolution was examined in order for science and technology to better meet national and societal needs. In Part 2, current status of science and technology in Japan and other nations in the areas pertaining to science and technology were examined using various data as to the scientific and technical activities in Japan. This information will then be used for a more in-depth analysis of the trends in Japan's research activities. Part 3 provides a summary of the Science and Technology Basic Plan that was determined in July 1996 based on the Science and Technology Basic Law. It continues with a discussion of the policies that were implemented in FY1998 for the promotion of science and technology, in line with this basic plan. (M.N.)

  7. The Interdependence of Competition Policy, Consumer Policy and Regulation in Introducing and Safeguarding Effective Competition in the EU Telecommunications Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bartels

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the European Union finds itself in troubled waters. It has to prove that its benefits outweigh the costs of its endeavour. In this respect, an EU competition policy that focuses on consumer welfare is one way to gain support by the citizens of its member states. The Roaming Regulation that has reduced the mobile communications costs while travelling abroad serves as a good example for this approach. The EU Commission views consumer policy as another important factor to protect and benefit customers. In markets with natural monopolies, the two policies require the support of an effective regulatory policy. The research demonstrates that these three policies – if harmonised – are able to lead to an increase in consumer welfare (primarily by reducing prices and that they protect the rights and interests of consumers. In the case of telecommunications, several initiatives of the European Commission and of national regulatory authorities to falls in prices and forced operators to implement customer friendly rules and to protect customer data and privacy. The authors consider that the European Commission has tried to establish and harmonise rules across all member states in order to protect the interests and rights of consumers on the telecommunication market. The enforcement of competition and consumer policy within institutions from the telecom field certainly could promote the focus on consumers and the possibility to use a large “toolbox”. Harmonising and adjusting the policies across different countries and institutions and minimising any possible side effects is nevertheless a challenging task for the EU Commission in the future.

  8. Problems, policies and politics: making the case for better assistive technology provision in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Natasha

    2015-05-01

    Substantial evidence supports assistive technology and environmental adaptations as key enablers to participation. In order to realise the potential of these interventions, they need to be both recognised in policy, and resourced in practice. This paper uses political theory to understand the complexities of assistive technology (AT) policy reform in Australia. AT research will not be influential in improving AT policy without consideration of political drivers. Theories of policy formation are considered, with Kingdon's (2003) theory of multiple streams identified as a useful lens through which to understand government actions. This theory is applied to the case of current AT policy reformulation in Australia. The convergence model of problem identification, policy formulation and political will is found to be an applicable construct with which to evaluate contemporary policy changes. This paper illustrates the cogency of this theory for the field of AT, in the case of Australia's recent disability and aged care reforms. Political theory provides a way of conceptualising the difficulties of consumers and AT practitioners experience in getting therapeutically valid solutions into public policy, and then getting policies prioritised and funded. It is suggested that AT practitioners must comprehend and consider political factors in working towards effective policies to support their practice. AT practitioners generally lack political awareness or an understanding of the drivers of policy. The effectiveness of AT practitioners at a systemic level will remain limited without consideration of policy drivers. AT practitioners must comprehend and consider political factors in working towards effective policies to support their practice.

  9. Competition policy and regulation in hydro-dominated electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangel, Luiz Fernando

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the main competition issues that arise in electricity systems dominated by hydro generation, arguing that technological differences between hydro and thermal plants may allow hydropower producers to exert market power in different and subtler ways compared to thermal generators. The key for market power in hydro-based systems is the strategic allocation of a given amount of output across periods, rather than a straightforward reduction of total output. The paper examines the interaction between strategic hydro reservoir operation and transmission capacity constraints, and summarizes the implications of market power for system reliability. A review of recent relevant literature is included. Finally, possible interventions to mitigate market power are analysed

  10. The European Union, Financial Crises and the Regulation of Hedge Funds: A Policy Cul-de-Sac or Policy Window?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David John Lutton

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of financial crises involving hedge funds has created a general perception that action needs to be taken. A number of key member states and political actors favour tighter regulation. Traditional bureaucratic theory suggests that the European Commission would seek to maximise this ‘policy window’, and yet there remains no single unified European Union (EU regulatory framework specifically targeting hedge funds. The nature of the regulatory regime, which has generally demanded a ‘light touch’ approach, means there are strict limits the EU’s ability to act. From an EU perspective, hedge fund regulation appears to be a policy cul-de-sac. However, the relationship between hedge funds and financial crisis is complex and less straightforward than is often portrayed. Hedge fund regulation cannot, however, be considered in isolation but should be viewed in the context of a wider programme to integrate European financial services markets. Viewed from this perspective, EU regulation is in fact changing the landscape of the hedge fund industry through a process of negative integration.

  11. Assistive technology policy: a position paper from the first global research, innovation, and education on assistive technology (GREAT) summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLachlan, Malcolm; Banes, David; Bell, Diane; Borg, Johan; Donnelly, Brian; Fembek, Michael; Ghosh, Ritu; Gowran, Rosemary Joan; Hannay, Emma; Hiscock, Diana; Hoogerwerf, Evert-Jan; Howe, Tracey; Kohler, Friedbert; Layton, Natasha; Long, Siobhán; Mannan, Hasheem; Mji, Gubela; Odera Ongolo, Thomas; Perry, Katherine; Pettersson, Cecilia; Power, Jessica; Delgado Ramos, Vinicius; Slepičková, Lenka; Smith, Emma M; Tay-Teo, Kiu; Geiser, Priscille; Hooks, Hilary

    2018-07-01

    Increased awareness, interest and use of assistive technology (AT) presents substantial opportunities for many citizens to become, or continue being, meaningful participants in society. However, there is a significant shortfall between the need for and provision of AT, and this is patterned by a range of social, demographic and structural factors. To seize the opportunity that assistive technology offers, regional, national and sub-national assistive technology policies are urgently required. This paper was developed for and through discussion at the Global Research, Innovation and Education on Assistive Technology (GREAT) Summit; organized under the auspices of the World Health Organization's Global Collaboration on Assistive Technology (GATE) program. It outlines some of the key principles that AT polices should address and recognizes that AT policy should be tailored to the realities of the contexts and resources available. AT policy should be developed as a part of the evolution of related policy across a number of different sectors and should have clear and direct links to AT as mediators and moderators for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. The consultation process, development and implementation of policy should be fully inclusive of AT users, and their representative organizations, be across the lifespan, and imbued with a strong systems-thinking ethos. Six barriers are identified which funnel and diminish access to AT and are addressed systematically within this paper. We illustrate an example of good practice through a case study of AT services in Norway, and we note the challenges experienced in less well-resourced settings. A number of economic factors relating to AT and economic arguments for promoting AT use are also discussed. To address policy-development the importance of active citizenship and advocacy, the need to find mechanisms to scale up good community practices to a higher level, and the importance of political engagement for the

  12. Appetite self-regulation: Environmental and policy influences on eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Marlene B; Just, David R; Chriqui, Jamie F; Ammerman, Alice S

    2017-03-01

    Appetite regulation is influenced by the environment, and the environment is shaped by food-related policies. This review summarizes the environment and policy research portion of an NIH Workshop (Bethesda, MD, 2015) titled "Self-Regulation of Appetite-It's Complicated." In this paper, we begin by making the case for why policy is an important tool in efforts to improve nutrition, and we introduce an ecological framework that illustrates the multiple layers that influence what people eat. We describe the state of the science on how policies influence behavior in several key areas: the federal food programs, schools, child care, food and beverage pricing, marketing to youth, behavioral economics, and changing defaults. Next, we propose novel approaches for multidisciplinary prevention and intervention strategies to promote breastfeeding, and examine interactions between psychology and the environment. Policy and environmental change are the most distal influences on individual-level appetite regulation, yet these strategies can reach many people at once by changing the environment in which food choices are made. We note the need for more research to understand compensatory behavior, reactance, and how to effectively change social norms. To move forward, we need a more sophisticated understanding of how individual psychological and biological factors interact with the environment and policy influences. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  13. Toward Technology-Sensitive Catching-Up Policies: Insights from Renewable Energy in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binz, Christian; Gosens, Jorrit; Hansen, Teis

    2017-01-01

    , but were of limited importance in the early solar PV industry, and resulted only in a limited period of rapid growth in the biomass power plant industry. The relative progress achieved in these three industries is not related to top-down policy guidance alone, but also to private sector initiative......, international interdependencies, and flexibility in adapting policy mixes to each industry's technological characteristics. These results suggest that policy makers in newly industrializing countries (NICs) should avoid drafting generic sector plans, but should tailor plans to individual industries, and respond...... to changing policy support needs as technological capacities and global competitiveness develop....

  14. Transfer of technology to developing countries: unilateral and multilateral policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockman, B.M.; Maskus, K.E.; Saggi, K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes national and international policy options to encourage the international transfer of technology, distinguishing between four major channels of such transfer: trade in products, trade in knowledge and technology, foreign direct investment, and intranational and international movement of people. A typology of countries and appropriate policy rules of thumb are developed as a guide to both national policymakers and multilateral rule making in the WTO. We argue that the optimal policy mix varies across countries and that there is a need for differentiation in the design and application of rules in trade agreements as well as for a more explicit focus on evaluation of the impacts of policies. (author)

  15. Environmental Policy and Technology Diffusion under Imperfect Competition. An Evolutionary Game Theoretical Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, F.P.

    2003-05-01

    is the start of the actual evolutionary game modelling and analysis of diffusion of an abatement technology within an imperfect competitive product market. A parametric Cournot model is introduced that allows for both heterogeneous and homogeneous products, which can be produced by means of a dirty technology with high emissions per unit of production or with a clean technology which generates lower emissions per unit of output. We shall, however, mainly emphasize the case of product differentiation. The model in chapter 6 abstracts from any form of environmental regulation and will serve as a benchmark. The model as presented in chapter 6 is adjusted for environmental policy in chapters 7 and 8. Chapter 7 analyzes the diffusion process of clean technology under the policy regimes emission taxation and subsidies per unit of emission reduction. The instruments tradable emission permits and tradable emission credits are examined in chapter 8. In chapter 9, the four instruments will be compared to each other on the basis of their corresponding diffusion incentives and welfare. Moreover, a scenario study is conducted in order to explore the effects of differences in the technologies' pollution intensiveness and the cost structure of the firms. The thesis is finalized by chapter 10, which contains a synthesis of the major results and conclusions.

  16. Developing Public Policies for New Welfare Technologies – A Case Study of Telemedicine and Telehomecare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    2012-01-01

    and communication-based technologies (ICT) for homecare and monitoring (telemedicine, telehomecare). Despite major investments and national commitment, public policies have not yet found a general approach to move from technological and clinical opportunity and into large-scale regular use of the technology...... (normalisation). This article provides two case studies from Denmark; one case with hypertension monitoring at a local level and another case on national policy implementation through funding of selected demonstration projects. Among the findings are that policy-making processes certainly face major challenges...... in capturing research and development for the transition of technologies into working practice. Furthermore, policy approaches of supporting experimentation and demonstration are found inadequate in promoting technology into a level of normalisation in highly cross-organisational operational environments...

  17. Sustainable Trade Credit and Replenishment Policies under the Cap-And-Trade and Carbon Tax Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan Qin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the sustainable trade credit and inventory policies with demand related to credit period and the environmental sensitivity of consumers under the carbon cap-and-trade and carbon tax regulations. First, the decision models are constructed under three cases: without regulation, carbon cap-and-trade regulation, and carbon tax regulation. The optimal solutions of the retailer in the three cases are then discussed under the exogenous and endogenous credit periods. Finally, numerical analysis is conducted to obtain conclusions. The retailer shortens the trade credit period as the environmental sensitivity of the consumer is enhanced. The cap has no effects on the credit period decisions under the carbon cap-and-trade regulation. Carbon trade price and carbon tax have negative effects on the credit period. The retailer under carbon cap-and-trade regulation is more motivated to obey regulations than that under carbon tax regulation when carbon trade price equals carbon tax. Carbon regulations have better effects on carbon emission reduction than with exogenous credit term when the retailer has the power to decide with regards credit policies.

  18. Enhancing innovation in agriculture at the policy level : The potential contribution of Technology Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, Frank M.; Russell, A. Wendy; Kimber, Julie

    Technology Assessment (TA) is an applied process that considers the societal implications of technological change in order to influence policy to improve technology governance. TA has considerable potential to enhance innovation in agriculture and to assist agricultural industries in becoming more

  19. 75 FR 8078 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Technology; HIT Policy Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces... for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meetings will be open to the public via dial-in access...

  20. 76 FR 1432 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... Technology; HIT Policy Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces... for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meetings will be open to the public via dial-in access...

  1. 75 FR 33811 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Technology; HIT Policy Committee's Privacy & Security Tiger Team Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This... National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name...

  2. 75 FR 369 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... Technology; HIT Policy Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces... for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meetings will be open to the public via dial-in access...

  3. 75 FR 12752 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... Technology; HIT Policy Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of Meetings. This notice announces... for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meetings will be open to the public via dial-in access...

  4. 75 FR 21630 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Technology; HIT Policy Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces... for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meetings will be open to the public via dial-in access...

  5. 75 FR 36658 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... Technology; HIT Policy Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces... for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meetings will be open to the public via dial-in access...

  6. 75 FR 70924 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... Technology; HIT Policy Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces... for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meetings will be open to the public via dial-in access...

  7. 75 FR 34141 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Technology; HIT Policy Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces... for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meetings will be open to the public via dial-in access...

  8. 75 FR 16126 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Policy Committee... framework for the development and adoption of a nationwide health information technology infrastructure that...

  9. 76 FR 9782 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces... for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meetings will be open to the public via dial-in access... policy framework for the development and adoption of a nationwide health information technology...

  10. 75 FR 151 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Policy Committee... framework for the development and adoption of a nationwide health information technology infrastructure that...

  11. 76 FR 9784 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Policy Committee... framework for the development and adoption of a nationwide health information technology infrastructure that...

  12. 76 FR 73595 - Healthcare Technology, Policy & Trade Mission: Mexico City, Mexico, May 13-16, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Healthcare Technology, Policy & Trade... Administration, U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service (CS) is organizing an executive-led healthcare technology... of U.S. suppliers of healthcare information technologies (IT), medical devices, and other medical...

  13. 75 FR 65486 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Policy Committee... framework for the development and adoption of a nationwide health information technology infrastructure that...

  14. 75 FR 29762 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Policy Committee... framework for the development and adoption of a nationwide health information technology infrastructure that...

  15. 75 FR 51820 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Policy Committee... framework for the development and adoption of a nationwide health information technology infrastructure that...

  16. 76 FR 4352 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Policy Committee... framework for the development and adoption of a nationwide health information technology infrastructure that...

  17. 75 FR 5595 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Policy Committee... framework for the development and adoption of a nationwide health information technology infrastructure that...

  18. 75 FR 57026 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Policy Committee... framework for the development and adoption of a nationwide health information technology infrastructure that...

  19. 75 FR 42091 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Policy Committee... framework for the development and adoption of a nationwide health information technology infrastructure that...

  20. Regulation of Ocean Iron Fertilization (OIF): a Model for Balancing Research, Environmental and Policy Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinen, M.; Lamotte, R.

    2008-12-01

    The potential of enhancing carbon sequestration by the biosphere for climate mitigation often raises questions of offsetting effects. These questions become more important as the scale of the enhancement increases. Ocean iron fertilization is accompanied by additional questions related to use of the ocean commons. The London Convention (LC) and London Protocol (LP), international treaties adopted in 1972 and 1996 respectively, were designed to prevent use of the ocean for disposal of toxic, harmful and radioactive pollutants. Recently the LC/LP has been called upon to decide whether climate mitigation activities, such as subseafloor injection of CO2 and OIF, are legal under the framework and, if so, how they should be regulated. The broad consultation with the science community by the LC/LP in developing their perspective, and the involvement of the NGO community in these deliberations, provides a model for the process that the international policy community can use to develop science-based regulatory guidelines for carbon mitigation projects involving the commons. And the substance of that emerging regulatory framework -- built on a national-level permitting process informed by internationally agreed guidelines and standards -- may also serve as a model for the oversight of other emerging technologies that take place in the global commons.

  1. Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schacht, Wendy H

    2007-01-01

    .... economic growth, productivity, and international competitiveness. Because technology can contribute to economic growth and productivity increases, congressional attention has focused on how to augment private-sector technological development...

  2. Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schacht, Wendy H

    2005-01-01

    .... economic growth productivity, and international competitiveness. Because technology can contribute to economic growth and productivity increases, congressional interest has focused on how to augment private-sector technological development...

  3. Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schacht, Wendy H

    2006-01-01

    .... economic growth, productivity, and international competitiveness. Because technology can contribute to economic growth and productivity increases, congressional attention has focused on how to augment private-sector technological development...

  4. Policy implications of emerging vehicle and infrastructure technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This report considers a broad range of emerging transportation technologies that have potential : for enhancing travel on and operations of the Texas transportation system. It provides an : overview of technology classifications and assesses the poli...

  5. Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana): Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) ... from original research whether pure or applied in the various aspects of academic ... University Books & Publications Committee, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST)

  6. Towards improved policy processes for promoting innovation in renewable electricity technologies in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foxon, T.J.; Pearson, P.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses recent, current and potential future relations between policy processes and substantive outcomes in UK low carbon innovation policy, focussing on policies relating to renewable electricity generation technologies. It examines the development of policy processes relating to the adoption and implementation of the Renewables Obligation and how these may affect the current and likely future success of the Obligation in promoting low carbon innovation. It examines the new policy and institutional processes put in place in the 2003 Energy White Paper and argues that these are unlikely to provide the strategic long-term framework needed to realise the ambitious goals for UK energy policy set out in the White Paper. Finally, it outlines some suggestions for further development of policy processes to facilitate improved delivery of these goals, based on guiding principles for sustainable innovation policy processes, developed by the authors and their colleagues

  7. Technology Opportunities: Implementation of Deployment Health Policy in Operational Theaters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martinez-Lopez, Lester

    2004-01-01

    It is U.S. policy that medical and personnel information systems be designed, integrated, and utilized with military medical surveillance to protect the physical and mental health of Service members throughout...

  8. Changes in regulation at the science and technology agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hioki, K.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent changes in the regulation at the Science and Technology Agency (STA) of Japan. The changes are based on the lessons learned from the series of incidents at the nuclear facilities of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). It is considered that the safety culture was missing in the organization, which was reflected in the rating of the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) level of the incidents. The PNC is going to be reorganized in October 1997, and the outline of the reorganization is also presented. (author)

  9. The Radiation Oncology Job Market: The Economics and Policy of Workforce Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falit, Benjamin P., E-mail: bfalit2@allianceoncology.com [Pacific Cancer Institute, Wailuku, Hawaii (United States); Pan, Hubert Y.; Smith, Benjamin D. [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Alexander, Brian M. [Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Zietman, Anthony L. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Examinations of the US radiation oncology workforce offer inconsistent conclusions, but recent data raise significant concerns about an oversupply of physicians. Despite these concerns, residency slots continue to expand at an unprecedented pace. Employed radiation oncologists and professional corporations with weak contracts or loose ties to hospital administrators would be expected to suffer the greatest harm from an oversupply. The reduced cost of labor, however, would be expected to increase profitability for equipment owners, technology vendors, and entrenched professional groups. Policymakers must recognize that the number of practicing radiation oncologists is a poor surrogate for clinical capacity. There is likely to be significant opportunity to augment capacity without increasing the number of radiation oncologists by improving clinic efficiency and offering targeted incentives for geographic redistribution. Payment policy changes significantly threaten radiation oncologists' income, which may encourage physicians to care for greater patient loads, thereby obviating more personnel. Furthermore, the implementation of alternative payment models such as Medicare's Oncology Care Model threatens to decrease both the utilization and price of radiation therapy by turning referring providers into cost-conscious consumers. Medicare funds the vast majority of graduate medical education, but the extent to which the expansion in radiation oncology residency slots has been externally funded is unclear. Excess physician capacity carries a significant risk of harm to society by suboptimally allocating intellectual resources and creating comparative shortages in other, more needed disciplines. There are practical concerns associated with a market-based solution in which medical students self-regulate according to job availability, but antitrust law would likely forbid collaborative self-regulation that purports to restrict supply. Because Congress is unlikely

  10. The Radiation Oncology Job Market: The Economics and Policy of Workforce Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falit, Benjamin P.; Pan, Hubert Y.; Smith, Benjamin D.; Alexander, Brian M.; Zietman, Anthony L.

    2016-01-01

    Examinations of the US radiation oncology workforce offer inconsistent conclusions, but recent data raise significant concerns about an oversupply of physicians. Despite these concerns, residency slots continue to expand at an unprecedented pace. Employed radiation oncologists and professional corporations with weak contracts or loose ties to hospital administrators would be expected to suffer the greatest harm from an oversupply. The reduced cost of labor, however, would be expected to increase profitability for equipment owners, technology vendors, and entrenched professional groups. Policymakers must recognize that the number of practicing radiation oncologists is a poor surrogate for clinical capacity. There is likely to be significant opportunity to augment capacity without increasing the number of radiation oncologists by improving clinic efficiency and offering targeted incentives for geographic redistribution. Payment policy changes significantly threaten radiation oncologists' income, which may encourage physicians to care for greater patient loads, thereby obviating more personnel. Furthermore, the implementation of alternative payment models such as Medicare's Oncology Care Model threatens to decrease both the utilization and price of radiation therapy by turning referring providers into cost-conscious consumers. Medicare funds the vast majority of graduate medical education, but the extent to which the expansion in radiation oncology residency slots has been externally funded is unclear. Excess physician capacity carries a significant risk of harm to society by suboptimally allocating intellectual resources and creating comparative shortages in other, more needed disciplines. There are practical concerns associated with a market-based solution in which medical students self-regulate according to job availability, but antitrust law would likely forbid collaborative self-regulation that purports to restrict supply. Because Congress is unlikely to create

  11. M-health: the union of technology and healthcare regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Mark J; Clark, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    As healthcare continues to become technology-based, so too does the potential for increased governmental regulation of mobile health (m-health). "M-health" is a broad term that applies to hardware or software that is mobile and delivers healthcare wirelessly. M-health includes consumer- and provider-oriented medical applications (apps), such as weight monitoring apps, and medical devices, such as glucose meters, that send health information back to the provider. It is important for anyone entering the field of mobile healthcare, whether developing apps, providing remote medical care, or simply investing in the future of healthcare technology, to understand the impact governmental oversight can have on this industry. Understanding the different roles to be played by the federal and state governments can be the difference between success and frustration.

  12. Cleaner technology diffusion: case studies, modeling and policy. Editorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montalvo Corral, C.; Kemp, R.

    2008-01-01

    The development and application of cleaner technologies (environmental technologies) offer multiple benefits for the adopter: reduced emissions, less waste and cost savings from reduced resource use and savings on waste costs. The question here is: if cleaner technologies offer such great benefits

  13. Broadband ICT policies in Southern Africa: Initiatives and dynamic spectrum regulation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, T

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available regulatory agencies. These ICT regulatory agencies had been established with the aim of liberalizing the telecommunications sector to ensure that governments are not the direct providers of telecom services, but the regulators [1]. Moreover, due to out... goals demand liberal and dynamic spectrum regulation policies designed at a country level and more importantly across a majority of countries in the same region. This paper highlights various initiatives aimed at formulating the all...

  14. Stakeholder perspectives on national policy for regulating the school food environment in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterrosa, Eva C; Campirano, Fabricio; Tolentino Mayo, Lizbeth; Frongillo, Edward A; Hernández Cordero, Sonia; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha; Rivera, Juan A

    2015-02-01

    In Mexico, the school environment has been promoting sale of unhealthy foods. There is little empirical evidence on multi-stakeholder perspectives around national school food policy to regulate this. We studied stakeholders' perspectives on the proposed regulation for school sale of unhealthy foods. Comments about the regulation were available from an open consultation process held in June 2010 before the approval and implementation of the regulation. To examine perspectives, we coded 597 comments for beliefs, expectations and demands in NVivo. We created matrices by actors: academics, parents, citizens, health professionals and food industry. For academics, citizens and health professionals, the primary issue regarding the regulation was obesity, while for parents it was health of children. Academics, citizens, health professionals and parents believed that government was responsible for health of citizens, expected that this regulation would improve eating habits and health (i.e. less obesity and chronic diseases), and demanded that unhealthy foods be removed from schools. Parents demanded immediate action for school food policy that would protect their children. Citizens and health professionals demanded nutrition education and healthy food environment. Food industry opposed the regulation because it would not solve obesity or improve diet and physical activity behaviours. Instead, industry would lose income and jobs. Food industry demanded policy aimed at families that included nutrition education and physical activity. There was substantial consensus in narratives and perspectives for most actor types, with the primary narrative being the food environment followed by shared responsibility. Food industry rejected both these narratives, espousing instead the narrative of personal responsibility. Consensus among most actor groups supports the potential success of implementation of the regulation in Mexican schools. With regard to addressing childhood obesity

  15. Rationales for technology-specific RES support and their relevance for German policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawel, Erik; Lehmann, Paul; Purkus, Alexandra; Söderholm, Patrik; Witte, Katherina

    2017-01-01

    In order to achieve cost-effective RES-E deployment it is often argued that technology-neutral support schemes for renewables are indispensable. Against this background, RES-E support policies making widely use of technology differentiation in remuneration settings, e.g. across the EU, are frequently criticized from a theoretical point of view. However, in this paper we provide a systematic critique of the technology neutrality concept as a foundation for designing policy support schemes in the RES-E technology field. Specifically, the main objective of the paper is to scrutinize the arguments for technology-neutrality, and discuss three conceptual arguments for why technology-specific support schemes could in fact help minimize the societal costs of reaching future RES-E targets. We also briefly address different political economy concerns, which could constrain the choice of cost-effective policy support schemes, and that have to be taken into account for economic policy advice. For empirical illustration of the key arguments we refer to the case of German RES-E policy-making. The central conclusion from this paper is that technology-specific RES-E support schemes may generate significant economic benefits, particularly if technology markets work imperfectly and in second-best policy settings with additional non-internalized market failures. - Highlights: • Three theoretical cost-effectiveness reasons for technology-specific RES-E support. • German case study to show relevance of theoretical arguments for policy-making. • Political economy constraints to technology-neutral support are demonstrated. • Technology-specific RES-E support may generate significant economic benefits.

  16. Emotion regulation as the foundation of political attitudes: does reappraisal decrease support for conservative policies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jooa Julia Lee

    Full Text Available Cognitive scientists, behavior geneticists, and political scientists have identified several ways in which emotions influence political attitudes, and psychologists have shown that emotion regulation can have an important causal effect on physiology, cognition, and subjective experience. However, no work to date explores the possibility that emotion regulation may shape political ideology and attitudes toward policies. Here, we conduct four studies that investigate the role of a particular emotion regulation strategy--reappraisal in particular. Two observational studies show that individual differences in emotion regulation styles predict variation in political orientations and support for conservative policies. In the third study, we experimentally induce disgust as the target emotion to be regulated and show that use of reappraisal reduces the experience of disgust, thereby decreasing moral concerns associated with conservatism. In the final experimental study, we show that use of reappraisal successfully attenuates the relationship between trait-level disgust sensitivity and support for conservative policies. Our findings provide the first evidence of a critical link between emotion regulation and political attitudes.

  17. Emotion Regulation as the Foundation of Political Attitudes: Does Reappraisal Decrease Support for Conservative Policies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jooa Julia; Sohn, Yunkyu; Fowler, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive scientists, behavior geneticists, and political scientists have identified several ways in which emotions influence political attitudes, and psychologists have shown that emotion regulation can have an important causal effect on physiology, cognition, and subjective experience. However, no work to date explores the possibility that emotion regulation may shape political ideology and attitudes toward policies. Here, we conduct four studies that investigate the role of a particular emotion regulation strategy – reappraisal in particular. Two observational studies show that individual differences in emotion regulation styles predict variation in political orientations and support for conservative policies. In the third study, we experimentally induce disgust as the target emotion to be regulated and show that use of reappraisal reduces the experience of disgust, thereby decreasing moral concerns associated with conservatism. In the final experimental study, we show that use of reappraisal successfully attenuates the relationship between trait-level disgust sensitivity and support for conservative policies. Our findings provide the first evidence of a critical link between emotion regulation and political attitudes. PMID:24367583

  18. Factors influencing the technology upgrading and catch-up of Chinese wind turbine manufacturers: Technology acquisition mechanisms and government policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Yueming; Ortolano, Leonard; David Wang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses firm level data for the Chinese wind turbine manufacturing industry from 1998 to 2009 to quantify the effects of technology acquisition mechanisms – purchasing production licenses from foreign manufacturers, joint design with foreign design firms, joint-ventures and domestic R and D – on wind turbine manufacturers' technology levels (as measured by turbine size, in megawatts). It also examines the impacts of government policies on manufacturer technology levels. Technology upgrading (measured by increase of turbine size) and catch-up (measured by decrease in the distance to the world technology frontier in terms of turbine size) are used to measure advances in technology level. Results from econometric modeling studies indicate that firms' technology acquisition mechanisms and degree of business diversification are statistically significant factors in influencing technology upgrading. Similar results were found for the catch-up variable (i.e., distance to the world technology frontier). The influence of government policies is significant for technology upgrading but not catch-up. These and other modeling results are shown to have implications for both policymakers and wind turbine manufacturers. - Highlights: ► Technology acquired through joint design has the highest level. ► Technology acquired through purchasing production license has the lowest level. ► Technology acquired through domestic R and D has the level in between. ► A firm with related other businesses tends to have a higher level of technology. ► The influence of policies is significant for technology upgrade but not catch-up

  19. Leading research on cell proliferation regulation technology; Saibo zoshoku seigyo gijutsu no sendo kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For developing intelligent material, animal test alternative model, bio-cell analysis equipment, self-controlling bio-reactor and medical material, development of functional cells was studied by cell proliferation regulation technology. In fiscal 1996, the expression analysis and separation technology of specific gene for cell proliferation, and the intracellular regulation technology were surveyed from the viewpoint of intracellular regulation. The cell proliferation regulation technology by specific regulating material of cells, extracellular matrix, coculture system and embryonic cell was surveyed from the viewpoint of extracellular regulation. In addition, based on these survey results, new cell culture/analysis technology, new bio-material, artificial organ system, energy saving bio-reactor, environment purification microorganism, and animal test alternative model were surveyed as applications to industrial basic technologies from a long-term viewpoint. The approach to cell proliferation regulation requires preparation of a concrete proliferation regulation technology system of cells, and concrete application targets. 268 refs., 43 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Climate policies and learning by doing: Impacts and timing of technology subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kverndokk, Snorre; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2007-01-01

    We study the role of technology subsidies in climate policies, using a simple dynamic equilibrium model with learning by doing. The optimal subsidy rate of a carbon-free technology is high when the technology is first adopted, but falls significantly over the next decades. However, the efficiency costs of uniform instead of optimal subsidies, may be low if there are adjustment costs for a new technology. Finally, supporting existing energy technologies only, may lead to technology lock-in, and the impacts of lock-in increase with the learning potential of new technologies as well as the possibilities for early entry. (author)

  1. Of risks and regulations: how leading U.S. nanoscientists form policy stances about nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corley, Elizabeth A., E-mail: elizabeth.corley@asu.ed [Arizona State University, School of Public Affairs (United States); Scheufele, Dietram A. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Life Sciences Communication (United States); Hu Qian [Arizona State University, School of Public Affairs (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Even though there is a high degree of scientific uncertainty about the risks of nanotechnology, many scholars have argued that policy-making cannot be placed on hold until risk assessments are complete (Faunce, Med J Aust 186(4):189-191, 2007; Kuzma, J Nanopart Res 9(1):165-182, 2007; O'Brien and Cummins, Hum Ecol Risk Assess 14(3):568-592, 2008; Powell et al., Environ Manag 42(3):426-443, 2008). In the absence of risk assessment data, decision makers often rely on scientists' input about risks and regulation to make policy decisions. The research we present here goes beyond the earlier descriptive studies about nanotechnology regulation to explore the heuristics that the leading U.S. nanoscientists use when they make policy decisions about regulating nanotechnology. In particular, we explore the relationship between nanoscientists' risk and benefit perceptions and their support for nanotech regulation. We conclude that nanoscientists are more supportive of regulating nanotechnology when they perceive higher levels of risks; yet, their perceived benefits about nanotechnology do not significantly impact their support for nanotech regulation. We also find some gender and disciplinary differences among the nanoscientists. Males are less supportive of nanotech regulation than their female peers and materials scientists are more supportive of nanotechnology regulation than scientists in other fields. Lastly, our findings illustrate that the leading U.S. nanoscientists see the areas of surveillance/privacy, human enhancement, medicine, and environment as the nanotech application areas that are most in need of new regulations.

  2. Of risks and regulations: how leading U.S. nanoscientists form policy stances about nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheufele, Dietram A.; Hu, Qian

    2009-01-01

    Even though there is a high degree of scientific uncertainty about the risks of nanotechnology, many scholars have argued that policy-making cannot be placed on hold until risk assessments are complete (Faunce, Med J Aust 186(4):189–191, 2007; Kuzma, J Nanopart Res 9(1):165–182, 2007; O’Brien and Cummins, Hum Ecol Risk Assess 14(3):568–592, 2008; Powell et al., Environ Manag 42(3):426–443, 2008). In the absence of risk assessment data, decision makers often rely on scientists’ input about risks and regulation to make policy decisions. The research we present here goes beyond the earlier descriptive studies about nanotechnology regulation to explore the heuristics that the leading U.S. nanoscientists use when they make policy decisions about regulating nanotechnology. In particular, we explore the relationship between nanoscientists’ risk and benefit perceptions and their support for nanotech regulation. We conclude that nanoscientists are more supportive of regulating nanotechnology when they perceive higher levels of risks; yet, their perceived benefits about nanotechnology do not significantly impact their support for nanotech regulation. We also find some gender and disciplinary differences among the nanoscientists. Males are less supportive of nanotech regulation than their female peers and materials scientists are more supportive of nanotechnology regulation than scientists in other fields. Lastly, our findings illustrate that the leading U.S. nanoscientists see the areas of surveillance/privacy, human enhancement, medicine, and environment as the nanotech application areas that are most in need of new regulations. PMID:21170136

  3. Of risks and regulations: how leading U.S. nanoscientists form policy stances about nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corley, Elizabeth A.; Scheufele, Dietram A.; Hu Qian

    2009-01-01

    Even though there is a high degree of scientific uncertainty about the risks of nanotechnology, many scholars have argued that policy-making cannot be placed on hold until risk assessments are complete (Faunce, Med J Aust 186(4):189-191, 2007; Kuzma, J Nanopart Res 9(1):165-182, 2007; O'Brien and Cummins, Hum Ecol Risk Assess 14(3):568-592, 2008; Powell et al., Environ Manag 42(3):426-443, 2008). In the absence of risk assessment data, decision makers often rely on scientists' input about risks and regulation to make policy decisions. The research we present here goes beyond the earlier descriptive studies about nanotechnology regulation to explore the heuristics that the leading U.S. nanoscientists use when they make policy decisions about regulating nanotechnology. In particular, we explore the relationship between nanoscientists' risk and benefit perceptions and their support for nanotech regulation. We conclude that nanoscientists are more supportive of regulating nanotechnology when they perceive higher levels of risks; yet, their perceived benefits about nanotechnology do not significantly impact their support for nanotech regulation. We also find some gender and disciplinary differences among the nanoscientists. Males are less supportive of nanotech regulation than their female peers and materials scientists are more supportive of nanotechnology regulation than scientists in other fields. Lastly, our findings illustrate that the leading U.S. nanoscientists see the areas of surveillance/privacy, human enhancement, medicine, and environment as the nanotech application areas that are most in need of new regulations.

  4. Approaches to Risk and Consumer Policy in Financial Service Regulation in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lunt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The financial service and communication sectors in the UK have been subject to radical re-organisation, involving the formation of sector-wide regulatory bodies (FSA and Ofcom with wide-ranging powers and statutory obligations. Although both have responsibilities for assessment and management of risk, their remits go beyond traditional approaches to regulation. Hence, although primarily oriented to economic policy, both regulators address questions of corporate responsibility, balance of stakeholder interests, the public good, consumer representation and public participation. Accordingly, they are undertaking a range of activities, including consumer education and research, public consultation and the involvement of stakeholders in policy review. Focusing on the case of financial services, this paper presents an analysis of two early speeches by FSA directors, one focused on the approach to risk adopted by the regulator and the other on consumer policy. The second part of the paper considers the conceptual issues regarding different modes of risk management in the new regulators, requiring an account of the various levels and forms of involvement by stakeholders and publics in the identification and management of risk. It follows on from the analysis of the speeches to examine the relationship between risk and consumer policy in the practices of the FSA. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0601323

  5. Convergences and Hybridization of Educational Policies around "Post-Bureaucratic" Models of Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroy, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Our purpose is to document convergences and divergences in the mode of institutional regulation of the education systems in five European countries (Belgium, England, France, Hungary and Portugal). On the national level, partially convergent policies create, to varying degrees and with different temporal rhythms, variants of a post-bureaucratic…

  6. Regulations, policies and practices concerning work stress in five European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompier, M.; Gier, E. de; Smulders, P.; Draaisma, D.

    1994-01-01

    A comparative inventory of regulations, policies and practices in The Netherlands, Sweden, UK, Germany and France with regard to the prevention of work stress was carried out. In each country data were collected by means of interviews with key informants and through exploring relevant documents and

  7. 75 FR 6398 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's Adoption/Certification Workgroup Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office... of Committee: HIT Policy Committee's Adoption/Certification Workgroup. General Function of the...

  8. Branding technologies in the foreign policy of Ukraine: regulatory and organizational aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereshchuk Maryna Ihorivna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses regulatory and organizational components of the application of branding technology as a tool of foreign policy of Ukraine. Particular attention is paid to the activities of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine in this sphere, as well as to the problems impeding the full implementation of the branding policy.

  9. Technologies, Democracy and Digital Citizenship: Examining Australian Policy Intersections and the Implications for School Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    There are intersections that can occur between the respective peak Australian school education policy agendas. These policies include the use of technologies in classrooms to improve teaching and learning as promoted through the "Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians" and the "Australian Curriculum";…

  10. 76 FR 34886 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Implementation of Information Technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... Acquisition Regulation; Implementation of Information Technology Security Provision AGENCY: Office of... information technology (IT) supplies, services and systems with security requirements. DATES: Effective Date... effective date that include information technology (IT) supplies, services and systems with security...

  11. 77 FR 749 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Implementation of Information Technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... Acquisition Regulation; Implementation of Information Technology Security Provision AGENCY: Office of... orders that include information technology (IT) supplies, services and systems. DATES: Effective Date... 6, 2012 that include information technology (IT) supplies, services and systems with security...

  12. Accelerating the Pace of Change in Energy Technologies Through an Integrated Federal Energy Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-11-01

    In this report, the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) calls for the development of a coordinated government-wide Federal energy policy. This will be a major undertaking, given the large number of Federal policies that affect the development, implementation, and use of energy technologies. For that reason, we recommend that the Administration initiate a process analogous to the Quadrennial Defense Review undertaken every four years by the Department of Defense

  13. Identifying the science and technology dimensions of emerging public policy issues through horizon scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Miles; Acland, Andrew; Armstrong, Harry J; Bellingham, Jim R; Bland, Jessica; Bodmer, Helen C; Burall, Simon; Castell, Sarah; Chilvers, Jason; Cleevely, David D; Cope, David; Costanzo, Lucia; Dolan, James A; Doubleday, Robert; Feng, Wai Yi; Godfray, H Charles J; Good, David A; Grant, Jonathan; Green, Nick; Groen, Arnoud J; Guilliams, Tim T; Gupta, Sunjai; Hall, Amanda C; Heathfield, Adam; Hotopp, Ulrike; Kass, Gary; Leeder, Tim; Lickorish, Fiona A; Lueshi, Leila M; Magee, Chris; Mata, Tiago; McBride, Tony; McCarthy, Natasha; Mercer, Alan; Neilson, Ross; Ouchikh, Jackie; Oughton, Edward J; Oxenham, David; Pallett, Helen; Palmer, James; Patmore, Jeff; Petts, Judith; Pinkerton, Jan; Ploszek, Richard; Pratt, Alan; Rocks, Sophie A; Stansfield, Neil; Surkovic, Elizabeth; Tyler, Christopher P; Watkinson, Andrew R; Wentworth, Jonny; Willis, Rebecca; Wollner, Patrick K A; Worts, Kim; Sutherland, William J

    2014-01-01

    Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics) elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security.

  14. Identifying the Science and Technology Dimensions of Emerging Public Policy Issues through Horizon Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Miles; Acland, Andrew; Armstrong, Harry J.; Bellingham, Jim R.; Bland, Jessica; Bodmer, Helen C.; Burall, Simon; Castell, Sarah; Chilvers, Jason; Cleevely, David D.; Cope, David; Costanzo, Lucia; Dolan, James A.; Doubleday, Robert; Feng, Wai Yi; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Good, David A.; Grant, Jonathan; Green, Nick; Groen, Arnoud J.; Guilliams, Tim T.; Gupta, Sunjai; Hall, Amanda C.; Heathfield, Adam; Hotopp, Ulrike; Kass, Gary; Leeder, Tim; Lickorish, Fiona A.; Lueshi, Leila M.; Magee, Chris; Mata, Tiago; McBride, Tony; McCarthy, Natasha; Mercer, Alan; Neilson, Ross; Ouchikh, Jackie; Oughton, Edward J.; Oxenham, David; Pallett, Helen; Palmer, James; Patmore, Jeff; Petts, Judith; Pinkerton, Jan; Ploszek, Richard; Pratt, Alan; Rocks, Sophie A.; Stansfield, Neil; Surkovic, Elizabeth; Tyler, Christopher P.; Watkinson, Andrew R.; Wentworth, Jonny; Willis, Rebecca; Wollner, Patrick K. A.; Worts, Kim; Sutherland, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique [1]. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics) elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security. PMID:24879444

  15. Identifying the science and technology dimensions of emerging public policy issues through horizon scanning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles Parker

    Full Text Available Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security.

  16. Policies of Regulating Cultural and Ethnic Differences: On Concepts and How They are Used

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Čačić-Kumpes

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern societies are multicultural. This is a simple statement on a complex situation which poses many questions. One of the basic questions – how are relations between different cultures in society regulated – is the theme of this paper. By focusing on two pluralistic approaches to regulating relations between cultures – the multicultural and the intercultural approach – the author attempts to indicate the complexity of problems linked to the regulation of cultural differences in modern society. As it turns out, policies on the acceptance of cultural and ethnic differences have some common points, their concepts intertwine, but there are also significant differences between them. It also appears that one and the same policy can show different faces when it comes to its implementation in reality. By stressing interactions as a key trait of culture and cultural identity, the author wishes to emphasize their importance in cultural policies, since only by introducing interactions would these policies mean the acceptance of the real nature of cultural and social relations. The paper deals with this basic intent. In the first part, it presents the basic traits of culture and cultural identity as laid out in basic theories and their reception. Various processes and phenomena linked to them are mentioned in passing. In the second part, an overview of cultural policies is given – from assimilationist policies to pluralist ones (discussion focuses on assimilation, the “melting pot”, integration and multiculturalism and interculturalism. Concepts are treated defined critically and a partial review and evaluation of cultural policies is given. The reason for concentrating on concepts is the assumption that they imply a worldview and therefore it is not insignificant how social phenomena are defined and what names are attached to them.

  17. Identifying Effective Policy and Technologic Reforms for Sustainable Groundwater Management in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, K.; Zekri, S.; Karimi, A.

    2014-12-01

    Oman has gone through three decades of efforts aimed at addressing groundwater over-pumping and the consequent seawater intrusion. Example of measures adopted by the government since the 1990's include a vast subsidy program of irrigation modernization, a freeze on drilling new wells, delimitation of several no-drill zones, a crop substitution program, re-use of treated wastewater and construction of recharge dams. With no major success through these measures, the government laid the ground for water quotas by creating a new regulation in 1995. Nevertheless, groundwater quotas have not been enforced to date due to the high implementation and monitoring costs of traditional flow meters. This presentation discusses how sustainable groundwater management can be secured in Oman using a suit of policy and technologic reforms at a reasonable economic, political and practical cost. Data collected from farms with smart meters and low-cost wireless smart irrigation systems have been used to propose sustainable groundwater withdrawal strategies for Oman using a detailed hydro-economic model that couples a MODFLOW-SEAWAT model of the coastal aquifers with a dynamic profit maximization model. The hydro-economic optimization model was flexible to be run both as a social planner model to maximize the social welfare in the region, and as an agent-based model to capture the behavior of farmers interested in maximizing their profits independently. This flexibility helped capturing the trade-off between the optimality of the social planner solution developed at the system's level and its practicality (stability) with respect to the concerns and behaviors of the profit-maximizing farmers. The idetified promising policy and technolgical reforms for Oman include strict enforcement of groundwater quotas, smart metering, changing crop mixes, improving irrigation technologies, and revising geographical distribution of the farming activities. The presentation will discuss how different

  18. Opposite Trends in the Regulation of Pornography? Policy Differentiation and Policy Convergence Across 26 Countries Between 1960 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Christian; Hurka, Steffen; Knill, Christoph

    2016-09-01

    In recent decades, the regulation of pornography has been confronted with challenges emerging from cultural change, economic interests, and technological progress. As a result, the respective regulatory frameworks have changed substantially in many countries. These changes have been accompanied by fierce political struggles and societal value conflicts. However, there are few comparative studies on the reactions of national governments to these problems. In this article, we present new empirical data on the regulation of pornography in 26 countries between 1960 and 2010. To assess regulatory change, we rely on a new measurement approach that considers the extent to which governments intervene into individual freedoms and the degree to which noncompliance with these rules is actually sanctioned. Our analysis reveals a trend toward more permissive styles of pornography regulation. However, this trend is accompanied by growing regulatory specialization and a convergence toward more interventionist regimes for special types of pornography.

  19. The Financial Policy as a Component of the State Regulation of Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravets Vladislav I.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at disclosing the economic essence of financial policy as a component of institutional development of economy. At the current stage of improvement of financial-economic relations it is important to deepen the essence of financial policy as a component of socio-economic development, improvement of provisions on the influence of instruments of the State financial regulation on the socio-economic processes in the country taking into account the institutional peculiarities of the financial system. It is necessary to increase investment activity of economic entities with increasing the level of efficiency of capital investments, including through the use of mechanisms of the State support and the stimulating measures of both the fiscal-tax and the monetary-credit policy. The priority directions of financial policy need to be improved based on the main tasks of the socio-economic development, as well as the cyclical dynamics of the economy.

  20. Environmental policy instruments and technological change in the energy sector: findings from comparative empirical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjaerseth, J.B.; Christiansen, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the extent to which and in what ways environmental policy instruments may affect patterns of environmental friendly technological change in the energy sector. Our argument is based on the assumption, however, that technological change is also affected by the political context in which the instruments are applied and by the nature of the problem itself. Comparative empirical research involving different European countries, sectors and policy fields were examined, including climate change, air pollution and wind power. The relationship between environmental policy instruments and technological change is extremely complex, not least due to the impact of other factors that may be more decisive than environmental ones. Against this backdrop, it was concluded that: 1) a portfolio of policy instruments works to the extent that different types of policy instruments affect the different drivers and stages behind technological change needed to solve specific problems. The need for a portfolio of policy instruments depends on the technological challenge being faced; 2) voluntary approaches facilitated constructive corporate strategies, but mandatory approaches tended to be more effective in stimulating short term major technological change; 3) voluntary approaches work well in the short term when the problem to be solved is characterized by lack of information and coordination. (author)

  1. Cancer-risk benefits of clean fuel technology and policy. A statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Paul [Economics Department, 481 Heady Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Lazarus, William [Applied Economics Department, 253 COB, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55455 (United States); Shapouri, Hosein; Conway, Roger; Duffield, James [Office of Energy Policy and New Uses, 400 Independence Avenue, SW Rm. 4059 So. Bldg, United States Department of Agriculture, WA, DC 20250 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The hypothesis of this study is that there is a statistical relationship between the lung cancer mortality rate and the intensity of fuel consumption (measured in gallons/square mile) at a particular location. We estimate cross-section regressions of the mortality rate due to lung cancer against the intensity of fuel consumption using local data for the entire US, before the US Clean Air Act (CAA) in 1974 and after the most recent policy revisions in 2004. The cancer rate improvement estimate suggests that up to 10 lung cancer deaths per 100,000 residents are avoided in the largest urban areas with highest fuel consumption per square mile. In New York City, for instance, the mortality reduction may be worth about USD 5.7 billion annually. Across the US, the estimated value of statistical life (VSL) benefit is USD 27.2 billion annually. There are likely three inseparable reasons that contributed importantly to this welfare improvement. First, the CAA regulations mandated reduction in specific carcinogenic chemicals or smog components. Second, technologies such as the catalytic converter (CC) and low-particulate diesel engine were adopted. Third, biofuels have had important roles, making the adoption of clean air technology possible and substituting for high emission fuels. (author)

  2. Cancer-risk benefits of clean fuel technology and policy: A statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Paul, E-mail: paulg@iastate.ed [Economics Department, 481 Heady Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Lazarus, William [Applied Economics Department, 253 COB, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55455 (United States); Shapouri, Hosein; Conway, Roger; Duffield, James [Office of Energy Policy and New Uses, 400 Independence Avenue, SW (Rm. 4059 So. Bldg), United States Department of Agriculture, WA, DC 20250 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The hypothesis of this study is that there is a statistical relationship between the lung cancer mortality rate and the intensity of fuel consumption (measured in gallons/square mile) at a particular location. We estimate cross-section regressions of the mortality rate due to lung cancer against the intensity of fuel consumption using local data for the entire US, before the US Clean Air Act (CAA) in 1974 and after the most recent policy revisions in 2004. The cancer rate improvement estimate suggests that up to 10 lung cancer deaths per 100,000 residents are avoided in the largest urban areas with highest fuel consumption per square mile. In New York City, for instance, the mortality reduction may be worth about $5.7 billion annually. Across the US, the estimated value of statistical life (VSL) benefit is $27.2 billion annually. There are likely three inseparable reasons that contributed importantly to this welfare improvement. First, the CAA regulations mandated reduction in specific carcinogenic chemicals or smog components. Second, technologies such as the catalytic converter (CC) and low-particulate diesel engine were adopted. Third, biofuels have had important roles, making the adoption of clean air technology possible and substituting for high emission fuels.

  3. Cardiovascular disease - risk benefits of clean fuel technology and policy. A statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Paul; Fischer, Amelia [Economics Department, 481 Heady Hall, Iowa State University, Ames Iowa 50011 (United States); Lazarus, William; Bachewe, Fantu [Applied Economics Department, 253 COB, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55455 (United States); Shapouri, Hosein; Conway, Roger [Office of Energy Policy and New Uses, 400 Independence Avenue, SW (Rm.4059 So. Bldg), United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The hypothesis of this study is that there is a statistical relationship between the cardiovascular disease mortality rate and the intensity of fuel consumption (measured in gallons/square mile) at a particular location. We estimate cross-sectional regressions of the mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease against the intensity of fuel consumption using local data for the entire US, before the US Clean Air Act (CAA) in 1974 and after the most recent policy revisions in 2004. The cardiovascular disease rate improvement estimate suggests that up to 60 cardiovascular disease deaths per 100,000 residents are avoided in the largest urban areas with highest fuel consumption per square mile. In New York City, for instance, the mortality reduction may be worth about $30.3 billion annually. Across the US, the estimated Value of Statistical Life (VSL) benefit is $202.7 billion annually. There are likely three inseparable reasons that contributed importantly to this welfare improvement. First, the CAA regulations banned leaded gasoline, and mandated reduction in specific chemicals and smog components. Second, technologies such as the Catalytic Converter (CC) for the automobile and the low particulate diesel engine were adopted. Third, biofuels have had important roles, making the adoption of clean air technology possible and substituting for high emission fuels. (author)

  4. Cardiovascular disease-risk benefits of clean fuel technology and policy: A statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Paul, E-mail: paulg@iastate.ed [Economics Department, 481 Heady Hall, Iowa State University, Ames Iowa 50011 (United States); Lazarus, William [Applied Economics Department, 253 COB, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55455 (United States); Shapouri, Hosein; Conway, Roger [Office of Energy Policy and New Uses, 400 Independence Avenue, SW (Rm.4059 So. Bldg), United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250 (United States); Bachewe, Fantu [Applied Economics Department, 253 COB, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55455 (United States); Fischer, Amelia [Economics Department, 481 Heady Hall, Iowa State University, Ames Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The hypothesis of this study is that there is a statistical relationship between the cardiovascular disease mortality rate and the intensity of fuel consumption (measured in gallons/square mile) at a particular location. We estimate cross-sectional regressions of the mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease against the intensity of fuel consumption using local data for the entire US, before the US Clean Air Act (CAA) in 1974 and after the most recent policy revisions in 2004. The cardiovascular disease rate improvement estimate suggests that up to 60 cardiovascular disease deaths per 100,000 residents are avoided in the largest urban areas with highest fuel consumption per square mile. In New York City, for instance, the mortality reduction may be worth about $30.3 billion annually. Across the US, the estimated Value of Statistical Life (VSL) benefit is $202.7 billion annually. There are likely three inseparable reasons that contributed importantly to this welfare improvement. First, the CAA regulations banned leaded gasoline, and mandated reduction in specific chemicals and smog components. Second, technologies such as the Catalytic Converter (CC) for the automobile and the low particulate diesel engine were adopted. Third, biofuels have had important roles, making the adoption of clean air technology possible and substituting for high emission fuels.

  5. Cardiovascular disease-risk benefits of clean fuel technology and policy: A statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Paul; Lazarus, William; Shapouri, Hosein; Conway, Roger; Bachewe, Fantu; Fischer, Amelia

    2010-01-01

    The hypothesis of this study is that there is a statistical relationship between the cardiovascular disease mortality rate and the intensity of fuel consumption (measured in gallons/square mile) at a particular location. We estimate cross-sectional regressions of the mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease against the intensity of fuel consumption using local data for the entire US, before the US Clean Air Act (CAA) in 1974 and after the most recent policy revisions in 2004. The cardiovascular disease rate improvement estimate suggests that up to 60 cardiovascular disease deaths per 100,000 residents are avoided in the largest urban areas with highest fuel consumption per square mile. In New York City, for instance, the mortality reduction may be worth about $30.3 billion annually. Across the US, the estimated Value of Statistical Life (VSL) benefit is $202.7 billion annually. There are likely three inseparable reasons that contributed importantly to this welfare improvement. First, the CAA regulations banned leaded gasoline, and mandated reduction in specific chemicals and smog components. Second, technologies such as the Catalytic Converter (CC) for the automobile and the low particulate diesel engine were adopted. Third, biofuels have had important roles, making the adoption of clean air technology possible and substituting for high emission fuels.

  6. Cancer-risk benefits of clean fuel technology and policy: A statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Paul; Lazarus, William; Shapouri, Hosein; Conway, Roger; Duffield, James

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis of this study is that there is a statistical relationship between the lung cancer mortality rate and the intensity of fuel consumption (measured in gallons/square mile) at a particular location. We estimate cross-section regressions of the mortality rate due to lung cancer against the intensity of fuel consumption using local data for the entire US, before the US Clean Air Act (CAA) in 1974 and after the most recent policy revisions in 2004. The cancer rate improvement estimate suggests that up to 10 lung cancer deaths per 100,000 residents are avoided in the largest urban areas with highest fuel consumption per square mile. In New York City, for instance, the mortality reduction may be worth about $5.7 billion annually. Across the US, the estimated value of statistical life (VSL) benefit is $27.2 billion annually. There are likely three inseparable reasons that contributed importantly to this welfare improvement. First, the CAA regulations mandated reduction in specific carcinogenic chemicals or smog components. Second, technologies such as the catalytic converter (CC) and low-particulate diesel engine were adopted. Third, biofuels have had important roles, making the adoption of clean air technology possible and substituting for high emission fuels.

  7. Technology Policy and Practice in Africa | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    African economies need deep technological revolutions to bring about rapid structural shifts, to deepen their industry, and build up their endogenous technological capability. The case studies presented here demonstrate the need to pay greater attention to an enabling macroeconomic environmentand the ways that ...

  8. Journal of Food Technology in Africa: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Journal of Food Technology in Africa is Published Quarterly. It is intended for publication of papers on original work and reviews of all aspects of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition. Articles should be basic research that impinge on major areas of concern and relevance to the Food Industry in the ...

  9. Atmospheric effects of aviation. Bringing together science, technology and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesoky, H L; Friedl, R R [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Sustained growth of the aviation industry could be threatened by environmental concerns. But collaboration of scientists, technologists and policy makers is helping to assess potential problems, and to consider appropriate measures for control of aircraft emissions. The structure of that collaboration is discussed along with status of the scientific assessments. (author) 15 refs.

  10. Atmospheric effects of aviation. Bringing together science, technology and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesoky, H.L.; Friedl, R.R. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Sustained growth of the aviation industry could be threatened by environmental concerns. But collaboration of scientists, technologists and policy makers is helping to assess potential problems, and to consider appropriate measures for control of aircraft emissions. The structure of that collaboration is discussed along with status of the scientific assessments. (author) 15 refs.

  11. Moral regulation and the presumption of guilt in Health Canada's medical cannabis policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Philippe

    2009-07-01

    This paper is a sociological examination of policies and practices in Health Canada's Marihuana Medical Access Division (MMAD) that presume the illicit intentions and inherent "guilt" of medical cannabis users, hampering safe access to a medicine to which many are legally entitled, and raising doubts about this federal programme's overall effectiveness and constitutional legitimacy. Beginning with a brief historical overview of Canada's federal medical cannabis programme, this paper examines the failure of the MMAD to meet the needs of many sick and suffering Canadians through Hunt's [Hunt, A. (1999). Governing morals: A social history of moral regulation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press] work on moral regulation and Wodak's [Wodak, A. (2007). Ethics and drug policy. Psychiatry, 6(2), 59-62] critique of "deontological" drug policy strategies. I then cite Tupper's [Tupper, K. W. (2007). The globalization of ayahuasca: Harm reduction or benefit maximization? International Journal of Drug Policy, doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2006.11.001] argument that shifting to a generative metaphor that constructs certain entheogenic substances as potentially useful "tools" rather than regulating them through inherently moralistic prohibitionist policies would better serve public health, and incorporate Young's [Young, I. M. (1990). Justice and the politics of difference. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press] theories of domination and oppression to examine the rise of community-base medical cannabis dispensaries as "new social movements". First-hand accounts by medical cannabis patients, federally funded studies, and internal Health Canada communication and documents suggest that current federal policies and practices are blocking safe access to this herbal medicine. The community-based dispensary model of medical cannabis access is a patient-centered "new social movement" that mitigates the stigmatization and moral regulation of their member-clients by creating

  12. Statutory Regulation of Traditional Medicine Practitioners and Practices: The Need for Distinct Policy Making Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijaz, Nadine; Boon, Heather

    2018-04-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has called for the increased statutory regulation of traditional and complementary medicine practitioners and practices, currently implemented in about half of nations surveyed. According to recent WHO data, however, the absence of policy guidelines in this area represents a significant barrier to implementation of such professional regulations. This commentary reviews several key challenges that distinguish the statutory regulation of traditional medicine practitioners and practices from biomedical professional regulation, providing a foundation for the development of policy making parameters in this area. Foremost in this regard are the ongoing impacts of the European colonial encounter, which reinforce biomedicine's disproportionate political dominance across the globe despite traditional medicine's ongoing widespread use (particularly in the global South). In this light, the authors discuss the conceptual and historical underpinnings of contemporary professional regulatory structures, the tensions between institutional and informal traditional medicine training pathways, and the policy challenges presented by the prospect of standardizing internally diverse indigenous healing approaches. Epistemic and evidentiary tensions, as well as the policy complexities surrounding the intersection of cultural and clinical considerations, present additional challenges to regulators. Conceptualizing professional regulation as an intellectual property claim under the law, the authors further consider what it means to protect traditional knowledge and prevent misappropriation in this context. Overall, the authors propose that innovative professional regulatory approaches are needed in this area to address safety, quality of care, and accessibility as key public interest concerns, while prioritizing the redress of historical inequities, protection of diverse indigenous knowledges, and delivery of care to underserved populations.

  13. Research, development, demonstration, and early deployment policies for advanced-coal technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lifeng; Gallagher, Kelly Sims

    2007-01-01

    Advanced-coal technologies will increasingly play a significant role in addressing China's multiple energy challenges. This paper introduces the current status of energy in China, evaluates the research, development, and demonstration policies for advanced-coal technologies during the Tenth Five-Year Plan, and gives policy prospects for advanced-coal technologies in the Eleventh Five-Year Plan. Early deployment policies for advanced-coal technologies are discussed and some recommendations are put forward. China has made great progress in the development of advanced-coal technologies. In terms of research, development, and demonstration of advanced-coal technologies, China has achieved breakthroughs in developing and demonstrating advanced-coal gasification, direct and indirect coal liquefaction, and key technologies of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and co-production systems. Progress on actual deployment of advanced-coal technologies has been more limited, in part due to insufficient supporting policies. Recently, industry chose Ultra Super Critical (USC) Pulverized Coal (PC) and Super Critical (SC) PC for new capacity coupled with pollution-control technology, and 300 MW Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) as a supplement

  14. Providing policy-relevant information for greenhouse gas management: Perspectives from science and technology policy research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilling, L.

    2009-12-01

    In the 12 years since the Kyoto Protocol was signed setting forth targets for greenhouse gas emissions from several nations, the number of policies, voluntary programs and commercial enterprises that have developed to manage carbon has grown exponentially. Many of these programs have occurred in a voluntary context, such as carbon trading, carbon offset programs, and climate registries . To date, no single, common system for accrediting, verifying and recording carbon credits has developed. Moreover, as the international community continues to negotiate the dimensions of an international agreement for the post-Kyoto time period, discussions still center on targets for fossil fuel emissions, biospheric carbon protection, and appropriate distribution of the burden of compliance globally. If carbon still remains the currency for discussion in a climate agreement, some type of effective measurement and verification system will be needed to ensure that commitments are being met. While entire volumes over the past decade have been written on what it is possible to observe about the carbon cycle and how to do so-- these tend to describe observations from the perspective of studying the carbon cycle to discover fundamental new knowledge. I will argue, however, that for the application under consideration in this session, i.e. a global greenhouse gas information system, it is essential to bring in the perspective of the policy and regulatory community. The needs of the scientific community for measuring the uncertainties in the global carbon cycle are not necessarily the same as those for the policy community. To ensure that such a system can serve a policy-relevant function, the scientific community must engage with policy makers, entrepreneurs, those who must comply, and others involved in constructing the policy framework. This paper will examine some of the key fundamentals that the policy community may be considering in designing a greenhouse gas monitoring system. I

  15. Directed International Technological Change and Climate Policy: New Methods for Identifying Robust Policies Under Conditions of Deep Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Perez, Edmundo

    It is widely recognized that international environmental technological change is key to reduce the rapidly rising greenhouse gas emissions of emerging nations. In 2010, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of the Parties (COP) agreed to the creation of the Green Climate Fund (GCF). This new multilateral organization has been created with the collective contributions of COP members, and has been tasked with directing over USD 100 billion per year towards investments that can enhance the development and diffusion of clean energy technologies in both advanced and emerging nations (Helm and Pichler, 2015). The landmark agreement arrived at the COP 21 has reaffirmed the key role that the GCF plays in enabling climate mitigation as it is now necessary to align large scale climate financing efforts with the long-term goals agreed at Paris 2015. This study argues that because of the incomplete understanding of the mechanics of international technological change, the multiplicity of policy options and ultimately the presence of climate and technological change deep uncertainty, climate financing institutions such as the GCF, require new analytical methods for designing long-term robust investment plans. Motivated by these challenges, this dissertation shows that the application of new analytical methods, such as Robust Decision Making (RDM) and Exploratory Modeling (Lempert, Popper and Bankes, 2003) to the study of international technological change and climate policy provides useful insights that can be used for designing a robust architecture of international technological cooperation for climate change mitigation. For this study I developed an exploratory dynamic integrated assessment model (EDIAM) which is used as the scenario generator in a large computational experiment. The scope of the experimental design considers an ample set of climate and technological scenarios. These scenarios combine five sources of uncertainty

  16. Policies of industrial market and science and technology: the case of Brazilian nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.G. de.

    1981-01-01

    The relationship between policies and the definition of a national program of nuclear energy, is considered. The case under study is the Brazilian one. It is shown that an overall evaluation of market, industry and science and technology is mandatory for the definition of a nuclear energy program, and serious fault and hesitation, leading to contradiction and failure, have their roots in a basic lack of definition in policies. The evolution of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program will probably remain at a mediocre level until a definition at the level of policy-making in marketing, industry and science and technology is firmly pursued and maintained. (Author) [pt

  17. 77 FR 76864 - Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Afghanistan and Change to Policy on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... Belarus, Cuba, Eritrea, Iran, North Korea, Syria, and Venezuela. This policy also applies to countries... International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Afghanistan and Change to Policy on Prohibited Exports AGENCY.... Goforth, Director, Office of Defense Trade Controls Policy, U.S. Department of State, telephone (202) 663...

  18. Technologies, Democracy and Digital Citizenship: Examining Australian Policy Intersections and the Implications for School Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Moyle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are intersections that can occur between the respective peak Australian school education policy agendas. These policies include the use of technologies in classrooms to improve teaching and learning as promoted through the Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians and the Australian Curriculum; and the implementation of professional standards as outlined in the Australian Professional Standard for Principals and the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers. These policies create expectations of school leaders to bring about change in classrooms and across their schools, often described as bringing about ‘quality teaching’ and ‘school improvement’. These policies indicate that Australian children should develop ‘democratic values’, and that school principals should exercise ‘democratic values’ in their schools. The national approaches to the implementation of these policies however, is largely silent on promoting learning that fosters democracy through education, or about making connections between teaching and learning with technologies, school leadership and living in a democracy. Yet the policies promote these connections and alignments. Furthermore, understanding democratic values, knowing what is a democracy, and being able to use technologies in democratic ways, has to be learned and practiced. Through the lens of the use of technologies to build digital citizenship and to achieve democratic processes and outcomes in schools, these policy complexities are examined in order to consider some of the implications for school leadership.

  19. A Decade of Reform: Science and Technology Policy in China ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The State Science and Technology Commission (People's Republic of China), IDRC ... In 1995, and at the request of the Chinese government, Canada's International Development Research Centre ( IDRC ) assembled a ... Related content ...

  20. Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policies in Latin America

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Latin American governments, academics and nongovernmental organizations are paying increasing attention to poverty, inequality and social inclusion, and the role that technological change plays in these phenomenon. ... Related content ...

  1. Science and technology planning in LDCs: major policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wionczek, M S

    1979-05-01

    Science in the less-developed countries (LDCs) should be underplanned rather than overplanned. Furthermore, the planning should be directed to the outer fringes of the scientific endeavor and to its infrastructure and not to the substance of scientific research itself. Planning of applied research and technological development in the LDC is another story. It cannot be done without entering into the substantive problems of applied research and technological development. Attempts to set the broad overall national targets for science and technology (S and T) expenditures -in terms of the proportion of the (GNP) or the per capita income- which do not consider the science and technology system's financial and human resources absorption capacity, are useless. 8 references.

  2. Technological reason and power policy faced with conflicting demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwin, K.; Krenz, G.

    1985-01-01

    Every country is faced with the fundamental task of ensuring long-term energy supply in an optimal manner. Electrical energy is of particular importance owing to its universal uses. But decision-making in the field of power policy is difficult and involves uncertainties because such decisions will have long-term effects due to the long service life of power projects. Decision-making is also difficult because of the large amounts of capital involved in power projects, so that any mistake may cause irreparable damage to the national economy. This article is an attempt to find the fundamental relationships governing the assessment of projects in terms of power policy and to demonstrate the application of appropriate methods of analysis, using as an example the vital question which source of primary energy should best be used for electricity production in Austria. (Auth.)

  3. Technology in the policy process: The control of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collingridge, D.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents an examination of the methodology by which technology assessments and decisions are made with regard to technically complex intensive projects. The author focuses on current breeder reactor programs in England, France and the US, offering an overview of the history and pitfalls of this energy option. He then proposes various alternatives for enhancing the flexibility of the technology and for estimating the cost in more accurate terms

  4. EU policy: Which technological strategies for smart, sustainable growth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liberali, Raffaele; )

    2011-01-01

    The EU's Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET Plan) was launched in November 2007 in response to issues having to do with energy and the climate. Its priority is to speed up the development and deployment of new energy technology thanks to a global approach providing coordination among member states. This plan is to position Europe as a world leader in the transition toward smart, sustainable growth

  5. Technology in the policy process - controlling nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collingridge, D.

    1983-01-01

    The discussion in this book is built around nuclear power. The technology of nuclear power is shown to have features which make it inflexible in the sense that, once built, it is difficult and expensive to control. If inflexible technology is to be avoided, it is crucially important to be able to identify this failing at an early stage in the technology's development, before it has acquired an immunity to political control. Again, this problem is approached through the example of nuclear power, in particular the breeder reactor. The breeder is shown to be even less flexible than today's nuclear technology, because it will have higher capital costs, be of greater capital intensity, longer lead time, larger unit size, and will require more infrastructure for its operation. If this is developed, the breeder will be even less open to political control than the nuclear plant of the present. To put it another way, its planning will be even more open to errors and whatever errors are made will be even more costly than for existing nuclear technology. It is therefore even less of a socially and economically acceptable technology than today's nuclear power. (author)

  6. Improving Energy Efficiency Through Technology. Trends, Investment Behaviour and Policy Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florax, R.J.G.M. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); De Groot, H.L.F. [VU University, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mulder, P. [Tinbergen Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] (eds.)

    2011-10-15

    This innovative book explores the adoption of energy-saving technologies and their impact on energy efficiency improvements. It contains a mix of theoretical and empirical contributions, and combines and compares economic and physical indicators to monitor and analyse trends in energy efficiency. The authors pay considerable attention to empirical research on the determinants of energy-saving investment including uncertainty, energy-price volatility and subsidies. They also discuss the role of energy modelling in policy design and the potential effect of energy policies on technology diffusion in energy-extensive sectors. Written from a multi-disciplinary perspective, this book will appeal to academics and graduates in the areas of energy-saving technologies, energy economics and natural resource economics, as well as policy makers - particularly those in energy policy.

  7. Policy Studies Series: Japanese Technology Policy: What’s the Secret?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    Lauder Pacific Telesis Group Estee Lauder , Inc. Joseph T. Gorman Frank W. Luerssen TRW, Inc. Inland Steel Industries, Inc. Katharine Graham C. Peter...emphasized the acquisition, development, and use of technology as an engine of economic growth. In recent years, the strategy has been to pursue...technology enterprise, such as private-sector technology strategies , research related to other government missions (such as energy, ocean, and disaster

  8. Network Regulation and Support Schemes - How Policy Interactions Affect the Integration of Distributed Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Jacobsen, Henrik; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to investigate the interactions between the policy dimensions of support schemes and network regulation and how they affect distributed generation. Firstly, the incentives of distributed generators and distribution system operators are examined. Frequently there exists a trade......-off between the incentives for these two market agents to facilitate the integration of distributed generation. Secondly, the interaction of these policy dimensions is analyzed, including case studies based on five EU Member States. Aspects of operational nature and investments in grid and distributed...

  9. Integrating Science and Technology into a Policy of Lifelong Education in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urevbu, Andrew O.

    1985-01-01

    Examines Nigeria's National Policy on Education guidelines, specifically focusing on science and technological education. Discusses the development of vocational and technical schools, transfer of technology, and the role of research institutes. Recommendations are made concerning academic survival skills, respect for manual skills, improved…

  10. Progress in Energy Storage Technologies: Models and Methods for Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteson, Schuyler W.

    Climate change and other sustainability challenges have led to the development of new technologies that increase energy efficiency and reduce the utilization of finite resources. To promote the adoption of technologies with social benefits, governments often enact policies that provide financial incentives at the point of purchase. In their current form, these subsidies have the potential to increase the diffusion of emerging technologies; however, accounting for technological progress can improve program success while decreasing net public investment. This research develops novel methods using experience curves for the development of more efficient subsidy policies. By providing case studies in the field of automotive energy storage technologies, this dissertation also applies the methods to show the impacts of incorporating technological progress into energy policies. Specific findings include learning-dependent tapering subsidies for electric vehicles based on the lithium-ion battery experience curve, the effects of residual learning rates in lead-acid batteries on emerging technology cost competitiveness, and a cascading diffusion assessment of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle subsidy programs. Notably, the results show that considering learning rates in policy development can save billions of dollars in public funds, while also lending insight into the decision of whether or not to subsidize a given technology.

  11. Digital Technology, Schools and Teachers' Workplace Learning: Policy, Practice and Identity. Digital Education and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book advances an alternative reading of the social, political and cultural issues surrounding schools and technology and develops a comprehensive overview of the interplay between policy, practice and identity in school workplaces. It explores how digital technologies have become an integral element of the politics and socially negotiated…

  12. Inquiry into Turkey's Educational Technology, Governance, Situational Educational Policy: An Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolu, Hüseyin

    2018-01-01

    Investigating the sociology of educational technology can be approached through a series of deliberations based on the interaction between Free/Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) and Proprietary Close Source Software (PCSS). This article consults public policy discourses of the Fatih project, which is the current educational technology project in…

  13. 75 FR 51819 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Policy Committee... framework for the development and adoption of a nationwide health [[Page 51820

  14. Energy sector in transition - technologies and regulatory policies in flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2005-01-01

    Liberalising the energy sector has been followed by a number of new regulatory measures that are argued to maintain a process towards a sustainable energy sector. The article argues based on empirical material from Denmark and other European countries that the EU regulations and especially...... the simple market oriented models do not lead to or secure sustainability....

  15. Shedding light on solar technologies-A techno-economic assessment and its policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Michael; Schmidt, Tobias S.; Wiederkehr, David; Schneider, Malte

    2011-01-01

    Solar power technologies will have to become a major pillar in the world's future energy system to combat climate change and resource depletion. However, it is unclear which solar technology is and will prove most viable. Therefore, a comprehensive comparative assessment of solar technologies along the key quantitative and qualitative competitiveness criteria is needed. Based on a literature review and detailed techno-economic modeling for 2010 and 2020 in five locations, we provide such an assessment for the three currently leading large-scale solar technologies. We show that today these technologies cannot yet compete with conventional forms of power generation but approach competitiveness around 2020 in favorable locations. Furthermore, from a global perspective we find that none of the solar technologies emerges as a clear winner and that cost of storing energy differs by technology and can change the order of competitiveness in some instances. Importantly, the competitiveness of the different technologies varies considerably across locations due to differences in, e.g., solar resource and discount rates. Based on this analysis, we discuss policy implications with regard to fostering the diffusion of solar technologies while increasing the efficiency of policy support through an adequate geographical allocation of solar technologies. - Highlights: → We conduct a comprehensive comparative assessment of solar technologies (CSP/PV). → While solar technologies approach competitiveness in 2020, no clear winner emerges. → Solar resource and discount rate heavily impact competitiveness of solar technologies. → Adequate geographical allocation of solar technologies increases policy efficiency. → Focus on key cost down levers and strategic co-benefits of solar technologies needed.

  16. Strict Liability Versus Policy and Regulation for Environmental Protection and Agricultural Waste Management in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Bakri Ishak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Basically, strict liability is part of the mechanism for expressing judgment or sentence by using direct evidence. This principle is very useful in order to obtain remedies from any damage either directly or indirectly. The principle in Rylands v Fletcher is responsible on imposing strict liability where if something brought onto land or collected there escapes liability under this rule can include not only the owner of land but also those who control or occupation on it. However, as a matter of fact, policy and regulation are also important in taking any action against any party who are responsible for environmental pollution or damage, which may include mismanagement of waste or industrial waste or agricultural waste. There are certain policies and regulations on environmental protection such as the National Environmental Policy, certain Acts and several regulations under the Environmental Quality Act 1974 (Act 127, which are very useful for agricultural waste management inter alia: Waters Act 1920 (Act 418, Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises (Crude Palm Oil Regulations 1977, Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises (Raw Natural Rubber Regulations 1978, Environmental Quality (Sewage and Industrial Effluents Regulations 1979, and Environmental Quality (Compounding of Offences Rules 1978. As a matter of fact, we should realize that time is of an essence for any parties which are involved in court cases and especially in avoiding the element of externality, which is commonly suffered by the government. In making this paper, therefore, some element of comparison with certain developed jurisdiction such as in the United Kingdom and Japan could not be avoided in order to obtain better outcome and to be more practical for the purpose of environmental protection and agricultural waste management.

  17. Technology-driven developments and policy implications for mathematics education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trouche, L.; Drijvers, P.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074302922; Gueudet, G.; Sacristan, A.I.

    2013-01-01

    The advent of technology has done more than merely increase the range of resources available for mathematics teaching and learning: it represents the emergence of a new culture—a virtual culture with new paradigms—which differs crucially from preceding cultural forms. In this chapter, the

  18. USSR Report, Science and Technology Policy, No. 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-09

    association; Kanashchenkov, Vladimir Sergeyevich, fitter brigade leader of the Shatlykgazstroy [ Shatlyk Gas Construction] Trust in the above...director of the production association of Shatlykgazdobycha [ Shatlyk Gas Extraction Trust]; Leshchinskiy, Yuriy Yevgen’yevich, head of a section of...installation of the large Shatlyk gas extraction complex on the basis of progressive technology and native equipment of large unit capacity. 12 19

  19. Science, Technology and Innovation: Concepts, Theory and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Zehra Taşkın; Güleda Doğan

    2016-01-01

    This study is a review of the book entitled “Science, Technology and Innovation: Concepts, Theory and Policy”. In the converging world, the book is an important contribution not only for the field of economy, but also information science which includes information-economy concepts.

  20. Proceedings: An international workshop on offshore lease abandonment and platform disposal: Technology, regulation, and environmental effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulsipher, A. [ed.] [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Center for Energy Studies

    1997-03-01

    This Proceedings volume includes papers prepared for an international workshop on lease abandonment and offshore platform disposal. The workshop was held April 15, 16, and 17, 1996, in New Orleans, Louisiana. Included in the volume are several plenary speeches and issue papers. prepared by six working groups, who discussed: Abandoning Wells; Abandoning Pipelines; Removing Facilities; Site Clearance; Habitat Management, Maintenance, and Planning; and Regulation and Policy. Also included are an introduction, an afterword (reprinted with the permission of its author, John Lohrenz), and, as Appendix C, the complete report of the National Research Council Marine Boards An Assessment of Techniques for Removing Fixed Offshore Structures, around which much of the discussion at the workshop was organized. Short biographies of many speakers, organizers, and chairpersons are included as Appendix A. Appendix B is a list of conference participants. Selected papers have been processes separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  1. IVF policy and global/local politics: the making of multiple-embryo transfer regulation in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Ling

    2012-08-01

    This paper analyzes the regulatory trajectory of multiple-embryo transfer in in-vitro fertilization (IVF) in Taiwan. Taking a latecomer to policy-making as the case, it argues the importance of conceptualizing the global/local dynamics in policy-making for assisted reproductive technology (ART). The conceptual framework is built upon recent literature on standardization, science policy, and global assemblage. I propose three interrelated features that reveal the "global in the local": (1) the power relationships among stakeholders, (2) the selected global form that involved actors drew upon, and (3) the re-contextualized assemblage made of local networks. Data included archives, interviews, and participant observation. In different historical periods the specific stakeholders selected different preferred global forms for Taiwan, such as Britain's code of ethics in the 1990s, the American guideline in the early 2000s, and the European trend in the mid-2000s. The global is heterogeneous. The failure to transfer the British regulation, the revision of the American guideline by adding one more embryo than it specified, and the gap between the cited European trend and the "no more than four" in Taiwan's 2007 Human Reproduction Law all show that the local network further transforms the selected global form, confining it to rhetoric only or tailoring it to local needs. Overall, Taiwanese practitioners successfully maintained their medical autonomy to build a 'flexible standardization'. Multiple pregnancy remains the most common health risk of IVF in Taiwan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Importance of policy for energy system transformation: Diffusion of PV technology in Japan and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, Sanjeeda; Sumita, Ushio; Islam, Ashraful; Bedja, Idriss

    2014-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) has the highest cost reduction potential among all renewable energy sources (RES). To overcome institutional barriers, developing the technology, and creating an initial market, policies are needed. Comparative case studies of Japan and German PV sector from 1990 to 2011 were developed. Japan dominated the PV industry during 1994–2004, PV market increased to 290 MW in 2005. After 2005 Japan's PV market decreased. German PV market increased from 44 MW in 2000 to 7.5 GW in 2011. The reason behind Japanese PV market decline was the unaligned energy policy and termination of incentives. This paper discusses about successful policy implementation and the impact of policy for the diffusion of PV technology. The analysis section of this paper shows how much the PV technology has been diffused during the period of 1990–2011 and finally what will make the transformation process successful. - Highlights: • We studied PV diffusion of Japan and German considering public energy policy, environmental policy and cost reduction. • This study determined that policy and incentives are responsible for cost reduction. • Japans concentration on nuclear energy more than renewables, made the PV diffusion slow. • Successful implementation of FIT helped Germany reduce PV electricity price more than grid electricity

  3. Beyond technology-push and demand-pull: Lessons from California's solar policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    The scale of the technological transformation required to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 'safe' levels while minimizing economic impacts necessitates an emphasis on designing climate policy to foster, or at least not impede, environmental innovation. There is only a weak empirical base for policy-makers to stand on regarding the comparative innovation effects of various climate policy options, however. Empirical scholarship in environmental innovation is hindered by the complexity of both the innovation process and the interactions between the dual market failures of pollution and innovation that are in play, and it appears that the field would benefit from the structure provided by a common lexicon. This paper focuses on the issues related to policy categorization in this field; these issues have received little attention in the literature despite their importance to making insights gained from empirical studies generalizable. The paper reviews the origins, strengths, and weaknesses of the dominant policy typology of technology-push versus demand-pull instruments. Its primary contribution, however, is to assemble a comprehensive chronology of solar policy in California and its impacts on innovation, where known, and then use this as a basis for building a new policy categorization that takes advantage of the intuitive resonance of the dominant typology, while encompassing the broader range of policy instruments that are employed in practice in order to stimulate environmental innovation. The most noteworthy aspect of the new categorization is that it introduces a third category of environmental innovation policy instrument that focuses on improving the interface between technology suppliers and users. This reflects developments in the economics of innovation literature as well as considerable evidence in the domain of distributed solar energy technologies that opportunism by some of the actors that work at this interface can be a barrier to innovation

  4. Energy efficiency optimization in distribution transformers considering Spanish distribution regulation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pezzini, Paola; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Frau-Valenti, Joan; Sudria-Andreu, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    In transmission and distribution systems, the high number of installed transformers, a loss source in networks, suggests a good potential for energy savings. This paper presents how the Spanish Distribution regulation policy, Royal Decree 222/2008, affects the overall energy efficiency in distribution transformers. The objective of a utility is the maximization of the benefit, and in case of failures, to install a chosen transformer in order to maximize the profit. Here, a novel method to optimize energy efficiency, considering the constraints set by the Spanish Distribution regulation policy, is presented; its aim is to achieve the objectives of the utility when installing new transformers. The overall energy efficiency increase is a clear result that can help in meeting the requirements of European environmental plans, such as the '20-20-20' action plan.

  5. Energy efficiency optimization in distribution transformers considering Spanish distribution regulation policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezzini, Paola [Centre d' Innovacio en Convertidors Estatics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC), E.T.S. Enginyeria Industrial Barcelona, Universitat Politecnica Catalunya, Diagonal, 647, Pl. 2, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Sudria-Andreu, Antoni [Centre d' Innovacio en Convertidors Estatics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC), E.T.S. Enginyeria Industrial Barcelona, Universitat Politecnica Catalunya, Diagonal, 647, Pl. 2, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); IREC Catalonia Institute for Energy Research, Josep Pla, B2, Pl. Baixa, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Frau-Valenti, Joan [ENDESA, Carrer Joan Maragall, 16 07006 Palma (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    In transmission and distribution systems, the high number of installed transformers, a loss source in networks, suggests a good potential for energy savings. This paper presents how the Spanish Distribution regulation policy, Royal Decree 222/2008, affects the overall energy efficiency in distribution transformers. The objective of a utility is the maximization of the benefit, and in case of failures, to install a chosen transformer in order to maximize the profit. Here, a novel method to optimize energy efficiency, considering the constraints set by the Spanish Distribution regulation policy, is presented; its aim is to achieve the objectives of the utility when installing new transformers. The overall energy efficiency increase is a clear result that can help in meeting the requirements of European environmental plans, such as the '20-20-20' action plan. (author)

  6. Advanced policy options to regulate sugar-sweetened beverages to support public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2012-02-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has increased worldwide. As public health studies expose the detrimental impact of SSBs, consumer protection and public health advocates have called for increased government control. A major focus has been on restricting marketing of SSBs to children, but many innovative policy options--legally defensible ways to regulate SSBs and support public health--are largely unexplored. We describe the public health, economic, and retail marketing research related to SSBs (including energy drinks). We review policy options available to governments, including mandatory factual disclosures, earmarked taxation, and regulating sales, including placement within retail and food service establishments, and schools. Our review describes recent international initiatives and classifies options available in the United States by jurisdiction (federal, state, and local) based on legal viability.

  7. Key policy considerations for facilitating low carbon technology transfer to developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ockwell, David G.; Watson, Jim; MacKerron, Gordon; Pal, Prosanto; Yamin, Farhana

    2008-01-01

    Based on Phase I of a UK-India collaborative study, this paper analyses two case studies of low carbon technologies-hybrid vehicles and coal-fired power generation via integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC). The analysis highlights the following six key considerations for the development of policy aimed at facilitating low carbon technology transfer to developing countries: (1) technology transfer needs to be seen as part of a broader process of sustained, low carbon technological capacity development in recipient countries; (2) the fact that low carbon technologies are at different stages of development means that low carbon technology transfer involves both vertical transfer (the transfer of technologies from the R and D stage through to commercialisation) and horizontal transfer (the transfer from one geographical location to another). Barriers to transfer and appropriate policy responses often vary according to the stage of technology development as well as the specific source and recipient country contexts; (3) less integrated technology transfer arrangements, involving, for example, acquisition of different items of plant from a range of host country equipment manufacturers, are more likely to involve knowledge exchange and diffusion through recipient country economies; (4) recipient firms that, as part of the transfer process, strategically aim to obtain technological know-how and knowledge necessary for innovation during the transfer process are more likely to be able to develop their capacity as a result; (5) whilst access to Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) may sometimes be a necessary part of facilitating technology transfer, it is not likely to be sufficient in itself. Other factors such as absorptive capacity and risks associated with new technologies must also be addressed; (6) there is a central role for both national and international policy interventions in achieving low carbon technology transfer. The lack of available empirical analysis

  8. Smokers' attitudes and support for e-cigarette policies and regulation in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2015-11-01

    In April 2014, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposed a rule to extend its tobacco regulatory authority to e-cigarettes, which have been unregulated and growing in use since their 2006-2007 US introduction. The FDA will issue a final rule based on comments and data received from researchers, tobacco companies and the public. We aimed to present data about current smokers' awareness of and attitudes towards potential e-cigarette regulation and various policies in the USA. We conducted a cross-sectional online e-cigarette focused survey of 519 adult current smokers in April 2014, before the FDA's proposed rule was announced. Participants were recruited from a private research panel (GFK's Knowledge Networks) designed to be representative of the US population. The majority of respondents (62.5%) did not know that e-cigarettes are unregulated by the FDA but agreed that e-cigarettes should be regulated by the FDA for safety and quality (83.5%), carry warning labels about their potential risks (86.6%) and have the same legal age of sale as other tobacco (87.7%). Support was similarly high among current e-cigarette users. Support was substantial though lower overall for policies to restrict e-cigarette indoor use (41.2%), flavouring (44.3%) and advertising (55.5%), and was negatively associated with current e-cigarette use. Support for many e-cigarette regulatory policies is strong among smokers, including for policies that the FDA has recently proposed and potential future regulations. States considering indoor e-cigarette restrictions should know that a substantial number of current smokers support such regulations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. A New Framework for Science and Technology Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanDevender, J.P.

    1999-03-04

    The usual divisions of science and technology into pure research applied research, development, demonstration, and production creates impediments for moving knowledge into socially useful products and services. This failing has been previously discussed without concrete suggestions of how to improve the situation. In the proposed framework the divisive and artificial distinctions of basic and applied are softened, and the complementary and somewhat overlapping roles of universities, corporations, and federal labs are clarified to enable robust partnerships. As a collegial group of scientists and technologists from industry, university, and government agencies and their national laboratories, we have worked together to clarify this framework. We offer the results in hopes of improving the results from investments in science and technology and thereby helping strengthen the social contract between the public and private investors and the scientists-technologists.

  10. Pricing policy for declining demand using item preservation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedlekar, Uttam Kumar; Shukla, Diwakar; Namdeo, Anubhav

    2016-01-01

    We have designed an inventory model for seasonal products in which deterioration can be controlled by item preservation technology investment. Demand for the product is considered price sensitive and decreases linearly. This study has shown that the profit is a concave function of optimal selling price, replenishment time and preservation cost parameter. We simultaneously determined the optimal selling price of the product, the replenishment cycle and the cost of item preservation technology. Additionally, this study has shown that there exists an optimal selling price and optimal preservation investment to maximize the profit for every business set-up. Finally, the model is illustrated by numerical examples and sensitive analysis of the optimal solution with respect to major parameters.

  11. Doctor-Patient Knowledge Transfer: Innovative Technologies and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Sára, Zoltán; Csedő, Zoltán; Tóth, Tamás; Fejes, József; Pörzse, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to empirically investigate the barriers in doctor-patient communication and knowledge transfer and the role of innovative technologies in overcoming these barriers. We applied qualitative research methods. Our results show that patients extensively use information sources, primarily the Internet before the visits. Patients regularly apply a self-diagnosis regarding their diseases. This implies several risks as many of them are not able to properly inte...

  12. Policy Considerations for the Blockchain Technology Public and Private Applications

    OpenAIRE

    GABISON Garry

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, Satoshi Nakamoto—an individual or group of individuals— released a paper that described Bitcoin, a first of its kind, peer-to-peer electronic cash system. Bitcoin relies mostly on existing technology but requires a new invention, a blockchain, to solve an old problem: how do two parties conduct an online transaction without knowing or trusting each other and without the need for a trusted third-party intermediary? Encryption and large-scale redundancy was combined w...

  13. Influence of non-technical policies on choices of waste solidification technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trubatch, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses non-technical policy considerations which may improperly influence decisions on the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes (''LLW''). These policy considerations are contained principally in several State and Federal statutes which regulate various aspects of LLW disposal. One policy consideration in particular, the unqualified bias in favor of volume reduction, is shown to present a substantial potential for leading to technically suboptimal decisions on the appropriate processes for solidifying LLW. To avoid the unintended skewing of technical decisions by non-technical policy considerations, certain current policies may need to be revised to ensure that the choices of waste treatment, including decisions on solidification, are based primarily on reasonable assurance of adequate protection of public health and safety. This goal may be realized in part by basing any disposal fee structure on more than just LLW volume to include consideration of the waste's activity and its difficulty of confinement

  14. The Policy Maker's Anguish: Regulating Personal Data Behavior Between Paradoxes and Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compañó, Ramón; Lusoli, Wainer

    Regulators in Europe and elsewhere are paying great attention to identity, privacy and trust in online and converging environments. Appropriate regulation of identity in a ubiquitous information environment is seen as one of the major drivers of the future Internet economy. Regulation of personal identity data has come to the fore including mapping conducted on digital personhood by the OECD; work on human rights and profiling by the Council of Europe andmajor studies by the European Commission with regard to self-regulation in the privacy market, electronic identity technical interoperability and enhanced safety for young people. These domains overlap onto an increasingly complex model of regulation of individuals' identity management, online and offline. This chapter argues that policy makers struggle to deal with issues concerning electronic identity, due to the apparently irrational and unpredictable behavior of users when engaging in online interactions involving identity management. Building on empirical survey evidence from four EU countries, we examine the first aspect in detail - citizens' management of identity in a digital environment. We build on data from a large scale (n = 5,265) online survey of attitudes to electronic identity among young Europeans (France, Germany, Spain, UK) conducted in August 2008. The survey asked questions about perceptions and acceptance of risks, general motivations, attitudes and behaviors concerning electronic identity. Four behavioral paradoxes are identified in the analysis: a privacy paradox (to date well known), but also a control paradox, a responsibility paradox and an awareness paradox. The chapter then examines the paradoxes in relation of three main policy dilemmas framing the debate on digital identity. The paper concludes by arguing for an expanded identity debate spanning policy circles and the engineering community.

  15. Analysis of multi-pollutant policies for the U.S. power sector under technology and policy uncertainty using MARKAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Ming-Che; Hobbs, Benjamin F.

    2010-01-01

    Investments in power generation, pollution controls, and electricity end use equipment are made in the face of uncertainty. Unanticipated events can cause regret-commitments that in retrospect were the wrong choices. We analyze how three uncertainties-electricity demand growth, natural gas prices, and power sector greenhouse gas regulations-could affect electric power sector investment decisions and costs in the U.S. over the next four decades. The effect of multi-pollutant regulations such as the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) upon these decisions and costs is also considered. We use decision trees to structure the problem, defining multiple futures for each uncertainty and then simulating how the U.S. energy market responds to them. A two-stage stochastic version of the energy-economy model MARKAL simulates the market. Relative importance of the uncertainties is assessed using two indices: expected cost of ignoring uncertainty (ECIU) and expected value of perfect information (EVPI). We also calculate the value of policy coordination (VPC), the cost saved by avoiding surprise changes in policy. An example shows how a stochastic program can be used to compute these indices. The analysis shows that the possibility of greenhouse gas regulation is the most important uncertainty by these measures.

  16. Comparative study of linkage between environmental policy instruments and technological innovation: Case study on end-of-life vehicles technologies in Japan and EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajeev Kumar; Yabar, Helmut; Nozaki, Noriko; Niraula, Baburam; Mizunoya, Takeshi

    2017-08-01

    A growing population and urbanization is a challenge for finite natural resources. Without strict regulation to recycle, recover and reuse resources, waste is discarded with no value. Every year throughout the world, more than twenty-five million vehicles turn into end-of-life vehicles (ELV) and most of their valuable resources end up in landfill sites. This research analyses the effect of regulation on ELV innovation for additional recovery of resources in Japan and EU nations using patent data as a proxy. The analysis determines the statistical difference in patent activity before and after regulations were enacted in the case studies. The relevant data on ELV technologies was gathered for the period 1985-2013. The study suggests that in general environmental regulation in Japan drove innovation and reveals that environmental policy in Japan was more effective in enabling innovation compared to EU nations. Specifically, the results from these developed countries can be used by the rapidly growing developing countries in automobile manufacturing like China for amendment of their ELV regulation accordingly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Timing and Commitment of Environmental Policy, Adoption of New Technology, and Repercussions on R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requate, T.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the interplay between environmental policy, incentives to adopt new technology, and repercussions on R and D. We study a model where a monopolistic upstream firm engages in R and D and sells advanced abatement technology to polluting downstream firms. We consider four different timing and commitment regimes of environmental tax and permit policies: ex post taxation (or issuing permits), interim commitment to a tax rate (a quota of permits) after observing R and D success but before adoption, and finally two types of ex antecommitment before R and D activity, one with a unique tax rate (quota of permits), the other one with a menu of tax rates (permit quotas). We study the second best tax and permit policies and rank these with respect to welfare. In particular, we find that commitment to a menu of tax rate dominates all other policy regimes

  18. On Sharing and Quasi-Sharing : The Tension between Sharing-Economy Practices, Public Policy, and Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranchordás, Sofia; Albinsson, Pia A.; Perera, B. Yasanthi

    2018-01-01

    This paper offers a critical and comparative overview of the main regulatory and policy challenges faced by regulators in the context of the sharing economy. The regulation of the sharing economy has been particularly challenging as regulators are being asked to balance the interests protected by

  19. Adaptive dynamic programming for discrete-time linear quadratic regulation based on multirate generalised policy iteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Tae Yoon; Lee, Jae Young; Park, Jin Bae; Choi, Yoon Ho

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we propose two multirate generalised policy iteration (GPI) algorithms applied to discrete-time linear quadratic regulation problems. The proposed algorithms are extensions of the existing GPI algorithm that consists of the approximate policy evaluation and policy improvement steps. The two proposed schemes, named heuristic dynamic programming (HDP) and dual HDP (DHP), based on multirate GPI, use multi-step estimation (M-step Bellman equation) at the approximate policy evaluation step for estimating the value function and its gradient called costate, respectively. Then, we show that these two methods with the same update horizon can be considered equivalent in the iteration domain. Furthermore, monotonically increasing and decreasing convergences, so called value iteration (VI)-mode and policy iteration (PI)-mode convergences, are proved to hold for the proposed multirate GPIs. Further, general convergence properties in terms of eigenvalues are also studied. The data-driven online implementation methods for the proposed HDP and DHP are demonstrated and finally, we present the results of numerical simulations performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  20. An Exponential Increase in Regional Health Information Exchange With Collaborative Policies and Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, N Lance; Lane, Steven; Eisenberg, Mathew; Sharp, Christopher; Palma, Jonathan; Longhurst, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, the ability to securely exchange health information between organization has been limited by technical interoperability, patient identity matching, and variable institutional policies. Here, we examine the regional experience in a national health information exchange network by examining clinical data sharing between eleven Northern California organizations using the same health information exchange (HIE) platform between 2013-2014. We identify key policies and technologies that have led to a dramatic increase in health information exchange.

  1. Hawaii Integrated Energy Assessment. Volume V. Rules, regulations, permits and policies affecting the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive presentaton of the major permits, regulations, rules, and controls which are likely to affect the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii is presented. An overview of the permit process, showing the major categories and types of permits and controls for energy alternatives is presented. This is followed by a brief resume of current and projected changes designed to streamline the permit process. The permits, laws, regulations, and controls that are applicable to the development of energy alternatives in Hawaii are described. The alternate energy technologies affected, a description of the permit or control, and the requirements for conformance are presented for each applicable permit. Federal, state, and county permits and controls are covered. The individual energy technologies being considered as alternatives to the State's present dependence on imported fossil fuels are emphasized. The alternate energy sources covered are bioconversion, geothermal, ocean thermal, wind, solar (direct), and solid waste. For each energy alternative, the significant permits are summarized with a brief explanation of why they may be necessary. The framework of policy development at each of the levels of government with respect to the alternate energy sources is covered.

  2. Management of broadband technology and innovation policy, deployment, and use

    CERN Document Server

    Choudrie, Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    When one considers broadband, the Internet immediately springs to mind. However, broadband is impacting society in many ways. For instance, broadband networks can be used to deliver healthcare or community related services to individuals who don't have computers, have distance as an issue to contend with, or don't use the internet. Broadband can support better management of scarce energy resources with the advent of smart grids, enables improved teleworking capacity and opens up a world of new entertainment possibilities. Yet scholarly examinations of broadband technology have so far examin

  3. Transportation and information trends in technology and policy

    CERN Document Server

    Piyushimita

    2013-01-01

    Transformations in wireless connectivity and location-aware technologies hold the promise of bringing a sea-change in the way transportation information is generated and used in the future. Sensors in the transportation system, when integrated with those in other sectors (for example, energy, utility and health) have the potential to foster novel new ways of improving livability and sustainability.The end-result of these developments has been somewhat contradictory. Although automation in the transportation environment has become increasingly widespread, the level of involvement and active par

  4. The effects of economic and policy incentives on carbon mitigation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, Richard G.; Jaffe, Adam B.; Stavins, Robert N.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to estimate the likely effects of potential climate change policies on energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions requires an improved understanding of the relationship between different policy alternatives and energy-saving and GHG-reducing changes in technology. A particularly important and understudied aspect of this set of issues is the conceptual and empirical modeling of how the various stages of technological change are interrelated, how they unfold over time in response to market forces, and the differential impact of various policies (for example, R and D subsidies, environmental taxes, information programs). We summarize several contributions to this literature and suggest promising areas for continued research on empirical analysis and modeling of induced technological change

  5. When should green technology support policies supplement the carbon price? The case of the electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecuyer, Oskar

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the literature on optimal policy choice. It studies the use of policy combinations to mitigate greenhouse gases emissions from electricity production. One finding applies to cases where uncertainty is such that the risk of a nil carbon price cannot be excluded. A cap on emissions alone may then not trigger enough abatements, justifying the addition of e.g. a renewable subsidy. When considering a transition toward a carbon free electricity sector, capital accumulation causes complex dynamic effects to happen. We find that decisions taken by comparing the leveled costs of abatement technologies, even including carbon costs, would favor intermediate technologies (e.g. gas plants) to the detriment of more-expensive but lower-carbon technologies (renewable power), leading to a suboptimal investment schedule. This thesis also studies the effects of marginal policy changes in a mix comprising the main French instruments. We find that surprisingly, adding a tariff for renewables financed by a tax on electricity consumption to a cap on emissions and a subsidy for energy efficiency will reduce the consumer electricity price when the non-renewable production is fixed and does not depend on the carbon price. The assessment of the French climate policies in the electricity sector shows that overlapping policies for mitigation may be justified by multiple carbon price failures, even if the ideal long-term policy mix depends on the carbon price trajectory. (author)

  6. Through Patients' Eyes: Regulation, Technology, Privacy, and the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Carolyn

    2018-04-22

    Privacy is commonly regarded as a regulatory requirement achieved via technical and organizational management practices. Those working in the field of informatics often play a role in privacy preservation as a result of their expertise in information technology, workflow analysis, implementation science, or related skills. Viewing privacy from the perspective of patients whose protected health information is at risk broadens the considerations to include the perceived duality of privacy; the existence of privacy within a context unique to each patient; the competing needs inherent within privacy management; the need for particular consideration when data are shared; and the need for patients to control health information in a global setting. With precision medicine, artificial intelligence, and other treatment innovations on the horizon, health care professionals need to think more broadly about how to preserve privacy in a health care environment driven by data sharing. Patient-reported privacy preferences, privacy portability, and greater transparency around privacy-preserving functionalities are potential strategies for ensuring that privacy regulations are met and privacy is preserved. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

  7. Environmental policy and industrialization: The politics of regulation in Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concepcion, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of economic development on environmental regulation in Puerto Rico are examined. In particular, the research analyzes how the Puerto Rican industrialization process has affected implementation of the environmental-review process. Puerto Rico exemplifies an acute conflict between an industrialization process based on capital-intensive, highly polluting industries, and a regulatory framework of insular and US environmental laws and regulations. While industrialization has not solved unemployment problems on the island, environmental and health hazards have increased significantly, despite environmental regulations. The study focuses on a change in the environmental review process in response to economic development concerns. In particular, it examines the growth and extensive use of a new environmental review document, the Environmental Assessment. This study explains this policy shift and, more fundamentally, analyzes how and under what circumstances this change came about

  8. Technology transfer of hearing aids to low and middle income countries: policy and market factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelman, Katherine D; Werner, Roye

    2014-09-01

    The competitive market advantages of industry and the balancing force of international governmental organizations (IGOs) are examined to identify market and policy in support of sustainable technology transfer of hearing aids to low and middle income countries. A second purpose is to examine the usefulness of findings for other assistive technologies (AT). Searches of electronic databases, IGO documents, industry reports and journals were supplemented by informal discussions with industry and IGO staff and audiologists. The value chain is used to examine the competitive advantage of industry and the balancing tools of certain IGOs. Both industry and IGOs engage in intellectual property (IP) and competition activities and are active in each segment of the hearing aid value chain. Their market and policy objectives and strategies are different. IGOs serve as balancing forces for the competitive advantages of industry. The hearing aid market configuration and hearing aid fitting process are not representative of other AT products but IP, trade and competition policy tools used by IGOs and governments are relevant to other AT. The value chain is a useful tool to identify the location of price mark-ups and the influence of actors. Market factors and reimbursement and subsidization policies drive hearing aid innovation. UN-related international government organization activities are responsive to the needs of disability populations who cannot afford assistive technology. Policy tools used by international governmental organizations are applicable across assistive technology. A partnership model is important to distribution of hearing aids to low and middle income countries.

  9. Social Technology Apply to National Policy on Solid Waste: Solid Waste Management Integrated in the Countryside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greice Kelly Lourenco Porfirio de Oliveira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to study the environmentally friendly social technologies through appropriate techniques to the treatment of solid waste disposed of improperly. After exposure of concepts, a reflection on the use of social technologies as a mechanism for realization of integrated management objectives of waste set by the National Solid Waste Policy will be made – 12.305/10 . Finally, data from the Social Technologies Bank of Brazil Foundation will be displayed showing the results of the use of technology to promote the integrated management of solid waste in rural communities Crateús/CE , through a provision aimed at PNRS, selective collection

  10. A structured policy review of the principles of professional self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, D C; González-Jurado, M A; Beneit-Montesinos, J V

    2013-03-01

    The International Council of Nurses (ICN) has, for many years, based its work on professional self-regulation on a set of 12 principles. These principles are research based and were identified nearly three decades ago. ICN has conducted a number of reviews of the principles; however, changes have been minimal. In the past 5-10 years, a number of authors and governments, often as part of the review of regulatory systems, have started to propose principles to guide the way regulatory frameworks are designed and implemented. These principles vary in number and content. This study examines the current policy literature on principle-based regulation and compares this with the set of principles advocated by the ICN. A systematic search of the literature on principle-based regulation is used as the basis for a qualitative thematic analysis to compare and contrast the 12 principles of self-regulation with more recently published work. A mapping of terms based on a detailed description of the principles used in the various research and policy documents was generated. This mapping forms the basis of a critique of the current ICN principles. A professional self-regulation advocated by the ICN were identified. A revised and extended set of 13 principles is needed if contemporary developments in the field of regulatory frameworks are to be accommodated. These revised principles should be considered for adoption by the ICN to underpin their advocacy work on professional self-regulation. © 2013 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2013 International Council of Nurses.

  11. Using federal technology policy to strength the US microelectronics industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, J. E.; Gwyn, C. W.

    1994-07-01

    A review of US and Japanese experiences with using microelectronics consortia as a tool for strengthening their respective industries reveals major differences. Japan has established catch-up consortia with focused goals. These consortia have a finite life targeted from the beginning, and emphasis is on work that supports or leads to product and process-improvement-driven commercialization. Japan's government has played a key role in facilitating the development of consortia and has used consortia promote domestic competition. US consortia, on the other hand, have often emphasized long-range research with considerably less focus than those in Japan. The US consortia have searched for and often made revolutionary technology advancements. However, technology transfer to their members has been difficult. Only SEMATECH has assisted its members with continuous improvements, compressing product cycles, establishing relationships, and strengthening core competencies. The US government has not been a catalyst nor provided leadership in consortia creation and operation. We propose that in order to regain world leadership in areas where US companies lag foreign competition, the US should create industry-wide, horizontal-vertical, catch-up consortia or continue existing consortia in the six areas where the US lags behind Japan -- optoelectronics, displays, memories, materials, packaging, and manufacturing equipment. In addition, we recommend that consortia be established for special government microelectronics and microelectronics research integration and application. We advocate that these consortia be managed by an industry-led Microelectronics Alliance, whose establishment would be coordinated by the Department of Commerce. We further recommend that the Semiconductor Research Corporation, the National Science Foundation Engineering Research Centers, and relevant elements of other federal programs be integrated into this consortia complex.

  12. Using federal technology policy to strength the US microelectronics industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gover, J.E.; Gwyn, C.W.

    1994-07-01

    A review of US and Japanese experiences with using microelectronics consortia as a tool for strengthening their respective industries reveals major differences. Japan has established catch-up consortia with focused goals. These consortia have a finite life targeted from the beginning, and emphasis is on work that supports or leads to product and process-improvement-driven commercialization. Japan`s government has played a key role in facilitating the development of consortia and has used consortia promote domestic competition. US consortia, on the other hand, have often emphasized long-range research with considerably less focus than those in Japan. The US consortia have searched for and often made revolutionary technology advancements. However, technology transfer to their members has been difficult. Only SEMATECH has assisted its members with continuous improvements, compressing product cycles, establishing relationships, and strengthening core competencies. The US government has not been a catalyst nor provided leadership in consortia creation and operation. We propose that in order to regain world leadership in areas where US companies lag foreign competition, the US should create industry-wide, horizontal-vertical, catch-up consortia or continue existing consortia in the six areas where the US lags behind Japan -- optoelectronics, displays, memories, materials, packaging, and manufacturing equipment. In addition, we recommend that consortia be established for special government microelectronics and microelectronics research integration and application. We advocate that these consortia be managed by an industry-led Microelectronics Alliance, whose establishment would be coordinated by the Department of Commerce. We further recommend that the Semiconductor Research Corporation, the National Science Foundation Engineering Research Centers, and relevant elements of other federal programs be integrated into this consortia complex.

  13. Public policies and reproductive technology: a feminist critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccormack, T

    1991-01-01

    Reproductive technology comprises abortion, contraception, amniocentesis (more than 40 genetic disorders can be diagnosed), chorionic villus sampling, genetic screening (to reduce the risk of chromosomal defects such as Down syndrome, sickle cell anemia, Tay-Sachs disease, and cystic fibrosis), in vitro fertilization, artificial insemination by spouse or donor, the development of sperm banks, storage of frozen sperm (cryopreservation), the development of artificial wombs, techniques for predetermining the sex of a fetus, and nursery environments to maintain a fetus removed from the womb in the 1st trimester. In recent years, the demand for these services has increased because of higher infertility and the drop in the number of babies available for adoption. Surrogacy is especially controversial: it has become a symbol of the dehumanization of modern life and the exploitation of women. The feminist perspective discloses how patriarchal values about the subordinate status of women, about the nature of motherhood, infertility, and the family are both implicit and explicit in prevailing thinking about reproduction. The new technology offers women who wish to remain unmarried the opportunity to have a family, and it enables lesbian women to bear children. The research literature favors a Eurocentric nuclear family without any awareness that in Canada, and in the Western world, new forms of family life have been evolving as couples marry, divorce, and remarry. There is no awareness either that in other cultures this Eurocentric nuclear model is dysfunctional. Because of the rigid notion of the 2-parent nuclear family, the 3rd parties who are involved in either surrogate relationships or artificial insemination are deprecated. The feminist literature is more critical of the nuclear family, but it has been sometimes inconsistent on the relevant issues.

  14. Outlook for renewable energy technologies: Assessment of international programs and policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branstetter, L.J.; Vidal, R.C.; Bruch, V.L.; Zurn, R.

    1995-02-01

    The report presents an evaluation of worldwide research efforts in three specific renewable energy technologies, with a view towards future United States (US) energy security, environmental factors, and industrial competitiveness. The overall energy technology priorities of foreign governments and industry leaders, as well as the motivating factors for these priorities, are identified and evaluated from both technological and policy perspectives. The specific technologies of interest are wind, solar thermal, and solar photovoltaics (PV). These program areas, as well as the overall energy policies of Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom (UK), Japan, Russia, and the European Community as a whole are described. The present and likely future picture for worldwide technological leadership in these technologies-is portrayed. The report is meant to help in forecasting challenges to US preeminence in the various technology areas, particularly over the next ten years, and to help guide US policy-makers as they try to identify specific actions which would help to retain and/or expand the US leadership position.

  15. Good Practice Policy Framework for Energy Technology Research Development and Demonstration (RD and D)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The transition to a low carbon economy clearly requires accelerating energy innovation and technology adoption. Governments have an important role in this context. They can help by establishing the enabling environment in which innovation can thrive, and within which effective and efficient policies can be identified, with the specific goal of advancing research, development, demonstration and, ultimately, deployment (RDD&D) of clean energy technologies. At the front end of the innovation process, significant increases in, and restructuring of, global RD&D efforts will be required, combined with well-targeted government RD&D policies. The development of a clear policy framework for energy technology RD&D, based on good practices, should include six elements: Coherent energy RD&D strategy and priorities; Adequate government RD&D funding and policy support; Co-ordinated energy RD&D governance; Strong collaborative approach, engaging industry through public private partnerships (PPPs); Effective RD&D monitoring and evaluation; and Strategic international collaboration. While countries have been favouring certain technologies over others, based on decisions on which areas are to receive funding, clear priorities are not always determined through structured analysis and documented processes. A review of stated energy RD&D priorities, based on announced technology programmes and strategies, and recent spending trends reveals some important deviations from stated priorities and actual RD&D funding.

  16. Claims in vapour device (e-cigarette) regulation: A Narrative Policy Framework analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Renée; Borland, Ron; Stockwell, Tim; MacDonald, Marjorie

    2017-06-01

    The electronic cigarette or e-cigarette (vapour device) is a consumer product undergoing rapid growth, and governments have been adopting regulations on the sale of the devices and their nicotine liquids. Competing claims about vapour devices have ignited a contentious debate in the public health community. What claims have been taken up in the state arena, and how have they possibly influenced regulatory outcomes? This study utilized Narrative Policy Framework to analyze the claims made about vapour devices in legislation recommendation reports from Queensland Australia, Canada, and the European Union, and the 2016 deeming rule legislation from the United States, and examined the claims and the regulatory outcomes in these jurisdictions. The vast majority of claims in the policy documents represented vapour devices as a threat: an unsafe product harming the health of vapour device users, a gateway product promoting youth tobacco uptake, and a quasi-tobacco product impeding tobacco control. The opportunity for vapour devices to promote cessation or reduce exposure to toxins was very rarely presented, and these positive claims were not discussed at all in two of the four documents studied. The dominant claims of vapour devices as a public health threat have supported regulations that have limited their potential as a harm reduction strategy. Future policy debates should evaluate the opportunities for vapour devices to decrease the health and social burdens of the tobacco epidemic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The emergence and policy implications of converging new technologies integrated from the nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roco, M. C.

    2005-01-01

    Science based on the unified concepts on matter at the nanoscale provides a new foundation for knowledge creation, innovation, and technology integration. Convergent new technologies refers to the synergistic combination of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive sciences (NBIC), each of which is currently progressing at a rapid rate, experiencing qualitative advancements, and interacting with the more established fields such as mathematics and environmental technologies (Roco and Bainbridge, 2002). It is expected that converging technologies will bring about tremendous improvements in transforming tools, new products and services, enable human personal abilities and social achievements, and reshape societal relationships.After a brief overview of the general implications of converging new technologies, this paper focuses on its effects on R and D policies and business models as part of changing societal relationships. These R and D policies will have implications on investments in research and industry, with the main goal of taking advantage of the transformative development of NBIC. Introduction of converging technologies must be done with respect of immediate concerns (privacy, toxicity of new materials, etc.) and longer-term concerns including human integrity, dignity and welfare. The efficient introduction and development of converging new technologies will require new organizations and business models, as well as solutions for preparing the economy, such as multifunctional research facilities, integrative technology platforms, and global risk governance

  18. The emergence and policy implications of converging new technologies integrated from the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roco, M. C.

    2005-06-01

    Science based on the unified concepts on matter at the nanoscale provides a new foundation for knowledge creation, innovation, and technology integration. Convergent new technologies refers to the synergistic combination of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive sciences (NBIC), each of which is currently progressing at a rapid rate, experiencing qualitative advancements, and interacting with the more established fields such as mathematics and environmental technologies (Roco & Bainbridge, 2002). It is expected that converging technologies will bring about tremendous improvements in transforming tools, new products and services, enable human personal abilities and social achievements, and reshape societal relationships. After a brief overview of the general implications of converging new technologies, this paper focuses on its effects on R&D policies and business models as part of changing societal relationships. These R&D policies will have implications on investments in research and industry, with the main goal of taking advantage of the transformative development of NBIC. Introduction of converging technologies must be done with respect of immediate concerns (privacy, toxicity of new materials, etc.) and longer-term concerns including human integrity, dignity and welfare. The efficient introduction and development of converging new technologies will require new organizations and business models, as well as solutions for preparing the economy, such as multifunctional research facilities, integrative technology platforms, and global risk governance.

  19. The emergence and policy implications of converging new technologies integrated from the nanoscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roco, M. C. [National Science Foundation (United States)], E-mail: mroco@nsf.gov

    2005-06-15

    Science based on the unified concepts on matter at the nanoscale provides a new foundation for knowledge creation, innovation, and technology integration. Convergent new technologies refers to the synergistic combination of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive sciences (NBIC), each of which is currently progressing at a rapid rate, experiencing qualitative advancements, and interacting with the more established fields such as mathematics and environmental technologies (Roco and Bainbridge, 2002). It is expected that converging technologies will bring about tremendous improvements in transforming tools, new products and services, enable human personal abilities and social achievements, and reshape societal relationships.After a brief overview of the general implications of converging new technologies, this paper focuses on its effects on R and D policies and business models as part of changing societal relationships. These R and D policies will have implications on investments in research and industry, with the main goal of taking advantage of the transformative development of NBIC. Introduction of converging technologies must be done with respect of immediate concerns (privacy, toxicity of new materials, etc.) and longer-term concerns including human integrity, dignity and welfare. The efficient introduction and development of converging new technologies will require new organizations and business models, as well as solutions for preparing the economy, such as multifunctional research facilities, integrative technology platforms, and global risk governance.

  20. Conceptual design of an integrated technology model for carbon policy assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Dimotakes, Paul E. (NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA)

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the conceptual design of a technology choice model for understanding strategies to reduce carbon intensity in the electricity sector. The report considers the major modeling issues affecting technology policy assessment and defines an implementable model construct. Further, the report delineates the basis causal structure of such a model and attempts to establish the technical/algorithmic viability of pursuing model development along with the associated analyses.

  1. Information Technology in New Zealand: Review of Emerging Social Trends, Current Issues, and Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Erturk, Emre; Fail, Derwyn

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the general state of information technology in New Zealand society, current issues, and policies. It is a qualitative study that reviews recent scholarly articles, periodicals, and surveys in order to create an understanding of some of the information technology issues and trends in New Zealand. After reviewing previous research, it assesses the potential existence and nature of a 'digital divide' in New Zealand society whilst also evaluating possible strategic responses ...

  2. Uptake and diffusion of medical technology innovation in Europe: what role for funding and procurement policies?

    OpenAIRE

    Torbica, Aleksandra; Cappellaro, Giulia

    2010-01-01

    The producers of medical technology constantly strive to innovate and to improve their products for the benefit of patients. With each new generation of devices enabling less invasive techniques, better clinical outcomes and reduced recovery times, patients are direct beneficiaries of this commitment to innovation. Innovation and patient access to technology are inseparably linked with each national health system's respective coverage, procurement and reimbursement policies. If a particular i...

  3. TECHNOLOGIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION: PUBLIC POLICIES AND SOCIAL APPROPRIATION OF THEIR IMPLEMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Melo Fiallos, Diego Fernando; Silva Chávez, Judith Alexandra; Indacochea Mendoza, Luis Rene; Núñez Campaña, Jorge Humberto

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the implementation of information and communication technologies in higher education with the aim to contribute knowledge on trends regarding their social appropriation. To that effect, documents of public policies and scientific literature containing guidelines developed by international organizations and explaining different alternatives to guide the process of integrating technologies in education were reviewed. Then, some research works on problems deriv...

  4. Adopting local alcohol policies: a case study of community efforts to regulate malt liquor sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Patricia A; Nelson, Toben F; Toomey, Traci L; Shimotsu, Scott T; Hannan, Peter J; Jones-Webb, Rhonda J

    2012-01-01

    To learn how the local context may affect a city's ability to regulate alcohol products such as high-alcohol-content malt liquor, a beverage associated with heavy drinking and a spectrum of nuisance crimes in urban areas. An exploratory, qualitative case study comparing cities that adopted policies to restrict malt liquor sales with cities that considered, but did not adopt policies. Nine large U.S. cities in seven states. City legislators and staff, alcohol enforcement personnel, police, neighborhood groups, business associations, alcohol retailers, and industry representatives. Qualitative data were obtained from key informant interviews (n = 56) and media articles (n = 360). The data were coded and categorized. Similarities and differences in major themes among and across Adopted and Considered cities were identified. Cities faced multiple barriers in addressing malt liquor-related problems, including a lack of enforcement tools, alcohol industry opposition, and a lack of public and political will for alcohol control. Compared to cities that did not adopt malt liquor sales restrictions, cities that adopted restrictions appeared to have a stronger public mandate for a policy and were less influenced by alcohol industry opposition and lack of legislative authority for alcohol control. Strategies common to successful policymaking efforts are discussed. Understanding the local context may be a critical step in winning support for local alcohol control policies.

  5. Equity, tariffing, regulation: analysis of the cost allocation policies of an electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezzina, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, an analysis in terms of equity of policies of tariffing regulation and cost allocation of a multi-products electric company (organized as a natural monopoly) is proposed. The goal is double. In a standard point of view, the first goal is to show that today's literature in the domains of public economy, industrial organization and regulation (traditionally based on efficiency considerations) is able to supply reading keys for the analysis of moral philosophy problems. In a positive point of view, the second goal is to demonstrate that the equity criterion is operational enough to judge tariffing management practices in a particular industrial environment and can be used as a regulatory instrument by an ethics-concerned authority. The document is organized in two parts. An ethical and economical analysis of the equity concepts between allocation efficiency, production efficiency and tariffing practices of companies is proposed first. A particular equity concept is considered which is ready to be implemented for the regulation of a public utility, and the ins and outs expected with an equity theory of tariffing practices are evoked. In a second part, an analysis of goal conflicts between the authority and the regulated company is made in a point of view of equity regulation and cost allocation. An improved equity criterion is defined first, from which a measure is built and becomes a tool for the regulatory authority. Then, its use by a regulatory authority fully informed or encountering information asymmetry problems are analyzed in order to show its stakes on the cost allocation and tariffing policies of the company. (J.S.)

  6. Energy price, Environmental policy, and technological bias of photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stambouli, A. Boudghene; Larbi, N.; Traversa, E.

    2006-01-01

    Energy is the most important resource for the development of a country and the utilisation of energy per capita is increasing tremendously. In fact energy security, economic growth and environmental protection (the three E's) are the national energy policy drivers of any country of the world. Utilisation on conventional energy will course environment pollution such as major environmental accidents, water pollution, maritime pollution, land use and sitting impact, radiation and radioactivity, solid waste disposal, hazardous air pollutions, ambient air quality (CO, CO2, SOx, NOx effluent gas emissions), acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion, and global warming. The world's energy consumption today is estimated to 40 billion kWh per year, about 10 billion metric tons carbon equivalent of greenhouse gas emission are released in the atmosphere to meet this energy demand. Approximately 80% is due to carbon emissions from the combustion of energy fuels. In fact 14 billion tons of greenhouse gas, that contributes to global warming entered the atmosphere in 2003. World Energy Council (WEC) study found that without any change in our current practice, the world energy demand expectation in 2020 would be 53 billion kWh or 50 to 80% higher than 1990 levels. Such ever-increasing demand could place significant strain on the current energy infrastructure and potentially damage the world environment and people's health with over 700.000 deaths resulting each year, according to the World Bank. World emissions of carbon are expected to increase by 54% above 1990 levels by 2020 making the earth likely a warm 1.7-4.9 degree centigrade over the period 1990-2100. During the past century, global surface temperatures have increased at a rate near 0.6 degree centigrade/century. This trend has dramatically increased during the past 25 years and the average temperature of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans has risen by 0.06 degree centigrade since 1995. Global temperatures in 2001were

  7. Policy Challenges of Accelerating Technological Change: Security Policy and Strategy Implications of Parallel Scientific Revolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    today, hydraulic fracking technology has created a boom in U.S. oil and gas production that may allow us to achieve that goal of energy independence by...has seen a seismic shift, as vast North American reserves of oil and gas have been unlocked by hydraulic fracking and horizontal drilling. This will...www.disa.mil/About/Our-Work/JIE 94 For a good overview, see http://www.cfr.org/energy-and-environment/ hydraulic -fracturing- fracking /p31559 95 For a

  8. Governmental Forest Policy for Sustainable Forest Management in Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Nicaragua: Regulation, Implementation, and Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen A. McGinley; Frederick W. Cubbage

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated how governmental forest regulation in Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Nicaragua has succeeded or failed in fostering changes in forest owner and user behavior that enhance the sustainability of tropical forest management. As expected, sufficient resources and capacity for forest policy implementation are crucial for attaining governmental forest policy...

  9. Opportunity from Crisis: A Common Agenda for Higher Education and Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Merle; Hellström, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes a plea for the construction of a common agenda for higher education and science, technology and innovation (STI) policy research. The public higher education and research sector in all countries is currently in the grip of several challenges arising from increased accountability, internationalization and in some cases dwindling…

  10. A Framework for a Future Swedish Policy for Research and Development in Information Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofstrom, Mats; And Others

    Prepared to stimulate discussion on how to design a Swedish policy in information science and technology, this report presents the state-of-the-art of this field as it pertains to the dissemination of scientific information and outlines a program for future research and development. The review portion examines systems for current information…

  11. Advanced Technological Education (ATE) Program: Building a Pipeline of Skilled Workers. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Youth Policy Forum, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In the Fall of 2008, the American Youth Policy Forum hosted a series of three Capitol Hill forums showcasing the Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF). The goal of these forums was to educate national policymakers about the importance of: (1) improving the science and math competencies of…

  12. Exploring technology diffusion in emerging markets – the role of public policy for wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friebe, Christian A.; Flotow, Paschen von; Täube, Florian A.

    2014-01-01

    This study challenges the implicit assumption of homogeneity in national institutional contexts made in past studies of (renewable) energy policy. We propose that institutional differences matter by focusing on several technology-specific and generic policy factors that can foster technology diffusion through private sector activity. More specifically, we explore perceptions of early adopters in emerging economy contexts using wind park project developers as an example. By applying a parsimonious method for our questionnaire as well as qualitative data we make several contributions: Methodologically, we introduce Maximum Difference Scaling to the energy policy domain. Empirically, we identify several public influences on private investment, and assess their relative importance. This leads to new insights challenging findings from industrialized economies; we identified additional institutional barriers to diffusion, hence, the requirement of a combination of technology-specific and generic policy measures. - Highlights: • Explorative qualitative and quantitative study of project developers in emerging markets. • Identifies influencing factors for technology diffusion regarding wind farms. • Predictable public authorities and well-implemented public processes attract intern. project developers. • Feed-in-Tariffs and grid access guarantees are particularly appealing

  13. Changing governance of research and technology policy : The European research area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edler, Jakob; Kuhlmann, Stefan; Behrens, Maria

    2003-01-01

    This collection analyses and comments on the development of the ERA, which seeks to coordinate national research and advance European wide projects. The contributors include leading scholars of European integration and technology policy and high-level administrators. They discuss the potential

  14. The Impact of quantum technologies on the EU's future policies: Part 1 Quantum Time

    OpenAIRE

    LEWIS ADAM

    2017-01-01

    Atomic clocks are a quantum technology, used in national metrology laboratories to define UTC and in various networked infrastructure. Developments in the clocks themselves, and in the distribution of precise time, can be expected to affect several application areas of importance to European policy.

  15. Information and Communication Technologies in International Education: A Canadian Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucoin, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    The rhetoric surrounding the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in international education speaks of providing education access for all. However, an examination of actual policies reveals an emphasis not on creating an educated population, but on improving economic opportunities using discourses such as globalization,…

  16. Decoding ClassDojo: Psycho-Policy, Social-Emotional Learning and Persuasive Educational Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ben

    2017-01-01

    ClassDojo is one of the world's most successful educational technologies, currently used by over 3 million teachers and 35 million children globally. It reinforces and enacts emerging governmental "psycho-policies" around the measurement and modification of children's social and emotional learning in schools. This article focuses…

  17. The Development of Educational Technology Policies (1996-2012): Lessons from China and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamin, Alnuaman A.; Shaoqing, Guo; Le, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    This study reviews the development of educational technology macro policies in China and USA based on the historical juxtaposition approach. It shows that, despite the fact that two countries have major differences, with China officially being a socialist country, while the USA is a capitalist country; the development of educational technology…

  18. Impacts and Implications of Future-oriented Technology Analysis for Policy and Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    SARITAS Ozcan; CAGNIN CRISTIANO; HAVAS Attila; MILES Ian

    2009-01-01

    Most of the papers in this special issue were presented at the Third International Seville Conference on Future-Oriented Technology Analysis (FTA) that took place in October 2008. They address a wide variety of issues in FTA including methods and policy and governance impacts with discussions and demonstrations at the regional and corporate levels.

  19. Priorities for technology development and policy to reduce the risk from radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2010-01-01

    The Standing Committee on International Security of Radioactive and Nuclear Materials in the Nonproliferation and Arms Control Division conducted its fourth annual workshop in February 2010 on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials. This workshop examined new technologies in real-time tracking of radioactive materials, new risks and policy issues in transportation security, the best practices and challenges found in addressing illicit radioactive materials trafficking, industry leadership in reducing proliferation risk, and verification of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, Article VI. Technology gaps, policy gaps, and prioritization for addressing the identified gaps were discussed. Participants included academia, policy makers, radioactive materials users, physical security and safeguards specialists, and vendors of radioactive sources and transportation services. This paper summarizes the results of this workshop with the recommendations and calls to action for the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) membership community.

  20. Impacts of imports, government policy and technology on future natural gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, E.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation discussed the impacts of imports, government policy and technology on future natural gas supply. Specifically, it discussed projections of natural gas supply and demand; the potential impact of imports on United States natural gas supply; the potential impacts of government policy on natural gas supply and demand; and the impact of technological innovations on natural gas supply such as coalbed methane and methane hydrate. Specific government policies that were examined included the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009; the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009; and the Clean Energy Jobs and American Power Act of 2009. It was concluded that the United States demand for natural gas will expand and that the impact of pending clean energy legislation is unclear. In addition, each potential future resource will face constraints and new resources may come on line in the next 20 years. figs.

  1. Decision support tool to evaluate alternative policies regulating wind integration into autonomous energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouros, N.; Contaxis, G.C.; Kabouris, J.

    2005-01-01

    Integration of wind power into autonomous electricity systems strongly depends on the specific technical characteristics of these systems; the regulations applied should take into account physical system constraints. Introduction of market rules makes the issue even more complicated since the interests of the market participants often conflict each other. In this paper, an integrated tool for the comparative assessment of alternative regulatory policies is presented along with a methodology for decision-making, based on alternative scenarios analysis. The social welfare concept is followed instead of the traditional Least Cost Planning

  2. Policy Approaches for Regulating Alcohol Marketing in a Global Context: A Public Health Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Marissa B; Jernigan, David H

    2018-04-01

    Alcohol consumption is responsible for 3.3 million deaths globally or nearly 6% of all deaths. Alcohol use contributes to both communicable and noncommunicable diseases, as well as violence and injuries. The purpose of this review is to discuss, in the context of the expansion of transnational alcohol corporations and harms associated with alcohol use, policy options for regulating exposure to alcohol marketing. We first provide an overview of the public health problem of harmful alcohol consumption and describe the association between exposure to alcohol marketing and alcohol consumption. We then discuss the growth and concentration of global alcohol corporations and their marketing practices in low- and middle-income countries, as well as in higher-income societies. We review the use and effectiveness of various approaches for regulating alcohol marketing in various countries before discussing challenges and opportunities to protect public health.

  3. Techno-economic viability assessments of greener propulsion technology under potential environmental regulatory policy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalianda, D.K.; Kyprianidis, K.G.; Sethi, V.; Singh, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An advanced method is presented for techno-economic assessment under potential environmental regulatory policy scenarios. • The viability of the contra-rotating open rotor concept is investigated under various environmental policies. • CO_2 taxation is needed to drive the aerospace industry towards greener solutions. - Abstract: Sustainability of the aviation industry, as any other industry, depends on the elasticity of demand for the product and profitability through minimising operating costs. Of paramount importance is assessing and understanding the interdependency and effects of environmentally optimised solutions and emission mitigation policies. This paper describes the development and application of assessment methodologies to better understand the effects of environmental taxation/energy policies aimed at environmental pollution reduction and the future potential economic impact they may have on the adaptation of “greener” novel technologies. These studies are undertaken using a Techno-economic Environmental Risk Assessment approach. The methodology demonstrated allows the assessment of the economic viability of new technologies compared to conventional technologies, for various CO_2 emission taxation and fuel price scenarios. It considers relative increases in acquisition price and maintenance costs. A study undertaken as a ‘proof of concept’ compares a Counter Rotating Open Rotor aircraft with a conventional aircraft for short range operations. It indicates that at current fuel price and with no carbon taxation, a highly fuel efficient technology, such as the one considered, could be rendered economically unviable. The work goes on to demonstrate that in comparison to the conventional aircraft, any economic benefits that may be accrued from improvement in fuel consumption through such a technology, may well be negated through increases in acquisition price and maintenance costs. The work further demonstrates that if policy

  4. Timing Is everything: quantifying regulatory and market readiness levels for technology transition policy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobos, Peter Holmes [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya Nicole [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Borns, David James [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-03-01

    People save for retirement throughout their career because it is virtually impossible to save all you’ll need in retirement the year before you retire. Similarly, without installing incremental amounts of clean fossil, renewable or transformative energy technologies throughout the coming decades, a radical and immediate change will be near impossible the year before a policy goal is set to be in place. This notion of steady installation growth over acute installations of technology to meet policy goals is the core topic of discussion for this research. This research operationalizes this notion by developing the theoretical underpinnings of regulatory and market acceptance delays by building upon the common Technology Readiness Level (TRL) framework and offers two new additions to the research community. The new and novel Regulatory Readiness Level (RRL) and Market Readiness Level (MRL) frameworks were developed. These components, collectively called the Technology, Regulatory and Market (TRM) readiness level framework allow one to build new constraints into existing Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) to address research questions such as, ‘To meet our desired technical and policy goals, what are the factors that affect the rate we must install technology to achieve these goals in the coming decades?’

  5. Technology and public policy: The process of technology assessment in the federal government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, V. T.

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to provide a descriptive and analytical review of the concept of technology assessment and the current status of its applications in the work of the federal executive agencies. The origin of the term technology assessment was examined along with a brief history of its discussion and development since 1966 and some of the factors influencing that development.

  6. Social Technology as a Sustainable Public Policy: The Mandalla Project in Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimar Souza Costa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental degradation in semi-arid Northeast has been a great challenge for the Brazilian government. The need to generate employment and income, justifies the establishment of productive activities competitive and covering the dimensions of sustainability. In this context, there is the movement of Social Technology (ST, aimed at social inclusion and development through the appropriation of simple technologies, inexpensive and consolidated in the culture of the community benefit. As a public policy of the government of Ceará, appeared the Mandalla Project, using irrigated agriculture and agribusiness production system, which includes the creation of small animals from natural methods. This study aims to analyze the ST Mandalla as a public policy that promotes sustainable development. The results show that this technology, contributes significantly to the sustainable development of semi-arid and improving the quality of life of communities served when examined against the dimensions of Sustainable Development model of Sachs (2002.

  7. Policy and Regulation in the Media Landscape: the Greek Paradigm Concentration of Media Ownership Versus the Right to Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Veneti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available By outlining the long-lasting peculiarities of the Greek media landscape, this paper aims to make us reflect on how the political system affects their development and role. Particularly, through analyzing the policy and regulating frames applied to Greek communication field, we try to shed light on the degree and shapes of media concentration and control as well as on the effects of this widespread phenomenon. Special emphasis is placed on the illicit interweaving of political and media interests, giving rise to a media system which has great difficulties in following constructively the technological developments in the field and challenges the active participation of citizens in the public affairs. In the contemporary society of digital revolution market values continue to be dominant. Those who control the private media outweigh the political figures and as a result any attempts to regulate the communication field are always implemented for the benefit of the private capital. Under these circumstances the question of whether the media can act as amplifiers of the democratic practices is more crucial than ever. This is the central question posed by the paper, arguing that the evolution of the Greek media system is inundated with evidence supporting the view that the particular voice of citizen as well as his right to information is under threat.

  8. 25 CFR 900.5 - Effect of these regulations on Federal program guidelines, manual, or policy directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT General Provisions § 900.5 Effect of these regulations... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of these regulations on Federal program guidelines, manual, or policy directives. 900.5 Section 900.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  9. A Case Study of Policies and Procedures to Address Cyberbullying at a Technology-Based Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Bettina Polite

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored the policies and procedures used to effectively address cyberbullying at a technology-based middle school. The purpose of the study was to gain an in-depth understanding of policies and procedures used to address cyberbullying at a technology-based middle school in the southern United States. The study sought…

  10. Prospects for Policy Advances in Science and Technology in the Gulf Arab States: "The Role for International Partnerships"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjar, David P.; Moran, George W.; Siddiqi, Afreen; Richardson, Joshua E.; Anadon, Laura D.; Narayanamurti, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) policies in the Gulf Arab States are as diverse as the individual economies and political processes that characterize its member states. During the past decade, a number of expert review groups have argued that science and technology policy needs to be reformed and revitalized in the Gulf…

  11. Municipal Risk Atlases in Mexico as policy instruments for territorial regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naxhelli Ruiz Rivera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Municipal Risk Atlases are one of the policy instruments that Mexican government has prioritized in the last few years in order to consolidate the territorial regulation of human settlements in the country. This paper reviews the legal, institutional conceptual and methodological developments of these documents and analyzes its current scope and limitations within the Program of Risk Prevention in Human Settlements (PRAH, which had been designed and implemented by the Ministry of Social Development (SEDESOL between 2010 and 2012, and by the Ministry of Urban, Territorial and Agrarian Development (SEDATU from 2013. The objective of the paper is to understand the conditions under which the Municipal Risk Atlases have been produced to regulate human settlements in risk-prone areas, as one of many juridical instruments that operate in the fields of land use planning and natural hazards provisions. In the first place, we review different approaches that have been used by different agents within the federal government to produce cartographic information to identify and reduce disaster risk. That includes the different concepts and methodologies used to identify different risk components (such as ‘vulnerability’, ‘affected systems’, ‘disturbances’ but also under which institutional context each of them emerge, how they relate to each other and how are they integrated with other policy devices.

  12. Validation of an Instrument to Measure Students' Motivation and Self-Regulation towards Technology Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Pey-Yan; Kuo, Pei-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined students' attitudinal perceptions of technology. There is no appropriate instrument to measure senior high school students' motivation and self-regulation toward technology learning among the current existing instruments in the field of technology education. Purpose: The present study is to validate an…

  13. Biofuels development in China: Technology options and policies needed to meet the 2020 target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Shiyan; Zhao, Lili; Timilsina, Govinda R.; Zhang, Xiliang

    2012-01-01

    China promulgated the Medium and Long-Term Development Plan for Renewable Energy in 2007, which included sub-targets of 2010 and 2020 for various renewable energy technologies. Almost all the 2010 sub-targets have been met and even surpassed except non-grain fuel ethanol. There is debate surrounding the questions of whether and how the country will be able to meet the 2020 biofuels target. This paper provides the assessment of potential technology pathways to achieve the 2020 target regarding their respective resource potential and supply cost. Barriers and policy options are identified based on broad literatures review. And an overview of biofuels projections is presented to provide insight into the comparison of various policy scenarios. The study shows that China can potentially satisfy non-grain fuel ethanol target by 2020 from technology perspective. But she will probably fall far short of this target if current situations continue. Additional policy efforts are needed. Meanwhile, the target of biodiesel production has high probability to be achieved. However, if given support policies, it will develop better. - Highlights: ► I. Non-grain feedstocks such as cassava, sweet sorghum and sweet potato grown in low productive arable lands or unutilized lands have enough potential to meet ethanol targets in 2020. ► II. If current situations continue, China will fall far short of the 2020 target. ► III. The target of biodiesel production has high probability to be achieved, while, if given support policies, it will develop better. ► IV. Supply cost is one of the major barriers faced by all biofuels pathways. ► V. Various policy measures would be necessary to overcome the costs barriers to biofuels in China.

  14. The Rise of the Crime Victim and Punitive Policies? Changes to the Legal Regulation of Intimate Partner Violence in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotanen, Riikka

    2017-10-01

    This article examines intimate partnership violence as a question of criminal justice policy in Finland, and contributes to criminological discussions regarding oft-stated connections between the politicization of the victim, the treatment of offenders, and repressive criminal justice policies. In this discussion, legislation aiming to regulate and prevent violence against women has often been utilized as an example of such punitive policies. Although criminal policies in Nordic countries differ significantly from more punitive Anglophone policies, punitive tendencies, it has been argued, have increased in the former, too. This article analyzes the change in legal regulations and the criminal political status of intimate partner violence in Finland between 1990 and 2004, while examining the juxtaposition of victims and offenders alongside repressive demands.

  15. A comparison of the technological, economic, public policy, and environmental factors of HVDC and HVAC interregional transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando L. Figueroa-Acevedo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The design of an interregional high-voltage transmission system in the US is a revolutionary technological concept that will likely play a significant role in the planning and operation of future electric power systems. Historically, the primary justification for building interregional high-voltage transmission lines in the US and around the world has been based on economic and reliability criteria. Today, the implementation renewable portfolio standards, carbon emission regulations, the improvements in the performance of power electronic systems, and unused benefits associated with capacity exchange during times of non-coincident peak demand, are driving the idea of designing an interregional high-voltage transmission system in the US. However, there exist challenges related to technical, economic, public policy, and environmental factors that hinder the implementation of such a complex infrastructure. The natural skepticism from many sectors of the society, in regards to how will the system be operated, how much will it cost, and the environmental impact that it could potentially create are among the most significant challenges to its rapid implementation. This publication aims at illustrating the technological, environmental, economic, and policy challenges that interregional HV transmission systems face today in the US, looking specifically at the Clean Line Rock Island project in Iowa.

  16. Vehicle technologies, fuel-economy policies, and fuel-consumption rates of Chinese vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Hong; He Kebin; Wang, Michael; Yao Zhiliang

    2012-01-01

    One of the principal ways to reduce transport-related energy use is to reduce fuel-consumption rates of motor vehicles (usually measured in liters of fuel per 100 km). Since 2004, China has implemented policies to improve vehicle technologies and lower the fuel-consumption rates of individual vehicles. Policy evaluation requires accurate and adequate information on vehicle fuel-consumption rates. However, such information, especially for Chinese vehicles under real-world operating conditions, is rarely available from official sources in China. For each vehicle type we first review the vehicle technologies and fuel-economy policies currently in place in China and their impacts. We then derive real-world (or on-road) fuel-consumption rates on the basis of information collected from various sources. We estimate that the real-world fuel-consumption rates of vehicles in China sold in 2009 are 9 L/100 km for light-duty passenger vehicles, 11.4 L/100 km for light-duty trucks, 22 L/100 km for inter-city transport buses, 40 L/100 km for urban transit buses, and 24.9 L/100 km for heavy-duty trucks. These results aid in understanding the levels of fuel consumption of existing Chinese vehicle fleets and the effectiveness of policies in reducing on-road fuel consumption, which can help in designing and evaluating future vehicle energy-efficiency policies. - Highlights: ► Vehicle fuel-consumption rate (VFCR) data are rarely available in China. ► We review the fuel-economy policies currently in place in China and their impacts. ► We derive real-world VFCRs on the basis of information collected from various sources. ► Results aid in understanding the fuel consumption levels of Chinese vehicle fleets. ► Results help in designing and evaluating future vehicle energy-efficiency policies.

  17. Transport, spatio-economic equilibrium and global sustainability. Markets, technology and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoef, E.T.; Van den Bergh, J.C.J.M. [Dep. of Spatial Economics. Fac. of Economics and Econometrics. Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-03-01

    Interdependencies between transport, spatial economy, technology and environment are investigated in the context of regulatory environmental policies aiming at meeting a global environmental target, defined in terms of the environmental utilization space as a prerequisite for global sustainability. A small scale model, based on the adapted spatial price equilibrium methodology presented elsewhere was discussed, serving as an illustration of the formal analysis discussed there. Notwithstanding the model`s simplicity, the simulation results are found to be interesting in that they provide some revealing comparative static insights into issues that are believed to be quite important in the formulation of environmental and transport policies. 12 figs., 12 refs.

  18. Future impact of Blockchain technologies on services, businesses and regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Di Matteo, Tiziana; Aste, Tomaso; Tasca, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    We introduce basic concepts about Blockchain and discuss the future, foreseeable impact of Blockchain technologies onto our industry and society. The paper briefly tracks the origins of this technology from the Bitcoin digital cash system and describes applications ad applicability in other domains highlighting potentials as well as weaknesses, limitations and risks.

  19. Validation of an instrument to measure students' motivation and self-regulation towards technology learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Pey-Yan; Kuo, Pei-Jung

    2014-05-01

    Background:Few studies have examined students' attitudinal perceptions of technology. There is no appropriate instrument to measure senior high school students' motivation and self-regulation toward technology learning among the current existing instruments in the field of technology education. Purpose:The present study is to validate an instrument for assessing senior high school students' motivation and self-regulation towards technology learning. Sample:A total of 1822 Taiwanese senior high school students (1020 males and 802 females) responded to the newly developed instrument. Design and method:The Motivation and Self-regulation towards Technology Learning (MSRTL) instrument was developed based on the previous instruments measuring students' motivation and self-regulation towards science learning. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were utilized to investigate the structure of the items. Cronbach's alpha was applied for measuring the internal consistency of each scale. Furthermore, multivariate analysis of variance was used to examine gender differences. Results:Seven scales, including 'Technology learning self-efficacy,' 'Technology learning value,' 'Technology active learning strategies,' 'Technology learning environment stimulation,' 'Technology learning goal-orientation,' 'Technology learning self-regulation-triggering,' and 'Technology learning self-regulation-implementing' were confirmed for the MSRTL instrument. Moreover, the results also showed that male and female students did not present the same degree of preference in all of the scales. Conclusions:The MSRTL instrument composed of seven scales corresponding to 39 items was shown to be valid based on validity and reliability analyses. While male students tended to express more positive and active performance in the motivation scales, no gender differences were found in the self-regulation scales.

  20. Older adult perceptions of smart home technologies: implications for research, policy & market innovations in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, J; D'Ambrosio, L A; Reimer, B; Pratt, M R

    2007-01-01

    Advances in information communications technology and related computational power are providing a wide array of systems and related services that form the basis of smart home technologies to support the health, safety and independence of older adults. While these technologies offer significant benefits to older people and their families, they are also transforming older adults into lead adopters of a new 24/7 lifestyle of being monitored, managed, and, at times, motivated, to maintain their health and wellness. To better understand older adult perceptions of smart home technologies and to inform future research a workshop and focus group was conducted with 30 leaders in aging advocacy and aging services from 10 northeastern states. Participants expressed support of technological advance along with a variety of concerns that included usability, reliability, trust, privacy, stigma, accessibility and affordability. Participants also observed that there is a virtual absence of a comprehensive market and policy environment to support either the consumer or the diffusion of these technologies. Implications for research, policy and market innovation are discussed.

  1. The role of technology and policy in mitigating regional nitrogen pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Baojing; Zhu Yimei; Chang Jie; Liu Dong; Min Yong; Ge Ying; Peng Changhui; Luo Weidong; Howarth, Robert W

    2011-01-01

    Human activity greatly influences nitrogen (N) pollution in urbanized and adjacent areas. We comprehensively studied the N cycling in an urban-rural complex system, the Greater Hangzhou Area (GHA) in southeastern China. Our results indicated that subsurface N accumulation doubled, riverine N export tripled and atmospheric N pollutants increased 2.5 times within the GHA from 1980-2004. Agriculture was the largest N pollution source to air and water before 2000, whereas industry and human living gradually became the primary N pollution sources with the socioeconomic development. Based on the sensitivity analysis, we developed a scenario analysis to quantify the effects of technology and policy on environmental N dynamics. The fertilization reduction scenario suggested that the groundwater N pollution could decrease by 17% with less than a 5% reduction in crop production; the N effluent standard revision scenario led to a surface water N pollution reduction of 45%; the constructed wetlands implementation scenario could reduce surface water pollution by 43%-64%. Lastly, the technological improvement scenario mitigated atmospheric N pollution by 65%. Technologies play a key role in atmospheric N pollution control, policies mainly contribute to groundwater N pollution control, while technology and policy both work on surface water N mitigation within an urban-rural complex.

  2. The Monetary Policy in the System of State Regulation of the Indian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Galistcheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main task of this research is the analysis of India's monetary policy and its place in the system of state regulation of the economy. The article highlights the main directions of the Indian monetary policy in 1990-2000s aiming to raise competitiveness of the Indian goods on the foreign markets as well as stimulating the inflow of foreign capital in necessary volumes into the national economy. The author focuses on the main instruments of the modern Indian monetary policy, pursued in line with providing the undervalued rupee, which include the manipulating of the bank rate and currency interventions, directed mainly at sterilization of excessive inflow of foreign currency to the country. The article also underlines all the advantages and costs of the monetary policy. One of its main advantages is stimulation of national production's exports and among costs there are difficulties of importing machines and equipment into the country, increase of inflation rate as a result of massive inflow of export revenue, difficulties at external debt's service. The author notes the gradual nature of introduction of current account rupee convertibility and reasons for delay in achieving its full convertibility. Among them there are rather high level of fiscal deficit of the consolidated budget, essential average annual level of inflation, problems of non-performed assets in the economy, high liquidity ratio for commercial banks. The article also presents statistical data on the present state of the Indian foreign exchange reserves as well as dynamics in nominal and real effective exchange rate of rupee in 2005/06 - 2013/14 fiscal year.

  3. New cooling regulation technology of secondary cooling station in DCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xuan; Yan, Jun-wei; Zhu, Dong-sheng; Liu, Fei-long; Lei, Jun-xi [The Key Lab of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical and Energy Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Liang, Lie-quan [The Key Lab of E-Commerce Market Application Technology of Guangdong Province, Guangdong University of Business Studies, Guangzhou 510320 (China)

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, a kind of new control technology of secondary cooling station (constant flow rate/variable temperature difference) in district cooling system (DCS) is proposed in view of serial consequences including low efficiency and high operating cost caused by low temperature of supply water in DCS. This technology has been applied in DCS of Guangzhou University City. The result has already indicated that such technology can increase the supply and return temperatures of buildings, return water temperature of primary side in the plate heat exchanger unit, moreover, the efficiency of both the chiller and the whole system are improved significantly. (author)

  4. Privacy Protection: Regulations and Technologies, Opportunities and Threats

    OpenAIRE

    PEDRESCHI, Dino; BONCHI, Francesco; TURINI, Franco; VERYKIOS, Vassilios; Atzori, Maurizio; Malin, Brad; MOELANS, Bart; SAYGIN, Yucel

    2008-01-01

    nformation and communication technologies (ICTs) touch many aspects of our lives. The integration of ICTs is enhanced by the advent of mobile, wireless, and ubiquitous technologies. ICTs are increasingly embedded in common services, such as mobile and wireless communication, Internet browsing, credit card e-transactions, and electronic health records. As ICT-based services become ubiquitous, our everyday actions leave behind increasingly detailed digital traces in the information systems of I...

  5. Situational analysis of antibiotic use and resistance in Ghana: policy and regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saviour Kwame Yevutsey

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotics have played an essential role in decreasing morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. However, indiscriminate use and unrestricted access is contributing to the emergence of bacterial resistance. This paper reports on a situational analysis of antimicrobial use and resistance in Ghana, with focus on policy and regulation. Methods Relevant policy documents, reports, regulations and enactments were reviewed. PubMed and Google search engines were used to extract relevant published papers. Websites of stakeholders such as Ministry of Health (MOH and its agencies were also reviewed. An interview guide was used to elicit responses from selected officials from these sectors. Results Laws and guidelines to control the use of antimicrobials in humans were available but not for animals. There was no National Antimicrobial Policy (NAP. A health practice regulatory law mandates Physicians, Physician Assistants, Midwives and trained Nurses to prescribe antimicrobials. However, antibiotics are widely prescribed and dispensed by unauthorised persons, suggesting weak enforcement of the laws. Antibiotics were also supplied to and from unapproved medicine outlets. The Standard Treatment Guidelines (STG, Essential Medicines List (EML and the National Health Insurance Scheme Medicines List (NHISML provide restrictions regarding levels of prescribing of antimicrobials. However, existing guidelines on antibiotic use are mostly not adhered to. The use of Automatic Stop Orders to avoid wastage in the hospitals is also not practiced. Data on use of antibiotics for individuals are not readily available in most facilities. Again, there are no standards or guidelines on veterinary use of antibiotics. Surveillance systems for consumption of antibiotics and resistance monitoring were not in place in most health facilities. However, there is an ongoing national action to create awareness on bacteria resistance, strengthening knowledge

  6. How to achieve emission reductions in Germany and the European Union. Energy policy, RUE with cross cutting technologies, Pinch technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radgen, P.

    1999-10-01

    The German presentations will cover three main topics. These are: (1) Energy policy on the national level and in the European Community. (2) Rational use of energy and efficiency improvements by cross cutting technologies. (3) Optimizing heat recovery and heat recovery network with Pinch technology. Actual development of carbon dioxide emissions and scenarios to forecast for the future development will be presented. It will be shown, that long term agreements are widely used in the EC to obtain a reduction of emissions. Specific attention will also be placed on the burden sharing in the EC and the other GHG. In the second part the efficiency improvement by cross cutting technologies will be discussed for furnaces, waste heat recovery, electric motors, compressed air systems, cooling systems, lighting and heat pumps. Most of these improvement potentials are economic at present energy prices, but some barriers for their application have to be overcome which will be discussed. In the last part a systematic method for the optimization of heat recovery networks is presented. The Pinch technology, developed in the late seventies is an easy and reliable way to obtain quickly a good insight into the heat flows of a process. The basics of Pinch technology will be presented with a simple example and the presentation of an in deep analysis of a fertilizer complex. (orig.)

  7. Landmine policy in the near-term: a framework for technology analysis and action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eimerl, D., LLNL

    1997-08-01

    Any effective solution to the problem of leftover landmines and other post-conflict unexploded ordnance (UXO) must take into account the real capabilities of demining technologies and the availability of sufficient resources to carry out demining operations. Economic and operational factors must be included in analyses of humanitarian demining. These factors will provide a framework for using currently available resources and technologies to complete this task in a time frame that is both practical and useful. Since it is likely that reliable advanced technologies for demining are still several years away, this construct applies to the intervening period. It may also provide a framework for utilizing advanced technologies as they become available. This study is an economic system model for demining operations carried out by the developed nations that clarifies the role and impact of technology on the economic performance and viability of these operations. It also provides a quantitative guide to assess the performance penalties arising from gaps in current technology, as well as the potential advantages and desirable features of new technologies that will significantly affect the international community`s ability to address this problem. Implications for current and near-term landmine and landmine technology policies are drawn.

  8. Energy technology in the area of tension between climate policy and liberalisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hilten, O.; Battjes, J.J.; Kaal, M.B.T.; Lako, P.; Nahuis, R.; De Raad, A.; Dijkstra, J.W.; Hemmes, K.

    2000-05-01

    The central question in this report is: how do climate change policies on the one hand and the liberalisation of energy markets on the other hand influence the role of new energy technology? To address this question, technological, economical and societal aspects have been studied. With regard to technological aspects a list is made of technologies which could become important when a 50% reduction of annual Dutch CO 2 emission must be realized in the year 2050. For each of these technologies, future energy efficiencies are estimated. Using these figures, three 'blue prints' of the energy supply system in 2050 are described. In two of these blueprints the energy infrastructure changes drastically, in that electricity or hydrogen becomes the dominant final energy carrier in all end-use sectors. In the third blueprint the current final energy carriers (methane, electricity and gasoline/diesel) maintain their dominant position. With regard to economical aspects, 14 interviews were held with representatives of a wide range of companies in the energy sector, focusing on the role of technology in the company strategy. With regard to societal aspects, a number of important energy technologies are analysed in terms of how much societal support or resistance can be expected when these technologies are implemented on a large scale. Also representatives of two environmental organisations and a consumer organisation were interviewed. 75 refs

  9. Technical guideline technology according to the X-ray regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The guideline covers the required technical knowledge concerning radiation protection and knowledge concerning for the operation of X-ray devices for technical purposes and stray radiation sources requiring licensing, and requirements for the qualification of officially authorized inspectors. The guidelines includes the following chapters: (1) introductory regulations; (2) Volume of the required technical knowledge; (3) Acquirement and certification of the technical knowledge; (4) Actualization of the technical knowledge; (5)Approval of courses and other training measures; (6) Combination of courses and training measures according to the guideline; (7) Requirements for qualification of officially authorized inspectors; (8) Interim regulations.

  10. 'Capture ready' regulation of fossil fuel power plants - Betting the UK's carbon emissions on promises of future technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markusson, Nils; Haszeldine, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Climate change legislation requires emissions reductions, but the market shows interest in investing in new fossil fuelled power plants. The question is whether capture ready policy can reconcile these interests. The term 'capture ready' has been used a few years by the UK Government when granting licences for fossil fuelled power plants, but only recently has the meaning of the term been defined. The policy has been promoted as a step towards CCS and as an insurance against carbon lock-in. This paper draws on literature on technology lock-in and on regulation of technology undergoing development. Further, versions of the capture readiness concept proposed to date are compared. Capture readiness requirements beyond the minimum criterion of space on the site for capture operations are explored. This includes integration of capture and power plant, downstream operations, overall system integration and regulation of future retrofitting. Capture readiness comes with serious uncertainties and is no guarantee that new-built fossil plants will be abatable or abated in the future. As a regulatory strategy, it has been over-promised in the UK.

  11. Environmental and technology policy options in the electricity sector. Interactions and outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Carolyn; Newell, Richard G.; Preonas, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Myriad policy measures aim to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the electricity sector, promote generation from renewable sources, and encourage energy conservation. To what extent do innovation and energy efficiency (EE) market failures justify additional interventions when a carbon price is in place? We extend the model of Fischer and Newell (2008) with advanced and conventional renewable energy technologies and short and long-run EE investments. We incorporate both knowledge spillovers and imperfections in the demand for energy efficiency. We conclude that some technology policies, particularly correcting R and D market failures, can be useful complements to emissions pricing, but ambitious renewable targets or subsidies seem unlikely to enhance welfare when placed alongside sufficient emissions pricing. The desirability of stringent EE policies is highly sensitive to the degree of undervaluation of EE by consumers, which also has implications for policies that tend to lower electricity prices. Even with multiple market failures, emissions pricing remains the single most cost-effective option for reducing emissions.

  12. Environmental and technology policy options in the electricity sector. Interactions and outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Carolyn [Resources for the Future, Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Newell, Richard G. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Preonas, Louis [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Resources for the Future, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Myriad policy measures aim to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the electricity sector, promote generation from renewable sources, and encourage energy conservation. To what extent do innovation and energy efficiency (EE) market failures justify additional interventions when a carbon price is in place? We extend the model of Fischer and Newell (2008) with advanced and conventional renewable energy technologies and short and long-run EE investments. We incorporate both knowledge spillovers and imperfections in the demand for energy efficiency. We conclude that some technology policies, particularly correcting R and D market failures, can be useful complements to emissions pricing, but ambitious renewable targets or subsidies seem unlikely to enhance welfare when placed alongside sufficient emissions pricing. The desirability of stringent EE policies is highly sensitive to the degree of undervaluation of EE by consumers, which also has implications for policies that tend to lower electricity prices. Even with multiple market failures, emissions pricing remains the single most cost-effective option for reducing emissions.

  13. Integrating Information and Communication Technology for Health Information System Strengthening: A Policy Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, Nuraidah; Ismail, Saimy; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Ehsan, Fauziah Z; Chan, Chee-Khoon; Ng, Chiu-Wan

    2015-11-01

    Despite the high costs involved and the lack of definitive evidence of sustained effectiveness, many low- and middle-income countries had begun to strengthen their health information system using information and communication technology in the past few decades. Following this international trend, the Malaysian Ministry of Health had been incorporating Telehealth (National Telehealth initiatives) into national health policies since the 1990s. Employing qualitative approaches, including key informant interviews and document review, this study examines the agenda-setting processes of the Telehealth policy using Kingdon's framework. The findings suggested that Telehealth policies emerged through actions of policy entrepreneurs within the Ministry of Health, who took advantage of several simultaneously occurring opportunities--official recognition of problems within the existing health information system, availability of information and communication technology to strengthen health information system and political interests surrounding the national Multimedia Super Corridor initiative being developed at the time. The last was achieved by the inclusion of Telehealth as a component of the Multimedia Super Corridor. © 2015 APJPH.

  14. Fostering a renewable energy technology industry: an international comparison of wind industry policy support mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, J.I.; Wiser, R.H.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the importance of national and sub-national policies in supporting the development of successful global wind turbine manufacturing companies. We explore the motivations behind establishing a local wind power industry, and the paths that different countries have taken to develop indigenous large wind turbine manufacturing industries within their borders. This is done through a cross-country comparison of the policy support mechanisms that have been employed to directly and indirectly promote wind technology manufacturing in 12 countries. We find that in many instances there is a clear relationship between a manufacturer's success in its home country market and its eventual success in the global wind power market. Whether new wind turbine manufacturing entrants are able to succeed will likely depend in part on the utilization of their turbines in their own domestic market, which is turn will be influenced by the annual size and stability of that market. Consequently, policies that support a sizable, stable market for wind power, in conjunction with policies that specifically provide incentives for wind power technology to be manufactured locally, are most likely to result in the establishment of an internationally competitive wind industry. (author)

  15. Fostering a renewable energy technology industry: An international comparison of wind industry policy support mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Joanna I.; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the importance of national and sub-national policies in supporting the development of successful global wind turbine manufacturing companies. We explore the motivations behind establishing a local wind power industry, and the paths that different countries have taken to develop indigenous large wind turbine manufacturing industries within their borders. This is done through a cross-country comparison of the policy support mechanisms that have been employed to directly and indirectly promote wind technology manufacturing in 12 countries. We find that in many instances there is a clear relationship between a manufacturer's success in its home country market and its eventual success in the global wind power market. Whether new wind turbine manufacturing entrants are able to succeed will likely depend in part on the utilization of their turbines in their own domestic market, which in turn will be influenced by the annual size and stability of that market. Consequently, policies that support a sizable, stable market for wind power, in conjunction with policies that specifically provide incentives for wind power technology to be manufactured locally, are most likely to result in the establishment of an internationally competitive wind industry

  16. How can public policies accelerate the progress in technologies for the struggle against climate change?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieillefosse, A.

    2008-01-01

    After having recalled the three stages of the technical progress according to Schumpeter (invention, innovation and diffusion), and the roles of R and D and learning in this process, the author briefly comments the cost evolution of different energy production technologies between 1980 and 1995, proposes a simple modelling of the learning system under the influence of public policies, and indicates the research themes by 2050. Then, she discusses the fact that the R and D level is not socially optimal, notably because of market imperfections, and also because some innovations may have applications within a time which is too long for companies. This is the reason why the State generally takes care of fundamental research. She discusses either demand-based or supply-based public policies aiming at accelerating the progress in low carbon technologies, describes the international cooperation in R and D (agreement on research on low carbon technologies, standards), and how to promote the diffusion of technology towards developing countries (problem of emission increase in these countries, technology transfer in general and within the frame of the convention on climate change, public development support and direct foreign investments)

  17. A Transforming Electricity System: Understanding the Interactions Between Clean Energy Technologies, Markets, and Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, David

    The U.S. electricity system is currently undergoing a dramatic transformation. State-level renewable portfolio standards, abundant natural gas at low prices, and rapidly falling prices for wind and solar technologies are among the factors that have ushered in this transformation. With objective, rigorous, technology-neutral analysis, NREL aims to increase the understanding of energy policies, markets, resources, technologies, and infrastructure and their connections with economic, environmental, and security priorities. The results of these analyses are meant to inform R&D, policy, and investment decisions as energy-efficient and renewable energy technologies advance from concept to commercial application to market penetration. This talk will provide an overview of how NREL uses high-fidelity data, deep knowledge of energy technology cost and performance, and advanced models and tools to provide the information needed to ensure this transformation occurs economically, while maintaining system reliability. Examples will be explored and will include analysis of tax credit impacts on wind and solar deployment and power sector emissions, as well as analysis of power systems operations in the Eastern Interconnection under 30% wind and solar penetration scenarios. Invited speaker number 47185.

  18. Using assistive technology outcomes research to inform policy related to the employment of individuals with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Steven; Edyburn, Dave L; Rust, Kathy L; Schwanke, Todd D; Smith, Roger O

    2008-01-01

    We know that work is recognized as a central component of life for individuals with and without disabilities. It yields many physical and psychological benefits to the individual while simultaneously contributing numerous benefits to society. Lawmakers have enacted a plethora of laws designed to prevent discrimination, provide incentives for employers to hire individuals with disabilities, and facilitate job training/career preparation. Assistive technology figures prominently in disability employment law as a critical strategy for gaining access and supporting employment and upward mobility in the workplace. However, little systematic effort has been devoted to examining assistive technology use and outcomes as they relate to the employment of individuals with disabilities. The purpose of this article is to articulate a series of issues that permeate assistive technology outcome measurement in employment settings and subsequently affect the use of research knowledge for federal and state policy makers. For each issue, the authors pose three questions for critical analysis: Does the law compel the provision of assistive technology? Does outcome data play any part in the operation of the law? When it does, what kind of data would be useful to collect and where could it be found? Finally, the authors provide a brief glimpse of the current and future research efforts concerning the RSA-911 database. The recent database summaries exemplify the importance of such a national data collection system for informing federal policy, particularly concerning the contributions of assistive technology device use and services on improving the employment of individuals with disabilities.

  19. A Policy and Program for Invigorating Science and Technology for National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    security S&T, and facilitate commercialisation of research outcomes for national benefit. The policy will be delivered through a coherent and...our economy and higher living and education standards1,2. Questions for discussion: Q2.1 Are there other imperatives or drivers that justify the...organisations can drive the uptake of new technology and knowledge. Second, private sector organisations are essential to the commercialisation of

  20. Explaining Environmental Kuznets Curves : How Pollution Induces Policy and New Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, J.A.; Bretschger, L.

    2000-01-01

    Production often causes pollution as a by-product.Once pollution problems become too severe, regulation is introduced by political authorities which forces the economy to make a transition to cleaner production processes.We model this transition as a change in "general purpose technology" (GPT) and

  1. Dissemination of health technology assessments: identifying the visions guiding an evolving policy innovation in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoux, Pascale; Denis, Jean-Louis; Tailliez, Stéphanie; Hivon, Myriam

    2005-08-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) has received increasing support over the past twenty years in both North America and Europe. The justification for this field of policy-oriented research is that evidence about the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of technology should contribute to decision and policy making. However, concerns about the ability of HTA producers to increase the use of their findings by decision makers have been expressed. Although HTA practitioners have recognized that dissemination activities need to be intensified, why and how particular approaches should be adopted is still under debate. Using an institutional theory perspective, this article examines HTA as a means of implementing knowledge-based change within health care systems. It presents the results of a case study on the dissemination strategies of six Canadian HTA agencies. Chief executive officers and executives (n = 11), evaluators (n = 19), and communications staff (n = 10) from these agencies were interviewed. Our results indicate that the target audience of HTA is frequently limited to policy makers, that three conflicting visions of HTA dissemination coexist, that active dissemination strategies have only occasionally been applied, and that little attention has been paid to the management of diverging views about the value of health technology. Our discussion explores the strengths, limitations, and trade-offs associated with the three visions. Further efforts should be deployed within agencies to better articulate a shared vision and to devise dissemination strategies that are consistent with this vision.

  2. China's wind power industry: Policy support, technological achievements, and emerging challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhongying; Qin, Haiyan; Lewis, Joanna I.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2005 the Chinese wind power technology industry has developed rapidly, with China becoming the largest installer of wind power capacity in the world in 2010. This paper reviews the policy system implemented in China to support the wind power industry, centered on China's 2005 Renewable Energy Law. It examines the industry's achievements over the past two decades, including the development of wind power technology and equipment, the utilization of China's wind power resources, and the cost reductions achieved. It then explores the obstacles affecting the ongoing sustainability of the Chinese wind industry, including regulatory barriers, grid integration challenges, and challenges to continued technological innovation. It recommends that integration challenges be addressed through policy reforms, establishing interconnection standards, and creating predictability with forecasting and storage; that market signals be established with long-term development goals and pricing reforms; and that industry limitations be addressed with targeted R and D, improved wind resource assessment and transparency, domestic and international collaborations, and the cultivation of a skilled workforce. - Highlights: ► Review the policy system and the achievements of Chinese wind industry. ► Analyze the obstacles affecting the sustainability of the industry. ► Provide recommendations for how China can address these obstacles.

  3. Renewable energy technologies and policies - experience in other countries and possibilities for Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, F. P.

    2000-01-01

    As Croatia begins the task of restructuring its energy sector, it has the opportunity to design programs and policies which will create the framework for a viable renewable energy contribution to overall energy supply. Croatia has many of the resources required for renewable energy, including good solar insolation, wind resources, small hydro and biomass. Implementing renewable energy projects is still a challenging prospect, mainly because of competition from fossil fuel sources of energy and because of the small scale and intermittent nature of renewable energy sources. However, there are many benefits, the most important of which are sustainability and reduced or zero air emission. in the most cases these benefits are not quantified or internalized into the project costs. As a result, most renewable energy projects are more costly than conventional projects on a purely financial basis. Overcoming the barriers to implementing renewable energy has been focus of many environmental groups as well as governments, especially in the last decade. Several countries, notably Denmark, have aggressively targeted increase use of renewable energy in the energy mix of the countries, and have implemented policies and regulations to encourage private and public sector use of renewables. policies in place include fiscal incentives, such as tax breaks, regulations such as guaranteed market share and pricing, or more market-based approaches such as green pricing, where consumers decide the premium they will pay for energy. Some of these policies have been quite successful in providing the right incentives to developers and utilities in adding more renewable energy to the national generation mix. Additionally, the area of emissions trading can be thought of as a policy initiative for a market-based approach to promoting increased renewable energy use. While the uncertainties of climate change and the politics of climate change make this a difficult area to count on, it should be

  4. Effects of agriculture upon the air quality and climate: research, policy, and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Viney P; Schlesinger, William H; Erisman, Jan Willem

    2009-06-15

    compounds, volatile organic compounds, greenhouse gases, odor and pathogens, the quantification of landscape processes, and the primary and secondary emissions of PM. Given the serious concerns raised regarding the amount and the impacts of agricultural air emissions, policies must be pursued and regulations must be enacted in orderto make real progress in reducing these emissions and their associated environmental impacts.

  5. Economic regulation of Canada's natural gas delivery industry : policy and regulatory principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gormley, B.

    2006-03-01

    This policy paper demonstrated how restoring balance and clarity to Canada's regulatory environment will ensure the continued strength of the economy, environment, and communities. It was noted that regulatory outcomes that reflect the broad public interest can be achieved if 4 basic principles for economic regulation are pursued. These principles include strength, balance, efficiency, and clarity. In particular, this paper addressed the challenge facing Canada's natural gas delivery industry in terms of increased energy demand, tight supply, ageing infrastructure and increasing cost pressures on the energy system. It emphasized that transparent, efficient energy policy developed through informed debate can provide the foundation for a reliable, environmentally acceptable and sustainable energy future. It was suggested that immediate attention be given to rebalancing the regulatory processes that have placed short term considerations above the longer term strength of the natural gas system; improving the support for new natural gas supply development; reconsidering pricing in some energy markets where information has been distorted; and revisiting the regulatory processes that have become inefficient

  6. Transforming healthcare with information technology in Japan: a review of policy, people, and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Chon; Nishihara, Eitaro; Akiyama, Miki

    2011-03-01

    Healthcare reform as part of the economic recovery plan in Japan is placing emphasis on the use of healthcare information technology (HIT). This research mainly focuses on the HIT efforts in Japan with reference to the US for context. The purpose is to: (a) provide detail on governmental policy impacting promotion of HIT adoption to provide services to the people of Japan, (b) describe the outcomes of past and present policy impacting progress based on a case study of HIT use in the Kyoto Yamashina area, and (c) discuss issues for refinement of current policy. The method is case study, and data collection techniques include: (a) interviews of people involved in policy making for HIT in Japan (Japanese healthcare professionals, government officials, and academics involved in HIT research in Japan) and use in the medical community of HIT in the Kyoto Yamashina area, (b) archived document analysis of reports regarding government policy for HIT policy and user assessment for HIT mainly in the case study site, and (c) the literature review about HIT progression and effectiveness assessments to explore and describe issues concerning the transformation with HIT in Japan. This study reveals the aspects of governmental policy that have been effective in promoting successful HIT initiatives as well as some that have been detriments in Japan to help solve pressing social issues regarding healthcare delivery. For example, Japan has stipulated some standardized protocols and formats for HIT but does not mandate exactly how to engage in inter-organizational or intra-organizational health information exchange. This provides some desired autonomy for healthcare organizations and or governments in medical communities and allows for more advanced organizations to leverage current resources while providing a basis for lesser equipped organizations to use in planning the initiative. The insights gained from the Kyoto Yamashina area initiative reflect the success of past governmental

  7. 34 CFR 400.3 - What other regulations apply to the Vocational and Applied Technology Education Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Applied Technology Education Programs? 400.3 Section 400.3 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAMS-GENERAL PROVISIONS § 400.3 What other regulations apply to the Vocational and Applied Technology Education Programs? The following regulations apply to the...

  8. Outsourcing Technology in Government: Owned, Controlled, or Regulated Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mark L.; Walsh, Timothy P.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the growing trend toward and objectives of government outsourcing of information technology (IT) both in the United States and around the world. Describes representative outsourcing arrangements; highlights steps governments should take to ensure that objectives are met; and discusses factors influencing management of public sector…

  9. Rethinking Regulation for Experimenting with Emerging Robotics Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fosch Villaronga, Eduard; Heldeweg, Michiel A.

    2016-01-01

    Great expectations and major concerns accompany the development and possible uses of robotics in many areas of life and in many forms, such as drones and care-robots. Possible pro’s and con’s require careful regulatory attention, both as regards technological aspects and with respect to

  10. Government regulation's impact on health care technology companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, J. C.

    1994-12-01

    Startups in the medical device industry have made major advances to medical technology. Today the ability to fund these companies is being adversely effected by the difficulty in accessing capital. The capital markets had been disrupted by uncertainty about healthcare reform and by changes in the FDA regulatory process. Both of these have adversely effected market valuations for medical device components.

  11. An Evaluation of the Cybersecurity Policies for the United States Health & Human Services Department: Criteria, Regulations, and Improvements

    OpenAIRE

    Derek Mohammed; Ronda Mariani

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the criteria necessary for the evaluation of the cybersecurity policies for the United States Health and Human Services Department of the Federal Government. The overall purpose of cybersecurity policies and procedures is supported through compliance with Federal mandated regulation and standards, which serve to protect the organizational services and goals of the United States Health and Human Services Department, and to promote the best possible security practices in the...

  12. Photovoltaic technology for sustainability: An investigation of the distributed utility concept as a policy framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letendre, Steven Emery

    The U.S. electric utility sector in its current configuration is unsustainable. The majority of electricity in the United States is produced using finite fossil fuels. In addition, significant potential exists to improve the nation's efficient use of energy. A sustainable electric utility sector will be characterized by increased use of renewable energy sources and high levels of end-use efficiency. This dissertation analyzes two alternative policy approaches designed to move the U.S. electric utility sector toward sustainability. One approach is labeled incremental which involves maintaining the centralized structure of the electric utility sector but facilitating the introduction of renewable energy and efficiency into the electrical system through the pricing mechanism. A second policy approach was described in which structural changes are encouraged based on the emerging distributed utility (DU) concept. A structural policy orientation attempts to capture the unique localized benefits that distributed renewable resources and energy efficiency offer to electric utility companies and their customers. A market penetration analysis of PV in centralized energy supply and distributed peak-shaving applications is conducted for a case-study electric utility company. Sensitivity analysis was performed based on incremental and structural policy orientations. The analysis provides compelling evidence which suggests that policies designed to bring about structural change in the electric utility sector are needed to move the industry toward sustainability. Specifically, the analysis demonstrates that PV technology, a key renewable energy option likely to play an important role in a renewable energy future, will begin to penetrate the electrical system in distributed peak-shaving applications long before the technology is introduced as a centralized energy supply option. Most policies to date, which I term incremental, attempt to encourage energy efficiency and renewables

  13. Environmental Regulations, Market Structure and Technological Progress in Renewable Energy Technology — A Panel Data Study on Wind Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Rübbelke; Pia Weiss

    2011-01-01

    We study the impact of environmental regulations on the patent activities for wind turbines between 1980 and 2008. We explicitly control for energy market liberalisation and take a potential interaction between liberalisation and policy instruments into account. We find a strong and highly significant effect of environmental tax revenues, which we regard as a proxy for the extent to which energy prices changed in favour of renewable energies, as well as foreign demand for wind turbines on inn...

  14. THE SYNTHESIS AND ANALYSIS INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY OF INTERACTIVE REGULATIONS FUNCTIONAL MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Александрович ТИМОФЕЕВ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A person has no ability to capture entirely and to estimate correctly the logical coherence and consistency of Regulations in the Text Form. It leads to mistakes in a work of an Enterprise Staff and to the impossibility of mastering of the Regulations with considerable volume. Presented Information Technology allows the Regulations Executor to receive on-line proper information of the Optimum Actions in any possible Situation, which can arise in the course of the work. Leading Experts of any Enterprise may create the full-fledged Expert System by themselves with the help of Specialized Software. Such a System will contain the knowledge in the Functional Model of Regulations (the Optimum Business Process. Stages of realization of the represented Information Technology and the peculiarities of on-line data displaying for the Regulations Executor are illustrated by the Pharmacy Customer Service Regulations.

  15. Public policies for the development of solar photovoltaic energy and the impacts on dynamics of technology systems and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Hyun Jin Julie

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, climate change has been a subject of serious international negotiations. Solar photovoltaic (PV) energy has caught the eyes of many governments as one of the front-runner technologies for the low carbon energy transition in the global community. Solar PV systems have experienced strong market growth over the last decade supported by favorable political reactions in the energy transition context. However, despite these favorable conditions, paradoxically, the global PV market recently went through a chaotic time encountering the overproduction issue, the industry crisis and the long-lasting trade disputes. Furthermore, as the level of PV penetration increases, many problematics started to appear with negative systemic impacts on the electricity sector. This thesis started from these problematics to understand the PV policy mechanisms and the context change. In order to define those issues, a systemic approach is taken to provide an accurate comprehension of the overall mechanisms of PV public policies. The concrete systemic vision of PV policy mechanisms is constructed based on theoretical and historical analysis by defining key variables and the context (Part I). A retrospective analysis using the proposed mapping tools is conducted to understand critical limits and challenges of PV development and to identify risks factors in the sector (Part II). This thesis also demonstrates how the nature of policy context changes in combined with the dynamic features of the PV sector. This helps anticipate possible risks of PV development in the future. The thesis highlights the nationwide PV policy dynamics was broken with the arrival of China in the PV sector. Taken the defined critical limits and challenges into account, this thesis eventually proposes strategic orientations of PV development at the two dimensions from both national and international perspectives (Part III). At the national level, this thesis discusses on PV self-consumption as the

  16. Regulation tomorrow : What happens when technology is faster than the law?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Erik; Fenwick, Mark; Kaal, Wulf A.

    2016-01-01

    In an age of constant, complex and disruptive technological innovation, knowing what, when, and how to structure regulatory interventions has become much more difficult. Regulators can find themselves in a situation where they believe they must opt for either reckless action (regulation without

  17. Exploring car manufacturers' responses to technology-forcing regulation : The case of California's ZEV mandate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseling, Joeri; Farla, J. C M; Hekkert, M. P.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of firms to influence environmental regulation has largely been overlooked in transition studies. We study how car manufacturers combine and change their innovation and political influence strategies in response to a technology-forcing regulation. We apply a conceptual framework on

  18. The choice of strategic alternatives under increasing regulation in high technology companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, P H

    1984-09-01

    The strategic response of U.S. high technology companies in the medical X-ray manufacturing industry to increased governmental regulations from 1962 to 1977 is examined. Results suggest that regulations increase consumer and competitor uncertainty, with the consequence that firms select less risky strategies and decrease the riskier new product invention strategy. Larger firms reduce inventions less than smaller firms.

  19. Framework for energy policy and technology assessment in developing countries: a case study of Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mubayi, V.; Palmedo, P.F.; Doernberg, A.B.

    1979-12-01

    The potential of various energy sources and technology options in meeting national economic and social development goals in developing countries is assessed. The resource options that are of interest are the development of indigenous resources. In general, two categories of options can be considered: those which correspond to the accelerated implementation of existing elements of the energy system and those which correspond to the introduction of a new technology, such as solar electricity. The various resource and technology options that must be analyzed with respect to a number of criteria or payoff functions are: total demand and fuel mix; reduction of oil consumption; national social goals; total energy costs; and environmental quality. First, a view is constructed of the energy implications of current national economic development plans. A consistent description of the future energy system of the country, under the assumption of current trends and policies is constructed for certain reference years in the future. The values of the payoff functions selected are then calculated for that reference case. The major resource and technology options are identified and the rates at which they can be implemented are determined. Finally, the impact on the various payoff functions of the implementation of each option is calculated. The basic element of the framework is the Reference Energy System, discussed in Secton 3. The energy policy analysis for Peru is used as a reference case. 11 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  20. Consumptive Water Use from Electricity Generation in the Southwest under Alternative Climate, Technology, and Policy Futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Shuchi; Zhai, Haibo; Kyle, G Page; Morgan, M Granger; Patel, Pralit; Liu, Lu

    2016-11-15

    This research assesses climate, technological, and policy impacts on consumptive water use from electricity generation in the Southwest over a planning horizon of nearly a century. We employed an integrated modeling framework taking into account feedbacks between climate change, air temperature and humidity, and consequent power plant water requirements. These direct impacts of climate change on water consumption by 2095 differ with technology improvements, cooling systems, and policy constraints, ranging from a 3-7% increase over scenarios that do not incorporate ambient air impacts. Upon additional factors being changed that alter electricity generation, water consumption increases by up to 8% over the reference scenario by 2095. With high penetration of wet recirculating cooling, consumptive water required for low-carbon electricity generation via fossil fuels will likely exacerbate regional water pressure as droughts become more common and population increases. Adaptation strategies to lower water use include the use of advanced cooling technologies and greater dependence on solar and wind. Water consumption may be reduced by 50% in 2095 from the reference, requiring an increase in dry cooling shares to 35-40%. Alternatively, the same reduction could be achieved through photovoltaic and wind power generation constituting 60% of the grid, consistent with an increase of over 250% in technology learning rates.