WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology policy executive

  1. Transport Technologies and Policy Scenarios to 2050 (Executive Summary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    World Energy Council

    2007-01-01

    Transport is one of the major global consumers of energy, currently representing between 20 and 25 percent of aggregate energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. Strong growth in energy consumption to 2050 in all sectors, with the transport proportion projected to remain stable up to 2050. Transport therefore has an important role to lay in contributing to the primary objective of the World Energy Council: sustainable energy for all. Passenger vehicle technology is expected to remain dependent on petroleum fuels and internal combustion engines (ICE) for the foreseeable future, since these elements remain the most convenient and affordable for mass personal mobility. Enhancement of ICEs through clean diesels, hybrids and new combustion techniques will ensure increased efficiency, continuing the consistent historical annual improvement in vehicle efficiency. Policy makers must first agree on the overall objective, whether it be a reduction in energy consumption or greenhouse gas emissions. Technological development must be complemented by rational policy that will encourage and enable the technologies to emerge

  2. Dr Kathryn Beers, Assistant Director Physical Sciences and Engineering, Office of Science and Technology Policy Executive Office of the President United States of America visit the CMS experiment at point 5.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    Dr Kathryn Beers, Assistant Director Physical Sciences and Engineering, Office of Science and Technology Policy Executive Office of the President United States of America visit the CMS experiment at point 5.

  3. 31st August 2011 - Government of Japan R. Chubachi, Executive Member of the Council for Science and Technology Policy, Cabinet Office, Vice Chairman, Representative Corporate Executive Officer and Member of the Board, Sony Corporation, visiting the ATLAS experimental area with Former Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni and Senior physicist T. Kondo.

    CERN Multimedia

    Raphaël Piguet

    2011-01-01

    31st August 2011 - Government of Japan R. Chubachi, Executive Member of the Council for Science and Technology Policy, Cabinet Office, Vice Chairman, Representative Corporate Executive Officer and Member of the Board, Sony Corporation, visiting the ATLAS experimental area with Former Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni and Senior physicist T. Kondo.

  4. Trusted Computing Technologies, Intel Trusted Execution Technology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guise, Max Joseph; Wendt, Jeremy Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We describe the current state-of-the-art in Trusted Computing Technologies - focusing mainly on Intel's Trusted Execution Technology (TXT). This document is based on existing documentation and tests of two existing TXT-based systems: Intel's Trusted Boot and Invisible Things Lab's Qubes OS. We describe what features are lacking in current implementations, describe what a mature system could provide, and present a list of developments to watch. Critical systems perform operation-critical computations on high importance data. In such systems, the inputs, computation steps, and outputs may be highly sensitive. Sensitive components must be protected from both unauthorized release, and unauthorized alteration: Unauthorized users should not access the sensitive input and sensitive output data, nor be able to alter them; the computation contains intermediate data with the same requirements, and executes algorithms that the unauthorized should not be able to know or alter. Due to various system requirements, such critical systems are frequently built from commercial hardware, employ commercial software, and require network access. These hardware, software, and network system components increase the risk that sensitive input data, computation, and output data may be compromised.

  5. Science and Technology Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baark, Erik

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the status of science and technology in Mongolia, and discusses the policy issues which have emerged with the transition to market economy in recent years.......This paper examines the status of science and technology in Mongolia, and discusses the policy issues which have emerged with the transition to market economy in recent years....

  6. Constitutional Basis for the Enforcement of ''Executive'' Policies that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although "executive" policies remain an important governance tool, there appears to be confusion on the status and possible basis for their judicial enforcement in South Africa. The aim of this article is to critically reflect on the status and possible constitutional basis for the enforceability of "executive" policies that give effect ...

  7. Science and technology policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Who is responsible for environmental and technological policy in Denmark? And how are those "policy-makers" made accountable to the public for their decisions?   This report attempts to answer these important questions by presenting the Danish contribution to the EU-funded project, Analysing Public...

  8. Technology Policy and Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bruce

    1983-01-01

    Current social and economic problems in the United Kingdom are placed in the context of long-term trends in labor economics and the impact of new technology. The relationship of technological change and economic recovery is analyzed. Policy implications and the university's role are discussed. (MSE)

  9. Technology and international climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Leon; Calvin, Kate; Edmonds, James A.; Kyle, Page; Wise, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Both the nature of international climate policy architectures and the development and diffusion of new energy technologies could dramatically influence future costs of reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper explores the implications of interactions between technology availability and performance and international policy architectures for technology choice and the social cost of limiting atmospheric CO2 concentrations to 500 ppm by the year 2095. Key issues explored in the paper include the role of bioenergy production with CO2 capture and storage (CCS), overshoot concentration pathways, and the sensitivity of mitigation costs to policy and technology.

  10. Technology and international climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Leon; Calvin, Kate; Edmonds, James A.; Kyle, Page; Wise, Marshall

    2009-05-01

    Both the nature of international climate policy architectures and the development and diffusion of new energy technologies could dramatically influence future costs of reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper explores the implications of interactions between technology availability and performance and international policy architectures for technology choice and the social cost of limiting atmospheric CO2 concentrations to 500 ppm by the year 2095. Key issues explored in the paper include the role of bioenergy production with CO2 capture and storage (CCS), overshoot concentration pathways, and the sensitivity of mitigation costs to policy and technology.

  11. Emerging environmental technologies and environmental technology policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Leon Edward

    This dissertation explores the role and design of environmental technology policy when environmental innovation is embodied in emerging environmental technologies such as photovoltaic cells or fuel cells. The dissertation consists of three individual studies, all of which use a simplified, general model industry between an emerging environmental technology and an entrenched, more-polluting technology. It clarifies the situations in which environmental technology policy can achieve high welfare and those in which it cannot; and it separates the possible situations an emerging environmental technology might face into four scenarios, each with its own technology policy recommendations. The second study attempts to clarify which of two factors is having a larger limiting effect on private investment in photovoltaics: the failure to internalize the environmental costs of fossil fuel electricity generation or a broad set of innovation market failures that apply to innovation irrespective of environmental concerns. The study indicates that innovation market failures are probably having a significantly larger impact than incomplete internalization. The third study explores the effectiveness of adoption subsidies at encouraging private-sector innovation. The conclusion is that adoption subsidies probably have only a limited effect on long-term, private-sector research. Two important general conclusions of the dissertation are (1) that optimal technology policy should begin with technology-push measures and end with demand-pull measures; and (2) that the technological response to internalization instruments, such as emissions taxes, may be highly nonlinear.

  12. Deploying Renewables: Principles for Effective Policies. Executive Summary [Russian Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Renewable energy can play a fundamental role in tackling climate change, environmental degradation and energy security. As these challenges have become ever more pressing, governments and markets are seeking innovative solutions. Yet, what are the key factors that will determine the success of renewable energy policies? How can current policies be improved to encourage greater deployment of renewables? What impact can more effective policies have on renewables’ share in the future global energy mix and how soon? Deploying Renewables: Principles for Effective Policies addresses these questions. Responding to the Gleneagles G8 call for a clean and secure energy future, it highlights key policy tools to fast-track renewables into the mainstream. This analysis illustrates good practices by applying the combined metrics of effectiveness and efficiency to renewable energy policies in the electricity, heating and transport sectors. It highlights significant barriers to accelerating renewables penetration, and argues that the great potential of renewables can be exploited much more rapidly and to a much larger extent if good practices are adopted. Carefully designed policy frameworks, customised to support technologies at differing stages of maturity, will deliver a strong portfolio of renewable energy technologies. Deploying Renewables: Principles for Effective Policies provides recommendations on key principles for policy design as a template for decision makers.

  13. Educational Technology Policy in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slakmon, Benzi

    2017-01-01

    The study examines Israel's educational technology policy in light of the coming-of-age of ICT. The study shows the ways it has been developing, and identifies two major shifts which have occurred in recent years: the introduction of the national educational cloud, and the enabling of the "bring your own device" (BYOD) policy. The way…

  14. Energy management under policy and technology uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylock, Steven M.; Seager, Thomas P.; Snell, Jeff; Bennett, Erin R.; Sweet, Don

    2012-01-01

    Energy managers in public agencies are subject to multiple and sometimes conflicting policy objectives regarding cost, environmental, and security concerns associated with alternative energy technologies. Making infrastructure investment decisions requires balancing different distributions of risks and benefits that are far from clear. For example, managers at permanent Army installations must incorporate Congressional legislative objectives, executive orders, Department of Defense directives, state laws and regulations, local restrictions, and multiple stakeholder concerns when undertaking new energy initiatives. Moreover, uncertainty with regard to alternative energy technologies is typically much greater than that associated with traditional technologies, both because the technologies themselves are continuously evolving and because the intermittent nature of many renewable technologies makes a certain level of uncertainty irreducible. This paper describes a novel stochastic multi-attribute analytic approach that allows users to explore different priorities or weighting schemes in combination with uncertainties related to technology performance. To illustrate the utility of this approach for understanding conflicting policy or stakeholder perspectives, prioritizing the need for more information, and making investment decisions, we apply this approach to an energy technology decision problem representative of a permanent military base. Highlights: ► Incorporate disparate criteria with uncertain performance. ► Analyze decisions with contrasting stakeholder positions. ► Interactively compare alternatives based on uncertain weighting. ► User friendly multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) tool.

  15. Environmental Policy and Technological Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, Adam B.; Newell, Richard G.; Stavins, Robert N.

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between technological change and environmental policy has received increasing attention from scholars and policy makers alike over the past ten years. This is partly because the environmental impacts of social activity are significantly affected by technological change, and partly because environmental policy interventions themselves create new constraints and incentives that affect the process of technological developments. Our central purpose in this article is to provide environmental economists with a useful guide to research on technological change and the analytical tools that can be used to explore further the interaction between technology and the environment. In Part 1 of the article, we provide an overview of analytical frameworks for investigating the economics of technological change, highlighting key issues for the researcher. In Part 2, we turn our attention to theoretical analysis of the effects of environmental policy on technological change, and in Part 3, we focus on issues related to the empirical analysis of technology innovation and diffusion. Finally, we conclude in Part 4 with some additional suggestions for research

  16. A Sales Execution Strategy Guide for Technology Startups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Gilbert

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The majority of startups fail to consider sales execution as part of their overall strategy. This article demonstrates how a sales execution strategy can help a company take a product or service to market more efficiently and effectively by focusing on the customers that are key to generating revenue. Combined with techniques for recruiting effectively and measuring sales outcomes, a sales execution strategy helps technology startups exceed growth aspirations and potentially reduce or even eliminate the requirement for external investment. In this article, we first describe the focus of assistance currently given to startups and the reasons why sales execution strategies are often overlooked. Next, we outline recommendations for developing, implementing, and supporting a sales execution strategy. Finally, we summarize the key points presented in the article.

  17. Energy Technology Perspectives 2012: Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-05

    Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) is the International Energy Agency's most ambitious publication on new developments in energy technology. It demonstrates how technologies -- from electric vehicles to smart grids -- can make a decisive difference in achieving the objective of limiting the global temperature rise to 2 C and enhancing energy security. ETP 2012 presents scenarios and strategies to 2050, with the aim of guiding decision makers on energy trends and what needs to be done to build a clean, secure and competitive energy future.

  18. Science, Technology, and Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke; Borrás, Susana

    2005-01-01

    This chapter is about what governments have done and could do to promote the production, diffusion, and use of scientific and technical knowledge in order to realize national objectives. We begin the chapter with "story-telling" based on sketchy historical facts. The aim of  the two stories...... is to illustrate that innovation policy covers a wide set of issues that have been on the agenda far back in history while still remaining important today. We move on to sketch the history of innovation policy, splitting it up into the three ideal types: science, technology, and innovation policy. We use OECD...

  19. The Global Technology Revolution 2020: Executive Summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silberglitt, Richard S; Anton, Philip S; Howell, David R; Wong, Anny; Bohandy, S. R; Gassman, Natalie; Jackson, Brian A; Landree, Eric; Lawrence Pfleeger, Shari; Newton, Elaine M; Wu, Felicia

    2006-01-01

    .... A sample of 29 countries across the spectrum of scientific advancement (low to high) was assessed with respect to the countries' ability to acquire and implement 16 key technology applications (e.g...

  20. HRS Clinical Document Development Methodology Manual and Policies: Executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indik, Julia H; Patton, Kristen K; Beardsall, Marianne; Chen-Scarabelli, Carol A; Cohen, Mitchell I; Dickfeld, Timm-Michael L; Haines, David E; Helm, Robert H; Krishnan, Kousik; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Rickard, John; Sapp, John L; Chung, Mina

    2017-10-01

    The Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) has been developing clinical practice documents in collaboration and partnership with other professional medical societies since 1996. The HRS formed a Scientific and Clinical Documents Committee (SCDC) with the sole purpose of managing the development of these documents from conception through publication. The SCDC oversees the process for developing clinical practice documents, with input and approval from the HRS Executive Committee and the Board of Trustees. As of May 2017, the HRS has produced more than 80 publications with other professional organizations. This process manual is produced to publicly and transparently declare the standards by which the HRS develops clinical practice documents, which include clinical practice guidelines, expert consensus statements, scientific statements, clinical competency statements, task force policy statements, and proceedings statements. The foundation for this process is informed by the Institute of Medicine's standards for developing trustworthy clinical practice guidelines; the new criteria from the National Guidelines Clearinghouse, effective June 2014; SCDC member discussions; and a review of guideline policies and methodologies used by other professional organizations. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of National Technology Audit Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subiyanto Subiyanto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Laws have mandated implementation of technology audit, nevertheless such implementation needs an additional policy that is more technical. The concept of national audit technology policy shall make technology audit as a tool to ensure the benefit of technology application for society and technology advance for nation independency. This article discusses on technology audit policy concept especially infrastructure requirement, with emphasis on regulation, implementation tools, and related institution. The development of technology audit policy for national interest requires provision of mandatory audit implementation, accompanied by tools for developing technology auditor’s competence and technology audit institutional’s mechanism. To guide technology auditor’s competence, concept of national audit technology policy shall classify object of technology audit into product technology, production technology, and management of technology, accompanied by related parameters of technology performance evaluation.

  2. Development of National Technology Audit Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Subiyanto Subiyanto

    2017-01-01

    The Laws have mandated implementation of technology audit, nevertheless such implementation needs an additional policy that is more technical. The concept of national audit technology policy shall make technology audit as a tool to ensure the benefit of technology application for society and technology advance for nation independency. This article discusses on technology audit policy concept especially infrastructure requirement, with emphasis on regulation, implementation tools, and related ...

  3. Basic orientation of current enterprise technological policy

    OpenAIRE

    Lapteva, V.

    2008-01-01

    The article reviews the factors stimulating industrials to intensification of technological policy; quick analysis of possible sources for investment of technological policy; problems of transition to active technological policy; outline of basic forms of fixed capital stock reproduction. The article indicates necessity of keeping of optimum relationship between all forms of fixed capital stock reproduction.

  4. Health technology assessment of medicines in Greece: pharmaceutical industry executives' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armataki, Eleni; Karampli, Eleftheria; Kyriopoulos, John; Pavi, Elpida

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate originator pharmaceutical companies' practices in relation to health technology assessment (HTA) and the views and perceptions of their executives on the importance of HTA in pricing and reimbursement of medicines in Greece. A qualitative study was performed, using individual semi-structured interviews based on an interview schedule with open-ended questions. The target population was market access departments' executives of originator pharmaceutical companies. Our target sample consisted of sixteen executives, of whom ten agreed to participate. Saturation point was reached after eight interviews. Data were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using content analysis. Participants considered HTA as a very important complementary tool for decision making in health policy, particularly in the field of pharmaceuticals and medical devices. They believed that, in Greece, HTA could be institutionalized for the reimbursement mechanism of medicines under certain conditions relating to current health policy-making attitudes and conditions pertaining in the country. They considered that there are many constraints which must be overcome as well as opportunities to be exploited. Decisions in pharmaceutical policy should be scientifically substantiated and HTA should be institutionalized primarily for reimbursement decisions. Development of guidelines for conducting pharmaco-economic evaluation, change in health policy goals, recording of cost and epidemiological data, and broader participation of all stakeholders in HTA decision-making processes are suggested as prerequisites for a successful implementation of HTA in Greece.

  5. EPA Insight Policy Paper: Executive Order #12898 on Environmental Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    A memorandum from President Clinton to the heads of all agencies on 'Executive Order on Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations, a related statement from EPA Administrator Carol Browner

  6. Biofuels: policies, standards and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Skyrocketing prices of crude oil in the middle of the first decade of the 21st century accompanied by rising prices for food focused political and public attention on the role of biofuels. On the one hand, biofuels were considered as a potential automotive fuel with a bright future, on the other hand, biofuels were accused of competing with food production for land. The truth must lie somewhere in-between and is strongly dependent on the individual circumstance in different countries and regions. As food and energy are closely interconnected and often compete with each other for other resources, such as water, the World Energy Council - following numerous requests of its Member Committees - decided to undertake an independent assessment of biofuels policies, technologies and standards.

  7. Space weapon technology and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchens, Theresa

    2017-11-01

    The military use of space, including in support of nuclear weapons infrastructure, has greatly increased over the past 30 years. In the current era, rising geopolitical tensions between the United States and Russia and China have led to assumptions in all three major space powers that warfighting in space now is inevitable, and possible because of rapid technological advancements. New capabilities for disrupting and destroying satellites include radio-frequency jamming, the use of lasers, maneuverable space objects and more capable direct-ascent anti-satellite weapons. This situation, however, threatens international security and stability among nuclear powers. There is a continuing and necessary role for diplomacy, especially the establishment of normative rules of behavior, to reduce risks of misperceptions and crisis escalation, including up to the use of nuclear weapons. U.S. policy and strategy should seek a balance between traditional military approaches to protecting its space assets and diplomatic tools to create a more secure space environment.

  8. A Study on the Nuclear Technology Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, T. J.; Yun, S. W.; Jeong, I.; Lee, J. H.

    2007-02-01

    The objective of the study was to make policy-proposals for enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of national nuclear technology R and D programs. To do this, environmental changes of international nuclear energy policy and trends of nuclear technology development were surveyed and analyzed. This Study analyzed trends of nuclear technology policies and developed the nuclear energy R and D innovation strategy in a viewpoint of analyzing the changes in the global policy environment associated with nuclear technology development and development of national nuclear R and D strategy

  9. 76 FR 73595 - Healthcare Technology, Policy & Trade Mission: Mexico City, Mexico, May 13-16, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Healthcare Technology, Policy & Trade... Administration, U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service (CS) is organizing an executive-led healthcare technology... of U.S. suppliers of healthcare information technologies (IT), medical devices, and other medical...

  10. National Disability Policy: A Progress Report, 2016. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on Disability, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The National Council on Disability (NCD) recognizes that technology is essential to the full realization of citizenship for people with disabilities. Yet society has not evolved to the point where this population uses technology to the extent needed to enjoy the rights of full citizenship, as recognized by the Constitution. As technology continues…

  11. "Harnessing genomics to improve health in India" – an executive course to support genomics policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharya Tara

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of scientific medicine have eluded millions in developing countries and the genomics revolution threatens to increase health inequities between North and South. India, as a developing yet also industrialized country, is uniquely positioned to pioneer science policy innovations to narrow the genomics divide. Recognizing this, the Indian Council of Medical Research and the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics conducted a Genomics Policy Executive Course in January 2003 in Kerala, India. The course provided a forum for stakeholders to discuss the relevance of genomics for health in India. This article presents the course findings and recommendations formulated by the participants for genomics policy in India. Methods The course goals were to familiarize participants with the implications of genomics for health in India; analyze and debate policy and ethical issues; and develop a multi-sectoral opinion leaders' network to share perspectives. To achieve these goals, the course brought together representatives of academic research centres, biotechnology companies, regulatory bodies, media, voluntary, and legal organizations to engage in discussion. Topics included scientific advances in genomics, followed by innovations in business models, public sector perspectives, ethics, legal issues and national innovation systems. Results Seven main recommendations emerged: increase funding for healthcare research with appropriate emphasis on genomics; leverage India's assets such as traditional knowledge and genomic diversity in consultation with knowledge-holders; prioritize strategic entry points for India; improve industry-academic interface with appropriate incentives to improve public health and the nation's wealth; develop independent, accountable, transparent regulatory systems to ensure that ethical, legal and social issues are addressed for a single entry, smart and effective system; engage the public and

  12. A Study on the Nuclear Technology Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, C. Y.; Lee, K. S.; Jeong, I.; Lee, J. H.

    2009-04-01

    The objective of the study was to make policy-proposes for enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of national nuclear technology development programs. To do this, recent changes of international nuclear energy policy and trends of nuclear technology R and D was surveyed and analyzed. In the viewpoint of analysis of the changes in the global policy surrounding nuclear technology development and development of national nuclear R and D strategy, this study (1) analyzed the trends of nuclear technology policies and (2) discussed the mid and long term strategy of nuclear energy R and D. To put it in more detail, each subject was further explored as follows; (1) analyzed the trends of nuclear technology policies - Trend and prospects of the international and domestic nuclear policies - Investigation of development of small and medium sized policies - International collaboration for advanced nuclear technologies (2) discussed the mid and long term strategy of nuclear energy R and D - The long term development plan for future nuclear energy system - The facilitation of technology commercialization

  13. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Italy [Italian Version, Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This review analyses the energy challenges facing Italy and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide Italy towards a more sustainable energy future. The Italian government has made substantial progress in a number of sectors since the last IEA in-depth energy policy review in 2003. The success of the green certificate and white certificate schemes and continued reform of the electricity and natural gas supply markets are just a few examples and build on the recommendations contained in the previous review. Nonetheless, many challenges remain. Italy recognises the need to diversify its energy supply portfolio to reduce its heavy dependence on fossil fuels and electricity imports, and to decrease its growing greenhouse gas emissions. In 2008, the government announced its intention to recommence the countrys nuclear power program and start building a new nuclear power plant by 2013. To do so, Italy must first develop an efficient process for identifying critical energy infrastructure, including nuclear power, and subjecting it to an effective, streamlined siting and permitting process. Italy will face another major challenge in complying with Europe’s new climate and energy package, particularly in relation to renewable energy and emissions targets. Italy must step up efforts to comply with its new responsibilities, specifically by developing and putting in place a comprehensive climate change strategy for the years until 2020. In mid-2009, the legislature enacted a comprehensive new law that will facilitate the emergence of a robust long-term energy policy. The government must respond to this opportunity and elaborate, with industry, a comprehensive long-term strategy for the development of the energy sector. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Italy and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide Italy towards a more

  14. Early Learning and Educational Technology Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the growth of technology use in early learning settings, the U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services collaborated in the development of the "Early Learning and Educational Technology Policy Brief" to promote developmentally appropriate use of technology in homes and early learning…

  15. Final environmental impact statement: US Spent Fuel Policy. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The analysis of the environmental impacts for storage of domestic fuel shows that the impacts for the full range of alternatives considered are relatively small compared with available resources or background exposure of the population from natural radiation sources. The differences in impacts of storage of domestic fuel are attributed to the amount of fuel stored in Independent Spent Fuel Storage (ISFS) facilities, the storage time, and, to a lesser degree, the differences in spent fuel transportation. The differences between comparable alternatives of implementing the policy or not implementing the policy are small. The difference in impacts of storage of foreign fuel are attributed to the amount of fuel received under the policy and to the disposition mode analyzed. The impact of storage of foreign fuel (a small fraction of the amount of domestic fuel considered) is also small. As a result of the small differences in environmental impacts of all cases considered for foreign fuel, environmental impacts probably will not strongly influence the selection of the case that best meets US nonproliferation goals. Proliferation benefits of the various cases analyzed vary significantly. The structure and level of fee charged for storage of spent fuel will affect the degree of participation in the spent fuel storage program by utilities. However, the range of participation is within the range of alternatives analyzed in the draft EISs on storage of US and foreign fuels, for which the environmental effects were found to be relatively small. The fee computed on the basis of full recovery of government costs should not significantly affect the cost of generating nuclear power

  16. Technological policy and wage inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Cozzi, Guido; Impullitti, Giammario

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we argue that government procurement policy played a role in stimulating the wave of innovation that hit the US economy in the 1980's, as well as the simultaneous increase in inequality and in education attainment. Since the early 1980's U.S. policy makers began targeting commercial innovations more directly and explicitly. We focus on the shift in the composition of public demand towards high-tech goods which, by increasing the market-size of innovative �rms, fun...

  17. Science, Technology and Natural Resources Policy: Overcoming Congressional Gridlock

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    The current status of Science, Technology and Natural Resources (STNR) policy in the United States provides an ideal context to examine the influence of committee seniority within the public policy process. Exemplars of the Policy Entrepreneur have been individuals in leadership positions, whether executive or legislative. The role of junior committee members in shaping policy innovation is less well understood, and is frequently masked either in cross-sectional research designs or in case studies. The House Natural Resources committee seniority patterns are compared to the House of Representatives Chamber data from 1975 to 2015. This expanse of congressional time captures both the policy innovation of the Class of 1974 who helped transform the public lands by pursuing a preservation agenda, along with the contemporaneous gridlock caused by disagreements about reducing the size of the federal government, a policy agenda championed and sustained by the Class of 1994. Several types of political actors have served as policy entrepreneurs, President Kennedy and Secretary of Interior Udall shepherding the Wilderness Act of 1964 from the Executive branch, or in the 111th Congress Committee chairmen Senator Christopher Dodd and Representative Barney Frank, having announced their retirements, spent their final Congress shaping the consensus that produced the Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010. A less studied policy phenomenon relies on "packing the committee" to outvote the leadership. This tactic can be used by the party leadership to overcome recalcitrant senior committee members, as was the case for Democrats in the House Interior and Insular Affairs Committee shift to preservation in the 1970s, or the tactic can be employed from the grassroots, as may be happening in the case of the House Natural Resources Committee in the 114th Congress. A policy making process analog to rivers is more appropriate than a mechanistic model. As there are multiple

  18. RETRACTED: Technology and Unemployment for Executives in Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayr Figueiredo de Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Updated September 4, 2014. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- RETRACTION: The paper “Technology and Unemployment for Executives in Hospitals” by Jayr Figuereido, published in vol 7 (3 2012, has been retracted by the editors because significant parts of the paper were plagiarized and without proper citation to the publication “Gondim, S. M. G., Estramiana, J. L. Á., Luna, A. d. F., Oliveira, T. S. S. d., & Souza, G. C. d. (2010. Atribuições de causas ao desemprego e valores pessoais. Estudos de Psicologia (Natal, 15, 309-317”. This strong determination was taken by the editorial committee in order to correct this misbehavior and to compensate the detriment caused to the academic community. Apologies are offered to our readers for not having spotted this problem during the edition process. We are constantly introducing more tools in our editorial process in order to avoid plagiarism and abuses like the presented in this case. It is in our greatest concern to preserve the academic integrity of our publication. --------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract: This study aims to investigate how managers of health care institutions explain the causes of unemployment, and how this explanation is related to their personal and family values, in accordance with Schwartz’s theoretical model. For that, we used two questionnaires: one analyzes the explanations for unemployment, and the other one is the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ 21 – short version. Employed and formerly unemployed workers do not show any significant differences in explaining the causes of unemployment. On the other hand, regarding values, formerly unemployed workers show universalism and benevolence, values related to the self-transcendence dimension. Employed workers, in turn, show values of security, related to the conservatism dimension. The conclusion is that, even though technological innovations

  19. A Study on the Nuclear Technology Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. J.; Lim, C. Y.; Yang, M. H. (and others)

    2008-03-15

    The objective of the study was to make policy-proposes for enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of national nuclear technology development programs. To do this, changes of international nuclear energy policy environment and trends of nuclear technology development was surveyed and analyzed. In the viewpoint of analysis of the changes in the global policy environment surrounding nuclear technology development and development of national nuclear R and D strategy, this study (1) analyzed trends of nuclear technology policies and (2) developed the nuclear energy R and D innovation strategies. To put it in more detail, each subject was further explored as follows; (1) themes to analyze trends of nuclear policies: nuclear Renaissance and forecast for nuclear power plant, International collaboration for advanced nuclear technologies in GIF, INPRO and I-NERI, The present situation and outlook for world uranium market (2) themes to develop of nuclear energy R and D innovation strategies: The mid-term strategy plan of the KAERI, The technological innovation case of the KAERI.

  20. A Study on the Nuclear Technology Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. J.; Lim, C. Y.; Yang, M. H.

    2008-03-01

    The objective of the study was to make policy-proposes for enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of national nuclear technology development programs. To do this, changes of international nuclear energy policy environment and trends of nuclear technology development was surveyed and analyzed. In the viewpoint of analysis of the changes in the global policy environment surrounding nuclear technology development and development of national nuclear R and D strategy, this study (1) analyzed trends of nuclear technology policies and (2) developed the nuclear energy R and D innovation strategies. To put it in more detail, each subject was further explored as follows; (1) themes to analyze trends of nuclear policies: nuclear Renaissance and forecast for nuclear power plant, International collaboration for advanced nuclear technologies in GIF, INPRO and I-NERI, The present situation and outlook for world uranium market (2) themes to develop of nuclear energy R and D innovation strategies: The mid-term strategy plan of the KAERI, The technological innovation case of the KAERI

  1. 78 FR 7784 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Nomination Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Nomination Letters.... SUMMARY: The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy Committee (Health IT Policy Committee) and gave the Comptroller General responsibility for...

  2. A Study on Nuclear Technology Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, K. B.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, T. J.; Yun, S. W.; Jeong, Ik; Lee, J. H.

    2006-02-01

    This study was conducted as a part of institutional activities of KAERI, and the objective of the study is to survey and analyze the change of international environment in nuclear use and research and development environment, and to propose systematic alternatives on technology policy for efficiency and effectiveness of research and development through national R and D program while timely responding to the environmental change in local and global sense. In the investigation and analysis of international environmental and technological change 1. Viability of Nuclear Renaissance 2. Recent of Nuclear Technology Policy in Japan 3. Collaboration for Advanced Nuclear Technologies in GIF, INPRO and INERI 4. Nuclear Energy Utilization and Development in Europe. In the evaluation of nuclear technology and sustainable development from the point of views of environmental change 5. External Cost of Environmental Impact in Electric Power Sector 6. Nuclear Technology Development Direction Considering Changes of the Science and Technology Policy Environment 7. Nuclear Energy Development Strategy for a Sustainable National Energy Supply

  3. A Study on Nuclear Technology Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K B; Chung, W S; Lee, T J; Yun, S W; Jeong, Ik; Lee, J H

    2006-02-15

    This study was conducted as a part of institutional activities of KAERI, and the objective of the study is to survey and analyze the change of international environment in nuclear use and research and development environment, and to propose systematic alternatives on technology policy for efficiency and effectiveness of research and development through national R and D program while timely responding to the environmental change in local and global sense. In the investigation and analysis of international environmental and technological change 1. Viability of Nuclear Renaissance 2. Recent of Nuclear Technology Policy in Japan 3. Collaboration for Advanced Nuclear Technologies in GIF, INPRO and INERI 4. Nuclear Energy Utilization and Development in Europe. In the evaluation of nuclear technology and sustainable development from the point of views of environmental change 5. External Cost of Environmental Impact in Electric Power Sector 6. Nuclear Technology Development Direction Considering Changes of the Science and Technology Policy Environment 7. Nuclear Energy Development Strategy for a Sustainable National Energy Supply.

  4. Executive functions and parent-child interaction during technology-enhanced storytelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horvers, A.; Molenaar, I.; Teepe, R.C.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2017-01-01

    This study explores how children's executive functions influences the way parent and child engage in a technology-enhanced story telling activity (TES). Research has indicated that children's executive functions (inhibitory control, memory and cognitive flexibility) are related to how they engage in

  5. 78 FR 24749 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Appointment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Appointment AGENCY... Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy Committee to make recommendations on the implementation of a nationwide health information technology...

  6. Mining technology and policy issues 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents conference papers on advances in mineral processing, coal mining, communications for mining executives, environmental laws and regulations, exploration philosophy, exploration technology, government controls and the environment, management, mine finance, minerals availability, mine safety, occupational health, open pit mining, the precious metals outlook, public lands, system improvements in processing ores, and underground mining. Topics considered include coal pipelines and saline water, an incentive program for coal mines, sandwich belt high-angle conveyors, the development of a mining company, regulations for radionuclides, contracts for western coal production for Pacific Rim exports, and the control of radon daughters in underground mines

  7. Essays on Energy Technology Innovation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Gabriel Angelo Sherak

    Motivated by global climate change, enhancing innovation systems for energy technologies is seen as one of the largest public policy challenges of the near future. The role of policy in enhancing energy innovation systems takes several forms: public provision of research and develop funding, facilitating the private sector's capability to develop new technologies, and creating incentives for private actors to adopt innovative and appropriate technologies. This dissertation explores research questions that span this range of policies to develop insights in how energy technology innovation policy can be reformed in the face of climate change. The first chapter of this dissertation explores how decision making to allocate public research and development funding could be improved through the integration of expert technology forecasts. I present a framework to evaluate and optimize the U.S. Department of Energy's research and development portfolio of applied energy projects, accounting for spillovers from technical complimentary and competition for the same market share. This project integrates one of the largest and most comprehensive sets of expert elicitations on energy technologies (Anadon et al., 2014b) in a benefit evaluation framework. This work entailed developing a new method for probability distribution sampling that accommodates the information that can be provided by expert elicitations. The results of this project show that public research and development in energy storage and solar photovoltaic technologies has the greatest marginal returns to economic surplus, but the methodology developed in this chapter is broadly applicable to other public and private R&D-sponsoring organizations. The second chapter of this dissertation explores how policies to transfer technologies from federally funded research laboratories to commercialization partners, largely private firms, create knowledge spillovers that lead to further innovation. In this chapter, I study the U

  8. Soutien institutionnel à African Technology Policy Studies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Au départ la division tanzanienne du Réseau d'études sur la politique technologique en Afrique (African Technology Policy Studies Network), et ce, depuis 1984, ATPS-Tanzania est devenu autonome à titre d'organisation non gouvernementale en 2001. Lorsque ATPS-Tanzania recevait un financement stable du siège de ...

  9. Institutional Support : African Technology Policy Studies - Tanzania ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    African Technology Policy Studies - Tanzania (ATPS-Tanzania) was registered as a national nongovernmental organization in 2001. ... While resource flows to ATPS-Tanzania from ATPS headquarters in Nairobi were reliable, the organization produced a larger volume of research outputs than most other ATPS national ...

  10. Exploiting Semantic Web Technologies to Develop OWL-Based Clinical Practice Guideline Execution Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarpour, Borna; Abidi, Samina Raza; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2016-01-01

    Computerizing paper-based CPG and then executing them can provide evidence-informed decision support to physicians at the point of care. Semantic web technologies especially web ontology language (OWL) ontologies have been profusely used to represent computerized CPG. Using semantic web reasoning capabilities to execute OWL-based computerized CPG unties them from a specific custom-built CPG execution engine and increases their shareability as any OWL reasoner and triple store can be utilized for CPG execution. However, existing semantic web reasoning-based CPG execution engines suffer from lack of ability to execute CPG with high levels of expressivity, high cognitive load of computerization of paper-based CPG and updating their computerized versions. In order to address these limitations, we have developed three CPG execution engines based on OWL 1 DL, OWL 2 DL and OWL 2 DL + semantic web rule language (SWRL). OWL 1 DL serves as the base execution engine capable of executing a wide range of CPG constructs, however for executing highly complex CPG the OWL 2 DL and OWL 2 DL + SWRL offer additional executional capabilities. We evaluated the technical performance and medical correctness of our execution engines using a range of CPG. Technical evaluations show the efficiency of our CPG execution engines in terms of CPU time and validity of the generated recommendation in comparison to existing CPG execution engines. Medical evaluations by domain experts show the validity of the CPG-mediated therapy plans in terms of relevance, safety, and ordering for a wide range of patient scenarios.

  11. Participation of the public and technology policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschen, H.; Bechmann, G.; Gloede, F.

    1989-01-01

    Public participation is placed in the context of the government's technology policy whose legitimation can be questioned in view of the dispute in our society about technological development and its role in decision for shaping the future of the industrial society. This lack of legitimation has induced a search for instruments that might help to close the acceptance gap. Participation of the public is one of these instruments and is discussed in connection with technology assessment, early warning system, and environmental impact assessment. (HSCH) [de

  12. Getting executive buy-in: the value of technology demonstrators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Deventer, Martha J

    2008-06-04

    Full Text Available research environment (VRE) and convince executives that they need to support the initiative and assist in finding sufficient funding to get a full scale pilot project up and running. The paper briefly explains the theory behind VREs and the research done...

  13. A study on the nuclear technology policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. J.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, T. J.; Yun, S. W.; Jeong, Ik

    2002-01-01

    This study was carried out as a part of institutional activities of KAERI. This study suggested the effective and systematic alternatives for the development of domestic industry through nuclear long-term R and D program while timely responding to the environmental change in local and global sense. First of all, this study investigated the current status and prospect of nuclear power supply, the global technological change of nuclear fuel cycle, the nuclear policy changes of major countries and the role of nuclear energy in East Asian countries. Second, some policy alternatives are suggested in association with the role of national R and D in enhancing industrial competitiveness, the effective management of nuclear long-term R and D program to facilitate technological innovation and the way to enlarge the utilization of nuclear R and D results and radiation technology

  14. A study on the nuclear technology policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. J.; Oh, K. B.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, T. J.; Yun, S. W.; Jeong, Ik

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted as a part of institutional activities of KAERI, and the objective of the study is to survey and analyze the change of international environment in nuclear use and research and development environment, and to propose systematic alternatives on technology policy for efficiency and effectiveness of research and development through national R and D program while timely responding to the environmental change in local and global sense. Acknowledging the importance of the relationship between the external environment and the national nuclear R and D strategic planning for changing of environment of surrounding nuclear technology and development in the world, this study focused on the three major subjects: (1) investigation and analysis of international nuclear environmental and technological change; (2) developing nuclear R and D strategy based on the analysis of national and global environment surrounding nuclear technology development and diffusion; (3) the evaluation of role of nuclear technology and environment from the point of views of environmental effects. In order to enhance the role of national nuclear R and D program and to cope with the environmental and technological change surrounding nuclear energy, it is recommended that active participation should be done in ongoing international collaboration on future innovative nuclear technology for absorption of advanced technologies and strategic R and D planning should be centered on core technology field based on long-term vision and suggested NuTRM considering future energy-environmental surroundings for maximized use of domestic technology capabilities and resources

  15. Executive federalism and Medicaid demonstration waivers: implications for policy and democratic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Frank J; Burke, Courtney

    2007-12-01

    Executive federalism emphasizes collaboration between the executive branches at the national and state levels to transform grant programs through the implementation process. In this regard, Medicaid demonstration waivers loomed large during the presidencies of Bill Clinton and George W. Bush. This article documents and compares the volume and substance of section 1115 Medicaid waiver activity under the two presidencies. From the perspective of policy performance, Medicaid demonstration waivers provide modest support for the view that states serve as laboratories for policy learning in the health care arena. More broadly, the waivers have not yielded a major solution to the problem of the uninsured and are unlikely to do so. At the same time, they have not (as some have suggested) been a subterranean force for the erosion of Medicaid. To the contrary, these waivers have often enhanced health services for low-income people; above all, they have helped preserve Medicaid as an entitlement by undercutting support for those seeking to convert the program into a block grant. From the perspective of the democratic process, we find that Congress has been a more significant player in shaping waivers than the executive federalism model suggests. While the decision processes surrounding Medicaid waivers often fall short of democratic standards with respect to transparency and opportunities for public input, they still compare favorably to certain alternatives.

  16. Global Outlook on Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) Policies: Taking Action Together. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaton, Chris; Perera, Oshani [International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), Winnepeg, Ontario (Canada); Arden-Clarke, Charles; Farah, Adriana Zacarias; Polsterer, Nicole [UNEP, Paris (France)

    2012-03-21

    This executive summary, which will be complemented by the full report, was developed by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) with the financial support of the European Commission, The study provides a non-exhaustive review of policies and initiatives that are promoting the shift towards Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) patterns. It is illustrated by 56 case studies ranging from global multilateral agreements and regional strategies to specific policies and initiatives being implemented by governments, businesses and civil society organizations. The main objectives are to provide information about existing activities promoting SCP, to identify best practices, and to provide recommendations to adapt, replicate and scale up SCP policies and initiatives contributing to the overarching goal of achieving sustainable development.

  17. Sustainable city policy. Economic, environmental, technological

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camagni, R.; Capello, R.

    1995-01-01

    While the reasons for advocating intensified environmental concerns at the urban level are more and more accepted and clear, the question how to overcome such concerns is still fraught with many difficulties. The aim of the present paper is to formulate some policy guidelines, based on economic principles, for a 'sustainable city'; it is an ambitious aim, since a unique and operationally defined 'recipe' is difficult to envisage. An urban policy for a sustainable city needs to take different (and contrasting) aspects and many conflicting interests into consideration, while many political, social and economic frictions need to be overcome. A description of various aspects and concepts concerning sustainability issues at the urban level is given in Section 2. Section 3 then provides some considerations on possible technological, economic and environmental urban policies, by creating a typo logy of policy tools associated with different causes of urban decline. Section 4 provides some new, and partly provocative, suggestions for specific urban sustainability policies; in particular it deals with the problem of urban sustainability indicators, measures, and critical threshold levels at which urban sustainability policies should be implemented. Some reflective remarks will conclude the paper. 3 figs., 4 tabs., 25 refs

  18. Sustainable city policy. Economic, environmental, technological

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camagni, R.; Capello, R. [Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy). Economics Dept.; Nijkamp, P. [Dept. of Spatial Economics. Fac. of Economics and Econometrics. Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    While the reasons for advocating intensified environmental concerns at the urban level are more and more accepted and clear, the question how to overcome such concerns is still fraught with many difficulties. The aim of the present paper is to formulate some policy guidelines, based on economic principles, for a `sustainable city`; it is an ambitious aim, since a unique and operationally defined `recipe` is difficult to envisage. An urban policy for a sustainable city needs to take different (and contrasting) aspects and many conflicting interests into consideration, while many political, social and economic frictions need to be overcome. A description of various aspects and concepts concerning sustainability issues at the urban level is given in Section 2. Section 3 then provides some considerations on possible technological, economic and environmental urban policies, by creating a typo logy of policy tools associated with different causes of urban decline. Section 4 provides some new, and partly provocative, suggestions for specific urban sustainability policies; in particular it deals with the problem of urban sustainability indicators, measures, and critical threshold levels at which urban sustainability policies should be implemented. Some reflective remarks will conclude the paper. 3 figs., 4 tabs., 25 refs.

  19. Maintenance and replacement policies under technological obsolescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavareau, Julien; Labeau, Pierre-Etienne

    2009-01-01

    The technological obsolescence of a unit is characterized by the existence of challenger units displaying identical functionalities, but with higher performances. This paper aims to define and model in a realistic way, possible maintenance policies of a system including replacement strategies when one type of challenger unit is available. The comparison of these possible strategies is performed based on a Monte Carlo estimation of the costs they incur

  20. Climate Change Science,Technology & Policy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Climate Change Science,Technology & Policy · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Millions at Risk from Parry et al., 2001 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Climate Change · Is the global warming in the 20th century due to the increase in radiation emitted by the sun? Frohlich C, Lean J. 1998; ...

  1. Maintenance and replacement policies under technological obsolescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clavareau, Julien [Service de Metrologie Nucleaire, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Av. Franklin Roosevelt 50, CP165/84 Bruxelles B-1050 (Belgium)], E-mail: jclavare@ulb.ac.be; Labeau, Pierre-Etienne [Service de Metrologie Nucleaire, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Av. Franklin Roosevelt 50, CP165/84 Bruxelles B-1050 (Belgium)], E-mail: pelabeau@ulb.ac.be

    2009-02-15

    The technological obsolescence of a unit is characterized by the existence of challenger units displaying identical functionalities, but with higher performances. This paper aims to define and model in a realistic way, possible maintenance policies of a system including replacement strategies when one type of challenger unit is available. The comparison of these possible strategies is performed based on a Monte Carlo estimation of the costs they incur.

  2. Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Research Organization

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce financement contribuera à renforcer le rôle de la Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Research Organization (STIPRO) en tant qu'organisme crédible de recherche sur les politiques publiques en Tanzanie, en améliorant sa capacité à fournir des recherches de qualité supérieure, influentes et utiles en matière de ...

  3. Green technological foresight on environmental friendly agriculture: Executive summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, K.; Christensen, S.; Jørgensen, U.

    2005-01-01

    Risø and the co-operators have on behalf of the Forest and Nature Agency completed a technological foresight on environmentally friendly agriculture based on green technologies. A technological foresight is a systematic dialogue on how one prepares forfuture challenges, which have not yet manifes...

  4. Policy implications of technologies for cognitive enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarewitz, Daniel R. (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ); Karas, Thomas H.

    2007-02-01

    The Advanced Concepts Group at Sandia National Laboratory and the Consortium for Science, Policy and Outcomes at Arizona State University convened a workshop in May 2006 to explore the potential policy implications of technologies that might enhance human cognitive abilities. The group's deliberations sought to identify core values and concerns raised by the prospect of cognitive enhancement. The workshop focused on the policy implications of various prospective cognitive enhancements and on the technologies/nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science--that enable them. The prospect of rapidly emerging technological capabilities to enhance human cognition makes urgent a daunting array of questions, tensions, ambitions, and concerns. The workshop elicited dilemmas and concerns in ten overlapping areas: science and democracy; equity and justice; freedom and control; intergenerational issues; ethics and competition; individual and community rights; speed and deliberations; ethical uncertainty; humanness; and sociocultural risk. We identified four different perspectives to encompass the diverse issues related to emergence of cognitive enhancement technologies: (1) Laissez-faire--emphasizes freedom of individuals to seek and employ enhancement technologies based on their own judgment; (2) Managed technological optimism--believes that while these technologies promise great benefits, such benefits cannot emerge without an active government role; (3) Managed technological skepticism--views that the quality of life arises more out of society's institutions than its technologies; and (4) Human Essentialism--starts with the notion of a human essence (whether God-given or evolutionary in origin) that should not be modified. While the perspectives differ significantly about both human nature and the role of government, each encompasses a belief in the value of transparency and reliable information that can allow public discussion and

  5. 78 FR 42945 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Vacancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Vacancy AGENCY... American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy... its 20 members. ARRA requires that one member have expertise in health information privacy and...

  6. Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology: Editorial Policies ... Science and Technology (EJST) publishes high quality original research articles, reviews, short communications, ... Professor Afework Bekele, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.

  7. Emerging energy technologies impacts and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubb, M.

    1992-01-01

    Technical change is a key factor in the energy world. Failure to recognize the potential for technical change, and the pace at which it may occur, has limited the accuracy and usefulness of past energy projections. conversely, programs to develop and deploy advanced energy technologies have often proved disappointing in the face of technical and commercial obstacles. This book examines important new and emerging energy technologies, and the mechanisms by which they may develop and enter the market. The project concentrates on the potential and probable role of selected energy technologies-which are in existence and likely to be of rapidly growing importance over the next decade-and the way in which market conditions and policy environment may affect their implementation

  8. Solar thermal technology report, FY 1981. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The activities of the Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Technology Program are discussed. Highlights of technical activities and brief descriptions of each technology are given. Solar thermal conversion concepts are discussed in detail, particularily concentrating collectors and salt-gradient solar ponds.

  9. Technological problems connected with execution of the protection sheets for nuclear power sets WWER-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajutin, J.G.; Kriczewskij, A.Z.

    1977-01-01

    The choice of the structure and the prestressing system of the R.C. protection sheet for nuclear power sets WWER-1000 is motivated. The technological problems arised during the execution stage, as well as the technological line producing the tendons to prestress the structure by up winding are presented. (author)

  10. Energy Technology Perspectives 2012: Executive Summary [Spanish version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) is the International Energy Agency’s most ambitious publication on new developments in energy technology. It demonstrates how technologies – from electric vehicles to smart grids – can make a decisive difference in achieving the objective of limiting the global temperature rise to 2°C and enhancing energy security. ETP 2012 presents scenarios and strategies to 2050, with the aim of guiding decision makers on energy trends and what needs to be done to build a clean, secure and competitive energy future.

  11. Energy Technology Perspectives 2012: Executive Summary [Arabic version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) is the International Energy Agency’s most ambitious publication on new developments in energy technology. It demonstrates how technologies – from electric vehicles to smart grids – can make a decisive difference in achieving the objective of limiting the global temperature rise to 2°C and enhancing energy security. ETP 2012 presents scenarios and strategies to 2050, with the aim of guiding decision makers on energy trends and what needs to be done to build a clean, secure and competitive energy future.

  12. Energy Technology Perspectives 2012: Executive Summary [Italian version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) is the International Energy Agency’s most ambitious publication on new developments in energy technology. It demonstrates how technologies – from electric vehicles to smart grids – can make a decisive difference in achieving the objective of limiting the global temperature rise to 2°C and enhancing energy security. ETP 2012 presents scenarios and strategies to 2050, with the aim of guiding decision makers on energy trends and what needs to be done to build a clean, secure and competitive energy future.

  13. Energy Technology Perspectives 2012: Executive Summary [French version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) is the International Energy Agency’s most ambitious publication on new developments in energy technology. It demonstrates how technologies – from electric vehicles to smart grids – can make a decisive difference in achieving the objective of limiting the global temperature rise to 2°C and enhancing energy security. ETP 2012 presents scenarios and strategies to 2050, with the aim of guiding decision makers on energy trends and what needs to be done to build a clean, secure and competitive energy future.

  14. Energy Technology Perspectives 2012: Executive Summary [Portuguese version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) is the International Energy Agency’s most ambitious publication on new developments in energy technology. It demonstrates how technologies – from electric vehicles to smart grids – can make a decisive difference in achieving the objective of limiting the global temperature rise to 2°C and enhancing energy security. ETP 2012 presents scenarios and strategies to 2050, with the aim of guiding decision makers on energy trends and what needs to be done to build a clean, secure and competitive energy future.

  15. Technology and Policy: Looking to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Kory

    2009-05-01

    As the proper scope and nature of arms control continues to be debated, it is certain that technical capabilities and advice will play a significant role. While national priorities and strategic objectives and broader perspectives of international security and foreign policy will ultimately dictate, technical expertise and assessment is critical to the identification, development and evaluation of alternatives. Strategic linkages between arms control, nonproliferation, and homeland security have perhaps never been so intertwined. Incomplete information and strongly held but disparate views about the potential of science and technology to amplify threats as readily as they mitigate them creates a highly dynamic environment for policymakers. To contribute meaningfully scientists and engineers will have to remain engaged with national security debates and think about the strategic and policy environment in which technical questions are posed to them, and how to identify and frame the important questions that aren't.

  16. Rural Public Transportation Technologies: User Needs and Applications. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The Rural Public Transportation Technologies: User Needs and Applications study was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Transportation's (DOT) overall Rural Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Program. The study examined the opportunities...

  17. Workshop on power conditioning for alternative energy technologies. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    As various alternative energy technologies such as photovoltaics, wind, fuel cells, and batteries are emerging as potential sources of energy for the future, the need arises for development of suitable power-conditioning systems to interface these sources to their respective loads. Since most of these sources produce dc electricity and most electrical loads require ac, an important component of the required power-conditioning units is a dc-to-ac inverter. The discussions deal with the development of power conditioners for each alternative energy technology. Discussion topics include assessments of current technology, identification of operational requirements with a comparison of requirements for each source technology, the identification of future technology trends, the determination of mass production and marketing requirements, and recommendations for program direction. Specifically, one working group dealt with source technology: photovoltaics, fuel cells and batteries, and wind followed by sessions discussing system size and application: large grid-connected systems, small grid-connected systems, and stand alone and dc applications. A combined group session provided an opportunity to discuss problems common to power conditioning development.

  18. U.S. Policy Towards Cuba as a Two Level Game or: Defending Executive Policy Discretion in the Face of Domestic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Foreign Policy Agenda,” International Security 8:1 (1983): 113-128. Dominguez, Jorge I. “ Taming the Cuban Shrew ,” Foreign Policy 10 (1973): 94-116...CUBA AS A TWO LEVEL GAME OR: DEFENDING EXECUTIVE POLICY DISCRETION IN THE FACE OF DOMESTIC PRESSURE by Kevin G. Werry, JR. March 2008...No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for

  19. Energy and technology for our life: Concept, execution, results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morell, Frank W.

    1989-01-01

    The VDI is a technological-scientific association, with almost 100 000 members it is the biggest in Europe. Its aim is to supply all professional engineers with 'state of the art' information. Its organisatory mode is decisive for the success of the task at hand: non-aligned as far as economic interests are concerned, unsalaried and with statutory consensus requirement it offers its services not only to members but indeed to all engineers, no matter wether they are still undergoing professional training or are already in full employment. The main services for this target group are: conferences, congresses, symposia, workshops; VDI guidelines and an individual membership service. The range of VDI tasks includes practically all spheres of technology and hence also nuclear energy. This presentation deals with tree points: Concept of the campaign wenergy and technology for our life, the main points of the measures taken between 1983 and 1987; and the results achieved, verified by demoscopic surveys

  20. Energy and technology for our life: Concept, execution, results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morell, Frank W

    1989-07-01

    The VDI is a technological-scientific association, with almost 100 000 members it is the biggest in Europe. Its aim is to supply all professional engineers with 'state of the art' information. Its organisatory mode is decisive for the success of the task at hand: non-aligned as far as economic interests are concerned, unsalaried and with statutory consensus requirement it offers its services not only to members but indeed to all engineers, no matter wether they are still undergoing professional training or are already in full employment. The main services for this target group are: conferences, congresses, symposia, workshops; VDI guidelines and an individual membership service. The range of VDI tasks includes practically all spheres of technology and hence also nuclear energy. This presentation deals with tree points: Concept of the campaign wenergy and technology for our life, the main points of the measures taken between 1983 and 1987; and the results achieved, verified by demoscopic surveys.

  1. Breaking through barriers: using technology to address executive function weaknesses and improve student achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, David M

    2014-01-01

    Assistive technologies provide significant capabilities for improving student achievement. Improved accessibility, cost, and diversity of applications make integration of technology a powerful tool to compensate for executive function weaknesses and deficits and their impact on student performance, learning, and achievement. These tools can be used to compensate for decreased working memory, poor time management, poor planning and organization, poor initiation, and decreased memory. Assistive technology provides mechanisms to assist students with diverse strengths and weaknesses in mastering core curricular concepts.

  2. Future orbital transfer vehicle technology study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E. E.

    1982-01-01

    Reusable space and ground based LO2/LH2 OTV's, both advanced space engines and aero assist capability were compared. The SB OTV provided advantages in life cycle cost, performance and potential for improvement. An all LO2/LH2 OTV fleet was also compared with a fleet of LO2/.H2 OTV's and electric OTV's. The normal growth technology electric OTV used silicon cells with heavy shielding and argon ion thrusters. In this case, the LO2/LH2 OTV fleet provided a 23% advantage in total transportation cost. An accelerated technology LF2/LH2 OTV provided improvements in performance relative to LO2/.H2 OTV but has higher DDT&E cost which negated its cost effectiveness. The accelerated technology electric vehicle used GaAs cells and annealing but still did not result in the mixed fleet being any cheaper than an all LO2/LH2 OTV fleet. It is concluded that reusable LO2/LH2 OTV's can serve all general purpose cargo roles between LEO and GEO for the forseeable future. The most significant technology for the second generation vehicle would be space debris protection, on orbit propellant storage and transfer and on orbit maintenance capability.

  3. Systems autonomy technology: Executive summary and program plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, John S (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The National Space Strategy approved by the President and Congress in 1984 sets for NASA a major goal of conducting effective and productive space applications and technology programs which contribute materially toward United States leadership and security. To contribute to this goal, OAST supports the Nation's civil and defense space programs and overall economic growth. OAST objectives are to ensure timely provision of new concepts and advanced technologies, to support both the development of NASA missions in space and the space activities of industry and other organizations, to utilize the strengths of universities in conducting the NASA space research and technology program, and to maintain the NASA centers in positions of strength in critical space technology areas. In line with these objectives, NASA has established a new program in space automation and robotics that will result in the development and transfer and automation technology to increase the capabilities, productivity, and safety of NASA space programs including the Space Station, automated space platforms, lunar bases, Mars missions, and other deep space ventures. The NASA/OAST Automation and Robotics program is divided into two parts. Ames Research Center has the lead role in developing and demonstrating System Autonomy capabilities for space systems that need to make their own decisions and do their own planning. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has the lead role for Telerobotics (that portion of the program that has a strong human operator component in the control loop and some remote handling requirement in space). This program is intended to be a working document for NASA Headquarters, Program Offices, and implementing Project Management.

  4. A study on nuclear technology policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. J.; Oh, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, T. J.; Yun, S. W.; Jeong, I.

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted as a part of institutional activities of KAERI, and the objective of the study is to survey and analyze the change of international environment in nuclear use and research and development environment, and to propose systematic alternatives on technology policy for efficiency and effectiveness of research and development through national R and D program while timely responding to the environmental change in local and global sense. Acknowledging the importance of the relationship between the external environment and the national nuclear R and D strategic planning, this study focused on the two major subjects: (1) the international environmental and technological change attached to the development of nuclear power; (2) the direction and strategy of nuclear R and D to improve effectiveness through national R and D programs as role of electricity in the future society, strategic environment of nuclear use and R and D in the future society, energy environment and nuclear technology development scenario in the future, strategic study on future vision of KAERI and technological road-mapping of national nuclear R and D for enhancing competitiveness

  5. Public 'in'tolerance of technological hazards and risk policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, P.; Walker, G.; Irwin, A.; Wynne, B.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: it has been recognised that the notion that there is an 'acceptable' level of risk to the public from technological hazards is in many cases inappropriate. UK government policy on major industrial hazards is informed by the principle of 'tolerability' of risk (TOR). In the paper we examine this principle and how it relates to the views of people who live day-to-day with such hazards. The analysis of public views is based on the results of a Q-method study carried out in the course of recent research funded by the UK Health and Safety Executive. The Q-method study distinguishes between different bases of public toleration - and lack of toleration - of risk. The study found lack a toleration to be based on a single cluster of factors, whereas the bases for public toleration of risk were far more differentiated. The results are outlined in the paper. In the concluding section of the paper we examine the implications of these results for policy, in particular for the application of the TOR principle when setting risk criteria. (authors)

  6. Transformation of Graphical ECA Policies into Executable PonderTalk Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeikat, Raphael; Sinsel, Markus; Bauer, Bernhard

    Rules are becoming more and more important in business modeling and systems engineering and are recognized as a high-level programming paradigma. For the effective development of rules it is desired to start at a high level, e.g. with graphical rules, and to refine them into code of a particular rule language for implementation purposes later. An model-driven approach is presented in this paper to transform graphical rules into executable code in a fully automated way. The focus is on event-condition-action policies as a special rule type. These are modeled graphically and translated into the PonderTalk language. The approach may be extended to integrate other rule types and languages as well.

  7. Executive summary. Western oil shale developmet: a technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    The objectives are to review shale oil technologies as a means of supplying domestically produced fuels within environmental, social, economic, and legal/institutional constraints; using available data, analyses, and experienced judgment, to examine the major points of uncertainty regarding potential impacts of oil shale development; to resolve issues where data and analyses are compelling or where conclusions can be reached on judgmental grounds; to specify issues which cannot be resolved on the bases of the data, analyses, and experienced judgment currently available; and when appropriate and feasible, to suggest ways for the removal of existing uncertainties that stand in the way of resolving outstanding issues.

  8. July 2011 Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order, July 21, 2011

  9. Information Technology Skills Recommended for Business Students by Fortune 500 Executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jensen J.; Alexander, Melody W.

    2002-01-01

    Responses from 51 Fortune 500 training and development executives identified 28 information technology skills strongly recommended for business graduates. A similar 1995 survey identified only 11 skills. The largest increase occurred in Internet/Web telecommunications and discipline-specific information systems. (Contains 31 references.) (SK)

  10. Executive Support of Information Technology and Information Systems in Australian Hospitals: an empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Rose

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Little is known regarding the form executive support should take for the progressive use of information technology and information systems [FT] within organisations. This study applies the theory developed by Jarvenpaa and Ives (1991 who examined two forms of support provided by chief executive officers. These were executive participation, a set of IT-related activities, and executive involvement, a psychological state reflecting the importance of IT for the organisation's success. Our research, using data obtained from a questionnaire mailed to a sample of Australian hospitals, measures the relationships between these two forms of support and the progressive use of IT. Our statistical analysis supports the findings of Jarvenpaa and Ives (1991, who found a stronger relationship between executive involvement and the progressive use of IT. Using Australian hospitals allowed Jarvenpaa and Ives' (1991 theory to be applied in a different environment, increasing its external validity. Firm size was also found to have a positive relationship with the progressive use of IT independent of the two forms of executive support.

  11. A study on nuclear technology policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. J.; Chung, W. S.; Yun, S. W.; Kim, H. S.

    2001-01-01

    This study was carried out as a part of institutional activities of KAERI. Major research area are as follows; Future directions and effects for national nuclear R and D to be resulted from restructuring of electricity industry are studied. Comparative study was carried out between nuclear energy and other energy sources from the point of views of environmental effects by introducing life cycle assessment(LCA) method. Japanese trends of reestablishment of nuclear policy such as restructuring of nuclear administration system and long-term plan of development and use of nuclear energy are also investigated, and Russian nuclear development program and Germany trends for phase-out of nuclear electricity generation are also investigated. And trends of the demand and supply of energy in eastern asian countries in from the point of view of energy security and tension in the south china sea are analyzed and investigation of policy trends of Vietnam and Egypt for the development and use of nuclear energy for the promotion of nuclear cooperation with these countries are also carried out. Due to the lack of energy resources and high dependence of imported energy, higher priority should be placed on the use of localized energy supply technology such as nuclear power. In this connection, technological development should be strengthened positively in order to improve economy and safety of nuclear energy and proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycle and wide ranged use of radiation and radioisotopes and should be reflected in re-establishment of national comprehensive promotion plan of nuclear energy in progress

  12. A study on nuclear technology policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, M H; Kim, H J; Chung, W S; Yun, S W; Kim, H S

    2001-01-01

    This study was carried out as a part of institutional activities of KAERI. Major research area are as follows; Future directions and effects for national nuclear R and D to be resulted from restructuring of electricity industry are studied. Comparative study was carried out between nuclear energy and other energy sources from the point of views of environmental effects by introducing life cycle assessment(LCA) method. Japanese trends of reestablishment of nuclear policy such as restructuring of nuclear administration system and long-term plan of development and use of nuclear energy are also investigated, and Russian nuclear development program and Germany trends for phase-out of nuclear electricity generation are also investigated. And trends of the demand and supply of energy in eastern asian countries in from the point of view of energy security and tension in the south china sea are analyzed and investigation of policy trends of Vietnam and Egypt for the development and use of nuclear energy for the promotion of nuclear cooperation with these countries are also carried out. Due to the lack of energy resources and high dependence of imported energy, higher priority should be placed on the use of localized energy supply technology such as nuclear power. In this connection, technological development should be strengthened positively in order to improve economy and safety of nuclear energy and proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycle and wide ranged use of radiation and radioisotopes and should be reflected in re-establishment of national comprehensive promotion plan of nuclear energy in progress.

  13. "Harnessing genomics to improve health in Africa" – an executive course to support genomics policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer Peter A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Africa in the twenty-first century is faced with a heavy burden of disease, combined with ill-equipped medical systems and underdeveloped technological capacity. A major challenge for the international community is to bring scientific and technological advances like genomics to bear on the health priorities of poorer countries. The New Partnership for Africa's Development has identified science and technology as a key platform for Africa's renewal. Recognizing the timeliness of this issue, the African Centre for Technology Studies and the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics co-organized a course on Genomics and Public Health Policy in Nairobi, Kenya, the first of a series of similar courses to take place in the developing world. This article presents the findings and recommendations that emerged from this process, recommendations which suggest that a regional approach to developing sound science and technology policies is the key to harnessing genome-related biotechnology to improve health and contribute to human development in Africa. Methods The objectives of the course were to familiarize participants with the current status and implications of genomics for health in Africa; to provide frameworks for analyzing and debating the policy and ethical questions; and to begin developing a network across different sectors by sharing perspectives and building relationships. To achieve these goals the course brought together a diverse group of stakeholders from academic research centres, the media, non-governmental, voluntary and legal organizations to stimulate multi-sectoral debate around issues of policy. Topics included scientific advances in genomics innovation systems and business models, international regulatory frameworks, as well as ethical and legal issues. Results Seven main recommendations emerged: establish a network for sustained dialogue among participants; identify champions among politicians; use the

  14. Heterogeneous Policies, Heterogeneous Technologies: The Case of Renewable Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolli, Francesco; Vona, Francesco

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigates empirically the effect of market regulation and renewable energy policies on innovation activity in different renewable energy technologies. For the EU countries and the years 1980 to 2007, we built a unique dataset containing information on patent production in eight different technologies, proxies of market regulation and technology-specific renewable energy policies. Our main findings show that lowering entry barriers is a more significant driver of renewable energy innovation than privatisation and un-bundling, but its effect varies across technologies, being stronger in technologies characterised by the potential entry of small, independent power producers. Additionally, the inducement effect of renewable energy policies is heterogeneous and more pronounced for wind, which is the only technology that is mature and has high technological potential. Finally, the ratification of the Kyoto protocol - determining a more stable and less uncertain policy framework - amplifies the inducement effect of both energy policy and market liberalisation. (authors)

  15. Environmental policy and environment-saving technologies. Economic aspects of policy making under uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossokina, I.

    2003-07-01

    It is generally known that natural environment is profoundly influenced by technological change. The direction and the size of this influence are, however, surrounded by uncertainties, which substantially complicate environmental policy making. This dissertation uses game-theoretical models to study policy making under uncertainty about (a) the costs of technological advances in pollution control, (b) the preferences of the policy maker and the voters, and (c) the consequences of policy measures. From a positive point of view the analysis provides explanations for environmental policies in modern democracies. From a normative point of view it gives a number of recommendations to improve environmental policies.

  16. Information and Communication Technology Tools in Support to the Executive Secretary Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Maria de Medeiros Travassos Saeger Martins

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Executive Secretary who longs to stand in organizations should seek to meet market requirements, with primary knowledge about information and communication technology. Its attributions, proper to modern management standards, must be carried out so that this professional can assist managers efficiently. In order to do so, Executive Secretary should make use of tools that aid in speeding up their actions, becoming more productive. In this context, this research was carried out with the Executive Secretaries and students who already work in the area or who are in trainning programs, aiming to investigate the use of Information and Communication Technology tools in the Executive Secretary work. Data collection was done through a structured questionnaire with objective questions, applied on Campus IV/UFPB, whose data were analyzed quantitatively, with results presented in tables and graphs. Based on the results, it was possible to consider that most respondents use ICT tools in their secretarial assignments, such as the computer and the internet. It was found that the majority believes that the use of these tools helps in managing their time when it comes to their duties. Among those who do not make use of ICT tools, most claimed that the organizations in which they work do not have these tools.

  17. Structures and Relationships between the Business Executive and Information Technology Executive at the University: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollman, Angela K.

    2014-01-01

    This study uses an explanatory mixed methods methodology to attempt to determine the reporting relationships between business and IT executives within the university. The study also explores IT and business executives thoughts on these relationships. Supporting research from organizational studies and business-IT alignment is combined in order to…

  18. 77 FR 27774 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Vacancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Vacancy AGENCY... American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy.... ADDRESSES: GAO: [email protected] . GAO: 441 G Street NW., Washington, DC 20548. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  19. Educational Policy and Technological Development in Africa: An X ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technological development is a basic artery through which nations strive to attain true independence. However, the level of technological development is dependent on the system, policy and philosophy of education that is dominant or prevalent in such a country. Any nation that lacks a sound system or policy of education ...

  20. Harnessing genomics to improve health in the Eastern Mediterranean Region – an executive course in genomics policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer Peter A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While innovations in medicine, science and technology have resulted in improved health and quality of life for many people, the benefits of modern medicine continue to elude millions of people in many parts of the world. To assess the potential of genomics to address health needs in EMR, the World Health Organization's Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office and the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics jointly organized a Genomics and Public Health Policy Executive Course, held September 20th–23rd, 2003, in Muscat, Oman. The 4-day course was sponsored by WHO-EMRO with additional support from the Canadian Program in Genomics and Global Health. The overall objective of the course was to collectively explore how to best harness genomics to improve health in the region. This article presents the course findings and recommendations for genomics policy in EMR. Methods The course brought together senior representatives from academia, biotechnology companies, regulatory bodies, media, voluntary, and legal organizations to engage in discussion. Topics covered included scientific advances in genomics, followed by innovations in business models, public sector perspectives, ethics, legal issues and national innovation systems. Results A set of recommendations, summarized below, was formulated for the Regional Office, the Member States and for individuals. • Advocacy for genomics and biotechnology for political leadership; • Networking between member states to share information, expertise, training, and regional cooperation in biotechnology; coordination of national surveys for assessment of health biotechnology innovation systems, science capacity, government policies, legislation and regulations, intellectual property policies, private sector activity; • Creation in each member country of an effective National Body on genomics, biotechnology and health to: - formulate national biotechnology strategies - raise

  1. Heterogeneous policies, heterogeneous technologies: The case of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolli, Francesco; Vona, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates empirically the effect of market regulation and renewable energy policies on innovation activity in different renewable energy technologies. For the EU countries and the years 1980 to 2007, we built a unique dataset containing information on patent production in eight different technologies, proxies of market regulation and technology-specific renewable energy policies. Our main finding is that, compared to privatisation and unbundling, reducing entry barriers is a more significant driver of renewable energy innovation, but that its effect varies across technologies and is stronger in technologies characterised by potential entry of small, independent power producers. In addition, the inducement effect of renewable energy policies is heterogeneous and more pronounced for wind, which is the only technology that is mature and has high technological potential. Finally, ratification of the Kyoto protocol, which determined a more stable and less uncertain policy framework, amplifies the inducement effect of both energy policy and market liberalisation. - Highlights: • We study the effect of market regulation and energy policy on renewable technologies. • Reducing entry barriers is a significant driver of renewable energy innovation. • The Kyoto protocol amplifies the effect of both energy policy and liberalisation. • These effects are heterogeneous across technologies and stronger for wind.

  2. A study on the nuclear technology policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Ham, C. H.; Kim, H. J.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, T. J.; Lee, B. O.; Yun, S. W.; Choi, Y. M.; Eom, T. Y

    1998-01-01

    This study analyzed the major issues as the research activities for the support of establishment and implementation of national policy. The analyses were focused on the recommendations of the responsive direction of national policy in positive and effective manners in accordance with the changes of international nuclear affairs. This study also analyzed the creation of environmental foundation for effective implementation of the national policy and national R and D investment such as securing national consensus and openings of policy information to the public. The major results of the role and position of nuclear policy, trends of nuclear policy and nuclear R and D activities of USA, France, Japan, Asian developing countries etc. and international trends of small- and medium-sized reactor as well as spin-offs of nuclear R and D activities, were analyzed. (author). 66 refs., 27 tabs., 15 figs

  3. Sectoral Systems and Innovation and Technology Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Malerba

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo usa o conceito de sistema setorial de inovações que permite a utilização de uma visão multidimensional integrada e dinâmica da inovação em seus setores. Sistemas setoriais apresentam três dimensões que afetam tanto a geração e adoção de novas tecnologias quanto a organização da inovação e produção nos seguintes níveis setoriais: conhecimento, atores e redes e instituições. O artigo discute o escopo conceitual dos sistemas setoriais, apresenta cinco análises de setores principais e examina suas tendências principais, seus desafios e suas transformações. O artigo também oferece uma análise sobre implicações políticas públicas e sugestões do ponto de vista do sistema setorial de inovações.This paper uses the concept of sectoral system of innovation which aims to provide a multidimensional, integrated and dynamic view of innovation in sectors. Sectoral systems have three dimensions that affect the generation and adoption of new technologies and the organization of innovation and production at the sectoral level: knowledge (and the related boundaries, actors and networks, and institutions. The paper discusses the conceptual framework of sectoral systems, presents five main sectoral systems and examines their major trends, challenges and transformation. The paper then examines which are the main policy implications and indications in a sectoral system perspective.

  4. Dissemination of health technology assessments: identifying the visions guiding an evolving policy innovation in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoux, Pascale; Denis, Jean-Louis; Tailliez, Stéphanie; Hivon, Myriam

    2005-08-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) has received increasing support over the past twenty years in both North America and Europe. The justification for this field of policy-oriented research is that evidence about the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of technology should contribute to decision and policy making. However, concerns about the ability of HTA producers to increase the use of their findings by decision makers have been expressed. Although HTA practitioners have recognized that dissemination activities need to be intensified, why and how particular approaches should be adopted is still under debate. Using an institutional theory perspective, this article examines HTA as a means of implementing knowledge-based change within health care systems. It presents the results of a case study on the dissemination strategies of six Canadian HTA agencies. Chief executive officers and executives (n = 11), evaluators (n = 19), and communications staff (n = 10) from these agencies were interviewed. Our results indicate that the target audience of HTA is frequently limited to policy makers, that three conflicting visions of HTA dissemination coexist, that active dissemination strategies have only occasionally been applied, and that little attention has been paid to the management of diverging views about the value of health technology. Our discussion explores the strengths, limitations, and trade-offs associated with the three visions. Further efforts should be deployed within agencies to better articulate a shared vision and to devise dissemination strategies that are consistent with this vision.

  5. Space assets, technology and services in support of energy policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasko, C. A.; Adriaensen, M.; Bretel, A.; Duvaux-Bechon, I.; Giannopapa, C. G.

    2017-09-01

    Space can be used as a tool by decision and policy makers in developing, implementing and monitoring various policy areas including resource management, environment, transport, security and energy. This paper focuses on the role of space for the energy policy. Firstly, the paper summarizes the European Union's (EU) main objectives in energy policy enclosed in the Energy Strategy 2020-2030-2050 and demonstrates how space assets can contribute to achieving those objectives. Secondly, the paper addresses how the European Space Agency (ESA) has established multiple initiatives and programs that directly finance the development of space assets, technology and applications that deliver services in support of the EU energy policy and sector. These efforts should be continued and strengthened in order to overcome identified technological challenges. The use of space assets, technology and applications, can help achieve the energy policy objectives for the next decades.

  6. Technology policy for climate change mitigation: a transatlantic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This workshop was the second climate policy conference jointly organized by RFF and IFRI in Paris. (The first one, ''How to Make Progress Post-Kyoto?'', was held on March 19, 2003). This Summary Paper is divided into two parts: The first part presents short summaries of all the presentations at the workshop (rationale and past experience in technology policies, the challenges and policy responses of the climate friendly technologies). The second part, which is an edited version of the closing remarks by Pierre Noel (Ifri), highlights some of the policy lessons that emerged from the workshop. (A.L.B.)

  7. Technology policy for climate change mitigation: a transatlantic perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This workshop was the second climate policy conference jointly organized by RFF and IFRI in Paris. (The first one, ''How to Make Progress Post-Kyoto?'', was held on March 19, 2003). This Summary Paper is divided into two parts: The first part presents short summaries of all the presentations at the workshop (rationale and past experience in technology policies, the challenges and policy responses of the climate friendly technologies). The second part, which is an edited version of the closing remarks by Pierre Noel (Ifri), highlights some of the policy lessons that emerged from the workshop. (A.L.B.)

  8. Emergent information technologies and enabling policies for counter-terrorism

    CERN Document Server

    Popp, R

    2006-01-01

    Explores both counter-terrorism and enabling policy dimensions of emerging information technologies in national security After the September 11th attacks, "connecting the dots" has become the watchword for using information and intelligence to protect the United States from future terrorist attacks. Advanced and emerging information technologies offer key assets in confronting a secretive, asymmetric, and networked enemy. Yet, in a free and open society, policies must ensure that these powerful technologies are used responsibly, and that privacy and civil liberties remain protected. Emergent Information Technologies and Enabling Policies for Counter-Terrorism provides a unique, integrated treatment of cutting-edge counter-terrorism technologies and their corresponding policy options. Featuring contributions from nationally recognized authorities and experts, this book brings together a diverse knowledge base for those charged with protecting our nation from terrorist attacks while preserving our civil liberti...

  9. Investments in technology subject to uncertainty. Analysis and policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard

    1997-01-01

    Investments in technology are today of such a magnitude that it matters. In the paper there are three important questions. First on the question in which sense technological uncertainty can be said to be a problem. Second on strategies for diminishing technological uncertainties. Three on policy...

  10. Policy issues inherent in advanced technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, P.D.

    1994-12-31

    In the development of advanced technologies, there are several forces which are involved in the success of the development of those technologies. In the overall development of new technologies, a sufficient number of these forces must be present and working in order to have a successful opportunity at developing, introducing and integrating into the marketplace a new technology. This paper discusses some of these forces and how they enter into the equation for success in advanced technology research, development, demonstration, commercialization and deployment. This paper limits itself to programs which are generally governmental funded, which in essence represent most of the technology development efforts that provide defense, energy and environmental technological products. Along with the identification of these forces are some suggestions as to how changes may be brought about to better ensure success in a long term to attempt to minimize time and financial losses.

  11. Policy issues inherent in advanced technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    In the development of advanced technologies, there are several forces which are involved in the success of the development of those technologies. In the overall development of new technologies, a sufficient number of these forces must be present and working in order to have a successful opportunity at developing, introducing and integrating into the marketplace a new technology. This paper discusses some of these forces and how they enter into the equation for success in advanced technology research, development, demonstration, commercialization and deployment. This paper limits itself to programs which are generally governmental funded, which in essence represent most of the technology development efforts that provide defense, energy and environmental technological products. Along with the identification of these forces are some suggestions as to how changes may be brought about to better ensure success in a long term to attempt to minimize time and financial losses

  12. Technology policy in the face of the environment catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupp, H.

    1990-01-01

    Some 70 experts from science, industry and politics discussed in December 1989 in a seminar of the WE Heraeus Foundation the 'Options and priorities of future research and technology policy'. In the face of looming global climate changes and other environmental problems, the main subject was an ecologically oriented research and technology policy which safeguards the future on a long-term basis. This policy has to fulfil the following criteria: - wide time horizon (100 years), - world solidarity (North/South countries), - if possible small risks for the population, - welfare instead of economic growth. The proceedings contain lectures and discussions, giving a representative survey of the international state of research and technology policy and, illustrated by concrete examples, drawing up future demands on this policy. (orig./HSCH) With 28 figs [de

  13. Technology and public policy: The process of technology assessment in the federal government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, V. T.

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to provide a descriptive and analytical review of the concept of technology assessment and the current status of its applications in the work of the federal executive agencies. The origin of the term technology assessment was examined along with a brief history of its discussion and development since 1966 and some of the factors influencing that development.

  14. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Policy for Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Policy for Rural Community ... It is against this background that the Nigerian Government has formulated ... The desire is there, the awareness has been created but the will power to budget ...

  15. Data Mining: Technology and Policy. 2008 Report to Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teufel, III, Hugo

    2008-01-01

    ...: Technology and Policy. The Privacy Office has prepared this report to the Congress pursuant to the Department's obligations under Section 804 of the Implementing the Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007...

  16. Healthy China 2020 : Policy and Technology Evaluation | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Healthy China 2020 : Policy and Technology Evaluation ... aimed at providing a blueprint for universal basic healthcare coverage for all by 2020. ... Implementing clinical pathway management and reforming compensation mechanism in rural ...

  17. Technology Policy and Practice in Africa | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Osita M. Ogbu has a doctorate in economics from Howard University and was a ... Unit, University of Sussex, and also has a background in chemical engineering. ... on technology policy and industrial development in sub-Saharan Africa.

  18. 247 Educational Policy and Technological Development in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Our modern world is sharply divided along two socio- economic poles of ... This article therefore, will look at how Nigeria's educational policy affects her level of .... the scientific and technological culture” (Umoren, 1996). vii. Lack of appropriate ...

  19. Review of automated vehicle technology : policy and implementation implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-14

    The goals of this project were to undergo a systematic review of automated vehicle technologies with a focus on policy : implications, methods of implementation, regulation by states, and developments occurring on legal fronts, ultimately creating a ...

  20. 77 FR 46855 - Small Business Technology Transfer Program Policy Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Chapter I RIN 3245-AF45 Small Business Technology Transfer Program Policy Directive AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Final policy directive with request for comments. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is amending its Small Business...

  1. Art and technology: A comparative study of policy legitimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.M. Wijnberg (Nachoem)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe legitimation of technology policy is discussed from the point of view of the neoclassical and of the dynamic, Schumpeterian, approach. The results are presented, using the traditional categories of policy legitimation in welfare theory: public goods, externalities, and merit goods.

  2. An Effectiveness Analysis of the U.S. Federal Government Executive Branch Ethics Policy and Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stewart, Chanet

    2003-01-01

    .... As public servants, whether elected or non-elected, Executive Branch employees are expected to make decisions and spend tax-payer dollars in ways that promote the overall interests of the American public...

  3. 78 FR 74129 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... for Environmental Policy and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice... Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management issues. NACEPT members represent academia...

  4. 75 FR 25240 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology... for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management issues. NACEPT is a committee of...

  5. Policy and innovation: Nanoenergy technology in the USA and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Na; Guan, JianCheng

    2016-01-01

    The USA is a leading country while China is an up-and-coming one in nanotechnology. We carried out a cross-country comparative study on policy and innovation of the two countries in subset nanoenergy field. They both created favorable policy environments for nanotechnology involving applications of nanotechnology in the energy sector. However, Chinese policy deployments for nanotechnology lack coordinated arrangements and effective assessment mechanisms. China performs better than the USA in technological quantity, but weaker in technological influence. The USA expresses an industry-oriented model in nanoenergy technological research and development, but China exhibits a university-and-institute-oriented model. Interorganizational collaboration relationships in the two countries are both still very rare and have huge development space. They both have a long way to go in converting their technological achievements into commercial products, especially China. Finally, we provide the policy implications of this study. In particular, the Chinese government should strengthen its efforts in policies by changing the national S&T evaluation system to set up the basic idea that quality is better than quantity in order to raise the original innovation motivations of innovators. - Highlights: •We compare development status of nanoenergy technologies between China and the USA. •We mainly focus on their policies, innovation performance and pattern in nanoenergy. •Differences are observed in nanoenergy technologies developed in these two countries. •We propose their endeavor directions in nanoenergy based on this study.

  6. ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The journal of environmental technology is devoted to the publication of papers which advance knowledge of practical and theoretical issues of the environmental technology. Selection of papers for publication is based on their relevance, clarity, topicality and individuality; the extent to which they advance ...

  7. Health care technology as a policy issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banta, H.D.

    1994-01-01

    Health care technology has become an increasingly visible issue in many countries, primarily because of the rising costs of health care. In addition, many questions concerning quality of care are being raised. Health care technology assessment has been seen as an aid in addressing questions

  8. Transport Technologies and Policy Scenarios to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-10-15

    As part of the major WEC study on Scenarios to 2050, a specific investigation was undertaken on measures required in the transport sector to secure sustainable energy and sustainable mobility in the future. This report outlines the results conducted by a study group of international WEC transport experts and gives concrete policy recommendations to develop sustainable transport systems.

  9. Accumulative pollution, "clean technology," and policy design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toman, M.A.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the optimal long-term management of an accumulative but assimilable pollutant through economic incentive policies that restrict more damaging production processes and induce more benign alternatives. Using a simple general equilibrium approach, we consider the possibility that

  10. Confession and Carrying into Execution of Foreign Arbitration Courts' Decisions: Reciprocity and Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarina, Salima A.; Nukusheva, Aigul A.; Kalmagambetov, Kassym S.; Kumysbekova, Zhanara T.; Nesterova, Elena V.

    2016-01-01

    The article contains a comparative analysis of foreign arbitration courts' decisions, ensuring the reciprocity and public policy. The aim of the study is to explore such aspects as reciprocity and public policy of arbitration courts. The result is the view of the public policy, despite its apparent irrelevance in today's Kazakhstan, which is of…

  11. Science and Technology Policy in Colombia: A Comparative Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correa-Restrepo, Juan Santiago; Tejada-Gomez, Maria Alejandra; Cayon-Fallon, Edgardo; Ordonez Matamoros, Hector Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to assess the current situation of the science and technology system in Colombia from a comparative perspective of quality indicators in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). We analyze the development of the science and technology policy in Colombia form a

  12. Science and technology policy for the 1980s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Four reports analyze the problems of innovation policy. They discuss interactions between scientific and technological development and economic and social progress. They also discuss international cooperation. They see scientific and technological resources as vital to meeting present economic challenges. 112 references, 3 figures, 10 tables.

  13. Policies to Encourage the Development of Water Sanitation Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euverink, G.J.W.; Temmink, B.G.; Rozendal, R.A.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines innovations in water technology, policies to develop technologies that will contribute to a sustainalbe economy, and the introduction of the new concepts to society. We discuss our views on how wastewater treatment may be performed in the future in such a way that the WFD

  14. Institutional Educational Technology Policy and Strategy Documents: An Inequality Gaze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniewicz, Laura; Rother, Kyle

    2018-01-01

    Issues of inequality in higher education have received considerable attention in recent decades, but the intersection of inequality and educational technology at an institutional level has received little attention. This study aims to provide a perspective on institutional educational technology policy informed by current understandings of…

  15. Are clean technology and environmental quality conflicting policy goals?

    OpenAIRE

    Brechet, Thierry; Meunier, Guy; Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique UR 1303 Alimentation et Sciences Sociales

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the effects of an environmental policy on the diffusion of a clean technology in an economy where firms compete on the output market. We show that the share of adopting firms is non-monotonic with the stringency of the environmental policy, and that the adoption of the clean technology may well increase the pollution level. We also compare the effects of an emission tax and tradable pollution permits on welfare, technology adoption, and pollution level. We show that, ...

  16. Are Clean Technology and Environmental Quality Conflicting Policy Goals?

    OpenAIRE

    Thierry Brechet; Guy Meunier

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the effects of an environmental policy on the diffusion of a clean technology in an economy where firms compete on the output market. We show that the share of adopting firms is non-monotonic with the stringency of the environmental policy, and that the adoption of the clean technology may well increase the pollution level. We also compare the effects of an emission tax and tradable pollution permits on welfare, technology adoption, and pollution level. We show that, ...

  17. Nigerian Journal of Technology: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Journal of Technology is based at the Faculty of Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka and has been in ... The paper should cover any aspects of engineering education, planning, analysis ... Chemical, Industrial, Materials, Mechanical, Metallurgical, Petroleum ... Engr. Dr. C.A. Mgbemene Business Editor.

  18. Technology Policy and Practice in Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The continued insistence that Africa should do what it does best, that is, produce ..... specific technological capabilities that provide for learning commonalities and make ...... Continuity of service was the first consideration, so the design had to ...... Most SSE owners were influenced by customer expectations and tastes, ...

  19. Information communication technology policy and public primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study was to correlate Information Communication Technology with public primary schools' efficiency in Rwanda. The study employed the descriptive survey and descriptive co-relational design. One hundred and forty-four primary teachers participated in the study. The level of ICT was poor (M ...

  20. Technology, market and policy aspects of geothermal energy in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, Ruth; Uihlein, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan) is the technology pillar of the EU's energy and climate policy. The goal of the SET-Plan is to achieve EU worldwide leadership in the production of energy technological solutions capable of delivering EU 2020 and 2050 targets for a low carbon economy. The Joint Research Centre (JRC) runs and manages the SET-Plan Information System (SETIS) to support the SET-Plan. Under SETIS, the JRC publishes a number of regularly updated key references on the state of low carbon technology, research and innovation in Europe. Within the framework of the SET-Plan, the geothermal sector is placed into context with other power and heat generation technologies. The talk will give an introduction to some of JRC's geothermal research activities. Amongst others, the JRC Geothermal status report will be presented. This report aims to contribute to the general knowledge about the geothermal sector, its technology, economics and policies, with a focus on innovation, research, development and deployment activities as well as policy support schemes within the European Union. The speech will present the main findings of the report, providing an overview of the activities and progress made by the geothermal energy sector, the status of its sub-technologies and current developments. In addition, the speech will discuss the economic, market and policy aspects of geothermal energy for power production, direct use and ground source heat pumps in Europe and beyond.

  1. Router Agent Technology for Policy-Based Network Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward T.; Sudhir, Gurusham; Chang, Hsin-Ping; James, Mark; Liu, Yih-Chiao J.; Chiang, Winston

    2011-01-01

    This innovation can be run as a standalone network application on any computer in a networked environment. This design can be configured to control one or more routers (one instance per router), and can also be configured to listen to a policy server over the network to receive new policies based on the policy- based network management technology. The Router Agent Technology transforms the received policies into suitable Access Control List syntax for the routers it is configured to control. It commits the newly generated access control lists to the routers and provides feedback regarding any errors that were faced. The innovation also automatically generates a time-stamped log file regarding all updates to the router it is configured to control. This technology, once installed on a local network computer and started, is autonomous because it has the capability to keep listening to new policies from the policy server, transforming those policies to router-compliant access lists, and committing those access lists to a specified interface on the specified router on the network with any error feedback regarding commitment process. The stand-alone application is named RouterAgent and is currently realized as a fully functional (version 1) implementation for the Windows operating system and for CISCO routers.

  2. The relation between executing of thesis policies and medical student's theses quality in type medical faculties of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolahi A.A

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical students' thesis is equal to six units, which is mandatory for graduation. The purpose of preparing thesis is to familiarize students with research process, methodology, and scientific report writing skill. Purpose: The objective of this study is to determine the relation between executing of thesis policies and medical students' theses quality in type I medical faculties of Iran Methods: To perform this study first, we randomly chose 36 (Total sample=396 medical students' theses in each 11 medical faculties, which completed in 1998-99 academic year. The original theses were evaluated by using a questionnaire. Second, for evaluation of operationalization of thesis policies we use four criteria including, the presence of performance regulations, the proposals approving process, final approving course and presence of a defence session to evaluate thesis in the same medical faculty. Results: In medical faculties that thesis policies were completed, the score of theses was high. In contrast medical faculties with weak policies had low students’ theses scores. Conclusion: Thesis policies are considered as one of the ways to improve the quality of thesis. it is advise at the same time as we should be plan to provide the effective factors for improvement quality of thesis consider strongly the regulations related thesis should be considerate. Keywords: MEDICAL STUDENTS, THESES, REGULATION, and SCORES

  3. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Science & Technology Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-18

    urgent and vital problems that faced the United States of America at that time. This discussion was of a completely free nature, and, although at...imeni M.O. Auezov, and the Sociology Center attached to the Institute of Eco- nomics, which took part in sociolinguistic studies of the language...development of advanced technologies. In the United States of America , for example, a special fund of these technologies was estab- lished. An

  4. Definition of technology development missions for early Space Station satellite servicing. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The Executive Summary volume 1, includes an overview of both phases of the Definition of Technology Development Missions for Early Space Station Satellite Servicing. The primary purpose of Phase 1 of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Satellite Servicing Phase 1 study was to establish requirements for demonstrating the capability of performing satellite servicing activities on a permanently manned Space Station in the early 1990s. The scope of Phase 1 included TDM definition, outlining of servicing objectives, derivation of initial Space Station servicing support requirements, and generation of the associated programmatic schedules and cost. The purpose of phase 2 of the satellite servicing study was to expand and refine the overall understanding of how best to use the manned space station as a test bed for demonstration of satellite servicing capabilities.

  5. Plans & Policies for Technology in Education: A Compendium. A Technology Leadership Network Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National School Boards Association, Alexandria, VA. Inst. for the Transfer of Technology to Education.

    This document shows how education leaders nationwide--many of them part of the National School Boards Association's 345-district Technology Leadership Network--have addressed technology-related policy issues such as copyright, purchasing, network/Internet use, and ethics as well as technology planning topics including staff development, classroom…

  6. Technology assessment and technology policy in Europe : New concepts, new goals, new infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, R.; Leyten, J.; Hertog, P. den

    1995-01-01

    Starting from the observation that the technological potentials are underutilized in economic and in social tems, this article raises the question of what role technology assessment (TA) can play in technology policy to address this problem. The causes of the problem of underutilization are analyzed

  7. Evaluating business models for microgrids: Interactions of technology and policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, Ryan; Ghonima, Mohamed; Kleissl, Jan; Tynan, George; Victor, David G.

    2017-01-01

    Policy makers are increasingly focused on strategies to decentralize the electricity grid. We analyze the business model for one mode of decentralization—microgrids—and quantify the economics for self-supply of electricity and thermal energy and explicitly resolve technological as well as policy variables. We offer a tool, based on the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) modeling framework, that determines the cost-minimal capacity and operation of distributed energy resources in a microgrid, and apply it in southern California to three “iconic” microgrid types which represent typical commercial adopters: a large commercial building, critical infrastructure, and campus. We find that optimal investment leads to some deployment of renewables but that natural gas technologies underpin the most robust business cases—due in part to relatively cheap gas and high electricity rates. This finding contrasts sharply with most policy advocacy, which has focused on the potentials for decentralization of the grid to encourage deployment of renewables. Decentralization could radically reduce customer energy costs, but without the right policy framework it could create large numbers of small decentralized sources of gas-based carbon emissions that will be difficult to control if policy makers want to achieve deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions. - Highlights: • We offer a modeling tool to study technology and policy variables for microgrids. • We construct comprehensive load profiles for three likely adopters of microgrids. • Investment in natural gas generators is key to enabling business models. • Solar PV and storage are optimal but as supplements to gas generation. • Business models are highly robust to sensitivity in technology and policy variables.

  8. Useful models for simulating policies to induce technological change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivers, Nic; Jaccard, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Conventional top-down and bottom-up energy-economy models have limitations that affect their usefulness to policy-makers. Efforts to develop hybrid models, that incorporate valuable aspects of these two frameworks, may be more useful by representing technologies in the energy-economy explicitly while also representing more realistically the way in which businesses and consumers choose between those technologies. This representation allows for the realistic simulation of a wide range of technology-specific regulations and fiscal incentives alongside economy-wide fiscal incentives and disincentives. These policies can be assessed based on the costs required to reach a goal in the medium term, as well as on the degree to which they induce technological change that affects costs over long time periods

  9. Causality between public policies and exports of renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Bongsuk; Song, Woo-Yong

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the causal relationship between public policies and exports of renewable energy technologies using panel data from 18 countries for the period 1991–2007. A number of panel unit root and cointegration tests are applied. Time series data on public policies and exports are integrated and cointegrated. The dynamic OLS results indicate that in the long run, a 1% increase in government R and D expenditures (RAD) increases exports (EX) by 0.819%. EX and RAD variables respond to deviations from the long-run equilibrium in the previous period. Additionally, the Blundell–Bond system generalized methods of moments (GMM) is employed to conduct a panel causality test in a vector error-correction mechanism (VECM) setting. Evidence of a bidirectional and short-run, and strong causal relationship between EX and the contribution of renewable energy to the total energy supply (CRES) is uncovered. CRES has a negative effect on EX, whereas EX has a positive effect on CRES. We suggest some policy implications based on the results of this study. - Highlights: ► We model VECM to test the Granger causality between the policies and the export. ► Technology-push policy has a positive impact on export in the long-run. ► There are the short-run causal relationships between market-pull policy and export

  10. 76 FR 1431 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY... National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management issues. NACEPT...

  11. 75 FR 52941 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management issues. NACEPT...

  12. 76 FR 24481 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management issues. NACEPT...

  13. 76 FR 68183 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management issues. NACEPT...

  14. 75 FR 38810 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management...

  15. 76 FR 37112 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management...

  16. Strategic technology policy as a supplement to renewable energy standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Carolyn; Greaker, Mads; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2018-01-01

    In many regions, renewable energy targets are a primary decarbonization policy. Most of the same jurisdictions also subsidize the manufacturing and/or deployment of renewable energy technologies, some being sufficiently aggressive as to engender WTO disputes. We consider a downstream energy-using

  17. Japanese policy on science and technology for the global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, M.

    1994-01-01

    The current state of Japanese science and technology policy is discussed within the framework of overall global environmental policy. Principles of Japanese environmental policy include participation in international schemes for conservation of the global environment, promotion of Japanese research on the global environment, development and diffusion of technologies contributing to conservation of the global environment, contribution to conservation of the environment in developing countries, and maintenance of economic and social activities in Japan at an environmentally beneficial level. The Japanese environmental budget includes expenditures for earth observation and monitoring by satellite, energy-related research and development, and control of greenhouse gas emissions. The proportion of overall Japanese research and development (R ampersand D) expenditures which were spent on the global environment was about 2% in 1991. Of governmental research expenditures, ca 22% involve the global environment; however, some part of the expenditures on energy R ampersand D and on earth observation satellite R ampersand D are also environment-related. 5 figs

  18. Environmental policy and technological development in the Dutch economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollebergh, H.; Van Groenendaal, W.; Hofkes, M.; Kemp, R.

    2004-01-01

    An analysis is given of recent insights into technological development and the environment. In particular, attention is paid to the question whether it is possible or not to combine continuous economic development with a release of the environmental burden. In several chapters the authors provide insight and discuss theories with regard to innovation and adoption of new technologies, the concept of transition management and the importance of uncertainty with respect to the decision to invest in environment-friendly techniques or not. Also, much attention is paid to characteristics of the Dutch economy and their consequences for technology and environmental policy and related interactions [nl

  19. Adding Entrepreneurship to India’s Science, Technology & Innovation Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragini Chaurasia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Science, Technology & Innovation Policy (STIP is an important policy instrument particularly in the developing countries. India also has recognized the role of science, technology and innovation in development as early as 1958 but still trails behind its peer Brazil, China and the Asian tiger Singapore. Considering strong correlation between research and development investment and growth based on existing studies, this paper brings forth the present situation of India in investment and its influence on the performance of the economy vis-à-vis the three countries. This paper studies the STIP 2013 in detail and reports the contribution of the Department of Science and Technology in India. The main conclusion of this paper is the recommendation for incorporation of “entrepreneurship” in STIP based on global best practices, which can be achieved by government’s involvement as a venture capitalist to seed and support innovations, increasing transparency and incorporating entrepreneurial curriculum.

  20. 42 CFR 52b.14 - Other federal laws, regulations, executive orders, and policies that apply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories. 36 CFR part 1190—Minimum guidelines and requirements for... Department of Health and Human Services—effectuation of title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. 45 CFR part.... (1) Design Policy and Guidelines (1996). Division of Engineering Services, National Institutes of...

  1. Energy and the environment: Technology assessment and policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, M.P.W.

    1990-01-01

    While the energy crisis of the 1970s stimulated technological innovation in developed countries, it often had the opposite effect in the third world. However, developing countries can be considered to have two types of energy systems: ''connected'' and ''disconnected''. The connected system is affected by changes in the price of commercial energy, but the disconnected system is usually rural and remote. Commercial forms of energy may be needed in the disconnected system, but they are largely unavailable. In some of the developing countries, new energy technologies have therefore been developed which adapt traditional technologies still existing in the disconnected sector. In this article some of the work of the United National Centre for Science and Technology for Development is described. Through its ATAS (Advance Technology Alert System) programme, international and regional workshops are held to discuss policy questions arising in regard to new technologies and developments. Workshops have been held in Moscow on new energy technologies in the industry subsystem (connected), in Guatemala City on new energy technologies and the disconnected system, and in Ottawa on new energy technologies, transportation and development. Initial assessments made by or through these workshops are outlined here. A fourth workshop will be held in June 1990 in Saarbrucken on energy technologies and climate change. (author). 3 figs

  2. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 and Executive Order 13149: Proposed compliance strategies and process improvements for federal agencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helwig, Michael; Deason, Jonathan P.

    2007-01-01

    Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), 75 percent of Light Duty Vehicle acquisitions by federal agencies must be Alternative Fuel Vehicles (AFVs). EPAct's intent was to reduce United States reliance on oil imports, with federal agencies assuming a leadership role in acquiring AFVs and using alternative fuel in those AFVs. Executive Order (E.O.) 13149, issued in 2000, required federal agencies to reduce petroleum consumption 20 percent relative to a 1999 baseline and use alternative fuels the majority of the time in their AFVs by 2005. Most federal agencies met the EPAct 75 percent acquisition requirement in 2004, however, most will not achieve the petroleum reduction and alternative fuel use requirements. Frequently, federal agencies acquire the relatively expensive AFVs and then fuel those vehicles with gasoline. Besides wasting taxpayer dollars, this approach does not meet the intent of EPAct. It was surmised that federal agencies lack an objective, quantitative methodology for AFV acquisitions and Executive Order 13149 compliance. Several types of optimization models were constructed, using the United States Navy as a test case, for models focusing on EPAct and/or E.O. 13149 compliance. Results of a tiered set of models indicate there are efficiencies that federal agencies could take advantage of when developing EPAct and E.O. 13149 compliance strategies that are not currently being exploited

  3. The execution by COVRA of the Dutch policy with regard to radioactive waste. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrijen, J.

    1989-01-01

    Considerations for alteration of the radioactive-waste policy in the Netherlands resulted in the foundation in 1982 of the Central Organization For Radioactive Waste (COVRA). This chapter deals with the specifications of duty and the organization of COVRA and its management with regard to the interim storage and processing of radioactive waste in Zijpe and Borssele, and the final disposal. (H.W.). 3 figs

  4. Energy Policy is Technology Politics The Hydrogen Energy Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl-Jochen Winter

    2006-01-01

    Germany's energy supply status shows both an accumulation of unsatisfactory sustainabilities putting the nation's energy security at risk, and a hopeful sign: The nation's supply dependency on foreign sources and the accordingly unavoidable price dictate the nation suffers under is almost life risking; the technological skill, however, of the nation's researchers, engineers, and industry materializes in a good percentage of the indigenous and the world's energy conversion technology market. Exemplified with the up and coming hydrogen energy economy this paper tries to advocate the 21. century energy credo: energy policy is energy technology politics! Energy source thinking and acting is 19. and 20. century, energy efficient conversion technology thinking and acting is 21. century. Hydrogen energy is on the verge of becoming the centre-field of world energy interest. Hydrogen energy is key for the de-carbonization and, thus, sustainabilization of fossil fuels, and as a storage and transport means for the introduction of so far un-operational huge renewable sources into the world energy market. - What is most important is hydrogen's thermodynamic ability to exergize the energy scheme: hydrogen makes more technical work (exergy) out of less primary energy! Hydrogen adds value. Hydrogen energy and, in particular, hydrogen energy technologies, are to become part of Germany's national energy identity; accordingly, national energy policy as energy technology politics needs to grow in the nation's awareness as common sense! Otherwise Germany seems ill-equipped energetically, and its well-being hangs in the balance. (author)

  5. World energy, technology and climate policy outlook 2030. WETO 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Starting from a set of clear key assumptions on economic activity, population and hydrocarbon resources, WETO describes in detail scenarios for the evolution of World and European energy systems, power generation technologies and impacts of climate change policy in the main world regions or countries.It presents a coherent framework to analyse the energy, technology and environment trends and issues over the period to 2030, focusing on Europe in a world context. Three of the key results of this work are: (1) in a Reference scenario, i.e.if no strong specific policy initiatives and measures are taken, world CO2 emissions are expected to double in 2030 and, with a share of 90%, fossil fuels will continue to dominate the energy system; (2) the great majority of the increase in oil production will come from OPEC countries and the EU will rely predominantly on natural gas imported from the CIS; and (3) as the largest growing energy demand and CO2 emissions originate from developing countries (mainly China and India), Europe will have to intensify its co-operation, particularly in terms of transfer of technologies. The analysis of long-term scenarios and a particular attention to the energy world context, is an important element for efficient energy, technology and environment policies towards a sustainable world

  6. Legitimation problems of participatory processes in technology assessment and technology policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saretzki, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Since James Carroll (1971) made a strong case for "participatory technology", scientists, engineers, policy-makers and the public at large have seen quite a number of different approaches to design and implement participatory processes in technology assessment and technology policy. As these participatory experiments and practices spread over the last two decades, one could easily get the impression that participation turned from a theoretical normative claim to a working practice that goes without saying. Looking beyond the well-known forerunners and considering the ambivalent experiences that have been made under different conditions in various places, however, the "if" and "how" of participation are still contested issues when questions of technology are on the agenda. Legitimation problems indicate that attempts to justify participation in a given case have not been entirely successful in the eyes of relevant groups among the sponsors, participants, organizers or observers. Legitimation problems of participatory processes in technology assessment and technology policy vary considerably, and they do so not only with the two domains and the ways of their interrelation or the specific features of the participatory processes. If we ask whether or not participation is seen as problematic in technology assessment and technology policy-making and in what sense it is being evaluated as problematic, then we find that the answer depends also on the approaches and criteria that have been used to legitimize or delegitimize the call for a specific design of participation.

  7. Teacher Verbal Aggressiveness and Credibility Mediate the Relationship between Teacher Technology Policies and Perceived Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Amber N.; Ledbetter, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we extend previous work on teacher technology policies by refining the teacher technology policies instrument to account for the technology purpose (social, academic) and type (cell phone, laptop/tablet), and examine a model of teacher technology policies and perceived learning. We found that students are more sensitive to policies…

  8. Green technological change. Renewable energies, policy mix and innovation. Results of the GRETCHEN project on the impact of policy mixes on the technological and structural change in renewable energy electricity production technologies in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogge, Karoline S.; Breitschopf, Barbara; Mattes, Katharina; Cantner, Uwe; Graf, Holger; Herrmann, Johannes; Kalthaus, Martin; Lutz, Christian; Wiebe, Kirsten

    2015-09-01

    The report on the GRETCHEN project that was concerned with the impact of policy mixes on the technological and structural change in renewable energy electricity production technologies in Germany covers the following issues: market and technology development of renewable energy electricity production technologies; the policy mix for renewable electricity production technologies, innovative impact of the policy mix; subordinate conclusions for politics and research.

  9. Trends in public perceptions and preferences on energy and environmental policy: Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B.C.

    1993-03-01

    This is a summary of a report that presents selected results from a secondary analysis of public opinion surveys, taken at the national and state/local levels, relevant to energy and environmental policy choices. The data base used in the analysis includes about 2,000 items from nearly 600 separate surveys conducted between 1979 and 1992. Answers to word-for-word questions were traced over time, permitting trend analysis. Patterns of response were also identified for findings from similarly worded survey items. The analysis identifies changes in public opinion concerning energy during the past 10 to 15 years.

  10. Technology-Critical Elements: Economic and Policy Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    Critical elements are those that provide essential functionality to modern engineered materials, have few ready substitutes and are subject to supply-chain risks or concerns about long-run availability. This paper provides economic and public-policy perspectives on critical elements. It suggests: that which elements are critical is situational and changes over time; that we are not running out of mineral-derived raw materials in a geologic sense but rather, for some elements, face scarcities that are technological, environmental, political or economic in nature; and that public policy's most important role over the longer term is fostering scientific and technological innovation, especially early stage research, that has the potential to overcome these scarcities.

  11. Forging the links: a technology policy for Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The Canadian economy is faced with a serious crisis which is manifest in high unemployment, persistent trade imbalances, and a falling currency. These immediate problems reflect a deeper crisis in the structure of Canadian industry, and in particular, manufacturing, which precedes the recent recession in the Western economies. High levels of technological and managerial truncation, and relative technological backwardness have placed Canadian industry at a particular disadvantage in light of the substantial changes taking place in world economies. The advanced industrial nations are moving into more technologically advanced forms of production - the new industrial revolution. This trend threatens to outpace the innovative capacity of Canadian industry to such an extent that its manufactured products will no longer be competitive with those of principal trading partners. Further, a number of developing countries with lower labour costs are moving into many of the conventional areas of industrial activity (e.g., assembly manufacturing operations), thus threatening to displace a significant number of Canada's traditional manufacturing activities through increased price competition. A rebuilding of Canada's industrial structure as well as improving its technological capability is required. Implementation of such an industrial strategy would require four initial policy objectives: 1) increase the demand for Canadian technology within the industrial system; 2) expand Canadian industry's potential to develop technology; 3) strengthen the capacity for the absorption of technology at the level of the firm; 4) increase the ability of Canadian firms to import technology under conditions favourable to Canada.

  12. Power Generation Technology Choice in the Presence of Climate Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    The overall purpose of this thesis is to analyze power generation technology choices in the presence of climate policy. Special attention is paid to the diffusion of renewable power technologies following a carbon pricing policy, and this topic is analyzed in two self-contained papers. The overall objective of paper 1 is to analyze how future investments in the Swedish power sector can be affected by carbon pricing policies following the Kyoto Protocol. In the first part we focus on the price of carbon following the Kyoto commitments and to what extent this policy will affect the relative competitiveness of the available investment alternatives. The second part pays attention to the possible impacts of technology learning - and the resulting cost decreases - on the economics of power generation in the presence of climate policy. The first part considers the majority of power generation technologies available in Sweden, while the second part focuses solely on the competition between combined cycle natural gas plants and the cheapest renewable power alternative, wind power. Methodologically, we approach the above issues from the perspective of a power generator who considers investing in new generation capacity. This implies that we first of all assess the lifetime engineering costs of different power generation technologies in Sweden, and analyze the impact of carbon pricing on the competitive cost position of these technologies under varying rate-of-return requirements. Overall the results indicate that in general it is not certain that compliance with the Kyoto commitments implies substantial increases in renewable power sources. If, therefore, renewable power sources are favored for reasons beyond climate policy additional policy instruments will be needed. The purpose of paper 2 is to analyze the costs for reducing CO 2 emissions in the power-generating sectors in Croatia, the European part of Russia, Macedonia, Serbia and the Ukraine in 2020 by using a linear

  13. HI-STAR. Health Improvements through Space Technologies and Resources: Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finarelli, Margaret G.

    2002-01-01

    Our mission is to develop and promote a global strategy to help combat malaria using space technology. Like the tiny yet powerful mosquito, HI-STAR (Health Improvements Through Space Technologies and Resources) is a small program that aspires to make a difference. Timely detection of malaria danger zones is essential to help health authorities and policy makers make decisions about how to manage limited resources for combating malaria. In 2001, the technical support network for prevention and control of malaria epidemics published a study. HI-STAR focuses on malaria because it is the most common and deadly of the vector-borne diseases. Malaria also shares many commonalities with other diseases, which means the global strategy developed here may also be applicable to other parasitic diseases. HI-STAR would like to contribute to the many malaria groups already making great strides in the fight against malaria. Some examples include: Roll Back Malaria, The Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and the Multilateral Initiative on Malaria (MIM). Other important groups that are among the first to include space technologies in their model include: The Center for Health Application of Aerospace Related Technologies (CHAART) and Mapping Malaria Risk in Africa (MARA). Malaria is a complex and multi-faceted disease. Combating it must therefore be equally versatile. HI-STAR incorporates an interdisciplinary, international, intercultural approach.called 'Malaria Early Warning Systems; Concepts, Indicators and Partners.' This study, funded by Roll Back Malaria, a World Health Organization initiative, offers a framework for a monitoring and early warning system. HI-STAR seeks to build on this proposal and enhance the space elements of the suggested framework. It is the work of fifty-three professionals and students from the International Space University's 2002 Summer Session Program held in California, USA.

  14. 75 FR 29533 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology Notice of Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... and Technology Notice of Charter Renewal AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice....2, the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT) is a necessary...

  15. Developing science policy capacity at the state government level: Planning a science and technology policy fellowship program for Colorado and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckenmiller, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    There is growing recognition of the potential to advance science policy capacity within state legislatures, where there is most often a shortage of professional backgrounds in the natural sciences, technology, engineering, and medicine. Developing such capacity at the state level should be considered a vital component of any comprehensive national scale strategy to strengthen science informed governance. Toward this goal, the Center for Science and Technology Policy Research at the University of Colorado Boulder is leading a strategic planning process for a Science and Technology Policy Fellowship Program within the Colorado state legislature and executive branch agencies. The intended program will place PhD-level scientists and engineers in one-year placements with decision-makers to provide an in-house resource for targeted policy-relevant research. Fellows will learn the intricacies of the state policymaking process, be exposed to opportunities for science to inform decisions, and develop a deeper understanding of key science and technology topics in Colorado, including water resources, wildfire management, and energy. The program's ultimate goals are to help foster a decision-making arena informed by evidence-based information, to develop new leaders adept at bridging science and policymaking realms, and to foster governance that champions the role of science in society. Parallel to efforts in Colorado, groups from nine other states are preparing similar plans, providing opportunities to share approaches across states and to set the stage for increased science and technology input to state legislative agendas nationwide. Importantly, highly successful and sustainable models exist; the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) has implemented a federally based fellowship program for over 43 years and the California Council for Science and Technology (CCST) has directed a fellowship program for their state's legislature since 2009. AAAS and CCST

  16. Towards a European Energy Technology Policy - The European Strategic Energy Technology Plan (Set-Plan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, A.; Petric, H.; Peteves, E.

    2008-01-01

    The transition to a low carbon economy will take decades and affect the entire economy. There is a timely opportunity for investment in energy infrastructure. However, decisions to invest in technologies that are fully aligned with policy and society priorities do not necessarily come naturally, although it will profoundly affect the level of sustainability of the European energy system for decades to come. Technology development needs to be accelerated and prioritized at the highest level of the European policy agenda. This is the essence of the European Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan). The SET-Plan makes concrete proposals for action to establish an energy technology policy for Europe, with a new mind-set for planning and working together and to foster science for transforming energy technologies to achieve EU energy and climate change goals for 2020, and to contribute to the worldwide transition to a low carbon economy by 2050. This paper gives an overview of the SET-Plan initiative and highlights its latest developments. It emphasises the importance of information in support of decision-making for investing in the development of low carbon technologies and shows the first results of the technology mapping undertaken by the newly established Information System of the SET-Plan (SETIS).(author)

  17. Green technological change. Renewable energies, policy mix and innovation. Results of the GRETCHEN project on the impact of policy mixes on the technological and structural change in renewable energy electricity production technologies in Germany; Gruener Wandel. Erneuerbare Energien, Policy Mix und Innovation. Ergebnisse des GRETCHEN-Projektes zum Einfluss des Policy Mixes auf technologischen und strukturellen Wandel bei erneuerbaren Stromerzeugungstechnologien in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogge, Karoline S.; Breitschopf, Barbara; Mattes, Katharina [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Cantner, Uwe; Graf, Holger; Herrmann, Johannes; Kalthaus, Martin [Jena Univ. (Germany); Lutz, Christian; Wiebe, Kirsten [Gesellschaft fuer Wirtschaftliche Strukturforschung mbH (GWS), Osnabrueck (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    The report on the GRETCHEN project that was concerned with the impact of policy mixes on the technological and structural change in renewable energy electricity production technologies in Germany covers the following issues: market and technology development of renewable energy electricity production technologies; the policy mix for renewable electricity production technologies, innovative impact of the policy mix; subordinate conclusions for politics and research.

  18. European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network Representatives' Conceptions of the Role of Information and Communication Technologies Related to National Guidance Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettunen, Jaana; Vuorinen, Raimo; Ruusuvirta, Outi

    2016-01-01

    This article reports findings from a phenomenographic investigation into European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network representatives' conceptions of the role of information and communication technologies (ICT) related to national lifelong guidance policies. The role of ICT in relation to national lifelong guidance policies was conceived as (1)…

  19. World energy, technology and climate policy outlook 2030 - WETO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    WETO describes in detail scenarios for the evolution of World and European energy systems, power generation technologies and impacts of climate change policy in the main world regions or countries. It presents a coherent framework to analyse the energy, technology and environment trends and issues over the period to 2030, focusing on Europe in a world context. The document highlights three key topics. First, in a Reference scenario, i.e. if no strong specific policy initiatives and measures are taken, world CO 2 emissions are expected to double in 2030 and, with a share of 90%, fossil fuels will continue to dominate the energy system. Secondly, the great majority of the increase in oil production will come from OPEC countries and the EU will rely predominantly on natural gas imported from the CIS. Lastly, as the largest growing energy demand and CO 2 emissions originate from developing countries (mainly China and India), Europe will have to intensify its co-operation, particularly in terms of transfer of technologies. (A.L.B.)

  20. Efficient climate policies under technology and climate uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, Hermann; Kriegler, Elmar; Lessmann, Kai; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2009-01-01

    This article explores efficient climate policies in terms of investment streams into fossil and renewable energy technologies. The investment decisions maximise social welfare while observing a probabilistic guardrail for global mean temperature rise under uncertain technology and climate parameters. Such a guardrail constitutes a chance constraint, and the resulting optimisation problem is an instance of chance constrained programming, not stochastic programming as often employed. Our analysis of a model of economic growth and endogenous technological change, MIND, suggests that stringent mitigation strategies cannot guarantee a very high probability of limiting warming to 2 o C since preindustrial time under current uncertainty about climate sensitivity and climate response time scale. Achieving the 2 o C temperature target with a probability P* of 75% requires drastic carbon dioxide emission cuts. This holds true even though we have assumed an aggressive mitigation policy on other greenhouse gases from, e.g., the agricultural sector. The emission cuts are deeper than estimated from a deterministic calculation with climate sensitivity fixed at the P* quantile of its marginal probability distribution (3.6 o C). We show that earlier and cumulatively larger investments into the renewable sector are triggered by including uncertainty in the technology and climate response time scale parameters. This comes at an additional GWP loss of 0.3%, resulting in a total loss of 0.8% GWP for observing the chance constraint. We obtained those results with a new numerical scheme to implement constrained welfare optimisation under uncertainty as a chance constrained programming problem in standard optimisation software such as GAMS. The scheme is able to incorporate multivariate non-factorial probability measures such as given by the joint distribution of climate sensitivity and response time. We demonstrate the scheme for the case of a four-dimensional parameter space capturing

  1. National Policies and strategies on science and technology for development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayob, A

    1979-01-01

    Malaysia's economy continues to be dependent upon the primary producing sectors, based on the exploitation or use of her natural resources. At this Malaysia is the world's largest exporter of natural rubber, tin, tropical hardwoods and palm oil. There is still wide scope for developing new application of science and technology in the rubber industry, and the scope remains even wider in other agricultural sectors. In order to accelerate development in the traditional agricultural sector, that is, those related to food production, the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) was established in 1970 to undertake research in the development of crops other than rubber. Progress has been relatively slow in the development of agriculture. In forestry much work needs to be done in the application of science and technology to forest management, logging, timber utilization, silviculture and the related field of forest regeneration, tree breeding, forest protection and soil conservation. Further development of the mining sector calls for the application of new technology both in prospecting for new sources of minerals and in exploitation. Development of off-shore technology will become increasingly important. Although a major sector in resources development is energy, there is, as yet, no energy policy. Structural diversification is recognized as a basic need for the economic development of Malaysia. Malaysia will have a great demand for trained scientific and technological personnel.

  2. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) system concept and technology definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary, analyses and trades, and system concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Donald L.; Jones, Peter A.

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted to define reasonable and representative large deployable reflector (LDR) system concepts for the purpose of defining a technology development program aimed at providing the requisite technological capability necessary to start LDR development by the end of 1991. This volume includes the executive summary for the total study, a report of thirteen system analysis and trades tasks (optical configuration, aperture size, reflector material, segmented mirror, optical subsystem, thermal, pointing and control, transportation to orbit, structures, contamination control, orbital parameters, orbital environment, and spacecraft functions), and descriptions of three selected LDR system concepts. Supporting information is contained in appendices.

  3. Computer architecture for efficient algorithmic executions in real-time systems: New technology for avionics systems and advanced space vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Chester C.; Youngblood, John N.; Saha, Aindam

    1987-01-01

    Improvements and advances in the development of computer architecture now provide innovative technology for the recasting of traditional sequential solutions into high-performance, low-cost, parallel system to increase system performance. Research conducted in development of specialized computer architecture for the algorithmic execution of an avionics system, guidance and control problem in real time is described. A comprehensive treatment of both the hardware and software structures of a customized computer which performs real-time computation of guidance commands with updated estimates of target motion and time-to-go is presented. An optimal, real-time allocation algorithm was developed which maps the algorithmic tasks onto the processing elements. This allocation is based on the critical path analysis. The final stage is the design and development of the hardware structures suitable for the efficient execution of the allocated task graph. The processing element is designed for rapid execution of the allocated tasks. Fault tolerance is a key feature of the overall architecture. Parallel numerical integration techniques, tasks definitions, and allocation algorithms are discussed. The parallel implementation is analytically verified and the experimental results are presented. The design of the data-driven computer architecture, customized for the execution of the particular algorithm, is discussed.

  4. An Analysis of Information Technology Managers' and Executives' Security Concerns on Willingness to Adopt Cloud Computing Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanque, Marcus M.

    2012-01-01

    The research conducted in this study inquires about Information Technology (IT) managers' and executives' attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge on Cloud Computing (CC) security. The study evaluated how these factors affect IT managers' and executives' willingness to adopt CC solutions in their organizations. Confidentiality,…

  5. Advancing automation and robotics technology for the Space Station and for the US economy. Volume 1: Executive overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    In response to Public Law 98-371, dated July 18, 1984, the NASA Advanced Technology Advisory Committee has studied automation and robotics for use in the Space Station. The Executive Overview, Volume 1 presents the major findings of the study and recommends to NASA principles for advancing automation and robotics technologies for the benefit of the Space Station and of the U.S. economy in general. As a result of its study, the Advanced Technology Advisory Committee believes that a key element of technology for the Space Station is extensive use of advanced general-purpose automation and robotics. These systems could provide the United States with important new methods of generating and exploiting space knowledge in commercial enterprises and thereby help preserve U.S. leadership in space.

  6. US public policy and emerging technologies: the case of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahm, Dianne

    1993-01-01

    Public policy is generally believed to have an effect on the emergence and rate of diffusion of technology. Solar energy technologies are no exception. This article explores the relationship between a variety of United States (US) public policies and the emergence and diffusion of solar energy technologies using data gathered as part of the National Solar Energy Policy Study. The article presents findings regarding the status and policy position of US renewable energy research and development (R and D) and manufacturing organizations. Specific policy options which could be adopted to speed emergence and diffusion of solar energy technology products are discussed. (Author)

  7. The Role of Executive Functioning and Technological Anxiety (FOMO in College Course Performance as Mediated by Technology Usage and Multitasking Habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry D. Rosen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated how technology use impacts academic performance. A proposed model postulated that academic performance could be predicted by a cognitive independent variable-executive functioning problems-and an affective independent variable-technological anxiety or FOMO (fear of missing out-mediated by how students choose to use technology. An unobtrusive smartphone application called “Instant Quantified Self” monitored daily smartphone unlocks and daily minutes of use. Other mediators included self-reported smartphone use, self-observed studying attention, self-reported multitasking preference, and a classroom digital metacognition tool that assessed the student’s ability to understand the ramifications of technology use in the classroom that is not relevant to the learning process. Two hundred sixteen participants collected an average of 56 days of “Instant” application data, demonstrating that their smartphone was unlocked more than 60 times a day for three to four minutes each time for a total of 220 daily minutes of use. Results indicated that executive functioning problems predicted academic course performance mediated by studying attention and a single classroom digital metacognition subscale concerning availability of strategies of when to use mobile phones during lectures. FOMO predicted performance directly as well as mediated by a second classroom digital metacognition concerning attitudes toward mobile phone use during lectures. Implications for college students and professors include increasing metacognition about technology use in the classroom and taking “tech breaks” to reduce technology anxiety.

  8. Stimulating R and D of industrial energy-efficient technology. Policy lessons--impulse technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luiten, Esther; Blok, Kornelis

    2004-01-01

    Stimulating research and development (R and D) of innovative energy-efficient technologies for industry is an attractive option for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Impulse technology, an innovative papermaking technology, is always included in studies assessing the long-term potential of industrial energy efficiency. Aim of this article is to analyse the R and D trajectory of impulse technology in order to explore how government can stimulate the development of industrial energy-efficient technology. The concept of 'momentum' is used to characterise the network of actors and to understand the effect of government R and D support in this particular case study. The network analysis convincingly shows that although marketed as an energy-efficient technology, other benefits were in fact driving forces. Researchers at various national pulp and paper research institutes were successful in attracting government R and D support by claiming an improved energy efficiency. The momentum of the technology network was modest between 1980 and 1990. Therefore, government R and D support accelerated the development of impulse technology in this period. However, when the perspectives of the technology deteriorated--momentum decreased--researchers at national research institutes continued to attract government R and D support successfully. But 25 years of R and D--and over 15 years government R and D support--have not yet resulted in a proven technology. The case study illustrates the risk of continuing R and D support too long without taking into account actors' drivers to invest in R and D. Once momentum decreased, government should have been more circumspect in evaluating the (energy efficiency) promise of impulse technology. The major policy lesson is that government has to look beyond claimed energy efficiencies; government has to value (qualitative) information on (changing) technology networks in deciding upon starting, continuing or pulling out financial R and D support to

  9. Challenges to Science and Technology Development Policy in the European Integration Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Novytsky

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on presentday aspects of Ukraine’s science and technology development policy in light of international phenomena and integration reali ties observed across the European continent. The author examines unique traits and practical challenges charac terizing an expansion of Ukraine — EU scientific and technological cooperation with the aim of improving the efficiency of Ukraine’s national economy and optimizing its international dimension. Special attention is paid to problems of adapting Ukraine’s technological policy to European standards, and relevant specific proposals are formulated. The article maintains that today’s advances in informa tion technology and the openness of national economies as a systemdeterminant factor of models of international cooperation broaden the scope of information technolo gies. Since telecommunications and other hitech sectors are vibrantly evolving not only in highly industrialized states but also in East European and other emerging mar ket economies, a key challenge for Ukraine appears to be lending better efficiency and productivity to its na tional policy of introducing information technologies into its socioeconomic sphere. The article provides insight into the international ex perience of the creation of technoparks and demonstrates the necessity of applying such innovation techniques of economic development to Ukraine.

  10. 75 FR 3906 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... Technology; HIT Policy Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Office of the National... only. Name of Committees: HIT Policy Committee's Workgroups: Meaningful Use, Privacy & Security Policy... specifications, and certification criteria are needed. Date and Time: The HIT Policy Committee Workgroups will...

  11. Environmental Cleanup of the East Tennessee Technology Park Year One - Execution with Certainty SM - 13120

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, A.L. [URS - CH2M Oak Ridge LLC, P.O. Box 4699, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-7294 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    On August 1, 2011, URS - CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) began its five-year, $1.4 billion cleanup of the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), located on the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. UCOR will close out cleanup operations that began in 1998 under a previous contract. When the Contract Base scope of work [1] is completed in 2016, the K-25 gaseous diffusion building will have been demolished and all waste dispositioned, demolition will have started on the K-27 gaseous diffusion building, all contact-handled and remote-handled transuranic waste in inventory (approximately 500 cubic meters) will have been transferred to the Transuranic Waste Processing Center, previously designated 'No-Path-To-Disposition Waste' will have been dispositioned to the extent possible, and UCOR will have managed DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM)- owned facilities at ETTP, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Y-12 National Security Complex in a safe and cost-effective manner. Since assuming its responsibilities as the ETTP cleanup contractor, UCOR has completed its life-cycle Performance Measurement Baseline; received its Earned Value Management System (EVMS) certification; advanced the deactivation and demolition (D and D) of the K-25 gaseous diffusion building; recovered and completed the Tank W-1A and K-1070-B Burial Ground remediation projects; characterized, packaged, and shipped contact-handled transuranic waste to the Transuranic Waste Processing Center; disposed of more than 90,000 cubic yards of cleanup waste while managing the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF); and provided operations, surveillance, and maintenance activities at DOE EM facilities at ETTP, ORNL, and the Y-12 National Security Complex. Project performance as of December 31, 2012 has been excellent: - Cost Performance Index - 1.06; - Schedule Performance Index - 1.02. At the same time, since safety is the foundation of

  12. Project Mechanisms and Technology Diffusion in Climate Policy - Kyoto project mechanisms and technology diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glachant, M.; Meniere, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the diffusion of GHG mitigation technologies in developing countries. We develop a model where an abatement technology is progressively adopted by firms and we use it to compare the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) with a standard Cap and Trade scheme (C and T). In the presence of learning spillovers, we show that the CDM yields a higher social welfare than C and T if the first adopter receives CDM credits whereas the followers do not. This result lends support to the policy proposal of relaxing the CDM additionality constraint for projects which generate significant learning externalities. (authors)

  13. Scenarios of technology and innovation policies in Europe : Investigating future governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlmann, Stefan; Edler, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    In Europe, public research, technology and innovation policies are no longer exclusively in the hands of national authorities: increasingly, national initiatives are supplemented by, or even competing with, regional innovation policies or transnational programmes, in particular the activities of the

  14. New technologies and defense policy for the European theater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsipis, K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that in what should be a reassuring phenomenon for America's European allies, US military planners think of applications of new technologies in new conventional weapons systems almost exclusively in the context of defending Western Europe. Given the global interests of the United States and the nature and location of emerging threats (as the Gulf war has so dramatically emphasized) this is a rather narrow base for US conventional weapons modernization planning. As recent events in Eastern Europe make clear, the cogency of America's defense policy may be dramatically undermined by the reduction of the Soviet threat. As yet, it is unclear to what extent the development of future conventional forces will be conducted with reference to America's participation in NATO

  15. Technologies and policies for "hard to scrub" emissions sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, J.

    2016-12-01

    The science of climate change yields harsh math regarding atmospheric accumulations of GHGs. The world is far from target trajectories for 2C or 1.5C, and the global carbon budget is severe. To achieve those targets requires two things. First, we must field technologies that reduce emissions from the "hard to scrub" parts of the US and global economies, such as heavy industry (cement and steel), aviation, ocean shipping, and household cooking and heating. Second, we will likely need negative emissions pathways for those sources that prove extremely difficult to remove or reduce - the climate equivalent of adding revenue to one's budget. Such pathways may well need to convert GHG emissions (especially CO2 and methane) into useful products with minimal infrastructure builds. Dramatic advances in advanced manufacturing, 3D printing, simulation, modeling, and data analytics have made possible solutions which were previously unthinkable or impossible. This include "bespoke reactors", which can simultaneously perform separations and conversions; low-cost modular chemical systems of any scale; biologically inspired or biologically mediated energy services; direct air carbon-capture systems; and electrochemical pathways for emissions reduction and conversion. However, these approaches are unlikely to be fielded without policy actions or reforms that support such systems in competitive global energy markets. Such policy measures do NOT require a carbon price. Rather, they could include individual or combined measures such as emission or performance standards, financial incentives (like tax credits or low-cost access to capital), border adjustable tariffs, creation of CO2 utilities, ands public good surcharges. Innovation in both technical and policy arenas are needed to achieve the goals of the Paris agreement signatories, and these innovations can be simultaneously configured to deliver substantive greenhouse gas mitigation.

  16. 2006 annual nuclear technology conference on energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerwelle, G.

    2006-01-01

    Liberals have clear ideas about the relations between the economy and the environment. Good ecology is also long-term economy, and there is no contradiction between the economy and the environment. New technologies, more investments into research, cooperation with industry and the public are required to bring about a new environmental policy in Germany. Energy policy needs a new beginning free from ideology. This is elaborated in 7 theses: - The key to successful economic development, more growth and employment is to be found in sustainable energy supply. - The 3 guiding principles of sustainable energy supply are (1) economic soundness, (2) continuity of supply, (3) environmental compatibility. - The supply situation is the more secure, the richer the energy mix, and the more sources from all over the world are used. - Taxes, levies, and costs due to shifting are a burden on energy prices and endanger the economic viability of energy supply. - We need a sensible energy mix composed of fossil energy resources, nuclear power, and renewable energies. - A rich energy mix combined with a powerful expansion of renewables, more measures to improve efficiency and save energy make Germany less dependent on international raw material purchases. - Climate change is a reality. Enhancing research and development efforts is our response. (orig.)

  17. The 1992 World Administrative Radio Conference: Technology and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    As the 20th century draws to a close, new radio technologies and services are poised to change the ways we communicate. Radio waves already make possible a wide range of services considered commonplace--AM and FM radio broadcasting, television, cellular telephones, remote garage-door openers, and baby monitors. Advances in radio technology are giving birth to even more new products and services, including pocket-sized telephones that may allow people to make and receive calls anywhere in the world, high-definition televisions (HDTV) with superior quality pictures and sound, and static-free digital radios. The 1992 World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC-92) authorized frequencies for many of these new radio communication services, and granted additional frequencies for many existing services, including international broadcasting, satellite-based mobile communications, and communications in space. The effects of these changes will be felt well into the 21st century as countries around the world develop and deploy new communications systems to serve the needs of consumers, businesses, and governments. For the United States, the decisions made at the conference will critically affect how we develop new radio technologies and applications, how competitive this country will be in radio communications equipment and services, and how effectively the United States can exercise its role as a leader in world radio communication policymaking. This study of the outcomes and implications of WARC-92 was requested by the House Committee on Energy and Commerce and the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. OTA was asked to evaluate the success of U.S. proposals at the conference, discuss the implications of the decisions made for U.S. technology and policy development, and identify options for improving U.S. participation in future world radio communication conferences.

  18. Clean Coal Technologies - Accelerating Commerical and Policy Drivers for Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal is and will remain the world's most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel. Burning coal, however, can pollute and it produces carbon dioxide. Clean coal technologies address this problem. The widespread deployment of pollution-control equipment to reduce sulphur dioxide, Nox and dust emissions from industry is just one example which has brought cleaner air to many countries. Since the 1970s, various policy and regulatory measures have created a growing commercial market for these clean coal technologies, with the result that costs have fallen and performance has improved. More recently, the need to tackle rising CO2 emissions to address climate change means that clean coal technologies now extend to include those for CO2 capture and storage (CCS). This short report from the IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board (CIAB) presents industry's considered recommendations on how to accelerate the development and deployment of this important group of new technologies and to grasp their very signifi cant potential to reduce emissions from coal use. It identifies an urgent need to make progress with demonstration projects and prove the potential of CCS through government-industry partnerships. Its commercialisation depends upon a clear legal and regulatory framework,public acceptance and market-based financial incentives. For the latter, the CIAB favours cap-and-trade systems, price supports and mandatory feed-in tariffs, as well as inclusion of CCS in the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism to create demand in developing economies where coal use is growing most rapidly. This report offers a unique insight into the thinking of an industry that recognises both the threats and growing opportunities for coal in a carbon constrained world.

  19. Clean Coal Technologies - Accelerating Commerical and Policy Drivers for Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal is and will remain the world's most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel. Burning coal, however, can pollute and it produces carbon dioxide. Clean coal technologies address this problem. The widespread deployment of pollution-control equipment to reduce sulphur dioxide, Nox and dust emissions from industry is just one example which has brought cleaner air to many countries. Since the 1970s, various policy and regulatory measures have created a growing commercial market for these clean coal technologies, with the result that costs have fallen and performance has improved. More recently, the need to tackle rising CO2 emissions to address climate change means that clean coal technologies now extend to include those for CO2 capture and storage (CCS). This short report from the IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board (CIAB) presents industry's considered recommendations on how to accelerate the development and deployment of this important group of new technologies and to grasp their very signifi cant potential to reduce emissions from coal use. It identifies an urgent need to make progress with demonstration projects and prove the potential of CCS through government-industry partnerships. Its commercialisation depends upon a clear legal and regulatory framework,public acceptance and market-based financial incentives. For the latter, the CIAB favours cap-and-trade systems, price supports and mandatory feed-in tariffs, as well as inclusion of CCS in the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism to create demand in developing economies where coal use is growing most rapidly. This report offers a unique insight into the thinking of an industry that recognises both the threats and growing opportunities for coal in a carbon constrained world.

  20. 75 FR 70923 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... Technology; HIT Policy Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Policy Committee...

  1. 76 FR 73632 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Request for Nominations to the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). SUMMARY: The U.S. Environmental... appointment to the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). Vacancies are...

  2. 77 FR 8859 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Cancellation and Rescheduling of National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT) Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: EPA... Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT) Meeting to be held at the EPA Potomac Yard Conference Center, One...

  3. 77 FR 39705 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Advisory Committee... meeting of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management...

  4. 77 FR 1931 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ... and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Advisory Committee... meeting of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management...

  5. 77 FR 2719 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... and Technology; Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Advisory... a public meeting of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology...

  6. 77 FR 39705 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... and Technology; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. Notice... Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT) is a necessary committee which is in the... environmental policy, technology and management issues. Inquiries may be directed to Mark Joyce, U.S. EPA, (Mail...

  7. 77 FR 3475 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of advisory committee... teleconference of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management...

  8. 78 FR 47316 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Request for nominations to the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). SUMMARY: The U.S. Environmental... Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). Vacancies are anticipated to be filled by February, 2014. Sources...

  9. 75 FR 8953 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology HIT Policy Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Policy Committee... a policy framework for the development and adoption of a nationwide health information technology...

  10. Public policy and clean technology promotion. The synergy between environmental economics and evolutionary economics of technological change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio Gonzalez, Pablo del [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Toledo (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Juridicas y Sociales de Toledo

    2004-07-01

    Obstacles to clean technology development, innovation and diffusion are not only related to the lack of internalisation of environmental externalities in production costs, as defended by traditional environmental economics. Empirical studies show that many other obstacles prevent these technologies from penetrating the market. The relevance of these obstacles differs between sectors, firms and technologies. Consequently, a more focused approach is proposed. By taking a look at the specific, real-world barriers to clean technologies, a policy framework as well as some specific measures that target those barriers are suggested. These instruments are useful and complementary in a policy framework that, in addition to specific instruments, takes into account the influence of the style of regulation and the configuration of actors in the environmental technological change process. This paper proposes a coherent framework integrating environmental policy and technology policy instruments. This is deemed necessary in the technological transition to sustainable development. (author)

  11. SUSTAINING CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION—POLICY, TECHNOLOGY, AND SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Rechkemmer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In a world that is becoming more and more exposed and vulnerable to the effects of global climate change, combining integrated risk assessment tools with effective strategies for both mitigation and adaptation is a key prerogative for policy-making. With the focus of both researchers and decision-makers gradually shifting from observing and assessing the bio-physical aspects of climate change to a more human and society centered understanding of the nature of the problem, the social, behavioral, economic and technological aspects have entered center stage of the public discourse. Responses to the climate change challenge have to establish an optimal interplay between mitigation, adaptation and socio-economic instruments. Yet, given the band-width and scale of the climate problematique and its projected impacts, very ambitious mitigation measures have to be undertaken without delays, a fact that is particularly true for emerging economies with their very rapid and unprecedented growth rates, both in GDP and GHG emissions terms. The challenge for the next years is to harmonize poverty eradication and attaining the Millenium Development Goals through stable economic growth with mitigating the effects of climate change. Therefore, “inclusive green growth” has become the motto of the day. But how can this goal be achieved? Obviously, quite fundamental changes have to be introduced that affect both the production and the consumption sectors and allow for real innovation in technologies and energy, in urban mobility, infrastructure and transportation grids. This paper illustrates the deep social and societal nature of climate change response strategies, especially in the area of mitigation, and shows that transitions to green and low-carbon economies will have to embed policies, incentive schemes and economic instruments in a larger societal context of social learning and behavioral change.

  12. Urban Maglev Technology Development Program : Colorado Maglev Project : part 1 : executive summary of final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    The overall objective of the urban maglev transit technology development program is to develop magnetic levitation technology that is a cost effective, reliable, and environmentally sound transit option for urban mass transportation in the United Sta...

  13. Egypt's policy concerning food irradiation research and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.M.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews current research in Egypt in the field of radiation preservation of food to accumulate the necessary data for drafting Egypts' policy towards prospects for application. Research activities in Egypt have been oriented to solving problems of local economic importance, e.g. inhibition of sprouting in potatoes, onions and garlic, extension of shelf-life of vegetables and fruits, disinfestation of stored grains and grain products, preservation of meat, meat products, fish, fats and oils, and elimination of parasites and microorganisms from animal feed. Extensive studies have been performed to determine the lowest radiation level required for short-term storage, changes in organoleptic, physical, chemical and microbiological values of irradiated food and wholesomeness studies to give evidence of the safety of irradiated food for human consumption. The paper summarizes Egypt's national planning for the transfer of such new technology, the establishment of the National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology to build up the national infrastructure for food irradiation research and application, and the formation of a Supreme Committee for Radiation Preservation of Food. Finally, the paper also surveys the locally available irradiators and correlates the design, capacity and capital cost against the actual needs of Egypt and the experience acquired. (author)

  14. The rank of nuclear technology in terms of economic policy and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, U.

    1984-01-01

    Once the nuclear power plants presently under construction are completed, the exisiting basic load deficit will be done with, except for regional peculiarities. The need for redeployment of the power plant pool caused by the 1973/74 energy crisis is then virtually exhausted in terms of basic load. Taking into consideration the special role of black coal in power production, further nuclear power plants will be necessary in the Federal Republic of Germany mainly if the power demand increases and/or to replace decommissioned plants. The role of nuclear technology is not restricted to the domestic demand; particularly in threshold countries the market can provide some compensation. Nuclear technology is a factor of economic policy; the Federal Government points this out in its negotiations with foreign countries. However, it is noteworthy that the third biggest political party in the Federal Republic of Germany want to stop all presently existing nuclear power plants. The best rebuttal of such political debate is properly operating nuclear plants and the steadily growing percentage of electricity they produce as well as lower electricity price in those Lander of the Federal Republic of Germany who did not put on ideological blinkers in face of nuclear technology. (orig./HSCH) [de

  15. Risk-based systems analysis of emerging high-level waste tank remediation technologies. Volume 1: Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, B.B.; Cameron, R.J.; McCormack, W.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes a System Analysis Model developed under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) program to aid technology development funding decisions for radioactive tank waste remediation. Current technology development selection methods evaluate new technologies in isolation from other components of an overall tank waste remediation system. These methods do not show the relative effect of new technologies on tank remediation systems as a whole. Consequently, DOE may spend its resources on technologies that promise to improve a single function but have a small or possibly negative, impact on the overall system, or DOE may overlook a technology that does not address a high priority problem in the system but that does, if implemented, offer sufficient overall improvements. Systems engineering and detailed analyses often conducted under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA 1969) use a ''whole system'' approach but are costly, too time-consuming, and often not sufficiently focused to support the needs of the technology program decision-makers. An alternative approach is required to evaluate these systems impacts but still meet the budget and schedule needs of the technology program

  16. Moderation of Policy-Making? : Science and Technology Policy Evaluation Beyond Impact Measurement—the Case of Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlmann, Stefan

    1998-01-01

    In the field of science and technology policies, for the most part, evaluation procedures are utilized as a way of measuring the scientific and technological quality or the socio-economic impacts of publicly funded research. Beyond this practice, could evaluation procedures be used as a medium for

  17. RETHINKING STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY ACCESS IN HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT: REACTIONS TO POLICY FORUM DISCUSSIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampietro-Colom, Laura; Thomas, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The need to progress and innovate in health technology assessment (HTA) is a must in a continuously changing environment. The HTAi Policy Forum reflected on two specific areas for development where it was thought there was need for careful consideration and deliberation during the main annual meeting in February 2016. The study by Husereau et al. (1) in this journal presents the discussions resulting from this Forum. To further share the deliberations of the Forum and with a view to opening this debate to the wider HTA community, a panel session during the HTAi Annual Meeting in Tokyo was organized. Presentations at the panel included a summary of the HTAi Policy Forum discussions and perspectives from a patient, a representative of healthcare system provider, and a representative from an HTA organization and industry. This letter presents the issues raised in the panel session.

  18. The Making of a CIO: A Grounded Theory Study of Professional Development of Information Technology Executives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Kevin B.

    2013-01-01

    The CIO fulfills an important role for most business organizations by leading the information technology department and by aligning the firm's information technology assets with its corporate strategy. There is little research regarding the important components of CIO development and the relationships among these elements. This study examines…

  19. NASA space station automation: AI-based technology review. Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M. P.; Park, W.; Cheeseman, P. C.; Goldberg, J.; Neumann, P.; Kautz, W. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Rom, R. J.; Poggio, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Research and Development projects in automation technology for the Space Station are described. Artificial Intelligence (AI) based technologies are planned to enhance crew safety through reduced need for EVA, increase crew productivity through the reduction of routine operations, increase space station autonomy, and augment space station capability through the use of teleoperation and robotics.

  20. REPORT TO CONGRESS: ASSESSMENT OF INTERNATIONAL AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study that identifies new and innovative air pollution prevention and/or control technologies, of selected industrialized countries, that are not currently used extensively in the U.S. The technologies may be entirely new to the U.S., or they may be ...

  1. Technology for Children With Brain Injury and Motor Disability: Executive Summary From Research Summit IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Jennifer B; Lobo, Michele A; Bjornson, Kristie; Dusing, Stacey C; Field-Fote, Edelle; Gannotti, Mary; Heathcock, Jill C; OʼNeil, Margaret E; Rimmer, James H

    Advances in technology show promise as tools to optimize functional mobility, independence, and participation in infants and children with motor disability due to brain injury. Although technologies are often used in adult rehabilitation, these have not been widely applied to rehabilitation of infants and children. In October 2015, the Academy of Pediatric Physical Therapy sponsored Research Summit IV, "Innovations in Technology for Children With Brain Insults: Maximizing Outcomes." The summit included pediatric physical therapist researchers, experts from other scientific fields, funding agencies, and consumers. Participants identified challenges in implementing technology in pediatric rehabilitation including accessibility, affordability, managing large data sets, and identifying relevant data elements. Participants identified 4 key areas for technology development: to determine (1) thresholds for learning, (2) appropriate transfer to independence, (3) optimal measurement of subtle changes, and (4) how to adapt to growth and changing abilities.

  2. Operating in the Dark: What Outdated State Policies and Data Gaps Mean for Effective School Leadership. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Kerri; Cheney, Gretchen Rhines; Davis, Jacquelyn; Moll, Kerry

    2013-01-01

    The "Principal Policy State Survey" is a first-of-its-kind effort to capture the current state of affairs in state principal preparation, licensure policy, principal tenure, and data collection on the output of these policies. This report explores how states are using their authority to increase the supply of effective principals focused…

  3. A pilot investigation of the potential for incorporating lifelog technology into executive function rehabilitation for enhanced transfer of self-regulation skills to everyday life

    OpenAIRE

    Cuberos-Urbano, Gustavo; Caracuel, Alfonso; Valls-Serrano, Carlos; Garcia-Mochon, Letitia; Gracey, Fergus; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the potential target and effect size of goal management training (GMT) enhanced with life-logging technology compared with standard GMT on a range of possible primary outcomes reflecting cognitive and ecological aspects of executive functioning and quality of life. Sixteen patients with acquired brain injury involving executive dysfunction were randomly allocated to one of the two interventions: seven weeks of GMT (n = 8), or seven weeks of GMT+Lifel...

  4. User satisfaction as a political technology in school policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle

    The paper discusses user satisfaction surveys as a policy instrument in education with a focus on local school policy, including the reasons for and the consequences of introducing user surveys in educational policy will be discussed. Empirical examples are drawn mainly from Danish municipalities....

  5. U.S. Policy Towards Cuba as a Two Level Game or: Defending Executive Policy Discretion in the Face of Domestic Pressure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Werry Jr, Kevin G

    2008-01-01

    The literature on U.S. policy towards Cuba during the post Cold War period has focused around the idea that a small domestic group has dominated policy making because of their electoral influence in Florida and have left...

  6. 76 FR 4352 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Technology; HIT Policy Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Office of the National... only. Name of Committees: HIT Policy Committee's Workgroups: Meaningful Use, Privacy & Security Tiger..., implementation specifications, and certification criteria are needed. Date and Time: The HIT Policy Committee...

  7. Reducing OR Traffic Using Education, Policy Development, and Communication Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Jennifer; Shrinski, Keonemana; Cady, Rhonda; Belew, John

    2016-01-01

    A bundled approach to surgical site infection (SSI) prevention strategies includes reducing OR traffic. A nurse-led quality improvement (QI) team sought to reduce OR traffic through education and a process change that included wireless communication technology and policy development. The team measured OR traffic by counting the frequency of door openings per hour in seven surgical suites during 305 surgical procedures conducted during similar 22-week periods before and after the QI project intervention. Door openings decreased significantly (P < 0.05) from an average of 37.8 per hour to 32.8 per hour after the QI project intervention. This suggests that our multifaceted approach reduces OR traffic. The next steps of this project include analyzing automatically captured video to understand OR traffic patterns and expanding education to departments and external personnel frequently present in our surgical suites. Future research evaluating the effectiveness of this OR traffic initiative on SSI incidence is recommended. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Analyzing interdependencies between policy mixes and technological innovation systems : The case of offshore wind in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichardt, Kristin; Negro, Simona O.; Rogge, Karoline S.; Hekkert, Marko P.

    2016-01-01

    One key approach for studying emerging technologies in the field of sustainability transitions is that of technological innovation systems (TIS). While most TIS studies aim at deriving policy recommendations - typically by identifying system barriers - the actual role of these proposed policies in

  9. The Limits of Decentralized Execution: The Effects of Technology on a Central Airpower Tenet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koprucu, Mustafa

    2001-01-01

    .... In each case the command-and-control structure for air operations is analyzed, the command-and-control systems are described, the technologies enabling the air commanders headquarters to maintain...

  10. From 1st- to 2nd-Generation Biofuel Technologies: Extended Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This report looks at the technical challenges facing 2nd-generation biofuels, evaluates their costs and examines related current policies to support their development and deployment. The potential for production of more advanced biofuels is also discussed. Although significant progress continues to be made to overcome the technical and economic challenges, 2nd-generation biofuels still face major constraints to their commercial deployment.

  11. Technological aids for the rehabilitation of memory and executive functioning in children and adolescents with acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Mark; Hawley, Carol; Blackwood, Bronagh; Evans, Jonathan; Anderson, Vicki; O'Rourke, Conall

    2016-07-01

    The use of technology in healthcare settings is on the increase and may represent a cost-effective means of delivering rehabilitation. Reductions in treatment time, and delivery in the home, are also thought to be benefits of this approach. Children and adolescents with brain injury often experience deficits in memory and executive functioning that can negatively affect their school work, social lives, and future occupations. Effective interventions that can be delivered at home, without the need for high-cost clinical involvement, could provide a means to address a current lack of provision.We have systematically reviewed studies examining the effects of technology-based interventions for the rehabilitation of deficits in memory and executive functioning in children and adolescents with acquired brain injury. To assess the effects of technology-based interventions compared to placebo intervention, no treatment, or other types of intervention, on the executive functioning and memory of children and adolescents with acquired brain injury. We ran the search on the 30 September 2015. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Ovid MEDLINE(R), Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE(R) Daily and Ovid OLDMEDLINE(R), EMBASE Classic + EMBASE (OvidSP), ISI Web of Science (SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI, CPCI-S, and CPSI-SSH), CINAHL Plus (EBSCO), two other databases, and clinical trials registers. We also searched the internet, screened reference lists, and contacted authors of included studies. Randomised controlled trials comparing the use of a technological aid for the rehabilitation of children and adolescents with memory or executive-functioning deficits with placebo, no treatment, or another intervention. Two review authors independently reviewed titles and abstracts identified by the search strategy. Following retrieval of full-text manuscripts, two review authors

  12. Based on Weibull Information Fusion Analysis Semiconductors Quality the Key Technology of Manufacturing Execution Systems Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-Hui; Tang, Ying-Chun; Dai, Kai

    2016-05-01

    Semiconductor materials and Product qualified rate are directly related to the manufacturing costs and survival of the enterprise. Application a dynamic reliability growth analysis method studies manufacturing execution system reliability growth to improve product quality. Refer to classical Duane model assumptions and tracking growth forecasts the TGP programming model, through the failure data, established the Weibull distribution model. Combining with the median rank of average rank method, through linear regression and least squares estimation method, match respectively weibull information fusion reliability growth curve. This assumption model overcome Duane model a weakness which is MTBF point estimation accuracy is not high, through the analysis of the failure data show that the method is an instance of the test and evaluation modeling process are basically identical. Median rank in the statistics is used to determine the method of random variable distribution function, which is a good way to solve the problem of complex systems such as the limited sample size. Therefore this method has great engineering application value.

  13. Policies for the Energy Technology Innovation System (ETIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubler, A.; Aguayo, F.; Gallagher, K.; Hekkert, M.P.; Jiang, K.; Mytelka, L.; Neij, L.; Nemet, G.; Wilson, C.

    2012-01-01

    Innovation and technological change are integral to the energy system transformations described in the Global Energy Assessment (GEA) pathways. Energy technology innovations range from incremental improvements to radical breakthroughs and from technologies and infrastructure to social institutions

  14. CBA and Precaution: Policy-Making about Emerging Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaebnick, Gregory E; Gusmano, Michael K

    2018-01-01

    In the technology assessment literature, the leading alternative to CBA-like methods is usually held to be precaution, which is understood in various ways but is always about making decisions under conditions of uncertainty. Under such conditions, proponents of precaution commonly hold, a straightforward tallying of potential outcomes does not seem possible. Since CBA aims to tally up outcomes to determine which outcome would produce the greatest public benefit, precaution begins to look like, not just an alternative to CBA, but an incompatible alternative. Nonetheless, some of the better-known formulations of a precautionary principle expressly call for combining precaution with assessment of costs and benefits. This essay examines the possible intersection of precaution and CBA. It argues that a moderate kind of CBA is a necessary part of a moderate kind of precaution. The existing proposals for integrating CBA and precaution start with an assumption that the integrative task consists in combining decision tools that generate (contrasting) substantive guidance. An alternative approach, explored here, starts with the idea that precaution is not a decision-generating tool. Rather, it is a way of organizing the thinking that leads eventually to substantive conclusions. The appropriate policy response is reached not by applying a principle but by studying the situation-the proposed action and the problem it is meant to address-and developing recommendations tailored to it. What makes the thinking precautionary is that it emphasizes certain questions-about risk, uncertainty, and values-that CBA tends to suppress. So understood, precaution may well slow the science but is not intrinsically opposed to science or innovation. It can be understood, in fact, as continuous with the science because the contextual understanding of the science and the problems it is meant to address would emerge-in part-from a close engagement with the science. © 2018 The Hastings Center.

  15. 76 FR 66235 - Bar Code Technologies for Drugs and Biological Products; Retrospective Review Under Executive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... interactions, overdoses, and patient allergies) and retail pharmacy-based computer systems that use a bar-coded... drugs. The goal of this initiative is to implement a system to further ensure patient safety and to..., and ideas on the need, maturity, and acceptability of alternative identification technologies for the...

  16. Near-term technology policies for long-term climate targets--economy wide versus technology specific approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanden, B.A.; Azar, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to offer suggestions when it comes to near-term technology policies for long-term climate targets based on some insights into the nature of technical change. We make a distinction between economy wide and technology specific policy instruments and put forward two key hypotheses: (i) Near-term carbon targets such as the Kyoto protocol can be met by economy wide price instruments (carbon taxes, or a cap-and-trade system) changing the technologies we pick from the shelf (higher energy efficiency in cars, buildings and industry, wind, biomass for heat and electricity, natural gas instead of coal, solar thermal, etc.). (ii) Technology specific policies are needed to bring new technologies to the shelf. Without these new technologies, stricter emission reduction targets may be considered impossible to meet by the government, industry and the general public, and therefore not adopted. The policies required to bring these more advanced technologies to the shelf are more complex and include increased public research and development, demonstration, niche market creation, support for networks within the new industries, standard settings and infrastructure policies (e.g., when it comes to hydrogen distribution). There is a risk that the society in its quest for cost-efficiency in meeting near-term emissions targets, becomes blindfolded when it comes to the more difficult, but equally important issue of bringing more advanced technologies to the shelf. The paper presents mechanisms that cause technology look in, how these very mechanisms can be used to get out of the current 'carbon lock-in' and the risk with premature lock-ins into new technologies that do not deliver what they currently promise. We then review certain climate policy proposals with regards to their expected technology impact, and finally we present a let-a-hundred-flowers-bloom strategy for the next couple of decades

  17. White paper on science and technology, 1999. New development in science and technology policy: responding to national and societal needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This white paper presents various considerations on present important issues on Japanese science and technology by focusing on what is demanded of Japan's science and technology policy in responding to these national and social needs. This papers concern policy measures intended to promote science and technology, and has been submitted to the hundred forty-second session of the Diet, pursuant to Article 8 of the Science and Technology Basic Law (Law No. 130), enacted in 1995. Part 1 and Part 2 of this report discuss the trends in a wide range of scientific and technical activities to help understanding the policy measures implemented to promote science and technology, which are then discussed in Part 3. The title of Part 1 is new development in science and technology policy: responding to national and societal needs. In this part, what sort of efforts is needed in the world of today, where science and technology are engines for social and economic revolution was examined in order for science and technology to better meet national and societal needs. In Part 2, current status of science and technology in Japan and other nations in the areas pertaining to science and technology were examined using various data as to the scientific and technical activities in Japan. This information will then be used for a more in-depth analysis of the trends in Japan's research activities. Part 3 provides a summary of the Science and Technology Basic Plan that was determined in July 1996 based on the Science and Technology Basic Law. It continues with a discussion of the policies that were implemented in FY1998 for the promotion of science and technology, in line with this basic plan. (M.N.)

  18. Problems, policies and politics: making the case for better assistive technology provision in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Natasha

    2015-05-01

    Substantial evidence supports assistive technology and environmental adaptations as key enablers to participation. In order to realise the potential of these interventions, they need to be both recognised in policy, and resourced in practice. This paper uses political theory to understand the complexities of assistive technology (AT) policy reform in Australia. AT research will not be influential in improving AT policy without consideration of political drivers. Theories of policy formation are considered, with Kingdon's (2003) theory of multiple streams identified as a useful lens through which to understand government actions. This theory is applied to the case of current AT policy reformulation in Australia. The convergence model of problem identification, policy formulation and political will is found to be an applicable construct with which to evaluate contemporary policy changes. This paper illustrates the cogency of this theory for the field of AT, in the case of Australia's recent disability and aged care reforms. Political theory provides a way of conceptualising the difficulties of consumers and AT practitioners experience in getting therapeutically valid solutions into public policy, and then getting policies prioritised and funded. It is suggested that AT practitioners must comprehend and consider political factors in working towards effective policies to support their practice. AT practitioners generally lack political awareness or an understanding of the drivers of policy. The effectiveness of AT practitioners at a systemic level will remain limited without consideration of policy drivers. AT practitioners must comprehend and consider political factors in working towards effective policies to support their practice.

  19. Assistive technology policy: a position paper from the first global research, innovation, and education on assistive technology (GREAT) summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLachlan, Malcolm; Banes, David; Bell, Diane; Borg, Johan; Donnelly, Brian; Fembek, Michael; Ghosh, Ritu; Gowran, Rosemary Joan; Hannay, Emma; Hiscock, Diana; Hoogerwerf, Evert-Jan; Howe, Tracey; Kohler, Friedbert; Layton, Natasha; Long, Siobhán; Mannan, Hasheem; Mji, Gubela; Odera Ongolo, Thomas; Perry, Katherine; Pettersson, Cecilia; Power, Jessica; Delgado Ramos, Vinicius; Slepičková, Lenka; Smith, Emma M; Tay-Teo, Kiu; Geiser, Priscille; Hooks, Hilary

    2018-07-01

    Increased awareness, interest and use of assistive technology (AT) presents substantial opportunities for many citizens to become, or continue being, meaningful participants in society. However, there is a significant shortfall between the need for and provision of AT, and this is patterned by a range of social, demographic and structural factors. To seize the opportunity that assistive technology offers, regional, national and sub-national assistive technology policies are urgently required. This paper was developed for and through discussion at the Global Research, Innovation and Education on Assistive Technology (GREAT) Summit; organized under the auspices of the World Health Organization's Global Collaboration on Assistive Technology (GATE) program. It outlines some of the key principles that AT polices should address and recognizes that AT policy should be tailored to the realities of the contexts and resources available. AT policy should be developed as a part of the evolution of related policy across a number of different sectors and should have clear and direct links to AT as mediators and moderators for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. The consultation process, development and implementation of policy should be fully inclusive of AT users, and their representative organizations, be across the lifespan, and imbued with a strong systems-thinking ethos. Six barriers are identified which funnel and diminish access to AT and are addressed systematically within this paper. We illustrate an example of good practice through a case study of AT services in Norway, and we note the challenges experienced in less well-resourced settings. A number of economic factors relating to AT and economic arguments for promoting AT use are also discussed. To address policy-development the importance of active citizenship and advocacy, the need to find mechanisms to scale up good community practices to a higher level, and the importance of political engagement for the

  20. Toward Technology-Sensitive Catching-Up Policies: Insights from Renewable Energy in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binz, Christian; Gosens, Jorrit; Hansen, Teis

    2017-01-01

    , but were of limited importance in the early solar PV industry, and resulted only in a limited period of rapid growth in the biomass power plant industry. The relative progress achieved in these three industries is not related to top-down policy guidance alone, but also to private sector initiative......, international interdependencies, and flexibility in adapting policy mixes to each industry's technological characteristics. These results suggest that policy makers in newly industrializing countries (NICs) should avoid drafting generic sector plans, but should tailor plans to individual industries, and respond...... to changing policy support needs as technological capacities and global competitiveness develop....

  1. Transfer of technology to developing countries: unilateral and multilateral policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockman, B.M.; Maskus, K.E.; Saggi, K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes national and international policy options to encourage the international transfer of technology, distinguishing between four major channels of such transfer: trade in products, trade in knowledge and technology, foreign direct investment, and intranational and international movement of people. A typology of countries and appropriate policy rules of thumb are developed as a guide to both national policymakers and multilateral rule making in the WTO. We argue that the optimal policy mix varies across countries and that there is a need for differentiation in the design and application of rules in trade agreements as well as for a more explicit focus on evaluation of the impacts of policies. (author)

  2. Developing Public Policies for New Welfare Technologies – A Case Study of Telemedicine and Telehomecare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    2012-01-01

    and communication-based technologies (ICT) for homecare and monitoring (telemedicine, telehomecare). Despite major investments and national commitment, public policies have not yet found a general approach to move from technological and clinical opportunity and into large-scale regular use of the technology...... (normalisation). This article provides two case studies from Denmark; one case with hypertension monitoring at a local level and another case on national policy implementation through funding of selected demonstration projects. Among the findings are that policy-making processes certainly face major challenges...... in capturing research and development for the transition of technologies into working practice. Furthermore, policy approaches of supporting experimentation and demonstration are found inadequate in promoting technology into a level of normalisation in highly cross-organisational operational environments...

  3. Enhancing innovation in agriculture at the policy level : The potential contribution of Technology Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, Frank M.; Russell, A. Wendy; Kimber, Julie

    Technology Assessment (TA) is an applied process that considers the societal implications of technological change in order to influence policy to improve technology governance. TA has considerable potential to enhance innovation in agriculture and to assist agricultural industries in becoming more

  4. 75 FR 8078 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Technology; HIT Policy Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces... for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meetings will be open to the public via dial-in access...

  5. 76 FR 1432 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... Technology; HIT Policy Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces... for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meetings will be open to the public via dial-in access...

  6. 75 FR 33811 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Technology; HIT Policy Committee's Privacy & Security Tiger Team Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This... National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name...

  7. 75 FR 369 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... Technology; HIT Policy Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces... for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meetings will be open to the public via dial-in access...

  8. 75 FR 12752 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... Technology; HIT Policy Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of Meetings. This notice announces... for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meetings will be open to the public via dial-in access...

  9. 75 FR 21630 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Technology; HIT Policy Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces... for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meetings will be open to the public via dial-in access...

  10. 75 FR 36658 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... Technology; HIT Policy Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces... for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meetings will be open to the public via dial-in access...

  11. 75 FR 70924 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... Technology; HIT Policy Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces... for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meetings will be open to the public via dial-in access...

  12. 75 FR 34141 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Technology; HIT Policy Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces... for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meetings will be open to the public via dial-in access...

  13. 75 FR 16126 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Policy Committee... framework for the development and adoption of a nationwide health information technology infrastructure that...

  14. 76 FR 9782 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces... for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meetings will be open to the public via dial-in access... policy framework for the development and adoption of a nationwide health information technology...

  15. 75 FR 151 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Policy Committee... framework for the development and adoption of a nationwide health information technology infrastructure that...

  16. 76 FR 9784 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Policy Committee... framework for the development and adoption of a nationwide health information technology infrastructure that...

  17. 75 FR 65486 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Policy Committee... framework for the development and adoption of a nationwide health information technology infrastructure that...

  18. 75 FR 29762 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Policy Committee... framework for the development and adoption of a nationwide health information technology infrastructure that...

  19. 75 FR 51820 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Policy Committee... framework for the development and adoption of a nationwide health information technology infrastructure that...

  20. 76 FR 4352 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Policy Committee... framework for the development and adoption of a nationwide health information technology infrastructure that...

  1. 75 FR 5595 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Policy Committee... framework for the development and adoption of a nationwide health information technology infrastructure that...

  2. 75 FR 57026 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Policy Committee... framework for the development and adoption of a nationwide health information technology infrastructure that...

  3. 75 FR 42091 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Policy Committee... framework for the development and adoption of a nationwide health information technology infrastructure that...

  4. Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies: Increasing Access to the Results of Federally Funded Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    This memorandum, issued on February 22, 2013 by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) and directed to the heads of executive departments and agencies, calls for all federal agencies that are engaged in research and developmen...

  5. Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schacht, Wendy H

    2007-01-01

    .... economic growth, productivity, and international competitiveness. Because technology can contribute to economic growth and productivity increases, congressional attention has focused on how to augment private-sector technological development...

  6. Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schacht, Wendy H

    2005-01-01

    .... economic growth productivity, and international competitiveness. Because technology can contribute to economic growth and productivity increases, congressional interest has focused on how to augment private-sector technological development...

  7. Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schacht, Wendy H

    2006-01-01

    .... economic growth, productivity, and international competitiveness. Because technology can contribute to economic growth and productivity increases, congressional attention has focused on how to augment private-sector technological development...

  8. Policy implications of emerging vehicle and infrastructure technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This report considers a broad range of emerging transportation technologies that have potential : for enhancing travel on and operations of the Texas transportation system. It provides an : overview of technology classifications and assesses the poli...

  9. Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana): Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) ... from original research whether pure or applied in the various aspects of academic ... University Books & Publications Committee, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST)

  10. Advanced Avionics Architecture and Technology Review. Executive Summary and Volume 1, Avionics Technology. Volume 2. Avionics Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-06

    JIAWG core avionics are described in the section below. The JIAWO architecture standard (187-01) describes an open. system architeture which provides...0.35 microns (pRm). Present technology is in the 0.8 npm to 0.5 pm range for aggressive producers. Since the area of a die is approximately proportional ...analog (D/A) converters. The I A/D converter is a device or circuit that examines an analog voltage or current and converts it to a proportional binary

  11. Towards improved policy processes for promoting innovation in renewable electricity technologies in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foxon, T.J.; Pearson, P.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses recent, current and potential future relations between policy processes and substantive outcomes in UK low carbon innovation policy, focussing on policies relating to renewable electricity generation technologies. It examines the development of policy processes relating to the adoption and implementation of the Renewables Obligation and how these may affect the current and likely future success of the Obligation in promoting low carbon innovation. It examines the new policy and institutional processes put in place in the 2003 Energy White Paper and argues that these are unlikely to provide the strategic long-term framework needed to realise the ambitious goals for UK energy policy set out in the White Paper. Finally, it outlines some suggestions for further development of policy processes to facilitate improved delivery of these goals, based on guiding principles for sustainable innovation policy processes, developed by the authors and their colleagues

  12. Technology Opportunities: Implementation of Deployment Health Policy in Operational Theaters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martinez-Lopez, Lester

    2004-01-01

    It is U.S. policy that medical and personnel information systems be designed, integrated, and utilized with military medical surveillance to protect the physical and mental health of Service members throughout...

  13. Cleaner technology diffusion: case studies, modeling and policy. Editorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montalvo Corral, C.; Kemp, R.

    2008-01-01

    The development and application of cleaner technologies (environmental technologies) offer multiple benefits for the adopter: reduced emissions, less waste and cost savings from reduced resource use and savings on waste costs. The question here is: if cleaner technologies offer such great benefits

  14. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  15. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  16. Exploratory Technology Research Program for electrochemical energy storage: Executive summary report for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, K.

    1994-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Propulsion Systems provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development (R ampersand D) on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EVs). The program centers on advanced systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electrochemical Energy Storage Program is divided into two projects: the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EVABS) Development Program and the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program. The EVABS Program management responsibility has been assigned to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is responsible for management of the FIR Program. The EVABS and ETR Programs include an integrated matrix of R ampersand D efforts designed to advance progress on selected candidate electrochemical systems. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), a tripartite undertaking between DOE, the U.S. automobile manufacturers and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), was formed in 1991 to accelerate the development of advanced batteries for consumer EVs. The role of the FIR Program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and EVABS Program, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/or cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or the EVABS Program for further development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in CY 1993

  17. Rationales for technology-specific RES support and their relevance for German policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawel, Erik; Lehmann, Paul; Purkus, Alexandra; Söderholm, Patrik; Witte, Katherina

    2017-01-01

    In order to achieve cost-effective RES-E deployment it is often argued that technology-neutral support schemes for renewables are indispensable. Against this background, RES-E support policies making widely use of technology differentiation in remuneration settings, e.g. across the EU, are frequently criticized from a theoretical point of view. However, in this paper we provide a systematic critique of the technology neutrality concept as a foundation for designing policy support schemes in the RES-E technology field. Specifically, the main objective of the paper is to scrutinize the arguments for technology-neutrality, and discuss three conceptual arguments for why technology-specific support schemes could in fact help minimize the societal costs of reaching future RES-E targets. We also briefly address different political economy concerns, which could constrain the choice of cost-effective policy support schemes, and that have to be taken into account for economic policy advice. For empirical illustration of the key arguments we refer to the case of German RES-E policy-making. The central conclusion from this paper is that technology-specific RES-E support schemes may generate significant economic benefits, particularly if technology markets work imperfectly and in second-best policy settings with additional non-internalized market failures. - Highlights: • Three theoretical cost-effectiveness reasons for technology-specific RES-E support. • German case study to show relevance of theoretical arguments for policy-making. • Political economy constraints to technology-neutral support are demonstrated. • Technology-specific RES-E support may generate significant economic benefits.

  18. Factors influencing the technology upgrading and catch-up of Chinese wind turbine manufacturers: Technology acquisition mechanisms and government policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Yueming; Ortolano, Leonard; David Wang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses firm level data for the Chinese wind turbine manufacturing industry from 1998 to 2009 to quantify the effects of technology acquisition mechanisms – purchasing production licenses from foreign manufacturers, joint design with foreign design firms, joint-ventures and domestic R and D – on wind turbine manufacturers' technology levels (as measured by turbine size, in megawatts). It also examines the impacts of government policies on manufacturer technology levels. Technology upgrading (measured by increase of turbine size) and catch-up (measured by decrease in the distance to the world technology frontier in terms of turbine size) are used to measure advances in technology level. Results from econometric modeling studies indicate that firms' technology acquisition mechanisms and degree of business diversification are statistically significant factors in influencing technology upgrading. Similar results were found for the catch-up variable (i.e., distance to the world technology frontier). The influence of government policies is significant for technology upgrading but not catch-up. These and other modeling results are shown to have implications for both policymakers and wind turbine manufacturers. - Highlights: ► Technology acquired through joint design has the highest level. ► Technology acquired through purchasing production license has the lowest level. ► Technology acquired through domestic R and D has the level in between. ► A firm with related other businesses tends to have a higher level of technology. ► The influence of policies is significant for technology upgrade but not catch-up

  19. 78 FR 69462 - National Nanotechnology Initiative Strategic Plan; National Science and Technology Council...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY OFFICE National Nanotechnology Initiative Strategic Plan; National Science and Technology Council; National Nanotechnology Coordination Office AGENCY: Executive... Science, Engineering, and Technology Subcommittee requests public comments on the draft 2014 National...

  20. Climate policies and learning by doing: Impacts and timing of technology subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kverndokk, Snorre; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2007-01-01

    We study the role of technology subsidies in climate policies, using a simple dynamic equilibrium model with learning by doing. The optimal subsidy rate of a carbon-free technology is high when the technology is first adopted, but falls significantly over the next decades. However, the efficiency costs of uniform instead of optimal subsidies, may be low if there are adjustment costs for a new technology. Finally, supporting existing energy technologies only, may lead to technology lock-in, and the impacts of lock-in increase with the learning potential of new technologies as well as the possibilities for early entry. (author)

  1. Participation of nurses in the execution of clinical research protocol about technological innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Patrícia Andreani Cabral

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractOBJECTIVETo report the nurse's experience of inclusion in interdisciplinary clinical study about technological innovation, involving people with spinal cord injury.METHODDescriptive experience report. The empirical support was based on notes about perspectives and practice of clinical research, with a multi-professional nursing, physical education, physiotherapy and engineering staff.RESULTThe qualification includes the elaboration of the document for the Ethics Committee, familiarization among the members of staff and with the studied topic, and also an immersion into English. The nurse's knowledge gave support to the uptake of participants and time adequacy for data collection, preparation and assistance of the participants during the intervention and after collection. Nursing theories and processes have contributed to reveal risky diagnoses and the plan of care. It was the nurse's role to monitor the risk of overlapping methodological strictness to the human aspect. The skills for the clinical research must be the object of learning, including students in multidisciplinary researches.CONCLUSIONTo qualify the nurse for clinical research and to potentialize its caregiver essence, some changes are needed in the educational system, professional behavior, attitude and educational assistance.

  2. 75 FR 6398 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's Adoption/Certification Workgroup Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office... of Committee: HIT Policy Committee's Adoption/Certification Workgroup. General Function of the...

  3. Branding technologies in the foreign policy of Ukraine: regulatory and organizational aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereshchuk Maryna Ihorivna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses regulatory and organizational components of the application of branding technology as a tool of foreign policy of Ukraine. Particular attention is paid to the activities of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine in this sphere, as well as to the problems impeding the full implementation of the branding policy.

  4. Technologies, Democracy and Digital Citizenship: Examining Australian Policy Intersections and the Implications for School Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    There are intersections that can occur between the respective peak Australian school education policy agendas. These policies include the use of technologies in classrooms to improve teaching and learning as promoted through the "Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians" and the "Australian Curriculum";…

  5. Accelerating the Pace of Change in Energy Technologies Through an Integrated Federal Energy Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-11-01

    In this report, the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) calls for the development of a coordinated government-wide Federal energy policy. This will be a major undertaking, given the large number of Federal policies that affect the development, implementation, and use of energy technologies. For that reason, we recommend that the Administration initiate a process analogous to the Quadrennial Defense Review undertaken every four years by the Department of Defense

  6. Identifying the science and technology dimensions of emerging public policy issues through horizon scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Miles; Acland, Andrew; Armstrong, Harry J; Bellingham, Jim R; Bland, Jessica; Bodmer, Helen C; Burall, Simon; Castell, Sarah; Chilvers, Jason; Cleevely, David D; Cope, David; Costanzo, Lucia; Dolan, James A; Doubleday, Robert; Feng, Wai Yi; Godfray, H Charles J; Good, David A; Grant, Jonathan; Green, Nick; Groen, Arnoud J; Guilliams, Tim T; Gupta, Sunjai; Hall, Amanda C; Heathfield, Adam; Hotopp, Ulrike; Kass, Gary; Leeder, Tim; Lickorish, Fiona A; Lueshi, Leila M; Magee, Chris; Mata, Tiago; McBride, Tony; McCarthy, Natasha; Mercer, Alan; Neilson, Ross; Ouchikh, Jackie; Oughton, Edward J; Oxenham, David; Pallett, Helen; Palmer, James; Patmore, Jeff; Petts, Judith; Pinkerton, Jan; Ploszek, Richard; Pratt, Alan; Rocks, Sophie A; Stansfield, Neil; Surkovic, Elizabeth; Tyler, Christopher P; Watkinson, Andrew R; Wentworth, Jonny; Willis, Rebecca; Wollner, Patrick K A; Worts, Kim; Sutherland, William J

    2014-01-01

    Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics) elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security.

  7. Identifying the Science and Technology Dimensions of Emerging Public Policy Issues through Horizon Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Miles; Acland, Andrew; Armstrong, Harry J.; Bellingham, Jim R.; Bland, Jessica; Bodmer, Helen C.; Burall, Simon; Castell, Sarah; Chilvers, Jason; Cleevely, David D.; Cope, David; Costanzo, Lucia; Dolan, James A.; Doubleday, Robert; Feng, Wai Yi; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Good, David A.; Grant, Jonathan; Green, Nick; Groen, Arnoud J.; Guilliams, Tim T.; Gupta, Sunjai; Hall, Amanda C.; Heathfield, Adam; Hotopp, Ulrike; Kass, Gary; Leeder, Tim; Lickorish, Fiona A.; Lueshi, Leila M.; Magee, Chris; Mata, Tiago; McBride, Tony; McCarthy, Natasha; Mercer, Alan; Neilson, Ross; Ouchikh, Jackie; Oughton, Edward J.; Oxenham, David; Pallett, Helen; Palmer, James; Patmore, Jeff; Petts, Judith; Pinkerton, Jan; Ploszek, Richard; Pratt, Alan; Rocks, Sophie A.; Stansfield, Neil; Surkovic, Elizabeth; Tyler, Christopher P.; Watkinson, Andrew R.; Wentworth, Jonny; Willis, Rebecca; Wollner, Patrick K. A.; Worts, Kim; Sutherland, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique [1]. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics) elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security. PMID:24879444

  8. Identifying the science and technology dimensions of emerging public policy issues through horizon scanning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles Parker

    Full Text Available Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security.

  9. Environmental policy instruments and technological change in the energy sector: findings from comparative empirical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjaerseth, J.B.; Christiansen, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the extent to which and in what ways environmental policy instruments may affect patterns of environmental friendly technological change in the energy sector. Our argument is based on the assumption, however, that technological change is also affected by the political context in which the instruments are applied and by the nature of the problem itself. Comparative empirical research involving different European countries, sectors and policy fields were examined, including climate change, air pollution and wind power. The relationship between environmental policy instruments and technological change is extremely complex, not least due to the impact of other factors that may be more decisive than environmental ones. Against this backdrop, it was concluded that: 1) a portfolio of policy instruments works to the extent that different types of policy instruments affect the different drivers and stages behind technological change needed to solve specific problems. The need for a portfolio of policy instruments depends on the technological challenge being faced; 2) voluntary approaches facilitated constructive corporate strategies, but mandatory approaches tended to be more effective in stimulating short term major technological change; 3) voluntary approaches work well in the short term when the problem to be solved is characterized by lack of information and coordination. (author)

  10. Technology Policy and Practice in Africa | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    African economies need deep technological revolutions to bring about rapid structural shifts, to deepen their industry, and build up their endogenous technological capability. The case studies presented here demonstrate the need to pay greater attention to an enabling macroeconomic environmentand the ways that ...

  11. Journal of Food Technology in Africa: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Journal of Food Technology in Africa is Published Quarterly. It is intended for publication of papers on original work and reviews of all aspects of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition. Articles should be basic research that impinge on major areas of concern and relevance to the Food Industry in the ...

  12. Atmospheric effects of aviation. Bringing together science, technology and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesoky, H L; Friedl, R R [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Sustained growth of the aviation industry could be threatened by environmental concerns. But collaboration of scientists, technologists and policy makers is helping to assess potential problems, and to consider appropriate measures for control of aircraft emissions. The structure of that collaboration is discussed along with status of the scientific assessments. (author) 15 refs.

  13. Atmospheric effects of aviation. Bringing together science, technology and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesoky, H.L.; Friedl, R.R. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Sustained growth of the aviation industry could be threatened by environmental concerns. But collaboration of scientists, technologists and policy makers is helping to assess potential problems, and to consider appropriate measures for control of aircraft emissions. The structure of that collaboration is discussed along with status of the scientific assessments. (author) 15 refs.

  14. Research, development, demonstration, and early deployment policies for advanced-coal technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lifeng; Gallagher, Kelly Sims

    2007-01-01

    Advanced-coal technologies will increasingly play a significant role in addressing China's multiple energy challenges. This paper introduces the current status of energy in China, evaluates the research, development, and demonstration policies for advanced-coal technologies during the Tenth Five-Year Plan, and gives policy prospects for advanced-coal technologies in the Eleventh Five-Year Plan. Early deployment policies for advanced-coal technologies are discussed and some recommendations are put forward. China has made great progress in the development of advanced-coal technologies. In terms of research, development, and demonstration of advanced-coal technologies, China has achieved breakthroughs in developing and demonstrating advanced-coal gasification, direct and indirect coal liquefaction, and key technologies of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and co-production systems. Progress on actual deployment of advanced-coal technologies has been more limited, in part due to insufficient supporting policies. Recently, industry chose Ultra Super Critical (USC) Pulverized Coal (PC) and Super Critical (SC) PC for new capacity coupled with pollution-control technology, and 300 MW Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) as a supplement

  15. Providing policy-relevant information for greenhouse gas management: Perspectives from science and technology policy research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilling, L.

    2009-12-01

    In the 12 years since the Kyoto Protocol was signed setting forth targets for greenhouse gas emissions from several nations, the number of policies, voluntary programs and commercial enterprises that have developed to manage carbon has grown exponentially. Many of these programs have occurred in a voluntary context, such as carbon trading, carbon offset programs, and climate registries . To date, no single, common system for accrediting, verifying and recording carbon credits has developed. Moreover, as the international community continues to negotiate the dimensions of an international agreement for the post-Kyoto time period, discussions still center on targets for fossil fuel emissions, biospheric carbon protection, and appropriate distribution of the burden of compliance globally. If carbon still remains the currency for discussion in a climate agreement, some type of effective measurement and verification system will be needed to ensure that commitments are being met. While entire volumes over the past decade have been written on what it is possible to observe about the carbon cycle and how to do so-- these tend to describe observations from the perspective of studying the carbon cycle to discover fundamental new knowledge. I will argue, however, that for the application under consideration in this session, i.e. a global greenhouse gas information system, it is essential to bring in the perspective of the policy and regulatory community. The needs of the scientific community for measuring the uncertainties in the global carbon cycle are not necessarily the same as those for the policy community. To ensure that such a system can serve a policy-relevant function, the scientific community must engage with policy makers, entrepreneurs, those who must comply, and others involved in constructing the policy framework. This paper will examine some of the key fundamentals that the policy community may be considering in designing a greenhouse gas monitoring system. I

  16. The neglected heart of science policy (revisited): Balancing knowledge and action in an age of science and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parris, A. S.; Ferguson, D. B.

    2016-12-01

    In the U.S., the need for effective scientist-decision maker engagement is explicitly endorsed at the highest levels of national science policy-making, including the annual research and development priorities memo of the Executive Office for fiscal year 2017. The call from the Executive Office formalizes a long-standing recognition, among a minority of scientists and practitioners, that the public value of research activities may be enhanced through engagement between scientists and decision makers. However, engagement is often embedded in research efforts, despite the fact that the ability to foster relationships and improve knowledge exchange has progressed primarily through boundary spanning efforts. Consequently, sound practice for engagement is not adequately considered in the design of new institutions, programs, and career development tracks. This gap illustrates a lack of formal learning in science policy and is critical because engagement and, specifically, co-production of knowledge are proving effective in adapting to global change. We examined over 10 different case studies spanning urban planning, natural resource management, and water management. In each case, deliberate strategies were employed to encourage decision maker-scientist engagement, including the formation of new organizations, innovative design of research projects, and training and education for professionals to participate in engagement efforts. Individual cases reveal several outcomes, including but not limited to: increased awareness of risk; information that enabled adaptation or resilience choices; exchange between decision makers from different sectors leading to more coordinated responses to natural resource impacts; and mediation for responsible use of science. Collectively, the body of evidence suggests that engagement may be most important not necessarily in reconciling supply and demand for science, but rebalancing knowledge and action in an age of science and technology.

  17. Toward the Target Model 2.0. Policy Recommendations for a Sustainable EU Power Market Design. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roques, Fabien; Perekhodtsev, Dmitri; Verhaeghe, Charles

    2015-06-01

    One of the 10 key priorities of the new European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker consists of 'reform(ing) and reorganis(ing) Europe's energy policy into a new European Energy Union'. The Energy Union work programme released on 25 February 2015 suggests that a new electricity market design is needed in order to tackle Europe's chosen policy objectives of de-carbonisation whilst maintaining security of supply. The current regulatory and market framework does not provide a sound basis for the investments needed to maintain security of supply and de-carbonise the power sector at an affordable cost. As policy priorities in favour of de-carbonisation and maintaining security of supply have taken centre stage on the policy agenda in the past decade, the design of liberalised electricity markets has failed to evolve and be reconciled with these new priorities. In addition, the issues of competitiveness and affordability of electricity in Europe remain central in the discussions about the market framework. The objective of this study is to assess the deficiencies and gaps in the current European Target Model and the wider regulatory framework for power generation and to propose a number of policy recommendations for improvement. Recognising the need for 'fresh thinking' on the issue, this study looks outside Europe to learn the lessons from experiences with a range of alternative market designs that exist around the globe. The study provides a comprehensive assessment of the issues with current European electricity markets. The study investigates the lessons from market reforms in North America and in Latin America in the past decade to identify 'out of the box' thinking to fill the gaps in the current European Target model. This report presents some of the research findings and concludes with a set of alternative potential directions for reform of European power markets models in the long term, as well as a number of

  18. Directed International Technological Change and Climate Policy: New Methods for Identifying Robust Policies Under Conditions of Deep Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Perez, Edmundo

    It is widely recognized that international environmental technological change is key to reduce the rapidly rising greenhouse gas emissions of emerging nations. In 2010, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of the Parties (COP) agreed to the creation of the Green Climate Fund (GCF). This new multilateral organization has been created with the collective contributions of COP members, and has been tasked with directing over USD 100 billion per year towards investments that can enhance the development and diffusion of clean energy technologies in both advanced and emerging nations (Helm and Pichler, 2015). The landmark agreement arrived at the COP 21 has reaffirmed the key role that the GCF plays in enabling climate mitigation as it is now necessary to align large scale climate financing efforts with the long-term goals agreed at Paris 2015. This study argues that because of the incomplete understanding of the mechanics of international technological change, the multiplicity of policy options and ultimately the presence of climate and technological change deep uncertainty, climate financing institutions such as the GCF, require new analytical methods for designing long-term robust investment plans. Motivated by these challenges, this dissertation shows that the application of new analytical methods, such as Robust Decision Making (RDM) and Exploratory Modeling (Lempert, Popper and Bankes, 2003) to the study of international technological change and climate policy provides useful insights that can be used for designing a robust architecture of international technological cooperation for climate change mitigation. For this study I developed an exploratory dynamic integrated assessment model (EDIAM) which is used as the scenario generator in a large computational experiment. The scope of the experimental design considers an ample set of climate and technological scenarios. These scenarios combine five sources of uncertainty

  19. Policies of industrial market and science and technology: the case of Brazilian nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.G. de.

    1981-01-01

    The relationship between policies and the definition of a national program of nuclear energy, is considered. The case under study is the Brazilian one. It is shown that an overall evaluation of market, industry and science and technology is mandatory for the definition of a nuclear energy program, and serious fault and hesitation, leading to contradiction and failure, have their roots in a basic lack of definition in policies. The evolution of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program will probably remain at a mediocre level until a definition at the level of policy-making in marketing, industry and science and technology is firmly pursued and maintained. (Author) [pt

  20. Technologies, Democracy and Digital Citizenship: Examining Australian Policy Intersections and the Implications for School Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Moyle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are intersections that can occur between the respective peak Australian school education policy agendas. These policies include the use of technologies in classrooms to improve teaching and learning as promoted through the Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians and the Australian Curriculum; and the implementation of professional standards as outlined in the Australian Professional Standard for Principals and the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers. These policies create expectations of school leaders to bring about change in classrooms and across their schools, often described as bringing about ‘quality teaching’ and ‘school improvement’. These policies indicate that Australian children should develop ‘democratic values’, and that school principals should exercise ‘democratic values’ in their schools. The national approaches to the implementation of these policies however, is largely silent on promoting learning that fosters democracy through education, or about making connections between teaching and learning with technologies, school leadership and living in a democracy. Yet the policies promote these connections and alignments. Furthermore, understanding democratic values, knowing what is a democracy, and being able to use technologies in democratic ways, has to be learned and practiced. Through the lens of the use of technologies to build digital citizenship and to achieve democratic processes and outcomes in schools, these policy complexities are examined in order to consider some of the implications for school leadership.

  1. Are Law and Policy Clear and Consistent? Roles and Responsibilities of the Defense Acquisition Executive and the Chief Information Officer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    2223) are necessarily in conflict with one another or represent a “ prima facie ” conflict. However, we are pointing out that, because of the potentially...that DoD policy should state what constitutes “compliance” with government and DoD standards. The Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) is obligated to issue...aircraft, weap- ons, command and control, communications, intelligence, and IT business systems. In contrast, the R&R of CIOs are generally restricted to

  2. A Decade of Reform: Science and Technology Policy in China ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The State Science and Technology Commission (People's Republic of China), IDRC ... In 1995, and at the request of the Chinese government, Canada's International Development Research Centre ( IDRC ) assembled a ... Related content ...

  3. Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policies in Latin America

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Latin American governments, academics and nongovernmental organizations are paying increasing attention to poverty, inequality and social inclusion, and the role that technological change plays in these phenomenon. ... Related content ...

  4. Science and technology planning in LDCs: major policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wionczek, M S

    1979-05-01

    Science in the less-developed countries (LDCs) should be underplanned rather than overplanned. Furthermore, the planning should be directed to the outer fringes of the scientific endeavor and to its infrastructure and not to the substance of scientific research itself. Planning of applied research and technological development in the LDC is another story. It cannot be done without entering into the substantive problems of applied research and technological development. Attempts to set the broad overall national targets for science and technology (S and T) expenditures -in terms of the proportion of the (GNP) or the per capita income- which do not consider the science and technology system's financial and human resources absorption capacity, are useless. 8 references.

  5. Technological reason and power policy faced with conflicting demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwin, K.; Krenz, G.

    1985-01-01

    Every country is faced with the fundamental task of ensuring long-term energy supply in an optimal manner. Electrical energy is of particular importance owing to its universal uses. But decision-making in the field of power policy is difficult and involves uncertainties because such decisions will have long-term effects due to the long service life of power projects. Decision-making is also difficult because of the large amounts of capital involved in power projects, so that any mistake may cause irreparable damage to the national economy. This article is an attempt to find the fundamental relationships governing the assessment of projects in terms of power policy and to demonstrate the application of appropriate methods of analysis, using as an example the vital question which source of primary energy should best be used for electricity production in Austria. (Auth.)

  6. Judiciary-Executive relations in Policy Making: the Case of Drug Distribution in the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Elias Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to demonstrate how the responses of public health officials to judicial decisions have shaped drug distribution policies in the state of São Paulo. Data was collected and structured interviews were conducted at the state of São Paulo Department for Health in order to show how different strategies of response to judicial decisions affected the policy of medication distribution by the public sector. We also analysed recent Supreme Federal Court jurisprudence to show how the Court reformed its earlier views on the subject as a result of the demands made by public health officials. It is our understanding that the current literature has failed to produce a more comprehensive view of this phenomenon because of its focus solely on judicial decisions, without taking a step further to analyse how public health officials reacted to them, which would have addressed the compliance problem inherent to positive rights enforcement. Finally, we see this process not as merely positive or negative, but as one that goes beyond the different normative biases present in the literature on the subject, and focus on the mechanisms behind the impact of the judicialization of the right to healthcare on policies of medication distribution.

  7. Technology in the policy process: The control of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collingridge, D.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents an examination of the methodology by which technology assessments and decisions are made with regard to technically complex intensive projects. The author focuses on current breeder reactor programs in England, France and the US, offering an overview of the history and pitfalls of this energy option. He then proposes various alternatives for enhancing the flexibility of the technology and for estimating the cost in more accurate terms

  8. EU policy: Which technological strategies for smart, sustainable growth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liberali, Raffaele; )

    2011-01-01

    The EU's Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET Plan) was launched in November 2007 in response to issues having to do with energy and the climate. Its priority is to speed up the development and deployment of new energy technology thanks to a global approach providing coordination among member states. This plan is to position Europe as a world leader in the transition toward smart, sustainable growth

  9. Control of mercury emissions: policies, technologies, and future trends

    OpenAIRE

    Rhee, Seung-Whee

    2015-01-01

    Seung-Whee Rhee Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyonggi University, Suwon, Republic of Korea Abstract: Owing to the Minamata Convention on Mercury and the Global Mercury Partnership, policies and regulations on mercury management in advanced countries were intensified by a mercury phaseout program in the mercury control strategy. In developing countries, the legislative or regulatory frameworks on mercury emissions are not established specifically, but mercury management is designed...

  10. Technology in the policy process - controlling nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collingridge, D.

    1983-01-01

    The discussion in this book is built around nuclear power. The technology of nuclear power is shown to have features which make it inflexible in the sense that, once built, it is difficult and expensive to control. If inflexible technology is to be avoided, it is crucially important to be able to identify this failing at an early stage in the technology's development, before it has acquired an immunity to political control. Again, this problem is approached through the example of nuclear power, in particular the breeder reactor. The breeder is shown to be even less flexible than today's nuclear technology, because it will have higher capital costs, be of greater capital intensity, longer lead time, larger unit size, and will require more infrastructure for its operation. If this is developed, the breeder will be even less open to political control than the nuclear plant of the present. To put it another way, its planning will be even more open to errors and whatever errors are made will be even more costly than for existing nuclear technology. It is therefore even less of a socially and economically acceptable technology than today's nuclear power. (author)

  11. Improving Energy Efficiency Through Technology. Trends, Investment Behaviour and Policy Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florax, R.J.G.M. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); De Groot, H.L.F. [VU University, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mulder, P. [Tinbergen Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] (eds.)

    2011-10-15

    This innovative book explores the adoption of energy-saving technologies and their impact on energy efficiency improvements. It contains a mix of theoretical and empirical contributions, and combines and compares economic and physical indicators to monitor and analyse trends in energy efficiency. The authors pay considerable attention to empirical research on the determinants of energy-saving investment including uncertainty, energy-price volatility and subsidies. They also discuss the role of energy modelling in policy design and the potential effect of energy policies on technology diffusion in energy-extensive sectors. Written from a multi-disciplinary perspective, this book will appeal to academics and graduates in the areas of energy-saving technologies, energy economics and natural resource economics, as well as policy makers - particularly those in energy policy.

  12. Policy Studies Series: Japanese Technology Policy: What’s the Secret?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    Lauder Pacific Telesis Group Estee Lauder , Inc. Joseph T. Gorman Frank W. Luerssen TRW, Inc. Inland Steel Industries, Inc. Katharine Graham C. Peter...emphasized the acquisition, development, and use of technology as an engine of economic growth. In recent years, the strategy has been to pursue...technology enterprise, such as private-sector technology strategies , research related to other government missions (such as energy, ocean, and disaster

  13. Integrating Science and Technology into a Policy of Lifelong Education in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urevbu, Andrew O.

    1985-01-01

    Examines Nigeria's National Policy on Education guidelines, specifically focusing on science and technological education. Discusses the development of vocational and technical schools, transfer of technology, and the role of research institutes. Recommendations are made concerning academic survival skills, respect for manual skills, improved…

  14. Progress in Energy Storage Technologies: Models and Methods for Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteson, Schuyler W.

    Climate change and other sustainability challenges have led to the development of new technologies that increase energy efficiency and reduce the utilization of finite resources. To promote the adoption of technologies with social benefits, governments often enact policies that provide financial incentives at the point of purchase. In their current form, these subsidies have the potential to increase the diffusion of emerging technologies; however, accounting for technological progress can improve program success while decreasing net public investment. This research develops novel methods using experience curves for the development of more efficient subsidy policies. By providing case studies in the field of automotive energy storage technologies, this dissertation also applies the methods to show the impacts of incorporating technological progress into energy policies. Specific findings include learning-dependent tapering subsidies for electric vehicles based on the lithium-ion battery experience curve, the effects of residual learning rates in lead-acid batteries on emerging technology cost competitiveness, and a cascading diffusion assessment of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle subsidy programs. Notably, the results show that considering learning rates in policy development can save billions of dollars in public funds, while also lending insight into the decision of whether or not to subsidize a given technology.

  15. Digital Technology, Schools and Teachers' Workplace Learning: Policy, Practice and Identity. Digital Education and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book advances an alternative reading of the social, political and cultural issues surrounding schools and technology and develops a comprehensive overview of the interplay between policy, practice and identity in school workplaces. It explores how digital technologies have become an integral element of the politics and socially negotiated…

  16. Inquiry into Turkey's Educational Technology, Governance, Situational Educational Policy: An Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolu, Hüseyin

    2018-01-01

    Investigating the sociology of educational technology can be approached through a series of deliberations based on the interaction between Free/Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) and Proprietary Close Source Software (PCSS). This article consults public policy discourses of the Fatih project, which is the current educational technology project in…

  17. 75 FR 51819 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Policy Committee... framework for the development and adoption of a nationwide health [[Page 51820

  18. Shedding light on solar technologies-A techno-economic assessment and its policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Michael; Schmidt, Tobias S.; Wiederkehr, David; Schneider, Malte

    2011-01-01

    Solar power technologies will have to become a major pillar in the world's future energy system to combat climate change and resource depletion. However, it is unclear which solar technology is and will prove most viable. Therefore, a comprehensive comparative assessment of solar technologies along the key quantitative and qualitative competitiveness criteria is needed. Based on a literature review and detailed techno-economic modeling for 2010 and 2020 in five locations, we provide such an assessment for the three currently leading large-scale solar technologies. We show that today these technologies cannot yet compete with conventional forms of power generation but approach competitiveness around 2020 in favorable locations. Furthermore, from a global perspective we find that none of the solar technologies emerges as a clear winner and that cost of storing energy differs by technology and can change the order of competitiveness in some instances. Importantly, the competitiveness of the different technologies varies considerably across locations due to differences in, e.g., solar resource and discount rates. Based on this analysis, we discuss policy implications with regard to fostering the diffusion of solar technologies while increasing the efficiency of policy support through an adequate geographical allocation of solar technologies. - Highlights: → We conduct a comprehensive comparative assessment of solar technologies (CSP/PV). → While solar technologies approach competitiveness in 2020, no clear winner emerges. → Solar resource and discount rate heavily impact competitiveness of solar technologies. → Adequate geographical allocation of solar technologies increases policy efficiency. → Focus on key cost down levers and strategic co-benefits of solar technologies needed.

  19. Execution and executability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Robert W.; Harrison, Denise

    2015-09-01

    "We have a new strategy to grow our organization." Developing the plan is just the start. Implementing it in the organization is the real challenge. Many organizations don't fail due to lack of strategy; they struggle because it isn't effectively implemented. After working with hundreds of companies on strategy development, Denise and Robert have distilled the critical areas where organizations need to focus in order to enhance profitability through superior execution. If these questions are important to your organization, you'll find useful answers in the following articles: Do you find yourself overwhelmed by too many competing priorities? How do you limit how many strategic initiatives/projects your organization is working on at one time? How do you balance your resource requirements (time and money) with the availability of these resources? How do you balance your strategic initiative requirements with the day-to-day requirements of your organization?

  20. Morals or markets? Regulating assisted reproductive technologies as morality or economic policies in the states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidt-Forsythe, Erin

    2017-01-01

    The availability of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) in the medical marketplace complicates our understanding of reproductive public policy in the United States. Political debates over ARTs often are based on fundamental moral principles of life, reproduction, and kinship, similar to other reproductive policies in the United States. However, ARTs are an important moneymaking private enterprise for the U.S. biotechnology industry. This project investigates how the U.S. states regulate these unique and challenging technologies as either moral policies or economic policies. This study employs ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to estimate the significance of morality and economic policy variables on ART policies at the state level, noting associations between state-level political, economic, and gender variables on restrictive and permissive state-level ART policies. Economic variables (reflecting the biotechnology industry) and advocacy for access to ART on behalf of infertility patients increase the chances of states passing policies that enable consumer use of ARTs. Additionally, individual ART policies are distinct from one another in the ways that morality variables increase the chances of ART regulations. Surprisingly, the role of religious adherence among state residents varied in positive and negative relationships with individual policy passage. In general, these results support the hypothesis that ART laws are associated with economic as well as moral concerns of the states-ARTs lie at the intersection of issues of life and reproduction and of scientific innovation and health. What is most striking about these results is that they do not follow patterns seen in the legislation of abortion, contraception, and sexuality in general-those reproductive policies that are considered "morality policy." Similarly, economic variables are not consistently significant in the expected direction.

  1. Technology-driven developments and policy implications for mathematics education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trouche, L.; Drijvers, P.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074302922; Gueudet, G.; Sacristan, A.I.

    2013-01-01

    The advent of technology has done more than merely increase the range of resources available for mathematics teaching and learning: it represents the emergence of a new culture—a virtual culture with new paradigms—which differs crucially from preceding cultural forms. In this chapter, the

  2. USSR Report, Science and Technology Policy, No. 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-09

    association; Kanashchenkov, Vladimir Sergeyevich, fitter brigade leader of the Shatlykgazstroy [ Shatlyk Gas Construction] Trust in the above...director of the production association of Shatlykgazdobycha [ Shatlyk Gas Extraction Trust]; Leshchinskiy, Yuriy Yevgen’yevich, head of a section of...installation of the large Shatlyk gas extraction complex on the basis of progressive technology and native equipment of large unit capacity. 12 19

  3. Science, Technology and Innovation: Concepts, Theory and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Zehra Taşkın; Güleda Doğan

    2016-01-01

    This study is a review of the book entitled “Science, Technology and Innovation: Concepts, Theory and Policy”. In the converging world, the book is an important contribution not only for the field of economy, but also information science which includes information-economy concepts.

  4. Importance of policy for energy system transformation: Diffusion of PV technology in Japan and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, Sanjeeda; Sumita, Ushio; Islam, Ashraful; Bedja, Idriss

    2014-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) has the highest cost reduction potential among all renewable energy sources (RES). To overcome institutional barriers, developing the technology, and creating an initial market, policies are needed. Comparative case studies of Japan and German PV sector from 1990 to 2011 were developed. Japan dominated the PV industry during 1994–2004, PV market increased to 290 MW in 2005. After 2005 Japan's PV market decreased. German PV market increased from 44 MW in 2000 to 7.5 GW in 2011. The reason behind Japanese PV market decline was the unaligned energy policy and termination of incentives. This paper discusses about successful policy implementation and the impact of policy for the diffusion of PV technology. The analysis section of this paper shows how much the PV technology has been diffused during the period of 1990–2011 and finally what will make the transformation process successful. - Highlights: • We studied PV diffusion of Japan and German considering public energy policy, environmental policy and cost reduction. • This study determined that policy and incentives are responsible for cost reduction. • Japans concentration on nuclear energy more than renewables, made the PV diffusion slow. • Successful implementation of FIT helped Germany reduce PV electricity price more than grid electricity

  5. Beyond technology-push and demand-pull: Lessons from California's solar policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    The scale of the technological transformation required to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 'safe' levels while minimizing economic impacts necessitates an emphasis on designing climate policy to foster, or at least not impede, environmental innovation. There is only a weak empirical base for policy-makers to stand on regarding the comparative innovation effects of various climate policy options, however. Empirical scholarship in environmental innovation is hindered by the complexity of both the innovation process and the interactions between the dual market failures of pollution and innovation that are in play, and it appears that the field would benefit from the structure provided by a common lexicon. This paper focuses on the issues related to policy categorization in this field; these issues have received little attention in the literature despite their importance to making insights gained from empirical studies generalizable. The paper reviews the origins, strengths, and weaknesses of the dominant policy typology of technology-push versus demand-pull instruments. Its primary contribution, however, is to assemble a comprehensive chronology of solar policy in California and its impacts on innovation, where known, and then use this as a basis for building a new policy categorization that takes advantage of the intuitive resonance of the dominant typology, while encompassing the broader range of policy instruments that are employed in practice in order to stimulate environmental innovation. The most noteworthy aspect of the new categorization is that it introduces a third category of environmental innovation policy instrument that focuses on improving the interface between technology suppliers and users. This reflects developments in the economics of innovation literature as well as considerable evidence in the domain of distributed solar energy technologies that opportunism by some of the actors that work at this interface can be a barrier to innovation

  6. Key policy considerations for facilitating low carbon technology transfer to developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ockwell, David G.; Watson, Jim; MacKerron, Gordon; Pal, Prosanto; Yamin, Farhana

    2008-01-01

    Based on Phase I of a UK-India collaborative study, this paper analyses two case studies of low carbon technologies-hybrid vehicles and coal-fired power generation via integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC). The analysis highlights the following six key considerations for the development of policy aimed at facilitating low carbon technology transfer to developing countries: (1) technology transfer needs to be seen as part of a broader process of sustained, low carbon technological capacity development in recipient countries; (2) the fact that low carbon technologies are at different stages of development means that low carbon technology transfer involves both vertical transfer (the transfer of technologies from the R and D stage through to commercialisation) and horizontal transfer (the transfer from one geographical location to another). Barriers to transfer and appropriate policy responses often vary according to the stage of technology development as well as the specific source and recipient country contexts; (3) less integrated technology transfer arrangements, involving, for example, acquisition of different items of plant from a range of host country equipment manufacturers, are more likely to involve knowledge exchange and diffusion through recipient country economies; (4) recipient firms that, as part of the transfer process, strategically aim to obtain technological know-how and knowledge necessary for innovation during the transfer process are more likely to be able to develop their capacity as a result; (5) whilst access to Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) may sometimes be a necessary part of facilitating technology transfer, it is not likely to be sufficient in itself. Other factors such as absorptive capacity and risks associated with new technologies must also be addressed; (6) there is a central role for both national and international policy interventions in achieving low carbon technology transfer. The lack of available empirical analysis

  7. A New Framework for Science and Technology Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanDevender, J.P.

    1999-03-04

    The usual divisions of science and technology into pure research applied research, development, demonstration, and production creates impediments for moving knowledge into socially useful products and services. This failing has been previously discussed without concrete suggestions of how to improve the situation. In the proposed framework the divisive and artificial distinctions of basic and applied are softened, and the complementary and somewhat overlapping roles of universities, corporations, and federal labs are clarified to enable robust partnerships. As a collegial group of scientists and technologists from industry, university, and government agencies and their national laboratories, we have worked together to clarify this framework. We offer the results in hopes of improving the results from investments in science and technology and thereby helping strengthen the social contract between the public and private investors and the scientists-technologists.

  8. Pricing policy for declining demand using item preservation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedlekar, Uttam Kumar; Shukla, Diwakar; Namdeo, Anubhav

    2016-01-01

    We have designed an inventory model for seasonal products in which deterioration can be controlled by item preservation technology investment. Demand for the product is considered price sensitive and decreases linearly. This study has shown that the profit is a concave function of optimal selling price, replenishment time and preservation cost parameter. We simultaneously determined the optimal selling price of the product, the replenishment cycle and the cost of item preservation technology. Additionally, this study has shown that there exists an optimal selling price and optimal preservation investment to maximize the profit for every business set-up. Finally, the model is illustrated by numerical examples and sensitive analysis of the optimal solution with respect to major parameters.

  9. Doctor-Patient Knowledge Transfer: Innovative Technologies and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Sára, Zoltán; Csedő, Zoltán; Tóth, Tamás; Fejes, József; Pörzse, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to empirically investigate the barriers in doctor-patient communication and knowledge transfer and the role of innovative technologies in overcoming these barriers. We applied qualitative research methods. Our results show that patients extensively use information sources, primarily the Internet before the visits. Patients regularly apply a self-diagnosis regarding their diseases. This implies several risks as many of them are not able to properly inte...

  10. Policy Considerations for the Blockchain Technology Public and Private Applications

    OpenAIRE

    GABISON Garry

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, Satoshi Nakamoto—an individual or group of individuals— released a paper that described Bitcoin, a first of its kind, peer-to-peer electronic cash system. Bitcoin relies mostly on existing technology but requires a new invention, a blockchain, to solve an old problem: how do two parties conduct an online transaction without knowing or trusting each other and without the need for a trusted third-party intermediary? Encryption and large-scale redundancy was combined w...

  11. Technology policy and sustainable development: the case of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemuth, N.

    2000-01-01

    Policies to address long-term energy concerns include a wide range of initiatives. Taxes can internalise costs; financial mechanisms, including subsidies, can target particularly favourable but otherwise non-competitive investments; regulation can apply standards to raise performance of appliances; information programmes can improve decision making; and R and D can make available new options. The 1987 report of the World Commission on Environment and development, found that 'energy efficiency can only buy for the world to develop 'low-energy-paths' based on renewable sources...'. Although many renewable energy systems are in a relatively early stage of development, they offer the world 'a potentially huge primary energy source, sustainable in perpetuity and available in various forms to every nation on Earth.' It suggested that an R and D programme of renewable energy is required to attain the same level of primary energy that is now obtained from a mix of fossil, nuclear, and renewable energy resources. Since renewable energy contributes to all dimensions of sustainable development, one policy challenge is to ensure that renewable energy has a fair opportunity to complete with other resources required for the provision of energy services, especially on 'liberalised' energy markets. This paper gives an overview of rationales for government intervention in energy-related R and D, and international energy R and D trends. it concludes that the liberalisation of energy markets has an overall negative impact on private sector investments in energy R and D and that without a sustained and diverse programme of energy R and D and implementation, we are crippling our ability to make the necessary improvements in the global energy system, especially in light of sustainable development requirements. (author)

  12. Timing and Commitment of Environmental Policy, Adoption of New Technology, and Repercussions on R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requate, T.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the interplay between environmental policy, incentives to adopt new technology, and repercussions on R and D. We study a model where a monopolistic upstream firm engages in R and D and sells advanced abatement technology to polluting downstream firms. We consider four different timing and commitment regimes of environmental tax and permit policies: ex post taxation (or issuing permits), interim commitment to a tax rate (a quota of permits) after observing R and D success but before adoption, and finally two types of ex antecommitment before R and D activity, one with a unique tax rate (quota of permits), the other one with a menu of tax rates (permit quotas). We study the second best tax and permit policies and rank these with respect to welfare. In particular, we find that commitment to a menu of tax rate dominates all other policy regimes

  13. Environmental policy on the fixed-fee licensing of eco-technology under foreign penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seung-Leul; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates environmental policy on the fixed-fee licensing strategy of clean eco-technology by an innovator having foreign ownership. We show that near-zero emission taxes accompanied by non-exclusive licensing regulation can improve social welfare when the cost gap is small or foreign penetration is high. However, when foreign ownership is not high, exclusive licensing regulations with an appropriate emission tax policy may improve social welfare.

  14. An Exponential Increase in Regional Health Information Exchange With Collaborative Policies and Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, N Lance; Lane, Steven; Eisenberg, Mathew; Sharp, Christopher; Palma, Jonathan; Longhurst, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, the ability to securely exchange health information between organization has been limited by technical interoperability, patient identity matching, and variable institutional policies. Here, we examine the regional experience in a national health information exchange network by examining clinical data sharing between eleven Northern California organizations using the same health information exchange (HIE) platform between 2013-2014. We identify key policies and technologies that have led to a dramatic increase in health information exchange.

  15. Management of broadband technology and innovation policy, deployment, and use

    CERN Document Server

    Choudrie, Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    When one considers broadband, the Internet immediately springs to mind. However, broadband is impacting society in many ways. For instance, broadband networks can be used to deliver healthcare or community related services to individuals who don't have computers, have distance as an issue to contend with, or don't use the internet. Broadband can support better management of scarce energy resources with the advent of smart grids, enables improved teleworking capacity and opens up a world of new entertainment possibilities. Yet scholarly examinations of broadband technology have so far examin

  16. Transportation and information trends in technology and policy

    CERN Document Server

    Piyushimita

    2013-01-01

    Transformations in wireless connectivity and location-aware technologies hold the promise of bringing a sea-change in the way transportation information is generated and used in the future. Sensors in the transportation system, when integrated with those in other sectors (for example, energy, utility and health) have the potential to foster novel new ways of improving livability and sustainability.The end-result of these developments has been somewhat contradictory. Although automation in the transportation environment has become increasingly widespread, the level of involvement and active par

  17. The effects of economic and policy incentives on carbon mitigation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, Richard G.; Jaffe, Adam B.; Stavins, Robert N.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to estimate the likely effects of potential climate change policies on energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions requires an improved understanding of the relationship between different policy alternatives and energy-saving and GHG-reducing changes in technology. A particularly important and understudied aspect of this set of issues is the conceptual and empirical modeling of how the various stages of technological change are interrelated, how they unfold over time in response to market forces, and the differential impact of various policies (for example, R and D subsidies, environmental taxes, information programs). We summarize several contributions to this literature and suggest promising areas for continued research on empirical analysis and modeling of induced technological change

  18. Impact of Federal tax policy and electric utility rate schedules upon the solar building/electric utility interface. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, S.L.; Wirtshafter, R.M.; Abrash, M.; Anderson, B.; Sullivan, P.; Kohler, J.

    1978-10-01

    An analysis is performed to show that a utility solar-passive strategy can be used rather effectively in aiding the utility to obtain more efficient load factors and lower costs. The objectives are to determine the impact of active and passive solar energy designs for space conditioning and hot water heating for the residential sector upon the diurnal and annual load curves for several utilities, to assess the effect of present utility pricing policies, and to examine alternative pricing schemes, as well as Federal and state tax credits, as they may affect the optimal sizing and configuration of active solar and passive solar building components. The methodology, the systems model, an overall building design, building cost determination, and a description of TRNSYS are presented. The major parameters discussed that distinguish variation in the cost-effectiveness of particular building design fall into 5 categories: the weather, building configurations, building costs, utility costs and rates, and financial parameters (inclusive of tax credits for solar and energy conservation investment). Five utilities are studied: Colorado Springs Department of Public Utilities; Public Service Co. of New Mexico; New England Electric System; Pacific Gas and Electric; and Georgia Power Co.

  19. Electronic nicotine delivery systems: executive summary of a policy position paper from the American College of Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Ryan A

    2015-04-21

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), which include electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, are growing in popularity, but their safety and efficacy as a smoking cessation aid are not well understood. Some argue that they have the potential to reduce tobacco-related morbidity and mortality and could be a useful tool for reducing tobacco-related harm. Others express concern that the health effects of ENDS use are unknown, that they may appeal to young people, and that they may encourage dual use of ENDS and traditional tobacco products. Although ENDS are a new and unregulated product, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has proposed regulations that would deem ENDS to be subject to the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, which regulates cigarettes and other tobacco products. In this position paper, the American College of Physicians offers policy recommendations on ENDS regulation and oversight, taxation, flavorings, promotion and marketing, indoor and public use, and research. This paper is not intended to offer clinical guidance or serve as an exhaustive literature review of existing ENDS-related evidence but to help direct the College, policymakers, and regulators on how to address these products.

  20. When should green technology support policies supplement the carbon price? The case of the electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecuyer, Oskar

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the literature on optimal policy choice. It studies the use of policy combinations to mitigate greenhouse gases emissions from electricity production. One finding applies to cases where uncertainty is such that the risk of a nil carbon price cannot be excluded. A cap on emissions alone may then not trigger enough abatements, justifying the addition of e.g. a renewable subsidy. When considering a transition toward a carbon free electricity sector, capital accumulation causes complex dynamic effects to happen. We find that decisions taken by comparing the leveled costs of abatement technologies, even including carbon costs, would favor intermediate technologies (e.g. gas plants) to the detriment of more-expensive but lower-carbon technologies (renewable power), leading to a suboptimal investment schedule. This thesis also studies the effects of marginal policy changes in a mix comprising the main French instruments. We find that surprisingly, adding a tariff for renewables financed by a tax on electricity consumption to a cap on emissions and a subsidy for energy efficiency will reduce the consumer electricity price when the non-renewable production is fixed and does not depend on the carbon price. The assessment of the French climate policies in the electricity sector shows that overlapping policies for mitigation may be justified by multiple carbon price failures, even if the ideal long-term policy mix depends on the carbon price trajectory. (author)

  1. Brazilian new patterns of an industrial, technological and foreign trade policy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Matias Pereira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to deepen the discussion about the unavoidable way Brazil has to go through in order to construct a modern industrial and technological policy, based on knowledge and technological innovation, which will work as a stimulator of economic development. The different theories about this subject (SCHUMPETER, 1985; PAVITT, 1998; FREEMAN, 1995; KRUGMAN, 1995; COUTINHO & FERRAZ, 1994; MATIAS-PEREIRA & KRUGLIANSKAS, 2005, so as the principles set by the Brazilian Development Ministry (“Diretrizes de Política Industrial, Tecnológica e de Comércio Exterior”, give support in the search for defining a new model of industrial, technological policy and foreign trade for the country. The strategic role of industrial policy seems to be very evident, if it takes on its co-ordination work involving the productive agents, which are responsible for crucial decisions, such as those related to investments and/or innovation, in a context of great incertitude about the consequences of their decisions in the future. Finally, the conclusion arising from this discussion demonstrates that it is crucial for the country to define a modern industrial policy, which could be able to integrate the incentive to innovation as well as to exports, in order to serve as a tool to foster development. The paper also argues that the feasibility to this policy depends on Government’s ability in supplying agents with a favorable context towards adequate regulation, purchasing policy, availability on financing facilities and fiscal incentives.

  2. Technology transfer of hearing aids to low and middle income countries: policy and market factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelman, Katherine D; Werner, Roye

    2014-09-01

    The competitive market advantages of industry and the balancing force of international governmental organizations (IGOs) are examined to identify market and policy in support of sustainable technology transfer of hearing aids to low and middle income countries. A second purpose is to examine the usefulness of findings for other assistive technologies (AT). Searches of electronic databases, IGO documents, industry reports and journals were supplemented by informal discussions with industry and IGO staff and audiologists. The value chain is used to examine the competitive advantage of industry and the balancing tools of certain IGOs. Both industry and IGOs engage in intellectual property (IP) and competition activities and are active in each segment of the hearing aid value chain. Their market and policy objectives and strategies are different. IGOs serve as balancing forces for the competitive advantages of industry. The hearing aid market configuration and hearing aid fitting process are not representative of other AT products but IP, trade and competition policy tools used by IGOs and governments are relevant to other AT. The value chain is a useful tool to identify the location of price mark-ups and the influence of actors. Market factors and reimbursement and subsidization policies drive hearing aid innovation. UN-related international government organization activities are responsive to the needs of disability populations who cannot afford assistive technology. Policy tools used by international governmental organizations are applicable across assistive technology. A partnership model is important to distribution of hearing aids to low and middle income countries.

  3. A pilot investigation of the potential for incorporating lifelog technology into executive function rehabilitation for enhanced transfer of self-regulation skills to everyday life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuberos-Urbano, Gustavo; Caracuel, Alfonso; Valls-Serrano, Carlos; García-Mochón, Leticia; Gracey, Fergus; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2018-06-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the potential target and effect size of goal management training (GMT) enhanced with life-logging technology compared with standard GMT on a range of possible primary outcomes reflecting cognitive and ecological aspects of executive functioning and quality of life. Sixteen patients with acquired brain injury involving executive dysfunction were randomly allocated to one of the two interventions: seven weeks of GMT (n = 8), or seven weeks of GMT+Lifelog (n = 8). Outcome measures included a battery of executive function tests, the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX) and the Quality of Life after Brain Injury scale (QOLIBRI), measured pre- and post-interventions. Within-group changes were assessed with related-samples t-tests and estimation of effect sizes. GMT+Lifelog was associated with significant changes, of medium to large effect size, in response inhibition (Stroop), multitasking (Strategy Application and Multiple Errand tests), DEX Intentionality and Positive Affect subscales and QOLIBRI Daily Life and Autonomy, subscales. GMT alone was associated with significant changes of overall quality of life. It was concluded that GMT+Lifelog holds promise to optimise the impact of GMT on executive dysfunction and quality of life.

  4. Social Technology Apply to National Policy on Solid Waste: Solid Waste Management Integrated in the Countryside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greice Kelly Lourenco Porfirio de Oliveira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to study the environmentally friendly social technologies through appropriate techniques to the treatment of solid waste disposed of improperly. After exposure of concepts, a reflection on the use of social technologies as a mechanism for realization of integrated management objectives of waste set by the National Solid Waste Policy will be made – 12.305/10 . Finally, data from the Social Technologies Bank of Brazil Foundation will be displayed showing the results of the use of technology to promote the integrated management of solid waste in rural communities Crateús/CE , through a provision aimed at PNRS, selective collection

  5. Energizing Government Decision-Makers with the Facts on Solar Technology, Policy, and Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The Solar Technical Assistance Team (STAT) is a network of solar technology and implementation experts who provide timely, unbiased expertise to assist policymakers and regulators in making informed decisions about solar programs and policies. Government officials can submit requests directly to the STAT for technical assistance. STAT then partners with experts in solar policy, regulation, finance, technology, and other areas to deliver accurate, up-to-date information to state and local decision makers. The STAT responds to requests on a wide range of issues -- including, but not limited to, feed-in tariffs, renewable portfolio standards, rate design, program design, workforce and economic impacts of solar on jurisdictions, and project financing.

  6. Using federal technology policy to strength the US microelectronics industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, J. E.; Gwyn, C. W.

    1994-07-01

    A review of US and Japanese experiences with using microelectronics consortia as a tool for strengthening their respective industries reveals major differences. Japan has established catch-up consortia with focused goals. These consortia have a finite life targeted from the beginning, and emphasis is on work that supports or leads to product and process-improvement-driven commercialization. Japan's government has played a key role in facilitating the development of consortia and has used consortia promote domestic competition. US consortia, on the other hand, have often emphasized long-range research with considerably less focus than those in Japan. The US consortia have searched for and often made revolutionary technology advancements. However, technology transfer to their members has been difficult. Only SEMATECH has assisted its members with continuous improvements, compressing product cycles, establishing relationships, and strengthening core competencies. The US government has not been a catalyst nor provided leadership in consortia creation and operation. We propose that in order to regain world leadership in areas where US companies lag foreign competition, the US should create industry-wide, horizontal-vertical, catch-up consortia or continue existing consortia in the six areas where the US lags behind Japan -- optoelectronics, displays, memories, materials, packaging, and manufacturing equipment. In addition, we recommend that consortia be established for special government microelectronics and microelectronics research integration and application. We advocate that these consortia be managed by an industry-led Microelectronics Alliance, whose establishment would be coordinated by the Department of Commerce. We further recommend that the Semiconductor Research Corporation, the National Science Foundation Engineering Research Centers, and relevant elements of other federal programs be integrated into this consortia complex.

  7. Using federal technology policy to strength the US microelectronics industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gover, J.E.; Gwyn, C.W.

    1994-07-01

    A review of US and Japanese experiences with using microelectronics consortia as a tool for strengthening their respective industries reveals major differences. Japan has established catch-up consortia with focused goals. These consortia have a finite life targeted from the beginning, and emphasis is on work that supports or leads to product and process-improvement-driven commercialization. Japan`s government has played a key role in facilitating the development of consortia and has used consortia promote domestic competition. US consortia, on the other hand, have often emphasized long-range research with considerably less focus than those in Japan. The US consortia have searched for and often made revolutionary technology advancements. However, technology transfer to their members has been difficult. Only SEMATECH has assisted its members with continuous improvements, compressing product cycles, establishing relationships, and strengthening core competencies. The US government has not been a catalyst nor provided leadership in consortia creation and operation. We propose that in order to regain world leadership in areas where US companies lag foreign competition, the US should create industry-wide, horizontal-vertical, catch-up consortia or continue existing consortia in the six areas where the US lags behind Japan -- optoelectronics, displays, memories, materials, packaging, and manufacturing equipment. In addition, we recommend that consortia be established for special government microelectronics and microelectronics research integration and application. We advocate that these consortia be managed by an industry-led Microelectronics Alliance, whose establishment would be coordinated by the Department of Commerce. We further recommend that the Semiconductor Research Corporation, the National Science Foundation Engineering Research Centers, and relevant elements of other federal programs be integrated into this consortia complex.

  8. Public policies and reproductive technology: a feminist critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccormack, T

    1991-01-01

    Reproductive technology comprises abortion, contraception, amniocentesis (more than 40 genetic disorders can be diagnosed), chorionic villus sampling, genetic screening (to reduce the risk of chromosomal defects such as Down syndrome, sickle cell anemia, Tay-Sachs disease, and cystic fibrosis), in vitro fertilization, artificial insemination by spouse or donor, the development of sperm banks, storage of frozen sperm (cryopreservation), the development of artificial wombs, techniques for predetermining the sex of a fetus, and nursery environments to maintain a fetus removed from the womb in the 1st trimester. In recent years, the demand for these services has increased because of higher infertility and the drop in the number of babies available for adoption. Surrogacy is especially controversial: it has become a symbol of the dehumanization of modern life and the exploitation of women. The feminist perspective discloses how patriarchal values about the subordinate status of women, about the nature of motherhood, infertility, and the family are both implicit and explicit in prevailing thinking about reproduction. The new technology offers women who wish to remain unmarried the opportunity to have a family, and it enables lesbian women to bear children. The research literature favors a Eurocentric nuclear family without any awareness that in Canada, and in the Western world, new forms of family life have been evolving as couples marry, divorce, and remarry. There is no awareness either that in other cultures this Eurocentric nuclear model is dysfunctional. Because of the rigid notion of the 2-parent nuclear family, the 3rd parties who are involved in either surrogate relationships or artificial insemination are deprecated. The feminist literature is more critical of the nuclear family, but it has been sometimes inconsistent on the relevant issues.

  9. Outlook for renewable energy technologies: Assessment of international programs and policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branstetter, L.J.; Vidal, R.C.; Bruch, V.L.; Zurn, R.

    1995-02-01

    The report presents an evaluation of worldwide research efforts in three specific renewable energy technologies, with a view towards future United States (US) energy security, environmental factors, and industrial competitiveness. The overall energy technology priorities of foreign governments and industry leaders, as well as the motivating factors for these priorities, are identified and evaluated from both technological and policy perspectives. The specific technologies of interest are wind, solar thermal, and solar photovoltaics (PV). These program areas, as well as the overall energy policies of Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom (UK), Japan, Russia, and the European Community as a whole are described. The present and likely future picture for worldwide technological leadership in these technologies-is portrayed. The report is meant to help in forecasting challenges to US preeminence in the various technology areas, particularly over the next ten years, and to help guide US policy-makers as they try to identify specific actions which would help to retain and/or expand the US leadership position.

  10. Good Practice Policy Framework for Energy Technology Research Development and Demonstration (RD and D)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The transition to a low carbon economy clearly requires accelerating energy innovation and technology adoption. Governments have an important role in this context. They can help by establishing the enabling environment in which innovation can thrive, and within which effective and efficient policies can be identified, with the specific goal of advancing research, development, demonstration and, ultimately, deployment (RDD&D) of clean energy technologies. At the front end of the innovation process, significant increases in, and restructuring of, global RD&D efforts will be required, combined with well-targeted government RD&D policies. The development of a clear policy framework for energy technology RD&D, based on good practices, should include six elements: Coherent energy RD&D strategy and priorities; Adequate government RD&D funding and policy support; Co-ordinated energy RD&D governance; Strong collaborative approach, engaging industry through public private partnerships (PPPs); Effective RD&D monitoring and evaluation; and Strategic international collaboration. While countries have been favouring certain technologies over others, based on decisions on which areas are to receive funding, clear priorities are not always determined through structured analysis and documented processes. A review of stated energy RD&D priorities, based on announced technology programmes and strategies, and recent spending trends reveals some important deviations from stated priorities and actual RD&D funding.

  11. The emergence and policy implications of converging new technologies integrated from the nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roco, M. C.

    2005-01-01

    Science based on the unified concepts on matter at the nanoscale provides a new foundation for knowledge creation, innovation, and technology integration. Convergent new technologies refers to the synergistic combination of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive sciences (NBIC), each of which is currently progressing at a rapid rate, experiencing qualitative advancements, and interacting with the more established fields such as mathematics and environmental technologies (Roco and Bainbridge, 2002). It is expected that converging technologies will bring about tremendous improvements in transforming tools, new products and services, enable human personal abilities and social achievements, and reshape societal relationships.After a brief overview of the general implications of converging new technologies, this paper focuses on its effects on R and D policies and business models as part of changing societal relationships. These R and D policies will have implications on investments in research and industry, with the main goal of taking advantage of the transformative development of NBIC. Introduction of converging technologies must be done with respect of immediate concerns (privacy, toxicity of new materials, etc.) and longer-term concerns including human integrity, dignity and welfare. The efficient introduction and development of converging new technologies will require new organizations and business models, as well as solutions for preparing the economy, such as multifunctional research facilities, integrative technology platforms, and global risk governance

  12. The emergence and policy implications of converging new technologies integrated from the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roco, M. C.

    2005-06-01

    Science based on the unified concepts on matter at the nanoscale provides a new foundation for knowledge creation, innovation, and technology integration. Convergent new technologies refers to the synergistic combination of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive sciences (NBIC), each of which is currently progressing at a rapid rate, experiencing qualitative advancements, and interacting with the more established fields such as mathematics and environmental technologies (Roco & Bainbridge, 2002). It is expected that converging technologies will bring about tremendous improvements in transforming tools, new products and services, enable human personal abilities and social achievements, and reshape societal relationships. After a brief overview of the general implications of converging new technologies, this paper focuses on its effects on R&D policies and business models as part of changing societal relationships. These R&D policies will have implications on investments in research and industry, with the main goal of taking advantage of the transformative development of NBIC. Introduction of converging technologies must be done with respect of immediate concerns (privacy, toxicity of new materials, etc.) and longer-term concerns including human integrity, dignity and welfare. The efficient introduction and development of converging new technologies will require new organizations and business models, as well as solutions for preparing the economy, such as multifunctional research facilities, integrative technology platforms, and global risk governance.

  13. The emergence and policy implications of converging new technologies integrated from the nanoscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roco, M. C. [National Science Foundation (United States)], E-mail: mroco@nsf.gov

    2005-06-15

    Science based on the unified concepts on matter at the nanoscale provides a new foundation for knowledge creation, innovation, and technology integration. Convergent new technologies refers to the synergistic combination of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive sciences (NBIC), each of which is currently progressing at a rapid rate, experiencing qualitative advancements, and interacting with the more established fields such as mathematics and environmental technologies (Roco and Bainbridge, 2002). It is expected that converging technologies will bring about tremendous improvements in transforming tools, new products and services, enable human personal abilities and social achievements, and reshape societal relationships.After a brief overview of the general implications of converging new technologies, this paper focuses on its effects on R and D policies and business models as part of changing societal relationships. These R and D policies will have implications on investments in research and industry, with the main goal of taking advantage of the transformative development of NBIC. Introduction of converging technologies must be done with respect of immediate concerns (privacy, toxicity of new materials, etc.) and longer-term concerns including human integrity, dignity and welfare. The efficient introduction and development of converging new technologies will require new organizations and business models, as well as solutions for preparing the economy, such as multifunctional research facilities, integrative technology platforms, and global risk governance.

  14. Conceptual design of an integrated technology model for carbon policy assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Dimotakes, Paul E. (NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA)

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the conceptual design of a technology choice model for understanding strategies to reduce carbon intensity in the electricity sector. The report considers the major modeling issues affecting technology policy assessment and defines an implementable model construct. Further, the report delineates the basis causal structure of such a model and attempts to establish the technical/algorithmic viability of pursuing model development along with the associated analyses.

  15. Information Technology in New Zealand: Review of Emerging Social Trends, Current Issues, and Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Erturk, Emre; Fail, Derwyn

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the general state of information technology in New Zealand society, current issues, and policies. It is a qualitative study that reviews recent scholarly articles, periodicals, and surveys in order to create an understanding of some of the information technology issues and trends in New Zealand. After reviewing previous research, it assesses the potential existence and nature of a 'digital divide' in New Zealand society whilst also evaluating possible strategic responses ...

  16. Uptake and diffusion of medical technology innovation in Europe: what role for funding and procurement policies?

    OpenAIRE

    Torbica, Aleksandra; Cappellaro, Giulia

    2010-01-01

    The producers of medical technology constantly strive to innovate and to improve their products for the benefit of patients. With each new generation of devices enabling less invasive techniques, better clinical outcomes and reduced recovery times, patients are direct beneficiaries of this commitment to innovation. Innovation and patient access to technology are inseparably linked with each national health system's respective coverage, procurement and reimbursement policies. If a particular i...

  17. TECHNOLOGIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION: PUBLIC POLICIES AND SOCIAL APPROPRIATION OF THEIR IMPLEMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Melo Fiallos, Diego Fernando; Silva Chávez, Judith Alexandra; Indacochea Mendoza, Luis Rene; Núñez Campaña, Jorge Humberto

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the implementation of information and communication technologies in higher education with the aim to contribute knowledge on trends regarding their social appropriation. To that effect, documents of public policies and scientific literature containing guidelines developed by international organizations and explaining different alternatives to guide the process of integrating technologies in education were reviewed. Then, some research works on problems deriv...

  18. Features of state industrial policy under imperfect technological and institutional environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisov Igor Vladimirovich

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available For all countries with imperfect technology and the institutional environment (low culture and organization of production, high levels of corruption, the small middle class, not necessarily the execution of laws, etc., even such strong measures to support the economy like a direct financing of firms and territories, protectionism, stimulation of demand, etc. does not give significant effect. For Russia, which objectively have to be attributed to such countries, extremely relevant management system development, capable of overcoming difficulties, starting with the knees and the resistance of the imperfect (bad technological and institutional environment. Several theoretical solutions recently obtained through the development of the theory of economic-technological development of civilization, can create the mechanism and conditions of such a system.

  19. Energy price, Environmental policy, and technological bias of photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stambouli, A. Boudghene; Larbi, N.; Traversa, E.

    2006-01-01

    Energy is the most important resource for the development of a country and the utilisation of energy per capita is increasing tremendously. In fact energy security, economic growth and environmental protection (the three E's) are the national energy policy drivers of any country of the world. Utilisation on conventional energy will course environment pollution such as major environmental accidents, water pollution, maritime pollution, land use and sitting impact, radiation and radioactivity, solid waste disposal, hazardous air pollutions, ambient air quality (CO, CO2, SOx, NOx effluent gas emissions), acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion, and global warming. The world's energy consumption today is estimated to 40 billion kWh per year, about 10 billion metric tons carbon equivalent of greenhouse gas emission are released in the atmosphere to meet this energy demand. Approximately 80% is due to carbon emissions from the combustion of energy fuels. In fact 14 billion tons of greenhouse gas, that contributes to global warming entered the atmosphere in 2003. World Energy Council (WEC) study found that without any change in our current practice, the world energy demand expectation in 2020 would be 53 billion kWh or 50 to 80% higher than 1990 levels. Such ever-increasing demand could place significant strain on the current energy infrastructure and potentially damage the world environment and people's health with over 700.000 deaths resulting each year, according to the World Bank. World emissions of carbon are expected to increase by 54% above 1990 levels by 2020 making the earth likely a warm 1.7-4.9 degree centigrade over the period 1990-2100. During the past century, global surface temperatures have increased at a rate near 0.6 degree centigrade/century. This trend has dramatically increased during the past 25 years and the average temperature of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans has risen by 0.06 degree centigrade since 1995. Global temperatures in 2001were

  20. Policy Challenges of Accelerating Technological Change: Security Policy and Strategy Implications of Parallel Scientific Revolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    today, hydraulic fracking technology has created a boom in U.S. oil and gas production that may allow us to achieve that goal of energy independence by...has seen a seismic shift, as vast North American reserves of oil and gas have been unlocked by hydraulic fracking and horizontal drilling. This will...www.disa.mil/About/Our-Work/JIE 94 For a good overview, see http://www.cfr.org/energy-and-environment/ hydraulic -fracturing- fracking /p31559 95 For a

  1. The relationship between perceived social capital and the health promotion willingness of companies: a systematic telephone survey with chief executive officers in the information and communication technology sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Julia; Nitzsche, Anika; Ernstmann, Nicole; Driller, Elke; Wasem, Jürgen; Stieler-Lorenz, Brigitte; Pfaff, Holger

    2011-03-01

    This study examines the association between perceived social capital and health promotion willingness (HPW) of companies from a chief executive officer's perspective. Data for the cross-sectional study were collected through telephone interviews with one chief executive officer from randomly selected companies within the German information and communication technology sector. A hierarchical multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Results of the logistic regression analysis of data from a total of n = 522 interviews suggest that higher values of perceived social capital are associated with pronounced HPW in companies (odds ratio = 3.78; 95% confidence intervals, 2.24 to 6.37). Our findings suggest that characteristics of high social capital, such as an established environment of trust as well as a feeling of common values and convictions could help promote HPW.

  2. Opportunity from Crisis: A Common Agenda for Higher Education and Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Merle; Hellström, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes a plea for the construction of a common agenda for higher education and science, technology and innovation (STI) policy research. The public higher education and research sector in all countries is currently in the grip of several challenges arising from increased accountability, internationalization and in some cases dwindling…

  3. A Framework for a Future Swedish Policy for Research and Development in Information Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofstrom, Mats; And Others

    Prepared to stimulate discussion on how to design a Swedish policy in information science and technology, this report presents the state-of-the-art of this field as it pertains to the dissemination of scientific information and outlines a program for future research and development. The review portion examines systems for current information…

  4. Advanced Technological Education (ATE) Program: Building a Pipeline of Skilled Workers. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Youth Policy Forum, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In the Fall of 2008, the American Youth Policy Forum hosted a series of three Capitol Hill forums showcasing the Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF). The goal of these forums was to educate national policymakers about the importance of: (1) improving the science and math competencies of…

  5. Exploring technology diffusion in emerging markets – the role of public policy for wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friebe, Christian A.; Flotow, Paschen von; Täube, Florian A.

    2014-01-01

    This study challenges the implicit assumption of homogeneity in national institutional contexts made in past studies of (renewable) energy policy. We propose that institutional differences matter by focusing on several technology-specific and generic policy factors that can foster technology diffusion through private sector activity. More specifically, we explore perceptions of early adopters in emerging economy contexts using wind park project developers as an example. By applying a parsimonious method for our questionnaire as well as qualitative data we make several contributions: Methodologically, we introduce Maximum Difference Scaling to the energy policy domain. Empirically, we identify several public influences on private investment, and assess their relative importance. This leads to new insights challenging findings from industrialized economies; we identified additional institutional barriers to diffusion, hence, the requirement of a combination of technology-specific and generic policy measures. - Highlights: • Explorative qualitative and quantitative study of project developers in emerging markets. • Identifies influencing factors for technology diffusion regarding wind farms. • Predictable public authorities and well-implemented public processes attract intern. project developers. • Feed-in-Tariffs and grid access guarantees are particularly appealing

  6. Changing governance of research and technology policy : The European research area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edler, Jakob; Kuhlmann, Stefan; Behrens, Maria

    2003-01-01

    This collection analyses and comments on the development of the ERA, which seeks to coordinate national research and advance European wide projects. The contributors include leading scholars of European integration and technology policy and high-level administrators. They discuss the potential

  7. The Impact of quantum technologies on the EU's future policies: Part 1 Quantum Time

    OpenAIRE

    LEWIS ADAM

    2017-01-01

    Atomic clocks are a quantum technology, used in national metrology laboratories to define UTC and in various networked infrastructure. Developments in the clocks themselves, and in the distribution of precise time, can be expected to affect several application areas of importance to European policy.

  8. Information and Communication Technologies in International Education: A Canadian Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucoin, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    The rhetoric surrounding the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in international education speaks of providing education access for all. However, an examination of actual policies reveals an emphasis not on creating an educated population, but on improving economic opportunities using discourses such as globalization,…

  9. Decoding ClassDojo: Psycho-Policy, Social-Emotional Learning and Persuasive Educational Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ben

    2017-01-01

    ClassDojo is one of the world's most successful educational technologies, currently used by over 3 million teachers and 35 million children globally. It reinforces and enacts emerging governmental "psycho-policies" around the measurement and modification of children's social and emotional learning in schools. This article focuses…

  10. The Development of Educational Technology Policies (1996-2012): Lessons from China and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamin, Alnuaman A.; Shaoqing, Guo; Le, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    This study reviews the development of educational technology macro policies in China and USA based on the historical juxtaposition approach. It shows that, despite the fact that two countries have major differences, with China officially being a socialist country, while the USA is a capitalist country; the development of educational technology…

  11. Impacts and Implications of Future-oriented Technology Analysis for Policy and Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    SARITAS Ozcan; CAGNIN CRISTIANO; HAVAS Attila; MILES Ian

    2009-01-01

    Most of the papers in this special issue were presented at the Third International Seville Conference on Future-Oriented Technology Analysis (FTA) that took place in October 2008. They address a wide variety of issues in FTA including methods and policy and governance impacts with discussions and demonstrations at the regional and corporate levels.

  12. Priorities for technology development and policy to reduce the risk from radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2010-01-01

    The Standing Committee on International Security of Radioactive and Nuclear Materials in the Nonproliferation and Arms Control Division conducted its fourth annual workshop in February 2010 on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials. This workshop examined new technologies in real-time tracking of radioactive materials, new risks and policy issues in transportation security, the best practices and challenges found in addressing illicit radioactive materials trafficking, industry leadership in reducing proliferation risk, and verification of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, Article VI. Technology gaps, policy gaps, and prioritization for addressing the identified gaps were discussed. Participants included academia, policy makers, radioactive materials users, physical security and safeguards specialists, and vendors of radioactive sources and transportation services. This paper summarizes the results of this workshop with the recommendations and calls to action for the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) membership community.

  13. Impacts of imports, government policy and technology on future natural gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, E.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation discussed the impacts of imports, government policy and technology on future natural gas supply. Specifically, it discussed projections of natural gas supply and demand; the potential impact of imports on United States natural gas supply; the potential impacts of government policy on natural gas supply and demand; and the impact of technological innovations on natural gas supply such as coalbed methane and methane hydrate. Specific government policies that were examined included the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009; the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009; and the Clean Energy Jobs and American Power Act of 2009. It was concluded that the United States demand for natural gas will expand and that the impact of pending clean energy legislation is unclear. In addition, each potential future resource will face constraints and new resources may come on line in the next 20 years. figs.

  14. Techno-economic viability assessments of greener propulsion technology under potential environmental regulatory policy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalianda, D.K.; Kyprianidis, K.G.; Sethi, V.; Singh, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An advanced method is presented for techno-economic assessment under potential environmental regulatory policy scenarios. • The viability of the contra-rotating open rotor concept is investigated under various environmental policies. • CO_2 taxation is needed to drive the aerospace industry towards greener solutions. - Abstract: Sustainability of the aviation industry, as any other industry, depends on the elasticity of demand for the product and profitability through minimising operating costs. Of paramount importance is assessing and understanding the interdependency and effects of environmentally optimised solutions and emission mitigation policies. This paper describes the development and application of assessment methodologies to better understand the effects of environmental taxation/energy policies aimed at environmental pollution reduction and the future potential economic impact they may have on the adaptation of “greener” novel technologies. These studies are undertaken using a Techno-economic Environmental Risk Assessment approach. The methodology demonstrated allows the assessment of the economic viability of new technologies compared to conventional technologies, for various CO_2 emission taxation and fuel price scenarios. It considers relative increases in acquisition price and maintenance costs. A study undertaken as a ‘proof of concept’ compares a Counter Rotating Open Rotor aircraft with a conventional aircraft for short range operations. It indicates that at current fuel price and with no carbon taxation, a highly fuel efficient technology, such as the one considered, could be rendered economically unviable. The work goes on to demonstrate that in comparison to the conventional aircraft, any economic benefits that may be accrued from improvement in fuel consumption through such a technology, may well be negated through increases in acquisition price and maintenance costs. The work further demonstrates that if policy

  15. Timing Is everything: quantifying regulatory and market readiness levels for technology transition policy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobos, Peter Holmes [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya Nicole [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Borns, David James [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-03-01

    People save for retirement throughout their career because it is virtually impossible to save all you’ll need in retirement the year before you retire. Similarly, without installing incremental amounts of clean fossil, renewable or transformative energy technologies throughout the coming decades, a radical and immediate change will be near impossible the year before a policy goal is set to be in place. This notion of steady installation growth over acute installations of technology to meet policy goals is the core topic of discussion for this research. This research operationalizes this notion by developing the theoretical underpinnings of regulatory and market acceptance delays by building upon the common Technology Readiness Level (TRL) framework and offers two new additions to the research community. The new and novel Regulatory Readiness Level (RRL) and Market Readiness Level (MRL) frameworks were developed. These components, collectively called the Technology, Regulatory and Market (TRM) readiness level framework allow one to build new constraints into existing Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) to address research questions such as, ‘To meet our desired technical and policy goals, what are the factors that affect the rate we must install technology to achieve these goals in the coming decades?’

  16. Social Technology as a Sustainable Public Policy: The Mandalla Project in Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimar Souza Costa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental degradation in semi-arid Northeast has been a great challenge for the Brazilian government. The need to generate employment and income, justifies the establishment of productive activities competitive and covering the dimensions of sustainability. In this context, there is the movement of Social Technology (ST, aimed at social inclusion and development through the appropriation of simple technologies, inexpensive and consolidated in the culture of the community benefit. As a public policy of the government of Ceará, appeared the Mandalla Project, using irrigated agriculture and agribusiness production system, which includes the creation of small animals from natural methods. This study aims to analyze the ST Mandalla as a public policy that promotes sustainable development. The results show that this technology, contributes significantly to the sustainable development of semi-arid and improving the quality of life of communities served when examined against the dimensions of Sustainable Development model of Sachs (2002.

  17. Development of Design Technology on Thermal-Hydraulic Performance in Tight-Lattice Rod Bundles: I-Master Plan and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Akira; Kureta, Masatoshi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Tamai, Hidesada; Liu, Wei; Misawa, Takeharu; Takase, Kazuyuki; Akimoto, Hajime

    R&D project to investigate thermal-hydraulic performance in tight-lattice rod bundles for Innovative Water Reactor for Flexible Fuel Cycle has been progressed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency in collaboration with power utilities, reactor vendors and universities since 2002. In this series-study, we will summarize the R&D achievements using large-scale test facility (37-rod bundle with full-height and full-pressure), model experiments and advanced numerical simulation technology. This first paper described the master plan for the development of design technology and showed an executive summary for this project up to FY2005. The thermal-hydraulic characteristics in the tight-lattice configuration were investigated and the feasibility was confirmed based on the experiments. We have developed the design technology including 3-D numerical simulation one to evaluate the effects of geometry/scale on the thermal-hydraulic behaviors.

  18. A Case Study of Policies and Procedures to Address Cyberbullying at a Technology-Based Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Bettina Polite

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored the policies and procedures used to effectively address cyberbullying at a technology-based middle school. The purpose of the study was to gain an in-depth understanding of policies and procedures used to address cyberbullying at a technology-based middle school in the southern United States. The study sought…

  19. Prospects for Policy Advances in Science and Technology in the Gulf Arab States: "The Role for International Partnerships"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjar, David P.; Moran, George W.; Siddiqi, Afreen; Richardson, Joshua E.; Anadon, Laura D.; Narayanamurti, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) policies in the Gulf Arab States are as diverse as the individual economies and political processes that characterize its member states. During the past decade, a number of expert review groups have argued that science and technology policy needs to be reformed and revitalized in the Gulf…

  20. Biofuels development in China: Technology options and policies needed to meet the 2020 target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Shiyan; Zhao, Lili; Timilsina, Govinda R.; Zhang, Xiliang

    2012-01-01

    China promulgated the Medium and Long-Term Development Plan for Renewable Energy in 2007, which included sub-targets of 2010 and 2020 for various renewable energy technologies. Almost all the 2010 sub-targets have been met and even surpassed except non-grain fuel ethanol. There is debate surrounding the questions of whether and how the country will be able to meet the 2020 biofuels target. This paper provides the assessment of potential technology pathways to achieve the 2020 target regarding their respective resource potential and supply cost. Barriers and policy options are identified based on broad literatures review. And an overview of biofuels projections is presented to provide insight into the comparison of various policy scenarios. The study shows that China can potentially satisfy non-grain fuel ethanol target by 2020 from technology perspective. But she will probably fall far short of this target if current situations continue. Additional policy efforts are needed. Meanwhile, the target of biodiesel production has high probability to be achieved. However, if given support policies, it will develop better. - Highlights: ► I. Non-grain feedstocks such as cassava, sweet sorghum and sweet potato grown in low productive arable lands or unutilized lands have enough potential to meet ethanol targets in 2020. ► II. If current situations continue, China will fall far short of the 2020 target. ► III. The target of biodiesel production has high probability to be achieved, while, if given support policies, it will develop better. ► IV. Supply cost is one of the major barriers faced by all biofuels pathways. ► V. Various policy measures would be necessary to overcome the costs barriers to biofuels in China.

  1. RTD and D to increase the share of renewables in emerging and developing countries with European technologies. Policy Assessment, Stakeholders opinions, Best-practices and Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanekamp, E.

    2008-11-01

    The future energy demand worldwide will increase by 45% in 2030. To be able to meet this demand, respond to the threats of Climate Change and also improve access to energy for the very poor in emerging and developing countries (especially in rural areas) renewable energy technologies play a crucial role. The European Union envisions a thriving and sustainable future economy, with world leadership in a diverse portfolio of clean, efficient and low-carbon energy technologies as a motor for prosperity and a key contributor to growth and jobs. Strengthening of the international dimension in European Technology Platforms and in Joint Technology Initiatives is a priority in the EU. The demographic trends in Europe coupled with an ambitious strategy of growth based on the Lisbon agenda provide a new context for considering international co-operation in Science and Technology. No fortress Europe, but an open Europe - building open 'win-win' S and T relations with EDCs. The RTD4EDC project is focussed on the role of research, technological development and demonstration (RTD and D) in the implementation of renewable energy technologies in Emerging and Developing Countries (EDCs). The project is executed by a consortium of four partners based in Europe (Belgium/The Netherlands), and in Emerging and Developing Countries (Paraguay, South- Africa and India). The project consisted of desk research on relevant policies and developments, interviews with policymakers, representatives from EU RE industries and development cooperation agencies, a survey amongst EU RE industry representatives and analysis of 74 cases of RE implementations in EDCs. In this report the overall results are presented. Other deliverables are three reports with background material (policies, case studies and market potential for EU RE industry) and a website (www.developingrenewables.org) containing all information as reported and with a database containing the 74 cases of RE implementations in EDCs.

  2. Executive Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovici, Gil D.; Stephens, Melanie L.; Possin, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review: Executive functions represent a constellation of cognitive abilities that drive goal-oriented behavior and are critical to the ability to adapt to an ever-changing world. This article provides a clinically oriented approach to classifying, localizing, diagnosing, and treating disorders of executive function, which are pervasive in clinical practice. Recent Findings: Executive functions can be split into four distinct components: working memory, inhibition, set shifting, and fluency. These components may be differentially affected in individual patients and act together to guide higher-order cognitive constructs such as planning and organization. Specific bedside and neuropsychological tests can be applied to evaluate components of executive function. While dysexecutive syndromes were first described in patients with frontal lesions, intact executive functioning relies on distributed neural networks that include not only the prefrontal cortex, but also the parietal cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum. Executive dysfunction arises from injury to any of these regions, their white matter connections, or neurotransmitter systems. Dysexecutive symptoms therefore occur in most neurodegenerative diseases and in many other neurologic, psychiatric, and systemic illnesses. Management approaches are patient specific and should focus on treatment of the underlying cause in parallel with maximizing patient function and safety via occupational therapy and rehabilitation. Summary: Executive dysfunction is extremely common in patients with neurologic disorders. Diagnosis and treatment hinge on familiarity with the clinical components and neuroanatomic correlates of these complex, high-order cognitive processes. PMID:26039846

  3. Vehicle technologies, fuel-economy policies, and fuel-consumption rates of Chinese vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Hong; He Kebin; Wang, Michael; Yao Zhiliang

    2012-01-01

    One of the principal ways to reduce transport-related energy use is to reduce fuel-consumption rates of motor vehicles (usually measured in liters of fuel per 100 km). Since 2004, China has implemented policies to improve vehicle technologies and lower the fuel-consumption rates of individual vehicles. Policy evaluation requires accurate and adequate information on vehicle fuel-consumption rates. However, such information, especially for Chinese vehicles under real-world operating conditions, is rarely available from official sources in China. For each vehicle type we first review the vehicle technologies and fuel-economy policies currently in place in China and their impacts. We then derive real-world (or on-road) fuel-consumption rates on the basis of information collected from various sources. We estimate that the real-world fuel-consumption rates of vehicles in China sold in 2009 are 9 L/100 km for light-duty passenger vehicles, 11.4 L/100 km for light-duty trucks, 22 L/100 km for inter-city transport buses, 40 L/100 km for urban transit buses, and 24.9 L/100 km for heavy-duty trucks. These results aid in understanding the levels of fuel consumption of existing Chinese vehicle fleets and the effectiveness of policies in reducing on-road fuel consumption, which can help in designing and evaluating future vehicle energy-efficiency policies. - Highlights: ► Vehicle fuel-consumption rate (VFCR) data are rarely available in China. ► We review the fuel-economy policies currently in place in China and their impacts. ► We derive real-world VFCRs on the basis of information collected from various sources. ► Results aid in understanding the fuel consumption levels of Chinese vehicle fleets. ► Results help in designing and evaluating future vehicle energy-efficiency policies.

  4. Transport, spatio-economic equilibrium and global sustainability. Markets, technology and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoef, E.T.; Van den Bergh, J.C.J.M. [Dep. of Spatial Economics. Fac. of Economics and Econometrics. Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-03-01

    Interdependencies between transport, spatial economy, technology and environment are investigated in the context of regulatory environmental policies aiming at meeting a global environmental target, defined in terms of the environmental utilization space as a prerequisite for global sustainability. A small scale model, based on the adapted spatial price equilibrium methodology presented elsewhere was discussed, serving as an illustration of the formal analysis discussed there. Notwithstanding the model`s simplicity, the simulation results are found to be interesting in that they provide some revealing comparative static insights into issues that are believed to be quite important in the formulation of environmental and transport policies. 12 figs., 12 refs.

  5. Older adult perceptions of smart home technologies: implications for research, policy & market innovations in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, J; D'Ambrosio, L A; Reimer, B; Pratt, M R

    2007-01-01

    Advances in information communications technology and related computational power are providing a wide array of systems and related services that form the basis of smart home technologies to support the health, safety and independence of older adults. While these technologies offer significant benefits to older people and their families, they are also transforming older adults into lead adopters of a new 24/7 lifestyle of being monitored, managed, and, at times, motivated, to maintain their health and wellness. To better understand older adult perceptions of smart home technologies and to inform future research a workshop and focus group was conducted with 30 leaders in aging advocacy and aging services from 10 northeastern states. Participants expressed support of technological advance along with a variety of concerns that included usability, reliability, trust, privacy, stigma, accessibility and affordability. Participants also observed that there is a virtual absence of a comprehensive market and policy environment to support either the consumer or the diffusion of these technologies. Implications for research, policy and market innovation are discussed.

  6. The role of technology and policy in mitigating regional nitrogen pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Baojing; Zhu Yimei; Chang Jie; Liu Dong; Min Yong; Ge Ying; Peng Changhui; Luo Weidong; Howarth, Robert W

    2011-01-01

    Human activity greatly influences nitrogen (N) pollution in urbanized and adjacent areas. We comprehensively studied the N cycling in an urban-rural complex system, the Greater Hangzhou Area (GHA) in southeastern China. Our results indicated that subsurface N accumulation doubled, riverine N export tripled and atmospheric N pollutants increased 2.5 times within the GHA from 1980-2004. Agriculture was the largest N pollution source to air and water before 2000, whereas industry and human living gradually became the primary N pollution sources with the socioeconomic development. Based on the sensitivity analysis, we developed a scenario analysis to quantify the effects of technology and policy on environmental N dynamics. The fertilization reduction scenario suggested that the groundwater N pollution could decrease by 17% with less than a 5% reduction in crop production; the N effluent standard revision scenario led to a surface water N pollution reduction of 45%; the constructed wetlands implementation scenario could reduce surface water pollution by 43%-64%. Lastly, the technological improvement scenario mitigated atmospheric N pollution by 65%. Technologies play a key role in atmospheric N pollution control, policies mainly contribute to groundwater N pollution control, while technology and policy both work on surface water N mitigation within an urban-rural complex.

  7. The executive's guide to enterprise social media strategy how social networks are radically transforming your business

    CERN Document Server

    Barlow, Mike

    2010-01-01

    An actionable framework for developing and executing successful social media strategies supporting collaboration, teamwork and communication in modern corporationsUsing straightforward language, this book offers real-world stories and revealing anecdotes to demonstrate how executives and business leaders develop successful corporate social media strategies.High level guidance to developing the practical business frameworks and policies necessary for implementing and managing successful corporate social media strategiesDescribes the actual processes, organizational structures, and technology pl

  8. Technological change, depletion and environmental policy in the offshore oil and gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managi, Shunsuke

    Technological change is central to maintaining standards of living in modern economies with finite resources and increasingly stringent environmental goals. Successful environmental policies can contribute to efficiency by encouraging, rather than inhibiting, technological innovation. However, little research to date has focused on the design and implementation of environmental regulations that encourage technological progress, or in insuring productivity improvements in the face of depletion of natural resources and increasing stringency of environmental regulations. This study models and measures productivity change, with an application to offshore oil and gas production in the Gulf of Mexico using Data Envelopment Analysis. This is an important application because energy resources are central to sustaining our economy. The net effects of technological progress and depletion on productivity of offshore oil and gas production are measured using a unique field-level set of data of production from all wells in the Gulf of Mexico over the time period from 1946--1998. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that technological progress has mitigated depletion effects over the study period, but the pattern differs from the conventional wisdom for nonrenewable resource industries. The Porter Hypothesis was recast, and revised version was tested. The Porter Hypothesis states that well designed environmental regulations can potentially contribute to productive efficiency in the long run by encouraging innovation. The Porter Hypothesis was recast to include market and nonmarket outputs. Our results support the recast version of Porter hypothesis, which examine productivity of joint production of market and environmental outputs. But we find no evidence for the standard formulation of the Porter hypothesis, that increased stringency of environmental regulation lead to increased productivity of market outputs and therefore increased industry profits. The model is used to

  9. Autonomous execution of the Precision Immobilization Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascareñas, David D. L.; Stull, Christopher J.; Farrar, Charles R.

    2017-03-01

    Over the course of the last decade great advances have been made in autonomously driving cars. The technology has advanced to the point that driverless car technology is currently being tested on publicly accessed roadways. The introduction of these technologies onto publicly accessed roadways not only raises questions of safety, but also security. Autonomously driving cars are inherently cyber-physical systems and as such will have novel security vulnerabilities that couple both the cyber aspects of the vehicle including the on-board computing and any network data it makes use of, with the physical nature of the vehicle including its sensors, actuators, and the vehicle chassis. Widespread implementation of driverless car technology will require that both the cyber, as well as physical security concerns surrounding these vehicles are addressed. In this work, we specifically developed a control policy to autonomously execute the Precision Immobilization Technique, a.k.a. the PIT maneuver. The PIT maneuver was originally developed by law enforcement to end high-speed vehicular pursuits in a quasi-safe manner. However, there is still a risk of damage/roll-over to both the vehicle executing the PIT maneuver as well as to the vehicle subject to the PIT maneuver. In law enforcement applications, it would be preferable to execute the PIT maneuver using an autonomous vehicle, thus removing the danger to law-enforcement officers. Furthermore, it is entirely possible that unscrupulous individuals could inject code into an autonomously-driving car to use the PIT maneuver to immobilize other vehicles while maintaining anonymity. For these reasons it is useful to know how the PIT maneuver can be implemented on an autonomous car. In this work a simple control policy based on velocity pursuit was developed to autonomously execute the PIT maneuver using only a vision and range measurements that are both commonly collected by contemporary driverless cars. The ability of this

  10. [Health technology assessment and its impact on pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Laborde, Carla; Silva-Illanes, Nicolás

    2014-01-01

    The article conceptualizes the pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policies related to financial coverage in the context of health systems. It introduces the pharmaceutical market as an imperfect one, in which appropriate regulation is required. Moreover, the basis that guide the pricing and reimbursement processes are defined and described in order to generate a categorization based on whether they are intended to assess the 'added value' and if the evaluation is based on cost-effectiveness criteria. This framework is used to review different types of these policies applied in the international context, discussing the role of the Health Technology Assessment in these processes. Finally, it briefly discusses the potential role of these types of policies in the Chilean context.

  11. How to achieve emission reductions in Germany and the European Union. Energy policy, RUE with cross cutting technologies, Pinch technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radgen, P.

    1999-10-01

    The German presentations will cover three main topics. These are: (1) Energy policy on the national level and in the European Community. (2) Rational use of energy and efficiency improvements by cross cutting technologies. (3) Optimizing heat recovery and heat recovery network with Pinch technology. Actual development of carbon dioxide emissions and scenarios to forecast for the future development will be presented. It will be shown, that long term agreements are widely used in the EC to obtain a reduction of emissions. Specific attention will also be placed on the burden sharing in the EC and the other GHG. In the second part the efficiency improvement by cross cutting technologies will be discussed for furnaces, waste heat recovery, electric motors, compressed air systems, cooling systems, lighting and heat pumps. Most of these improvement potentials are economic at present energy prices, but some barriers for their application have to be overcome which will be discussed. In the last part a systematic method for the optimization of heat recovery networks is presented. The Pinch technology, developed in the late seventies is an easy and reliable way to obtain quickly a good insight into the heat flows of a process. The basics of Pinch technology will be presented with a simple example and the presentation of an in deep analysis of a fertilizer complex. (orig.)

  12. [An overview of the definition and implementation of the Brazilian National Policy on Health Data and Information Technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Ricardo Bezerra; Kerr-Pinheiro, Marta Macedo; Guimarães, Eliete Albano de Azevedo; Miranda, Richardson Machado

    2015-05-01

    The This qualitative study aimed to analyze the development and implementation of the Brazilian National Policy on Health Data and Information Technology (NPIIH). We analyzed documents and applied an online questionnaire to the experts involved in developing the policy. The data were submitted to content analysis using the categorical thematic modality. The PNIIS is the target of debate and proposals at various levels. Provisions have appeared in parallel to regulate measures on health data and information technology. Community participation in developing this policy and the convergence of laws, standards, resolutions, and policy-making levels in a common and broadly acknowledged and enforced policy are challenges, in addition to linking the public and private sectors. The study concludes that the National Policy on Health Data and Information Technology is making gradual progress, predominantly in theoretical debates, revisions, and updates. There are numerous challenges for its implementation and a prevailing need for legitimation.

  13. Landmine policy in the near-term: a framework for technology analysis and action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eimerl, D., LLNL

    1997-08-01

    Any effective solution to the problem of leftover landmines and other post-conflict unexploded ordnance (UXO) must take into account the real capabilities of demining technologies and the availability of sufficient resources to carry out demining operations. Economic and operational factors must be included in analyses of humanitarian demining. These factors will provide a framework for using currently available resources and technologies to complete this task in a time frame that is both practical and useful. Since it is likely that reliable advanced technologies for demining are still several years away, this construct applies to the intervening period. It may also provide a framework for utilizing advanced technologies as they become available. This study is an economic system model for demining operations carried out by the developed nations that clarifies the role and impact of technology on the economic performance and viability of these operations. It also provides a quantitative guide to assess the performance penalties arising from gaps in current technology, as well as the potential advantages and desirable features of new technologies that will significantly affect the international community`s ability to address this problem. Implications for current and near-term landmine and landmine technology policies are drawn.

  14. Energy technology in the area of tension between climate policy and liberalisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hilten, O.; Battjes, J.J.; Kaal, M.B.T.; Lako, P.; Nahuis, R.; De Raad, A.; Dijkstra, J.W.; Hemmes, K.

    2000-05-01

    The central question in this report is: how do climate change policies on the one hand and the liberalisation of energy markets on the other hand influence the role of new energy technology? To address this question, technological, economical and societal aspects have been studied. With regard to technological aspects a list is made of technologies which could become important when a 50% reduction of annual Dutch CO 2 emission must be realized in the year 2050. For each of these technologies, future energy efficiencies are estimated. Using these figures, three 'blue prints' of the energy supply system in 2050 are described. In two of these blueprints the energy infrastructure changes drastically, in that electricity or hydrogen becomes the dominant final energy carrier in all end-use sectors. In the third blueprint the current final energy carriers (methane, electricity and gasoline/diesel) maintain their dominant position. With regard to economical aspects, 14 interviews were held with representatives of a wide range of companies in the energy sector, focusing on the role of technology in the company strategy. With regard to societal aspects, a number of important energy technologies are analysed in terms of how much societal support or resistance can be expected when these technologies are implemented on a large scale. Also representatives of two environmental organisations and a consumer organisation were interviewed. 75 refs

  15. Explaining environmental Kuznets curves. How pollution induces policy and new technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smulders, S.; Bretschger, L.

    2000-01-01

    Production often causes pollution as a by-product. Once pollution problems become too severe, regulation is introduced by political authorities which forces the economy to make a transition to cleaner production processes. We model this transition as a change in 'general purpose technology' (GPT) and investigate how it interferes with economic growth driven by quality-improvements. The model gives an explanation for the inverted U-shaped relationship found in empirical research for many pollutants, often referred to as the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC). We provide an analytical foundation for the claim that the rise and decline of pollution can be explained by policy-induced technology shifts. 19 refs

  16. Environmental and technology policy options in the electricity sector. Interactions and outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Carolyn; Newell, Richard G.; Preonas, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Myriad policy measures aim to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the electricity sector, promote generation from renewable sources, and encourage energy conservation. To what extent do innovation and energy efficiency (EE) market failures justify additional interventions when a carbon price is in place? We extend the model of Fischer and Newell (2008) with advanced and conventional renewable energy technologies and short and long-run EE investments. We incorporate both knowledge spillovers and imperfections in the demand for energy efficiency. We conclude that some technology policies, particularly correcting R and D market failures, can be useful complements to emissions pricing, but ambitious renewable targets or subsidies seem unlikely to enhance welfare when placed alongside sufficient emissions pricing. The desirability of stringent EE policies is highly sensitive to the degree of undervaluation of EE by consumers, which also has implications for policies that tend to lower electricity prices. Even with multiple market failures, emissions pricing remains the single most cost-effective option for reducing emissions.

  17. Environmental and technology policy options in the electricity sector. Interactions and outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Carolyn [Resources for the Future, Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Newell, Richard G. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Preonas, Louis [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Resources for the Future, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Myriad policy measures aim to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the electricity sector, promote generation from renewable sources, and encourage energy conservation. To what extent do innovation and energy efficiency (EE) market failures justify additional interventions when a carbon price is in place? We extend the model of Fischer and Newell (2008) with advanced and conventional renewable energy technologies and short and long-run EE investments. We incorporate both knowledge spillovers and imperfections in the demand for energy efficiency. We conclude that some technology policies, particularly correcting R and D market failures, can be useful complements to emissions pricing, but ambitious renewable targets or subsidies seem unlikely to enhance welfare when placed alongside sufficient emissions pricing. The desirability of stringent EE policies is highly sensitive to the degree of undervaluation of EE by consumers, which also has implications for policies that tend to lower electricity prices. Even with multiple market failures, emissions pricing remains the single most cost-effective option for reducing emissions.

  18. Integrating Information and Communication Technology for Health Information System Strengthening: A Policy Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, Nuraidah; Ismail, Saimy; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Ehsan, Fauziah Z; Chan, Chee-Khoon; Ng, Chiu-Wan

    2015-11-01

    Despite the high costs involved and the lack of definitive evidence of sustained effectiveness, many low- and middle-income countries had begun to strengthen their health information system using information and communication technology in the past few decades. Following this international trend, the Malaysian Ministry of Health had been incorporating Telehealth (National Telehealth initiatives) into national health policies since the 1990s. Employing qualitative approaches, including key informant interviews and document review, this study examines the agenda-setting processes of the Telehealth policy using Kingdon's framework. The findings suggested that Telehealth policies emerged through actions of policy entrepreneurs within the Ministry of Health, who took advantage of several simultaneously occurring opportunities--official recognition of problems within the existing health information system, availability of information and communication technology to strengthen health information system and political interests surrounding the national Multimedia Super Corridor initiative being developed at the time. The last was achieved by the inclusion of Telehealth as a component of the Multimedia Super Corridor. © 2015 APJPH.

  19. Fostering a renewable energy technology industry: an international comparison of wind industry policy support mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, J.I.; Wiser, R.H.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the importance of national and sub-national policies in supporting the development of successful global wind turbine manufacturing companies. We explore the motivations behind establishing a local wind power industry, and the paths that different countries have taken to develop indigenous large wind turbine manufacturing industries within their borders. This is done through a cross-country comparison of the policy support mechanisms that have been employed to directly and indirectly promote wind technology manufacturing in 12 countries. We find that in many instances there is a clear relationship between a manufacturer's success in its home country market and its eventual success in the global wind power market. Whether new wind turbine manufacturing entrants are able to succeed will likely depend in part on the utilization of their turbines in their own domestic market, which is turn will be influenced by the annual size and stability of that market. Consequently, policies that support a sizable, stable market for wind power, in conjunction with policies that specifically provide incentives for wind power technology to be manufactured locally, are most likely to result in the establishment of an internationally competitive wind industry. (author)

  20. Fostering a renewable energy technology industry: An international comparison of wind industry policy support mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Joanna I.; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the importance of national and sub-national policies in supporting the development of successful global wind turbine manufacturing companies. We explore the motivations behind establishing a local wind power industry, and the paths that different countries have taken to develop indigenous large wind turbine manufacturing industries within their borders. This is done through a cross-country comparison of the policy support mechanisms that have been employed to directly and indirectly promote wind technology manufacturing in 12 countries. We find that in many instances there is a clear relationship between a manufacturer's success in its home country market and its eventual success in the global wind power market. Whether new wind turbine manufacturing entrants are able to succeed will likely depend in part on the utilization of their turbines in their own domestic market, which in turn will be influenced by the annual size and stability of that market. Consequently, policies that support a sizable, stable market for wind power, in conjunction with policies that specifically provide incentives for wind power technology to be manufactured locally, are most likely to result in the establishment of an internationally competitive wind industry

  1. How can public policies accelerate the progress in technologies for the struggle against climate change?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieillefosse, A.

    2008-01-01

    After having recalled the three stages of the technical progress according to Schumpeter (invention, innovation and diffusion), and the roles of R and D and learning in this process, the author briefly comments the cost evolution of different energy production technologies between 1980 and 1995, proposes a simple modelling of the learning system under the influence of public policies, and indicates the research themes by 2050. Then, she discusses the fact that the R and D level is not socially optimal, notably because of market imperfections, and also because some innovations may have applications within a time which is too long for companies. This is the reason why the State generally takes care of fundamental research. She discusses either demand-based or supply-based public policies aiming at accelerating the progress in low carbon technologies, describes the international cooperation in R and D (agreement on research on low carbon technologies, standards), and how to promote the diffusion of technology towards developing countries (problem of emission increase in these countries, technology transfer in general and within the frame of the convention on climate change, public development support and direct foreign investments)

  2. A Transforming Electricity System: Understanding the Interactions Between Clean Energy Technologies, Markets, and Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, David

    The U.S. electricity system is currently undergoing a dramatic transformation. State-level renewable portfolio standards, abundant natural gas at low prices, and rapidly falling prices for wind and solar technologies are among the factors that have ushered in this transformation. With objective, rigorous, technology-neutral analysis, NREL aims to increase the understanding of energy policies, markets, resources, technologies, and infrastructure and their connections with economic, environmental, and security priorities. The results of these analyses are meant to inform R&D, policy, and investment decisions as energy-efficient and renewable energy technologies advance from concept to commercial application to market penetration. This talk will provide an overview of how NREL uses high-fidelity data, deep knowledge of energy technology cost and performance, and advanced models and tools to provide the information needed to ensure this transformation occurs economically, while maintaining system reliability. Examples will be explored and will include analysis of tax credit impacts on wind and solar deployment and power sector emissions, as well as analysis of power systems operations in the Eastern Interconnection under 30% wind and solar penetration scenarios. Invited speaker number 47185.

  3. Using assistive technology outcomes research to inform policy related to the employment of individuals with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Steven; Edyburn, Dave L; Rust, Kathy L; Schwanke, Todd D; Smith, Roger O

    2008-01-01

    We know that work is recognized as a central component of life for individuals with and without disabilities. It yields many physical and psychological benefits to the individual while simultaneously contributing numerous benefits to society. Lawmakers have enacted a plethora of laws designed to prevent discrimination, provide incentives for employers to hire individuals with disabilities, and facilitate job training/career preparation. Assistive technology figures prominently in disability employment law as a critical strategy for gaining access and supporting employment and upward mobility in the workplace. However, little systematic effort has been devoted to examining assistive technology use and outcomes as they relate to the employment of individuals with disabilities. The purpose of this article is to articulate a series of issues that permeate assistive technology outcome measurement in employment settings and subsequently affect the use of research knowledge for federal and state policy makers. For each issue, the authors pose three questions for critical analysis: Does the law compel the provision of assistive technology? Does outcome data play any part in the operation of the law? When it does, what kind of data would be useful to collect and where could it be found? Finally, the authors provide a brief glimpse of the current and future research efforts concerning the RSA-911 database. The recent database summaries exemplify the importance of such a national data collection system for informing federal policy, particularly concerning the contributions of assistive technology device use and services on improving the employment of individuals with disabilities.

  4. A Policy and Program for Invigorating Science and Technology for National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    security S&T, and facilitate commercialisation of research outcomes for national benefit. The policy will be delivered through a coherent and...our economy and higher living and education standards1,2. Questions for discussion: Q2.1 Are there other imperatives or drivers that justify the...organisations can drive the uptake of new technology and knowledge. Second, private sector organisations are essential to the commercialisation of

  5. China's wind power industry: Policy support, technological achievements, and emerging challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhongying; Qin, Haiyan; Lewis, Joanna I.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2005 the Chinese wind power technology industry has developed rapidly, with China becoming the largest installer of wind power capacity in the world in 2010. This paper reviews the policy system implemented in China to support the wind power industry, centered on China's 2005 Renewable Energy Law. It examines the industry's achievements over the past two decades, including the development of wind power technology and equipment, the utilization of China's wind power resources, and the cost reductions achieved. It then explores the obstacles affecting the ongoing sustainability of the Chinese wind industry, including regulatory barriers, grid integration challenges, and challenges to continued technological innovation. It recommends that integration challenges be addressed through policy reforms, establishing interconnection standards, and creating predictability with forecasting and storage; that market signals be established with long-term development goals and pricing reforms; and that industry limitations be addressed with targeted R and D, improved wind resource assessment and transparency, domestic and international collaborations, and the cultivation of a skilled workforce. - Highlights: ► Review the policy system and the achievements of Chinese wind industry. ► Analyze the obstacles affecting the sustainability of the industry. ► Provide recommendations for how China can address these obstacles.

  6. Transforming healthcare with information technology in Japan: a review of policy, people, and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Chon; Nishihara, Eitaro; Akiyama, Miki

    2011-03-01

    Healthcare reform as part of the economic recovery plan in Japan is placing emphasis on the use of healthcare information technology (HIT). This research mainly focuses on the HIT efforts in Japan with reference to the US for context. The purpose is to: (a) provide detail on governmental policy impacting promotion of HIT adoption to provide services to the people of Japan, (b) describe the outcomes of past and present policy impacting progress based on a case study of HIT use in the Kyoto Yamashina area, and (c) discuss issues for refinement of current policy. The method is case study, and data collection techniques include: (a) interviews of people involved in policy making for HIT in Japan (Japanese healthcare professionals, government officials, and academics involved in HIT research in Japan) and use in the medical community of HIT in the Kyoto Yamashina area, (b) archived document analysis of reports regarding government policy for HIT policy and user assessment for HIT mainly in the case study site, and (c) the literature review about HIT progression and effectiveness assessments to explore and describe issues concerning the transformation with HIT in Japan. This study reveals the aspects of governmental policy that have been effective in promoting successful HIT initiatives as well as some that have been detriments in Japan to help solve pressing social issues regarding healthcare delivery. For example, Japan has stipulated some standardized protocols and formats for HIT but does not mandate exactly how to engage in inter-organizational or intra-organizational health information exchange. This provides some desired autonomy for healthcare organizations and or governments in medical communities and allows for more advanced organizations to leverage current resources while providing a basis for lesser equipped organizations to use in planning the initiative. The insights gained from the Kyoto Yamashina area initiative reflect the success of past governmental

  7. Photovoltaic technology for sustainability: An investigation of the distributed utility concept as a policy framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letendre, Steven Emery

    The U.S. electric utility sector in its current configuration is unsustainable. The majority of electricity in the United States is produced using finite fossil fuels. In addition, significant potential exists to improve the nation's efficient use of energy. A sustainable electric utility sector will be characterized by increased use of renewable energy sources and high levels of end-use efficiency. This dissertation analyzes two alternative policy approaches designed to move the U.S. electric utility sector toward sustainability. One approach is labeled incremental which involves maintaining the centralized structure of the electric utility sector but facilitating the introduction of renewable energy and efficiency into the electrical system through the pricing mechanism. A second policy approach was described in which structural changes are encouraged based on the emerging distributed utility (DU) concept. A structural policy orientation attempts to capture the unique localized benefits that distributed renewable resources and energy efficiency offer to electric utility companies and their customers. A market penetration analysis of PV in centralized energy supply and distributed peak-shaving applications is conducted for a case-study electric utility company. Sensitivity analysis was performed based on incremental and structural policy orientations. The analysis provides compelling evidence which suggests that policies designed to bring about structural change in the electric utility sector are needed to move the industry toward sustainability. Specifically, the analysis demonstrates that PV technology, a key renewable energy option likely to play an important role in a renewable energy future, will begin to penetrate the electrical system in distributed peak-shaving applications long before the technology is introduced as a centralized energy supply option. Most policies to date, which I term incremental, attempt to encourage energy efficiency and renewables

  8. Framework for energy policy and technology assessment in developing countries: a case study of Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mubayi, V.; Palmedo, P.F.; Doernberg, A.B.

    1979-12-01

    The potential of various energy sources and technology options in meeting national economic and social development goals in developing countries is assessed. The resource options that are of interest are the development of indigenous resources. In general, two categories of options can be considered: those which correspond to the accelerated implementation of existing elements of the energy system and those which correspond to the introduction of a new technology, such as solar electricity. The various resource and technology options that must be analyzed with respect to a number of criteria or payoff functions are: total demand and fuel mix; reduction of oil consumption; national social goals; total energy costs; and environmental quality. First, a view is constructed of the energy implications of current national economic development plans. A consistent description of the future energy system of the country, under the assumption of current trends and policies is constructed for certain reference years in the future. The values of the payoff functions selected are then calculated for that reference case. The major resource and technology options are identified and the rates at which they can be implemented are determined. Finally, the impact on the various payoff functions of the implementation of each option is calculated. The basic element of the framework is the Reference Energy System, discussed in Secton 3. The energy policy analysis for Peru is used as a reference case. 11 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Consumptive Water Use from Electricity Generation in the Southwest under Alternative Climate, Technology, and Policy Futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Shuchi; Zhai, Haibo; Kyle, G Page; Morgan, M Granger; Patel, Pralit; Liu, Lu

    2016-11-15

    This research assesses climate, technological, and policy impacts on consumptive water use from electricity generation in the Southwest over a planning horizon of nearly a century. We employed an integrated modeling framework taking into account feedbacks between climate change, air temperature and humidity, and consequent power plant water requirements. These direct impacts of climate change on water consumption by 2095 differ with technology improvements, cooling systems, and policy constraints, ranging from a 3-7% increase over scenarios that do not incorporate ambient air impacts. Upon additional factors being changed that alter electricity generation, water consumption increases by up to 8% over the reference scenario by 2095. With high penetration of wet recirculating cooling, consumptive water required for low-carbon electricity generation via fossil fuels will likely exacerbate regional water pressure as droughts become more common and population increases. Adaptation strategies to lower water use include the use of advanced cooling technologies and greater dependence on solar and wind. Water consumption may be reduced by 50% in 2095 from the reference, requiring an increase in dry cooling shares to 35-40%. Alternatively, the same reduction could be achieved through photovoltaic and wind power generation constituting 60% of the grid, consistent with an increase of over 250% in technology learning rates.

  10. Becoming allies: Combining social science and technological perspectives to improve energy research and policy making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, Rick; Moezzi, Mithra

    2002-07-01

    Within the energy research community, social sciences tends to be viewed fairly narrowly, often as simply a marketing tool to change the behavior of consumers and decision makers, and to ''attack market barriers''. As we see it, social sciences, which draws on sociology, psychology, political science, business administration, and other academic disciplines, is capable of far more. A social science perspective can re-align questions in ways that can lead to the development of technologies and technology policy that are much stronger and potentially more successful than they would be otherwise. In most energy policies governing commercial buildings, the prevailing R and D directives are firmly rooted in a technology framework, one that is generally more quantitative and evaluative than that fostered by the social sciences. To illustrate how social science thinking would approach the goal of achieving high energy performance in the commercial building sector, they focus on the US Department of Energy's Roadmap for commercial buildings (DOE 2000) as a starting point. By ''deconstructing'' the four strategies provided by the Roadmap, they set the stage for proposing a closer partnership between advocates of technology-based and social science-based approaches.

  11. Governance, technology, and equity: An integrated policy framework for energy efficient housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubchikov, Oleg; Deda, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Transforming the housing stock to a low energy performance is a key priority in the context of sustainable development and a post-carbon transition. However, in terms of its practical implementation it, firstly, faces a number of complex institutional barriers, while, secondly, involves a risk of being dominated by a narrow technocratic agenda for energy/carbon reduction that may overtake the socially progressive pursuits of housing policy. Energy efficiency strategies for the residential sector must, therefore, be multidimensional, fully synergised with housing policy, and incorporating the principles of equity, access and a balanced geographical development. This paper discusses a strategic policy framework, which was designed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) to address those important needs in international policy. The document – Action Plan for Energy-efficient Housing in the UNECE Region – outlines a number of goals, targets and actions structured at three dimensions: (i) governance and finance, (ii) technological advancement, and (iii) access and affordability. The Action Plan provides a comprehensive and integrated framework, based on which governments can shape their own pathways towards a sustainable low-energy residential sector. - Highlights: ► Residential sector has a large potential for energy and carbon reduction. ► Energy efficiency for housing must be reconciled with socially oriented housing policy. ► Action Plan for Energy-efficient Housing in the UNECE region is presented. ► The Plan offers an integrated framework for sustainable transition to low-energy housing. ► Governance, technology, and equitable access are three key elements of the framework.

  12. The Ethics of Virtual Reality Technology: Social Hazards and Public Policy Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, James S

    2017-09-23

    This article explores four major areas of moral concern regarding virtual reality (VR) technologies. First, VR poses potential mental health risks, including Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder. Second, VR technology raises serious concerns related to personal neglect of users' own actual bodies and real physical environments. Third, VR technologies may be used to record personal data which could be deployed in ways that threaten personal privacy and present a danger related to manipulation of users' beliefs, emotions, and behaviors. Finally, there are other moral and social risks associated with the way VR blurs the distinction between the real and illusory. These concerns regarding VR naturally raise questions about public policy. The article makes several recommendations for legal regulations of VR that together address each of the above concerns. It is argued that these regulations would not seriously threaten personal liberty but rather would protect and enhance the autonomy of VR consumers.

  13. Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technological innovation system in China: Structure, function evaluation and policy implication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Xianjin; Ye Zhonghua; Xu Zhengzhong; Husar Holmes, Maja; Henry Lambright, W.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) can be an important technology option for China in addressing global climate change and developing clean energy technologies. Promoted by international climate conventions and supported by government research and development programs, an increasing number of CCS pilot and demonstration projects have been launched in China. In this study, we analyze the structure of China’s CCS effort from a technological innovation system (TIS) perspective. Within this system, key socio-political components, including institutions, actor-networks, and technology development, are examined to evaluate the state of the innovation system. The study assessed the perceived capacity of seven functional areas of the CCS innovation system through a survey of key CCS actors and stakeholders. The findings suggest that China’s CCS innovation system has a strong functional capacity for knowledge and technology development. It is significantly weaker in the innovative functions of knowledge diffusion, market formation, facilitating entrepreneurs and new entrants into the CCS market. Based on the evaluation of China’s technological innovation system to develop CCS, the article articulates specific public policies to formulate a more robust innovation system to traverse the “valley of death” from research and development to commercial deployment and accelerate energy innovation in China. - Highlights: ► We analyze and evaluate China’s CCS innovation system from TIS perspective. ► Strong and systematic CCS innovation system structure has come into being in China. ► The system has acquired high knowledge development and accumulation. ► Weak innovation functions are identified: market creation, guidance, etc. ► Public policies are needed to improve the innovation system performance.

  14. Cost-efficient demand-pull policies for multi-purpose technologies – The case of stationary electricity storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battke, Benedikt; Schmidt, Tobias S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A definition of multi-purpose technologies (MPTs) is proposed. • Opportunities for a cost-efficient demand-pull policy strategy for MPTs are derived. • The multi-purpose character of stationary electricity storage (SES) is shown. • An exemplary profitability assessment of one SES technology supports the argument. - Abstract: Stationary electricity storage technologies (SES) allow to increase the shares of intermittent renewable energy technologies in electricity networks. As SES currently exhibit high costs, policy makers have started introducing demand-pull policies in order to foster their diffusion and drive these technologies further down the learning curve. However, as observed in the case of renewable energy technologies, demand-pull policies for technologies can come at high costs in cases where the profitability gap that needs to be covered by the policy support is large. Yet, SES can create value in multiple distinct applications in the power system – making it a “multi-purpose technology”. We argue that policy makers can make use of the multi-purpose character of SES to limit costs of demand-pull policies. We propose a policy strategy which grants support based on the profitability gap in the different applications, thereby moving down the learning curve efficiently. To support our argumentation, we firstly conduct a comprehensive literature review of SES applications exemplifying the multi-purpose character of these technologies. Second, we assess the profitability of one SES technology (vanadium redox flow battery) in five SES applications, highlighting a strong variation of the profitability gap across these applications

  15. [Overview of the US policies for health information technology and lessons learned for Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaz, Maxim; Ash, Nachman

    2013-05-01

    The heaLthcare system in the United States (U.S.) faces a number of significant changes aimed at improving the quality and availability of medical services and reducing costs. Implementation of health information technologies, especiaLly ELectronic Health Records (EHR), is central to achieving these goals. Several recent Legislative efforts in the U.S. aim at defining standards and promoting wide scale "Meaningful Use" of the novel technologies. In Israel, the majority of heaLthcare providers adopted EHR throughout the Last decade. Unlike the U.S., the process of EHR adoption occurred spontaneously, without governmental control or the definition of standards. In this article, we review the U.S. health information technology policies and standards and suggest potential lessons Learned for Israel. First, we present the three-staged Meaningful Use regulations that require eligible healthcare practitioners to use EHR in their practice. We also describe the standards for EHR certification and national efforts to create interoperable health information technology networks. Finally, we provide a brief overview of the IsraeLi regulation in the field of EHR. Although the adoption of health information technology is wider in Israel, the Lack of technology standards and governmental control has Led to Large technology gaps between providers. The example of the U.S. Legislation urges the adoption of several critical steps to further enhance the quality and efficiency of the Israeli healthcare system, in particular: strengthening health information technology regulation; developing Licensure criteria for health information technology; bridging the digital gap between healthcare organizations; defining quality measures; and improving the accessibility of health information for patients.

  16. Science, technology and innovation policies for development the Latin American experience

    CERN Document Server

    Dutrénit, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    This book examines the implementation of science, technology and innovation (STI) policy in eight Latin American countries and the different paths these policies have taken. It provides empirical evidence to examine the extent to which STI policies are contributing to the development of the region, as well as to the solution of market failures and the stimulus of the region’s innovation systems. Since the pioneering work of Solow (1957), it has been recognized that innovation is critical for economic growth both in developed and in less-developed countries. Unfortunately Latin America lags behind world trends, and although over the last 20 years the region has established a more stable and certain macroeconomic regime, it is also clear that these changes have not been enough to trigger a process of innovation and productivity to catch-up. Against this rather grim scenario there is some optimism emerging throughout the region. After many years of inaction the region has begun to invest in science, technology...

  17. Impact of climate policy uncertainty on the adoption of electricity generating technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuss, Sabine; Obersteiner, Michael; Johansson, Daniel J.A.; Szolgayova, Jana

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a real options model where multiple options are evaluated simultaneously so that the effect of the individual options on each other is accounted for. We apply this model to the electricity sector, where we analyze three typical technologies based on fossil fuel, fossil fuel with carbon capture and renewable energy, respectively. In this way, we can analyze the transition from CO 2 -intensive to CO 2 -neutral electricity production in the face of rising and uncertain CO 2 prices. In addition, such a modelling approach enables us to estimate precisely the expected value of (perfect) information, i.e. the willingness of investors and producers to pay for information about the correct CO 2 price path. As can be expected, the expected value of information rises with increasing CO 2 price uncertainty. In addition, the larger the price uncertainty, the larger are the cumulative CO 2 emissions over the coming century. The reason for this is that the transition to less CO 2 -intensive technologies is increasingly postponed with rising CO 2 price uncertainty. By testing different price processes (geometric Brownian motion versus jump processes with different jump frequencies), we can also make useful recommendations concerning the importance of policy predictability. We find that it is better to have climate change policies that are stable over a certain length of time and change abruptly than less abrupt but more frequently changing policies. Less frequent fluctuations reduce the expected value of information and result in smaller cumulative CO 2 emissions. (author)

  18. A fraud prevention policy: Its relevance and implication at a university of technology in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Rorwana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Using research grants administrators and their clients (academic researchers as the lens, this paper investigated the relevance and implication of a fraud prevention policy at a University of Technology (UoT in South Africa. The paper adopted a quantitative approach in which closed-ended questions were complemented by open-ended questions in the survey questionnaire in the attempt to capture the perceptions of both research grants administrators and their clients on the relevance and implications of a fraud and irregularity prevention policy. The results indicate that both research grants administrators (71.4 %, and their clients (73% do not know if UoTx has a fraud and irregularity policy. While only 36% of research grants administrators indicated that they would feel safe reporting deceitful activities, a slight majority (59% of the clients reported same. With regards to the steps to follow to report fraudulent activity, it was noted that while all (100% the research grants administrators noted that they were clueless, ironically an overwhelming majority of their clients indicated otherwise. Notwithstanding, both research grants administrators and their clients (93% and 95% respectively concurred that a fraud prevention policy was necessary for UoTx. The implication is that having phenomenal controls that are not effectively publicized, monitored or worse still overridden by someone are useless.

  19. Explaining technological change of wind power in China and the United States: Roles of energy policies, technological learning, and collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tian

    The following dissertation explains how technological change of wind power, in terms of cost reduction and performance improvement, is achieved in China and the US through energy policies, technological learning, and collaboration. The objective of this dissertation is to understand how energy policies affect key actors in the power sector to promote renewable energy and achieve cost reductions for climate change mitigation in different institutional arrangements. The dissertation consists of three essays. The first essay examines the learning processes and technological change of wind power in China. I integrate collaboration and technological learning theories to model how wind technologies are acquired and diffused among various wind project participants in China through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)--an international carbon trade program, and empirically test whether different learning channels lead to cost reduction of wind power. Using pooled cross-sectional data of Chinese CDM wind projects and spatial econometric models, I find that a wind project developer's previous experience (learning-by-doing) and industrywide wind project experience (spillover effect) significantly reduce the costs of wind power. The spillover effect provides justification for subsidizing users of wind technologies so as to offset wind farm investors' incentive to free-ride on knowledge spillovers from other wind energy investors. The CDM has played such a role in China. Most importantly, this essay provides the first empirical evidence of "learning-by-interacting": CDM also drives wind power cost reduction and performance improvement by facilitating technology transfer through collaboration between foreign turbine manufacturers and local wind farm developers. The second essay extends this learning framework to the US wind power sector, where I examine how state energy policies, restructuring of the electricity market, and learning among actors in wind industry lead to

  20. Executive summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nimwegen, N.; van Nimwegen, N.; van der Erf, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Demography Monitor 2008 gives a concise overview of current demographic trends and related developments in education, the labour market and retirement for the European Union and some other countries. This executive summary highlights the major findings of the Demography Monitor 2008 and further

  1. Unpacking policy processes for addressing systemic problems in technological innovation systems : The case of offshore wind in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichardt, Kristin; Rogge, Karoline S.; Negro, Simona O.

    2017-01-01

    While empirical studies on technological innovation systems (TIS) usually focus on policy instruments and their suitability for curing identified weaknesses of such emerging systems, the underlying policy processes and their effects have been largely disregarded. We address this gap by exploring the

  2. 23 CFR 420.205 - What is the FHWA's policy for research, development, and technology transfer funding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the FHWA's policy for research, development, and... TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING AND RESEARCH PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Research, Development and Technology Transfer Program Management § 420.205 What is the FHWA's policy for research, development, and...

  3. A Study of Incentive Policies for Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Technology in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aotian Song

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Installing sustainable and renewable energy systems is a promising way of relieving Hong Kong’s dependence on imported fossil fuels. Solar photovoltaic (PV technology is a perfect solution for Hong Kong as it fits the economic and geographic situation. Through a review of the PV development history of five leading PV countries, Germany, Japan, Italy, Mainland China, and the USA, this paper serves as a useful policy toolbox to aid PV development. Based on the forerunners’ successful PV industry experiences and Hong Kong’s unique local situations, a series of incentive strategies were proposed for Hong Kong to help promote the utilization of solar PV systems by reducing the initial investment and providing reasonable subsidies at the initial stages and during the operation period of the PV systems. These results could be a practical reference for promoting renewable energy applications for local policy-makers.

  4. Energy, technology and climatic policy: the world perspectives at the 2030 prospect. Key messages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This paper comments the different points of the reference scenario described in the WETO study (World energy, technology and climate policy outlook). This scenario describes a world energy situation, assuming a continuation of the present day trends and structural changes. A comment is made for each of the following aspects of the scenario: world energy demand, share of fossil fuels in the world energy supplies, world CO 2 emissions, petroleum reserves, world petroleum, gas and coal productions, petroleum and gas prices trend, end-use energy demand, power production and natural gas share in power generation. Then, the document analyses the impact of changes linked with hydrocarbon resources and technology developments: reduction of hydrocarbon resources, increase of gas resources, acceleration of technological developments in power generation. A third part analyzes the natural gas market of the European Union in a world perspective: market, reserves, demand, supply risks. Finally, the last part presents the impact of environmental policies in the case of a CO 2 tax and in the case of a carbon abatement scenario. (J.S.)

  5. China's coke industry: Recent policies, technology shift, and implication for energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, Hong; Lei, Yu; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Lijian; He, Kebin

    2012-01-01

    China is the largest coke producer in the world, accounting for over 60% of the world coke production, which makes the coke industry in China a significant coal consumer and air pollutant emitter. Recently, China has taken a series of measures to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions from the coke industry, including eliminating old and low energy-efficiency coking technologies, promoting advanced technologies, and strengthening energy and environmental requirements on coking processes. As a consequence, China's coke industry is experiencing an unprecedented technology shift, which was characterized by the elimination of old, inefficient, and polluting indigenous ovens and small machinery ones within 10 years. This study examines the policies and the prompt technology shift in China's coke industry, as well as the associated energy and environmental effects, and discusses the implications with respect to the development of the coke industry in China towards a more efficient and clean future. As China sets stricter requirements on energy efficiency and the ambient environment, a more significant change focusing on technologies of energy saving and emission reduction is urgently needed at present. Those mature technologies, including coke dry quenching, coke oven gas recycle, fine particle removal, etc., should be enforced in the near future. - Highlights: ► With 60% of world coke output, China's coke making has big energy/pollution issues. ► Actions were taken to improve energy and environmental performance of coke plants. ► China's coke industry is experiencing an unprecedented technology shift. ► Another shift, focusing on technologies of energy and emission saving, is needed. ► More measurement studies on coking emissions are needed given the importance.

  6. Decision Analysis and Policy Formulation for Technology-Specific Renewable Energy Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okioga, Irene Teshamulwa

    This study establishes a decision making procedure using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) for a U.S. national renewable portfolio standard, and proposes technology-specific targets for renewable electricity generation for the country. The study prioritizes renewable energy alternatives based on a multi-perspective view: from the public, policy makers, and investors' points-of-view, and uses multiple criteria for ranking the alternatives to generate a unified prioritization scheme. During this process, it considers a 'quadruple bottom-line' approach (4P), i.e. reflecting technical "progress", social "people", economic 'profits", and environmental "planet" factors. The AHP results indicated that electricity generation from solar PV ranked highest, and biomass energy ranked lowest. A "Benefits/Cost Incentives/Mandates" (BCIM) model was developed to identify where mandates are needed, and where incentives would instead be required to bring down costs for technologies that have potential for profitable deployment. The BCIM model balances the development of less mature renewable energy technologies, without the potential for rising near-term electricity rates for consumers. It also ensures that recommended policies do not lead to growth of just one type of technology--the "highest-benefit, least-cost" technology. The model indicated that mandates would be suited for solar PV, and incentives generally for geothermal and concentrated solar power. Development for biomass energy, as a "low-cost, low-benefits" alternative was recommended at a local rather than national level, mainly due to its low resource potential values. Further, biomass energy generated from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) had the least resource potential compared to other biomass sources. The research developed methodologies and recommendations for biogas electricity targets at WWTPs, to take advantage of the waste-to-energy opportunities.

  7. Developments in Interpreting Learning Curves and Applications to Energy Technology Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Zwaan, B.C.C.; Wene, C.O.

    2011-01-01

    The book 'Learning Curves: Theory, Models, and Applications' first draws a learning map that shows where learning is involved within organizations, then examines how it can be sustained, perfected, and accelerated. The book reviews empirical findings in the literature in terms of different sources for learning and partial assessments of the steps that make up the actual learning process inside the learning curve. Chapter 23 on 'Developments in Interpreting Learning Curves and Applications to Energy Technology Policy' is written by Bob van der Zwaan and Clas-Otto Wene. In this chapter they provide some interpretations of experience and learning curves starting from three different theoretical platforms. These interpretations are aimed at explaining learning rates for different energy technologies. The ultimate purpose is to find the role that experience and learning curves can legitimately play in designing efficient government deployment programs and in analyzing the implications of different energy scenarios. The 'Component Learning' section summarizes recent work by the authors that focuses on the disaggregation of technologies in their respective components and argues that traditional learning for overall technology should perhaps be replaced by a phenomenology that recognizes learning for individual components. The 'Learning and Time' section presents an approach that departs more strongly from the conventional learning curve methodology, by suggesting that exponential growth and progress may be the deeper underlying processes behind observed learning-by-doing. Contrary to this view, the cybernetic approach presented in the 'Cybernetic Approach' section sees learning curves as expressing a fundamental property of organizations in competitive markets and applies the findings from second order cybernetics to calculate the learning rates for operationally closed systems. All three interpretations find empirical support. The 'Conclusions' section summarizes the

  8. Developments in Interpreting Learning Curves and Applications to Energy Technology Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Zwaan, B.C.C. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Wene, C.O. [Wenergy, Lund (Sweden)

    2011-06-15

    The book 'Learning Curves: Theory, Models, and Applications' first draws a learning map that shows where learning is involved within organizations, then examines how it can be sustained, perfected, and accelerated. The book reviews empirical findings in the literature in terms of different sources for learning and partial assessments of the steps that make up the actual learning process inside the learning curve. Chapter 23 on 'Developments in Interpreting Learning Curves and Applications to Energy Technology Policy' is written by Bob van der Zwaan and Clas-Otto Wene. In this chapter they provide some interpretations of experience and learning curves starting from three different theoretical platforms. These interpretations are aimed at explaining learning rates for different energy technologies. The ultimate purpose is to find the role that experience and learning curves can legitimately play in designing efficient government deployment programs and in analyzing the implications of different energy scenarios. The 'Component Learning' section summarizes recent work by the authors that focuses on the disaggregation of technologies in their respective components and argues that traditional learning for overall technology should perhaps be replaced by a phenomenology that recognizes learning for individual components. The 'Learning and Time' section presents an approach that departs more strongly from the conventional learning curve methodology, by suggesting that exponential growth and progress may be the deeper underlying processes behind observed learning-by-doing. Contrary to this view, the cybernetic approach presented in the 'Cybernetic Approach' section sees learning curves as expressing a fundamental property of organizations in competitive markets and applies the findings from second order cybernetics to calculate the learning rates for operationally closed systems. All three interpretations find empirical

  9. Financing end-use solar technologies in a restructured electricity industry: Comparing the cost of public policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.; Eto, J.

    1997-09-01

    Renewable energy technologies are capital intensive. Successful public policies for promoting renewable energy must address the significant resources needed to finance them. Public policies to support financing for renewable energy technologies must pay special attention to interactions with federal, state, and local taxes. These interactions are important because they can dramatically increase or decrease the effectiveness of a policy, and they determine the total cost of a policy to society as a whole. This report describes a comparative analysis of the cost of public policies to support financing for two end-use solar technologies: residential solar domestic hot water heating (SDHW) and residential rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems. The analysis focuses on the cost of the technologies under five different ownership and financing scenarios. Four scenarios involve leasing the technologies to homeowners in return for a payment that is determined by the financing requirements of each form of ownership. For each scenario, the authors examine nine public policies that might be used to lower the cost of these technologies: investment tax credits (federal and state), production tax credits (federal and state), production incentives, low-interest loans, grants (taxable and two types of nontaxable), direct customer payments, property and sales tax reductions, and accelerated depreciation

  10. Proceedings of national executive management seminar on surface finishing by radiation curing technology: radiation curing for better finishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This book compiled the paper presented at this seminar. The papers discussed are 1. Incentives for investment in the manufacturing sector (in Malaysia) 2.Trends and prospect of surface finishing by radiation curing technology in Malaysia 3. Industrial application of radiation curing.

  11. Assessment of the use of space technology in the monitoring of oil spills and ocean pollution: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, U. R. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    The adequacy of current technology in terms of stage of maturity, of sensing, support systems, and information extraction was assessed relative to oil spills, waste pollution, and inputs to pollution trajectory models. Needs for advanced techniques are defined and the characteristics of a future satellite system are determined based on the requirements of U.S. agencies involved in pollution monitoring.

  12. Definition of technology development missions for early space station, orbit transfer vehicle servicing. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) servicing study scope, propellant transfer, storage and reliquefaction technology development missions (TDM), docking and berthing TDM, maintenance TDM, OTV/payload integration TDM, combined TDMS design, summary space station accomodations, programmatic analysis, and TDM equipment operational usage are discussed.

  13. Personal Decision Factors Considered by Information Technology Executives: Their Impacts on Business Intentions and Consequent Cloud Computing Services Adoption Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marcus L., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    During its infancy, the cloud computing industry was the province largely of small and medium-sized business customers. Despite their size, these companies required a professionally run, yet economical information technology (IT) operation. These customers used a total value strategy whereby they avoided paying for essential, yet underutilized,…

  14. Proceedings of national executive management seminar on surface finishing by radiation curing technology: radiation curing for better finishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This book compiled the paper presented at this seminar. The papers discussed are 1. Incentives for investment in the manufacturing sector (in Malaysia) 2.Trends and prospect of surface finishing by radiation curing technology in Malaysia 3. Industrial application of radiation curing

  15. Communications satellite business ventures - Measuring the impact of technology programmes and related policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    An economic evaluation and planning procedure which assesses the effects of various policies on fixed satellite business ventures is described. The procedure is based on a stochastic financial simulation model, the Domsat II, which evaluates spacecraft reliability, market performance, and cost uncertainties. The application of the Domsat II model to the assessment of NASA's ion thrusters for on-orbit propulsion and GaAs solar cell technology is discussed. The effects of insurance rates and the self-insurance option on the financial performance of communication satellite business ventures are investigated. The selection of a transportation system for placing the satellites into GEO is analyzed.

  16. Environmental Policy and Technology Diffusion under Imperfect Competition. An Evolutionary Game Theoretical Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, F.P.

    2003-05-01

    The analysis of the thesis centers around the diffusion incentives of different environmental policy instruments. Emission taxation, subsidies per unit of emission reduction, marketable emission permits and marketable emission credits will be discussed and compared to each other on how they affect the diffusion of an environmentally benign technology. The analysis is conducted within an applied evolutionary game theoretical framework. An extensive discussion of evolutionary game theory can be found in chapter 2. Chapter 3 reviews classical diffusion models: the epidemic, probit and classic game theoretical model. Then we shift our attention to general evolutionary diffusion models, followed by an outline of the use of evolutionary game theory as a tool for analyzing technology diffusion. The purpose of the chapter is to illustrate the main differences between the various models. Relevant parts of economic theory are reviewed in chapters 4 and 5. Chapter 4 contains a survey and interpretive assessment of the current literature dealing with the impact of environmental policy instruments on the adoption and diffusion of a pollution abatement technology. The chapter illustrates and criticizes the static character of the most influential models. In chapter 2 it will become apparent that an evolutionary analysis is quite appealing when markets axe characterized by perfect competition. Enhanced competitiveness forces firms to produce efficiently in order to avoid elimination. However, in imperfect competitive markets competition is limited to only a small number of firms. Since the central market structure in this thesis is that of imperfect competition, chapter 5 examines the literature on evolutionary game models applied to these type of markets. The survey reveals that the literature focuses on determining whether the evolutionary game models generate output equilibria identical to the traditional static Cournot and Bertrand models or to other output levels. Chapter 6

  17. Policies for fostering health science, technology and innovation in Brazil and the role of clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenório, Marge; Mello, Guilherme Arantes; Viana, Ana Luiza D'Ávila

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight a number of underlying issues that may be useful for a comprehensive review of the management of Health-Related Science, Technology and Innovation policies (ST&I/H), and its strategies and priorities. It is an analytical study supported by an extensive review of the technical and journalistic literature, clippings, legislation and federal government directives. The results show that the Healthcare Production Complex undeniably and increasingly needs science to maintain itself. One may infer that a framework of institutional milestones is being built in Brazil, to strengthen, guide and encourage Research and Development, and that clinical research creates scientific knowledge to address public healthcare issues by generating new inputs or enhancing existing techniques, processes and technologies that will be produced, marketed and used in the different segments, thus feeding the Healthcare Productive Complex.

  18. Governmental regulation and nongovernmental certification of forests in the tropics: policy, execution, uptake, and overlap in Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen McGinley; F.W. Cubbage

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed how and why governmental forest regulation and nongovernmental forest certification in Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Nicaragua and their execution lead to, or fail to produce desired changes in forest owner and user behavior toward the enhanced sustainability of tropical forests. The findings confirmed not only that sufficient resources and capacity for...

  19. Land Mobile Satellite Service (LMSS): A conceptual system design and identification of the critical technologies. Part 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, F. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    A system design for a satellite aided land mobile service is described. The advanced system is based on a geostationary satellite which employs a large UHF reflector to communicate with small user antennas on mobile vehicles. It is shown that the system through multiple beam antennas and frequency reuse provides for radiotelephone and dispatch channels. It is concluded that the system is technologically feasible to provide service to rural and remote regions.

  20. Technology policy and sustainability: An empirical study of renewable energy development in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Maithili

    In the debate over sustainability and development paradigms, energy assumes a unique position by virtue of its direct link with environmental sustainability and its role as an essential vehicle for development. Agenda 21 recognizes that coupling end-use energy efficiency with renewable sources of energy will help meet a large share of the world's energy needs while reducing the environmental impacts of energy use. Nevertheless, the extent and scope of diffusion of new and renewable energy technologies is contingent upon the capabilities of the countries concerned to realize firstly, a need, and subsequently, the resources for utilizing the technologies. India has one of the largest renewable energy programs (REPs) in the world, however, renewables continue to remain a marginal contributor to the total energy supply. The need to fundamentally change the program design of REPs has been suggested by many critics and experts in view of the implementation problems. However, mainstream thinking maintains that Poor financial conditions in the energy sector, not program design flaws, are at the heart of poor implementation results, leading to the premise that infusion of capital and efforts at market transformation through the involvement of the private sector could solve the problem. This dissertation uses case studies on solar photovoltaics, wind energy, and biogas in India to analyze the implementation of renewable energy technologies. Based on stakeholder interviews, documents, and site visits, this dissertation argues that the problems currently recognized are in reality symptomatic of a combination of three underlying problems: (1) An inadequate understanding of the needs of energy users and the complex interplay of existing policies and technological choices with user needs and behavior; (2) An institutional network, both at the local and the national level, that lacks the capacity to facilitate information exchange within and between institutions, thereby losing

  1. An assessment of exploiting renewable energy sources with concerns of policy and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yung-Chi; Lin, Grace T.R.; Li, Kuang-Pin; Yuan, Benjamin J.C.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the Taiwanese government has vigorously promoted the development of renewable energy to engage the challenges of gradual depletion of fossil fuels and oil, as well as the intensification of the greenhouse effect. Since the Sustainable Energy Policy Principles were announced in 2008, Taiwanese government has declared that the development of renewable energy should take into account goals that pertain to energy, the environment, and the economy (3E goals). This study aims to assess the 3E goals and renewable energy sources regulated by the Renewable Energy Development Bill that passed in 2009. The fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) is used to resolve the multi-goal problem for achieving our research purposes. That is, this research attempts to reveal the suitable renewable energy sources for the purposes of meeting the 3E policy goals. The results first show that environmental goal is the most important to the development of various renewable energy technologies in Taiwan, followed by the economic and energy goals. Additionally, hydropower, solar energy, and wind energy would be the renewable energy sources utilized in meeting the 3E policy goals. (author)

  2. The dynamics of technology diffusion and the impacts of climate policy instruments in the decarbonisation of the global electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercure, J.-F.; Pollitt, H.; Chewpreecha, U.; Salas, P.; Foley, A.M.; Holden, P.B.; Edwards, N.R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of climate policy instruments for the decarbonisation of the global electricity sector in a non-equilibrium economic and technology diffusion perspective. Energy markets are driven by innovation, path-dependent technology choices and diffusion. However, conventional optimisation models lack detail on these aspects and have limited ability to address the effectiveness of policy interventions because they do not represent decision-making. As a result, known effects of technology lock-ins are liable to be underestimated. In contrast, our approach places investor decision-making at the core of the analysis and investigates how it drives the diffusion of low-carbon technology in a highly disaggregated, hybrid, global macroeconometric model, FTT:Power-E3MG. Ten scenarios to 2050 of the electricity sector in 21 regions exploring combinations of electricity policy instruments are analysed, including their climate impacts. We show that in a diffusion and path-dependent perspective, the impact of combinations of policies does not correspond to the sum of impacts of individual instruments: synergies exist between policy tools. We argue that the carbon price required to break the current fossil technology lock-in can be much lower when combined with other policies, and that a 90% decarbonisation of the electricity sector by 2050 is affordable without early scrapping. - Highlights: • Policy scenarios for decarbonising of the global electricity sector by 90%. • Strong synergies exist between different energy policy instruments. • Carbon pricing not a sufficient policy instrument for large emissions reductions. • Improved agent behaviour assumptions for energy modelling beyond cost-optimisation

  3. Information Technology and Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion: Exploring the Intermediary-End User Interface in a Policy Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Discusses U.S. technology policy and the transfer of scientific and technical information (STI). Results of a study of knowledge diffusion in the aerospace industry are reported, including data on aerospace information intermediaries, use of computer and information technologies, and the use of NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration)…

  4. The Evolution of U.S. e-Learning Policy: A Content Analysis of the National Education Technology Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumell, Elizabeth Anne; Salajan, Florin Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was threefold: to expand on existing reviews of 20 years of educational technology policy in the United States, to perform an empirical content analysis of the four National Education Technology Plan (NETP) documents issued by the Department of Education since 1996, and to provide a dialectic analysis of the evolution of…

  5. A Legal Analysis of Federal Disability Law as Related to Emerging Technology: Guidelines for Postsecondary Leadership, Policy, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Roderick Dwayne

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation identified and described the legal requirements imposed by federal disability mandates and case law related to emerging technology. Additionally, the researcher created a legal framework (guidelines) for higher education institutions to consider during policy development and implementation of emerging technology by providing an…

  6. Strategies for successful evaluation and policy-making toward health care technology on the move : The case of medical lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banta, H.D.; Vondeling, H.

    1994-01-01

    Evaluating new health care technology that is rapidly diffusing is one of the greatest challenges to researchers and policy-makers. If no evaluation is done until the technology is mature, evaluation will not influence processes of diffusion. If evaluation is done early, it may be irrelevant when it

  7. Information and communication technology (ICT) and eHealth policy in Latin America and the Caribbean: a review of national policies and assessment of socioeconomic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Marroquin, Maria Carolina; Deber, Raisa; Jadad, Alejandro R

    2014-01-01

    To examine the availability of national information and communication technology (ICT) or eHealth policies produced by countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), and to determine the influence of a country's socioeconomic context on the existence of these policies. Documents describing a national ICT or eHealth policy in any of the 33 countries belonging to the LAC region as listed by the United Nations were identified from three data sources: academic databases; the Google search engine; and government agencies and representatives. The relationship between the existence of a policy and national socioeconomic indicators was also investigated. There has been some progress in the establishment of ICT and eHealth policies in the LAC region. The most useful methods for identifying the policies were 1) use of the Google search engine and 2) contact with Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) country representatives. The countries that have developed a national ICT policy seem to be more likely to have a national eHealth policy in place. There was no statistical significant association between the existence of a policy and a country's socioeconomic context. Governments need to make stronger efforts to raise awareness about existing and planned ICT and eHealth policies, not only to facilitate ease of use and communication with their stakeholders, but also to promote collaborative international efforts. In addition, a better understanding of the effect of economic variables on the role that ICTs play in health sector reform efforts will help shape the vision of what can be achieved.

  8. Policy gaps and technological deficiencies in social networking environments: Implications for information sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Mutula

    2013-06-01

    Objectives: The study sought to investigate the following research objectives to: (1 describe the types of social networks, (2 examine global penetration of the social networks, (3 outline the users’ legitimate rights that must be protected in the social networking sites (SNS, (4 determine the methods employed by SNS to protect the users’ legitimate rights and (5 identify the policy gaps and technological deficiencies in the protection of the users’ legitimate rights in the SNS. Method: A literature survey and content analysis of the SNS user policies were used to address objective four and objective five respectively. Results: The most actively used sites were Facebook and Twitter. Asian markets were leading in participation and in creating content than any other region. Business, education, politics and governance sectors were actively using social networking sites. Social networking sites relied upon user trust and internet security features which however, were inefficient and inadequate. Conclusion: Whilst SNS were impacting people of varying ages and of various professional persuasions, there were increased concerns about the violation and infringement of the users’ legitimate rights. Reliance on user trust and technological security features SNS to protect the users’ legitimate rights seemed ineffectual and inadequate.

  9. Science, information, technology, and the changing character of public policy in non-point source pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, John L.; Corwin, Dennis L.

    Information technologies are already delivering important new capabilities for scientists working on non-point source (NPS) pollution in the vadose zone, and more are expected. This paper focuses on the special contributions of modeling and network communications for enhancing the effectiveness of scientists in the realm of policy debates regarding NPS pollution mitigation and abatement. The discussion examines a fundamental shift from a strict regulatory strategy of pollution control characterized by a bureaucratic/technical alliance during the period through the 1970's and early 1980's, to a more recently evolving paradigm of pluralistic environmental management. The role of science and scientists in this shift is explored, with special attention to the challenges facing scientists working in NPS pollution in the vadose zone. These scientists labor under a special handicap in the evolving model because their scientific tools are often times incapable of linking NPS pollution with individuals responsible for causing it. Information can facilitate the effectiveness of these scientists in policy debates, but not under the usual assumptions in which scientific truth prevails. Instead, information technology's key role is in helping scientists shape the evolving discussion of trade-offs and in bringing citizens and policymakers closer to the routine work of scientists.

  10. Policy gaps and technological deficiencies in social networking environments: Implications for information sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Mutula

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the growing adoption and acceptance of social networking, there are increased concerns about the violation of the users’ legitimate rights such as privacy, confidentiality, trust, security, safety, content ownership, content accuracy, integrity, access and accessibility to computer and digital networks amongst others.Objectives: The study sought to investigate the following research objectives to: (1 describe the types of social networks, (2 examine global penetration of the social networks, (3 outline the users’ legitimate rights that must be protected in the social networking sites (SNS, (4 determine the methods employed by SNS to protect the users’ legitimate rights and (5 identify the policy gaps and technological deficiencies in the protection of the users’ legitimate rights in the SNS.Method: A literature survey and content analysis of the SNS user policies were used to address objective four and objective five respectively.Results: The most actively used sites were Facebook and Twitter. Asian markets were leading in participation and in creating content than any other region. Business, education, politics and governance sectors were actively using social networking sites. Social networking sites relied upon user trust and internet security features which however, were inefficient and inadequate.Conclusion: Whilst SNS were impacting people of varying ages and of various professional persuasions, there were increased concerns about the violation and infringement of the users’ legitimate rights. Reliance on user trust and technological security features SNS to protect the users’ legitimate rights seemed ineffectual and inadequate.

  11. Policy strategies for an emergent technology: Lessons from the analysis of EV-policy in 8 North- European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van der Steen (Martijn); R.M. Van Schelven; P. Van Deventer (Peter); M. van Twist (Mark); R. Kotter

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents data from a comparative study of EV-policies in 8 different North-European countries, that maps out all of the policies of these countries (and a range of regions and cities) that target passenger vehicles (PHEV and BEV), chargers (home, private, public; level 1-3),

  12. Developing Entrepreneurial and Technology Commercialization Policies to Promote Cooperative Ventures Between NIH and Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossomando, Edward F.

    2001-03-01

    The NIH has had a great influence in guiding the biological research agenda for the last half of the 20th century. This may change if the increases in research funding from the private sector that occurred in the last ten years continue into the 21st century. Ten years ago, industry supplied 55% of the US R&D funds. In 2000, industry support of R&D had increased to 76%, with industry carrying out 70% of the nations applied and 91% of its development research. Given this shift, one of the biggest challenges that NIH may face in coming years is sharing control of America's research agenda with industry. For this to occur policies that encourage cooperative ventures with industry are needed. In a unique experiment, I was invited to the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), one of the 25 NIH Institutes and Centers, to develop programs and policies that would promote interactions with industry. This talk will introduce the strategy and programs developed to commercialize products and technologies from basic science discoveries and introducing an entrepreneurial atmosphere within the Institute. The results of this experiment will be discussed by comparing differences between discovery-driven and customer-driven innovation. One outcome of this experience is a greater appreciation of the obstacles to introducing disruptive technologies into the market place and of the paradigms that serve as barriers to commercialization. One recommendation is that the NIDCR consider a policy that allows for some participation by industry in setting the research and training agenda of the Institute, and that a mechanism for industry input be introduced into its administrative organization.

  13. Designing a climate change policy for the international maritime transport sector: Market-based measures and technological options for global and regional policy actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miola, A.; Marra, M.; Ciuffo, B.

    2011-01-01

    The international maritime transport sector has a significant abatement potential and some technical improvements that reduce GHG emissions would already be profitable without any policy in place. This paper analyses in-depth the limits and opportunities of policy options currently under consideration at the international level to stimulate the sector to reduce its GHG emissions. In particular, in order for the maritime transport sector to become more environmentally friendly, the flexible nature of international market-based measures and the European Union Emission Trading Scheme provide a definite window of opportunity without placing unnecessary high burden on the sector. However, the development of a regional policy, such as at European level, for the international maritime transport sector faces several obstacles: allocation of emissions, carbon leakage, permit allocation, treatment of the great variety in ship type, size and usage, and transaction cost. Global market-based policies could overcome most of these challenges. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the policy instruments currently under discussion to reduce the sector's burden on the environment, and focuses on economic theory, legal principles, technological options, and the political framework that together make up the basis of decision-making regarding the international maritime transport sector's climate change policies. - Highlights: → Technologies for a more environmental friendly maritime transport sector and their cost-effectiveness. → How to combine ambitious CO 2 reduction goals with a sector-wide market-based policy. → Permits should be auctioned frequently and small emitters have to be excluded. → Inclusion of shipping in the EU ETS causes carbon leakage, so the policy should aim at expansion.

  14. Innovative energy technologies in energy-economy models: assessing economic, energy and environmental impacts of climate policy and technological change in Germany.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, K.

    2007-04-18

    Energy technologies and innovation are considered to play a crucial role in climate change mitigation. Yet, the representation of technologies in energy-economy models, which are used extensively to analyze the economic, energy and environmental impacts of alternative energy and climate policies, is rather limited. This dissertation presents advanced techniques of including technological innovations in energy-economy computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. New methods are explored and applied for improving the realism of energy production and consumption in such top-down models. The dissertation addresses some of the main criticism of general equilibrium models in the field of energy and climate policy analysis: The lack of detailed sectoral and technical disaggregation, the restricted view on innovation and technological change, and the lack of extended greenhouse gas mitigation options. The dissertation reflects on the questions of (1) how to introduce innovation and technological change in a computable general equilibrium model as well as (2) what additional and policy relevant information is gained from using these methodologies. Employing a new hybrid approach of incorporating technology-specific information for electricity generation and iron and steel production in a dynamic multi-sector computable equilibrium model it can be concluded that technology-specific effects are crucial for the economic assessment of climate policy, in particular the effects relating to process shifts and fuel input structure. Additionally, the dissertation shows that learning-by-doing in renewable energy takes place in the renewable electricity sector but is equally important in upstream sectors that produce technologies, i.e. machinery and equipment, for renewable electricity generation. The differentiation of learning effects in export sectors, such as renewable energy technologies, matters for the economic assessment of climate policies because of effects on international

  15. The nuclear research and technology development in the GDR from 1945 to 1965. Framework conditions, policy of the State party and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    The study follows the development of the nuclear research and nuclear technology in the GDR between 1945 and 1965. The GDR as an industrial country was highly dependent on brown coal, which was the only available primal energy source in the former GDR. Therefore the civil use of nuclear power called the attention of the executive and party leadership. This consideration was supported by the fact of large uranium deposits on the territory of former East Germany. After the foundation of the GDR, a first attempt to establish an independent nuclear power industry had failed. From 1955 on, the efforts in this direction have been stepped up. Despite the enormous effort of material and human resources the development of an independent East German nuclear industry never got off the ground. In 1965 it was decided to continue the buildup of an East German nuclear industry on base of the nuclear technology of the former Soviet Union. This decision marked a turning point in the East German energy policy and the end to ambitious plans of an independent nuclear industry. The research shows the frame, the preconditions and objectives of the development of the East German nuclear industry on the base of relevant documents from the government of the former GDR, the political machine of the Communist Party (SED) and the Academy of Science Berlin. The research is implementing the context of international nuclear research and technical progress against the background of the Cold War and the international nuclear euphoria as well as within the range of global politics. The discussion focusses on two points. Along with high expectations to an independent energy production and an exporting nuclear industry, the Communist party aimed for clear political results. The author will show the connection between plans of the executive and party leadership of the SED for an ambitious nuclear energy development and the international acceptance of the East German State in the German-German rivalry.

  16. Emergency Preparedness technology support to the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) of the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Kula, K.R.

    1994-03-01

    The Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) of the United Kingdom (UK) suggested the use of an accident progression logic model method developed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for K Reactor to predict the magnitude and timing of radioactivity releases (the source term) based on an advanced logic model methodology. Predicted releases are output from the personal computer-based model in a level-of-confidence format. Additional technical discussions eventually led to a request from the NII to develop a proposal for assembling a similar technology to predict source terms for the UK's advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) type. To respond to this request, WSRC is submitting a proposal to provide contractual assistance as specified in the Scope of Work. The work will produce, document, and transfer technology associated with a Decision-Oriented Source Term Estimator for Emergency Preparedness (DOSE-EP) for the NII to apply to AGRs in the United Kingdom. This document, Appendix A is a part of this proposal

  17. Rise in legal skirmishes and intellectual property protectionism force companies to re-examine technology policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.

    2006-12-15

    The possession of intellectual property (IP) has become an important part of a technologically advanced oil and gas industry. Firms that specialize in IP law are now aiding oil and gas companies to establish company-wide IP policies to protect their inventions and properly profit from them. However, many companies do not have a clear policy to report on the commercial value of their IP assets or keep track of efforts made to gain value from them. A patent policy could require that patents be applied for only when the scientific merits and the business merits justify the allocation of personnel and financial resources. Patent disputes can be expensive and have led some companies into financial difficulties. Companies who have not successfully defended their patents may fall victim to patent trolls, who search for un-enforced patents in order to force companies to pay for licence fees or damage awards for the patents that they acquire. Anecdotal evidence suggests that licensing is becoming an important means of generating revenue from process innovations. Petrobank Energy and Resources Ltd. has formed its own research and development company to protect patents for its proprietary toe-to-heel air injection (THAI) oilsands recovery process, and has established a patent cooperation treaty, where patents are filed in various countries in a single procedure. However, many oil and gas companies insist that some new technologies are better protected as trade secrets. To secure a patent, a company must publicly disclose all aspects of an invention. Trade secrets are an option where secrecy can be maintained after commercialization. Unlike patent protection, which expires after 20 years, trade secrets can last indefinitely, as long as the secret is not publicly disclosed or independently developed by a competitor. While patenting may offer a competitive lead-time for some companies, many industry officials prefer to focus on using their innovations in the field. The oil and

  18. Technological policies for education and digital literacy: the governmental program ‘e.escolinha’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Pereira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, the Portuguese government announced the initiative ’e.escolinha’ which included the distribution of computers ‘Magalhães’ to students of the 1st cycle of basic education for three consecutive school years. Currently suspended, the programme was a flagship of the XVII Constitutional Government, led by José Sócrates, but it was also subject of controversy from the opposition parties and from the school community, especially due to the apparent emphasis on access to technology rather than a greater concern with the training and pedagogical practices. Under the Technological Plan for Education, the ’e.escolinha’ initiative was part of a broader policy for the development of a competitive and dynamic economy, responding to the goals set by the EU in the Lisbon Strategy 2000. The initiative was presented to the country with ambitious goals regarding the expected changes to teachers’ pedagogical practices, the process of children’s learning and school success in general. However, the most visible face of the policy, although it may comprise other nuances, may have been reduced to the question of access, investing little in other dimensions of digital literacy. Based on interviews with key actors involved in the conception and implementation of the ’e.escolinha’ initiative, and on official programme documents, this paper intends to discuss how policy makers and companies set out and evaluate the objectives of this initiative. It is intended, in particular, to understand if they share the idea that this governmental measure follows a technological drift or if they discern any digital literacy objectives in it. This piece of work is part of a research project titled "Navigating with Magellan: Study on the Impact of Digital Media on Schoolchildren," that is being carried out at the Communication and Society Research Centre at the University of Minho, funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology ((PTDC

  19. Back from the Brink with Something for Everyone - The Final Executed Memorandum of Agreement for Interpretation of the East Tennessee Technology Park and the K-25 Building - 13370

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cusick, Lesley T.

    2013-01-01

    , and more. The MOA was designed to offer something for everyone. The MOA for the K- 25 Building and interpretation of the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP; formerly the K-25 Site) was executed by all of the signatory parties on August 7, 2012 - almost 67 years to-the-day after the 'product' of the K-25 process building became known to more than just a small group of scientists and engineers working on a secret project for the Army Corps of Engineers Manhattan District. (authors)

  20. Back from the Brink with Something for Everyone - The Final Executed Memorandum of Agreement for Interpretation of the East Tennessee Technology Park and the K-25 Building - 13370

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cusick, Lesley T. [Restoration Services, Inc. (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Oak Ridge, and more. The MOA was designed to offer something for everyone. The MOA for the K- 25 Building and interpretation of the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP; formerly the K-25 Site) was executed by all of the signatory parties on August 7, 2012 - almost 67 years to-the-day after the 'product' of the K-25 process building became known to more than just a small group of scientists and engineers working on a secret project for the Army Corps of Engineers Manhattan District. (authors)

  1. Policy drivers and barriers for coal-to-liquids (CtL) technologies in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallentin, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Because of a growing dependence on oil imports, powerful industrial, political and societal stakeholders in the United States are trying to enhance national energy security through the conversion of domestic coal into synthetic hydrocarbon liquid fuels-so-called coal-to-liquids (CtL) processes. However, because of the technology's high costs and carbon intensity, its market deployment is strongly affected by the US energy, technology and climate policy setting. This paper analyses and discusses policy drivers and barriers for CtL technologies in the United States and reaches the conclusion that an increasing awareness of global warming among US policy-makers raises the requirements for the technology's environmental performance and, thus, limits its potential to regional niche markets in coal-producing states or strategic markets, such as the military, with specific security and fuel requirements

  2. Assessment of the use of space technology in the monitoring of oil spills and ocean pollution: Technical volume. Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, U. R. (Editor); Chafaris, G.; Chestek, J.; Contrad, J.; Frippel, G.; Gulatsi, R.; Heath, A.; Hodara, H.; Kritikos, H.; Tamiyasu, K.

    1980-01-01

    The potential of space systems and technology for detecting and monitoring ocean oil spills and waste pollution was assessed as well as the impact of this application on communication and data handling systems. Agencies charged with responsibilities in this area were identified and their measurement requirements were ascertained in order to determine the spatial resolution needed to characterize operational and accidental discharges. Microwave and optical sensors and sensing techniques were evaluated as candidate system elements. Capabilities are described for the following: synthetic aperture radar, microwave scatterometer, passive microwave radiometer, microwave altimeter, electro-optical sensors currently used in airborne detection, existing space-based optical sensors, the thematic mapper, and the pointable optical linear array.

  3. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    This paper is an 'executive summary' of work undertaken to review proposals for transport, handling and emplacement of high level radioactive wastes in an underground repository, appropriate to the U.K. context, with particular reference to: waste block size and configuration; self-shielded or partially-shielded block; stages of disposal; transportation within the repository; emplacement in vertical holes or horizontal tunnels; repository access by adit, incline or shaft; and costs. The paper contains a section on general conclusions and recommendations. (U.K.)

  4. Ship Compliance in Emission Control Areas: Technology Costs and Policy Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Edward W; Corbett, James J

    2015-08-18

    This paper explores whether a Panama Canal Authority pollution tax could be an effective economic instrument to achieve Emission Control Area (ECA)-like reductions in emissions from ships transiting the Panama Canal. This tariff-based policy action, whereby vessels in compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) ECA standards pay a lower transit tariff than noncompliant vessels, could be a feasible alternative to petitioning for a Panamanian ECA through the IMO. A $4.06/container fuel tax could incentivize ECA-compliant emissions reductions for nearly two-thirds of Panama Canal container vessels, mainly through fuel switching; if the vessel(s) also operate in IMO-defined ECAs, exhaust-gas treatment technologies may be cost-effective. The RATES model presented here compares current abatement technologies based on hours of operation within an ECA, computing costs for a container vessel to comply with ECA standards in addition to computing the Canal tax that would reduce emissions in Panama. Retrofitted open-loop scrubbers are cost-effective only for vessels operating within an ECA for more than 4500 h annually. Fuel switching is the least-cost option to industry for vessels that operate mostly outside of ECA regions, whereas vessels operating entirely within an ECA region could reduce compliance cost with exhaust-gas treatment technology (scrubbers).

  5. Enabling Equal Access to Molecular Diagnostics: What Are the Implications for Policy and Health Technology Assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plun-Favreau, Juliette; Immonen-Charalambous, Kaisa; Steuten, Lotte; Strootker, Anja; Rouzier, Roman; Horgan, Denis; Lawler, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics can offer important benefits to patients and are a key enabler of the integration of personalised medicine into health care systems. However, despite their promise, few molecular diagnostics are embedded into clinical practice (especially in Europe) and access to these technologies remains unequal across countries and sometimes even within individual countries. If research translation and the regulatory environments have proven to be more challenging than expected, reimbursement and value assessment remain the main barriers to providing patients with equal access to molecular diagnostics. Unclear or non-existent reimbursement pathways, together with the lack of clear evidence requirements, have led to significant delays in the assessment of molecular diagnostics technologies in certain countries. Additionally, the lack of dedicated diagnostics budgets and the siloed nature of resource allocation within certain health care systems have significantly delayed diagnostics commissioning. This article will consider the perspectives of different stakeholders (patients, health care payers, health care professionals, and manufacturers) on the provision of a research-enabled, patient-focused molecular diagnostics platform that supports optimal patient care. Through the discussion of specific case studies, and building on the experience from countries that have successfully integrated molecular diagnostics into clinical practice, this article will discuss the necessary evolutions in policy and health technology assessment to ensure that patients can have equal access to appropriate molecular diagnostics. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Research into industrial technology policy trends in Australia. Role of government in promoting industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The paper reported the investigation into strategies of industrial technology, results of the R and D support plans, management of support fund plans, etc. by the Australian government. The present government introduced policies on industrial innovation and industrial technology, research and higher education, etc. from the end of 1997 to the end of 1999. Especially, recently the R and D preferential taxation system was introduced. As to organizations pertaining to science, technology, engineering and innovation, PMSEIC (prime minister's science, engineering and innovation council) under the direct control of prime minister is a top self-supporting organization, in which minister from each ministry join. Further, the assembly committee, which is not the bureaucratic organization, was separately established. In February 2000, the innovation summit was held, in which a lot of organizations from the industrial circle, government and research institutes participated. The conclusion was as follows: Australia is now at the crossroads of the resource dependent economy. The solution adopted in the past cannot meet the age of new knowledge. The rapidly advancing globalization makes the society more competitive. Enterprises that avoid the innovative investment are to expose themselves to danger. Australia is requested to make continued efforts for more innovative creation. (NEDO)

  7. Research into industrial technology policy trends in Australia. Role of government in promoting industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The paper reported the investigation into strategies of industrial technology, results of the R and D support plans, management of support fund plans, etc. by the Australian government. The present government introduced policies on industrial innovation and industrial technology, research and higher education, etc. from the end of 1997 to the end of 1999. Especially, recently the R and D preferential taxation system was introduced. As to organizations pertaining to science, technology, engineering and innovation, PMSEIC (prime minister's science, engineering and innovation council) under the direct control of prime minister is a top self-supporting organization, in which minister from each ministry join. Further, the assembly committee, which is not the bureaucratic organization, was separately established. In February 2000, the innovation summit was held, in which a lot of organizations from the industrial circle, government and research institutes participated. The conclusion was as follows: Australia is now at the crossroads of the resource dependent economy. The solution adopted in the past cannot meet the age of new knowledge. The rapidly advancing globalization makes the society more competitive. Enterprises that avoid the innovative investment are to expose themselves to danger. Australia is requested to make continued efforts for more innovative creation. (NEDO)

  8. The Influence of Japanese Public Opinion and Government Policy on the Planning and Execution of U.S. - Japanese Bilateral Ground Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    baseline knowledge of the 6 0L aa Y.S 00 evolution of Japanese Defense Policy focused on major defense-policy agreements and issues. The baseline...bilaterally with their Japanese counterparts. (Japanese soldiers stationed in northern Japan are excellent military skiers .) U.S. soldiers who receive...other cases, interviewees had knowledge and expertise regarding the evolution of bilateral exercises and negotiations necessary to initiate bilateral

  9. 78 FR 53789 - Technology Innovations for Substance Abuse and Mental Health Treatment Conference & Related...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY Technology Innovations for Substance Abuse and Mental... National Drug Control Policy. ACTION: Notice. Location: Eisenhower Executive Office Building, South Court....m.-1:00 p.m. SUMMARY: The Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) and the Substance Abuse and...

  10. CERN’s policy in the field of knowledge and technology transfer goes global

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    On 2 November, the Knowledge & Technology Transfer (KTT) Group presented to the Directorate three proposals that aim to enhance KTT activities. One important aspect of the proposals is the direct involvement of all members of CERN, who are strongly encouraged to communicate any ideas for additional applications of their work. KTT is a high-priority activity area because of its potential to demonstrate the role of CERN as a source of innovation, delivering tangible benefits to society. In particular, through its know-how and its leadership, CERN is today generating innovations applicable in domains such as medical sciences, energy and the environment, as well as many others. “The measures endorsed by the Directorate on 2 November include a comprehensive policy for managing the intellectual property related to CERN technologies”, explains Claudio Parrinello, head of the KTT Group in the DG Department. “This includes a proposal to redistribute part of the income generated by ...

  11. Health technology assessment and health policy today a multifaceted view of their unstable crossroads

    CERN Document Server

    del Llano-Señarís, Juan E

    2015-01-01

    This book disentangles the issues in connection with the advancement of Health Technology Assessment (HTA) and its interface with health policy. It highlights the factors that should shape its progress in the near future. Interdisciplinary and critical views from a number of professionals are put together in a prescient order to cast some light and make recommendations as to the next steps HTA should take to be fit for purpose. A wealth of documents dealing with HTA have been published over the last three decades. HTA allegedly is one of the bedrocks of regulation and medical decision making. However, counter vailing visions contend that geographical variations in the role that HTA is actually playing within countries pinpoints specific room for improvement. Given our social preferences, cherry-picking HTA's features and successes over the last decades moves it away from its possibility frontier. Some of the most noteworthy hindrances that HTA faces, in several countries, to making headway towards its consoli...

  12. Policy for Robust Space-based Earth Science, Technology and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly Elizabeth; Escobar, Vanessa Marie; Aschbacher, Josef; Milagro-Pérez, Maria Pilar; Doorn, Bradley; Macauley, Molly K.; Friedl, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing technology has contributed to the transformation of multiple earth science domains, putting space observations at the forefront of innovation in earth science. With new satellite missions being launched every year, new types of earth science data are being incorporated into science models and decision-making systems in a broad array of organizations. Policy guidance can influence the degree to which user needs influence mission design and when, and ensure that satellite missions serve both the scientific and user communities without becoming unfocused and overly expensive. By considering the needs of the user community early on in the mission-design process, agencies can ensure that satellites meet the needs of multiple constituencies. This paper describes the mission development process in NASA and ESA and compares and contrasts the successes and challenges faced by these agencies as they try to balance science and applications within their missions.

  13. Privacy in context technology, policy, and the integrity of social life

    CERN Document Server

    Nissenbaum, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Privacy is one of the most urgent issues associated with information technology and digital media. This book claims that what people really care about when they complain and protest that privacy has been violated is not the act of sharing information itself—most people understand that this is crucial to social life —but the inappropriate, improper sharing of information. Arguing that privacy concerns should not be limited solely to concern about control over personal information, Helen Nissenbaum counters that information ought to be distributed and protected according to norms governing distinct social contexts—whether it be workplace, health care, schools, or among family and friends. She warns that basic distinctions between public and private, informing many current privacy policies, in fact obscure more than they clarify. In truth, contemporary information systems should alarm us only when they function without regard for social norms and values, and thereby weaken the fabric of social life.

  14. Cap-and-trade policy: The influence on investments in carbon dioxide reducing technologies in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahie, Monique

    With most of the energy produced in the state of Indiana coming from coal, the implementation of policy instruments such as cap-and-trade, which is included in the most recent climate bill, will have significant effects. This thesis provides an analysis of the effects that a cap-and-trade policy might have on the investment decisions for alternative technologies in the power plant sector in Indiana. Two economic models of representative coal-fired power plants, Gallagher (600MW) and Rockport (2600MW), are selected and used to evaluate the repowering decision of a plant for several technologies: integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), wind farm combined with natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) and supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC). The firm will make its decisions based on the net present value (NPV) of cost estimates for these CO2 reducing technologies, the cost of purchasing offsets and CO 2 allowances. This model is applied to a base case and three American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 cases derived from the Energy Information Administration (EIA, 2009b). A sensitivity analysis is done on the discount rate and capital costs. The results of the study indicate that a SCPC plant without carbon capture and storage (CCS) is the least costly compliance option for both plants under all of the cases while retrofitting the existing plant with CCS is the most expensive. Gallagher's three least expensive options across most scenarios were SCPC without CCS, the operation of the existing plant as is and investment in wind plus NGCC. Rockport's three least expensive compliance options across most scenarios were SCPC without CCS, the operation of the existing plant as is and IGCC without CCS. For both plants, when a 12% discount rate is utilized, NPV of costs are generally lower and the operation of the existing plant technology with the aid of allowances and offsets to be in compliance is the cheapest option. If capital costs were to decrease by 30%, a SCPC

  15. What electricity generation technology to choose? The Australian energy policy challenge to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, B.

    2006-01-01

    Demand for electricity in Australia is forecast to grow over the period to 2030 by between 2.1 percent and 2.3 percent per annum. At a minimum, in excess of 12.000 MW of new baseload generation capacity will need to be built to meet this growing demand, in addition to substantial amounts of peaking and mid-merit plant. With extensive low-cost and easily accessible reserves of coal and natural gas available for new generation facilities, investment decisions in a competitive market environment would ordinarily be largely determined by average cost considerations. However, domestic and international policy uncertainty on the future treatment of carbon emissions, anticipated development of new, lower emission generation technologies and uncertainty over future fuel prices and availability results in a difficult investment decision making environment. The competing considerations, generation options and importance of a clear and sustainable national energy policy in delivering timely, least cost new generation plant will be examined in the paper

  16. AIR Louisville: Addressing Asthma With Technology, Crowdsourcing, Cross-Sector Collaboration, And Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Meredith; Combs, Veronica; Su, Jason G; Henderson, Kelly; Tuffli, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Cross-sector partnerships benefit public health by leveraging ideas, resources, and expertise from a wide range of partners. In this study we documented the process and impact of AIR Louisville (a collaboration forged among the Louisville Metro Government, a nonprofit institute, and a technology company) in successfully tackling a complex public health challenge: asthma. We enrolled residents of Louisville, Kentucky, with asthma and used electronic inhaler sensors to monitor where and when they used medication. We found that the use of the digital health platform achieved positive clinical outcomes, including a 78 percent reduction in rescue inhaler use and a 48 percent improvement in symptom-free days. Moreover, the crowdsourced real-world data on inhaler use, combined with environmental data, led to policy recommendations including enhancing tree canopy, tree removal mitigation, zoning for air pollution emission buffers, recommended truck routes, and developing a community asthma notification system. AIR Louisville represents a model that can be replicated to address many public health challenges by simultaneously guiding individual, clinical, and policy decisions.

  17. 2006 annual nuclear technology conference on energy policy; Jahrestagung Kerntechnik 2006 - Zur Energiepolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerwelle, G. [FDP-Bundestagsfraktion, Deutscher Bundestag, Berlin (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    Liberals have clear ideas about the relations between the economy and the environment. Good ecology is also long-term economy, and there is no contradiction between the economy and the environment. New technologies, more investments into research, cooperation with industry and the public are required to bring about a new environmental policy in Germany. Energy policy needs a new beginning free from ideology. This is elaborated in 7 theses: - The key to successful economic development, more growth and employment is to be found in sustainable energy supply. - The 3 guiding principles of sustainable energy supply are (1) economic soundness, (2) continuity of supply, (3) environmental compatibility. - The supply situation is the more secure, the richer the energy mix, and the more sources from all over the world are used. - Taxes, levies, and costs due to shifting are a burden on energy prices and endanger the economic viability of energy supply. - We need a sensible energy mix composed of fossil energy resources, nuclear power, and renewable energies. - A rich energy mix combined with a powerful expansion of renewables, more measures to improve efficiency and save energy make Germany less dependent on international raw material purchases. - Climate change is a reality. Enhancing research and development efforts is our response. (orig.)

  18. Clean Coal Technologies: Accelerating Commercial and Policy Drivers for Deployment [Russian Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal is and will remain the world’s most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel. Burning coal, however, can pollute and it produces carbon dioxide. Clean coal technologies address this problem. The widespread deployment of pollution-control equipment to reduce sulphur dioxide, Nox and dust emissions from industry is just one example which has brought cleaner air to many countries. Since the 1970s, various policy and regulatory measures have created a growing commercial market for these clean coal technologies, with the result that costs have fallen and performance has improved. More recently, the need to tackle rising CO2 emissions to address climate change means that clean coal technologies now extend to include those for CO2 capture and storage (CCS). This short report from the IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board (CIAB) presents industry’s considered recommendations on how to accelerate the development and deployment of this important group of new technologies and to grasp their very signifi cant potential to reduce emissions from coal use. It identifies an urgent need to make progress with demonstration projects and prove the potential of CCS through government-industry partnerships. Its commercialisation depends upon a clear legal and regulatory framework,public acceptance and market-based financial incentives. For the latter, the CIAB favours cap-and-trade systems, price supports and mandatory feed-in tariffs, as well as inclusion of CCS in the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism to create demand in developing economies where coal use is growing most rapidly. This report offers a unique insight into the thinking of an industry that recognises both the threats and growing opportunities for coal in a carbonconstrained world.

  19. Identifying Effective Policy and Technologic Reforms for Sustainable Groundwater Management in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, K.; Zekri, S.; Karimi, A.

    2014-12-01

    Oman has gone through three decades of efforts aimed at addressing groundwater over-pumping and the consequent seawater intrusion. Example of measures adopted by the government since the 1990's include a vast subsidy program of irrigation modernization, a freeze on drilling new wells, delimitation of several no-drill zones, a crop substitution program, re-use of treated wastewater and construction of recharge dams. With no major success through these measures, the government laid the ground for water quotas by creating a new regulation in 1995. Nevertheless, groundwater quotas have not been enforced to date due to the high implementation and monitoring costs of traditional flow meters. This presentation discusses how sustainable groundwater management can be secured in Oman using a suit of policy and technologic reforms at a reasonable economic, political and practical cost. Data collected from farms with smart meters and low-cost wireless smart irrigation systems have been used to propose sustainable groundwater withdrawal strategies for Oman using a detailed hydro-economic model that couples a MODFLOW-SEAWAT model of the coastal aquifers with a dynamic profit maximization model. The hydro-economic optimization model was flexible to be run both as a social planner model to maximize the social welfare in the region, and as an agent-based model to capture the behavior of farmers interested in maximizing their profits independently. This flexibility helped capturing the trade-off between the optimality of the social planner solution developed at the system's level and its practicality (stability) with respect to the concerns and behaviors of the profit-maximizing farmers. The idetified promising policy and technolgical reforms for Oman include strict enforcement of groundwater quotas, smart metering, changing crop mixes, improving irrigation technologies, and revising geographical distribution of the farming activities. The presentation will discuss how different

  20. Economic assessment of solar and conventional biomass gasification technologies: Financial and policy implications under feedstock and product gas price uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickerson, Thomas A.; Hathaway, Brandon J.; Smith, Timothy M.; Davidson, Jane H.

    2015-01-01

    Four configurations of a novel solar-heated biomass gasification facility and one configuration of conventional biomass gasification are analyzed through financial and policy scenarios. The purpose of this study is to determine the potential financial position for varying configurations of a novel technology, as compared to the current state-of-the-art gasification technology. Through the use of project finance and policy scenario development, we assess the baseline breakeven syngas price (normalized against natural gas prices and based upon annual feedstock consumption), the sensitivity of major cost components for the novel facilities, and the implications of policy levers on the economic feasibility of the solar facilities. Findings show that certain solar configurations may compete with conventional facilities on a straightforward economic basis. However, with renewable energy policy levers in place the solar technologies become increasingly attractive options. - Highlights: • We model four solar and one conventional biomass gasification systems. • We assess economic feasibility of these systems with and without policy incentives. • Solar facilities compete with the conventional system in certain scenarios. • Feedstock costs are the largest contributor to system cost sensitivity. • Policy incentives create an economically favorable scenario for solar facilities

  1. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    On 18 May 2001, the Finnish Parliament ratified the Decision in Principle on the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, within the municipality of Eurajoki. The Municipality Council and the government has made positive decisions earlier, at the end of 2000, and in compliance with the Nuclear Energy Act, Parliament's ratification was then required. The decision is valid for the spent fuel generated by the existing Finnish nuclear power plants and means that the construction of the final disposal facility is considered to be in line with the overall good of society. Earlier steps included, amongst others, the approval of the technical project by the Safety Authority. Future steps include construction of an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO (2003-2004), and application for separate construction and operating licences for the final disposal facility (from about 2010). How did this political and societal decision come about? The FSC Workshop provided the opportunity to present the history leading up to the Decision in Principle (DiP), and to examine future perspectives with an emphasis on stakeholder involvement. This Executive Summary gives an overview of the presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop. It presents, for the most part, a factual account of the individual presentations and of the discussions that took place. It relies importantly on the notes that were taken at the meeting. Most materials are elaborated upon in a fuller way in the texts that the various speakers and session moderators contributed for these proceedings. The structure of the Executive Summary follows the structure of the workshop itself. Complementary to this Summary and also provided with this document, is a NEA Secretariat's perspective aiming to place the results of all discussions, feedback and site visit into an international perspective. (authors)

  2. Using Patent Development, Education Policy and Research and Development Expenditure Policy to Increase Technological Competitiveness of Small European Union Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferraro Simona

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Belt and Road Initiative will open new trade routes between China and the European Union (EU and increase competition pressures on smaller EU member states. This article ranks where states like Estonia stand internationally in terms of innovativeness (and consequent competitiveness by conducting an econometric study of patent development, education policy and research and development (R&D expenditure policy. The authors claim that small member states such as Estonia should follow the example of countries such as Germany and adopt policies which focus more on increased public spending on R&D and innovation in public universities of science and technology, and raise support for high tech startups with a strong focus on international patenting. Member States must go further and subsidise R&D activities by focusing, inter alia, on filing of foreign patents such as triadic patents.

  3. The economic value of fair use in copyright law: counterfactual impact analysis of fair use policy on private copying technology and copyright markets in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Ghafele, Roya; Gibert, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    The counterfactual impact analysis of fair use amendments in Singapore undertaken here demonstrates that flexible fair use policy positively influences growth rates in private copying technology industries. In 2010, five years after the policy intervention, Singapore’s fair use amendments are correlated with a 3.33% increase in value-added (as % of GDP) for private copying technology industries. Prior to the amendment of fair use policies, private copying technology industries experienced - 1...

  4. Electricity access for geographically disadvantaged rural communities - technology and policy insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaurey, A.; Malini Ranganathan [The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi (India). India Habitat Centre; Parimita Mohanty [Jadavpur University, Kolkota (India). School of Energy Studies

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to weigh the issues and options for increasing electricity access in remote and geographically challenged villages in interior Rajasthan, the desert state in Western India where power sector reforms are currently underway. By first providing an overview of reforms and various electrification policy initiatives in India, the paper then analyzes the specific problems as studied at the grass-roots level with respect to rural electricity access and the use of off-grid renewables. Finally, it discusses interventions that could facilitate access to electricity by suggesting a sequential distributed generation (DG)-based approach, wherein consecutive DG schemes-incorporating the requisite technological, financial, and institutional arrangements-are designed depending on the developmental requirements of the community. In essence, this approach fits under the broader need to understand how the three ''Rs'' - rural electrification (the process), power sector reforms (the catalyst), and the use of renewable energy technologies (the means)- could potentially converge to meet the needs of India's rural poor. (author)

  5. Electricity access for geographically disadvantaged rural communities--technology and policy insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaurey, Akanksha; Ranganathan, Malini; Mohanty, Parimita

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to weigh the issues and options for increasing electricity access in remote and geographically challenged villages in interior Rajasthan, the desertstate in Western India where power sector reforms are currently underway. By first providing an overview of reforms and various electrification policy initiatives in India, the paper then analyzes the specific problems as studied at the grass-roots level with respect to rural electricity access and the use of off-grid renewables. Finally, it discusses interventions that could facilitate access to electricity by suggesting a sequential distributed generation (DG)-based approach, wherein consecutive DG schemes--incorporating the requisite technological, financial, and institutional arrangements--are designed depending on the developmental requirements of the community. In essence, this approach fits under the broader need to understand how the three 'Rs'- rural electrification (the process), power sector reforms (the catalyst), and the use of renewable energy technologies (the means) - could potentially converge to meet the needs of India's rural poor

  6. Electricity access for geographically disadvantaged rural communities--technology and policy insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaurey, Akanksha E-mail: akanksha@teri.res.in; Ranganathan, Malini E-mail: malinir@teri.res.in; Mohanty, Parimita

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to weigh the issues and options for increasing electricity access in remote and geographically challenged villages in interior Rajasthan, the desertstate in Western India where power sector reforms are currently underway. By first providing an overview of reforms and various electrification policy initiatives in India, the paper then analyzes the specific problems as studied at the grass-roots level with respect to rural electricity access and the use of off-grid renewables. Finally, it discusses interventions that could facilitate access to electricity by suggesting a sequential distributed generation (DG)-based approach, wherein consecutive DG schemes--incorporating the requisite technological, financial, and institutional arrangements--are designed depending on the developmental requirements of the community. In essence, this approach fits under the broader need to understand how the three 'Rs'- rural electrification (the process), power sector reforms (the catalyst), and the use of renewable energy technologies (the means) - could potentially converge to meet the needs of India's rural poor.

  7. Risk and society: The interaction of science, technology and public policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterstone, M.

    1992-01-01

    Risk and Society is the sixth volume in Kluwer's Technology, Risk, and Society series, and like the previous volumes in this series, it is made up of papers presented at a symposium convened in 1989 to discuss the changing interactions of technology and society and definitions of risk. The papers presented all center around risk as a constructed phenomenon. The first paper is a general overview of concepts of risk in society and the changing emphasis on risk in the last two decades. The papers represent four main topic areas: Risk, science and public policy; Allocating scarce medical resources; Nuclear power and nuclear waste disposal; and Setting standards for air quality. Three papers, representing three different points of view, are presented in each topic area. The contributors cover a range of issues in this format, and the combined effect is a good overview of the issues with which risk assessors, risk managers, and public policymakers must grapple if constructive use is to be made of risk in public decision-making

  8. Cancer-risk benefits of clean fuel technology and policy. A statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Paul [Economics Department, 481 Heady Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Lazarus, William [Applied Economics Department, 253 COB, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55455 (United States); Shapouri, Hosein; Conway, Roger; Duffield, James [Office of Energy Policy and New Uses, 400 Independence Avenue, SW Rm. 4059 So. Bldg, United States Department of Agriculture, WA, DC 20250 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The hypothesis of this study is that there is a statistical relationship between the lung cancer mortality rate and the intensity of fuel consumption (measured in gallons/square mile) at a particular location. We estimate cross-section regressions of the mortality rate due to lung cancer against the intensity of fuel consumption using local data for the entire US, before the US Clean Air Act (CAA) in 1974 and after the most recent policy revisions in 2004. The cancer rate improvement estimate suggests that up to 10 lung cancer deaths per 100,000 residents are avoided in the largest urban areas with highest fuel consumption per square mile. In New York City, for instance, the mortality reduction may be worth about USD 5.7 billion annually. Across the US, the estimated value of statistical life (VSL) benefit is USD 27.2 billion annually. There are likely three inseparable reasons that contributed importantly to this welfare improvement. First, the CAA regulations mandated reduction in specific carcinogenic chemicals or smog components. Second, technologies such as the catalytic converter (CC) and low-particulate diesel engine were adopted. Third, biofuels have had important roles, making the adoption of clean air technology possible and substituting for high emission fuels. (author)

  9. Cancer-risk benefits of clean fuel technology and policy: A statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Paul, E-mail: paulg@iastate.ed [Economics Department, 481 Heady Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Lazarus, William [Applied Economics Department, 253 COB, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55455 (United States); Shapouri, Hosein; Conway, Roger; Duffield, James [Office of Energy Policy and New Uses, 400 Independence Avenue, SW (Rm. 4059 So. Bldg), United States Department of Agriculture, WA, DC 20250 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The hypothesis of this study is that there is a statistical relationship between the lung cancer mortality rate and the intensity of fuel consumption (measured in gallons/square mile) at a particular location. We estimate cross-section regressions of the mortality rate due to lung cancer against the intensity of fuel consumption using local data for the entire US, before the US Clean Air Act (CAA) in 1974 and after the most recent policy revisions in 2004. The cancer rate improvement estimate suggests that up to 10 lung cancer deaths per 100,000 residents are avoided in the largest urban areas with highest fuel consumption per square mile. In New York City, for instance, the mortality reduction may be worth about $5.7 billion annually. Across the US, the estimated value of statistical life (VSL) benefit is $27.2 billion annually. There are likely three inseparable reasons that contributed importantly to this welfare improvement. First, the CAA regulations mandated reduction in specific carcinogenic chemicals or smog components. Second, technologies such as the catalytic converter (CC) and low-particulate diesel engine were adopted. Third, biofuels have had important roles, making the adoption of clean air technology possible and substituting for high emission fuels.

  10. Cardiovascular disease - risk benefits of clean fuel technology and policy. A statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Paul; Fischer, Amelia [Economics Department, 481 Heady Hall, Iowa State University, Ames Iowa 50011 (United States); Lazarus, William; Bachewe, Fantu [Applied Economics Department, 253 COB, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55455 (United States); Shapouri, Hosein; Conway, Roger [Office of Energy Policy and New Uses, 400 Independence Avenue, SW (Rm.4059 So. Bldg), United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The hypothesis of this study is that there is a statistical relationship between the cardiovascular disease mortality rate and the intensity of fuel consumption (measured in gallons/square mile) at a particular location. We estimate cross-sectional regressions of the mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease against the intensity of fuel consumption using local data for the entire US, before the US Clean Air Act (CAA) in 1974 and after the most recent policy revisions in 2004. The cardiovascular disease rate improvement estimate suggests that up to 60 cardiovascular disease deaths per 100,000 residents are avoided in the largest urban areas with highest fuel consumption per square mile. In New York City, for instance, the mortality reduction may be worth about $30.3 billion annually. Across the US, the estimated Value of Statistical Life (VSL) benefit is $202.7 billion annually. There are likely three inseparable reasons that contributed importantly to this welfare improvement. First, the CAA regulations banned leaded gasoline, and mandated reduction in specific chemicals and smog components. Second, technologies such as the Catalytic Converter (CC) for the automobile and the low particulate diesel engine were adopted. Third, biofuels have had important roles, making the adoption of clean air technology possible and substituting for high emission fuels. (author)

  11. Cardiovascular disease-risk benefits of clean fuel technology and policy: A statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Paul, E-mail: paulg@iastate.ed [Economics Department, 481 Heady Hall, Iowa State University, Ames Iowa 50011 (United States); Lazarus, William [Applied Economics Department, 253 COB, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55455 (United States); Shapouri, Hosein; Conway, Roger [Office of Energy Policy and New Uses, 400 Independence Avenue, SW (Rm.4059 So. Bldg), United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250 (United States); Bachewe, Fantu [Applied Economics Department, 253 COB, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55455 (United States); Fischer, Amelia [Economics Department, 481 Heady Hall, Iowa State University, Ames Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The hypothesis of this study is that there is a statistical relationship between the cardiovascular disease mortality rate and the intensity of fuel consumption (measured in gallons/square mile) at a particular location. We estimate cross-sectional regressions of the mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease against the intensity of fuel consumption using local data for the entire US, before the US Clean Air Act (CAA) in 1974 and after the most recent policy revisions in 2004. The cardiovascular disease rate improvement estimate suggests that up to 60 cardiovascular disease deaths per 100,000 residents are avoided in the largest urban areas with highest fuel consumption per square mile. In New York City, for instance, the mortality reduction may be worth about $30.3 billion annually. Across the US, the estimated Value of Statistical Life (VSL) benefit is $202.7 billion annually. There are likely three inseparable reasons that contributed importantly to this welfare improvement. First, the CAA regulations banned leaded gasoline, and mandated reduction in specific chemicals and smog components. Second, technologies such as the Catalytic Converter (CC) for the automobile and the low particulate diesel engine were adopted. Third, biofuels have had important roles, making the adoption of clean air technology possible and substituting for high emission fuels.

  12. Cardiovascular disease-risk benefits of clean fuel technology and policy: A statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Paul; Lazarus, William; Shapouri, Hosein; Conway, Roger; Bachewe, Fantu; Fischer, Amelia

    2010-01-01

    The hypothesis of this study is that there is a statistical relationship between the cardiovascular disease mortality rate and the intensity of fuel consumption (measured in gallons/square mile) at a particular location. We estimate cross-sectional regressions of the mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease against the intensity of fuel consumption using local data for the entire US, before the US Clean Air Act (CAA) in 1974 and after the most recent policy revisions in 2004. The cardiovascular disease rate improvement estimate suggests that up to 60 cardiovascular disease deaths per 100,000 residents are avoided in the largest urban areas with highest fuel consumption per square mile. In New York City, for instance, the mortality reduction may be worth about $30.3 billion annually. Across the US, the estimated Value of Statistical Life (VSL) benefit is $202.7 billion annually. There are likely three inseparable reasons that contributed importantly to this welfare improvement. First, the CAA regulations banned leaded gasoline, and mandated reduction in specific chemicals and smog components. Second, technologies such as the Catalytic Converter (CC) for the automobile and the low particulate diesel engine were adopted. Third, biofuels have had important roles, making the adoption of clean air technology possible and substituting for high emission fuels.

  13. Cancer-risk benefits of clean fuel technology and policy: A statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Paul; Lazarus, William; Shapouri, Hosein; Conway, Roger; Duffield, James

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis of this study is that there is a statistical relationship between the lung cancer mortality rate and the intensity of fuel consumption (measured in gallons/square mile) at a particular location. We estimate cross-section regressions of the mortality rate due to lung cancer against the intensity of fuel consumption using local data for the entire US, before the US Clean Air Act (CAA) in 1974 and after the most recent policy revisions in 2004. The cancer rate improvement estimate suggests that up to 10 lung cancer deaths per 100,000 residents are avoided in the largest urban areas with highest fuel consumption per square mile. In New York City, for instance, the mortality reduction may be worth about $5.7 billion annually. Across the US, the estimated value of statistical life (VSL) benefit is $27.2 billion annually. There are likely three inseparable reasons that contributed importantly to this welfare improvement. First, the CAA regulations mandated reduction in specific carcinogenic chemicals or smog components. Second, technologies such as the catalytic converter (CC) and low-particulate diesel engine were adopted. Third, biofuels have had important roles, making the adoption of clean air technology possible and substituting for high emission fuels.

  14. 2 March 2012 - US Google Management Team Executive Chairman E. Schmidt visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers and Head of Technology Department F. Bordry; signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    2 March 2012 - US Google Management Team Executive Chairman E. Schmidt visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers and Head of Technology Department F. Bordry; signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer.

  15. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 16. Development and execution of pilot research projects at the CASINDO partner universities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijnker, M. [Eindhoven University of Technology TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. Each of the five Indonesian universities managed to develop pilot research projects and wrote research proposals to outline and strengthen their ideas. All of the universities also purchased equipment for the purpose of executing this research. UNCEN (Cenderawasih University, Jayapura, Papua, Indonesia) and UNDIP (Diponegoro University in Semarang, Java, Indonesia) managed to finalize their research within the project period and wrote reports on their results. The other universities could not yet present results due to delay in one or several of the steps within the procedure.

  16. CO2 Capture from the Air: Technology Assessment and Implications for Climate Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, D. W.

    2002-05-01

    It is physically possible to capture CO2 directly from the air and immobilize it in geological structures. Today, there are no large-scale technologies that achieve air capture at reasonable cost. Yet, strong arguments suggest that it will comparatively easy to develop practical air capture technologies on the timescales relevant to climate policy [1]. This paper first analyzes the cost of air capture and then assesses the implications for climate policy. We first analyze the lower bound on the cost needed for air capture, describing the thermodynamic and physical limits to the use of energy and land. We then compare the costs of air capture to the cost of capture from combustion exhaust streams. While the intrinsic minimum energy requirement is larger for air capture, we argue that air capture has important structural advantages, such as the reduction of transport costs and the larger potential for economies of scale. These advantages suggest that, in the long-run air capture be competitive with other methods of achieving deep emissions reductions. We provide a preliminary engineering-economic analysis of an air capture system based on CaO to CaCO3 chemical looping [1]. We analyze the possibility of doing the calcination in a modified pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC) burning coal in a CO2 rich atmosphere with oxygen supplied by an air separation unit. The CaCO3-to-coal ratio would be ~2:1 and the system would be nearly thermally neutral. PFBC systems have been demonstrated at capacities of over 100 MW. Such systems already include CaCO3 injection for sulfur control, and operate at suitable temperatures and pressures for calcination. We assess the potential to recover heat from the dissolution of CaO in order to reduce the overall energy requirements. We analyze the possibility of adapting existing large water/air heat exchangers for use as contacting systems to capture CO2 from the air using the calcium hydroxide solution. The implications of air capture

  17. Fixed Broadband deployment in the Netherlands: Success and failure in policy and technology or the paradox of successful competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Doorenspleet, H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the underlying policy and technological/market framework that created this situation of two competing local networks. We will explain why and how the present strong fixed infrastructure competition could develop by using an integrated multi-disciplinary approach. On the one hand

  18. Effects of Classroom Technology Policies on Students' Perceptions of Instructors: What Is Your Syllabus Saying about You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Jeffrey R.; Addison, William E.; Clay, Samuel L.

    2018-01-01

    The technology policies included on instructors' syllabi vary greatly and, in some cases, may unfavorably influence students' perceptions of the instructor. To examine this hypothesis, we randomly assigned college students enrolled in psychology courses at two different institutions (N = 163) to groups in which they viewed different syllabi for a…

  19. A Human-Needs-Based Dynamics to Simulate Technology Policy and Its Effects on Both Business Success and Human Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Yeon Lim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on how human needs are reflected in the market and how several technological and political policies affect the market share of government-supported industries, as well as the satisfaction of human desires and consequent happiness. In this paper, we seek to understand the dynamics of consumer decision-making processes in relation to technology products in the market. In this study, we present a new marketing model based on human needs, wants, and demands, and focus on both holistic and social perspectives. We have shown that human-based policy dynamics and sustainable human happiness can be realized by stimulating national policies for consumer happiness in the human-needs-based sector, e.g., the healthcare industry.

  20. A System Dynamics Analysis of Investment, Technology and Policy that Affect Natural Gas Exploration and Exploitation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas has an increasing role in Chinese energy transformation. We present a system dynamics model of the natural gas industry in China. A new system dynamics model for natural gas companies based on reserve exploration and well construction as well as investment dynamics is proposed. The contribution of the paper is to analyze the influence of technology, investment and policy factors on the natural gas industry. We found that the dynamics of the main variables, including gas policy, cost of investment, accounting depreciation and exploitation technology, are sensitive to the sustainable development of resources. The simulations and results presented here will be helpful for government to reform policies, and for upstream companies to make decisions.